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1

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... Bad Reaction to Cosmetics? Tell FDA Cosmetics Tips Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers En Español Hair dye is used to ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

2

Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... hair dye ingredients is available from the National Toxicology Program (NTP), an interagency program of the U.S. ... permanent hair dyes: new insights. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2007; 37(6):521–536. [PubMed Abstract] de ...

3

Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes.  

PubMed

Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus, up to 1.1% p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 0.04% toluene-2,5-diamine, 0.02% 3-aminophenol and 0.02% resorcinol were found in the hair dye formulation after the required colour was developed. The consumers are thus exposed to precursors and couplers of oxidative hair dyes, both during and after hair dyeing, when the hair is washed. Furthermore, the consumers are also expected to be exposed to intermediates of oxidative hair dyes. The allergenic potential of oxidative hair dyes as well as the intermediates of these remains unknown. PMID:16930234

Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil; Bossi, Rossana

2006-08-01

4

Demonstration of oxidation dyes on human hair.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method of selected ion monitoring (SIM) analysis which can demonstrate the staining of human hair with oxidation hair dyes. Hair samples were decomposed with NaOH-Na2S2O4 solution by heating (100 degrees C, 30 min) in a stream of nitrogen. Basic and neutral ether extracts from the reaction mixture were trifluoroacetylated with trifluoroacetic anhydride in ethyl acetate and were then analyzed by SIM. The minimum lengths of a single hair for the detection of the 5 components of oxidation hair dyes acting as indicators were 1 mm for toluene-2,5-diamine, 2 mm for p-phenylenediamine, 20 mm for p-aminophenol, 50 mm for m-aminophenol and 100 mm for o-aminophenol. This method was applied to practical cases and the results were good. PMID:8157226

Tanada, N; Kageura, M; Hara, K; Hieda, Y; Takamoto, M; Kashimura, S

1994-01-01

5

Hair dye contact allergy: quantitative exposure assessment of selected products and clinical cases.  

PubMed

Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0.015 to 0.38%) and p-aminophenol (0.16 to 2.1%) were found in 3 products. The concentration levels were similar in the patient's products compared to a random sample of 16 hair dye products. The concentration present of toluene-2,5-diamine elicited allergic reactions in concentrations that were 10-fold lower than the legal EU limit of 10%. Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, and the current regulation is insufficient in protection of the users. A preventive strategy is needed. PMID:15274724

Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil

2004-06-01

6

Identification of human hair stained with oxidation hair dyes by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis.  

PubMed

This paper describes the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GCMS) analysis of oxidation hair dyes from human hair. Diamines from the dyes were directly extracted from the hair in basic solution and aminophenols were extracted after neutralization. Both extracts were derivatised with trifluoroacetic anhydride and analysed by GCMS. Five components of oxidation hair dyes namely, p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine, o-aminophenol, m-aminophenol and p-aminophenol were clearly identified, whilst no other compounds originating from the hair dyes were detected. The presence and relative amounts of these dye components from hair extracts may assist in the discrimination of human hair especially in cases involving forensic science. PMID:1783337

Tanada, N; Kageura, M; Hara, K; Hieda, Y; Takamoto, M; Kashimura, S

1991-12-01

7

Hair dye poisoning: An unusual encounter  

PubMed Central

A 19-year-old female patient presented with alleged history of hair dye “Super Vasmol 33” intake. She presented with cervicofacial edema with upper airway obstruction. Although patient was being managed for airway obstruction, she developed cardiac arrest. Cardiac resuscitation could not be started at that point of time because managing airway was the priority in a patient who in hypoxic cardiac arrest. As soon as the airway was secured by emergency tracheostomy, cardiac resuscitation was initiated and the patient was successfully revived. PMID:24987242

Garg, Sunil Kumar; Tiwari, Rajjan; Ahlawat, Alok

2014-01-01

8

Aberration corrected STEM to study an ancient hair dyeing formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-based chemistry was initiated in ancient Egypt for cosmetic preparation more than 4000 years ago. Here, we study a hair-dyeing recipe using lead salts described in text since Greco-Roman times. We report direct evidence about the shape and distribution of PbS nanocrystals that form within the hair during blackening.

Patriarche, G.; Van Elslande, E.; Castaing, J.; Walter, P.

2014-05-01

9

A Survey of the Awareness, Knowledge and Behavior of Hair Dye Use in a Korean Population with Gray Hair  

PubMed Central

Background Gray hair naturally develops in the process of human aging. Many people with gray hair periodically dye their hair. Hair dyeing products are widely used and they can cause adverse effects. Therefore, the user's knowledge and recognition about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. Objective The goal of this study was to lay the foundation for understanding, preventing and treating side effects caused by hair coloring products. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey for adult males and females aged over 20 who had gray hair. A total of 500 subjects were included in this study and statistical analysis was performed. Results Large numbers of the people who had experience with hair dye (233 out of 319 people, 73.0%) did not know about the exact brand name of the hair dye product that they were using. Of 319 hair dye users, 23.8% (76 out of 319) people stated that they experienced side effects. Despite the occurrence of side effects from hair dyeing products, it seems they did not realize the seriousness of the side effects or the need for treatment. Conclusion It is advisable to introduce a system that enables users to become aware of the ingredients and side effects of hair coloring products and give opportunities for users to become aware of the side effects of hair coloring through education, publicity and publication of an informational booklet. PMID:22879710

Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Hee Dam

2012-01-01

10

Evaluation of the toxicity and carcinogenicity of hair dyes.  

PubMed

The chronic toxicological and carcinogenic potential following skin painting in mice was evaluated for nine oxidative and three nonoxidative hair dyes. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were treated one time weekly for at least 20 mo with one dose level of each dye. The oxidative dyes were mixed 1:1 with 6% hydrogen peroxide before treatment and the three semipermanent formulations were applied without dilution. Control groups were shaved only and received no applications. Body weights and survival rates did not differ between appropriate male and female treatment and control groups. Absolute and relative liver and kidney weights were equivalent for treatment and control groups. After 7 and 9 mo of treatment, 10 males and 10 females randomly selected from each group were necropsied and tissues taken for histopathologic evaluation. Animals found dead or sacrificed in moribund condition or at termination of the study were necropsied and evaluated histopathologically. Comparison of incidence of tumors and of nontumor pathology among the various treatment and control groups revealed no biologically significant differences. Toxicological and carcinogenic effects were not induced by the hair dye formulations. PMID:7392093

Burnett, C; Jacobs, M M; Seppala, A; Shubik, P

1980-03-01

11

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2011-04-01

12

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2012-04-01

13

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2014-04-01

14

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2010-04-01

15

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2013-04-01

16

Is There a True Concern Regarding the Use of Hair Dye and Malignancy Development?  

PubMed Central

Many advances in the cosmetic industry have increased our ability to enhance youth and beauty. Hair-coloring products are one such innovation. Over the past several decades, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to understanding the possible long-term side effects associated with hair-dye use, specifically looking at cancer risk. This paper describes the hair-coloring process, highlights the potentially carcinogenic ingredients in various hair-dying products, and reviews the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair-dye use to the risk of developing several types of malignancies. PMID:23320124

Saitta, Peter; Cook, Christopher E.; Messina, Jane L.; Brancaccio, Ronald; Wu, Benedict C.; Grekin, Steven K.; Holland, Jean

2013-01-01

17

Proposal of an in silico profiler for categorisation of repeat dose toxicity data of hair dyes.  

PubMed

This study outlines the analysis of 94 chemicals with repeat dose toxicity data taken from Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety opinions for commonly used hair dyes in the European Union. Structural similarity was applied to group these chemicals into categories. Subsequent mechanistic analysis suggested that toxicity to mitochondria is potentially a key driver of repeat dose toxicity for chemicals within each of the categories. The mechanistic hypothesis allowed for an in silico profiler consisting of four mechanism-based structural alerts to be proposed. These structural alerts related to a number of important chemical classes such as quinones, anthraquinones, substituted nitrobenzenes and aromatic azos. This in silico profiler is intended for grouping chemicals into mechanism-based categories within the adverse outcome pathway paradigm. PMID:24888375

Nelms, M D; Ates, G; Madden, J C; Vinken, M; Cronin, M T D; Rogiers, V; Enoch, S J

2014-06-01

18

High-performance liquid chromatography determination of direct and temporary dyes in natural hair colourings.  

PubMed

A simple and reliable HPLC method is described for the simultaneous determination of nine direct and temporary hair dyes in hair colourings containing vegetal extracts. Detection was performed by a diode array detector and two different wavelengths, in the visible range (450 and 650 nm), were used for quantitation. The method does not involve any extraction procedure and it is sufficiently rapid and accurate for routine analyses. The method described was successfully applied to the identification of synthetic organic dyes in 13 direct and temporary hair dyeing formulations commercialized as 'natural'. PMID:9540212

Scarpi, C; Ninci, F; Centini, M; Anselmi, C

1998-02-20

19

Exposure of hairdressers to ortho- and meta-toluidine in hair dyes  

PubMed Central

Background Carcinogenic aromatic amines derived from hair dyes have recently received new attention. One of these is ortho (o)-toluidine, which is classified as carcinogenic to humans. Objectives To clarify exposure of hairdressers to potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines, including o-toluidine. Methods We measured eight potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines in the blood of 295 hairdressers, 32 users of hair dyes and 60 controls. The study was restricted to female non-smokers. Lifestyle data were collected for all participants using self-administered questionnaires. Blood samples were taken for analysis of ortho-, meta (m)- and para (p)-toluidine; 2-, 3- and 4-ethylaniline, 2,3- and 3,4-dimethylaniline as haemoglobin adducts. The samples were analysed with gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results Generally, adduct concentrations were in the range of 0–200?pg/g haemoglobin. A comparison of the adduct concentrations found in hairdressers, consumers and controls showed no statistically significant differences. However, for hairdressers, o- and m-toluidine concentrations increased significantly with the weekly number of hair waving (p=0.020) and permanent hair dyeing treatments (p=0.026), respectively. o-Toluidine and m-Toluidine concentrations also tended (p=0.076 and 0.080, respectively) to increase with the frequency of light-colour permanent hair dye treatments. Conclusions Hairdressers who use light-colour permanent hair dyes, other permanent hair dyes and hair waving treatments seem to be exposed to o- and m-toluidine as indicated by associations with the number of treatments performed. Analyses of hair waving and hair dye products should be performed to identify the possible sources of exposure to o- and m-toluidine. PMID:24912758

Johansson, Gabriella M; Jönsson, Bo A G; Axmon, Anna; Lindh, Christian H; Lind, Marie-Louise; Gustavsson, Mats; Broberg, Karin; Boman, Anders; Meding, Birgitta; Lidén, Carola; Albin, Maria

2015-01-01

20

Paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning in an adolescent.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old female was referred to the pediatric nephrology unit with a short history of progressive angio-oedema of the face requiring tracheostomy. She ingested an unusual substance which caused swollen tongue, cervical oedema and dark coloured brown urine. These clinical features with the laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis of paraphenylene diamine (PPD) poisoning. Psychological assessment confirmed that the child had severe depression. The suicide attempt was just immediately after failure in the final qualifying examination to secondary school. She did not have any family support but she used to be punished in different ways. In Sudan PPD in its pure form is available in the local market and until recently there was no restrictions for its use or trade. Adolescents are well aware of its toxic effects and it is commonly used to attempt suicide. Legislation and laws should prevent its use in different hair dye formulations and look for another substitute. Clinical management is hampered by the lack of a rapid diagnostic test; no other treatment other than supportive measures can be offered. PMID:21543462

Abdelraheem, Mohamed; Ali, El-Tigani; Hussien, Rasha; Zijlstra, Eduard

2011-11-01

21

Detection of carcinogenic chromium in synthetic hair dyes using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A laser induced breakdown spectroscopic (LIBS) system, consisting of a pulsed 266 nm laser radiation, in conjunction with a high-resolution spectrograph, a gated intensified charge coupled device camera, and a built-in delay generator were used to develop a sensitive detector to quantify the concentration of toxic substances such as chromium in synthetic hair dyes available on the local market. The strong atomic transition line of chromium (Cr I) at 427.5 nm wavelength was used as a fingerprint wavelength to calibrate the detection system and also to quantify the levels of chromium in the hair dye samples. The limit of detection achieved by our LIBS detection system for chromium was 1.2 ppm, which enabled us to detect chromium concentration in the range of 5-11 ppm in the commercial hair dyes available on the local market. The concentrations of chromium in the hair dyes measured using our system were validated using a standard analytical technique such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), and acceptable agreement (nearly 8%) was found between the results obtained by the two methods (LIBS and ICPMS). This study is highly significant for human health, specifically for people using synthetic hair dyes for changing the color of their hair. PMID:24663421

Gondal, M A; Maganda, Y W; Dastageer, M A; Al Adel, F F; Naqvi, A A; Qahtan, T F

2014-03-10

22

Chemical stabilization of laser dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. The roles of singlet oxygen and excitation intensity on dye degradation were explored. Singlet oxygen is formed but its reactions with the dye do not appear to be a major cause of dye laser output deterioration. High light intensity results in dye sensitized, solvent oligomerization to yield materials which interfere with dye stimulated emission. 1, 4-Diazabicyclo2,2,2octane (DABCO)inhibits this oligomerization.

Koch, Tad H.

1987-05-01

23

Is there a true concern regarding the use of hair dye and malignancy development?: a review of the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair dye use to the risk of malignancy.  

PubMed

Many advances in the cosmetic industry have increased our ability to enhance youth and beauty. Hair-coloring products are one such innovation. Over the past several decades, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to understanding the possible long-term side effects associated with hair-dye use, specifically looking at cancer risk. This paper describes the hair-coloring process, highlights the potentially carcinogenic ingredients in various hair-dying products, and reviews the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair-dye use to the risk of developing several types of malignancies. PMID:23320124

Saitta, Peter; Cook, Christopher E; Messina, Jane L; Brancaccio, Ronald; Wu, Benedict C; Grekin, Steven K; Holland, Jean

2013-01-01

24

Consumer available permanent hair dye products cause major allergic immune activation in an animal model.  

PubMed

Background p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and related substances are ingredients of more than two-thirds of oxidative (permanent) hair dyes currently used. Although PPD is a potent skin sensitizer in predictive assays, the extent to which permanent hair dyes sensitize humans has been questioned due to the in-use conditions, e.g. the presence of couplers in the hair dye gel and rapid oxidation using a developer. Objectives To study the skin sensitizing potential of permanent hair dyes in mice. Methods Two different permanent hair dye products containing PPD were studied in CBA mice using a modified version of the local lymph node assay. The colour gel and developer (oxidant) were tested separately and in combination. Response was measured by ear swelling and cytokine production in ear tissue and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immune cellular response in the draining lymph nodes was analysed by flow cytometry. Results Application of the colour gel both alone and mixed with the developer induced skin production of interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6 as well as systemic IL-6 release. Both treatments induced B- and T-cell infiltration as well as T-cell proliferation within the draining lymph nodes. Treatment with the mixture induced at least 20% more skin inflammation, cytokine production and CD4+ T-cell activation compared with the colour gel alone. Conclusions Consumer available PPD-containing permanent hair dyes can be potent and rapid immune activators. Mixing the colour gel and developer (oxidant) increased the induction of skin inflammation compared with application of the colour gel alone. PMID:19785606

Bonefeld, C M; Larsen, J M; Dabelsteen, S; Geisler, C; White, I R; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

2010-01-01

25

Permeation of hair dye ingredients, p-phenylenediamine and aminophenol isomers, through protective gloves.  

PubMed

Skin irritation and contact allergies are skin disorders common to hairdressers. The predominant oxidative hair dye components, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and aminophenol isomers, can cause contact dermatitis. Use of protective gloves can prevent dermal contact with skin irritants. This study investigates the permeation behaviors of p-aminophenol (PAP), m-aminophenol (MAP), o-aminophenol (OAP) and PPD in single and mixed challenge solutions with disposable natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves, disposable polyvinylchloride (PVC) gloves and neoprene (NP) gloves. The challenge solutions were 4% PPD (w/v), 3% OAP (w/v), 2% PAP (w/v) and 2% MAP (w/v) in ethanol or 12% hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cocktail solutions of the four chemicals were also tested. An American Society for Testing and Materials type permeation cell, ethanol liquid collection and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection of samples taken from the collection medium every 10 min facilitated determination of breakthrough times (BTs), cumulative permeated masses and steady-state permeation rates (SSPRs). Experiments were 4 h long for the NRL and PVC gloves and 8 h for NP gloves. No chemicals tested broke through the NP gloves when exposed for 8 h. In the ethanol solution, PPD and OAP started breaking through the PVC gloves at 40 min. The SSPRs of PVC gloves were higher than those for NRL gloves in all challenge conditions for both single chemicals and mixtures. No tested chemicals in hydrogen peroxide solutions permeated the gloves during the 4-h tests. The chemical composition of the challenge solution was a main effecter of BTs and SSPRs for the NRL glove. For disposable PVC gloves, the main factors of BTs were molecular size [molar volume (MV)] and polarity (logK(ow)), and the primary factors of SSPRs were concentration, MV and logK(ow). In conclusion, disposable NRL gloves and disposable PVC gloves should not be used repeatedly for handling the hair dye products. Hydrogen peroxide did not accelerate chemical breakthrough. The compositions of the challenge solutions and physical and chemical properties (MV and logK(ow)) affected permeation behaviors for different gloves. PMID:19279162

Lee, Hsiao-Shu; Lin, Yu-Wen

2009-04-01

26

Contact dermatitis with severe scalp swelling and upper airway compromise due to black henna hair dye.  

PubMed

Temporary tattooing with black henna is known to cause contact dermatitis; however, this adverse effect is not considered to be life threatening. We report a female adolescent who used black henna as a hair dye and developed severe contact dermatitis with scalp, facial, and neck swelling causing hoarseness and stridor. A flexible bronchoscopy showed a normal epiglottis, and the patient was intubated, ventilated, and eventually recovered. We conclude that the use of black henna hair dye in sensitized patients can be life threatening. PMID:21822086

Broides, Arnon; Sofer, Shaul; Lazar, Isaac

2011-08-01

27

P2X antagonists inhibit styryl dye entry into hair cells.  

PubMed

The styryl pyridinium dyes, FM1-43 and AM1-43, are fluorescent molecules that can permeate the mechanotransduction channels of hair cells, the sensory receptors of the inner ear. When these dyes are applied to hair cells, they enter the cytoplasm rapidly, resulting in a readily detectable intracellular fluorescence that is often used as a molecular indication of mechanotransduction channel activity. However, such dyes can also permeate the ATP receptor, P2X(2). Therefore, we explored the contribution of P2X receptors to the loading of hair cells with AM1-43. The chick inner ear was found to express P2X receptors and to release ATP, similar to the inner ear of mammals, allowing for the endogenous stimulation of P2X receptors. The involvement of these receptors was evaluated pharmacologically, by exposing the sensory epithelium of the chick inner ear to 5 microM AM1-43 under different experimental conditions and measuring the fluorescence in hair cells after fixation of the tissue. Pre-exposure of the tissue to 5 mM EGTA for 15 min, which should eliminate most of the gating "tip links" of the mechanotransduction channels, deceased fluorescence by only 44%. In contrast, P2X receptor antagonists (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid [PPADS], suramin, 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) ATP [TNP-ATP], and d-tubocurarine) had greater effects on dye loading. PPADS, suramin, and TNP-ATP all decreased intracellular AM1-43 fluorescence in hair cells by at least 69% when applied at a concentration of 100 microM. The difference between d-tubocurarine-treated and control fluorescence was statistically insignificant when d-tubocurarine was applied at a concentration that blocks the mechanotransduction channel (200 microM). At a concentration that also blocks P2X(2) receptors (2 mM), d-tubocurarine decreased dye loading by 72%. From these experiments, it appears that AM1-43 can enter hair cells through endogenously activated P2X receptors. Thus, the contribution of P2X receptors to dye entry should be considered when using styryl pyridinium dyes to detect hair cell mechanotransduction channel activity, especially in the absence of explicit mechanical stimulation of stereocilia. PMID:19272432

Crumling, M A; Tong, M; Aschenbach, K L; Liu, L Qian; Pipitone, C M; Duncan, R K

2009-07-21

28

Hair cosmetics.  

PubMed

The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products. PMID:23974582

Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

2013-01-01

29

Practical GC/MS analysis of oxidation dye components in hair fiber as a forensic investigative procedure.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to improve the reliability of discrimination (or identification) of dyed hair by analyzing chemical substances present in the hair, as an addition to the conventional macroscopical and microscopical examinations and ABO blood group examination. Oxidation hair-dye components such as p-phenylenediamine (PPDA), toluylene-2,5-diamine (T-2,5-DA), o-aminophenol (OAP), m-aminophenol (MAP), p-aminophenol (PAP) and p-amino-o-cresol (PAOC) were selected as the object of study. After alkaline-digestion, hair samples were adjusted to a pH of 12.6 to 12.8, and applied onto an Extrelut column. After 15 min, the components were simultaneously extracted and derivatized with n-hexane including 1% heptafluoro-n-butyryl (HFB) chloride. Their HFB derivatives within a condensed sample were diluted in ethyl acetate, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with full mass scanning or selected ion monitoring. For estimating their levels, 2,4,6-trimethylaniline was used as the internal standard. Standard curves obtained by preparing a 5 cm segment of control hair spiked with authentic substances were linear, ranging from 0.1 to 4.0 micrograms for PPDA and T-2,5-DA, and from 0.01 to 0.4 microgram for OAP, MAP, PAP and PAOC. The coefficient of variation of inter-day precisions (each n = 4) was below 16% for PPDA, below 20% for OAP and PAP and below 24% for T-2,5-DA, MAP and PAOC. These components were detectable even at 6 ng for PPDA, T-2,5-DA, MAP and PAP, 8 ng for OAP, and 4 ng for PAOC. Recovery percents using this procedure ranged from 54 to 86%. By using actual dyed hair samples this method was shown to provide high sensitivity for accurate detection. PMID:10097355

Tanada, N; Kashimura, S; Kageura, M; Hara, K

1999-03-01

30

Voltammetric investigation of hair dye constituents: application to the quantification of p-phenylenediamine.  

PubMed

The application of electrochemical techniques to the determination of common hair dye constituents was investigated. Cyclic voltammetry was used to probe the electrode response to p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 4-chlororesorcinol and m-aminophenol with square wave voltammetry used to effect quantitative measurements. The nature of the electrode response was characterised and issues of surface fouling resulting from the deposition of electrogenerated reaction products were addressed. A procedure designed to allow the facile determination of PPD in hair care products is presented. PMID:11763063

Lawrence, N S; Beckett, E L; Davis, J; Compton, R G

2001-11-01

31

Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

2013-05-01

32

[Simultaneous determination of 11 aminophenols in hair dyes by high performance liquid chromatography].  

PubMed

An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 aminophenols in direct and oxidized hair dyes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The samples were extracted with methanol using sodium bisulfite for anti-oxidation. The purification was carried out with the high speed frozen centrifugation. The separation was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB C18 column with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and an ion pair system of sodium heptanesulfonate and phosphate under a gradient elution. The analytes were detected at three different wavelengths of 230, 270 and 400 nm. In the concentration range of 0.05 - 500 mg/L, the correlation coefficients for the 11 aminophenols were not less than 0.9992. The limits of quantification including 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl) amino-3-nitrophenol were 5 mg/kg. Other aminophenols including 4-aminophenol, 4-methyl aminophenol, 3-aminophenol, 2-aminophenol, 5-amino-o-cresol, 4-amino-3-methylphenol, 5-(2-hydroxyethyl) amino-o-cresol and 2-amino-4-nitrophenol were 20 mg/kg. The recoveries of the aminophenols spiked at different levels ranged from 88.5% to 109. 5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) within the range of 2.2% - 8.3%. The commercially available hair dye samples were analyzed for the aminophenols and the results showed that the method was suitable for the determination of the 11 aminophenols in direct and oxidized hair dyes. PMID:23285966

Zhu, Weixia; Wang, Caijuan; Yang, Jizhou; Wei, Wei; Sun, Zhuanlian; Zhang, Shusheng

2012-09-01

33

Quantitative risk assessment for skin sensitisation: consideration of a simplified approach for hair dye ingredients.  

PubMed

With the availability of the local lymph node assay, and the ability to evaluate effectively the relative skin sensitizing potency of contact allergens, a model for quantitative-risk-assessment (QRA) has been developed. This QRA process comprises: (a) determination of a no-expected-sensitisation-induction-level (NESIL), (b) incorporation of sensitization-assessment-factors (SAFs) reflecting variations between subjects, product use patterns and matrices, and (c) estimation of consumer-exposure-level (CEL). Based on these elements an acceptable-exposure-level (AEL) can be calculated by dividing the NESIL of the product by individual SAFs. Finally, the AEL is compared with the CEL to judge about risks to human health. We propose a simplified approach to risk assessment of hair dye ingredients by making use of precise experimental product exposure data. This data set provides firmly established dose/unit area concentrations under relevant consumer use conditions referred to as the measured-exposure-level (MEL). For that reason a direct comparison is possible between the NESIL with the MEL as a proof-of-concept quantification of the risk of skin sensitization. This is illustrated here by reference to two specific hair dye ingredients p-phenylenediamine and resorcinol. Comparison of these robust and toxicologically relevant values is therefore considered an improvement versus a hazard-based classification of hair dye ingredients. PMID:23069142

Goebel, Carsten; Diepgen, Thomas L; Krasteva, Maya; Schlatter, Harald; Nicolas, Jean-Francois; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Schnuch, Axel; Taylor, James S; Pungier, Jacquemine; Fautz, Rolf; Fuchs, Anne; Schuh, Werner; Gerberick, G Frank; Kimber, Ian

2012-12-01

34

Chemical characterization of hair using ion beams  

E-print Network

cata) va!c. ? p of hair. Qui f'irst obj cc tive t, o ?xami?e &. h=- nuc ear an&dr atom ic ac tive t; ion ' ?due ed Jy d if n ere?". ion be" r. . s in hair . Thi s will be f'olio?red c&t. th a st?el~ on test cases t;o illustrate t, he scope nf...

Yulo, Ma. Melinda S

1979-01-01

35

The hair dyes PPD and PTD fail to induce a T(H)2 immune response following repeated topical application in BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

1,4-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and the structurally-related 1,4-toluenediamine (PTD) are frequently used oxidative hair dye precursors that can induce a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction known as contact allergy. Very rare cases of Type 1 (IgE-mediated) allergic responses associated with PPD or PTD have been reported among hair dye users. As part of an effort to determine if repeated dermal exposure to the dyes could induce a T-helper-2 (T(H)2) response, we used a dermal exposure regimen in mice reported to identify a T(H)2 response. Ear swelling was evident at post-final exposure to PPD and PTD, indicating that an immune response was observed. However, cytokine mRNA after repeated topical exposure to these two chemicals showed no shift in the expression toward the typical T(H)2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 compared to the T(H)1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-?. Consistent with these cytokine profiles, no concomitant increase in total serum IgE antibody titer or in B220+IgE+ lymphocytes in lymph nodes and skin application site skin was detected. In contrast, using an identical exposure regimen, animals topically exposed to the known respiratory (Type 1) allergen toluene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) showed significant expression of IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA compared to IFN? as well as an increase in total serum IgE and in B220+IgE+ cells in lymph nodes and skin application site. The data generated are consistent with the pattern of adverse reactions to hair dyes seen clinically, which overwhelmingly is of delayed rather than immediate-type hypersensitivity. Although current animal models have a limited ability to detect rare T(H)2 responses to contact allergens, the present study results support the view that exposure to hair dyes is not associated with relevant T(H)2 induction. PMID:21299354

Rothe, Helga; Sarlo, Katherine; Scheffler, Heike; Goebel, Carsten

2011-01-01

36

FM Dye Photo-Oxidation as a Tool for Monitoring Membrane Recycling in Inner Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Styryl (FM) dyes have been used for more than two decades to investigate exo- and endocytosis in conventional synapses. However, they are difficult to use in the inner hair cells of the auditory pathway (IHCs), as FM dyes appear to penetrate through mechanotransducer channels into the cytosol of IHCs, masking endocytotic uptake. To solve this problem we applied to IHCs the FM dye photo-oxidation technique, which renders the dyes into electron microscopy markers. Photo-oxidation allowed the unambiguous identification of labeled organelles, despite the presence of FM dye in the cytosol. This enabled us to describe the morphologies of several organelles that take up membrane in IHCs, both at rest and during stimulation. At rest, endosome-like organelles were detected in the region of the cuticular plate. Larger tubulo-cisternal organelles dominated the top and nuclear regions. Finally, the basal region, where the IHC active zones are located, contained few labeled organelles. Stimulation increased significantly membrane trafficking in the basal region, inducing the appearance of labeled vesicles and cistern-like organelles. The latter were replaced by small, synaptic-like vesicles during recovery after stimulation. In contrast, no changes in membrane trafficking were induced by stimulation in the cuticular plate region or in the top and nuclear regions. We conclude that synaptic vesicle recycling takes place mostly in the basal region of the IHCs. Other organelles participate in abundant constitutive membrane trafficking throughout the rest of the IHC volume. PMID:24505482

Rizzoli, Silvio O.

2014-01-01

37

An overview of chemical straightening of human hair: technical aspects, potential risks to hair fibre and health and legal issues.  

PubMed

Personal image, as it relates to external beauty, has attracted much attention from the cosmetic industry, and capillary aesthetics is a leader in consumption in this area. There is a great diversity of products targeting both the treatment and beautification of hair. Among them, hair straighteners stand out with a high demand by costumers aiming at beauty, social acceptance and ease of daily hair maintenance. However, this kind of treatment affects the chemical structure of keratin and of the hair fibre, bringing up some safety concerns. Moreover, the development of hair is a dynamic and cyclic process, where the duration of growth cycles depends not only on where hair grows, but also on issues such as the individual's age, dietary habits and hormonal factors. Thus, although hair fibres are composed of dead epidermal cells, when they emerge from the scalp, there is a huge variation in natural wave and the response to hair cosmetics. Although it is possible to give the hair a cosmetically favourable appearance through the use of cosmetic products, for good results in any hair treatment, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of the process. Important information, such as the composition and structure of the hair fibres, and the composition of products and techniques available for hair straightening, must be taken into account so that the straightening process can be designed appropriately, avoiding undesirable side effects for hair fibre and for health. This review aims to address the morphology, chemical composition and molecular structure of hair fibres, as well as the products and techniques used for chemical hair relaxing, their potential risk to hair fibre and to health and the legal aspects of their use. PMID:24102549

Miranda-Vilela, A L; Botelho, A J; Muehlmann, L A

2013-09-19

38

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

2011-04-01

39

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

2012-04-01

40

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

2013-04-01

41

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

2014-04-01

42

Metabolite screening of aromatic amine hair dyes using in vitro hepatic models.  

PubMed

Aromatic amines and heterocyclic amines are widely used ingredients in permanent hair dyes. However, little has been published on their potential for oxidation via hepatic cytochrome P450s. Therefore, the authors screened nine such compounds for their potential to undergo oxidative metabolism in human liver microsomes. Toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA), p-aminophenol, m-aminophenol, p-methylaminophenol, N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-phenylenediamine, and 1-hydroxyethyl-4,5-diaminopyrazole showed no evidence of oxidative metabolism. Oxidized metabolites of 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene (AHT), 2-methyl-5- hydroxyethylaminophenol (MHEAP), and phenyl methyl pyrazolone (PMP) were detected, but there was no evidence of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent covalent binding to microsomal protein, suggesting that these are not reactive metabolites. Metabolism of AHT, MHEAP, PMP, and TDA was further studied in human hepatocytes. All these compounds underwent conjugation, but no oxidative metabolites were found. The results suggest that none of the hair dye ingredients tested showed evidence of hepatic metabolism to potentially biologically reactive oxidized metabolites. PMID:19845432

Skare, J A; Hewitt, N J; Doyle, E; Powrie, R; Elcombe, C

2009-11-01

43

Determination of phenylenediamine isomers in hair dyes by coal cinders micro-column extraction and MEKC.  

PubMed

A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using beta-cyclodextrins (?-CDs) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphates (ionic liquids) as additives was successfully developed for determination of para-, meta-, and ortho-phenylenediamines isomers (p-P, m-P, and o-P) in hair dyes. To improve the sensitivity of the MEKC-UV, a simple and cheap flow injection (FI) technique using a micro-column packed with coal cinders (the by-products from combustion in a boiler) as solid-phase extractant was also investigated. In the presence of 20 mmol L(-1) phosphates at pH 5.5, addition of 12 mmol L(-1) ionic liquids and 8 mmol L(-1) ?-CDs greatly improved the separation efficiency. The three analytes could be quantitatively adsorbed by coal cinders, and desorbed readily with 0.15 mL of 0.01 mol L(-1) NaOH. Under the optimum conditions, an enrichment factor (EF) of 33.3 was obtained, and determination limits of p-P, m-P, and o-P were 1.97?×?10(-7), 0.99?×?10(-7), and 0.61?×?10(-7) mol L(-1), respectively. The adsorption capacities of the coal cinders micro-column for p-P, m-P, and o-P were all 1.20 mg g(-1). The presented procedure was successfully applied to the determination of p-P, m-P, and o-P in hair dyes with satisfactory results. PMID:21475944

Wu, Yiwei; Jiang, Feng; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Jing; Deng, Zhenli; Tao, Qing; Zhang, Jing; Han, Lijuan; Wei, Xiaoshu; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Haili

2011-06-01

44

Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression  

PubMed Central

Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

2015-01-01

45

Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression.  

PubMed

Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

2015-01-01

46

Laccase-catalysed polymeric dye synthesis from plant-derived phenols for potential application in hair dyeing: Enzymatic colourations driven by homo- or hetero-polymer synthesis.  

PubMed

Laccase efficiently catalyses polymerization of phenolic compounds. However, knowledge on applications of polymers synthesized in this manner remains scarce. Here, the potential of laccase-catalysed polymerization of natural phenols to form products useful in hair dyeing was investigated. All 15 tested phenols yielded coloured products after laccase treatment and colour diversity was attained by using mixtures of two phenolic monomers. After exploring colour differentiation pattern of 120 different reactions with statistical regression analysis, three monomer combinations, namely gallic acid and syringic acid, catechin and catechol, and ferulic acid and syringic acid, giving rise to brown, black, and red materials, respectively, were further characterized because such colours are commercially important for grey hair dyeing. Selected polymers could strongly absorb visible light and their hydrodynamic sizes ranged from 100 to 400 nm. Analyses of enzyme kinetic constants, liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) coupled with collision-induced dissociation MS/MS indicate that both monomers in reactions involving catechin and catechol, and ferulic acid and syringic acid, are coloured by heteropolymer synthesis, but the gallic acid/syringic acid combination is based on homopolymer mixture formation. Comparison of colour parameters from these three reactions with those of corresponding artificial homopolymer mixtures also supported the idea that laccase may catalyse either hetero- or homo-polymer synthesis. We finally used selected materials to dye grey hair. Each material coloured hair appropriately and the dyeing showed excellent resistance to conventional shampooing. Our study indicates that laccase-catalysed polymerization of natural phenols is applicable to the development of new cosmetic pigments. PMID:21255331

Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Park, Hyo-Keun; Kim, Young-Mo; Kwon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Wang-Gi; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2010-05-01

47

Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: an appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes.  

PubMed

The European Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP) guideline for testing of hair dyes for genotoxic/mutagenic/carcinogenic potential has been reviewed. The battery of six in vitro tests recommended therein differs substantially from the batteries of two or three in vitro tests recommended in other guidelines. Our evaluation of the chemical types used in hair dyes and comparison with other guidelines for testing a wide range of chemical substances, lead to the conclusion that potential genotoxic activity may effectively be determined by the application of a limited number of well-validated test systems that are capable of detecting induced gene mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal changes. We conclude that highly effective screening for genotoxicity of hair dyes can be achieved by the use of three assays, namely the bacterial gene mutation assay, the mammalian cell gene mutation assay (mouse lymphoma tk assay preferred) and the in vitro micronucleus assay. These need to be combined with metabolic activation systems optimised for the individual chemical types. Recent published evidence [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggests that our recommended three tests will detect all known genotoxic carcinogens, and that increasing the number of in vitro assays further would merely reduce specificity (increase false positives). Of course there may be occasions when standard tests need to be modified to take account of special situations such as a specific pathway of biotransformation, but this should be considered as part of routine testing. It is clear that individual dyes and any other novel ingredients should be tested in this three-test battery. However, new products are formed on the scalp by reaction between the chemicals present in hair-dye formulations. Ideally, these should also be tested for genotoxicity, but at present such experiences are very limited. There is also the possibility that one component could mask the genotoxicity of another (e.g. by being more toxic), and so it is not practical at this time to recommend routine testing of complete hair-dye formulations as well. The most sensible approach would be to establish whether any reaction products within the hair-dye formulation penetrate the skin under normal conditions of use and test only those that penetrate at toxicologically relevant levels in the three-test in vitro battery. Recently published data [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggest the three-test battery will produce a significant number of false as well as real positives. Whilst we are aware of the desire to reduce animal experiments, determining the relevance of positive results in any of the three recommended in vitro assays will most likely have to be determined by use of in vivo assays. The bone marrow micronucleus test using routes of administration such as oral or intraperitoneal may be used where the objective is extended hazard identification. If negative results are obtained in this test, then a second in vivo test should be conducted. This could be an in vivo UDS in rat liver or a Comet assay in a relevant tissue. However, for hazard characterisation, tests using topical application with measurement of genotoxicity in the skin would be more appropriate. Such specific site-of-contact in vivo tests would minimise animal toxicity burden and invasiveness, and, especially for hair dyes, be more relevant to human routes of exposure, but there are not sufficient scientific data available to allow recommendations to be made. The generation of such data is encouraged. PMID:16326131

Kirkland, D J; Henderson, L; Marzin, D; Müller, L; Parry, J M; Speit, G; Tweats, D J; Williams, G M

2005-12-30

48

9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination...318.9 Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives, spices,...

2010-01-01

49

Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection in the Zebrafish Lateral Line  

PubMed Central

Abstract In humans, most hearing loss results from death of hair cells, the mechanosensory receptors of the inner ear. Two goals of current hearing research are to protect hair cells from degeneration and to regenerate new hair cells, replacing those that are lost due to aging, disease, or environmental challenges. One limitation of research in the auditory field has been the relative inaccessibility of the mechanosensory systems in the inner ear. Zebrafish possess hair cells in both their inner ear and their lateral line system that are morphologically and functionally similar to human hair cells. The external location of the mechanosensory hair cells in the lateral line and the ease of in vivo labeling and imaging make the zebrafish lateral line a unique system for the study of hair cell toxicity, protection, and regeneration. This review focuses on the lateral line system as a model for understanding loss and protection of mechanosensory hair cells. We discuss chemical screens to identify compounds that induce hair cell loss and others that protect hair cells from known toxins and the potential application of these screens to human medicine. PMID:20192852

Ou, Henry; Owens, Kelly N.; Santos, Felipe; Simon, Julian A.; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W.

2010-01-01

50

[Determination of seven aromatic amines in hair dyes by capillary electrophoresis coupled with field-amplified sample stacking].  

PubMed

A method for the determination of 4,4'-methylenedianiline, aniline, o-anisidine, 3, 4-dimethylaniline, p-anisidine, 3-aminophenol, 1-naphthylamine in hair dyes was established by capillary electrophoresis coupled with field-amplified sample stacking. The optimum running buffer was an aqueous solution containing 0.15 mol/L NaH2PO4 and 0.015 mol/L trolamine (pH 2.3), and the baseline separation was achieved within 6.5 min. The effects of phosphoric acid and acetonitrile concentration in the sample matrix, the length of the preinjection water plug, and the sample injection voltage and time on the stacking efficiency were investigated. The optimum stacking conditions for the real samples included a water plug of 3.45 kPa (0.5 psi) x 6 s, the addition of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile and 0.6 x 10(-3) mol/L phosphoric acid to the sample solution and a sample injection of 10 kV x 10 s. The seven analytes all showed good linearities (R2 > 0.996) within 3 - 1 000 microg/L, with the detection limits in the range of 0.26 - 2.75 microg/L. The method was shown to provide over 1 - 3 magnitudes of sensitivity enhancement. 3-Aminophenol was found in two black hair dyes, and the amounts were 7.32 mg/g and 1.34 mg/g, individually. The recoveries ranged from 74% - 108%. The proposed approach may find widespread applications for the determination of trace aromatic amines and other cationic analytes in various sample matrixes. PMID:22393703

Lu, Yuchao; Wang, Haiyan; Song, Pingping; Liu, Shuhui

2011-11-01

51

Human systemic exposure to a [14C]-para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin.  

PubMed

We investigated the absorption of a commercial [14C]-PPD-containing oxidative dark-shade hair dye in human volunteers as well as in vitro using human or pig ear skin. The hair of eight male volunteers was cut to a standard length, dyed, washed, dried, clipped and collected. Hair, washing water, materials used in the study and a 24-h scalp wash were collected for determination of radioactivity. Blood, urine and faeces were analysed up to 120 h after hair dyeing. An identical [14C]-PPD-containing hair dye formulation was applied in vitro for 0.5 h to human and pig ear skin, and radioactivity was determined in skin compartments after 24 h. In humans, the recovery rate was 95.7+/-1.5% of the applied radioactivity. Washing water, cut hair, gloves, paper towels, caps or scalp wash contained a total of 95.16+/-1.46% of the applied [14C]. Absorbed radioactivity amounted to 0.50+/-0.24% in the urine and 0.04+/-0.04% in the faeces, corresponding to a mean of 7.0+/-3.4 mg [14C]-PPD-equivalents absorbed. Within 24 h after application, most of the radioactivity was eliminated. The Cmax of [14C]-PPD-equivalents in the plasma was 0.087 microgeq/ml, the Tmax was approximately 2 h, and the mean the AUC(0-12h) was 0.67 microgeq h/ml. In vitro tests in human or pig skin found total absorbed amounts of 2.4+/-1.6% (10.6+/-6.7 microgeq/cm2) or 3.4+/-1.7% (14.6+/-6.9 microgeq/cm2), respectively. Percentage-based in vitro results were considerably higher than corresponding in vivo data, whereas, in units of microg/cm2, they corresponded to a total absorbed amount of 7.40 or 10.22 mgeq for human or pig skin, respectively. All results suggested that hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes produces minimal systemic exposure that is unlikely to pose a risk to human health. PMID:15207372

Hueber-Becker, Frédérique; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Meuling, Wim J A; Benech-Kieffer, Florence; Toutain, Hervé

2004-08-01

52

The Chemical Forms of Mercury in Human Hair: A Study using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Human hair is frequently used as a bio-indicator of mercury exposure. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to examine the chemical forms of mercury in human hair samples taken from individuals with high fish consumption and concomitant exposure to methylmercury. The mercury is found to be predominantly methylmercury cysteine or closely related species, comprising approximately 80% of the total mercury with the remainder an inorganic thiolate-coordinated mercuric species. No appreciable role was found for selenium in coordinating mercury in hair. PMID:20225071

George, Graham N.; Singh, Satya P.; Myers, Gary J.; Watson, Gene E.; Pickering, Ingrid J.

2013-01-01

53

Influence of Chemical Straightening on the Stability of Drugs of Abuse in Hair.  

PubMed

Chemical straightening, also known as a relaxer, is ubiquitously used among African American women to obtain straighter hair compared with their natural tresses. This study focused on the stability of drugs of abuse in hair after a single application of the relaxer. Commercially available 'Lye' or 'No-Lye' chemical straightening products (Silk Elements™) were applied in vitro to drug-fortified hair (standard reference materials (SRM) 2379 and 2380) and hairs clipped from established drug users. Target analytes (cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BZE), cocaethylene (CE), phencyclidine and tetrahydrocannabinol) were isolated using solid-phase extraction and then analyzed with isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selective ion monitoring. After either treatment, drug concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in both the SRM sample and the hair from authentic abusers. In the SRM groups, 6-67% of the original concentration remained after a single chemical treatment. Similarly, only 5-30% of the original concentration remained in authentic drug hairs that had formerly tested positive for COC, BZE and CE. PMID:25298521

Pritchett, Jeanita S; Phinney, Karen W

2014-10-01

54

Adsorption of anionic dyes in acid solutions using chemically cross-linked chitosan beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

One kind of adsorbents with high adsorption capacity of anionic dyes was prepared using ionically and chemically cross-linked chitosan beads. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption of four reactive dyes (RB2, RR2, RY2, RY86), three acid dyes (AO12, AR14, AO7) and one direct dye (DR81) from aqueous solutions by the cross-linked chitosan beads. The adsorption capacities had

Ming-Shen Chiou; Pang-Yen Ho; Hsing-Ya Li

2004-01-01

55

9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives, spices, or other articles in any official establishment shall be taken, without cost to the Program, for examination, as often...

2011-01-01

56

Internal structure changes in bleached black human hair resulting from chemical treatments: A Raman spectroscopic investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to investigate in detail the influence of chemical treatments (reduction, hydrolyzed eggwhite protein (HEWP) treatment, and oxidation) on damaged hair keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of excessively bleached (damaged) black human hair resulting from a permanent waving process was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that L-cysteine (CYS) largely reacted with the gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) conformation of disulfide (-SS-) groups (while CYS did not react with the trans-gauche-trans (TGT) conformation). In particular, not only the GGG content, but also the cysteic acid content existing throughout the cortex region of the excessively bleached human hair remarkably decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction. On the other hand, the GGG content of the excessively bleached black human hair increased, while the TGT content decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction and then HEWP treatment processes. From these experiments, the authors concluded that some of the keratin associated protein (KAP), which has a rich -SS- content and cysteic acid content was eluted from the cortex region along with the disconnection of -SS- groups, thereby leading to the remarkable reduction in the reconnection of -SS- groups of the excessively bleached black human hair after the permanent waving process (the reduction and oxidation processes). Also, the authors concluded that the HEWP treatment process in the permanent waving process caused the reconstruction of the KAP, thereby contributing to the acceleration of the reconnection of -SS- groups during the oxidation process.

Kuzuhara, Akio

2014-11-01

57

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.  

PubMed

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits. PMID:11590742

Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

2001-04-01

58

Hair dye poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

59

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01... 864.1850 Section 864.1850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and...

2010-04-01

60

Hair Treatments and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... of five oxidative hair dyes in the rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 78:163-166. Gallicchio L ... 396-401. Koren G (ed.) 1994. Maternal-Fetal Toxicology: A Clinician’s Guide. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. ...

61

Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

2005-06-01

62

Distribution and localization of hydrophobic and ionic chemical groups at the surface of bleached human hair fibers.  

PubMed

A chemical mapping with high lateral resolution using an atomic force microscope in the pulsed force mode with chemically modified tips, introduced as "dynamic chemical force microscopy" (dCFM), was carried out to investigate the chemical properties of the cuticle of human hair and its changes following an oxidative treatment. Chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips, CH3- and NH2-terminated, were applied to achieve a defined chemical contrast (hydrophobic and ionic) in aqueous medium. A comparative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection identified the dominant chemical groups of the surface vicinity of the hair fiber resulting from the bleaching process. The combined experimental results lead to the conclusion that the hydrophobic top layer is partially removed after bleaching, resulting mostly in hydrophilic SO3(-) end groups at the top of the surface of the hair, with a mean surface density "?(mean)" of negatively charged groups of approximately 2.2 molecules/nm(2), corresponding to ?600 ?g/m(2) cysteic acid. This indicates that thioester bonds are disrupted and fatty acids are removed as a result of cysteine oxidation. At the molecular level, our results indicate a clustered "self-assembled monolayer" alignment of cysteic acid with a crystal-like structuring, reminiscent of the "fluid mosaic model of cell membranes", with a surface energy of approximately 0.04 N/m. Despite previous extensive works of AFM on human hair, this is, to our knowledge, the first time that the hydrophobic and ionic sites at the top surface of hair have been imaged at the nanoscale with dCFM. PMID:25203784

Korte, Michael; Akari, Sabri; Kühn, Harald; Baghdadli, Nawel; Möhwald, Helmuth; Luengo, Gustavo S

2014-10-21

63

Preservation of cartilage matrix proteoglycans using cationic dyes chemically related to ruthenium hexaammine trichloride.  

PubMed

We tested various cationic dyes chemically related to ruthenium hexaammine trichloride (RHT) [i.e., the RHT-cyclohexanedione complex (RHT-CC), pentaamine ruthenium N-dimethylphenylenediimine trichloride (PRT), tris-(bipyridyl)ruthenium (II) chloride (TRC), tris (bipyridyl) iron (II) chloride (TIC), and cobalt hexaammine trichloride (CHT)] for their effectiveness in precipitating cartilage matrix proteoglycans in situ. Dyes were introduced into media at the onset of processing and were present throughout both aldehyde fixation and osmium tetroxide post-fixation. Contrary to expectation, most of the dye-proteoglycan complexes generated and stable under aldehyde fixation conditions were found to be unstable during post-fixation despite the continuing presence of the dye. A similar phenomenon was also found for the cationic dyes commonly used for precipitation of proteoglycans in cartilage tissue sections (such as Acridine Orange, Alcian Blue, Azure A, Methylene Blue, and Ruthenium Red). Only two dyes, i.e., RHT and the newly tested RHT-CC, formed proteoglycan precipitates sufficiently stable to resist disruption and extraction during osmium tetroxide post-fixation. The latter may be particularly useful in semiquantitative analyses of proteoglycan content in unstained tissue sections owing to its intense brown-black color. For applications in which the osmium tetroxide post-fixation step may be omitted, TRC and PRT may also be valuable for semiquantitative histochemistry by virtue of their stable fluorescence and intense violet color signals, respectively. PMID:1376743

Hunziker, E B; Ludi, A; Herrmann, W

1992-07-01

64

CHEMICAL- AND SEDIMENT-MEDIATED REDUCTION OF THE AZO DYE DISPERSE BLUE 79  

EPA Science Inventory

Disperse Blue 79, a large volume disperse azo dye, and 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline (BDNA), an important intermediate in the preparation of Disperse Blue 79, were readily reduced chemically and in three anoxic sediment-water systems studied; half-lives were on the order of minutes ...

65

Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from textile dyeing  

SciTech Connect

Facilities engaged in textile dyeing may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist textile dyers in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

Not Available

1988-02-01

66

Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.  

PubMed

Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. PMID:24817050

Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

2014-06-01

67

Good Hair Care May Head off Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... the scalp) can develop. Do you let the sun color your hair? Excessive exposure to the sun can cause hair to become weak, dry, rough, ... hair and then expose your hair to the sun. The chemicals often cause unsightly yellowing, fading, and ...

68

Current chemical concepts of acids and bases and their application to anionic (“acid”) and cationic (“basic”) dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In biomedical studies, dyes are divided into “acid” and “basic” dyes. This classification cannot be reconciled with current chemical definitions of acids and bases. Brönsted-Lowry acids are compounds that can donate protons; bases are proton acceptors. The definition of acids and bases is independent of the electric charge, i.e. acids and bases can be neutral, anionic or cationic. Reactions

H. Puchtler; S. N. Meloan; M. Spencer

1985-01-01

69

The development of a highly photostable and chemically stable zwitterionic near-infrared dye for imaging applications.  

PubMed

A novel zwitterionic near-infrared (NIR) dye, , has been designed and synthesized. It shows significantly enhanced photostability and chemical stability compared to the existing zwitterionic NIR dye. In addition, the feasibility of labeling with biological ligands was investigated and used in live cell imaging applications. PMID:25664357

Su, Dongdong; Teoh, Chai Lean; Samanta, Animesh; Kang, Nam-Young; Park, Sung-Jin; Chang, Young-Tae

2015-02-19

70

The effect of age and gender on 37 chemical element contents in scalp hair of healthy humans.  

PubMed

The effect of age and gender on minor and trace element contents in the scalp hair of 80 relatively healthy 15- to 55-year-old women and men was investigated. Contents or upper limit of contents of 37 chemical elements in the scalp hair were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Mean values (M +/- SEpsilonMu) for the mass fraction of Ag, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Th, and Zn (milligrams per kilogram of dry hair) were 0.191 +/- 0.018, 0.0102 +/- 0.0014, 6.33 +/- 0.68, 3.59 +/- 0.26, 1320 +/- 110, 0.369 +/- 0.055, 1245 +/- 133, 0.0707 +/- 0.0054, 2.78 +/- 0.22, 0.0082 +/- 0.0021, 88.2 +/- 6.7, 0.040 +/- 0.012, 0.145 +/- 0.009, 6.93 +/- 1.05, 146 +/- 14, 0.238 +/- 0.025, 0.0030 +/- 0.0007, 163 +/- 17, 2.29 +/- 0.30, 344 +/- 31, 0.65 +/- 0.10, 0.062 +/- 0.005, 0.0100 +/- 0.0012, 0.248 +/- 0.008, 0.0090 +/- 0.0010, 45.7 +/- 3.5, 0.0168 +/- 0.0019, and 154 +/- 3, respectively. The upper limits of contents of Cd, Cs, Gd, Nd, Ta, Tb, Tm, and Yb were hair samples, the contents of As was under detection limits <0.01. The tendency for the Ce, La, and Th content to increase with age was found in the human hair, but statistically significant changes were shown for females only. The mass fraction of Rb in the male scalp hair increases and of Cl decreases with age. It was shown that higher Au, Ca, Mg, and Sr mass fractions as well as lower Cl, Fe, I, Sc, Se, and Sm content were typical of female hair as compared to those in male hair. PMID:19629406

Zaichick, Sofia; Zaichick, Vladimir

2010-04-01

71

Adsorption behavior of reactive dye in aqueous solution on chemical cross-linked chitosan beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A batch system was applied to study the adsorption of reactive dye (reactive red 189) from aqueous solutions by cross-linked chitosan beads. The ionic cross-linking reagent sodium tripolyphosphate was used to obtain more rigid chitosan beads. To stabilize chitosan in acid solutions, chemical cross-linking reagent epichlorohydrin (ECH), glutaraldehyde and ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether was used and ECH shows a higher

M. S Chiou; H. Y Li

2003-01-01

72

Current chemical concepts of acids and bases and their application to anionic ("acid") and cationic ("basic") dyes.  

PubMed

In biomedical studies, dyes are divided into "acid" and "basic" dyes. This classification cannot be reconciled with current chemical definitions of acids and bases. Brönsted-Lowry acids are compounds that can donate protons; bases are proton acceptors. The definition of acids and bases is independent of the electric charge, i.e. acids and bases can be neutral, anionic or cationic. Reactions between acids and bases result in formation of new acid-base pairs. Lewis acids and bases do not depend on a particular element, but are characterized by their electronic configurations. Lewis bases are electron donors; Lewis acids are electron acceptors. This classification is also unrelated to the electric charge. Lewis acids and bases interact by formation of coordinate covalent bonds. In histochemistry and histology, dyes containing -SO3-, -COO- and/or -O- groups are classified as "acid" dyes. However, such compounds are electron pair donors and hence Brönsted-Lowry and Lewis anionic bases. Dyes carrying a positive charge are termed "basic" dyes. Chemically, many cationic dyes are Lewis acids because they can add a base, e.g. OH-, acetate, halides. The hypothesis that transformation of -NH2 into ammonium groups imparts "basic" properties to dyes is untenable; ammonium groups are proton donors and hence acids. Furthermore, conversion of an amino into an ammonium group blocks a lone electron pair and the color of the dye changes drastically, e.g. from violet to green and yellow. It appears therefore highly unlikely that ammonium groups are responsible for binding of cationic ("basic") dyes. In histochemistry, it is usually not of critical importance whether anionic or cationic dyes are chemically acids or bases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2409057

Puchtler, H; Meloan, S N; Spencer, M

1985-01-01

73

Competitive adsorption of dye metanil yellow and RB15 in acid solutions on chemically cross-linked chitosan beads.  

PubMed

One kind of adsorbent with a high adsorption capacity for anionic dyes was prepared using ionically and chemically cross-linked chitosan beads. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption behavior of one acid dye (MY, metanil yellow) and one reactive dye (RB15, reactive blue 15) in aqueous solutions by the cross-linked chitosan beads. The adsorption capacities was 3.56 mmol g(-1) (1334 mg g(-1)) for dye MY and 0.56 mmol g(-1) (722 mg g(-1)) for dye RB15 at pH4, 30 degrees C. The Langmuir model agreed very well with the experimental data (R(2)>0.996). The kinetics of adsorption for a single dye and the kinetics of removal of ADMI color value in mixture solutions at different initial dye concentrations were evaluated by the nonlinear first-order and second-order models. The first-order kinetic model fits well with the dynamical adsorption behavior of a single dye for lower initial dye concentrations, while the second-order kinetic model fits well for higher initial dye concentrations. The competitive adsorption favored the dye RB15 in the mixture solution (initial conc. (mM): MY=1.34; RB15=1.36); while it favored the dye MY in the mixture solution (initial conc. (mM): MY=3.00; RB15=1.34) and the adsorption kinetics for dye RB15 has the tendency to shift to a slower first order model. PMID:15967484

Chiou, Ming-Shen; Chuang, Guo-Syong

2006-02-01

74

9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives, spices, or other articles in any official establishment shall be taken, without cost to the Program, for examination, as often as may be deemed necessary for the efficient conduct of the...

2012-01-01

75

9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.  

Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives, spices, or other articles in any official establishment shall be taken, without cost to the Program, for examination, as often as may be deemed necessary for the efficient conduct of the...

2014-01-01

76

Hair Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

... to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair follicles ... should first be done before considering a hair transplant? Before the procedure, an ASDS doctor will review ...

77

Hair Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... This is because higher hormone levels prevent normal hair loss. During pregnancy: Your hair tends to stay in ... hair. After delivery: The resting phase shortens. Normal hair loss that was delayed by pregnancy tends to take ...

78

Oily hair  

MedlinePLUS

Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

79

Body Hair  

MedlinePLUS

Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you will likely see new hair growing in your pubic area , under your arms, and ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

80

Correlating Titania Morphology and Chemical Composition with Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Performance  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO{sub 2} as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural morphology of films of these nanostructured materials has been directly characterized using SEM and indirectly probed using dye desorption. Furthermore, the surfaces of these nanomaterials were studied using TEM in order to visualize their structure, prior to their application within DSSCs. Surface areas of the materials have been quantitatively analyzed by collecting BET adsorption and dye desorption data. Additional investigation using open circuit voltage decay measurements reveals the efficiency of electron conduction through each TiO{sub 2} material. Moreover, the utilization of various chemically distinctive titanate materials within the DSSCs has also been investigated, demonstrating the deficiencies of using these particular chemical compositions within traditional DSSCs.

Santulli, A.C.; Wong, S.; Koenigsmann, C.; Tiano, A.L., DeRosa, D.

2011-04-20

81

Supramolecular host-guest interactions of oxazine-1 dye with ?- and ?-cyclodextrins: a photophysical and quantum chemical study.  

PubMed

Supramolecular host-guest interactions of oxazine-1 dye with ?- and ?-cyclodextrins (?CD and ?CD, respectively) have been investigated in neutral aqueous solution (pH ? 7) at ambient temperature (?25 °C) following absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism measurements. The dye forms inclusion complexes with both CDs, causing significant changes in its photophysical properties. Whereas fluorescence titration data for lower dye concentrations fit well with 1:1 stoichiometric complexes, the time-resolved fluorescence results indicate formation of a small extent of 1:2 (dye-host) complexes as well, especially at higher CD concentrations. The moderate range of the binding constant values for the present systems indicates the weaker hydrophobic interaction as responsible for the inclusion complex formation in these systems. It has also been observed that ?CD facilitates dimerization of the dye, prominently indicated at the higher dye concentrations. On the contrary, ?CD always assists deaggregation of the dye, even at very high dye concentrations. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy results qualitatively support the inclusion complex formation in the present systems. Results from quantum chemical calculations also nicely corroborate with the inferences drawn from photophysical studies. Observed results demonstrate that the size compatibility of the guest and the host cavity mainly determines the host-guest interaction in the present systems, much similar to the substrate-catalyst binding in many biological systems. PMID:22998344

Shaikh, Mhejabeen; Mohanty, Jyotirmayee; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Bhasikuttan, Achikanath C; Pal, Haridas

2012-10-18

82

Total chemical synthesis of biologically active fluorescent dye-labeled Ts1 toxin.  

PubMed

Ts1 toxin is a protein found in the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus. Ts1 binds to the domain II voltage sensor in the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav and modifies its voltage dependence. In the work reported here, we established an efficient total chemical synthesis of the Ts1 protein using modern chemical ligation methods and demonstrated that it was fully active in modifying the voltage dependence of the rat skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel rNav1.4 expressed in oocytes. Total synthesis combined with click chemistry was used to label the Ts1 protein molecule with the fluorescent dyes Alexa-Fluor 488 and Bodipy. Dye-labeled Ts1 proteins retained their optical properties and bound to and modified the voltage dependence of the sodium channel Nav. Because of the highly specific binding of Ts1 toxin to Nav, successful chemical synthesis and labeling of Ts1 toxin provides an important tool for biophysical studies, histochemical studies, and opto-pharmacological studies of the Nav protein. PMID:24989851

Dang, Bobo; Kubota, Tomoya; Correa, Ana M; Bezanilla, Francisco; Kent, Stephen B H

2014-08-18

83

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can also lose hair. The hormone imbalance that happens in polycystic ovary syndrome can cause hair loss in teen girls as well as adult women. Medicines. Sometimes doctors prescribe medicines that have hair loss ...

84

Distribution and Chemical Speciation of Arsenic in Ancient Human Hair Using Synchrotron Radiation  

E-print Network

Ciencias Sociales de la Universidad de Chile, Av. Capitan Ignacio Carrera Pinto N°1045, Nunoa, Santiago de measurements on ancient human hair. These combined techniques of high sensitivity and specificity enabled-Columbian populations in northern Chile, from the Chinchorro culture to the Incas,7-11 have indicated high levels

85

Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... person's hair may look greasy. Time for a shampoo! Continue Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow! You have more ... When you wash your hair, use a gentle shampoo and warm water. Lather up using your fingertips, ...

86

Contact urticaria to cosmetic and industrial dyes.  

PubMed

Contact urticaria (CU) defines the weal-and-flare reaction that occurs after external cutaneous contact with a causative agent. These reactions often cause discomfort for patients, affect their quality of life, and in severe cases may be life-threatening. Some dyes are known to be urticariogens. Many people have daily exposure to these urticariogens, because of the widespread use of dyes, for example in textiles, cosmetics and foods. We reviewed industrial and cosmetic dyes such as hair dyes, basic blue 99 dye, patent blue dyes, henna, red dyes, curcumin and reactive dyes, which can potentially cause CU. Overall, the reported cases of CU lacked appropriate controls. Hair-dye constituents such as preservatives and intensifiers may play an important role as causative agents of CU. We recommend appropriate protection guidelines to reduce the incidence of CU in high-risk groups such as hairdressers, dye-factory workers or workers in dye-related industries. PMID:20456377

Davari, P; Maibach, H I

2011-01-01

87

Purification and characterization of a novel laccase from Coprinus cinereus and decolorization of different chemically dyes.  

PubMed

Laccase is a blue copper oxidase with multiple copper ions and widely distributed in higher plant and fungi. To date, numerous fungal laccases have been reported by many researchers. In present work, a new laccase gene, named CcLCC5I, from Coprinus cinereus was synthesized chemically according to the yeast bias codon and integrated into Pichia pastoris GS115 genome by electroporation. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the recombinant laccase has a molecular mass of approximately 56.8 kDa. Its biochemical properties was carried out using substrate 2-2(')-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS). It was showed that the optimum pH and temperature of the laccase is 3.0 and 55 °C, respectively. Except for copper ions, most metal ions inhibited the laccase activity at a high concentration about 10 mM. Sodium sulfite can also highly inhibit laccase activity whereas EDTA had no inhibitory effect on the laccase activity. The CcLCC5I have high ability to decolor not only azo but also aryl methane dyes. The recombinant laccase decolored 44.6 % orange G, 54.8 % Crystal Violet, and 87.2 % Malachite green at about 2.6 h. The novel laccase may be a good candidate for breeding engineering strains used in the treatment of industrial effluent containing azo and aryl methane dyes. PMID:23073779

Lin, Yaqiu; Zhang, Zhen; Tian, Yongsheng; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Zhisheng; Peng, Rihe; Yao, Quanhong

2013-02-01

88

Changing Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... on your own. Back Continue From Curly to Straight Different chemical treatments and styling techniques are used ... you don't burn yourself. Back Continue From Straight to Curly If you have straight hair and ...

89

Structural, Nanomechanical and Nanotribological Characterization of Human Hair Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber. Healthy, soft hair with good feel, shine, color and overall aesthetics is generally highly desirable. It is important to study hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners as well as damaging processes such as chemical dyeing and permanent wave treatments because they affect the maintenance and grooming process and therefore alter many hair properties. Nanoscale characterization of the cellular structure, the mechanical properties, as well as the morphological, frictional and adhesive properties (tribological properties) of hair is essential if we wish to evaluate and develop better cosmetic products, and crucial to advancing the understanding of biological and cosmetic science. The atomic/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM) and nanoindenter have recently become important tools for studying the micro/nanoscale properties of human hair. In this chapter, we present a comprehensive review of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of various hair and skin as a function of ethnicity, damage, conditioning treatment, and various environments. Various cellular structures of human hair and fine sublamellar structures of the cuticle are identified and studied. Nanomechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, creep and scratch resistance are discussed. Nanotribological properties such as roughness, friction, and adhesion are presented, as well as investigations of conditioner distribution, thickness and binding interactions.

Bhushan, Bharat; Latorre, Carmen; Wei, Guohua

90

Technical approaches of a natural dye extracted from Phytolacca americana L.-berries with chemical mordants.  

PubMed

Phytolacca americana L. is a large semi-succulent herbaceous plant which reaches three meters in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is imported into Korea and has been frequently used as a traditional natural drug for diseases such as systemic edema and nephritis. Its berries, that is, fruits are shiny dark purple held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. They are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, maturing into white and then blackish purple. It is not well known how the berries are used for a natural staining yet. In this study, using Phytolacca americana L.-berries, a natural staining was analyzed. Moreover, due to the broad use of chemical mordants, five different mordants including copper acetate, aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid, Iron II sulfate and potassium dichromate were combined. Extracted dye from the berries stained silk fabrics with ivory. The original purple color from the berries disappeared and transformed into ivory. Although the silk fabrics were differentially stained by the berries that were combined with mordants of aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid and potassium dichromate, only differences in lightness and darkness were observed. Interestingly, the combination of the dye from the berries with a mordant of copper acetate and Iron II sulfate induced the staining of the silk fabrics into khaki and dark khaki, respectively. This study is the first systemic report on staining silk fabrics with Phytolacca americana L.-berries and chemical mordants and suggests application of natural products to the fiber industry. PMID:24704646

Park, Su-Youn; Jung, Suk-Yul

2014-01-01

91

Spectral studies of pH dye films for detection of toxic chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular absorption spectra of pH dyes, employed for ammonia sensing are investigated. Differences of absorption spectra of Bromothymol Blue and Bromocresol Purple dyes, dissolved in water and entrapped in Polymethylphenylsiloxane film are discussed. Correspondence of dye-films absorption bands shape to the Gauss distribution shape in the spectral region of light source emission band was determined.

Wojcik, Wieslaw; Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Golubkov, Sergei P.; Borsuk, Pavel S.

1993-09-01

92

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

93

The content of selected chemical elements in the hair of young men of the Bantu language group from Tanzania versus environmental and social conditioning.  

PubMed

Research works that would determine the content of chemical elements in black population organisms on the basis of hair analysis are not numerous. There are no studies referring to black populations living in indigenous environment, like the Mafinga region, Iringa District in Tanzania examined by us. The aim of the study performed was to analyse the content of chemical elements Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu in easily available biological media like hair. The material was collected in October 2005 and March 2006 during anthropological examination, which came from young males (n?=?91), students of a secondary school. Large Ca concentration range was found for the total number of subjects (680.20 to 2,089.70?µg/g d.m.). Mean Fe content in hair for the total number of subjects was 11.19?±?3.70?µg/g d.m., while that of Mg 6.84?±?2.02?µg/g d.m. Mean Zn concentration for the total number of subjects was 91.06?±?39.22?µg/g d.m., being significantly higher in younger group than in older one (p?=?0.039). Mean Cu concentration in hair for the total number of subjects was 7.50?±?2.90?µg/g d.m Body mass index (BMI?=?kg/m²) was calculated for the subjects showing that out of 91 men participating in the study 15.4% was characterised by mediocre nutrition. No statistically significant correlations were found between BMI and the analysed chemical elements. The analysis of the content of trace elements in the hair of the examined young males showed deficiencies in Zn, Cu, Fe and significantly in Mg. PMID:20041314

R?bacz, Ewa; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Chlubek, Dariusz

2010-12-01

94

The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

Sequin-Frey, Margareta

1981-01-01

95

A Screening Technique for Prostate Cancer by Hair Chemical Analysis and Artificial Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of cancer may not only substantially reduce the overall health care costs but also reduce the long term morbidity\\u000a and death from cancer. Although there are screening techniques available for prostate cancer, they all have practical limitations.\\u000a In this paper, a new screening technique for prostate cancer is discussed. This technique applies artificial intelligence\\u000a on the chemical analytical

Ping Wu; Kok Liang Heng; Shuo Wang Yang; Yi Feng Chen; Ravuru Subramanyam Mohan; Peter Huat Chye Lim

1999-01-01

96

Determination of hydroxylated metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human hair by gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study describes the determination of mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs), metabolites of PAHs, in human hair. Twelve selected OH-PAHs from two to four rings, generally determined in urine analysis, were investigated as markers of human exposure to PAHs. Following hydrolysis of hair specimens of 50–300mg with 1M NaOH, OH-PAHs were extracted using dichloromethane and submitted to an optimized derivatization

Claude Schummer; Brice M. R. Appenzeller; Maurice Millet; Robert Wennig

2009-01-01

97

Integral lipid in human hair follicle.  

PubMed

On the hair surface, cells are covered with a thin lipid layer (LL) covalently bonded to hair proteins. This integral hair lipid is different from sebaceus lipid. We conducted this study to examine the lipid distribution in human hair follicle. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to observe the ultrastructure of the LL. Hair follicles were cut and observed longitudinally along the hair axis. For transmission electron microscopy, new fixative (Lee's fixative: composed of OsO4 and RuO4) was designed as the conventional fixatives such as OsO4 or RuO4 alone were not appropriate for staining for hair follicle lipid. In addition, we measured the chemical composition of integral hair lipid by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. From the above experimental procedure, it was discovered that the lipid in the hair follicle was mainly distributed in hair cuticle and keratinized inner root sheath. A multitude of lamellar granule is observed in the vicinity of the above LL. The chemical composition of integral hair lipid was different from those of epidermal or sebaceous lipids. It is assumed that the LL in the hair follicle is similar to the epidermal LL playing an important role as a skin barrier in the stratum corneum. We proposed here the new terminology "hair barrier" from this point of view. PMID:16382672

Lee, Won-Soo; Oh, Tak Heon; Chun, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Soo Young; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Sanghoon; Park, Won-Seok; Hwang, Sungjoo

2005-12-01

98

A versatile chemical conversion synthesis of Cu2S nanotubes and the photovoltaic activities for dye-sensitized solar cell.  

PubMed

A versatile, low-temperature, and low-cost chemical conversion synthesis has been developed to prepare copper sulfide (Cu2S) nanotubes. The successful chemical conversion from ZnS nanotubes to Cu2S ones profits by the large difference in solubility between ZnS and Cu2S. The morphology, structure, and composition of the yielded products have been examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements. We have further successfully employed the obtained Cu2S nanotubes as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The light-to-electricity conversion results show that the Cu2S nanostructures exhibit high photovoltaic conversion efficiency due to the increased surface area and the good electrocatalytical activity of Cu2S. The present chemical route provides a simple way to synthesize Cu2S nanotubes with a high surface area for nanodevice applications. PMID:25246878

Shuai, Xuemin; Shen, Wenzhong; Hou, Zhaoyang; Ke, Sanmin; Xu, Chunlong; Jiang, Cheng

2014-01-01

99

A versatile chemical conversion synthesis of Cu2S nanotubes and the photovoltaic activities for dye-sensitized solar cell  

PubMed Central

A versatile, low-temperature, and low-cost chemical conversion synthesis has been developed to prepare copper sulfide (Cu2S) nanotubes. The successful chemical conversion from ZnS nanotubes to Cu2S ones profits by the large difference in solubility between ZnS and Cu2S. The morphology, structure, and composition of the yielded products have been examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements. We have further successfully employed the obtained Cu2S nanotubes as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The light-to-electricity conversion results show that the Cu2S nanostructures exhibit high photovoltaic conversion efficiency due to the increased surface area and the good electrocatalytical activity of Cu2S. The present chemical route provides a simple way to synthesize Cu2S nanotubes with a high surface area for nanodevice applications. PMID:25246878

2014-01-01

100

Chemical and structural evaluation of activated carbon prepared from jute sticks for Brilliant Green dye removal from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Activated carbons have been prepared from jute sticks by chemical activation using ZnCl(2) and physical activation using steam for the removal of Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solution. The activated carbons and charcoal prepared from jute sticks were characterized by evaluating the surface chemistry, structural features and surface morphology. The maximum BET surface area was obtained to be 2304 m(2)/g for chemical activated carbon (ACC) while it is 730 and 80 m(2)/g for steam activated carbon (ACS) and charcoal, respectively. The FT-IR spectra exhibited that the pyrolysis and steam activation of jute sticks resulted in the release of aliphatic and O-containing functional groups by thermal effect. However, the release of functional groups is the effect of chemical reaction in the ZnCl(2) activation process. A honeycomb-type carbon structure in ACC was formed as observed on SEM images. Although charcoal and ACC were prepared at 500 degrees C the ACC exhibited much lower Raman sensitivity due to the formation of condensed aromatic ring systems. Due to high surface area and high porous structure with abundance of functional groups, the ACC adsorbed dye molecules with much higher efficiency than those of ACS and charcoal. PMID:19815339

Asadullah, Mohammad; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Kabir, Mohammad Shajahan; Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Miyazawa, Tomohisa

2010-02-15

101

The construction of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells from chemically-derived nanoporous photoelectrodes  

E-print Network

Nanoporous electrode a b s t r a c t A tandem dye-sensitized solar cell (tandem-DSSC) was synthesized-type DSSC, indicative of successfully-designed tandem structure. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1, the concept of `tandem- DSSC' has started evolving where both working and counter elec- trodes in the DSSC

Park, Byungwoo

102

Native chemical ligation combined with spirocyclization of benzopyrylium dyes for the ratiometric and selective fluorescence detection of cysteine and homocysteine.  

PubMed

Spirocyclization of xanthene dyes has become a powerful technique for developing fluorescent probes. Herein, we extend this unique fluorescence switching mechanism to a near-infrared (NIR) dye, 2-(7-diethylamino-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-7-diethylamino-1-benzopyrylium (CB), and construct a ratiometric fluorescent probe 1 for cysteine (Cys)/homocysteine (Hcy). The ratiometric sensing of probe 1 toward Cys/Hcy is realized by utilizing a tandem native chemical ligation/spirocyclization reaction to interrupt the large ?-conjugated system of CB fluorophore, thereby affording remarkable blue shifts in the spectra of sensing system (from 669 to 423 nm in absorption spectra and from 694 to 474 nm in emission spectra). Probe 1 shows a high sensitivity for Cys/Hcy, and the detection limits (3 ?) for Cys and Hcy are 1.6 × 10(-7) and 1.8 × 10(-7) M, respectively. Moreover, since both the sulfhydril and the adjacent amino groups are involved in the sensing process, probe 1 is selective toward Cys/Hcy over other thiols such as glutathione. All these unique features make it particularly favorable for ratiometric Cys/Hcy sensing and bioimaging applications. It has been preliminarily used for Cys detection in rabbit serum samples and the ratiometric fluorescent imaging of Cys in living HepG2 cells. PMID:24410246

Lv, Hongmin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhong, Yaogang; Guo, Yuan; Li, Zheng; Li, Hua

2014-02-01

103

The construction of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells from chemically-derived nanoporous photoelectrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tandem dye-sensitized solar cell (tandem-DSSC) was synthesized on the basis of thin-film semiconductor electrodes. The nanoporous p-type NiO films were successfully obtained by simultaneous deposition of Al and Ni, followed by selective etching of Al and oxidation. Likewise, the n-type photoanode was made where Ag was etched in nitric acid after the initial formation of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites. Such dye-sensitized photoelectrodes were combined to construct a tandem solar cell which exhibited an enhanced open-circuit voltage. Also, the tandem devices were subjected to various light fluxes to correlate the experimental cell parameters (open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, fill factor, recombination shunt resistance, etc.) with the ideal one-diode model. Interestingly, impedance spectra of the tandem cell was well matched with the parameters from each of the n-type or p-type DSSC, indicative of successfully-designed tandem structure.

Choi, Hongsik; Hwang, Taehyun; Lee, Sangheon; Nam, Seunghoon; Kang, Joonhyeon; Lee, Byungho; Park, Byungwoo

2015-01-01

104

Photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye using Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin film prepared by chemical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made by researchers for the removal of various dyes using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2; however, removal of `hazardous Ponceau S dye' using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 has been not studied yet. In the present work, environmental application of Nano structured Ni doped TiO2 has been studied. Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by the chemical method on a glass substrate. The prepared thin film was characterized by XRD, SEM, and EDX. The crystal size calculated from XRD is about 26.2 nm. The SEM analysis reveals nano spherical morphology of average particle size about 92 nm. The optical analysis was carried by using UV-visible spectroscopy. The band gap estimated from absorbance spectra for thin film was around 3.5 eV, making suitable Ni-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye. In photocatalytic application different parameters like dye concentration, contact time, pH, UV light and sunlight were optimized for the removal of Ponceau S dye, respectively. The change in chemical oxygen demand after photo catalytic treatment was also studied.

Marathe, Sunil D.; Shrivastava, Vinod S.

2015-02-01

105

Global and local influences on the chemical composition of snowfall at Dye 3, Greenland: the record between 10 ka B.P. and 40 ka B.P  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wisconsin Age ice from Dye 3, Greenland, shows a number of delta18O level changes which indicate the occurrence of rapid climate transitions. In order to study the effect of climate change on geochemical fluxes we have selected several of these transitions for chemical analysis. At each transition we have measured chloride, nitrate and sulfate concentrations with 5 cm depth resolution.

R. C. Finkel; C. C. Langway

1985-01-01

106

Identifying Rhodamine Dye Plume Sources in Near-Shore Oceanic Environments by Integration of Chemical and Visual Sensors  

PubMed Central

This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification) and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA) in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA) and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China), successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions. PMID:23507823

Tian, Yu; Kang, Xiaodong; Li, Yunyi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Aiqun; Yu, Jiangchen; Li, Yiping

2013-01-01

107

Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

108

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair lightener poisoning ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach. ... al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap ...

109

The nail and hair in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the

C Ralph Daniel; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Antonella Tosti

2004-01-01

110

Fifteen Drugs, Dyes, and Other Chemicals Newly Listed as Known or Likely Human Carcinogens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Toxicology Program, part of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEH), has provided this information on both commercial and non-commercial chemicals. The newly listed compounds are included in the 8th Report on Carcinogens Summary, the text of which is available on the NIEH homepage.

1998-01-01

111

Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts. PMID:16197431

Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

2005-11-01

112

Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies.  

PubMed

Breadnut skin, in both its unmodified (KS) and base-modified (BM-KS) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic dye, malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments, carried out under optimized conditions, for the adsorption of MG were fitted using five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Sips) and six error functions to determine the best-fit model. The adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced when breadnut skin was chemically modified with NaOH, leading to an adsorption capacity of 353.0 mg g(-1), that was far superior to most reported adsorbents for the removal of MG. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on KS and BM-KS, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Regeneration experiments on BM-KS indicated that its adsorption capacity was still maintained at>90% even after five cycles. It can be concluded that NaOH-modified breadfruit skin has great potential to be utilized in real-life application as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG in wastewater treatment. PMID:25409587

Chieng, Hei Ing; Lim, Linda B L; Priyantha, Namal

2015-01-01

113

A microfluidic dye laser fabricated by nanoimprint lithography in a highly transparent and chemically resistant cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a polymer-based, microfluidic dye laser suitable for integration into polymer- or silicon-based lab-on-a-chip systems. The laser is fabricated by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in cyclo-olefin copolymer (COC). The polymer device consists of microfluidic channels, with sizes ranging from several mm down to a few µm, and integrated optical waveguides to couple the light out of the structure, all fabricated in one single NIL step and with approximately 10 nm roughness. COC is a highly transparent, chemically resistant thermoplastic polymer optimal for the integration of microfluidic systems with optical elements. Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol is used as an active medium in the laser, and the resonator is based on multiple reflections from a periodic structure of 16 µm wide, parallel microfluidic channels. Lasing from the device is observed at 577 nm, when optically pumped with a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm, where Rhodamine 6G has its absorption maximum.

Nilsson, Daniel; Balslev, Søren; Kristensen, Anders

2005-02-01

114

40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). 721.2527 Section... § 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical substance...generically as a substituted diphenylazo dye (PMN P-95-514) is subject to...

2010-07-01

115

40 CFR 721.5915 - Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. 721.5915 Section 721.5915 Protection...Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant...polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye (PMN P-93-658) is subject to...

2010-07-01

116

Hair follicle Formation of  

E-print Network

Hair follicle Formation of new follicles Bud Healed skin Hair bulge Open wound Epidermis a b Dermis 1950s and help to explain the controversy. What is the origin of the cells that make up these new hair follicles? Are they derived from existing hair follicles located at the wound edge

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

117

Female Pattern Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Hormonal changes are a common cause of female hair loss. Many women do not realize that hair loss can occur ... available for female pattern hair loss. The other hair loss medication, Propecia, just doesn't work in women at all. Spironolactone pills help many women, especially ...

118

Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its computational and algorithmic  

E-print Network

1 Abstract Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its the complex behavior of long human hair, taking into account the hair-to-hair interactions. For long hair, we propose the thin shell volume (TSV) model for enhancing hair realism by simulating complex hair-hair

Shahabi, Cyrus

119

PIXE elemental analysis of South American mummy hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair samples were obtained from ten mummies of the archaic and formative cultures of the north coast of Chile. Each sample was divided into two portions. One portion was washed in acetone and then water and the second portion remained unwashed. All samples were then prepared by an acid digestion procedure and analyzed by PIXE. The washed and unwashed samples were compared to determine what elements were present in the material on the hair surface. Concentrations of the elements Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, and Pb are reported. Comparison was made to previously published elemental analyses of mummy hair and modern hair. One sample, which had a reddish hue, was found to contain unusually large quantities of Fe and As. Since the unwashed sample had much higher concentrations of these elements than the washed sample, it is believed that the reddish color originated in a mineral dye applied to the hair.

Du, A. Y.; Mangelson, N. F.; Rees, L. B.; Matheny, R. T.

1996-04-01

120

Hair Loss in New Moms  

MedlinePLUS

... Hair loss in new moms Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... shedding after having a baby. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

121

Mutagenicity in Salmonella of dyes used by defence personnel for the detection of liquid chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

Paper strips containing indicator dyes have been developed by defence scientists to change color upon exposure to certain agents but not to common solvents. As a preliminary step in studies on their possible genetic or carcinogenic hazard, 6 dyes used in these detection papers were tested with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome assay. The 3 nitro arenes tested were found to be mutagenic. Two of them, Orasol Navy Blue 2RB (without metabolic activation) and Eastman Fast Blue B-GLF (with metabolic activation), induced higher yields of mutations in the frameshift revertible strains, but base substitution mutations also were found. The third nitro arene, ethyl-bis-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) acetate, induced only frameshift reversions, the greatest yields without metabolic activation. Because of weak but consistent mutagenic activation. Because of weak but consistent mutagenic effects with a fourth dye, thiodiphenyl-4,4'-diazo-bis-salicylic acid, fluctuation tests using Salmonella strain TA98 were performed, and dose-related, statistically-significant mutagenic responses were observed. Two remaining dyes, Fluorescent Brilliant Yellow R and 2,5,2',5'-tetramethyltriphenylmethane-4,4'-diazo-bis-beta-hydroxynaphthoic anilide, were not mutagenic in experiments using doses extending into the toxic range. Spot tests were performed on different paper strips containing the dyes. When the papers were eluted with dimethyl sulfoxide, responses were found to be qualitatively similar to those in the plate tests. Although microbial test results cannot be used to assess risk in man, these results indicate a potential mutagenic or carcinogenic hazard for individuals exposed to these dyes, especially the nitro aromatics. PMID:7296771

Nestmann, E R; Kowbel, D J; Wheat, J A

1981-01-01

122

Hair Restoration (Cosmetic Procedures)  

MedlinePLUS

... stretch hair-bearing areas, which reduces balding. Scalp flaps – A hair-bearing section of the scalp is ... of age. Scalp reduction, scalp expansion, and scalp flaps tend to be limited to treating men who ...

123

Reactive Fluorescent Dyes For Urethane Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molecules of fluorescent dyes chemically bound in urethane conformal-coating materials to enable nondestructive detection of flaws in coats through inspection under ultraviolet light, according to proposal. Dye-bonding technique prevents outgassing of dyes, making coating materials suitable for use where flaw-free coats must be assured in instrumentation or other applications in which contamination by outgassing must be minimized.

Willis, Paul B.; Cuddihy, Edward F.

1991-01-01

124

Hair transplantation surgery  

PubMed Central

Techniques in hair transplantation have evolved recently which make results look more natural. Hair restoration is one of the most exciting and innovative surgical fields in aesthetic surgery today. A precise appreciation of anatomy has allowed the use of follicular unit grafts. With better methods of harvesting and implantation, hair transplantation results represent a blend of art and science. PMID:20174544

Khanna, Manoj

2008-01-01

125

Common Hair Loss Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, close attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a

KARYN SPRINGER; MATTHEW BROWN; DANIEL L. STULBERG

2003-01-01

126

Microspectral investigation of hair of one girl during six years by laser emission analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple chemical elements of clinical and nutritional interest were measured in the hair of a girl - cerebral palsy patient. Sixteen samples of hair were cut and investigated to determine time and nutrition trends by using laser and arc emission spectroscopy.

Surmenko, Elena L.; Sokolova, Tatiana N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

2001-10-01

127

Textile dye allergic contact dermatitis following paraphenylenediamine sensitization from a temporary tattoo.  

PubMed

Textile dye allergy is frequently caused by azo dyes, which can cross-react with structurally similar compounds, including paraphenylenediamine. A case of allergic contact dermatitis to azo textile dyes, presenting principally as a sock dermatitis, is presented. The patient also gave a history of an episode of scalp dermatitis consistent with contact allergy to paraphenylenediamine in hair dye. It is proposed that paraphenylenediamine sensitization from a temporary skin tattoo may have been the primary sensitizing event for these reactions. PMID:15527435

Saunders, Helen; O'Brien, Timothy; Nixon, Rosemary

2004-11-01

128

Adsorption of Procion Blue MX-R dye from aqueous solutions by lignin chemically modified with aluminium and manganese.  

PubMed

A macromolecule, CML, was obtained by purifying and carboxy-methylating the lignin generated from acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse during bioethanol production from biomass. The CMLs complexed with Al(3+) (CML-Al) and Mn(2+) (CML-Mn) were utilised for the removal of a textile dye, Procion Blue MX-R (PB), from aqueous solutions. CML-Al and CML-Mn were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning differential calorimetry (SDC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pHPZC. The established optimum pH and contact time were 2.0 and 5h, respectively. The kinetic and equilibrium data fit into the general order kinetic model and Liu isotherm model, respectively. The CML-Al and CML-Mn have respective values of maximum adsorption capacities of 73.52 and 55.16mgg(-1) at 298K. Four cycles of adsorption/desorption experiments were performed attaining regenerations of up to 98.33% (CML-Al) and 98.08% (CML-Mn) from dye-loaded adsorbents, using 50% acetone+50% of 0.05molL(-1) NaOH. The CML-Al removed ca. 93.97% while CML-Mn removed ca. 75.91% of simulated dye house effluents. PMID:24462989

Adebayo, Matthew A; Prola, Lizie D T; Lima, Eder C; Puchana-Rosero, M J; Cataluña, Renato; Saucier, Caroline; Umpierres, Cibele S; Vaghetti, Julio C P; da Silva, Leandro G; Ruggiero, Reinaldo

2014-03-15

129

ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL  

E-print Network

415 ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL J-Y. TINEVEZ , P. MARTIN Laboratoire The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair

Jülicher, Frank

130

Photostability of dye molecules trapped in solid matrices  

E-print Network

, chemical, mechanical, and optical properties. Effi- cient solid-state dye lasers were recently obtained of the absence of dye reservoirs and circulation systems in solid-state dye lasers, photostability is a critical organic laser dyes improves when molecules are trapped in solid matrices.6­9 Nevertheless, be- cause

Boyer, Edmond

131

Chemical characterization and toxicologic evaluation of airborne mixtures. Tumorigenicity studies of Diesel Fuel-2, Red Smoke Dye and Violet Smoke Dyes in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Tumorigenesis Bioassay System  

SciTech Connect

The tumorigenicities of Diesel Fuel-2, Red Smoke Dye and Violet Smoke Dye were tested in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Bioassay System. The Diesel Fuel-2 gave a signigificant tumor response when tested as a tumor promoter but negative results when tested as a complete carcinogen. There were no tumor responses to either the Red or Violet Smoke Dyes when tested as a complete carcinogens. Although a few tumors occurred in the Red and Violet Smoke Dye tumor initiation studies, the response was not significantly different from that of the controls. 29 refs., 10 tabs.

Slaga, T.J.; Triplett, L.L.; Fry, R.J.M.

1985-09-01

132

Hair Cell Generator Potentials  

PubMed Central

A technique is introduced using a piezoelectric device to stimulate hair cells of a molluscan statocyst while recording their responses intracellularly. Statocyst displacements produced with the technique are calibrated with stroboscopic photography. Properties of the hair cells' response to currents and mechanical stimulation are studied. The hair cell generator potential arises from a conductance increase and, for a certain range, is a logarithmic function of the amplitude of the displacement stimulus. PMID:4705640

Alkon, Daniel L.; Bak, Anthony

1973-01-01

133

Hair cell ribbon synapses  

PubMed Central

Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the apical compartment. Transmitter release occurs at several active zones along the basolateral membrane. The astonishing capability of the hair cell ribbon synapse for temporally precise and reliable sensory coding has been the subject of intense investigation over the past few years. This research has been facilitated by the excellent experimental accessibility of the hair cell. For the same reason, the hair cell serves as an important model for studying presynaptic Ca2+ signaling and stimulus-secretion coupling. In addition to common principles, hair cell synapses differ in their anatomical and functional properties among species, among the auditory and vestibular organs, and among hair cell positions within the organ. Here, we briefly review synaptic morphology and connectivity and then focus on stimulus-secretion coupling at hair cell synapses. PMID:16944206

Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

2010-01-01

134

Female hair restoration.  

PubMed

Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

Unger, Robin H

2013-08-01

135

Tarantula hair keratitis.  

PubMed

We describe a 12-year-old boy in England with keratitis secondary to tarantula hairs embedded within the stroma of his cornea. Every attempt must be made to isolate these hairs at the first visit as they have a barbed nature and have a propensity to propagate through ocular tissues. A chronic keratitis requiring long-term steroid use may result if hairs persist in the cornea. Children who keep tarantulas as pets should be instructed on safe handling to prevent the tarantula from adopting defence mechanisms and shedding their hairs. PMID:23242405

Mangat, Simran Singh; Newman, Bill

2012-10-26

136

[Forensic aspects of thermal changes in human head hair].  

PubMed

Under experimental conditions, head hairs of individuals of different age were exposed to defined increases of temperature up to 450 degrees C and examined by transmitted- and reflected-light microscopy with and without polarization. Preliminary tests had shown that the hair changes alone do not allow conclusions as to the temperature acting on the hair. Especially in the range of 200 to 300 degrees C, the temperature gradient during the heating process and the exposure time were additional influencing factors. Thick hair and hair with a high water content showed more pronounced thermal changes than thin hair. Elasticity and permeability of the cuticle and the cementing substance (cell membrane complex CMC) are also relevant factors. When heating head hairs lacking a medulla, a multiform pseudo-medulla formed under certain conditions. In the presence of thermally induced structural disturbances (e.g. by using hair straighteners), foreign substances can penetrate more easily into the hair shaft from outside. The possibility of such exogenous contamination has to be taken into consideration when performing chemical and toxicological analyses of hair. PMID:25004619

Kijewski, Harald

2014-01-01

137

Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

1977-01-01

138

Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.  

PubMed

Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15min), and amounts of salt (10g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method. PMID:25575805

Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

2015-05-01

139

Content of heavy metals in the hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of our investigation was to determine of HM content in the hair of people and animals. Two of the main essential elements-Zn and Cu and two of the supertoxical heavy metals- Pb and Cd were chosen. The investigations were conducted in Russian Federation and Belarus Republic in 2001-2002. About 500 hair samples of people, dogs, cats, cattle, horses, yaks, pigs, sheep goats and rabbits were studied by the stripping voltammetric analysis (SVA) method with TA- 2 analyzer to determine Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd concentrations. The hair samples were prepared according to the methods developed in Tomsk University (Russia) and improved by the authors. The essence of the methods is the multiconsecutive burning of hair samples to ashes and boiling them in concentrated acids to dissolve chemical combinations and transform their metals into ion forms. The zinc concentration was the highest in all hair samples (58.65 ... 195.15 mg/kg). The copper content was several times less (5.49 ... 22.63 mg/kg). Lead and cadmium were detected in relatively low amounts (0.32 ... 2.42 mg/kg and 0.04 ... 0.92 mg/kg respectively). The highest Pb and Cd levels were detected in cats and people hair.

Patrashkov, S. A.; Petukhov, V. L.; Korotkevich, O. S.; Petukhov, I. V.

2003-05-01

140

40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917 Section 721...Chemical Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject to...

2010-07-01

141

Dynamic Hair Capture Princeton University  

E-print Network

Dynamic Hair Capture Linjie Luo Princeton University Sylvain Paris Adobe Systems Inc. Hao Li University Figure 1: Our system reconstructs a temporally coherent set of hair fibers for real-world dynamic hair. It accommodates a variety of hair types and styles, as well as nontrivial motion (top: input

142

Biological Sampling and Analysis in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2007 Puget Sound Biota Study  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating spatial and temporal trends in contaminant residues in Puget Sound fish and macroinvertebrates are the objectives of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP). In a cooperative effort between the ENVironmental inVESTment group (ENVVEST) and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, additional biota samples were collected during the 2007 PSAMP biota survey and analyzed for chemical residues and stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N). Approximately three specimens of each species collected from Sinclair Inlet, Georgia Basin, and reference locations in Puget Sound were selected for whole body chemical analysis. The muscle tissue of specimens selected for chemical analyses were also analyzed for ?13C and ?15N to provide information on relative trophic level and food sources. This data report summarizes the chemical residues for the 2007 PSAMP fish and macro-invertebrate samples. In addition, six Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) samples were necropsied to evaluate chemical residue of various parts of the fish (digestive tract, liver, embryo, muscle tissue), as well as, a weight proportional whole body composite (WBWC). Whole organisms were homogenized and analyzed for silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, mercury, 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB homologues, percent moisture, percent lipids, ?13C, and ?15N.

Brandenberger, Jill M.; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

2008-10-09

143

Fabrication of a Microneedle Using Human Hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we developed a novel microneedle design to inject medication into the skin and to remove blood from a blood vessel. A drilling machine and chemicals were used to drill a hollow needle bore into the center of a strand of human hair. Our results demonstrate that a pen-shaped microneedle has been fabricated at a length of 1.1 mm, a base diameter of 80 µm, and a tip diameter of 40 µm. The hair microneedle was sufficiently strong to insert into the meat of a chicken leg.

Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Takei, Tamotsu

2009-09-01

144

Detection and analysis of hair.  

PubMed

We develop computational models for measuring hair appearance for comparing different people. The models and methods developed have applications to person recognition and image indexing. An automatic hair detection algorithm is described and results reported. A multidimensional representation of hair appearance is presented and computational algorithms are described. Results on a data set of 524 subjects are reported. Identification of people using hair attributes is compared to eigenface-based recognition along with a joint, eigenface-hair-based identification. PMID:16792104

Yacoob, Yaser; Davis, Larry S

2006-07-01

145

Relationship Between Nutritional Habits and Hair Calcium Levels in Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status\\u000a parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using\\u000a no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements\\u000a were collected with 4-day records. The calcium

Marta Jeruszka-Bielak; Anna Brzozowska

146

Sensitive immunoassay detection of multiple environmental chemicals on protein microarrays using DNA/dye conjugate as a fluorescent label  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Indirect competitive immunoassays were developed on protein microarrays for the sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple environmental chemicals in one sample. In this assay, a DNA/SYTOX Orange conjugate was employed as antibody labels to increase the fluorescence signal and sensitivity. Ep...

147

Ratiometric fluorescence detection of cysteine and homocysteine with a BODIPY dye by mimicking the native chemical ligation.  

PubMed

The selective detection of cysteine and homocysteine over glutathione and other amino acids was demonstrated with an 8-MeS-BODIPY probe by mimicking the native chemical ligation approach, which allowed the selective and ratiometric fluorescence sensing of cysteine over other biothiols at physiologically relevant concentrations and in different organs of a zebrafish. PMID:25426498

Ma, Dong Hee; Kim, Dokyoung; Seo, Eunseok; Lee, Sang-Joon; Ahn, Kyo Han

2014-12-15

148

Multiple Chemical Sensitivities Following Intolerance to Azo Dye in Sweets in a 5-year-old Girl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cases of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) have been reported predominantly in adult pa- tients, but pediatric cases have rarely been reported. Methods: We present a 5-year-old girl who suffered from recurrent reactions accompanied by urticaria, an- gioedema, headaches, dyspnea, loss of consciousness, and abdominal pain that were not eradicated, but were instead exacerbated, by various treatments with antihistamines and

Naoko Inomata; Hiroyuki Osuna; Hiroyuki Fujita; Toru Ogawa; Zenro Ikezawa

2006-01-01

149

Tips for Healthy Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... less oil, so you may not need to shampoo as often. But if you see flakes in ... lead to dandruff and other scalp diseases. Concentrate shampoo on the scalp. When washing your hair, concentrate ...

150

Identification of Modulators of Hair Cell Regeneratin in the Zebrafish Lateral Line  

PubMed Central

The external location of the zebrafish lateral line makes it a powerful model for studying mechanosensory hair cell regeneration. We have developed a chemical screen to identify FDA-approved drugs and biologically active compounds that modulate hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. Of the 1,680 compounds evaluated, we identified 2 enhancers and 6 inhibitors of regeneration. The two enhancers, dexamethasone and prednisolone, are synthetic glucocorticoids that potentiated hair cell numbers during regeneration and also induced hair cell addition in the absence of damage. BrdU analysis confirmed that the extra hair cells arose from mitotic activity. We found that dexamethasone and prednisolone, like other glucocorticoids, suppress zebrafish caudal fin regeneration, indicating that hair cell regeneration occurs by a distinctly different process. Further analyses of the regeneration inhibitors revealed that two of the six, flubendazole and topotecan, significantly suppress hair cell regeneration by preventing proliferation of hair cell precursors. Flubendazole halted support cell division in M-phase, possibly by interfering with normal microtubule activity. Topotecan, a topoisomerase inhibitor, killed both hair cells and proliferating hair cell precursors. A third inhibitor, fulvestrant, moderately delays hair cell regeneration by reducing support cell proliferation. Our observation that hair cells do not regenerate when support cell proliferation is impeded confirms previous observations that cell division is the primary route for hair cell regeneration after neomycin treatment in zebrafish. PMID:22399774

Namdaran, Parhum; Reinhart, Katherine E.; Owens, Kelly N.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W

2012-01-01

151

Laser hair removal.  

PubMed

Laser hair removal is a rapidly growing aesthetic procedure requested predominantly by women. At a time of falling reimbursement by payers, gynecologists have an opportunity to improve the fiscal health of their practices while delivering a service valued by their patients. As a result, practicing gynecologists should become acquainted with aesthetic lasers and should know how to incorporate them into their practices. This article introduces the practicing gynecologist to aesthetic lasers and the procedure of laser hair removal. PMID:21093743

Kulkin, Jay M; Flash, Shayna

2010-12-01

152

Painting With Natural Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

1999-07-01

153

Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line.  

PubMed

Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analog of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line. PMID:23467357

Thomas, Andrew J; Hailey, Dale W; Stawicki, Tamara M; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W; Simon, Julian A; Ou, Henry C

2013-03-01

154

[Physical-chemical properties of the mutant (protein) form of D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein GGBP/H152C with an attached fluorescent dye BADAN].  

PubMed

The influence of various factors on the physico-chemical characteristics and complexation of glucose with a mutant form of D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein which can be regarded as a sensor of the glucometer, namely the protein GGBP/H152C with solvatochromic dye BADAN attached to the cysteine residue Cys 152, has been investigated. The point mutation His 152Cys and attaching BADAN reduced the affinity of the mutant form GGBP/H152C to glucose more than 8-fold compared to the wild type protein. This allows using this mutant for the determination of sugar content in biological fluids extracted by transdermal technologies. Sufficiently rapid complexation of GGBP/H152C with glucose (the time of protein-glucose complex formation is not more than three seconds even in solutions with a viscosity of 4 cP) provides timely monitoring changes in the concentration of sugar. The changes of ionic strength and pH within the physiological range of values of these variables do not have significant influence on fluorescent characteristics of GGBP/H152C-BADAN. At acidic pH, (see symbol) some of the molecules GGBP/H152C is in the unfolded state. It has been shown that mutant form GGBP/H152C has relatively low resistance to guanidine hydrochloride denaturing effects. This result indicates the need for more stable proteins to create a sensor for glucose biosensor system. PMID:25474908

Fonin, A V; Stepanenko, O V; Povarova, O I; Volova, E A; Filippova, E M; Bublikov, G S; Kuznetsova, I M; Demchenko, A P; Turoverov, K K

2013-01-01

155

[Physical-chemical properties of the mutant (protein) form of D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein GGBP/H152C with an attached fluorescent dye BADAN].  

PubMed

The influence of various factors on the physico-chemical characteristics and complexation of glucose with a mutant form of D-glucose/D-galactose-binding protein which can be regarded as a sensor of the glucometer, namely the protein GGBP/H152C with solvatochromic dye BADAN attached to the cysteine residue Cys 152, has been investigated. The point mutation His 152Cys and attaching BADAN reduced the affinity of the mutant form GGBP/H152C to glucose more than 8-fold compared to the wild type protein. This allows using this mutant for the determination of sugar content in biological fluids extracted by transdermal technologies. Sufficiently rapid complexation of GGBP/H152C with glucose (the time of protein-glucose complex formation is not more than three seconds even in solutions with a viscosity of 4 cP) provides timely monitoring changes in the concentration of sugar. The changes of ionic strength and pH within the physiological range of values of these variables do not have significant influence on fluorescent characteristics of GGBP/H152C-BADAN. At acidic pH, (see symbol) some of the molecules GGBP/H152C is in the unfolded state. It has been shown that mutant form GGBP/H152C has relatively low resistance to guanidine hydrochloride denaturing effects. This result indicates the need for more stable proteins to create a sensor for glucose biosensor system. PMID:25508687

2013-01-01

156

ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

157

Electrochemical decolourisation of structurally different dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical decolourisation of structurally different dyes (bromophenol blue, indigo, poly R-478, phenol red, methyl orange, fuchsin, methyl green and crystal violet) by means of the application of DC electric current was assessed. It was found that the electrochemical process allowed a colour removal of all dyes studied, although the decolourisation rate largely depended on the chemical structure of the

M. A. Sanromán; M. Pazos; M. T. Ricart; C. Cameselle

2004-01-01

158

Dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

159

Quantum-chemical study of the structure and optical properties of sensitized dyes of an indoline-thiazolidine series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the density functional theory, quantum-chemical calculations of the structure and electronic absorption spectra of the molecules D102, D149, and D205 of an indoline-thiazolidine series, which are used as sensitizers for solar cells, are performed. Circular dichroism spectra are predicted. The mechanisms by which intra- and intermolecular electron transfer occur upon excitation to a triplet state, as well as the relaxation mechanism, are described. The geometric and electronic structures of the molecules under study in the ground singlet and excited triplet states are considered, and the relation between their structure and photochemical properties is discussed.

Baryshnikov, G. V.; Minaev, B. F.; Minaeva, V. A.

2010-01-01

160

40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section 721.9717...721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is...

2010-07-01

161

40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section 721.9717...721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is...

2013-07-01

162

40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section 721.9717...721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is...

2012-07-01

163

40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

...2014-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section 721.9717...721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is...

2014-07-01

164

40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section 721.9717...721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and...generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is...

2011-07-01

165

40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721.4594 Section 721.4594 Protection...721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as a substituted azo metal complex dye (PMN P-94-499) is subject to...

2010-07-01

166

40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). 721.988 Section 721...Substances § 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine dye (PMN P-98-91) is subject to...

2010-07-01

167

How to Stop Damaging Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... damage your hair Washing your hair by rubbing shampoo into the length of your hair Changes that can help prevent hair damage: Gently massage shampoo into your scalp. When you rinse the shampoo ...

168

Laboratory measurements of selected optical, physical, chemical, and remote-sensing properties of five water mixtures containing Calvert clay and a nonfluorescing dye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 6.1 ppm to 24.3 ppm and sizes ranged between 1.5 micrometers and 10 micrometers with the most frequently occurring size less than 2 micrometers. Iron concentration was less than 1 percent of the total suspended solids. Nonfluorescing dye concentrations of the two mixtures were 20 ppm and 40 ppm. Attenuation coefficient for the five mixtures ranged from 4.8/m to 21.3/m. Variations in volume scattering function with phase angle were typical. Variations in attenuation and absorption coefficient with wavelength were similar for the mixtures without the dye. Attenuation coefficient of the mixtures with the dye increased for wavelengths less than 600 nm due to the dye's strong absorption peak near 500 nm. Reflectance increased as the concentration of Calvert clay increased and peaked near 600 nm. The nonfluorescent dye decreased the magnitude of the peak, but had practically no effect on the variation for wavelengths greater than 640 nm. At wavelengths less than 600 nm, the spectral variations of the mixtures with the dye were significantly different from those mixtures without the dye.

Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Poole, L. R.; Witte, W. G., Jr.

1981-01-01

169

Removal of dyes and industrial dye wastes by magnesium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium chloride, as compared to alum and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) is a less commonly used coagulant in the field of wastewater treatment, with a cost in between alum and PAC. It has been used in this study as a coagulant to investigate the effectiveness in the chemical precipitation method for the removal of colouring matters. The colour concentration of dye

Boon Hai Tan; Tjoon Tow Teng; A. K. Mohd Omar

2000-01-01

170

Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

171

Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

SciTech Connect

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, M.L.

2000-07-25

172

Hair today, gone tomorrow: the degradation and conservation of archaeological hair fibers  

E-print Network

. An added advantage found in the book was a short section on the use of silicone polymers in shampoos and conditioners. Although the silicone polymers used in the hair care products are different in polymer structure in comparison those used........................ 5 Methods of Conserving Archaeological Material from Underwater Sites ................................................................ 9 Archaeological Conservation Using Polymers .................. 10 Chemical and Physical...

Sager, Rebecca M.

2009-05-15

173

Taking Care of Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... it may be better to choose a mild shampoo instead of a shampoo designed for oily hair. For some people — especially ... at the crown but dry on the ends) — shampoos for oily hair can be too harsh. If ...

174

Hair pulling: a review.  

PubMed

Hair pulling has been reported in humans, six different non-human primate species, mice, guineapigs, rabbits, sheep and muskox, dogs and cats. This behaviour seems to occur only in subjects who are confined in an artificial environment. It has been classified as a mental disorder in humans, as a behavioural pathology in animals. The hair is not only pulled but also, in most species, ingested. Hair pulling can be both self-directed and partner-directed, contains elements of aggression, manifests more often in females than in males, is associated with psychogenic distress, and resists treatment. Research data collected from affected animals are probably not normative, hence scientifically unreliable. The preemptive correction of husbandry deficiencies causing long-term stress may prevent the development of this bizarre behaviour in healthy subjects. PMID:16197702

Reinhardt, Viktor

2005-10-01

175

Hair Cell Interactions in the Statocyst of Hermissenda  

PubMed Central

Hair cells in the statocyst of Hermissenda crassicornis respond to mechanical stimulation with a short latency (<2 ms) depolarizing generator potential that is followed by hyperpolarization and inhibition of spike activity. Mechanically evoked hyperpolarization and spike inhibition were abolished by cutting the static nerve, repetitive mechanical stimulation, tetrodotoxin (TTX), and Co++. Since none of these procedures markedly altered the generator potential it was concluded that the hyperpolarization is an inhibitory synaptic potential and not a component of the mechanotransduction process. Intracellular recordings from pairs of hair cells in the same statocyst and in statocysts on opposite sides of the brain revealed that hair cells are connected by chemical and/or electrical synapses. All chemical interactions were inhibitory. Hyperpolarization and spike inhibition result from inhibitory interactions between hair cells in the same and in opposite statocysts. PMID:4356414

Detwiler, Peter B.; Alkon, Daniel L.

1973-01-01

176

Just Dyeing to Find Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

Monhardt, Becky Meyer

1996-01-01

177

Studies on Rat Hair Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of two different quantification techniques the Authors were able to show that the addition of increasing concentrations of testosterone to the medium of hair-cultures simultaneously provokes an increased volume of epidermis as well as of hair-follicles and a better differentiation of hair follicles. The addition of dihydrotestosterone, on the contrary, does not induce any change.

Marcella Guarrera; P. Cardo; G. Moretti; E. Rampini; Carla Divano

1976-01-01

178

Future horizons in hair restoration.  

PubMed

This article reviews the history of hair follicle regeneration from follicular fragments and dissociated cells. The challenges of trichogenic in vitro culture and subsequent delivery into the patient are discussed, as well as cosmetic acceptance, recent achievements on regeneration of human hair follicles, and new potential cell sources for hair regeneration. PMID:24017993

Marshall, Bryan T; Ingraham, Chris A; Wu, Xunwei; Washenik, Ken

2013-08-01

179

The Growth of Human Hair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

Jones, Helen J.

1984-01-01

180

Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis.  

PubMed

Although increasing interest is being observed in hair analysis for the biomonitoring of human exposure to pesticides, some limitations still have to be addressed for optimum use of this matrix in that specific context. One main possible issue concerns the need to differentiate chemicals biologically incorporated into hair from those externally deposited on hair surface from contaminated air or dust. The present study focuses on the development of a washing procedure for the decontamination of hair before analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes. For this purpose, three different procedures of artificial contamination (with silica, cellulose, and aqueous solution) were used to simulate pesticides deposition on hair surface. Several washing solvents (four organic: acetone, dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile; and four aqueous: water, phosphate buffer, shampoo, sodium dodecylsulfate) were evaluated for their capacity to remove artificially deposited pesticides from hair surface. The most effective washing solvents were sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol for aqueous and organic solvents, respectively. Moreover, after a first washing with sodium dodecylsulfate or methanol, the majority of externally deposited pesticides was removed and a steady-state was reached since significantly lower amounts were removed by additional second and third washings. Finally, the effectiveness of a decontamination procedure comprising washing with sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol was successively demonstrated. In parallel, it was determined that the final procedure did not affect the chemicals biologically incorporated, as hair strands naturally containing pesticides were used. Such a procedure appears to remove in one-shot the fraction of chemicals located on hair surface and does not require repeated washing steps. PMID:24817049

Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Hardy, Emilie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

2014-06-01

181

The Hair Colour Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class activity is designed to introduce young learners to the concept of tree diagrams. This class activity requires learners to organize data about the individual student's physical characteristics(gender, hair and eye color) utilizing connecting cubes. The activity includes a follow up activity, questions, tips on getting started, a teacher resource page, and a printable version of the problem.

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

182

A Simple Method for Purification of Vestibular Hair Cells and Non-Sensory Cells, and Application for Proteomic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of <3% at the protein level and <1% at the peptide level. Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses. PMID:23750277

Herget, Meike; Scheibinger, Mirko; Guo, Zhaohua; Jan, Taha A.; Adams, Christopher M.; Cheng, Alan G.; Heller, Stefan

2013-01-01

183

Black Hole's 1/N Hair  

E-print Network

According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

Gia Dvali; Cesar Gomez

2012-03-29

184

Isolation and characterization of a stem cell side-population from mouse hair follicles.  

PubMed

The mouse skin is composed of at least three differentiating epithelial compartments: the epidermis, the hair follicle, and the associated glands such as the sebaceous glands. Proliferation of these epithelial cells takes place in the keratinocytes' layer or basal cell layer; in the periphery of the sebaceous gland (the basal layer of the gland) and in specific cell compartments around the hair follicle. In mouse skin, an epithelial stem cell population is thought to localize to the bulge region of the hair follicle, a segment that does not undergo regression during the hair cycle. In addition, several other putative stem cells and/or progenitors have been identified in different regions of the hair follicle. Using the Hoeschst exclusion technique, originally described in the hematopoietic system, it has been possible to isolate a mouse keratinocyte cell population with characteristics of stem cells (side-population, SP). One of the main features of these SP is their ability to efflux antimitotic drugs as well as some specific dyes. This characteristic allows for SP cells to be isolated based upon their capacity to efflux the dye Hoechst 33342, through a mechanism driven by a membrane transporter, the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP1/ABCG2). In this chapter, we described the isolation of SP stem cells from adult mouse hair follicles utilizing the Hoeschst exclusion technique by flow cytometry analysis. PMID:24497321

de Marval, Paula L Miliani; Kim, Sun Hye; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

2014-01-01

185

Organic components in hair-ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for the analysis of complex samples due to its outstanding mass resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (? 1 ppm), simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds. The characteristics of the FTICR-MS hair-ice spectra with as many as ten or more peaks at each nominal mass are discussed together with highly resolved spectra from water and soil samples different sources, respectively. Complete manual formula assignment for structure elucidation would be extremely time consuming, therefore, we used an automated post processing based on SciLab for exploitation of the data with the aim of an unambiguous assignment of as many peaks as possible. Once the formulae had been assigned, the obtained mass lists were first checked randomly and afterwards transformed into Excel format for further post-processing and description. Most important is the van Krevelen diagram, usually two-dimensional as atomic ratio H/C versus atomic ratio O/C, widely used to classify samples regarding polarity and aromaticity. By comparison with two references (Hockaday 2007, Sleighter 2007), which arranged various biopolymer substance classes in such Van Krevelen plots, lignin could be detected as the main hair-ice component.

Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

2013-04-01

186

Textile dye dermatitis.  

PubMed

The literature concerning textile dye dermatitis published during the last decade was reviewed. Sixty-one cases of dye-allergic contact dermatitis in which the presentation or course of the dermatitis was unusual or the dye allergen was one not previously reported have been described. The four new dye allergens discovered were Disperse Blue 106, Disperse Blue 85, Disperse Brown 1, and Basic Red 46. The incidence of dye dermatitis varied from 1% to 15.9% depending on the country, patient sample, and number of dyes in the patch test series. The 10 new dye allergens discovered in these studies were Disperse Blue 153, Disperse Orange 13, Basic Black 1, Basic Brown 1, the acid dyes Supramine Yellow and Supramine Red, the direct dye Diazol Orange, the basic dye Brilliant Green, Turquoise Reactive, and Neutrichrome Red. Disperse Blue 106 and Disperse Blue 124 were shown to be the strongest clothing dye sensitizers to date. Standard screening patch test series were found to be inadequate for the detection of textile dye sensitivity; therefore textile dye patch test series should be used. It is difficult to determine whether the incidence of dye dermatitis is increasing or decreasing because controlled epidemiologic studies are lacking, but data suggest that textile dye sensitivity is more common than previously believed. PMID:7896955

Hatch, K L; Maibach, H I

1995-04-01

187

Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible) investigations, NMR chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA) parameters of 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine for dye sensitized solar cells using density functional theory.  

PubMed

The molecular structure, geometry optimization, vibrational frequencies of organic dye sensitizer 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine (DACP) were studied based on Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrum was investigated by time dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Features of the electronic absorption spectrum in the UV-Visible regions were assigned based on TD-DFT calculation. The absorption bands are assigned to transitions. The interfacial electron transfer between semiconductor TiO2 electrode and dye sensitizer DACP is due to an electron injection process from excited dye to the semiconductor's conduction band. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOS) have also been determined. The chemical shielding anisotropic (CSA) parameters are calculated from the NMR analysis, Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. PMID:25459717

Gladis Anitha, E; Joseph Vedhagiri, S; Parimala, K

2014-10-24

188

Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible) investigations, NMR chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA) parameters of 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine for dye sensitized solar cells using density functional theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular structure, geometry optimization, vibrational frequencies of organic dye sensitizer 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine (DACP) were studied based on Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrum was investigated by time dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Features of the electronic absorption spectrum in the UV-Visible regions were assigned based on TD-DFT calculation. The absorption bands are assigned to transitions. The interfacial electron transfer between semiconductor TiO2 electrode and dye sensitizer DACP is due to an electron injection process from excited dye to the semiconductor's conduction band. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOS) have also been determined. The chemical shielding anisotropic (CSA) parameters are calculated from the NMR analysis, Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

Gladis Anitha, E.; Joseph Vedhagiri, S.; Parimala, K.

2015-02-01

189

Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1,677 women aged 16 to 40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income > $30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. PMID:23394967

DeMaria, Andrea L.; Berenson, Abbey B.

2013-01-01

190

Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1677 women aged 16-40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income >$30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. PMID:23394967

DeMaria, Andrea L; Berenson, Abbey B

2013-03-01

191

Alternative Method for Creating Fine Hairs with Hair Removal Laser in Hair Transplantation for Hairline Correction  

PubMed Central

Background Foremost fine hairs in the frontal hairline region are critical in hair transplantation for hairline correction (HTHC) in women. However, there are few studies on a nonsurgical revisionary method for improving an unnatural foremost hairline with thick donor hairs resulting from a previous HTHC. Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of using a hair removal laser (HRL) system to create fine hairs in Asian women with thick donor hairs. Methods Through a retrospective chart review, the HRL parameters, hair diameter (measured with a micrometer before and after the procedures), subjective results after the procedures, adverse effects, and the number of procedures were investigated. The reduction rate of the hair diameter was calculated. Results Twenty-four women who received long-pulse Neodymium-Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet therapy after HTHC were included. The parameters were as follows: delivered laser energy, 35~36 J/cm2; pulse duration, 6 ms; and spot size, 10 mm. The mean number of laser sessions was 2.6. The mean hair diameter significantly decreased from 80.0±11.5 µm to 58.4±13.2 µm (p=0.00). The mean rate of hair diameter reduction was -25.7% (range, -44.6% to 5.7%). The number of laser sessions and the hair diameter after the procedures showed a negative correlation (r=-0.410, p=0.046). Most of the patients (87.5%) reported subjective improvement of their hairlines. Most complications were transient and mild. Conclusion HRL can be an alternative method for creating fine hairs and revising foremost hairline in Asian women with thick donor hairs. PMID:25673927

Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Jin Yong; Choe, Yun Seon; Han, Wonseok; An, Jee Soo

2015-01-01

192

40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

2012-07-01

193

40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

2014-07-01

194

40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

2013-07-01

195

Forensic Science: Hair Sample Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into how hairs from a crime scene are matched to suspects. Learners each take a single hair from their own head, then put it directly into the beam of a laser pointer. This projects the unique pattern of each hair onto a piece of paper to be traced, measured, identified and compared with the others. Learners can conclude this activity by setting up a mystery exercise with prepared samples of hair already in frames. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forensics.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

196

Hair Shaft Abnormalities – Clues to Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks

Peter H. Itin; Susanna K. Fistarol

2005-01-01

197

NIR Dyes for Bioimaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Fluorescent dyes based on small organic molecules that function in the near infra red (NIR) region are of great current interest in chemical biology. They allow for imaging with minimal autofluorescence from biological samples, reduced light scattering and high tissue penetration. Herein, examples of ongoing NIR fluorophore design strategies as well as their properties and anticipated applications relevant to the bioimaging are presented. PMID:19926332

Escobedo, Jorge O.; Rusin, Oleksandr; Lim, Soojin

2009-01-01

198

Optofluidic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optofluidic dye lasers are microfabricated liquid dye lasers enabled by the microfluidics technology. The integration of dye\\u000a lasers with microfluidics not only facilitates the implementation of complete “lab-on-a-chip” systems, but also allows the\\u000a dynamical control of the laser properties which is not achievable with solid-state optical components. We review the recent\\u000a demonstrations of on-chip liquid dye lasers and some of

Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis

2008-01-01

199

Fully solution-processed transparent conducting oxide-free counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells: spray-coated single-wall carbon nanotube thin films loaded with chemically-reduced platinum nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We report fully solution-processed fabrication of transparent conducting oxide-free counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by combining spray-coating of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and chemical reduction of chloroplatinic acid precursor to platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) with formic acid. The power conversion efficiency of a semitransparent DSSC with such SWCNT-based CE loaded with Pt NPs is comparable to that of a control device with a conventional CE. Quantification of Pt loading shows that network morphology of entangled SWCNTs is efficient in forming and retaining chemically reduced Pt NPs. Moreover, electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results show that mainly Pt NPs, which are tens of nanometers in diameter and reside at the surface of SWCNT CEs, contribute to electrocatalytic activity for triiodide reduction, to which we attribute strong correlation between power conversion efficiency of DSSCs and time constant deduced from equivalent-circuit analysis of impedance spectra. PMID:25122074

Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Yesel; Lee, Kyung Moon; Yoon, Woo Sug; Lee, Ho Seok; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Seung-Joo; Ahn, Yeong Hwan; Park, Ji-Yong; Lee, Tai Kyu; Lee, Soonil

2014-08-27

200

Hair cell tufts and afferent innervation of the bullfrog crista ampullaris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the bullfrog semicircular canal crista, hair cell tuft types were defined and mapped with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. Dye-filled planar afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.6-4.9 microns, highly branched arbors, and contacted 11-24 hair cells. Dye-filled isthmus afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.8-7.9 microns, with either small or large field arbors contacting 4-9 or 25-31 hair cells. The estimated mean number of contacts per innervated hair cell was 2.2 for planar and 1.3 for isthmus afferent neurons. Data on evoked afferent responses were available only for isthmus units that were observed to respond to our microrotational stimuli. Of 21 such afferent neurons, eight were successfully dye-filled. Within this sample, high-gain units had large field arbors and lower-gain units had small field arbors. The sensitivity of each afferent neuron was analyzed in terms of noise equivalent input (NEI), the stimulus amplitude for which the afferent response amplitude is just equivalent to the rms deviation of the instantaneous spike rate. NEI for isthmus units varied from 0.63 to 8.2 deg/s; the mean was 3.2 deg/s.

Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

1990-01-01

201

Lavender Foal Syndrome Hair Sample Sheet Please tape hair samples within boxed area as illustrated and place in individual envelope.  

E-print Network

Lavender Foal Syndrome Hair Sample Sheet Please tape hair samples within boxed area as illustrated and place in individual envelope. *Pull 50 hairs from the tail or mane (do not use hairs shed on brush) #Hairs must be pulled, not cut #Hairs must contain hair root *Align the "roots" of the hairs and trim

Keinan, Alon

202

Dye Like A Natural  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners stain fabrics--on purpose! Learners explore the art of natural dyeing by using dyes and substrates that are both derived from plant or animal sources as well as mordant solutions. Learners compare the color and effectiveness of different mordant/dye combinations on the different substrates.

Yu, Julie

2010-01-01

203

Guidelines for laser hair removal.  

PubMed

Requests for removal of unwanted body hair are common in dermatologic and surgical practices. Technology continues to improve the achievement of a more permanent reduction through the use of lasers. Despite the increased use of lasers, to date, few guidelines exist in terms of how to approach laser hair removal. Specifically, one must understand the mechanism of hair growth and how lasers work to target the hair follicle. There is significant variation among practitioners in pre-and post-laser recommendations to patients as well as intervals between treatment sessions. We performed a thorough review of the literature in order to determine evidence for the ideal interval between treatment sessions and the ideal number of sessions. We also sought to establish, based on published reports, the recommendations for shaving, plucking, waxing or other hair removal methods prior to laser hair removal and the guidelines for sun exposure before and after laser treatments. Finally, we searched the literature to find out whether there are areas that should not be treated with laser hair removal. The evidence and recommendations in this article aim to help guide practitioners in their approach to laser hair removal. PMID:18330795

Casey, Angela S; Goldberg, David

2008-03-01

204

"Dissection" of a Hair Dryer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-01-01

205

Human Hair: An Educational Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describes some of the more recent developments in the use of human hairs for such instructional purposes as observing barr bodies and chromosomes, and for culturing to produce cells of both epithelial and fibroblastic morphology. Three main hair categories are also described. (JN)

Wells, John

1983-01-01

206

Unnecessary Chemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

Johnson, Anita

1978-01-01

207

Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.  

PubMed

Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P>0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P>0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months. PMID:25036348

Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

2014-01-01

208

Data mining with molecular design rules identifies new class of dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells.  

PubMed

A major deficit in suitable dyes is stifling progress in the dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC) industry. Materials discovery strategies have afforded numerous new dyes; yet, corresponding solution-based DSC device performance has little improved upon 11% efficiency, achieved using the N719 dye over two decades ago. Research on these dyes has nevertheless revealed relationships between the molecular structure of dyes and their associated DSC efficiency. Here, such structure-property relationships have been codified in the form of molecular dye design rules, which have been judiciously sequenced in an algorithm to enable large-scale data mining of dye structures with optimal DSC performance. This affords, for the first time, a DSC-specific dye-discovery strategy that predicts new classes of dyes from surveying a representative set of chemical space. A lead material from these predictions is experimentally validated, showing DSC efficiency that is comparable to many well-known organic dyes. This demonstrates the power of this approach. PMID:25011389

Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Ozoe, Hiroaki; Stathi, Panagiota; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Rudolf, Petra; Kawase, Takeshi

2014-11-19

209

Oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the low-temperature direct growth of graphitic nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report an oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method for the direct growth of graphitic nanofibers (GNFs) on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate at a low temperature (550 °C). By adding moderate concentrations of oxygen in a gas mixture of argon, ethylene, and hydrogen during LPCVD, an extremely dense GNF forest can be obtained on a nickel-coated FTO glass substrate. Though this process, the graphitic nanofibers are grown homogenously on a large area of FTO glass. It was observed that oxygen-assisted LPCVD leads to the direct growth of high-quality GNFs as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In combination with an N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with a GNF counter electrode showed a power conversion efficiency of 5.51% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm?2) illumination, which approached that of the DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (5.44%). The results demonstrated that our directly grown GNFs could be promising candidates for counter electrodes to achieve high performance in DSSCs.

Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

2014-11-01

210

STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING  

E-print Network

#12;STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes May 2, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2 Hair structure and mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3 Oriented Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.4 Parameter values for natural hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 #12;2 Hair Interactions

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

211

Quantum hair on black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A black hole may carry quantum numbers that are not associated with massless gauge fields, contrary to the spirit of the ``no-hair'' theorems. We describe in detail two different types of black-hole hair that decay exponentially at long range. The first type is associated with discrete gauge charge and the screening is due to the Higgs mechanism. The second type is associated with color magnetic charge, and the screening is due to color confinement. In both cases, we perform semiclassical calculations of the effect of the hair on local observables outside the horizon, and on black-hole thermodynamics. These effects are generated by virtual cosmic strings, or virtual electric flux tubes, that sweep around the event horizon. The effects of discrete gauge charge are nonperturbative in h, but the effects of color magnetic charge become h-independent in a suitable limit. We present an alternative treatment of discrete gauge charge using dual variables, and examine the possibility of black-hole hair associated with discrete global symmetry. We draw the distinction between primary hair, which endows a black hole with new quantum numbers, and secondary hair, which does not, and we point out some varieties of secondary hair that occur in the standard model of particle physics. Reserch supported in part by DOE grant DE-FG02-90ER40542.

Coleman, Sidney; Preskill, John; Wilczek, Frank

1992-07-01

212

Advanced chemical oxidation of reactive dyes in simulated dyehouse effluents by ferrioxalate-Fenton\\/UVA and TiO 2\\/UVA processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective degradation of various mono- and bifunctional aminochlorotriazine reactive dyes in simulated dyehouse wastewater was achieved by the application of ferrioxalate-photo-Fenton [Fe(C2O4)33?\\/H2O2\\/UV-A; 300 nm>?>400 nm] and titanium dioxide-mediated heterogeneous photocatalytic (TiO2\\/UV-A) treatment processes. These so-called advanced oxidation processes were studied in a novel batch photoreactor that was irradiated by a solar simulating installation. Decolorization by the ferrioxalate-photo-Fenton oxidation process was

?dil Arslan; I?il Akmehmet Balcio?lu; Detlef W. Bahnemann

2000-01-01

213

Chemical reactions in TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes and their impacts to power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the applicability of TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by combining chemical modeling with experimentation. The interfacial chemical reactions in a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 system were simulated using a thermochemistry software package, which led to the design and testing of hybrid working electrodes. Chemical thermodynamic modeling proved that TiCl4 is an effective agent in removing Tin+ (n<4) and Snm+ (m<4) ion impurities from dry-mixed TiO2/SnO2 composite particles. Our results demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency of DSSC with a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrode exceeds that of the conventional DSSC with a TiO2 electrode due to the effects of light-scattering and the formation of additional absorbance (SnCl2), which is an unexpected side effect of TiCl4 treatment enabling the absorption of visible light. The proposed approach is ideally suited to establishing relationships between chemistry theory and the structure and performance of advanced DSSCs as well as photo-electro-chemical systems.

Chou, Chuen-Shii; Jhang, Jhih-Wei; Chou, Sheng-Wei; Wu, Ping

2015-01-01

214

[Hormonal interaction and hair growth].  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and women. This continuous process results in a form of alopecia that follows a definite pattern in those individuals who are genetically predisposed. Although clinically different, the pathogenetic pathways leading to this type of hair loss are thought to be similar in both sexes. A genetic predisposition is a feature of AGA, but the predisposing genes are still unknown. Our understanding, however, of the hormonal effects on hair growth is far more advanced. AGA can be defined as a dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-dependent process with continuous miniaturization of sensitive hair follicles. So far, we do not understand the molecular steps involved in androgen-dependent beard growth versus androgen-dependent hair loss. However, the local androgen metabolism plays a central role in the intrafollicular conversion of weak androgens, such as DHEAS, to more potent androgens such as T or DHT within the hair follicle. The dermal papilla plays a central role by exhibiting an array of important steroidogenic isoenzymes. Provided that the dermal papilla (DP) cell triggers and regulates the growth of hair follicles, this physiological role may be reflected by metabolic differences, which could account for differences in androgen sensitivity as observed in hair follicles from different body sites, and in conditions such as male pattern baldness. The observation of STS, 17beta-HSD, 3beta-HSD, 3alpha-HSD and type 2 5alpha-R-activity within the DP could be a clue to understanding the regulation of androgen action in the human hair follicle by local androgen modification on target cell level. Hence, some of the intrafollicular steroidogenic enzymes would be potential pharmaceutical targets for the treatment of AGA or hirsutism. PMID:12223960

Hoffmann, R

2002-05-01

215

Zeolite-dye micro lasers  

E-print Network

We present a new class of micro lasers based on nanoporous molecular sieve host-guest systems. Organic dye guest molecules of 1-Ethyl-4-(4-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-1,3-butadienyl)-pyridinium Perchlorat were inserted into the 0.73-nm-wide channel pores of a zeolite AlPO$_4$-5 host. The zeolitic micro crystal compounds where hydrothermally synthesized according to a particular host-guest chemical process. The dye molecules are found not only to be aligned along the host channel axis, but to be oriented as well. Single mode laser emission at 687 nm was obtained from a whispering gallery mode oscillating in a 8-$\\mu$m-diameter monolithic micro resonator, in which the field is confined by total internal reflection at the natural hexagonal boundaries inside the zeolitic microcrystals.

Vietze, U; Laeri, F; Ihlein, G; Schüth, F; Limburg, B; Abraham, M

1998-01-01

216

No hair theorems for positive ?  

E-print Network

We extend all known black hole no-hair theorems to space-times endowed with a positive cosmological constant $\\Lambda.$ Specifically, we prove that static spherical black holes with $\\Lambda>0$ cannot support scalar fields in convex potentials and Proca-massive vector fields in the region between black hole and cosmic horizons. We also demonstrate the existence of at least one type of quantum hair, and of exactly one charged solution for the Abelian Higgs model. Our method of proof can be applied to investigate other types of quantum or topological hair on black holes in the presence of a positive $\\Lambda.$

Sourav Bhattacharya; Amitabha Lahiri

2007-02-01

217

How Thick is Your Hair?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 13 of the PDF, learners use a laser pointer (with known wavelength of light) to measure the thickness of a human hair. By shining the laser on a hair, analyzing the patterns created, and completing some calculations, learners the thickness of a hair in nanometers. Learners can calibrate the laser to find its wavelength by completing the first activity in the manual entitled, "Spots, Lines and Lasers." This manual contains 4 activities related to the Spectra: The Original Laser Superhero Force comic book published by the American Physical Society.

Thompson-Flagg, Rebecca; Johnson, Kerry G.

2010-01-01

218

Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing.  

PubMed

Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

Draelos, Zoe D

2010-01-01

219

Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing  

PubMed Central

Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

Draelos, Zoe D

2010-01-01

220

Radiation induced degradation of dyes—An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic dyes are a major part of our life. Products ranging from clothes to leather accessories to furniture all depend on extensive use of organic dyes. An unfortunate side effect of extensive use of these chemicals is that huge amounts of these potentially carcinogenic compounds enter our water supplies. Various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including the use of high-energy radiation

M. A. Rauf; S. Salman Ashraf

2009-01-01

221

Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

Haines, Richard F.

1992-01-01

222

Poorly growing hair in a child.  

PubMed

A healthy 5-year-old Caucasian girl presented to the pediatric dermatology clinic for poor hair growth. The patient's father described slow hair growth and finely textured hair since birth. The patient had her first haircut 1 month before presentation. The family denied bald areas on the scalp, significant hair shedding, and sores on the scalp. The child did not scratch at her scalp or pull her hair. She are a normal diet and had normal growth and development otherwise. She was not taking any medications or over-the-counter supplements. There was no family history of hair disorders. On physical examination, the patient had short, fine, reddish blond hair that was of different lengths (Figure 1). There were no papules, pustules, scale, or crust on her scalp. Lymphadenopathy was absent. She had normal eyelashes and eyebrows. There were no lesions on her oral mucosa. No tooth or nail abnormalities were present. The rest of the physical examination was normal. The hair pull test resulted in 4 easily pulled hairs (3 anagen and 1 telogen). A hair mount was performed (Figure 2). The hair mount analysis revealed anagen hairs with distorted bulbs and ruffled cuticles extending a short distance distally from the bulb, consistent with loose anagen hair (Figure 2). All of the anagen hairs on the pull test demonstrated the above findings. Based on the patient's clinical presentation and the findings seen on light microscopy of the hair mount preparation, the patient was diagnosed with loose anagen syndrome. PMID:21137616

Bolotin, Diana; Ortel, Bernhard; Stein, Sarah L

2010-01-01

223

Simplified Representations for Modeling Hair Abstract: We present a novel framework for modeling hair  

E-print Network

Simplified Representations for Modeling Hair Abstract: We present a novel framework for modeling hair using simplified representations. The set of representations, in- cluding individual strands rendering of hair, and offers flexibility to balance between performance and quality. Furthermore

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

224

40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section 721.980 Protection... § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant...generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN P-95-633) is subject to...

2010-07-01

225

Degradation of dye solution by an activated carbon fiber electrode electrolysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradation of 29 dyes by means of an activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrode electrolysis system was performed successfully. Almost all dye solutions tested were decolorized effectively in this ACF electrolysis process. Internal relationships between treatment mechanisms and chemical composition of the dye have been discussed in this paper. Generally, it is shown that higher solubility leads to greater degradation in

Zhemin Shen; Wenhua Wang; Jinping Jia; Jianchang Ye; Xue Feng; An Peng

2001-01-01

226

40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).  

... Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). 721.10633 Section 721... Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to...

2014-07-01

227

Testing human hair for cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To validate information on cannabis use, we investigated human hair and pubic hair for cannabinoids (THC and THC-COOH) by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Samples (100 mg approximately) were decontaminated with methylene chloride, then pulverized and dissolved in 1 ml 1 N NaOH for 10 min at 95 °C in the presence of 200 ng of deuterated standards. After cooling, samples were

V. Cirimele; P. Kintz; P. Mangin

1995-01-01

228

Micronutrients for Hair and Nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As the appearance of hair and nails is a major concern for woman worldwide, we have tried to collect the most reliable therapeutic\\u000a sources with a particular interest for micronutrients. The latter is a term used to include trace elements found in minerals,\\u000a vitamins, amino acids, and herbs. Some of them may be used in both hair and nails, for

E. Haneke; Robert Baran

229

[Anaphylaxis to blue dyes].  

PubMed

In medicine, vital blue dyes are mainly used for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in oncologic surgery. Perioperative anaphylaxis to blue dyes is a rare but significant complication. Allergic reactions to blue dyes are supposedly IgE-mediated and mainly caused by triarylmethanes (patent blue and isosulfane blue) and less frequently by methylene blue. These substances usually do not feature on the anesthesia record and should not be omitted from the list of suspects having caused the perioperative reaction, in the same manner as latex and chlorhexidine. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity to vital blue dyes can be established by skin test. We illustrate this topic with three clinical cases. PMID:24834647

Langner-Viviani, F; Chappuis, S; Bergmann, M M; Ribi, C

2014-04-16

230

Suspended-core optical fibres for organic dye absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report on our study of UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy in suspended-core optical fibres (SCFs) filled with organic-dye solutions. We compare two different dye classes, the anionic dye - bromophenol blue sodium salt (BB) and cationic dye - oxazine 725 perchlorate (OX). While the results obtained with BB are in a good agreement with the spectra measured in a standard reference cuvette, those obtained with OX are different and reveal much stronger absorption of light than in cuvettes. This stronger absorption indicates accumulation of the dye molecules on the short section of the core close to the end of the fibre. This observation demonstrates difference in physicochemical properties of the two dye classes and is important for the development of chemical sensors based on SCFs.

Wajnchold, Barbara; Umi?ska, Ada; Grabka, Micha?; Kotas, Dariusz; Pustelny, Szymon; Gawlik, Wojciech

2013-05-01

231

ESTIMATION OF IONIZATION CONSTANTS OF AZO DYES AND RELATED AROMATIC AMINES: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ionization constants for 214 dye molecules were calculated from molecular structures using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry). hese models used fundamental chemical structure theory to predict chemical reactivities ...

232

A comparative study on the concentrations of 11-nor-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in head and pubic hair.  

PubMed

In this study, the concentrations of 11-nor-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in pubic, axillary and beard hair were measured and the correlation between the concentrations of THCCOOH in head and pubic hair from same cannabis users were evaluated. The papers on body hair analysis for THCCOOH were rarely found although police officers submit body hair as a complimentary specimen to forensic laboratories in case cannabis users had no hair. Head, pubic, axillary, and beard hair were collected. All hair samples were cut into 0.5mm segments and decontaminated with methanol, digested with 1 mL of 1M NaOH at 85 °C for 30 min and extracted in 2 mL of n-hexane:ethyl acetate (9:1) two times after adding 1 mL of 0.1N sodium acetate buffer (pH = 4.5) and 200 ?L of acetic acid followed by derivatization with 50 ?L of PFPA and 25 ?L of PFPOH for 30 min at 70 °C. The extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry operating in negative chemical ionization mode (GC/MS/MS-NCI). We determined the concentrations of THCCOOH in both pubic and head hair. The concentrations of THCCOOH in pubic hair were higher than those in head hair. We also evaluated the concentrations of THCCOOH in body hair (pubic, axillary and beard hair) and head hair according to the positive/negative urine test results. There was no statistically significant difference in the concentrations of THCCOOH in head and body hair according to urine results. PMID:21802874

Han, Eunyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sangki; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

2011-10-10

233

Decolorization and degradation of acid dyes mediated by salt fractionated turnip (Brassica rapa) peroxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxidases from turnip roots (524?U?g of vegetable) were highly effective in decolorizing acid dyes having wide spectrum chemical groups. Dye solutions, containing 40–170?mg?dye?L, were treated by turnip peroxidases (TP) (specific activity of 122.0?U?mg proteins). These enzymes were able to decolorize most of the acid dyes in the presence of 2.0?mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBT). Increasing concentration of enzyme and time in the

Yasha Kulshrestha; Qayyum Husain

2007-01-01

234

BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT OF AZO DYES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion...

235

6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-01-01

236

6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice  

PubMed Central

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-01-01

237

Oxazine laser dyes  

DOEpatents

New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

1992-01-01

238

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, T.C.

1993-03-30

239

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

1993-01-01

240

TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

241

Dye system for dye laser applications  

DOEpatents

A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

242

Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)  

MedlinePLUS

... who has experience with performing laser hair removal. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the only hair removal method that permanently ... using slow strokes. Rinse your skin with warm water after you are done shaving and then pat ...

243

Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Women)  

MedlinePLUS

... who has experience with performing laser hair removal. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the only hair removal method that permanently ... using slow strokes. Rinse your skin with warm water after you are done shaving and then pat ...

244

Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus  

E-print Network

Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus Michael E. Benser Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021 Hair bundles, the mechanically sensitive organelles of hair cells in the auditory and vestibular systems, are elastic structures that are deflected

Hudspeth, A. James

245

Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli  

E-print Network

Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli, 1999 To enhance their mechanical sensitivity and frequency selectivity, hair cells amplify the mechanical stimuli to which they respond. Although cell-body contractions of outer hair cells are thought

Hudspeth, A. James

246

Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells in the sacculus  

E-print Network

Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells transduction by the inner ear. We present evidence for a single-cell correlate of this phenomenon, hair motion that incorporates the negative stiffness of the hair bundle as well as its two mechanisms

Hudspeth, A. James

247

Short anagen hair with persistent synchronized pattern of scalp hair growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike other mammals that molt hair seasonally, human beings have scalp hair follicles that exhibit an asynchronized pattern of cycling, with the growth and subsequent shedding of each hair being independent of others around it. This mosaic cycling behavior is established early and continues throughout life. We describe a boy who continues to have a synchronized pattern of hair growth

Keng-Ee Thai; Rodney D Sinclair

2003-01-01

248

Seasonality of Hair Shedding in Healthy Women Complaining of Hair Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A number of otherwise healthy women with or without clinical alopecia complain of recurrent hair loss, presumably reflecting seasonality in the growth and shedding of hair. Objective: To test the hypothesis that periodicity in hair shedding reflects seasonal changes in human hair growth. Methods: Retrospective case study over a period of 6 years of apparently healthy women with the

Michael Kunz; Burkhardt Seifert; Ralph M. Trüeb

2009-01-01

249

Promotive Effect of Topical Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on Hair Growth in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is a vasodilatory medication used primarily as antihypertensive drug. It was discovered to have the side effect of hair growth and reversing baldness. Tretinoin is commonly used topically for acne treatment and in the treatment of photoaging. It is used by some as hair loss treatment. Objective. To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on hair growth in a mouse model. Materials and Methods. Coat hairs on the dorsal skin of seven weeks old male mice were gently clipped and then stained by using commercial dye. These mice were divided into four groups each of five treated with topical application of ethanol 95%, Ketoconazole solution 2%, Minoxidil solution 5%, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin solution 0.1%, respectively. The drugs were applied once daily for three weeks, the clipped area was photographed, and the ratio of regrown coat area was calculated. Results. The results demonstrated that Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin had a significant stimulatory effect on hair growth compared with the control group and Minoxidil was the most effective drug among them. PMID:24734193

Aldhalimi, Muhsin A.; Hadi, Najah R.; Ghafil, Fadaa A.

2014-01-01

250

COCHLEAR PROPERTIES AND MICROMACHINED HAIR-LIKE  

E-print Network

using MS3110, which eliminate pressure effect on sensor, showed higher sensitivities for the hair showed a bulged sensor membrane under flow due to flow pressure. Differential capacitance measurements sensors than sensors without hairs. The measured single hair sensor sensitivity is 17 0 74 10. Farad / Pa

White, Robert D.

251

STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING  

E-print Network

STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes, (Course #33) May 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2 Hair structure and mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3 Oriented Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.4 Parameter values for natural hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 inria-00520193,version1

Boyer, Edmond

252

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2014-07-01

253

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2013-07-01

254

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2012-07-01

255

On Hair Color in France Ellen Gilkerson  

E-print Network

On Hair Color in France Ellen Gilkerson Genentech, Inc. Leslie Lamport Microsoft Research 22 May coloration of the male in many species of birds [2]. Instances of sex-linking of hair color in mammals is found almost exclusively in the female [4]. We report here our discovery of sex-linking of hair

Lamport ,Leslie

256

Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells  

E-print Network

Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells ELIZABETH C. OESTERLE,* DIANA I. LURIE avian inner ear by using immunocytochemical techniques. NF-M was detected in auditory hair cells and VIIIth cranial nerve neurons. NF-M-positive hair cells are first detected at embryonic day 11 (E11

Rubel, Edwin

257

No-hair theorems and black holes with hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical steps leading to the uniqueness theorem for the Kerr-Newman metric are examined in the light of the new black hole solutions with Yang-Mills and scalar hair. Various methods - including scaling techniques, arguments based on energy conditions, conformal transformations and divergence identities - are reviewed, and their range of application to selfgravitating scalar and non-Abelian gauge fields is

Markus Heusler

1996-01-01

258

Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer  

PubMed Central

Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20?), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47?), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61?), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95?). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95? conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

2011-01-01

259

Studies in treatment of disperse dye waste: Membrane-wet oxidation process  

SciTech Connect

An integrated process, membrane-wet oxidation (MEMWO) has been demonstrated to treat the disperse dye bath waste. The dye bath waste stream containing azo class disperse dye CL 79, was studied to demonstrate the process. A nanofiltration membrane (MPT 30) showed > 99% color and 97% chemical oxygen demand (COD) rejection of dye compound. The concentrate was then treated by wet oxidation (WO) process. WO of dye was studied in the range of 160--225 C and oxygen partial pressure 0.69--1.38 MPa. A homogeneous copper sulfate was found to be a suitable catalyst to effectively destroy the dye as well as the real waste. While non catalytic WO of dye achieved 75% reduction in COD during 120 min with 99% color destruction, the catalytic WO showed about 90% reduction in COD. The performance of WO of actual waste stream was comparable with that of pure dye molecule.

Dhale, A.D.; Mahajani, V.V.

2000-07-01

260

Testing human hair for flunitrazepam and 7-amino-flunitrazepam by GC\\/MS-NCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

To validate information on flunitrazepam use, we investigated human hair for flunitrazepam and its major metabolite 7-amino-flunitrazepam by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionization mode of detection. Samples were twice decontaminated with methylene chloride, pulverized in a ball mill and 50 mg of powdered hair were incubated in Soerensen buffer (pH 7.6) in the presence of

Vincent Cirimele; Pascal Kintz; Christian Staub; Patrice Mangin

1997-01-01

261

Application of XANES profiles to X-ray spectromicroscopy for biomedical specimens: part II. Mapping oxidation state of cysteine in human hair.  

PubMed

Human hair fibers are primarily composed of keratin protein, characterized by a very high content of cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, which ordinarily forms cystine via a disulfide bond. It is known that some cystine residues are converted to cysteic acid during permanent waving or hair coloring, although details of their distribution and extent are still unclear. In this study, by using difference in XANES profiles of cystine and cysteic acid at the S-K absorption edge, the formation of cysteic acid was confirmed for homogenized samples of permed or bleached hair. Furthermore chemical mapping of cysteic acid was performed on hair-section samples with X-ray contact microscopy. The peripheral region, cuticle, in bleached hair showed the highest content of cysteic acid compared with the other parts, while permed hair showed relatively uniform distribution. This finding suggests that perming and bleaching damage hair by different mechanisms. PMID:21876281

Inoue, Takafumi; Takehara, Kouji; Shimizu, Norio; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Shinohara, Kunio; Ito, Atsushi

2011-01-01

262

Discovery and structural elucidation of the illegal azo dye Basic Red 46 in sumac spice.  

PubMed

An unknown red dye was discovered in a sumac spice sample during routine analysis for Sudan dyes. LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS did not reveal the identity of the red substance. Nevertheless, using LC-high-resolution MS and isotope ratio comparisons the structure was identified as Basic Red 46. The identity of the dye was further confirmed by comparison with a commercial hair-staining product and two textile dye formulations containing Basic Red 46. Analogous to the Sudan dyes, Basic Red 46 is an azo dye. However, some of the sample clean-up methodology utilised for the analysis of Sudan dyes in food prevents its successful detection. In contrast to the Sudan dyes, Basic Red 46 is a cation. Its cationic properties make it bind strongly to gel permeation columns and silica solid-phase extraction cartridges and prevent elution with standard eluents. This is the first report of Basic Red 46 in food. The structure elucidation of this compound as well as the disadvantages of analytical methods focusing on a narrow group of targeted analytes are discussed. PMID:22455543

Ruf, J; Walter, P; Kandler, H; Kaufmann, A

2012-01-01

263

An animal model assessment of common dye-induced allergic contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

Dyes are a category of substances capable of inducing allergic contact dermatitis found in a variety of foods, drugs, textiles, cosmetics, and hair dyes. This study tested 33 dyes in guinea pigs using a modified Buehler and Klecak method for open epicutaneous testing. The dyes were tested at an induction concentration of 10% and challenge concentrations of 10.0%, 5.0%, and 2.5%. Nine of the 33 dyes tested produced positive allergic reactions in the guinea pig model (2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, acid yellow 23, acid orange 3, basic black 3, basic orange 1, disperse orange 3, solvent black 27, and solvent black 34). When eight of the nine positive dyes were retested using a 1% induction concentration, five dyes produced allergic contact dermatitis at a 1% challenge concentration (2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, acid yellow 23, disperse orange 3, and solvent black 34), two at a 0.5% challenge concentration (2-amino-5-nitrophenol and solvent black 34), and one at a 0.25% challenge concentration (2-amino-5-nitrophenol). DNCB at a 0.5% induction/challenge concentration was used as a positive control. With the exception of disperse orange 3 and acid yellow 23, the seven additional dyes that elicited positive allergic reactions in the guinea pig model have not been previously reported. PMID:17598023

Dinardo, Joe; Draelos, Zoe Diana

2007-01-01

264

Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy. PMID:23180930

Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

2012-07-01

265

Modulation of hair cell efferents  

PubMed Central

Outer hair cells (OHCs) amplify the sound-evoked motion of the basilar membrane to enhance acoustic sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents inhibit OHCs to reduce the sound-evoked response of cochlear afferent neurons. OHC inhibition occurs through the activation of postsynaptic ?9?10 nicotinic receptors tightly coupled to calcium-dependent SK2 channels that hyperpolarize the hair cell. MOC neurons are cholinergic but a number of other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been proposed to participate in efferent transmission, with emerging evidence for both pre- and postsynaptic effects. Cochlear inhibition in vivo is maximized by repetitive activation of the efferents, reflecting facilitation and summation of transmitter release onto outer hair cells. This review summarizes recent studies on cellular and molecular mechanisms of cholinergic inhibition and the regulation of those molecular components, in particular the involvement of intracellular calcium. Facilitation at the efferent synapse is compared in a variety of animals, as well as other possible mechanisms of modulation of ACh release. These results suggest that short-term plasticity contributes to effective cholinergic inhibition of hair cells. PMID:21187136

Wersinger, Eric; Fuchs, Paul Albert

2011-01-01

266

Live imaging of root hairs.  

PubMed

Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients. Growing root hairs requires intensive cell wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip growth. The cell wall of plants is a very rigid structure comprised largely of polysaccharides and hydroxyproline-rich O-glycoproteins. The importance of root hairs stems from their capacity to expand the surface of interaction between the root and the environment, in search for the necessary nutrients and water to allow plant growth. Therefore, it becomes crucial to deepen our knowledge of them, particularly in the light of the applicability in agriculture by allowing the expansion of croplands. Root hair growth is an extremely fast process, reaching growth rates of up to 1 ?m/min and it also is a dynamic process; there can be situations in which the final length might not be affected but the growth rate is. Consequently, in this chapter we focus on a method for studying growth dynamics and rates during a time course. This method is versatile allowing for it to be used in other plant organs such as lateral root, hypocotyl, etc., and also in various conditions. PMID:25408443

Velasquez, Silvia M; Dinneny, Jose R; Estevez, José M

2015-01-01

267

40 CFR 425.10 - Applicability; description of the hair pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE...to other unhairing and tanning operation, processes...cattle-like hides into finished leather by chemically dissolving the hide hair, chrome tanning, and retan-wet...

2010-07-01

268

Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

269

Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

2014-02-01

270

Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women  

PubMed Central

Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E.

2013-01-01

271

Reclamation and reuse of process water from reactive dyeing of cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Danish experiences with water reclamation and reuse in the reactive dyeing of cotton. Experiences include development of new dyeing and rinsing recipes and of water reclamation techniques leading to large savings in time, water, energy, and chemicals. Investigated water reclamation techniques are chemical precipitation, membrane filtration, activated carbon adsorption, and counter current evaporation\\/condensation. The advantages and limitations

Henrik Wenzel; Hans Henrik Knudsen; Gert Holm Kristensen; John Hansen

1996-01-01

272

Black hole?s 1/N hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

2013-02-01

273

Correction of the cornrow hair transplant and other common problems in surgical hair restoration.  

PubMed

Hair on a man's head is an important emblem of health, youth, and vitality. As in all areas of cosmetic surgery, the refinements of surgical technique and instrumentation have improved the results of hair transplantation. The state of the art in hair grafting today produces a result that is undetectable as being a surgical hair transplant. Many earlier techniques of plug hair transplantation are not aesthetically acceptable by today's standards. This is especially true in the face of progressive hair loss, which can unmask previously camouflaged cornrow plugs. A technique to reduce the plugs and recycle the grafts into smaller grafts is described. The recycled hair grafts can be combined with scalp lifting, scalp reductions, and occipital harvesting of grafts to improve the results of cornrow appearing hair transplants and other problems of surgical hair restoration. PMID:10744248

Vogel, J E

2000-04-01

274

Regulation of root hair initiation and expansin gene expression in Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expression of two Arabidopsis expansin genes (AtEXP7 and AtEXP18) is tightly linked to root hair initiation; thus, the regulation of these genes was studied to elucidate how developmental, hormonal, and environmental factors orchestrate root hair formation. Exogenous ethylene and auxin, as well as separation of the root from the medium, stimulated root hair formation and the expression of these expansin genes. The effects of exogenous auxin and root separation on root hair formation required the ethylene signaling pathway. By contrast, blocking the endogenous ethylene pathway, either by genetic mutations or by a chemical inhibitor, did not affect normal root hair formation and expansin gene expression. These results indicate that the normal developmental pathway for root hair formation (i.e., not induced by external stimuli) is independent of the ethylene pathway. Promoter analyses of the expansin genes show that the same promoter elements that determine cell specificity also determine inducibility by ethylene, auxin, and root separation. Our study suggests that two distinctive signaling pathways, one developmental and the other environmental/hormonal, converge to modulate the initiation of the root hair and the expression of its specific expansin gene set.

Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

2002-01-01

275

Utility of hair shafts from study skins for mitochondrial DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The condition of mtDNA in hair shafts preserved in a museum was examined using 30 study skins of masked palm civets, Paguma larvata (Viverridae), collected between 1924 and 2011. Comparisons of extracts from fresh and burnt alum-fixed hair shafts showed that burnt alum, which is commonly used in taxidermy, had no harmful effect on the amount of total DNA and lengths of the mtDNA fragments. Burnt alum-fixed hair shafts had a tendency to develop a small degree of melanin hindering PCR amplification compared with fresh hair shafts, although that observation was not supported statistically (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Z = -0.183, P = 0.855). However, the amount of total DNA decreased after preparation of specimen in an exponential relation (regression of log DNA amount with year, regression analysis, F = 7.065, P = 0.013). Nevertheless, the oldest specimen, collected in 1924, yielded 1341.5 ng of DNA per 100 hair shafts, which was sufficient for PCR amplification. In addition, the mtDNA fragment length and amount of melanin in the hair shaft were not significantly correlated with the passage of time after preparation (F = 0.244, P = 0.625 for mtDNA fragment length; F = 0.039, P = 0.845 for the amount of melanin). Therefore, hair shafts prepared and preserved by chemical treatment in museums are good sources of mtDNA and useful for genetic analysis. PMID:24301912

Kurihara, N

2013-01-01

276

Ultrafast interfacial electron transfer in dye-sensitized ZnO nanocrystalline films: comparison with other metal oxides (Invited Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dye sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor films are used as a photoactive part in dye-sensitized solar cells, which are recently attracting much interest both in basic and applied studies. Electron transfer reaction from a photoexcited dye molecule, which is chemically adsorbed on the surface of semiconductor, into the semiconductor conduction band is the primary step to generate photocurrent. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy with

Akihiro Furube; Ryuzi Katoh; Kohjiro Hara; Masanori Tachiya

2005-01-01

277

Analysis of in vivo penetration of textile dyes causing allergic reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contact allergies to textile dyes are common and can cause severe eczema. In the present study, we investigated the penetration of a fluorescent textile dye, dissolved from a black pullover, into the skin of one volunteer during perspiration and nonperspiration. Previously, wearing this pullover had induced a severe contact dermatitis in an 82-year old woman, who was not aware of her sensitization to textile dyes. The investigations were carried out by in vivo laser scanning microscopy. It could be demonstrated that the dye was eluted from the textile material by sweat. Afterwards, the dye penetrated into the stratum corneum and into the hair follicles. Inside the hair follicles, the fluorescent signal was still detectable after 24 h, whereas it was not verifiable anymore in the stratum corneum, Laser scanning microscopy represents an efficient tool for in vivo investigation of the penetration and storage of topically applied substances and allergens into the human skin and reveals useful hints for the development and optimization of protection strategies.

Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Worm, M.; Richter, H.; Sterry, W.; Meinke, M.

2009-10-01

278

Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship between ion channel clustering and synaptic formation in hair cells and afferent neurons. In future studies, we will determine when hair cell precursors acquire electrical tuning, and, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, identify and characterize their L-VGCC and BK currents. We will also use biophysical techniques to determine the number of L-VGCC and BK channels and the size and gating kinetics of their underlying L-VGCC and BK conductances, correlating these variables with the amplitude and frequency of membrane oscillations produced by intracellular current steps. We expect these studies to determine how hair cells regulate ion channel expression to achieve specific physiological responses.

Baird, Richard A.

2003-01-01

279

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs  

PubMed Central

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

2011-01-01

280

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs  

SciTech Connect

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

2011-12-31

281

Metals in female scalp hair globally and its impact on perceived hair health.  

PubMed

Globally, billions of individuals wash their hair in water, which acts as an exogenous metal source. Many studies which measure the metal levels found on human hair specifically aim to remove exogenous materials prior to analysis. Although this is needed when using hair analysis to probe the impact of the local environment on endogenous metal levels, it is not relevant for understanding exactly what is on hair as a result of contact with its daily environment. Understanding these levels are important, as the presence of redox active metals, such as copper and iron, can impact fibre health, either as a result of UV irradiation, or during the hair colouring process. A global hair sampling study of over 300 individuals from nine countries has been performed, and the combined endogenous and exogenous metals analysed. The levels measured vary widely, even within the narrow geography of each hair sampling location. The levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and iron were not correlated, and within each location, there are expected to be individuals with high metal levels. Levels increased from hair root to tip for calcium, magnesium and copper, attributed to hair contact with the environment showing the impact of exogenous metals in the overall levels on hair. Levels of redox metals were comparable between individuals who coloured or did not colour their hair, although water hardness ions were statistically significantly higher for hair colouring individuals. Individuals who perceived their hair health as poor had higher metal levels on their hair. Controlling metals on hair, either by preventing their binding during environmental contact, or through controlling their ability to cause hair damage, should lead to improved consumer perceived hair health. PMID:23305149

Godfrey, Simon; Staite, William; Bowtell, Philip; Marsh, Jennifer

2013-06-01

282

Preparation of highly selective solid-phase extractants for Cibacron reactive dyes using molecularly imprinted polymers.  

PubMed

Selective polymeric extractants were prepared for preconcentration of Cibacron reactive red dye, a dye that is often applied with Cibacron reactive blue and Cibacron reactive yellow for dyeing of fabrics. The best extractant was fabricated (in chloroform) using methacrylic acid (as monomer), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (as crosslinker), AIBN (as initiator for polymerization), and red dye as template molecule, with a molar stoichiometric ratio of 8.0:40.0:2.5:0.63, respectively. The structure of the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was robust, and resisted dissolution up to 260 degrees C. Compared with the un-imprinted polymer, the imprinted product has a large specific surface area which improved its adsorption capacity. The effect of imprinting was obvious from the adsorption capacity measured at pH 4 for red dye (the imprinted molecule), which was increased from 24.0 to 79.3 mg g(-1) after imprinting. Equilibrium adsorption studies revealed that the dye-imprinted-polymer enables efficient extraction of red dye even in the presence of blue and yellow dyes which have similar chemical natures to the red dye. The selectivity coefficients S (red dye/dye), were 13.9 and 17.1 relative to the yellow and blue dyes, respectively. The MIP was found to be effective for red dye preconcentration, with a preconcentration factor of 100, from tap water and treated textile wastewater. The factors affecting extraction of red dye by the MIP were studied and optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions, red dye was selectively quantified in the presence of other competing dyes at a concentration of 20 microg L(-1) from different water systems with satisfactory recoveries (91-95%) and RSD values (approximately 5.0%). PMID:19002672

Al-Degs, Yahya S; Abu-Surrah, Adnan S; Ibrahim, Khalid A

2009-02-01

283

Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection  

E-print Network

ear transduce mechanical stimuli via actin- based stereocilia into electrical impulses, which been of enormous importance to the population of profoundly hearing-impaired children and adults, lack, Washington. 3 Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington. 4 Department of Biological Structure

Rubel, Edwin

284

Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1  

E-print Network

Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1 Eyal Ofek2 Long Quan1 Heung-Yeung Shum2 1 The Hong; the recovered hair rendered with the recovered diffuse color; a fraction of the longest recovered hair fibers rendered with the recovered diffuse color to show the hair threads; the recovered hair rendered

Quan, Long

285

Water soluble laser dyes  

DOEpatents

Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

1998-08-11

286

Dye filled security seal  

DOEpatents

A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

Wilson, Dennis C. W. (Tijeras, NM)

1982-04-27

287

To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders  

PubMed Central

Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

2014-01-01

288

The Challenge of Hair Cell Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Sensory hair cells of the inner ear are responsible for translating auditory or vestibular stimuli into electrical energy that can be perceived by the nervous system. Although hair cells are exquisitely mechanically sensitive, they can be easily damaged by excessive stimulation, by ototoxic drugs and by the effects of aging. In mammals, auditory hair cells are never replaced, such that cumulative damage to the ear causes progressive and permanent deafness. In contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of replacing lost hair cells, which has led to efforts to understand the molecular and cellular basis of regenerative responses in different vertebrate species. In this review, we describe recent progress in understanding the limits to hair cell regeneration in mammals and discuss the obstacles that currently exist for therapeutic approaches to hair cell replacement. PMID:20407075

Groves, Andrew K.

2013-01-01

289

Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

2005-07-01

290

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

...polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are surgically removed from one location on the person's...

2014-04-01

291

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2013-01-01

292

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2012-01-01

293

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

2013-04-01

294

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2014-01-01

295

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

2012-04-01

296

Cochlear hair cell regeneration from neonatal mouse supporting cells  

E-print Network

Unlike lower vertebrates, capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration, mammals experience permanent sensorineural hearing loss following hair cell damage. Although low levels of hair cell regeneration have been demonstrated ...

Bramhall, Naomi F

2012-01-01

297

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants,...

2011-04-01

298

Alzheimer's Dye Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

299

[Vital dyes in chromovitrectomy].  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to present the current data with regard to the application of vital dyes during vitreoretinal surgery, 'chromovitrectomy', as well as to overview the current literature regarding the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in chromovitrectomy. A large body of published research has recently addressed the toxicity profile of indocyanine green for chromovitrectomy. Experimental data demonstrate dose-dependent toxicity of indocyanine green to various retinal cells. Newer generation vital dyes for chromovitrectomy include trypan blue, patent blue, triamcinolone acetonide, infracyanine green, sodium fluorescein, bromophenol blue, fluorometholone acetate and brilliant blue. Novel instruments may enable a selective painting of preretinal tissues during chromovitrectomy. This review suggests that the field of chromovitrectomy represents an expanding area of research. The first line agents for internal limiting membrane staining in chromovitrectomy are indocyanine green, infracyanine green, and brilliant blue. Patent blue, bromophenol blue and trypan blue arose as outstanding biostains for visualization of epiretinal membranes. Novel dyes available for chromovitrectomy deserve further investigation. PMID:20098913

Dib, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchelle; Maia, Maurício; Meyer, Carsten H; Penha, Fernando Marcondes; Furlani, Bruno de Albuquerque; Costa, Elaine de Paula Fiod; Farah, Michel Eid

2009-01-01

300

The use of human hair as biodosimeter.  

PubMed

The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5-50Gy) and high doses (75-750Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021-2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (?Hpp: 0.522-0.744mT). In all samples, the linear dose-response curves at low doses saturated after ~300Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44h in black hair, 41h in blonde and brown hairs, 35h in dyed black hair and in 17h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. PMID:25255305

Tepe Çam, S; Polat, M; Seyhan, N

2014-12-01

301

Research projects for 2014 Natural Products Chemistry / Sustainable Chemicals for the Future Prof. Chris Rayner Prof. Chris Rayner  

E-print Network

associated with their use). With Dr Richard Blackburn (Centre for Technical Textiles), we have recently of natural dyes in areas such as coloration of hair and textiles. Before the advent of synthetic dyes, those in the context of historical textiles.3 Working with many of the major museums in the UK and abroad, we are using

Rzepa, Henry S.

302

Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity in Bengalese nches  

E-print Network

Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity Birds regenerate auditory hair cells when original hair cells are lost. Regenerated hair cells become innervated and restore hearing function. Functional recovery during hair cell regeneration is particularly

Rubel, Edwin

303

Anchoring groups for dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

The dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require one or more chemical substituents that can act as an anchor, enabling their adsorption onto a metal oxide substrate. This adsorption provides a means for electron injection, which is the process that initiates the electrical circuit in a DSSC. Understanding the structure of various DSSC anchors and the search for new anchors are critical factors for the development of improved DSSCs. Traditionally, carboxylic acid and cyanoacrylic acid groups are employed as dye anchors in DSSCs. In recent years, novel anchor groups have emerged, which make a larger pool of materials available for DSSC dyes, and their associated physical and chemical characteristics offer interesting effects at the interface between dye and metal oxide. This review focuses especially on the structural aspects of these novel dye anchors for TiO2-based DSSCs, including pyridine, phosphonic acid, tetracyanate, perylene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, 2-hydroxylbenzonitrile, 8-hydroxylquinoline, pyridine-N-oxide, hydroxylpyridium, catechol, hydroxamate, sulfonic acid, acetylacetanate, boronic acid, nitro, tetrazole, rhodanine, and salicylic acid substituents. We anticipate that further exploration and understanding of these new types of anchoring groups for TiO2 substrates will not only contribute to the development of advanced DSSCs, but also of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, water splitting systems, and other self-assembled monolayer-based technologies. PMID:25594514

Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M

2015-02-18

304

Laser photolysis of fluorone dyes in a chitosan matrix  

SciTech Connect

Kinetics of laser-induced photobleaching of fluorone dyes (fluorescein, dibromofluorescein, eosin Y, erythrosin B, Rose Bengal) is studied in a chitosan matrix. For all dyes the bleaching kinetics at the intensities of laser radiation 0.7 - 11.9 W cm{sup -2} demonstrates quasi-monomolecular behaviour. The results are analysed using a kinetic model, based on the four-level (S{sub 0}, S{sub 1}, T{sub 1}, T{sub n}) scheme of the dye with chemically active triplet states taken into account. It is shown that the rate constants of the chemical reaction involving higher triplet states in the dyes studied amount to (3.9 - 18.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} and exceed the analogous values for the reaction involving the first lower triplet states by nine orders of magnitude. The rate of reaction involving the first triplet states appeared to be higher by one - two orders of magnitude than that in the case of higher triplet states involved because of low population of the latter. The possible mechanism of dye bleaching with participation of chitosan that consists in reduction of the dye to the leuco form by transfer of hydrogen from the chitosan matrix is discussed. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasmas)

Slyusareva, E A; Sizykh, A G; Gerasimova, M A; Slabko, V V; Myslivets, S A

2012-08-31

305

Inflationary Universe with Anisotropic Hair  

E-print Network

We study an inflationary scenario with a vector field coupled with an inflaton field and show that the inflationary universe is endowed with anisotropy for a wide range of coupling functions. This anisotropic inflation is a tracking solution where the energy density of the vector field follows that of the inflaton field irrespective of initial conditions. We find a universal relation between the anisotropy and a slow-roll parameter of inflation. Our finding has observational implications and gives a counter example to the cosmic no-hair conjecture.

Masa-aki Watanabe; Sugumi Kanno; Jiro Soda

2009-02-17

306

Kinetic Modeling of Dye Effluent Biodegradation by Pseudomonas  

E-print Network

Abstract—Dye industry waste water is difficult to treat because of the presence of dyes with complex aromatic structure. In this research study, the biodegradation studies of dye effluent were performed utilizing Pseudomonas stutzeri in a controlled laboratory environment under anoxic conditions. The effects of operational parameters like initial pH of the effluent and initial Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the effluent on percentage COD removal were studied. A biokinetic model is established giving the dependence of percentage COD removal on biomass concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The biokinetics of the COD removal was found to be first order with respect to both the microbial concentration and initial COD of the effluent. The optimal pH for better bacterial degradation was found to be 8.The specific degradation rate was found to be 0.1417 l/g Dry Cell Mass (DCM) h, at 320 C. Keywords- Dye effluent degradation; biokinetics; anaerobic. I.

Natarajan Rajamohan; Manivasagan Rajasimman

307

Hair braiding method to prevent hair from entering the operating field on the scalp.  

PubMed

In scalp and cranial surgeries, it had been conventional to shave hair for surgical manipulations and prevention of infection. In recent years, it has been conventional to perform surgeries with minimal hair shaving. Such a method has been found to have a low risk of infection, and it takes into account esthetic considerations for patients. However, since long hair can become a hindrance to surgery, it is essential to preoperatively manage such hair and maintain a clear operating field. In this study, we braided patients' long hair to obtain a good operating field during scalp or cranial surgery. The advantages of our method are that it can be performed easily in a short period of time, does not require special instruments, and does not damage hair because rubber bands are used minimally. It is a useful method that minimizes shaving of long-haired patients for surgeries of the head and reduces cumbersome steps. PMID:23714960

Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Kaneshige

2013-05-01

308

Hair testing and doping control in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard in drug testing for doping control is gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry conducted on a urine sample. For the past 20 years, hair analysis has been proposed for identifying drug abusers in forensic science. Specimens can be collected under close supervision without embarrassment and are not subject to evasive maneuvers. In contrast with urine, hair analysis has a wide window

Pascal Kintz

1998-01-01

309

Interpreting hair mercury levels in individual patients.  

PubMed

Evaluation of mercury exposure in an individual patient ideally includes the presenting history, physical examination, consideration of the differential diagnosis, and mercury analysis of blood and urine specimens. Analysis of mercury in hair specimens may supply useful supplemental information about exposure to organic compounds such as methylmercury, particularly to help reconstruct the pattern of prior exposure. The most appropriate specimen is generally terminal-type hair from the occipital-neck junction, clamped to maintain strand alignment, and oriented to the scalp. Hair from the initial 0.5 cm adjacent to the scalp represents on average 1-3 wk before collection, and consideration of the time frame represented by the specimen is an important part of the evaluation. Literature reports describe hair mercury levels as high as 2400 microg/g. Hair mercury level is usually <1 microg/g in individuals who do not eat fish but may be >30 microg/g in those who frequently consume fish with high mercury content. Hair mercury level is often not correlated with blood mercury concentration or symptoms of mercury toxicity, and reports of hair contamination by exogenous mercury are not uncommon. Hair mercury level is notoriously prone to misinterpretation and should be used with an understanding of its limitations. PMID:16951265

Nuttall, Kern L

2006-01-01

310

Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and\\/or

A. K. Geim; S. V. Dubonos; I. V. Grigorieva; K. S. Novoselov; A. A. Zhukov; S. Yu. Shapoval

2003-01-01

311

Species Identification Key of Korean Mammal Hair  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology. PMID:24451929

LEE, Eunok; CHOI, Tae-Young; WOO, Donggul; MIN, Mi-Sook; SUGITA, Shoei; LEE, Hang

2014-01-01

312

Contaminant characterization on hair and fiber surfaces using imaging TOF-SIMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to evaluate the detection of contaminant chemicals on the surfaces of single synthetic textile and canine hair fibers. The results of the study showed that a variety of chemical classes can be detected. Both cocaine and heroin could be easily observed as intact protonated molecules ([M + H]+) in the cation spectra acquired from textile fibers. Two organophosphates were evaluated: malathion, which is a common pesticide, and pinacolyl methyl phosphonic acid (PMPA), which is the principal degradation product of the nerve agent soman (a close relative of sarin). Malathion could be observed as (CH3O)2P(equalsS)S-, which is formed by thiophosphate cleavage of the intact malathion. PMPA is observed as the conjugate base ([PMPA - H]-). Surfactant chemicals found in hair care products were successfully detected on single hair fibers. Specifically, alkyl sulfates, ethoxylated alkyl sulfates, silicones, and alkylammonium compounds could be readily identified in spectra acquired from single hair fiber samples exposed to shampoo and/or conditioner. Generally, the results of the study show that imaging SIMS is applicable to single fiber analysis, for a range of adsorbed compound types. The forensic application of this instrumental approach has not been widely recognized. However, the ability of the technique to acquire specific chemical information from trace samples clearly points to applications where the need for chemical analysis is great, but the amount of sample is limited.

Groenewold, Gary S.; Gresham, Garold L.; Gianotto, Anita K.; Avci, Recep

1999-02-01

313

Fiberized fluorescent dye microtubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we study the effect of the length of fluorescent dye-filled micro-capillaries on the fluorescence spectra. Two types of micro-capillaries have been studied: a 100 ?m inner diameter fused silica capillary with a transparent coating and one of the holes of a fiber optic glass ferrule with 125 ?m inner diameter. The tubes were filled with solutions of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol and then in glycerin. Experimental data show that the maximum fluorescence and the largest spectral widths are observed for a sample length of about 0.25 mm for the used concentration. This results show that miniature tunable fiberized dye lasers can be developed using available standard micro-and fibre-optic components.

Vladev, Veselin; Eftimov, Tinko

2013-03-01

314

Hepatocyte growth factor mimetic protects lateral line hair cells from aminoglycoside exposure  

PubMed Central

Loss of sensory hair cells from exposure to certain licit drugs (e.g., aminoglycoside antibiotics, platinum-based chemotherapy agents) can result in permanent hearing loss. Here we ask if allosteric activation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) cascade via Dihexa, a small molecule drug candidate, can protect hair cells from aminoglycoside toxicity. Unlike native HGF, Dihexa is chemically stable and blood-brain barrier permeable. As a synthetic HGF mimetic, it forms a functional ligand by dimerizing with endogenous HGF to activate the HGF receptor and downstream signaling cascades. To evaluate Dihexa as a potential hair cell protectant, we used the larval zebrafish lateral line, which possesses hair cells that are homologous to mammalian inner ear hair cells and show similar responses to toxins. A dose-response relationship for Dihexa protection was established using two ototoxins, neomycin and gentamicin. We found that a Dihexa concentration of 1 ?M confers optimal protection from acute treatment with either ototoxin. Pretreatment with Dihexa does not affect the amount of fluorescently tagged gentamicin that enters hair cells, indicating that Dihexa’s protection is likely mediated by intracellular events and not by inhibiting aminoglycoside entry. Dihexa-mediated protection is attenuated by co-treatment with the HGF antagonist 6-AH, further evidence that HGF activation is a component of the observed protection. Additionally, Dihexa’s robust protection is partially attenuated by co-treatment with inhibitors of the downstream HGF targets Akt, TOR and MEK. Addition of an amino group to the N-terminal of Dihexa also attenuates the protective response, suggesting that even small substitutions greatly alter the specificity of Dihexa for its target. Our data suggest that Dihexa confers protection of hair cells through an HGF-mediated mechanism and that Dihexa holds clinical potential for mitigating chemical ototoxicity.

Uribe, Phillip M.; Kawas, Leen H.; Harding, Joseph W.; Coffin, Allison B.

2015-01-01

315

What Is the Use of Elephant Hair?  

PubMed Central

The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own. PMID:23071700

Myhrvold, Conor L.; Stone, Howard A.; Bou-Zeid, Elie

2012-01-01

316

ASSESSING MUTAGENICITY OF TEXTILE DYES FROM PALI (RAJASTHAN) USING AMES BIOASSAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Rajasthan state particularly, textile mills represent an important economic sector. Pali district in Rajasthan has got largest number of textile industries in the State i.e.989 units, mostly engaged in cotton and synthetic textile printing and dyeing. These industries liberate a variety of chemicals, dyes, acids and alkalis besides other toxic compounds like heavy metals, which are known for their

N. MATHUR; P. BHATNAGAR; P. BAKRE

2005-01-01

317

Electrochemical oxidation of a textile dye wastewater using a Pt\\/Ti electrode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dye wastewater (TDW) from a reactive azo dyeing process was treated by an electrochemical oxidation method using Ti\\/Pt as anode and stainless steel 304 as cathode. Due to the strong oxidizing potential of the chemicals produced (chlorine, oxygen, hydroxyl radicals and other oxidants) when the wastewater was passed through the electrolytic cell the organic pollutants were oxidized to carbon

A. G Vlyssides; M Loizidou; P. K Karlis; A. A Zorpas; D Papaioannou

1999-01-01

318

The influence of the hair cycle on the thickness of mouse skin.  

PubMed

The data on mouse skin thickness reported here was prompted by the need to know the true position of basal cells of the epidermis and hair follicles as these are important "cells at risk" for a variety of skin reactions including carcinogenesis following exposure to radiation. There is little reliable data in the literature and most previous reports have ignored the shrinkage of skin that occurs because of its natural elasticity. The values determined for mouse flank skin in telogen--the resting phase of the hair cycle for the different skin layers--are epidermis 10 micron, corium 250 micron, adipose layer 150 micron, and hair follicle depth 150 micron. Three days after chemical depilation which triggers the hair follicles into active cycle (anagen) the epidermis doubles in thickness, remains at this value for 7 days, and then gradually returns to telogen values by day 18. The corium and adipose layers also increase significantly to reach approximately 390 micron and approximately 260 micron, respectively, by day 10 and then return to control values from day 15 onward. The change in hair follicles depths are more dramatic with active follicle basal cells reaching approximately 450-550 micron into the adipose layer between days 7 and 15. One important finding is that chemical depilation does not affect the telogen thickness of skin-the teleogen values for the epidermis and dermis immediately prior to and immediately after depilation were similar to those 23 days later at the beginning of the next telogen phase. PMID:6524697

Hansen, L S; Coggle, J E; Wells, J; Charles, M W

1984-12-01

319

Dye-coated europium monosulfide  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

Kar, Srotoswini [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Dollahon, Norman R. [Department of Biology, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Stoll, Sarah L., E-mail: sls55@georgetown.ed [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States)

2011-05-15

320

Beyond generalized hair cells: Molecular cues for hair cell types  

PubMed Central

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are crucial for inner ear neurosensory development. The proneural TF Atoh1 regulates the differentiation of hair cells (HCs) whereas Neurog1 and Neurod1 regulate specification and differentiation of neurons, respectively, but also affect HC development. Expression of Delta and Jagged ligands in nascent HCs and Notch receptors in supporting cells induce supporting cell differentiation through the regulation of neurogenic bHLH TFs (such as Hes1, Hes5) and suppression of limited Atoh1 expression. In sensorineural hearing loss, HCs are lost followed by supporting cells and progressive degeneration of neurons, at least in rodents. Regaining complete hearing may require reconstituting the organ of Corti (OC) from scratch, including the two types of HCs, inner (IHC) and outer (OHC) hair cells with the precise sorting of two types of afferent (type I and II) and efferent (lateral, LOC and medial, MOC olivo-cochlear) innervation. We review effects of bHLH TF dosage and their cross-regulation to differentiate HC types in the OC. We categorize findings of specific gene expressions in HCs: 1. as markers without meaning for the regeneration task, 2. as stabilizers who are needed to maintain or complete differentiation, and 3. as decision making genes, expressed and acting early enough to be useful in this process. Only one TF has been characterized that fits the last aspect: Atoh1. We propose that temporal and intensity variations of Atoh1 are naturally modulated to differentiate specific types of HCs. Importantly, the molecular means to modify the Atoh1 expression are at least partially understood and can be readily implemented in the attempts to regenerate specific types of HCs. PMID:23201032

Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

2012-01-01

321

Prospects for Organic Dye Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Abstract  A review of organic nanoparticles consisting of small functional dye molecules is presented in this chapter. The study of\\u000a organic dye nanoparticles does not have a lengthy history, but there is growing scientific and technological interest owing\\u000a to their special characteristics: physicochemical properties of organic dye nanoparticles considerably differ not only from\\u000a those of individual molecules due to the presence

Hiroshi Yao

322

Protective role of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell loss in Zebrafish.  

PubMed

Hair cells are highly sensitive to environmental insults and other therapeutic drugs. The adverse effects of drugs such as aminoglycosides can cause hair cell death and lead to hearing loss and imbalance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae at 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Results showed that the loss of hair cells within the neuromasts of the lateral lines after neomycin exposure was evidenced by a significantly lower number of neuromasts labeled with fluorescent dye FM1-43FX observed under a microscope. Co-administration with L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin protected neomycin-induced hair cell loss within the neuromasts. Moreover, these three compounds reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuromasts exposed to neomycin, indicating that their antioxidant action is involved. In contrast, the neuromasts were labeled with specific fluorescent dye Texas-red conjugated with neomycin to detect neomycin uptake. Interestingly, the uptake of neomycin into hair cells was not influenced by these three antioxidant compounds. These data imply that prevention of hair cell damage against neomycin by L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin might be associated with inhibition of excessive ROS production, but not related to modulating neomycin uptake. Our findings conclude that L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin could be used as therapeutic drugs to protect aminoglycoside-induced listening impairment after further confirmatory studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25092119

Wu, Chia-Yen; Lee, Han-Jung; Liu, Chi-Fang; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chan, Ming-Huan

2015-03-01

323

Glandular Hairs, Secretory Cavities, and the Essential Oil in the Leaves of Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

French and Russian tarragon, Artemisia dracunculus L., leaves have glandular hairs distributed over the whole surface and secretory cavities arranged in files along the major veins in the mesophyll. Chemical composition analysis of leaves, leaf epidermis, and leaf mesophyll by hydrodistillation and solvent extraction indicate quantitative differences in composition between the epidermis and the mesophyll. The main components in the

Ella Werker; E. Putievsky; U. Ravid; N. Dudai; Irena Katzir

1994-01-01

324

A trigonal prism-based method for hair image generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difficulties involved in modeling and rendering hair in computer graphics are described. An efficient method using a trigonal prism model to render individual human hairs is presented. A wisp model easily controls hair shape with a few parameters. The method also proves effective for rendering eyebrows, eyelashes, beards, moustaches, clothes and personal ornaments such as earrings and hair accessories.

Yasuhiko Watanabe; Yasuhito Suenaga

1992-01-01

325

Factors Affecting Zinc Content of Bovine Hair1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten experiments were conducted to study the effects of potentially important factors on the zinc content of cattle hair. In Holsteins the order of descending amounts of zinc in hair were white tail, black body, and white body. Jersey fawn had slightly more zinc than black Holstein hair. The distal and proxinml ends of the hair contained the same amounts.

W. J. Miller; G. W. Powell; W. J. Pitts; H. F. Perkins

1965-01-01

326

AJ Hudspeth amplification of stimuli by hair cells  

E-print Network

400 Mechanical AJ Hudspeth amplification of stimuli by hair cells Unlike any other known sensory receptor, the hair cell uses positive feedback to augment the stimulus to which it responds. In the internal ears of many vertebrates, hair cells amplify the inputs to their mechanosensitive hair bundles

Hudspeth, A. James

327

To appear in the ACM SIGGRAPH conference proceedings Hair Meshes  

E-print Network

To appear in the ACM SIGGRAPH conference proceedings Hair Meshes Cem Yuksel Cyber Radiance Scott Schaefer Texas A&M University John Keyser Texas A&M University Figure 1: An example hair mesh model and the final hair model generated using this hair mesh and procedural styling operations. Abstract Despite

Schaefer, Scott

328

A Layered Wisps Model for Simulating Interactions inside Long Hair  

E-print Network

A Layered Wisps Model for Simulating Interactions inside Long Hair Eric Plante Taarna Studios Inc@iro.umontreal.ca Abstract. This paper presents a method for animating long hair while mod­ elling both interactions between the hair and the character's body and between different hair wisps. Our method relies on a layered models

Montréal, Université de

329

Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis Tsinghua University  

E-print Network

Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis Lvdi Wang1 1 Tsinghua University Yizhou Yu2 2 University) (b) (c) (f) (d) (e) (g) (h) Figure 1: Example-based hair geometry synthesis pipeline. (a) input hair) level-2 geometry reconstructed from (e); (g) level-1 of the output hierarchy; (h) final output hair

Zhou, Kun

330

Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells  

E-print Network

Colloquium Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells Jeffrey R. Holt and Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman 414, Boston, MA 02114 Deflection of the hair bundle atop a sensory hair deflections, hair cells adapt. Two fundamentally distinct models have been proposed to explain transducer

Corey, David P.

331

A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans in computer graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved, problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make

Kelly Ward; Florence Bertalis; Tae Yong Kim; Stephen R. Marschner; Marie-paule Cani; Ming C. Lin

2007-01-01

332

A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans,in computer,graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved, problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make it

Kelly Ward; Florence Bertails; Tae-yong Kim; Stephen R. Marschner; Marie-paule Cani; Ming C. Lin

2007-01-01

333

INTRODUCTION The mammalian hair follicle is a representative but highly  

E-print Network

and differentiation, together with concealed skin domains, account for the cyclic alopecia phenotype. Key words: Alopecia, Hair cycle, Hair differentiation, Homeobox genes, Msx2, Foxn1, Ha3, Fgf5, Mouse SUMMARY DEVELOPMENT AND DISEASE `Cyclic alopecia' in Msx2 mutants: defects in hair cycling and hair shaft

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

334

Hydrothermal conversion of urban food waste to chars for removal of textile dyes from contaminated waters.  

PubMed

Hydrothermal carbonization of urban food waste was carried out to prepare hydrochars for removal of Acridine Orange and Rhodamine 6G dyes from contaminated water. The chemical composition and microstructure properties of the synthesized hydrochars were investigated in details. Batch adsorption experiments revealed that hydrochars with lower degree of carbonization were more efficient in adsorption of dyes. Operational parameters such as pH and temperature had a strong influence on the dye uptake process. The adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental kinetic data in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations suggested that dye adsorption onto hydrochars was spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of dye removal appears to be associated with physisorption. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based modelling was further carried out to predict the dye adsorption capacity of the hydrochars. PMID:24727353

Parshetti, Ganesh K; Chowdhury, Shamik; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2014-06-01

335

A teenage girl with green hair.  

PubMed

An adolescent girl with blond hair, her family, and classmates noted that her hair was progressively turning green. Initially the green color was thought to be secondary to chlorine from the local swimming pool. This was not the real cause. The chlorotrichosis was actually caused by an excessive amount of dissolved copper from copper pipes in the home plumbing system. Copper had leached from the plumbing and accumulated in the pipes because the rented house had been vacant for many months. Risk factors for chlorotrichosis include light-colored hair, copper plumbing, long periods when the water was not thoroughly flushed out of the copper pipes, and frequent shampooing. PMID:25039704

Schwartz, Richard H; Yasin, Shima K; Yoo, Jinny K

2014-01-01

336

Polar lipid composition of mammalian hair.  

PubMed

The types and amounts of polar lipids from the hair of monkey (Macacca fascicularis), dog (Canis familiaris), pig (Sus scrofa) and porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) have been determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. The polar lipid content of the hair samples ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 wt%. Lipid compositions included ceramides (57-63% of the polar lipid by weight), glycosphingolipids (7-9%) and cholesteryl sulfate (22-29%). Several minor components (4-7%) remain unidentified. The results suggest that cholesteryl sulfate may be an important determinant of the cohesiveness of hair. PMID:3581794

Wix, M A; Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

1987-01-01

337

The structure of people’s hair  

PubMed Central

Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

2014-01-01

338

Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the same techniques to the saccule of Carassius auratus (Teleostei, Otophysi, Cyprinidae) and demonstrates similar types of hair cells to those found in Astronotus. Since Carassius and Astronous are species of extreme taxonomic distance within the Euteteostei, two classes of mechanoreceptive hair cells are likely to represent the primitive condition for sensory receptors in the euteleost inner ear and perhaps in all bony fish ears.

Saidel, William M.; Lanford, Pamela J.; Yan, Hong Y.; Popper, Arthur N.

1995-01-01

339

Protein purification by aminosquarylium cyanine dye-affinity chromatography.  

PubMed

The most selective purification method for proteins and other biomolecules is affinity chromatography. This method is based on the unique biological-based specificity of the biomolecule-ligand interaction and commonly uses biological ligands. However, these ligands may present some drawbacks, mainly because of their cost and lability. Dye-affinity chromatography overcomes the limitations of biological ligands and is widely used owing to the low cost of synthetic dyes and to their resistance to biological and chemical degradation. In this work, immobilized aminosquarylium cyanine dyes are used in order to exploit affinity interactions with standard proteins such as lysozyme, ?-chymotrypsin and trypsin. These studies evaluate the affinity interactions occurring between the immobilized ligand and the different proteins, as a reflection of the sum of several molecular interactions, namely ionic, hydrophobic and van der Waals, spread throughout the structure, in a defined spatial manner. The results show the possibility of using an aminosquarylium cyanine dye bearing a N-hexyl pendant chain, with a ligand density of 1.8 × 10(-2) mmol of dye/g of chromatographic support, to isolate lysozyme, ?-chymotrypsin and trypsin from a mixture. The application of a decreasing ammonium sulfate gradient resulted in the recovery of lysozyme in the flowthrough. On the other hand, ?-chymotrypsin and trypsin were retained, involving different interactions with the ligand. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential applicability of ligands such as aminosquarylium cyanine dyes for the separation and purification of proteins by affinity chromatography. PMID:23873377

Silva, M S; Graça, V C; Reis, L V; Santos, P F; Almeida, P; Queiroz, J A; Sousa, F

2013-12-01

340

Hair today, gone tomorrow: a comparison of body hair removal practices in gay and heterosexual men.  

PubMed

Although hairlessness is rapidly becoming a component of the ideal male body, little research has examined men's concerns about their body hair or their hair removal practices. Samples of gay and heterosexual men completed questionnaires that assessed whether they had ever removed their back, buttock or pubic hair, the frequency with which they did so, the methods used and their self-reported reasons for removing this hair, as well as their level of appearance investment. Results indicated that many gay and heterosexual men remove their back, buttock and pubic hair regularly and that their primary reason for doing so is to maintain or improve their appearance. The frequency of hair removal was also associated with the motivational salience component of appearance investment. The findings offer further support to the premise that gay and heterosexual men exhibit similar body image concerns. PMID:18586585

Martins, Yolanda; Tiggemann, Marika; Churchett, Libby

2008-09-01

341

A Review of Surgical Methods (Excluding Hair Transplantation) and Their Role in Hair Loss Management Today  

PubMed Central

There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today. PMID:21976899

Sattur, Sandeep S

2011-01-01

342

Hair to document drug-facilitated crimes: four cases involving bromazepam.  

PubMed

The use of a drug to modify a person's behavior for criminal gain is not a recent phenomenon. However, the recent increase in reports of drug-facilitated crimes (sexual assault, so-called DFSA, robbery) has caused alarm in the general public. Drugs used can be difficult to detect (active products at low dosages, chemical instability), possess amnesic properties, and can be quickly cleared from body fluids. In case of long delay between the alleged crime and clinical examination, collection of blood or even urine can be of little value. This is the reason why this laboratory developed an original approach based on hair testing by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To explore the detectability of a single absorption of bromazepam in hair, two volunteers (male and female) received a 6-mg dose. A strand of hair was sampled about one month after exposure and was cut into three segments of 2-cm long. After pulverization, 20 mg of hair was incubated overnight in a phosphate buffer (pH 8.4). The aqueous phase was extracted with 5 mL of a mixture of diethyl ether/methylene chloride (80:20) in the presence of diazepam-d5, which was used as internal standard (IS). Hair extract was separated on a XTerra MS C18 column using a gradient of acetonitrile and formate buffer. Detection was based on two daughter ions: transitions m/z 316.0 to 182.2 and 209.3 and m/z 290.1 to 154.1 and 198.2 for bromazepam and the IS, respectively. In the hair of the two subjects, bromazepam was detected in the proximal segment at 0.8 and 4.7 pg/mg, respectively. Hair analysis was applied to four authentic criminal cases. In the two first cases, bromazepam tested positive in the corresponding hair segment at 5.7, and 10.3 pg/mg. In another case, head hair was sampled 19 weeks after the alleged offense, and its length (< 4 cm) did not allow analysis of the corresponding period. However, 4.1 pg/mg of bromazepam was quantified in the victim's pubic hair. In these three cases, concentrations were consistent with a single exposure to bromazepam. In the last case, bromazepam was detected at 15 pg/mg in the segment corresponding to the period of the alleged offence but also in the range 2 to 7 pg/mg in the four other consecutive segments, making a single exposure statement difficult. PMID:15516307

Villain, Marion; Chèze, Marjorie; Dumestre, Véronique; Ludes, Bertrand; Kintz, Pascal

2004-09-01

343

Gel Electrophoresis of Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment related to plant biotechnology, learners discover how to prepare and load an electrophoresis gel. They will then run the gels in an electrophoresis system to separate several dyes that are of different molecular sizes and carry different charges. This technique is fundamental to many of the procedures used in biotechnology. This lesson guide includes background information for the educator, safety precautions, and questions with answers for learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended. Modifications for use with younger learners are described in a related PDF (see related resource).

Stephens, Janice; Leach, Jan

2011-01-01

344

Degradación de colorantes industriales con hongos ligninolíticos Degradation of industrial dyes with white rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

White rot fungi have shown a great potential for degrading recalcitrant chemicals compounds as PAHs, explosives, pesticides, dyes, etc. This capacity is due mainly to an extracellular enzymatic complex that they use naturally

Mariana Cardona; Juliana Osorio; Juan Quintero

345

Synthesis of Charge Transfer Dyes for Use as Molecular Sensors in Biological Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a continuation of last year's project to synthesize tetraaryl substituted benzodifurans for use as molecular probes in biological systems. The project will involve the synthesis and chemical characterization of dyes and precursor molecules.

Christie, Joseph J.

2003-01-01

346

HIGH-SENSITIVITY THERMOSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY OF DYES  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of dyes belonging to different chemical classes have been analyzed by thermospray (TSP) ionization mass spectrometry using a modified source containing a wire-repeller. etection limits were determined and found to be in the range 0.05-20ng, which are lower by a factor of...

347

Shapes of a Suspended Curly Hair  

E-print Network

We investigate how natural curvature affects the configuration of a thin elastic rod suspended under its own weight, as when a single strand of hair hangs under gravity. We combine precision desktop experiments, numerics, ...

Miller, J.?T.

348

Tips for Removing Gum without Cutting Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... a jar of creamy style peanut butter or vegetable oil, such as olive oil. Cover the gum completely ... to work. Remove the gum from the hair. Vegetable oil is especially useful when removing gum from eyebrows ...

349

Genetics Home Reference: Cartilage-hair hypoplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder of bone growth characterized by short stature (dwarfism) with other skeletal abnormalities; fine, sparse hair (hypotrichosis); ... cartilage ; cell ; cell cycle ; colon ; constipation ; deficiency ; DNA ; dwarfism ; enzyme ; esophagus ; gastrointestinal ; gene ; gluten ; hypopigmentation ; hypoplasia ; hypotrichosis ; ...

350

Optofluidic microcavities: Dye-lasers and biosensors  

PubMed Central

Optofluidic microcavities are integrated elements of microfluidics that can be explored for a large variety of applications. In this review, we first introduce the physics basis of optical microcavities and microflow control. Then, we describe four types of optofluidic dye lasers developed so far based on both simple and advanced device fabrication technologies. To illustrate the application potential of such devices, we present two types of laser intracavity measurements for chemical solution and single cell analyses. In addition, the possibility of single molecule detection is discussed. All these recent achievements demonstrated the great importance of the topics in biology and several other disciplines. PMID:24753719

Chen, Y.; Lei, L.; Zhang, K.; Shi, J.; Wang, L.; Li, H.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, Y.; Chan, H. L. W.

2010-01-01

351

Root hair defective4 encodes a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate phosphatase required for proper root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarized expansion of root hair cells in Arabidopsis thaliana is improperly controlled in root hair–defective rhd4-1 mutant plants, resulting in root hairs that are shorter and randomly form bulges along their length. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in rhd4-1 root hairs, we analyzed membrane dynamics after labeling with RabA4b, a marker for polarized membrane trafficking in root hairs. This revealed stochastic

Julie M. Thole; Joop E. M. Vermeer; Yanling Zhang; Theodorus W. J. Gadella; E. Nielsen

2008-01-01

352

Optical and morphological investigation of hair of patients with Chediak Higashi syndrome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare disease and is very often observed in a single family. In Venezuelan Los Andes area, its appearance is not uncommon. One of the peculiar aspects of CHS patients is the color, texture and structure of the hairs. We have, therefore, investigated structure, morphology and composition of hairs and compared those properties with that of normal human subject grown in the same geographical region. A few hairs were cut along its length and their fluorescence was investigated. For CHS patients, dark patches were observed. Investigations of chemical compositions of these regions were carried out of using Energy Dispersive Analysis and it was found the presence of Na, K and Ca ions. Fluorescence spectral studies were carried out at room temperature. Observed spectra reveal two peaks, however, those were not useful for positive identification of CHS.

Joshi, Narahari V.; Goyo-Rivas, Jose

1998-04-01

353

Management of advanced hair loss patterns.  

PubMed

This article covers how to manage patients with extensive hair loss in whom complete, dense coverage is not possible. In addition to discussing planning a transplant pattern for already bald men, I discuss a conservative approach for recognizing and transplanting younger patients who have telltale warning signs that may evolve to extensive hair loss. For both groups, a variant of a frontal forelock-type pattern is usually the best course to follow. PMID:24017980

Beehner, Michael L

2013-08-01

354

Mapping gene activity of Arabidopsis root hairs  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative information on gene activity at single cell-type resolution is essential for the understanding of how cells work and interact. Root hairs, or trichoblasts, tubular-shaped outgrowths of specialized cells in the epidermis, represent an ideal model for cell fate acquisition and differentiation in plants. Results Here, we provide an atlas of gene and protein expression in Arabidopsis root hair cells, generated by paired-end RNA sequencing and LC/MS-MS analysis of protoplasts from plants containing a pEXP7-GFP reporter construct. In total, transcripts of 23,034 genes were detected in root hairs. High-resolution proteome analysis led to the reliable identification of 2,447 proteins, 129 of which were differentially expressed between root hairs and non-root hair tissue. Dissection of pre-mRNA splicing patterns showed that all types of alternative splicing were cell type-dependent, and less complex in EXP7-expressing cells when compared to non-root hair cells. Intron retention was repressed in several transcripts functionally related to root hair morphogenesis, indicative of a cell type-specific control of gene expression by alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Concordance between mRNA and protein expression was generally high, but in many cases mRNA expression was not predictive for protein abundance. Conclusions The integrated analysis shows that gene activity in root hairs is dictated by orchestrated, multilayered regulatory mechanisms that allow for a cell type-specific composition of functional components. PMID:23800126

2013-01-01

355

New black hole solutions with hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new black hole solutions which provide counter examples to the ``no hair'' conjecture for non-linear matter fields. These have been found numerically for the non-linear sigma-model of Skyrme coupled to gravity. They are static and approach asymptotically the Schwarzschild solution, but have ``Skyrme hair''. We also describe self-gravitating generalizations of the well-known Skyrme solitons in flat spacetime. Both

Serge Droz; Markus Heusler; Norbert Straumann

1991-01-01

356

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

Wilson, James F.

1968-01-01

357

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E.D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

1984-01-01

358

Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

1986-01-01

359

Transforming hair into heteroatom-doped carbon with high surface area.  

PubMed

Herein, a unique approach to dispose of human hair by pyrolizing it in a regulated environment is presented, yielding highly porous, conductive hair carbons with heteroatoms and high surface area. ?-keratin in the protein network of hair serves as a precursor for the heteroatoms and carbon. The carbon framework is ingrained with heteroatoms such as nitrogen and sulfur, which otherwise are incorporated externally through energy-intensive, hazardous, chemical reactions using proper organic precursors. This judicious transformation of organic-rich waste not only addresses the disposal issue, but also generates valuable functional carbon materials from the discard. This unique synthesis strategy involving moderate activation and further graphitization enhances the electrical conductivity, while still maintaining the precious heteroatoms. The effect of temperature on the structural and functional properties is studied, and all the as-obtained carbons are applied as metal-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Carbon graphitized at 900 °C emerges as a superior ORR electrocatalyst with excellent electrocatalytic performance, high selectivity, and long durability, demonstrating that hair carbon can be a promising alternative for costly Pt-based electrocatalysts in fuel cells. The ORR performance can be discussed in terms of heteroatom doping, surface properties, and electrical conductivity of the resulting porous hair carbon materials. PMID:24664643

Chaudhari, Kiran N; Song, Min Young; Yu, Jong-Sung

2014-07-01

360

Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles.  

PubMed

Abstract Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-Young; Cho, Hong-Il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

2014-11-14

361

FLUX OF IONIC DYES ACROSS MICRONEEDLE-TREATED SKIN: EFFECT OF DYE MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS  

PubMed Central

Drug flux across microneedle (MN)-treated skin is influenced by the characteristics of the MN array, microconduits and drug molecules in addition to the overall diffusional resistance of microconduits and viable tissue. Relative implication of these factors has not been fully explored. In the present study, the in vitro permeation of a series of six structurally related ionic xanthene dyes with different molecular weights (MW) and chemical substituents, across polymer MN-pretreated full thickness porcine skin was investigated in relation of their molecular characteristics. Phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4, the medium used in skin permeation experiments, was used to determine the equilibrium solubility of the dyes and their partition coefficient both in the isotropic n-octanol/ aqueous system and porcine skin/ aqueous system. Additionally, dissociation constants were determined potentiometrically. Results indicated that for rhodamine dyes, skin permeation of the zwitterionic form which predominates at physiological pH, was significantly reduced by an increase in MW, the presence of the chemically reactive isothiocyanate substituent reported to interact with stratum corneum proteins and the skin thickness. These factors were generally shown to override aqueous solubility, an important determinant of drug diffusion in an aqueous milieu. Findings provided more insight into the mechanism of drug permeation across MN-treated skin, of importance to both the design of MN-based transdermal drug delivery systems and in vitro skin permeation research. PMID:22960319

Gomaa, Yasmine A.; Garland, Martin J.; McInnes, Fiona; Donnelly, Ryan F.; El-Khordagui, Labiba K.; Wilson, Clive

2014-01-01

362

Phytoremediation of dye contaminated soil by Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) seed and growth assessment of Vigna radiata in the remediated soil  

PubMed Central

The present study was investigated for soil bioremediation through sababul plant biomass (Leucaena leucocephala). The soil contaminated with textile effluent was collected from Erode (chithode) area. Various physico-chemical characterizations like N, P, and K and electrical conductivity were assessed on both control and dye contaminated soils before and after remediation. Sababul (L. leucocephala) powder used as plant biomass for remediation was a tool for textile dye removal using basic synthetic dyes by column packing and eluting. The concentration of the dye eluted was compared with its original concentration of dye and were analyzed by using UV–vis spectrophotometer. Sababul plant biomass was analyzed for its physico-chemical properties and active compounds were detected by GC–MS, HPTLC and FTIR. Plant growth was assessed with green gram on the textile contaminated soil and sababul had the potential of adsorbing the dye as the contaminated soil and also check the growth of green gram. PMID:25183943

Jayanthy, V.; Geetha, R.; Rajendran, R.; Prabhavathi, P.; Karthik Sundaram, S.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Santhanam, P.

2013-01-01

363

Photovoltaic application of Si nanoparticles fabricated by multihollow plasma discharge CVD: Dye and Si co-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) still need wider absorption range despite their stable and good performance. This work proposed the co-sensitization of Si quantum dot (QD) and N749 dye for better photo-generation. Si QD was chemically stable with regard to all DSC components and its stability enabled to co-sensitize with dye. Si QDs were fabricated by multihollow discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition and applied for the co-sensitization. Si and dye co-sensitization led to the increase of incident photon to current conversion efficiency and decrease of internal impedance as compared with a standard DSC. As a result, short-circuit current density was increased over 1 mA/cm2 and the performance was enhanced with co-sensitization from 4.36 to 5.10%. Si and dye co-sensitization was very effective because the enhancement was much larger than the performance of Si QDSC without dye sensitization.

Seo, Hyunwoong; Ichida, Daiki; Hashimoto, Shinji; Uchida, Giichiro; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

2015-01-01

364

Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling  

PubMed Central

Embryonic hair follicle induction and formation are regulated by mesenchymal-epithelial interactions between specialized dermal cells and epidermal stem cells that switch to a hair fate. Similarly, during postnatal hair growth, communication between mesenchymal dermal papilla cells and surrounding epithelial matrix cells coordinates hair shaft production. Adult hair follicle regeneration in the hair cycle again is thought to be controlled by activating signals originating from the mesenchymal compartment and acting on hair follicle stem cells. Although many signaling pathways are implicated in hair follicle formation and growth, the precise nature, timing, and intersection of these inductive and regulatory signals remains elusive. The goal of this review is to summarize our current understanding and to discuss recent new insights into mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. PMID:22960356

Sennett, Rachel; Rendl, Michael

2012-01-01

365

Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

1972-01-01

366

Synthesis and characterization of organic dyes with various electron-accepting substituents for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Four new donor-?-acceptor dyes differing in their acceptor group have been synthesized and employed as model systems to study the influence of the acceptor groups on the photophysical properties and in NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. UV/Vis absorption spectra showed a broad range of absorption coverage with maxima between 331 and 653?nm. Redox potentials as well as HOMO and LUMO energies of the dyes were determined from cyclic voltammetry measurements and evaluated concerning their potential use as sensitizers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs). Quantum-chemical density functional theory calculations gave further insight into the frontier orbital distributions, which are relevant for the electronic processes in p-DSCs. In p-DSCs using an iodide/triiodide-based electrolyte, the polycyclic 9,10-dicyano-acenaphtho[1,2-b]quinoxaline (DCANQ) acceptor-containing dye gave the highest power conversion efficiency of 0.08%, which is comparable to that obtained with the perylenemonoimide (PMI)-containing dye. Interestingly, devices containing the DCANQ-based dye achieve a higher V(OC) of 163?mV compared to 158?mV for the PMI-containing dye. The result was further confirmed by impedance spectroscopic analysis showing higher recombination resistance and thus a lower recombination rate for devices containing the DCANQ dye than for PMI dye-based devices. However, the use of the strong electron-accepting tricyanofurane (TCF) group played a negative role in the device performance, yielding an efficiency of only 0.01% due to a low-lying LUMO energy level, thus resulting in an insufficient driving force for efficient dye regeneration. The results demonstrate that a careful molecular design with a proper choice of the acceptor unit is essential for development of sensitizers for p-DSCs. PMID:25234556

Weidelener, Martin; Powar, Satvasheel; Kast, Hannelore; Yu, Ze; Boix, Pablo P; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Geiger, Thomas; Kuster, Simon; Nüesch, Frank; Bach, Udo; Mishra, Amaresh; Bäuerle, Peter

2014-11-01

367

Storable, thermally activated, near-infrared chemiluminescent dyes and dye-stained microparticles for optical imaging  

PubMed Central

Optical molecular imaging employs relatively harmless, low-energy light and technically straightforward instrumentation. Self-illuminating, chemiluminescent systems are especially attractive since they have inherently high signal contrast due to the lack of background emission. Currently, chemiluminescence imaging involves short-lived molecular species that are not stored but instead generated in situ, and they typically emit visible light, which does not penetrate far through heterogeneous biological media. Here, we describe a new paradigm for optical molecular imaging using squaraine rotaxane endoperoxides (SREPs), interlocked fluorescent and chemiluminescent dye molecules that have a squaraine chromophore encapsulated inside a macrocycle endoperoxide. SREPs can be stored indefinitely at temperatures below ?20 °C, but upon warming to body temperature they undergo a unimolecular chemical reaction and emit near infrared light that can pass through a living mouse. Dye-stained microparticles are easily prepared for in vivo near-infrared optical imaging using commercial imaging stations. PMID:21107365

Baumes, Jeffrey M.; Gassensmith, Jeremiah J.; Giblin, Jay; Lee, Jung-Jae; White, Alexander G.; Culligan, William J.; Leevy, W. Matthew; Kuno, Masaru; Smith, Bradley D.

2011-01-01

368

Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.  

PubMed

The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead. PMID:21416400

Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

2011-05-01

369

Dye-Sensitized Approaches to Photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitization of wide band-gap semiconductors to photons of energy less than the band-gap is a key step in two technically important processes - panchromatic photography and photoelectrochemical solar cells. In both cases the photosensitive species is not the semiconductor - silver halide or metal oxide - but rather an electrochemically active dye. The gap between the highest occupied molecular level (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular level (LUMO) is less than the band-gap of the semiconductor with which it is associated. It can therefore absorb light of a wavelength longer than that to which the semiconductor itself is sensitive. The electrochemical process is initiated when the dye molecule relaxes from its photoexcited level by electron injection into the semiconductor, which therefore acts as a photoanode. If the dye is in contact with a redox electrolyte, the negative charge represented by the lost electron can be recovered from the reduced state of the redox system, which in return is regenerated by charge transfer from a cathode. An external load completes the electrical circuit. The system therefore represents a conversion of the energy of absorbed photons into an electrical current by a regenerative device in every functional respect analogous to a solid-state photovoltaic cell. As in any engineering system, choice of materials, their optimization and their synergy are essential to efficient operation. While a semiconductor-electrolyte contact is analogous to a Schottky contact, in that a barrier is established between two materials of different conduction mechanism, with the possibility of optical absorption, charge carrier pair generation and separation, it should be remembered that the photogenerated valence band hole in the semiconductor represents a powerful oxidizing agent. Given that the band-gap is related to the strength and therefore the stability of chemical bonding within the semiconductor, for narrow-gap materials the most likely reaction of such a hole is the photocorrosion of the semiconductor itself. However, only relatively narrow band-gap materials have an effective optical absorption through the visible spectrum, towards and into the infra-red. Materials with an optimal band-gap match to the solar spectrum, of the order of 1.5eV, are therefore electrochemically unstable. A stable photoelectrochemical cell, without some process of optical sensitization, and necessarily using a wide-gap semiconductor is sensitive only to the ultra-violet limit of the visible spectrum. Over recent years a suitable combination of semiconductor and sensitizer has been identified and optimized, so that now a solar spectrum conversion efficiency of over 11% has been verified in a sensitized photoelectrochemical device. One key to such an efficient system is the suppression of recombination losses. When the excited dye relaxes by electron loss, the separated charge carriers find themselves on opposite sides of a phase barrier -- the electron within the solid-state semiconductor, the positive charge externally, in association with the dye molecule. There is no valence---band involvement in the process, so the system represents a majority-carrier device, avoiding one of the major loss mechanisms in conventional photovoltaics. In consequence also a highly-disordered, even porous, semiconductor structure is acceptable, enabling surface adsorption of a sufficient concentration of the dye to permit total optical absorption of incident light of photon energy greater than the HOMO-LUMO gap of the dye molecule. The accepted wide-band semiconductor for photoelectrochemical applications is titanium dioxide in the anatase crystal structure. The size of the nanocrystals making up the semiconductor photoanode can be determined by hydrothermal processing of a precursor sol, and the film can be deposited on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate by any convenient thin-film process such as screen printing or tape casting. The preferred dye system is inspired by the natural processes involving chlorophyll, the coloring

Grätzel, Michael

2008-03-01

370

Dye-sensitized solar cells  

DOEpatents

A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

Skotheim, T.A.

1980-03-04

371

Dye-sensitized solar cells  

DOEpatents

A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

1980-03-04

372

Aggregation and adsorption of reactive dyes in the presence of an anionic surfactant on mesoporous aminopropyl silica.  

PubMed

A surface tension technique was used to determine the critical aggregation concentration (cac) of a yellow and a red dye in relation to the presence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBS) and to temperature changes in buffered aqueous solutions. The cac values of the yellow dye increase from 25 to 45 degrees C (from 41.37 to 50.32 mg L-1) and decrease from 45 to 55 degrees C (from 50.32 to 38.72 mg L-1). The cac values for the red dye/DBS aggregates decrease (from 124.52 to 88.50 mg L-1) from 25 to 55 degrees C. Adsorption of the two dyes onto a mesoporous aminopropyl silica (Sil-NH2) was also studied. The adsorption of the yellow dye increases with an increase in temperature from 25 to 55 degrees C. In the presence of DBS the adsorption on Sil-NH2 for the yellow dye decreases, and for the red dye increases from 25 to 55 degrees C. Adsorptions occurred below and above the cac of the anionic dyes/DBS aggregates. Adsorption of the dyes onto Sil-NH2 fitted well to the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson adsorption models. However, in the presence of DBS, only the Freundlich model fit the experimental adsorption data at low dye concentrations (less than 400 mg L-1). In this case, the Redlich-Peterson model was only fitted to the red dye adsorption data. The magnitude of the Dubinin-Radushkevich energetic parameters (E, from 7.00 to 15.00 kJ mol-1) indicates that the adsorption of the dyes onto Sil-NH2, in the absence and in the presence of DBS, is controlled by water adsorbed/dye in solution ion-exchange interactions. It is observed that the values of DeltaadsH are positive for both dyes and the values are quite similar to each other. The exception is the adsorption of the yellow dye in the presence of DBS, which is slightly exothermic. The DeltaadsG values are all negative. However, the interactions of the dyes with Sil-NH2 silica are more spontaneous in the presence of the surfactant. The positive adsorption entropy values (DeltaadsS) for the interaction of the dyes suggest that entropy is a driving force of the dye adsorptions. However, the entropic contribution is higher for the adsorptions in the presence of DBS. It was suggested that the chemical structures of the dyes play an important role in the formation of the dye/DBS aggregates and in dye adsorption onto the aminopropyl silica. PMID:17350647

Cestari, Antonio R; Vieira, Eunice F S; Vieira, Gláucia S; Almeida, Luis E

2007-05-15

373

A simple CdS nanoparticles cascading approach for boosting N3 dye\\/ZnO nanoplates DSSCs overall performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced photosensitization in presence of CdS nanoparticles is achieved in electrochemically deposited ZnO nanoplates and N3 loaded dye-sensitized solar cells. Chemically embedded CdS nanoparticles act as a sandwiching layer between ZnO nanoplates and dye molecules by overcoming current limiting serious Zn2+\\/dye insulating complex formation and CdS photo-corrosion issues. The X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscopy confirm the ZnO with

Swapnil B. Ambade; Rajaram S. Mane; Anil V. Ghule; Go-Woon Lee; Ramphal Sharma; Oh-shim Joo; Rohan B. Ambade; Soo-Hyoung Lee; Sung-Hwan Han

2011-01-01

374

Never say dye  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a remarkable increase in the number of publications dealing with the application of epifluorescence microscopy in cell biology. This can be widely attributed to the development of state-of-the-art image processing programs, as well as the development of new reagents/probes, which allow the labeling of most cell structures, organelles and metabolites with high specificity. However, the use of a specific fluorescent dye, 3,3?-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6), has been recently revisited and several new application potentials have emerged. The goal of this mini-review is to provide an up-to-date overview of the multiple roles of this multifaceted probe. PMID:22476459

2012-01-01

375

Raman spectroscopy and microspectrophotometry of reactive dyes on cotton fibres: analysis and detection limits.  

PubMed

A collaborative study on Raman spectroscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP) was carried out by members of the ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) European Fibres Group (EFG) on different dyed cotton fabrics. The detection limits of the two methods were tested on two cotton sets with a dye concentration ranging from 0.5 to 0.005% (w/w). This survey shows that it is possible to detect the presence of dye in fibres with concentrations below that detectable by the traditional methods of light microscopy and microspectrophotometry (MSP). The MSP detection limit for the dyes used in this study was found to be a concentration of 0.5% (w/w). At this concentration, the fibres appear colourless with light microscopy. Raman spectroscopy clearly shows a higher potential to detect concentrations of dyes as low as 0.05% for the yellow dye RY145 and 0.005% for the blue dye RB221. This detection limit was found to depend both on the chemical composition of the dye itself and on the analytical conditions, particularly the laser wavelength. Furthermore, analysis of binary mixtures of dyes showed that while the minor dye was detected at 1.5% (w/w) (30% of the total dye concentration) using microspectrophotometry, it was detected at a level as low as 0.05% (w/w) (10% of the total dye concentration) using Raman spectroscopy. This work also highlights the importance of a flexible Raman instrument equipped with several lasers at different wavelengths for the analysis of dyed fibres. The operator and the set up of the analytical conditions are also of prime importance in order to obtain high quality spectra. Changing the laser wavelength is important to detect different dyes in a mixture. PMID:22727570

Massonnet, G; Buzzini, P; Monard, F; Jochem, G; Fido, L; Bell, S; Stauber, M; Coyle, T; Roux, C; Hemmings, J; Leijenhorst, H; Van Zanten, Z; Wiggins, K; Smith, C; Chabli, S; Sauneuf, T; Rosengarten, A; Meile, C; Ketterer, S; Blumer, A

2012-10-10

376

Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes  

E-print Network

Increased light harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells with energy relay dyes Brian E. Hardin1 efficiency when using an energy relay dye (PTCDI) with an organic sensitizing dye (TT1). We estimate on the basis of light harvesting using a sensitizing dye (SD) attached to a wide- bandgap semiconductor1

McGehee, Michael

377

Hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women  

PubMed Central

In the literature of the past 30 years there are only some publications concerned with hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women. Therefore, the relevance of hyperprolactinemia was evaluated in 40 women with diffuse alopecia. Hair loss was assessed by clinical appearance and the pluck trichogram. 82.5% of the female patients had diffuse hair loss and 17.5% had androgenetic alopecia. The highest prolactin values measured were 1390 ng/ml and 255 ng/ml. Six patients had values between 150–80.4 ng/ml and 10 between 79.1–51.7 ng/ml. All others had prolactin values below 50 ng/ml. Fifteen untreated patients with elevated prolactin levels could be followed up. Without any prolactin-inhibiting drugs, reductions and normalizations beside moderate fluctuations could be detected. Thyroid-specific diagnostics showed in 95% of the patients a normal thyroid function. 2.5% had a slight hyperthyreoidism and 2.5% had a slight hypothyreoidism. No female patient had clinical signs of androgenization and the determined androgens testosterone, androstendione and dihydroepiandrostendione were in the normal range. According to these results, moderate elevated prolactin levels in association with diffuse or androgenetic hair loss can be neglected as causative for the hair loss, because there is no evidence that they have an influence to the pattern, the extent or the duration of the hair loss. These results are supported by investigations of other authors who described only in high doses of prolactin an inhibiting effect on human hair follicles in vitro. Nevertheless, moderate constantly elevated prolactin levels should induce further diagnostics to exclude a prolactin-producing tumor of the pituitary gland. PMID:22870355

2012-01-01

378

Unifying the various incarnations of active hair-bundle motility by the vertebrate hair cell.  

PubMed

The dazzling sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the vertebrate ear rely on mechanical amplification of the hair cells' responsiveness to small stimuli. As revealed by spontaneous oscillations and forms of mechanical excitability in response to force steps, the hair bundle that adorns each hair cell is both a mechanosensory antenna and a force generator that might participate in the amplificatory process. To study the various incarnations of active hair-bundle motility, we combined Ca(2+) iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. We identified three classes of active hair-bundle movements: a hair bundle could be quiescent but display nonmonotonic twitches in response to either excitatory or inhibitory force steps, or oscillate spontaneously. Extracellular Ca(2+) changes could affect the kinetics of motion and, when large enough, evoke transitions between the three classes of motility. We found that the Ca(2+)-dependent location of a bundle's operating point within its force-displacement relation controlled the type of movement observed. In response to an iontophoretic pulse of Ca(2+) or of a Ca(2+) chelator, a hair bundle displayed a movement whose polarity could be reversed by applying a static bias to the bundle's position at rest. Moreover, such polarity reversal was accompanied by a 10-fold change in the kinetics of the Ca(2+)-evoked hair-bundle movement. A unified theoretical description, in which mechanical activity stems solely from myosin-based adaptation, could account for the fast and slow manifestations of active hair-bundle motility observed in frog, as well as in auditory organs of the turtle and the rat. PMID:17704173

Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Jülicher, Frank; Martin, Pascal

2007-12-01

379

Classification and naming of dyes, stains and fluorochromes.  

PubMed

A classification of dyes and other colorants is proposed, based on the chemical features responsible for their visibility and generally consonant with the writings of modern color chemists. The scheme differs in several respects from that of the Colour Index (CI), but it retains some traditional small groups of dyes that include biological stains. Natural dyes, recognized as a group in the CI, are placed with or near synthetic dyes with identical or similar chromophores. The new scheme also provides categories for dyes and fluorochromes that do not have places in the CI classification. Some CI categories, including lactones, aminoketones and hydroxyketones, are not recognized in this new scheme, which is adopted in the forthcoming 10th edition of Conn's Biological Stains: a Handbook of Dyes and Fluorochromes for Use in Biology and Medicine. Some rules are also set out for the spelling of trivial names, which has long been inconsistent in scientific literature. The ending '-ine' is used for compounds derived from organic bases (e.g., fuchsine and thionine, not fuchsin or thionin), and names ending in '-in' are for compounds that are not bases or their derivatives (e.g., eosin and phloxin, not eosine or phloxine). Initial capital letters are used only for words that are names of people or places (e.g., Nile blue or Congo red) and for the 'generic' components of CI application names (as in Acid yellow 36). Other words, including trade names that have fallen into common usage are not capitalized (e.g., alcian blue, biebrich scarlet, coomassie blue). The recommended spellings of some dyes differ from those commonly seen in vendors' catalogs and in biological publications, but they are generally consistent with English and American dictionaries, with recent writings in English by color chemists, and with the trivial names of other organic compounds. PMID:11871748

Kiernan, J A

2001-01-01

380

Organic Chemicals: Angels or Goblins?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the controversial organic chemical substances such as DDT, Red Dye No. 2, DES, Tris, Laetrile, cyclamate, and saccharin. Concludes that the use of some has to be considered on a benefit/risk ratio. (GA)

Ferguson, Lloyd N.

1978-01-01

381

Premature hair graying and bone mineral density.  

PubMed

In a recent case-control study, premature hair graying was found to be associated with osteopenia, suggesting that this might be a clinically useful risk factor for osteoporosis. We report a reexamination of this possibility in 293 healthy postmenopausal women. Subjects experiencing onset of hair graying in their 20s tended to have lower bone mineral density throughout the skeleton (adjusted for age and weight) than those with onset of graying later in life. The same was true for those in whom the majority of their hair was gray by the age of 40 yr (n = 16), in whom bone density was reduced by 7% in the femoral neck, 8% in the femoral trochanter, and 4% in the total body (P < 0.05) when compared with those not prematurely gray. Bone density at the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle showed similar trends that were not significant. However, premature hair graying explained only 0.6-1.3% of the variance in bone mineral density within the population. We conclude that premature hair graying is associated with low bone density, but that its infrequency in the normal postmenopausal population leads to its accounting for only a tiny fraction of the variance of bone density. PMID:9360510

Orr-Walker, B J; Evans, M C; Ames, R W; Clearwater, J M; Reid, I R

1997-11-01

382

Black Holes with Flavors of Quantum Hair?  

E-print Network

We show that black holes can posses a long-range quantum hair of super-massive tensor fields, which can be detected by Aharonov-Bohm tabletop interference experiments, in which a quantum-hairy black hole, or a remnant particle, passes through the loop of a magnetic solenoid. The long distance effect does not decouple for an arbitrarily high mass of the hair-providing field. Because Kaluza-Klein and String theories contain infinite number of massive tensor fields, we study black holes with quantum Kaluza-Klein hair. We show that in five dimensions such a black hole can be interpreted as a string of `combed' generalized magnetic monopoles, with their fluxes confined along it. For the compactification on a translation-invariant circle, this substructure uncovers hidden flux conservation and quantization of the monopole charges, which constrain the quantum hair of the resulting four-dimensional black hole. For the spin-2 quantum hair this result is somewhat unexpected, since the constituent `magnetic' charges have no `electric' counterparts. Nevertheless, the information about their quantization is encoded in singularity.

Gia Dvali

2006-07-20

383

Oxidative Stress in Ageing of Hair  

PubMed Central

Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a major role in the ageing process. Reactive oxygen species are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage cellular structural membranes, lipids, proteins, and DNA. The body possesses endogenous defence mechanisms, such as antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidative molecules, protecting it from free radicals by reducing and neutralizing them. With age, the production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defence mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to the progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the ageing phenotype. Ageing of hair manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production or alopecia. There is circumstantial evidence that oxidative stress may be a pivotal mechanism contributing to hair graying and hair loss. New insights into the role and prevention of oxidative stress could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process and age-dependent alopecia. PMID:20805969

Trüeb, Ralph M

2009-01-01

384

Positioning of Nuclei in Arabidopsis Root Hairs  

PubMed Central

In growing Arabidopsis root hairs, the nucleus locates at a fixed distance from the apex, migrates to a random position during growth arrest, and moves from branch to branch in a mutant with branched hairs. Consistently, an artificial increase of the distance between the nucleus and the apex, achieved by entrapment of the nucleus in a laser beam, stops cell growth. Drug studies show that microtubules are not involved in the positioning of the nucleus but that subapical fine F-actin between the nucleus and the hair apex is required to maintain the nuclear position with respect to the growing apex. Injection of an antibody against plant villin, an actin filament-bundling protein, leads to actin filament unbundling and movement of the nucleus closer to the apex. Thus, the bundled actin at the tip side of the nucleus prevents the nucleus from approaching the apex. In addition, we show that the basipetal movement of the nucleus at root hair growth arrest requires protein synthesis and a functional actin cytoskeleton in the root hair tube. PMID:12417712

Ketelaar, Tijs; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Esseling, John J.; de Ruijter, Norbert C. A.; Grierson, Claire S.; Dogterom, Marileen; Emons, Anne Mie C.

2002-01-01

385

Cationic starch (Q-TAC) pre-treatment of cotton fabric: influence on dyeing with reactive dye.  

PubMed

Reactive dyes require high concentrations of an electrolyte to improve dye-fiber interaction, leading to the discharge of harmful effluent. One approach to reduce this unsafe release is treatment of the cotton fabric with cationic chemical reagents. This paper reports on the treatment of cotton fabric with cationic starch (Q-TAC), a commercial product, by batchwise method and pad batch method for the first time prior to reactive dyeing process. Furthermore,three commercial reactive dyes, based on monochloro triazine, vinyl sulfone and monochlorotriazine + vinyl sulfonechemistry, was applied on the cotton fabrics by continuous (pad-dry-cure) method. The treated cotton fabric by batchwise method produced 70% higher color yield (K/S) and 20% enhanced dye fixation (%F) than the untreated cotton fabric. X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of N1s peaks in the treated cotton fabrics. The crystallinity of treated cotton fabrics was reduced in comparison to untreated cotton fabric as revealed by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) showed that the surface of treated cotton fabrics was rougher than untreated cotton fabric due to the deposition of cationic starch. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum confirmed the existence of quaternary ammonium groups, N(+)(CH3)3, in the treated cotton fabrics. The analysis of color fastness tests demonstrated good to excellent ratings for treated cotton fabrics. In this way, cationic starch treatment of cotton fabric before reactive dyeing process has been proven potentially a more environmentally sustainable method than conventional dyeing method. PMID:25498635

Ali, Shamshad; Mughal, Mohsin Ali; Shoukat, Umair; Baloch, Mansoor Ali; Kim, Seong Hun

2015-03-01

386

Mercury, pets' and hair: baseline survey of a priority environmental pollutant using a noninvasive matrix in man's best friend.  

PubMed

Pet cats and dogs have been successfully used as indicators of environmental pollution by a great variety of chemicals, including metals. However, information on mercury (a well know priority environmental pollutant) concentrations in household pets tissues and/or organs is scarce. Thus, in the present work we quantified total mercury (Hg(Total)) in blood and hair samples from twenty-six household dogs. The obtained results disclose relatively low levels of total mercury in the surveyed dogs, with values ranging from 0.16 to 12.38 ng g(-1) in blood; and from 24.16 to 826.30 ng g(-1) in hair. Mercury concentrations were independent of gender, age and diet type. A highly significant positive correlation was established between total mercury in blood and hair, validating the latter as a surrogate, non-invasive matrix for mercury exposure evaluation. Additionally, the obtained blood to hair ratio (200) is similar to the one described for humans reinforcing the suitability of dogs as sentinels. Overall, the determination of total mercury levels in dogs' hair samples proved to be a good screening method for the estimation of mercury burden in this species. We propose the quantification of Hg(Total) in hair as a screening method for sentinels like household pets to be performed in routine veterinary visits. PMID:24085603

Sousa, Ana C A; Teixeira, Isa Sofia de Sá; Marques, Bruna; Vilhena, Hugo; Vieira, Lisete; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A; Lillebø, Ana I

2013-11-01

387

Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells  

PubMed Central

The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok

2013-01-01

388

A computational approach for understanding adaptation in vertebrate hair cells  

E-print Network

Vertebrate hair cells respond to mechanical stimuli with an inward current that is carried by extracellular cations through mechanically-gated transmembrane ion channels called transduction channels, located in the hair ...

Niksch, Paul D

2012-01-01

389

Correcting problems in hair restoration surgery: an update.  

PubMed

Hair is an important emblem of health, youth, vigor, and vitality. The state of the art in hair restoration today is to create a result that is undetectable as a surgical hair transplant. Most procedures performed using previous techniques of plug hair trans-plantation are not aesthetically acceptable by today's standards, especially in the face of progressive hair loss, which can unmask previously camouflaged corn row plugs. A technique to reduce the plugs and recycle the grafts into smaller grafts is described. The recycled hair grafts can be combined with scalp lifting, scalp reductions, and occipital harvesting of grafts to improve the results of corn row-appearing hair trans-plants and other problems of surgical hair restoration. PMID:15135137

Vogel, James E

2004-05-01

390

Best Rx Options for Hair Loss in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... By parting this woman's hair in the center, the dermatologist can see that this woman does not have visible hair loss. This woman’s part reveals a Christmas-tree pattern, which is an early sign of hereditary ...

391

Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction  

DOEpatents

Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

2014-11-11

392

Removal of basic dye (Astrazon Blue FGRL) using macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera.  

PubMed

The macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was found to have adsorption capacity for a basic dye, Astrazon Blue FGRL. For the whole range of concentrations employed in this work (20-1280 mgl(-1)), the adsorption reached equilibrium within the first hour. The kinetic data corresponded well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model where the rate constants decreased as initial dye concentrations increased. At low dye concentrations (20-80 mgl(-1)), an increase in the adsorbent dosage resulted in a higher removal percentage of the dye, but a lower amount of dye adsorbed per unit mass (q). The adsorption isotherm followed both the Langmuir and Freundlich models within the temperature range employed in this work (18-70 degrees C). The highest maximum adsorption capacity (q(m)) was obtained at 50 degrees C. The enthalpy of adsorption was estimated at 14.87 kJmol(-1) suggesting a chemical adsorption mechanism. PMID:16112338

Marungrueng, Khanidtha; Pavasant, Prasert

2006-02-01

393

Diolistics: incorporating fluorescent dyes into biological samples using a gene gun  

PubMed Central

The hand-held gene gun provides a rapid and efficient method of incorporating fluorescent dyes into cells, a technique that is becoming known as diolistics. Transporting fluorescent dyes into cells has, in the past, used predominantly injection or chemical methods. The use of the gene gun, combined with the new generation of fluorescent dyes, circumvents some of the problems of using these methods and also enables the study of cells that have proved difficult traditionally to transfect (e.g. those deep in tissues and/or terminally differentiated); in addition, the use of ion- or metabolite-sensitive dyes provides a route to study cellular mechanisms. Diolistics is also ideal for loading cells with optical nanosensors – nanometre-sized sensors linked to fluorescent probes. Here, we discuss the theoretical considerations of using diolistics, the advantages compared with other methods of inserting dyes into cells and the current uses of the technique, with particular consideration of nanosensors. PMID:17945370

O’Brien, John A.; Lummis, Sarah C.R.

2007-01-01

394

Chrysanthemum zawadskii extract induces hair growth by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of hair matrix.  

PubMed

Chrysanthemum zawadskii has been proven to possess hair growth activity and has been used as treatment for hair loss. The aim of this study was to provide a novel explanation of the mechanism by which Chrysanthemum zawadskii extracts (CZe) promote hair growth and to characterize the affected hair follicle (HF) regions and the progression of growth. The n-butanol and water fractions of CZe were used for hair growth induction by topical application to the backs of C57BL/6 mice for up to 30 days. To investigate cell development during HF morphogenesis, bromodeoxyuridine-labeled skin sections were detected using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the water fraction of CZe promoted hair shaft production and induced premature entry of telogen HFs into the anagen. Subsequently, immunohistochemical studies indicated that the water fraction of CZe stimulated the differentiation and proliferation of pluripotent epidermal matrix cells in the matrix region and epithelial stem cells in the basal layer of the epidermis. Additionally, flavonoids were identified as effective constituents. Therefore, the findings of this study suggested that the water fraction of CZe may be developed as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of hair loss. PMID:24807783

Li, Zheng; Li, Jingjie; Gu, Lijuan; Begum, Shahnaz; Wang, Yunbo; Sun, Baishen; Lee, Mira; Sung, Changkeun

2014-07-01

395

Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures  

SciTech Connect

Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via {beta}-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and {beta}-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/{beta}-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)]. E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Moriya, Kei [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

2007-08-03

396

Relationship between dye-iodine binding and cell voltage in dye-sensitized solar cells: a quantum-mechanical look.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that iodine binding to dyes may actually decrease the cell efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell. A previous experimental study showed that a two-atom change from oxygen to sulfur increased recombination of iodine with injected electrons by a factor of approximately 2. Here, it is shown that iodine binding is a plausible explanation for this effect. The steric and conjugation effects are quantified separately using a set of model compounds. Quantum-chemical calculations show that elongation of the hydrocarbon chain has only an insignificant effect on the iodine and bromine binding to the chalcogen atoms (O, S, Se). The conjugation, however, significantly disfavors the iodine and bromine interaction. Iodine and bromine binding to the dye and model compounds containing sulfur is significantly more favorable than to their oxygen containing counterparts. Bromine binding to dyes is shown to be stronger than that of iodine. Accordingly, bromine binding to dyes may contribute significantly to the observed lower efficiencies in cells using Br(3)(-)/Br(-) as the redox couple. PMID:22847572

Asaduzzaman, Abu Md; Chappellaz, Guy A G; Schreckenbach, Georg

2012-12-01

397

Accidental neutron dosimetry with human hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human hair contains sulfur, which can be activated by fast neutrons. The 32S(n,p)32P reaction with a threshold of 2.5 MeV was used for fast neutron dose estimation. It is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the human body. Samples of human hair were irradiated in a radial channel of a training reactor VR-1. 32P activity in hair was measured both, directly by means of a proportional counter, and as ash dispersed in a liquid scintillator. Based on neutron spectrum estimation, a relationship between the neutron dose and induced activity was derived. The experiment verified the practical feasibility of this dosimetry method in cases of criticality accidents or malevolent acts with nuclear materials.

Ekendahl, Daniela; Be?ková, V?ra; Zdychová, Vlasta; Bulánek, Boris; Prouza, Zden?k; Štefánik, Milan

2014-11-01

398

Scalp hair patterns in mental subnormality.  

PubMed Central

Scalp hair patterns have been examined in 1901 healthy subjects and 1789 severely subnormal patients. Patients with Down's syndrome had a highly significant excess of midline occipital whorls and a deficit of right-sided occipital whorls. Five out of 44 patients with microcephaly had a distinct 'up-sweep' of the frontal hair, a much lower proportion than found previously. Patients with unspecified mental subnormality had a highly significant deficit of multiple occipital whorls. Cutis verticis gyrata was noted incidentally in 15 subnormal patients, 13 of whom were males. Observation of hair patterns in individual patients with mental subnormality is of theoretical interest but is unlikely to be of great practical value. PMID:132531

David, T J; Osborne, C M

1976-01-01

399

The Mechanotransduction Machinery of Hair Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical force into an electrochemical signal, allows living organisms to detect touch, hear, register movement and gravity, and sense changes in cell volume and shape. Hair cells in the vertebrate inner ear are mechanoreceptor cells specialized for the detection of sound and head movement. Each hair cell contains, at the apical surface, rows of stereocilia that are connected by extracellular filaments to form an exquisitely organized bundle. Mechanotransduction channels, localized near the tips of the stereocilia, are gated by the gating spring, an elastic element that is stretched upon stereocilia deflection and mediates rapid channel opening. Components of the mechanotransduction machinery in hair cells have been identified and several are encoded by genes linked to deafness in humans, which indicates that defects in the mechanotransduction machinery are the underlying cause of some forms of hearing impairment.

Nicolas Grillet (La Jolla; Scripps Research Institute REV)

2009-08-25

400

Red hair may increase melanoma risk  

Cancer.gov

A person’s skin pigment, which determines hair color and skin tone, is influenced by the melanocortin-1 (MC1R) gene receptor. For the population’s 1 to 2 percent of redheads, a mutation in MC1R accounts for their red hair color and typical light skin. Now researchers from Harvard Medical School (a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) have discovered that the same MC1R mutation responsible for the red-hair phenotype also promotes an important cancer-causing pathway. The new findings, reported online August 22 in the journal Molecular Cell, help to explain the molecular mechanisms that underlie redheads’ well-known risk of developing melanoma, providing new insights for treating and preventing this dangerous type of skin cancer.

401

Measurement of Normal and Anomalous Diffusion of Dyes within Protein Structures Fabricated via Multiphoton Excited Cross-Linking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate microscale spatial and chemical control of diffusion within protein matrixes created through the use of nonlinear multiphoton excited photochemistry. The mobility of fluorescent dyes of different mass and composition within controlled cross-linked environments has been measured using two-photon excited fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). The diffusion times for several rhodamine and sulforhodamine dyes within these fabricated structures were

Swarna Basu; Charles W. Wolgemuth; Paul J. Campagnola

2004-01-01

402

3D-Measuring for Head Shape Covering Hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D-Measuring is paid to attention because 3D-Display is making rapid spread. Especially, face and head are required to be measured because of necessary or contents production. However, it is a present problem that it is difficult to measure hair. Then, in this research, it is a purpose to measure face and hair with phase shift method. By using sine images arranged for hair measuring, the problems on hair measuring, dark color and reflection, are settled.

Kato, Tsukasa; Hattori, Koosuke; Nomura, Takuya; Taguchi, Ryo; Hoguro, Masahiro; Umezaki, Taizo

403

Lornoxicam-induced hair loss: an unusual case.  

PubMed

A patient started on 8 mg lornoxicam twice daily for pain in the hips developed acute-onset scalp hair loss. History and clinical examination revealed no evident abnormalities. Temporal association of the onset of hair loss with the use of lornoxicam, inability to explain hair loss by alternate causes, possibility of hair loss with lornoxicam and resolution on dechallenge placed this reaction as a probable adverse reaction to lornoxicam. PMID:24029201

Keny, M S; Ghodge, R R; Bandekar, S M

2013-01-01

404

Effects of hair treatment on hair mercury—The best biomarker of methylmercury exposure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Exposure misclassification is a major obstacle to obtain accurate dose-response relationships. In order to solve this problem,\\u000a the impact of hair treatment on total mercury in hair was assessed in Japanese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross-sectional study was carried out among 327 women at age 24–49 years to determine hair mercury levels and estimate daily\\u000a mercury intakes from seafood by using a

Miwako Dakeishi; Kunihiko Nakai; Mineshi Sakamoto; Toyoto Iwata; Keita Suzuki; Xiao-Jie Liu; Tomoko Ohno; Tomoko Kurosawa; Hiroshi Satoh; Katsuyuki Murata

2005-01-01

405

Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell. 6 figs.

Davin, J.

1992-12-01

406

Drugs used in Africa as dyes: I. Skin absorption and tolerability of Bixa orellana L.  

PubMed

Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae) seed extract, used in Africa as a dye, was employed to evaluate the onset of the possible topical localized responses of the rabbit skin in single application, after repeated application and after UV exposure. Histologic studies were also carried out to evaluate the possible damage and penetration of Bixa colouring matter into the rabbit hairless skin and into the hairs. The study showed that Bixa orellana has a good cutaneous tolerability and may encourage the use as a source of colouring matter in cosmetology. PMID:23195400

Germano, M P; de Pasquale, R; Rapisarda, A; Monteleone, D; Keita, A; Sanogo, R

1997-06-01

407

Controlling Hair Follicle Signaling Pathways through Polyubiquitination  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle development and maintenance require precise reciprocal signaling interactions between the epithelium and underlying dermis. Three major developmental signaling pathways, Wnt, Sonic hedgehog, and NF-?B/Edar, are indispensable for this process and, when aberrantly activated, can lead to skin and appendage neoplasms. Recent data point to protein polyubiquitination as playing a central role in regulating the timing, duration, and location of signaling. Here we review how polyubiquitination regulates the stability and interaction of key signaling components that control hair follicle development and regeneration. PMID:18408747

Huntzicker, Erik G.; Oro, Anthony E.

2009-01-01

408

Spherical Black Holes cannot Support Scalar Hair  

E-print Network

The static spherically symmetric ``black hole solution" of the Einstein - conformally invariant massless scalar field equations known as the BBMB ( Bocharova, , Bronikov, Melinkov, Bekenstein) black hole is critically examined. It is shown that the stress energy tensor is ill-defined at the horizon, and that its evaluation through suitable regularization yields ambiguous results. Consequently, the configuration fails to represent a genuine black hole solution. With the removal of this solution as a counterexample to the no hair conjecture, we argue that the following appears to be true: Spherical black holes cannot carry any kind of classical scalar hair.

D. Sudarsky; T. Zannias

1997-12-19

409

The Micromachinery of Mechanotransduction in Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Mechanical stimuli generated by head movements and changes in sound pressure are detected by hair cells with amazing speed and sensitivity. The mechanosensitive organelle, the hair bundle, is a highly elaborated structure of actin-based stereocilia arranged in precise rows of increasing height. Extracellular linkages contribute to its cohesion and convey forces to mechanically gated channels. Channel opening is nearly instantaneous and is followed by a process of sensory adaptation that keeps the channels poised in their most sensitive range. This process is served by motors, scaffolds, and homeostatic mechanisms. The molecular constituents of this process are rapidly being elucidated, especially by the discovery of deafness genes and antibody targets. PMID:17428178

Vollrath, Melissa A.; Kwan, Kelvin Y.; Corey, David P.

2010-01-01

410

Black hole hair in Lovelock gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to analyze black hole hair in the spherical symmetric sector of the Lovelock theory in arbitrary dimensions that is an alternative to solving the equations of motion in their complete form. We explicitly show that the method matches with the known black hole solutions for the vacuum and electro-vacuum spacetimes in Lovelock gravity theories. We further apply the method to the case of minimally coupled non-self-interacting massless scalar field and prove that there is no (non-self-interacting) massless scalar hair for the spherically symmetric Lovelock black holes.

Skákala, Jozef; Shankaranarayanan, S.

2014-05-01

411

Black hole hair in Lovelock gravity  

E-print Network

We present a method to analyse black hole hair in the spherical symmetric sector of the Lovelock theory in arbitrary dimensions that is an alternative to solving the equations of motion in their complete form. We explicitly show that the method matches with the known black hole solutions for the vacuum and electro-vacuum spacetimes in Lovelock gravity theories. We further apply the method to the case of minimally coupled non-self-interacting massless scalar field and prove that there is no (non-self-interacting) massless scalar hair for the spherically symmetric Lovelock black holes.

Jozef Skakala; S. Shankaranarayanan

2014-04-22

412

Black hole hair in Lovelock gravity  

E-print Network

We present an efficient and robust method to analyse black hole hair in the spherical symmetric sector of the Lovelock theory in arbitrary dimensions that is an alternative to solving the equations of motion in their complete form. We explicitly show that the method matches with the known black hole solutions for the vacuum and electro-vacuum spacetimes in Lovelock gravity theories. We further apply the method to the case of minimally coupled massless scalar field and prove that there is no massless scalar hair for the spherically symmetric Lovelock black holes.

Skakala, Jozef

2013-01-01

413

On the nature of the lowest electron transitions in the borine dye derivatives benz[cd]indole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorescence and absorption spectra of new boron-containing dyes have been analyzed in detail basing on the results of quantum chemical calculations that were performed to obtain the equilibrium molecular geometry and electron structure of the dye molecules. It has been found that the cyclization of both terminal groups by BF2 bridge changes the total charge in the symmetrical dyes and practically does not change the bond lengths in the ?-electron system which increases the quantum yield of fluorescence. The possibility to vary the absorption region and total neutral charge makes these dyes promising for using as additives in light emitting layers of OLED deposited by vacuum evaporation.

Kachkovsky, O. D.; Yashchuk, V. M.; Navozenko, O. M.; Naumenko, A. P.; Slominskii, Yu. L.

2014-09-01

414

Many Paths to Alopecia via Compromised Regeneration of Hair  

E-print Network

Many Paths to Alopecia via Compromised Regeneration of Hair Follicle Stem Cells Ji Li1,2,3,4 , Ting morphogens in modulating hair follicle stem cell activities. Recent studies have revealed novel molecular events within the nucleus, which are required for the activation and progression of hair stem cells

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

415

Gender classification by combining clothing, hair and facial component classifiers  

E-print Network

design feature extraction methods for hair and clothing; these features have seldom been used in previousGender classification by combining clothing, hair and facial component classifiers Bing Li a , Xiao classification Facial components Clothing feature Hair feature Classifier combination Local binary pattern

Lu, Bao-Liang

416

Spider joint hair sensilla: adaptation to proprioreceptive stimulation.  

PubMed

Adding to previous efforts towards a better understanding of the remarkable diversity of spider mechanosensitive hair sensilla, this study examines hairs of Cupiennius salei most likely serving a proprioreceptive function. At the tibia-metatarsus joint of all walking legs, there are two opposing groups of hairs ventrally on the tibia (20 hairs) and metatarsus (75 hairs), respectively. These hairs deflect each other when the joint flexes during locomotion, reversibly interlocking by microtrichs on their hair shafts. The torque resisting the hair deflection into the direction of natural stimulation is smaller by up to two powers of ten than that for the other directions. The torsional restoring constant S of the hair suspension is about 10(-10) Nm rad(-1) in the preferred direction, up to a hair deflection angle of 30° (mean of natural deflection angles). Joint movements were imposed in ranges and at rates measured in walking spiders and sensory action potentials recorded. Within the natural step frequencies (0.3-3 Hz) the rate of action potentials follows the velocity of hair deflection. All findings point to the morphological, mechanical, and physiological adaptedness of the joint hair sensilla to their proprioreceptive stimulation during locomotion. PMID:25398577

Schaber, Clemens F; Barth, Friedrich G

2015-02-01

417

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2014-07-01

418

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2013-07-01

419

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2011-07-01

420

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2012-07-01

421

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2010-07-01

422

Modeling Hair Influenced by Water and Styling Products  

E-print Network

Modeling Hair Influenced by Water and Styling Products Kelly Ward Nico Galoppo Ming C. Lin for capturing the key characteristics of hair influenced by water and styling products. Our approach includes a dynamics system that adaptively accounts for changing stiffness and weight of the hair, a ge- ometric

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

423

Outer hair cell active force generation in the cochlear environment  

E-print Network

Outer hair cell active force generation in the cochlear environment Zhijie Liao, Shengran Feng Outer hair cells are critical to the amplification and frequency selectivity of the mammalian ear acting hair cells are electromotile, and they are strategically located in the cochlea to generate an active

Popel, Aleksander S.

424

Title: Realistic Hair Simulation animation and rendering Submission Format & Area  

E-print Network

Title: Realistic Hair Simulation ­ animation and rendering Submission Format & Area Class SIGGRAPH of the most challenging tasks in character synthesis: hair simulation. This class covers both recent and novel research ideas in hair animation and rendering, and presents time tested industrial practices

425

Research paper Fast cochlear amplification with slow outer hair cells  

E-print Network

Research paper Fast cochlear amplification with slow outer hair cells Timothy K. Lu a,b , Serhii hair cells (OHCs) produce mechanical amplification over the entire audio-frequency range (up to 100 k reserved. Keywords: Cochlear amplifier; Outer hair cell; Receptor potential; Membrane time constant low

Sarpeshkar, Rahul

426

Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis: Supplemental Material Tsinghua University  

E-print Network

Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis: Supplemental Material Lvdi Wang1 1 Tsinghua University Microsoft Research Asia A Correcting Reversed Strands All existing image-based hair acquisition methods and then trace individual hair strands from this field. However, it is difficult for an algorithm to confidently

Yu, Yizhou

427

RESEARCH Open Access Trans-cranial focused ultrasound without hair  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Trans-cranial focused ultrasound without hair shaving: feasibility study made of human hair was sonicated using 220- and 710-kHz head transducers to evaluate the feasibility. Results showed that the hair had a negligible effect on focal spot thermal rise at 220 kHz and a 17% drop

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

428

Image-Based Hair Capture by Inverse Lighting Stephane Grabli  

E-print Network

Image-Based Hair Capture by Inverse Lighting St´ephane Grabli iMAGIS -GRAVIR Franc¸ois X. Sillion i introduce an image-based method for modeling a specific subject's hair. The principle of the approach is to study the variations of hair illumination under controlled illumination. The use of a stationary

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

429

Hair Depigmentation and Dermatitis – An Unexpected Presentation of Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Hair depigmentation is very rare presentation of cystic fibrosis (CF). We present 3.5-month-old female patient who had dermatitis and depigmentation of hair and eye lashes, malnutrition, edema and anemia as presenting symptoms of CF. After pancreatic enzyme and vitamin supplementation therapy, skin changes gradually disappeared, and her hair regained its normal brown colour. PMID:24778569

Milankov, O; Savic, R; Tosic, J

2013-01-01

430

Aqueous Extract of Red Deer Antler Promotes Hair Growth by Regulating the Hair Cycle and Cell Proliferation in Hair Follicles  

PubMed Central

Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendage capable of regeneration. We aimed to investigate the effect of red deer antler extract in regulating hair growth, using a mouse model. The backs of male mice were shaved at eight weeks of age. Crude aqueous extracts of deer antler were prepared at either 4°C or 100°C and injected subcutaneously to two separate groups of mice (n = 9) at 1?mL/day for 10 consecutive days, with water as a vehicle control group. The mice skin quantitative hair growth parameters were measured and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine was used to identify label-retaining cells. We found that, in both the 4°C and the 100°C deer antler aqueous extract-injection groups, the anagen phase was extended, while the number of BrdU-incorporated cells was dramatically increased. These results indicate that deer antler aqueous extract promotes hair growth by extending the anagen phase and regulating cell proliferation in the hair follicle region. PMID:24695964

Li, Jing-jie; Li, Zheng; Gu, Li-juan; Wang, Yun-bo; Lee, Mi-ra; Sung, Chang-keun

2014-01-01

431

Toward ultra-stable fluorescent dyes for single-molecule spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wide-spread use of fluorescent dyes in molecular diagnostics and fluorescence microscopy together with new developments such as single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy provide researchers from various disciplines with an ever expanding toolbox. Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy relies to a large extent on extraordinary bright and photostable organic fluorescent dyes such as rhodamine- or cyanine- derivatives. While in the last decade singlemolecule equipment and methodology have significantly advanced and in some cases reached theoretical limits (e.g. detectors approaching unity quantum yields), instable emission ("blinking") and photobleaching become more and more the bottleneck of further development and spreading of single-molecule fluorescence studies. In recent years, agents and recipes have been developed to increase the photostability of conventional fluorescent dyes. Here, we investigate some of these strategies at the single-molecule level. In particular, we focus on the dye selection criteria for multi-color applications. We investigate fluorescent dyes from the rhodamine, carborhodamine, cyanine, and oxazine family and show that within one dye class the photophysical properties are very similar but that dyes from different classes show strikingly different properties. These findings facilitate dye selection and provide improved chemical environment for demanding fluorescence microscopic applications.

Kasper, Robert; Heilemann, Mike; Tinnefeld, Philip; Sauer, Markus

2007-07-01

432

Dyeing mechanism and optimization of polyamide 6,6 functionalized with double barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physico-chemical improvements occasioned by DBD plasma discharge in dyeing process of polyamide 6,6 (PA66) fibers were investigated. The SEM, fluorescence microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, surface energy, FTIR, XPS and pH of aqueous extracts confirm the high polar functionalization of PA66 fibers due to plasma incorporation of oxygen atoms from atmospheric air. DBD plasma-generated reactive species preferentially break the CN bonds, and not the aliphatic C-C chain of PA66. Formation of low-molecular weight acidic molecules that act as dye "carrier" and creation of micro-channels onto PA66 surface seems to favor dye diffusion into the fiber cores. Plasma treatment allows high level of direct dye diffusion and fixation in PA66 fibers at lower temperatures and shorter dyeing times than traditional dyeing methods.

Oliveira, Fernando Ribeiro; Zille, Andrea; Souto, Antonio Pedro

2014-02-01

433

Investigation of natural dyes and ancient textiles from korea using TOF-SIMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of the colorants used on ancient textiles provides a historical pathway to the understanding of the processes associated with one of the oldest of chemical technologies, namely textile dyeing. In this paper, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was used to detect dyes on textiles avoiding the time-consuming and destructive extraction procedures necessary for the spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods previously used. The plant dyes investigated belong to a variety of chemical groups, which include curcumin, crocin, carthamin, purpurin, alizarin, brazilin, shikonin, and indigo. Reference textile samples were prepared with dye extracts of plants and were characterized by TOF-SIMS. TOF-SIMS spectra for the dyed textiles showed element ions from metallic mordants, specific fragment ions, and molecular ions from organic dyes. Remnant dyes on excavated textiles have also been identified using TOF-SIMS. The ancient textile sample showed the presence of indigo clearly, although the fiber itself had degraded badly. From the results, it was concluded that most of plant dyes can be identified with TOF-SIMS and it is a very promising technique for the archaeology field.

Lee, Yeonhee; Lee, Jihye; Kim, Youngsoo; Choi, Seokchan; Ham, Seung Wook; Kim, Kang-Jin

2008-12-01

434

A simple fluorimetric microassay for DNA in hair follicles or fractions of hair follicles.  

PubMed

Human hair follicles may be useful for determining individual differences in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in epithelial tissues. for quantitative measurements of carcinogen metabolism, determination of the amount of DNA in the hair follicles is necessary in order to correct for individual size variation. A simple method for DNa determination in hair follicles is described, based on the use of a hypotonic pronase solution to solubilise DNA which is then available for complex formation with mithramycin or 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. 2HCI (DAPI). The mithramycin method permits the measurement of DNA in a small number of hair follicles, while the DAPI method is sensitive for as little as one single bulb. PMID:6212022

Hukkelhoven, M W; Vromans, E; Markslag, A M; Vermorken, A J

1981-01-01

435

Uncovering the structure of human red hair pheomelanin: benzothiazolylthiazinodihydroisoquinolines as key building blocks.  

PubMed

Biomimetic oxidation of the pheomelanin precursor 5-S-cysteinyldopa in the presence of Zn(2+) ions led to the isolation of two isomeric products, one of which could be identified as the benzothiazolylthiazinodihydroisoquinoline 5, while the other proved too unstable for a complete characterization. Both these products were converted into more stable oxidized forms, which after ethylchloroformate derivatization were characterized as the ethyl ester/ethoxycarbonyl isoquinolines 8 and 9. Compound 5 exhibited absorption characteristics similar to those of red hair pheomelanin, including a main band around 400 nm in acids. Similarly to red hair pheomelanin and synthetic pigments, 5 afforded on chemical degradation a thiazolylpyridinecarboxylic acid fragment. Model chemical studies allowed the proposal of a formation mechanism for the benzothiazole and dihydroisoquinoline systems in compound 5. PMID:21341762

Greco, Giorgia; Panzella, Lucia; Verotta, Luisella; d'Ischia, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra

2011-04-25

436

A generative sketch model for human hair analysis and synthesis.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a generative sketch model for human hair analysis and synthesis. We treat hair images as 2D piecewise smooth vector (flow) fields and, thus, our representation is view-based in contrast to the physically-based 3D hair models in graphics. The generative model has three levels. The bottom level is the high-frequency band of the hair image. The middle level is a piecewise smooth vector field for the hair orientation, gradient strength, and growth directions. The top level is an attribute sketch graph for representing the discontinuities in the vector field. A sketch graph typically has a number of sketch curves which are divided into 11 types of directed primitives. Each primitive is a small window (say 5 x 7 pixels) where the orientations and growth directions are defined in parametric forms, for example, hair boundaries, occluding lines between hair strands, dividing lines on top of the hair, etc. In addition to the three level representation, we model the shading effects, i.e., the low-frequency band of the hair image, by a linear superposition of some Gaussian image bases and we encode the hair color by a color map. The inference algorithm is divided into two stages: 1) We compute the undirected orientation field and sketch graph from an input image and 2) we compute the hair growth direction forthe sketch curves and the orientation field using a Swendsen-Wang cut algorithm. Both steps maximize a joint Bayesian posterior probability. The generative model provides a straightforward way for synthesizing realistic hair images and stylistic drawings (rendering) from a sketch graph and a few Gaussian bases. The latter can be either inferred from a real hair image or input (edited) manually using a simple sketching interface. We test our algorithm on a large data set of hair images with diverse hair styles. Analysis, synthesis, and rendering results are reported in the experiments. PMID:16792093

Chen, Hong; Zhu, Song-Chun

2006-07-01

437

EH AND S ANALYSIS OF DYE-SENSITIZED PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION.  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic solar cells based on a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide photoelectrode have been researched and reported since the early 1990's. Commercial production of dye-sensitized photovoltaic solar cells has recently been reported in Australia. In this report, current manufacturing methods are described, and estimates are made of annual chemical use and emissions during production. Environmental, health and safety considerations for handling these materials are discussed. This preliminary EH and S evaluation of dye-sensitized titanium dioxide solar cells indicates that some precautions will be necessary to mitigate hazards that could result in worker exposure. Additional information required for a more complete assessment is identified.

BOWERMAN,B.; FTHENAKIS,V.

2001-10-01

438

Menkes kinky hair disease: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eight month old male infant with protein energy malnutrition was admitted in the hospital with the history of repeated attacks of convulsion since four months of age. He was also suffering from frequent attacks of cough and cold since 6 months of age which was marked prior to admission. The infant had fair complexion, sparse fuzzy wooly hair with

Asok K Datta; Taraknath Ghosh; Kaustav Nayak; Mrinalkanti Ghosh

2008-01-01

439

Toe hair-thread tourniquet syndrome.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old boy presented with swelling and discoloration of the right third toe because of hair-thread tourniquet syndrome. This was treated by urgent surgical release of the constricting band, with a successful outcome. The authors stress the importance of recognizing this rare condition and of prompt, complete, surgical release. PMID:19434041

Unlü, Ca?da?; Gundlach, Udo; Vrouenraets, Bart C

2009-06-01

440

Endovascular Treatment of AVF after Hair Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the scalp is a very rare complication of hair transplantation. Only 9 cases have been reported in nearly half a century. The diagnosis is clinical but angiography is necessary for defining the angioarchitecture of the lesion. Due to technical developments, endovascular embolization has become the primary treatment for AVF of the scalp.

Dogan, Sozen; Cinar, Celal; Demirpolat, Gulen; Memis, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmemis@yahoo.co [Ege University, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2008-07-15

441

Unwanted Facial Hair: Affects, Effects and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following is a review of a satellite symposium held at the EHRS Meeting in June 2006. U.B.P. reminded the audience that unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important issue; over 40% of the women in the general population have some degree of UFH, and its psychological and psychosocial impact should not be underestimated. The treatment of UFH involves many

U. Blume-Peytavi; U. Gieler; R. Hoffmann; S. Lavery; J. Shapiro

2007-01-01

442

Hair Element Content in Learning Disabled Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hair samples from 31 learning disabled and 22 normal children were analyzed. Significant group differences were determined and a discriminant function was computed which separated the groups with 98 percent accuracy. Elevated lead and cadmium content in the learning disabled group is viewed as being of particular importance. (Author/SL)

Pihl, R. O.; Parkes, M.

1977-01-01

443

Human hair as a pollutant dosimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair has been proved to be a better dosimeter than even blood for tracing most of the heavy metal toxins when they penetrate the biosphere. The high precision of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) enabled researchers to elegantly differentiate between endogenous and exogenous contamination and to thoroughly study poisonings caused by these physiologically-unimportant elements. An extensive amount of bench-scale

A. Al-Hashimi; S. S. Krishnan; R. E. Jervis

1992-01-01

444

Aetiology and Pathophysiology of Hair Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of androgenetic alopecia has not been accurately recorded but it is probably true that, at least in caucasoid races, some degree of transformation of terminal to vellus hair follicles on the vertex from puberty onwards is a universal phenomenon in both sexes, although androgenetic alopecia in women more often assumes a diffuse form. Our knowledge of the pathogenesis

R. P. R. Dawber

1987-01-01

445

21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling...additives, except those in a form suitable for coloring the human body, shall state: (1) The name of the straight...

2013-04-01

446

21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling...additives, except those in a form suitable for coloring the human body, shall state: (1) The name of the straight...

2012-04-01

447

21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling...additives, except those in a form suitable for coloring the human body, shall state: (1) The name of the straight...

2014-04-01

448

21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for a general or specific use of a straight color, the amount of each such straight color in terms of weight per unit/volume or percent by weight...data require it. (b) Special labeling for color additives with tolerances. Where...

2010-04-01

449

The Fenton Chemistry and Its Combination with Coagulation for Treatment of Dye Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solutions of Acid Blue 74, Acid Orange 10, and Acid Violet 19 were subjected to Fenton\\/Fenton?like oxidation and its combination with lime coagulation. The analysis indicated no dependence of chemical oxidation efficacy on dye concentration in the range of 0.1–1 g L. Complete or nearly complete (higher than 95%) color removal of all treated samples was observed. Dye:H2O2 weight ratio of

Niina Kulik; Yekaterina Panova; Marina Trapido

2007-01-01

450

Characterizing arsenic in preserved hair for assessing exposure potential and discriminating poisoning  

SciTech Connect

Advanced analytical techniques have been used to characterize arsenic in taxidermy specimens. Arsenic was examined to aid in discriminating its use as a preservative from that incorporated by ingestion and hence indicate poisoning (in the case of historical figures). The results are relevant to museum curators, occupational and environmental exposure concerns, toxicological and anthropological investigations. Hair samples were obtained from six taxidermy specimens preserved with arsenic in the late 1800s and early 1900s to investigate the arsenic incorporation. The presence of arsenic poses a potential hazard in museum and private collections. For one sample, arsenic was confirmed to be present on the hair with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and then measured with neutron activation analysis to comprise 176 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The hair cross section was analysed with synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence to investigate the transverse distribution of topically applied arsenic. It was found that the arsenic had significantly penetrated all hair samples. Association with melanin clusters and the medulla was observed. Lead and mercury were also identified in one sample. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy of the As K-edge indicated that an arsenate species predominantly existed in all samples; however, analysis was hindered by very rapid photoreduction of the arsenic. It would be difficult to discriminate arsenic consumption from topically applied arsenic based on the physical transverse distribution. Longitudinal distributions and chemical speciation may still allow differentiation.

Kempson, Ivan M.; Henry, Dermot; Francis, James; (Museum Vic.); (U. South Australia); (UWO)

2009-05-21

451

To let hair be, or to not let hair be? Gender and body hair removal practices in Aotearoa/New Zealand.  

PubMed

Research and anecdotal evidence suggest women continue to remove body hair, and there is some evidence for cultural changes in men's hair removal practices. This paper reports on data collected using an online mix-methods survey from 584 New Zealanders between the ages of 18-35 (mean age 26, 48.9% male, 50.6% female). The data demonstrated that substantial proportions of both women and men in Aotearoa/New Zealand remove body hair from many sites. However, gendered differences remain, and a key dimension of gendered difference appears in the concept of flexible choice around body hair removal or retention. This was seen in the difference between perceived acceptability of having body hair (81% for men, 11% for women). These findings suggest that although men, like women, are now coming under some pressure to remove body hair, there is still a great difference in men and women's capacity to choose whether to bow to it. PMID:23932408

Terry, Gareth; Braun, Virginia

2013-09-01

452

The evolution of root hairs and rhizoids  

PubMed Central

Background Almost all land plants develop tip-growing filamentous cells at the interface between the plant and substrate (the soil). Root hairs form on the surface of roots of sporophytes (the multicellular diploid phase of the life cycle) in vascular plants. Rhizoids develop on the free-living gametophytes of vascular and non-vascular plants and on both gametophytes and sporophytes of the extinct rhyniophytes. Extant lycophytes (clubmosses and quillworts) and monilophytes (ferns and horsetails) develop both free-living gametophytes and free-living sporophytes. These gametophytes and sporophytes grow in close contact with the soil and develop rhizoids and root hairs, respectively. Scope Here we review the development and function of rhizoids and root hairs in extant groups of land plants. Root hairs are important for the uptake of nutrients with limited mobility in the soil such as phosphate. Rhizoids have a variety of functions including water transport and adhesion to surfaces in some mosses and liverworts. Conclusions A similar gene regulatory network controls the development of rhizoids in moss gametophytes and root hairs on the roots of vascular plant sporophytes. It is likely that this gene regulatory network first operated in the gametophyte of the earliest land plants. We propose that later it functioned in sporophytes as the diploid phase evolved a free-living habit and developed an interface with the soil. This transference of gene function from gametophyte to sporophyte could provide a mechanism that, at least in part, explains the increase in morphological diversity of sporophytes that occurred during the radiation of land plants in the Devonian Period. PMID:22730024

Jones, Victor A.S.; Dolan, Liam

2012-01-01

453

Kinocilia mediate mechanosensitivity in developing zebrafish hair cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mechanosensitive cilia are vital to signaling and development across many species. In sensory hair cells, sound and movement are transduced by apical hair bundles. Each bundle is comprised of a single primary cilium (kinocilium) flanked by multiple rows of actin-filled projections (stereocilia). Extracellular tip links that interconnect stereocilia are thought to gate mechanosensitive channels. In contrast to stereocilia, kinocilia are not critical for hair-cell mechanotransduction. However, by sequentially imaging the structure of hair bundles and mechanosensitivity of individual lateral-line hair cells in vivo, we uncovered a central role for kinocilia in mechanosensation during development. Our data demonstrate that nascent hair cells require kinocilia and kinocilial links for mechanosensitivity. Although nascent hair bundles have correct planar polarity, the polarity of their responses to mechanical stimuli is initially reversed. Later in development, a switch to correctly polarized mechanosensitivity coincides with the formation of tip links and the onset of tip link-dependent mechanotransduction. PMID:22898777

Kindt, Katie S.; Finch, Gabriel; Nicolson, Teresa

2012-01-01

454

Leptin of dermal adipose tissue is differentially expressed during the hair cycle and contributes to adipocyte-mediated growth inhibition of anagen-phase vibrissa hair.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue encircles the lower portion of anagen hair follicles and may regulate hair cycle progression. As leptin is a major adipokine, its level of expression from the dermal white adipose tissue during hair cycle progression was studied. The result shows that leptin level is differentially expressed during hair cycle, the lowest in early anagen phase, upregulated in late anagen phase and the highest in the telogen phase. On the other hand, leptin receptor is detected in keratin 15-positive hair bulge epithelium of both anagen- and telogen-phase hair follicles of mice pelage and vibrissa hair, and hair from human scalp. Leptin contributes to adipocyte-mediated growth inhibition of anagen-phase vibrissa hair as demonstrated in organ culture and coculture system. Our data suggest that leptin of dermal white adipose tissue might regulate hair growth and, therefore, hair cycle progression via leptin receptor on the hair follicle epithelium. PMID:25313970

Yang, Chao-Chun; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Chung, Pei-Lun; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Hughes, Michael W; Tuan, Tai-Lan; Huang, Lynn L H

2015-01-01

455

Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells  

SciTech Connect

This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

Barber, Greg D.

2009-12-21

456

A study on the concentrations of 11-nor-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in hair root and whole hair.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the patterns of cannabis users (n=412) according to their sex, age, and the results of urinalysis and hair analysis, and classified the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair into three categories to examine the levels of cannabis use. We also compared the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair root, hair without the hair root and whole hair and examined the relationship among them according to the results of urinalysis. The hair samples were washed, digested with 1ml of 1M NaOH at 85°C for 30min and extracted with 2ml of n-hexane:ethyl acetate (9:1) two times after adding 1ml of 0.1N sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.5) and 200?l of acetic acid. The final mixture was derivatized with 50?l of PFPA and 25?l of PFPOH for 30min at 70°C. The solution was evaporated, and the residue was reconstituted in 40?l of ethyl acetate and transferred to an autosampler vial. One microlitre was injected into the GC/MS/MS-NCI system. The concentrations of THCCOOH ranged from 0.06 to 33.44pg/mg (mean 2.96; median 1.32) in hair from cannabis users who had positive urine results and ranged from 0.05 to 7.24pg/mg (mean 1.35; median 0.37) in hair from cannabis users who had negative urine results. The average concentration of THCCOOH in hair from cannabis users who had positive urine results was higher than that from cannabis users who had negative urine results. Male cannabis users in their forties were predominant. We classified the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair into three groups (low, medium and high), and could use the grouping of THCCOOH in hair as a guide for determining the level of use. The low, medium and high concentration ranges for THCCOOH in hair were 0.05-0.24, 0.25-2.60 and 2.63-33.44pg/mg, respectively. We also investigated 28 hair samples with the root. The highest concentrations of THCCOOH were seen in the hair root from 18 out of the 28 hair samples. The average concentrations of THCCOOH in hair root, hair without hair root and whole hair from cannabis users who had positive urine results were higher than those who had negative urine results. PMID:21497466

Han, Eunyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sangki; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

2011-07-15

457

Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator  

DOEpatents

A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

Hackel, R.P.

1992-11-24

458

Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator  

DOEpatents

A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability.

Hackel, Richard P. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01

459

Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

1987-01-01

460

Proteomic tools for the investigation of human hair structural proteins and evidence of weakness sites on hair keratin coil segments.  

PubMed

Human hair is principally composed of hair keratins and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) that form a complex network giving the hair its rigidity and mechanical properties. However, during their growth, hairs are subject to various treatments that can induce irreversible damage. For a better understanding of the human hair protein structures, proteomic mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies could assist in characterizing numerous isoforms and posttranslational modifications of human hair fiber proteins. However, due to their physicochemical properties, characterization of human hair proteins using classical proteomic approaches is still a challenge. To address this issue, we have used two complementary approaches to analyze proteins from the human hair cortex. The multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPit) approach allowed identifying all keratins and the major KAPs present in the hair as well as posttranslational modifications in keratins such as cysteine trioxidation, lysine, and histidine methylation. Then two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with MS (2-DE gel MS) allowed us to obtain the most complete 2-DE gel pattern of human hair proteins, revealing an unexpected heterogeneity of keratin structures. Analyses of these structures by differential peptide mapping have brought evidence of cleaved species in hair keratins and suggest a preferential breaking zone in ?-helical segments. PMID:22056946

Barthélemy, Nicolas R; Bednarczyk, Audrey; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Jullien, Dominique; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Cavusoglu, Nükhet

2012-02-01

461

Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

Davin, J.

1992-12-01

462

Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration  

DOEpatents

A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner.

Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

1992-01-01

463

Dye and its removal from aqueous solution by adsorption: a review.  

PubMed

In this review article the authors presented up to-date development on the application of adsorption in the removal of dyes from aqueous solution. This review article provides extensive literature information about dyes, its classification and toxicity, various treatment methods, and dye adsorption characteristics by various adsorbents. One of the objectives of this review article is to organise the scattered available information on various aspects on a wide range of potentially effective adsorbents in the removal of dyes. Therefore, an extensive list of various adsorbents such as natural materials, waste materials from industry, agricultural by-products, and biomass based activated carbon in the removal of various dyes has been compiled here. Dye bearing waste treatment by adsorption using low cost alternative adsorbent is a demanding area as it has double benefits i.e. water treatment and waste management. Further, activated carbon from biomass has the advantage of offering an effected low cost replacement for non-renewable coal based granular activated carbon provided that they have similar or better adsorption on efficiency. The effectiveness of various adsorbents under different physico-chemical process parameters and their comparative adsorption capacity towards dye adsorption has also been presented. This review paper also includes the affective adsorption factors of dye such as solution pH, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, and temperature. The applicability of various adsorption kinetic models and isotherm models for dye removal by wide range of adsorbents is also reported here. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed and few suggestions for future research are proposed. PMID:24780401

Yagub, Mustafa T; Sen, Tushar Kanti; Afroze, Sharmeen; Ang, H M

2014-07-01

464

Environmentally Friendly Natural Dyeing of Organic Cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, organic cotton fabrics were dyed with different natural dye sources (madder root, walnut shell, henna, horse chestnut, pomegranate peel, berberis vulgaris root, thyme, and sage tea). The dyeing was carried out with different mordants (copper sulphate, potassium aluminum sulphate, potassium tartrate, and citric acid), using pre-mordanting dyeing methods. The color of the fabrics was investigated in terms

Mustafa Tutak; N. Ebru Korkmaz

2012-01-01

465

In the Bag: Contact Natural Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact dyeing is a practical alternative to the more common immersion method of natural dyeing. Contact dyeing is a very low liquor ratio method where the actual natural dyestuff is placed around and between the goods to be dyed. The dyestuff and goods are compressed into a bundle that is placed in a plastic bag and heated by using steam,

Sara J. Kadolph; Karen Diadick Casselman

2004-01-01

466

PHOTOLYSIS OF SMOKE DYES ON SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Photolysis of an azo, a quinophthalone, and several anthraquinone smoke dyes was studied on soil surfaces. nitially, rapid photodegradation of each dye occurred, followed by a period of much slower rate of loss, indicating that the remaining fraction of the dye was photochemicall...

467

Expression of CD1d in human scalp skin and hair follicles: hair cycle related alterations  

PubMed Central

Background: CD1d belongs to a family of antigen presenting molecules that are structurally and distantly related to the classic major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) proteins. However, unlike MHC I molecules, which bind protein antigens, CD1d binds to lipid and glycolipid antigens. CD1d is expressed by cells of lymphoid and myeloid origin, and by cells outside of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages, such as human keratinocytes of psoriatic skin. Aims: To investigate whether CD1d is also expressed in sun exposed skin and in the immunoprivileged anagen hair follicle. Materials/Methods: CD1d immunoreactivity was studied in human scalp skin and hair follicles of healthy women in situ by immunofluorescent and light microscopic immunohistology. Skin biopsies were obtained from normal human scalp containing mainly anagen VI hair follicles from women (age, 53–57 years) undergoing elective plastic surgery. Results: CD1d showed strong immunostaining in human scalp skin epidermis, pilosebaceous units, and eccrine glands. In the epidermis, CD1d was strongly expressed by basal and granular keratinocytes. In hair follicles, CD1d was expressed in the epithelial compartment and showed hair cycle related alterations, with an increase in the anagen and a reduction in the catagen and telogen phases. Conclusions: These results suggest that CD1d plays a role in human scalp skin immunology and protection against lipid antigen rich infectious microbes. They also raise the question of whether keratinocytes of the immunoprivileged anagen hair follicle can present lipid antigens to natural killer T cells. These data could help provide new strategies for the manipulation of hair related disorders. PMID:16311347

Adley, M A; Assaf, H A; Hussein, M

2005-01-01

468

Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes  

PubMed Central

Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25). Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid) into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other commercially important products. The use of immobilized fungal biomass limits free migration of cells and facilitates their reuse in a continuous system for precursor transformation. PMID:20598166

2010-01-01

469

Dye-doped silica-based nanoparticles for bioapplications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents our recent research results on synthesis and bioapplications of dye-doped silica-based nanoparticles. The dye-doped water soluble organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) nanoparticles (NPs) with the size of 15–100 nm were synthesized by modified Stöber method from methyltriethoxysilane CH3Si(OCH3)3 precursor (MTEOS). Because thousands of fluorescent dye molecules are encapsulated in the silica-based matrix, the dye-doped nanoparticles are extremely bright and photostable. Their surfaces were modified with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and biocompatible chemical reagents. The highly intensive luminescent nanoparticles were combined with specific bacterial and breast cancer antigen antibodies. The antibody-conjugated nanoparticles can identify a variety of bacterium, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, through antibody–antigen interaction and recognition. A highly sensitive breast cancer cell detection has been achieved with the anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody–nanoparticles complex. These results demonstrate the potential to apply these fluorescent nanoparticles in various biodetection systems.

Nhung Tran, Hong; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Thuy Duong Vu, Thi; Tan Pham, Minh; Van Nguyen, Thi; Trang Tran, Thu; Chu, Viet Ha; Thuan Tong, Kim; Thuy Tran, Thanh; Le, Thi Thanh Xuan; Brochon, Jean-Claude; Quy Nguyen, Thi; Nhung Hoang, My; Nguyen Duong, Cao; Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Hoang, Anh Tuan; Hoa Nguyen, Phuong

2013-12-01

470

Electron injection dynamics in dye-sensitized semiconductor nanocrystalline films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have summarized recent ultrafast spectroscopic studies on phenomena associated with dye-sensitization of semiconductor metal oxide nanoparticles, especially TiO2 nanocrystalline film from a surface science perspective with a strong relation to mechanism of electron injection in dye-sensitized solar cells, which are attracting much interest from both viewpoints of pure science and applied science. A lot of chemical and physical processes are involved in this solar cell, such as light harvesting by molecules and nanostructures, interfacial electron transfer, charge migration in solid and electrolyte, degradation of the materials, and so on. Among them, the very primary process initiated by photoabsorption by sensitizing dye molecules; that is, electron injection from excited adsorbates into the conduction band of semiconductor metal oxides is significantly important, because this process must be 100% efficient with a minimum driving force for high current and voltage generation. We have first focused on details of experimental methods used in this research area, and then in the following Sections, have organized this review by concentrating on each parameter that influences dynamics of electron injection in dye-sensitized semiconductors. Finally we have emphasized it is important to measure actual DSSCs for the precise comparison between electron injection dynamics and device performance.

Furube, Akihiro; Katoh, Ryuzi; Hara, Kohjiro

2014-12-01

471