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Sample records for hair dye chemicals

  1. Hair care and dyeing.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2015-01-01

    Alopecia can be effectively camouflaged or worsened through the use of hair care techniques and dyeing. Proper hair care, involving hair styling and the use of mild shampoos and body-building conditioners, can amplify thinning scalp hair; however, chemical processing, including hair dyeing, permanent waving, and hair straightening, can encourage further hair loss through breakage. Many patients suffering from alopecia attempt to improve their hair through extensive manipulation, which only increases problems. Frequent haircuts to minimize split ends, accompanied by gentle handling of the fragile fibers, is best. This chapter offers the dermatologist insight into hair care recommendations for the alopecia patient. PMID:26370650

  2. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  3. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects. PMID:24754409

  4. Hair dye poisoning and rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Bokutz, Munira; Nasir, Nosheen; Mahmood, Faisal; Sajid, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Hair dye ingestion is a rare cause of toxicity in Pakistan. We are presenting the case report of a 55 year old male who presented with accidental hair dye ingestion and developed laryngeal oedema requiring emergent tracheostomy. He had also developed aspiration pneumonitis and chemical oesophagitis. However, the most alarming manifestation was rhabdomyolysis. Hair dye toxicity can be fatal if not recognized early. There is no antidote available. Rhabdomyolysis is a complication and needs to be managed aggressively in order to prevent long term morbidity. PMID:25976581

  5. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. PMID:24656996

  6. Experimental study on skin sensitization potencies and cross-reactivities of hair-dye-related chemicals in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z; Hayakawa, R; Sugiura, M; Kojima, H; Konishi, H; Ichihara, G; Takeuchi, Y

    2000-05-01

    In screening patch testing of hairdressers with occupational contact dermatitis, multiple positive reactions to hair dye-related chemicals, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD), p-toluenediamine x 2HCl (PTD) and p-aminophenol (PAP), a fabric dye p-aminoazobenzene (PAB), and a tar dye Sudan III, were frequently encountered. To investigate individual skin sensitization potency and the cross-reactivities among above chemicals, a guinea pig maximization test with the above 5 chemicals was performed. In each group, 6 animals were induced with one of the chemicals at 0.1% concentration by intradermal injection and at 1.0% by topical application. The animals were challenged with all 5 chemicals in concentrations of dilution by 10 from 0.1% to 0.001%. Under the conditions of 0.1% challenges, similar sensitization potencies were observed in PPD (6/6), PTD (6/6), PAP (5/6) and PAB (6/6) groups, but no positive reactions were elicited in the Sudan III group. The cross-reactivities to PPD were confirmed in the animals challenged with PTD (6/6), PAP (6/6), PAB (6/6) and Sudan III (3/6). In the PTD-induced group, positive responses to cross-challenges were elicited by PPD (5/6), PAP (3/6), PAB (5/6) and Sudan III (1/6). The cross-reactivities to PAP were observed only with PPD (2/5) and PAB (5/5). PAB-induced animals responded only to PPD (1/6). The results indicate that all these chemicals except Sudan III are strong sensitizers. Their cross-reactivities are different in sensitized conditions, respectively. The cross-reactivities to PPD were higher than those to PTD, PAP and PAB. PMID:10789841

  7. Dominant lethal mutagenicity study on hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Burnett, C; Loehr, R; Corbett, J

    1977-01-01

    A dominant lethal mutagenicity study was performed in rats with the following chemicals that may be used to dye hair: 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, m-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, p-phenylenediamine, p-toluenediamine, 2,4-diaminoanisole, 2,5-diaminoanisole, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, and 4-amino-2-nitrophenol. The compounds were administered intraperitoneally three times weekly for 8 weeks to groups of 20 sexually mature Charles River CD male rats at a dose of 20 mg/kg. This amount of dye is an enormous exaggeration of the human exposure from brief montly topical application of a hair color product containing 2 g (40 mg/kg) or less total dye. There was no evidence of an increase in postimplantation fetal loss which could indicate a dominant lethal effect. Included are data on the acute toxicity of the dyes by various routes of administration in different vehicles. PMID:846013

  8. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: an update.

    PubMed

    Handa, Sanjeev; Mahajan, Rahul; De, Dipankar

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer. PMID:22960813

  9. Hair dye distribution in human hair by ToF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo-Jung; Lee, Pei-Ling; Chen, Wen-Yin; Mai, Fu-Der; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2006-07-01

    A single hair sample preparation protocol modified from reported method was developed and used to prepare longitudinally sectioned hair for ToF-SIMS analysis. Preliminary results demonstrate that ToF-SIMS is capable of providing molecular distribution of fragment ions from intrinsic constituents as well as external chemicals like the hair dye ingredients used in this study. The observation of pPDA and H 2PO 4- penetrating into the internal region of hair might initiate a renewed interest in exposure study.

  10. Hair dye sensitivity testing: a critical commentary.

    PubMed

    Orton, David; Basketter, David

    2012-06-01

    Although the large majority of users do not experience adverse skin reactions to hair dye products, a minority do. Most serious among these are allergic skin reactions, commonly to p-phenylenediamine and its derivatives. The consumer or hairdresser is expected (by the manufacturer) to limit the chance of expression of allergy by conducting a 'sensitivity test', which should provide the consumer with an alert for possible allergic reactivity. However, a self-conducted consumer test can only be useful if it meets a number of important criteria, including evidence that the test protocol works, that it can and is likely to be used successfully by the consumer or hairdresser, and that it does not present a significant health risk (e.g. an increased risk of developing allergy). In short, as with any in vivo test, the benefit must outweigh the risks. In formulating such a test, it should be determined in advance what are the acceptable levels of specificity (correct identification of negatives) and sensitivity (correct identification of positives). It is our view that any hair dye sensitivity test, whether supplied by the hair dye manufacturer or a third party, should be able to answer these questions. PMID:22568837

  11. Effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hairs.

    PubMed

    Baeck, SeungKyung; Han, EunYoung; Chung, HeeSun; Pyo, MyoungYun

    2011-03-20

    The effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in hair samples of MA addicts were studied. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples collected from male (n = 24, 24-51 yrs) and female abusers (n = 7, 17-46 yrs) were evaluated for MA and AM concentration's changes after repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples, no additional treatment hair sample group (NAT), were treated in vitro with liquid soap or three kinds of hair dyes which were black, brown and yellow color hair dye, respectively. Quantitation of AM and MA in hair samples was utilized GC-MS using selected ion monitoring. MA and AM concentrations in NAT were 10.41 8.91 ng/mg (range 1.50-30.0 ng/mg) and 2.24 2.75 ng/mg (range 0.41-12.90 ng/mg). And, their concentrations were decreased about 23.3 4.5% (range 16.7-32.8%) in hair repeated washing group (WAS) and 32.6 4.82 (22.2-41.9) in three kinds of a single hair dyeing groups in comparison to original concentrations of MA and AM in NAT. A statistically significant difference was found between NAT and WAS or three hair dyeing groups (p < 0.01), but not between WAS and three hair dyeing groups, and not between each hair dyeing groups with each three kinds of hair dyes (p > 0.05). PMID:20650577

  12. Hair dye use and risk of leukemia and lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, K P; Blair, A; Everett, G; VanLier, S; Burmeister, L; Dick, F R; Gibson, R W; Schuman, L

    1988-01-01

    Data from a population-based case-control study of incident leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among adult men in Iowa and Minnesota were used to evaluate risk associated with hair dye use. The relative risk for ever using hair dyes was 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-2.7) among leukemia patients, and 2.0 (CI = 1.3-3.0) among cases with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was a suggestion of increased risk with extent of hair dye use. Given the widespread use of hair coloring products, these observations deserve more detailed evaluation in populations where the exposure is relatively common. PMID:3354743

  13. Severe facial swelling in a pregnant woman after using hair dye

    PubMed Central

    van Genderen, Michel E; Carels, Ginette; Lonnee, Edward R; Dees, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    A 33-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman (26 weeks’ gestation) presented to the emergency department. She had a 2-day history of severe itching of the scalp and steadily worsening swelling of the face over the previous 12 h, which had extended to the neck. She had no difficulty breathing. The itching and swelling had developed 3 days after she had used hair dye. The patient had no history of allergic responses to hair dye or black henna tattoos. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction was made. Permanent hair dyes are the most frequently used professional hair dyes and are most commonly based on paraphenylenediamine (PPD) or related chemicals. PPD is known to be one of the most potent allergens which cause allergic contact dermatitis. After treatment with intravenous antihistamines and steroids, the facial swelling reduced and the patient had completely recovered by the following day. PMID:24686800

  14. Paraphenylenediamine Containing Hair Dye: An Emerging Household Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Patra, Ambika Prasad; Shaha, Kusa Kumar; Rayamane, Anand P; Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Mohanty, Sachidananda

    2015-09-01

    Paraphenylenediamine poisoning is among one of the emerging causes of poisoning in Asian countries, because it is a constituent of hair dye formulations and is easily available in market at low cost. Hair dyes are rampantly used in Asian households compared with the western world. Locally, hair dye constituents may have allergic adverse effects, and acute systemic poisoning presents with characteristic angioedema, upper airway obstruction, rhabdomyolysis, methemoglobinemia, myoglobinuria, and acute renal failure. This study reports about the death of a 24-year-old Indian housewife who committed suicide by taking hair dye emulsion. She had an argument with her husband, and because of fit of rage, took a bowlful (80 mL) of hair dye emulsion kept prepared for the use by husband. She developed angioedema, cervical swelling, and rhabdomyolysis and died of acute renal failure within 24 hours. Toxicological analysis of viscera and blood revealed varying levels of paraphenylenediamine. Histopathological samples of kidney showed features of acute tubular necrosis and myoglobin casts in renal tubules. The aim of the study is to create awareness about the adverse effects of the hair dye, its poisoning outcome, and possible preventive measures. PMID:26056768

  15. Aberration corrected STEM to study an ancient hair dyeing formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarche, G.; Van Elslande, E.; Castaing, J.; Walter, P.

    2014-05-01

    Lead-based chemistry was initiated in ancient Egypt for cosmetic preparation more than 4000 years ago. Here, we study a hair-dyeing recipe using lead salts described in text since Greco-Roman times. We report direct evidence about the shape and distribution of PbS nanocrystals that form within the hair during blackening.

  16. The incorporation of dyes into hair as a model for drug binding.

    PubMed

    DeLauder, S F; Kidwell, D A

    2000-01-10

    The binding of charged substances from external aqueous media to hair has been investigated through the use of fluorescence microscopy. Eleven hair samples, reflecting various ethnic groups and cosmetic treatments, were tested. Rhodamine 6G, a cationic dye representative of drugs such as cocaine and opiates, showed incorporation throughout the hair of all samples except one. In contrast, fluorescein, an anionic dye representative of drugs such as THC carboxylic acid, was not readily incorporated. The incorporation of rhodamine 6G was faster for chemically 'straightened' and bleached African-American female hair than for untreated hair. Incorporation of rhodamine 6G followed a pH dependence, but an ionic strength dependence could not be established. These studies support three postulates: (1) electrostatic interactions explain the preferential binding of cationic drugs of abuse to hair; (2) the hair matrix, or the non-helical portion of hair, is accessible to external solutions and thus subject to contamination; and (3) cosmetic treatments may alter the helical portion of hair thereby increasing its accessibility to external contamination. PMID:10689564

  17. [The effect of a p-phenylenediamine containing hair dye on the Ca2+ mobilization in the chemically skinned skeletal muscle of the rat].

    PubMed

    Yabe, K

    1992-04-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of a p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-related occurrence of rhabdomyolysis, the pharmacological effects of PPD, a main component of hair dyes, on the function of the contractile proteins and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) have been investigated in single skeletal muscle fibers of the rat by using the skinned fiber method. The results of our findings are enumerated below 1) A positive contraction of the skinned fibers by the PPD, and a complete suppression of the contraction by Mg2+, and a negative contraction by caffeine while under conditions with 50 mM of PPD were noted, suggesting that the contraction of the muscle by PPD is caused by the release of Ca2+ from the SR. 2) PPD inhibited the Ca2+ uptake by the SR in a concentration-dependent manner. 3) PPD greatly accelerated Ca2+ leakage from the SR, and the number of Ca2+ remnants 3 minutes after the administration of 50 mM of PPD amounted to only 3%. 4) The calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) was accelerated in areas with a low Ca2+ concentration, and the amount of Ca2+ released at a pCa of 7.5 showed an increase of up to 63% on PPD administration of 50 mM. 5) PPD did not influence the Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile system. It thus has been speculated that PPD can bring about rhabdomyolysis by promoting the CICR and leakage of Ca2+ from the SR, this being followed by an increase in the Ca2+ concentration and by consequent changes that develop in the muscle, such as continuous contraction, an irreversible change in the muscle's structure and/or a hypermetabolic change. PMID:1619810

  18. [Hair colorants].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Kar?owska, B; Luks, E; Jedra, M; Kiss, E; Malanowska, M

    1997-01-01

    The properties, mode of action and its duration of the preparations used for hair dyeing are described, together with their chemical components, and also preparations of herbal origin. The chemical reactions are described in detail which lead the development of a color polymer occurring during hair dyeing. The studies are presented which are used for toxicological assessment of the raw materials which are the components of the colorants, and the list is included of hair colorants permitted for use in Poland. PMID:9562811

  19. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of two hair dyes used in the formulation of black color.

    PubMed

    Tafurt-Cardona, Yaliana; Suares-Rocha, Paula; Fernandes, Thaís Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-12-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), some hair dyes are considered mutagenic and carcinogenic in in vitro assays and exposed human populations. Epidemiological studies indicate that hairdressers occupationally exposed to hair dyes have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer. In Brazil, 26% of the adults use hair dye. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of two hair dyes, Basic Red 51 (BR51) and Basic Brown 17 (BB17), which are temporary dyes of the azo group (R-N=N-R'), used in the composition of the black hair dye. To this end, MTT and trypan blue assays (cytotoxicity), comet and micronucleus assay (genotoxicity) were applied, with HepG2 cells. For cytotoxic assessment, dyes were tested in serial dilutions, being the highest concentrations those used in the commercial formula for hair dyes. For genotoxic assessment concentrations were selected according to cell viability. Results showed that both dyes induced significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in the cells, in concentrations much lower than those used in the commercial formula. Genotoxic effects could be related to the azo structure present in the composition of the dyes, which is known as mutagenic and carcinogenic. These results point to the hazard of the hair dye exposure to human health. PMID:26404083

  20. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel of the label and any labeling accompanying a... your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b) Hair dyes containing...

  1. Right Bundle Branch Block: An Uncommon Cardiotoxic Manifestation of Hair Dye Poisoning-A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Deepak; Subramanian, Saravanan; Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Shanmugam, Kani

    2014-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning has been rising in incidence in the recent years. Apart from the commoner manifestations of upper airway edema, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, cardiac toxicity, convulsions and sudden cardiac death are relatively rare complications. We discuss a case of hair dye poisoning manifesting as oropharyngeal edema along with cardiac complication. The patient survived. PMID:24596762

  2. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers which...

  3. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers which...

  4. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers which...

  5. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements. All color additives shall...

  6. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers which...

  7. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements. All color additives shall...

  8. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements. All color additives shall...

  9. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers which...

  10. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements. All color additives shall...

  11. A case-control study of hair dye use and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shore, R E; Pasternack, B S; Thiessen, E U; Sadow, M; Forbes, R; Albert, R E

    1979-02-01

    A case-control study of the relationship between hair dye use and breast cancer included 129 breast cancer patients and 193 control women drawn from the records of a multiphasic screening clinic. Information was obtained by telephone interview on a number of risk factors for breast cancer and on variables pertaining to hair dye use: chronologic time, duration, frequency, type, and color. From this, quantitative measures of cumulative hair dye use at various intervals prior to breast cancer (or an equivalent for controls) were obtained. A multivariate risk factor score was used to control for confounding variables. The adjusted relative risks for breast cancer versus hair dye use were greater than unity but were not generally significant. However, integral measures of hair dye use (No. of yr times frequency per yr) were significantly related to breast cancer when confounding variables were controlled. The association between hair dye use and breast cancer was greatest among women over 50 years of age and among those at lower natural risk for breast cancer. An analysis of temporal patterns showed that breast cancer was related mainly to hair dye use 10 or more years before cancer diagnosis. Because of the retrospective nature of the hair dye data and the small sample size, these results require further validation. PMID:283264

  12. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel of the label and any labeling accompanying a... your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b) Hair dyes containing...

  13. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel of the label and any labeling accompanying a... your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b) Hair dyes containing...

  14. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel of the label and any labeling accompanying a... your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b) Hair dyes containing...

  15. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18... posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel of the label and any labeling accompanying a... your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b) Hair dyes containing...

  16. In-vitro and in-vivo study of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Lakodina, Nina A.; Perpelitzina, Olga A.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2000-11-01

    We present experimental results on in vitro and in vivo investigation of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles. It was shown that dyeing as a method of enhancement of the absorption coefficient of hair follicle tissue components can be used for selective photodestruction of hair follicle and surrounding tissues. Strength and depth of hair follicle dyeing inside the skin were determined for various dyes.

  17. Is There a True Concern Regarding the Use of Hair Dye and Malignancy Development?

    PubMed Central

    Saitta, Peter; Cook, Christopher E.; Messina, Jane L.; Brancaccio, Ronald; Wu, Benedict C.; Grekin, Steven K.; Holland, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Many advances in the cosmetic industry have increased our ability to enhance youth and beauty. Hair-coloring products are one such innovation. Over the past several decades, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to understanding the possible long-term side effects associated with hair-dye use, specifically looking at cancer risk. This paper describes the hair-coloring process, highlights the potentially carcinogenic ingredients in various hair-dying products, and reviews the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair-dye use to the risk of developing several types of malignancies. PMID:23320124

  18. Direct-acting mutagenic properties of some hair dyes used in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, L R; Roberton, A M; Berriman, J

    1990-09-01

    Mutagenicity or carcinogenicity data are not publicly available on many hair dyes or dye components commonly used within New Zealand. Representative mid- to dark-warm brown hair dyes of 12 brands supplying more than 1% of the New Zealand market were tested for direct-acting mutagenicity using the bacterial 'Ames' test. Despite recent scientific advances in the development of non-mutagenic dyes, 23 of the 40 products tested gave positive results in one or both of the tester strains used. There appeared to be differences between distributors in the proportion of their hair dyes which were mutagenic. In the case of 6 out of 10 of the above dyes which had tested positive, in vitro mutagenicity or toxicity was enhanced in the presence of verapamil, suggesting that risks from hair-dye exposure may change in the case of persons using this or similar drugs. It is recognised that there are uncertainties regarding human risks from dyes which are shown to be mutagenic in in vitro tests. However, from the above results, it seems possible to produce non-mutagenic hair dyes in this color range; and in the interests of public reassurance, it may be prudent to require that such dyes be used. PMID:2202900

  19. Proposal of an in silico profiler for categorisation of repeat dose toxicity data of hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Nelms, M D; Ates, G; Madden, J C; Vinken, M; Cronin, M T D; Rogiers, V; Enoch, S J

    2015-05-01

    This study outlines the analysis of 94 chemicals with repeat dose toxicity data taken from Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety opinions for commonly used hair dyes in the European Union. Structural similarity was applied to group these chemicals into categories. Subsequent mechanistic analysis suggested that toxicity to mitochondria is potentially a key driver of repeat dose toxicity for chemicals within each of the categories. The mechanistic hypothesis allowed for an in silico profiler consisting of four mechanism-based structural alerts to be proposed. These structural alerts related to a number of important chemical classes such as quinones, anthraquinones, substituted nitrobenzenes and aromatic azos. This in silico profiler is intended for grouping chemicals into mechanism-based categories within the adverse outcome pathway paradigm. PMID:24888375

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of direct and temporary dyes in natural hair colourings.

    PubMed

    Scarpi, C; Ninci, F; Centini, M; Anselmi, C

    1998-02-20

    A simple and reliable HPLC method is described for the simultaneous determination of nine direct and temporary hair dyes in hair colourings containing vegetal extracts. Detection was performed by a diode array detector and two different wavelengths, in the visible range (450 and 650 nm), were used for quantitation. The method does not involve any extraction procedure and it is sufficiently rapid and accurate for routine analyses. The method described was successfully applied to the identification of synthetic organic dyes in 13 direct and temporary hair dyeing formulations commercialized as 'natural'. PMID:9540212

  1. Exposure of hairdressers to ortho- and meta-toluidine in hair dyes

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Gabriella M; Jnsson, Bo A G; Axmon, Anna; Lindh, Christian H; Lind, Marie-Louise; Gustavsson, Mats; Broberg, Karin; Boman, Anders; Meding, Birgitta; Lidn, Carola; Albin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinogenic aromatic amines derived from hair dyes have recently received new attention. One of these is ortho (o)-toluidine, which is classified as carcinogenic to humans. Objectives To clarify exposure of hairdressers to potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines, including o-toluidine. Methods We measured eight potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines in the blood of 295 hairdressers, 32 users of hair dyes and 60 controls. The study was restricted to female non-smokers. Lifestyle data were collected for all participants using self-administered questionnaires. Blood samples were taken for analysis of ortho-, meta (m)- and para (p)-toluidine; 2-, 3- and 4-ethylaniline, 2,3- and 3,4-dimethylaniline as haemoglobin adducts. The samples were analysed with gas chromatographytandem mass spectrometry. Results Generally, adduct concentrations were in the range of 0200?pg/g haemoglobin. A comparison of the adduct concentrations found in hairdressers, consumers and controls showed no statistically significant differences. However, for hairdressers, o- and m-toluidine concentrations increased significantly with the weekly number of hair waving (p=0.020) and permanent hair dyeing treatments (p=0.026), respectively. o-Toluidine and m-Toluidine concentrations also tended (p=0.076 and 0.080, respectively) to increase with the frequency of light-colour permanent hair dye treatments. Conclusions Hairdressers who uselight-colour permanent hair dyes, other permanent hair dyes and hair waving treatments seem to be exposed to o- and m-toluidine as indicated by associations with the number of treatments performed. Analyses of hair waving and hair dye products should be performed to identify the possible sources of exposure to o- and m-toluidine. PMID:24912758

  2. Personal hair dye use and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Turati, Federica; Pelucchi, Claudio; Galeone, Carlotta; Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-02-01

    Despite considerable research, the issue of hair dyes and bladder cancer is still open to discussion. In January 2013, we searched in PubMed/EMBASE to identify observational studies investigating the association between personal use of hair dyes and bladder cancer incidence/mortality. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models. Fifteen case-control and two cohort studies were available for meta-analysis (8504 cases/deaths, 14,102 controls, and 617,937 persons at risk). Compared with no use, the pooled RR of bladder cancer for personal use of any type of hair dyes was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.82-1.05), with moderate heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 34.1%, P = .07). Similar RRs were found for females (RR = 0.95) and males (RR = 0.81). Based on seven studies, the pooled RR for personal use of permanent hair dyes was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.77-1.09). Compared with no use, no association was observed for the highest categories of duration of use and lifetime frequency of use of both any type of dyes and permanent dyes. The pooled RR from four studies reporting results for use of dark-colored dyes was 1.29 (95% CI, 0.98-1.71). This meta-analysis allows to definitively exclude any appreciable excess risk of bladder cancer among personal hair dye users. PMID:24342029

  3. Consumption of hair dye products by the French women population: Usage pattern and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; Houssin, A; Ficheux, A S; Wesolek, N; Nedelec, A S; Bourgeois, P; Hornez, N; Batardière, A; Misery, L; Roudot, A C

    2016-02-01

    Only few published data are available in the literature about consumption and exposure, for hair dye products. The aim of this study was to assess the use of 10 different hair dye products in French Women with a focus on consumption of hair dye in different places of use (at home and at the hairdressers) in order to assess the corresponding dermal exposures. The assessment was performed on a total of 4237 women older than 15 years old, thanks to three national web surveys. The percentage of hair dye users among the French women population was about 64%.The mean frequency of use ranged between 2.23 and 14.22 times per year depending on the studied product and age category of women. This study provided the first data available for exposure to hair dye products with mean exposures ranging between 1.48 and 6.49 mg/kg bw/day depending on the product studied and age category of women. Moreover, consumption data obtained in this study might be useful to perform safety assessment of hair dye products thanks to the knowledge of the age categories of the population having the highest percentage of users and/or frequency of use. PMID:26763610

  4. Relationship of hair dye use, benign breast disease, and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nasca, P C; Lawrence, C E; Greenwald, P; Chorost, S; Arbuckle, J T; Paulson, A

    1980-01-01

    An epidemiologic case-control study of 118 breast cancer patients and 233 controls was conducted to test the hypothesis that hair dyes are related to breast cancer. Matched controls were selected by "random digit dialing," and all epidemiologic data were collected by telephone interviews. No overall association was detected. On a prospective basis, the interaction between hair dye exposure and six variables known to be risk factors for breast cancer then were examined: previous benign breast disease (BBD), "ever" versus "never" pregnant, age at first pregnancy, menopause induced by operation, age at menarche, and education. A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was found for women with a history of BBD and exposure to hair dyes as compared to women with BBD but no hair dye exposure: The relative risk (RR) was 4.5, and the 95% confidence intervals (C) were 1.20 and 15.78. A total of 24 women (19 patients and 5 controls) reported a history of BBD and hair dye use. Further analysis revealed a significant association between hair dye use and breast cancer among women 40-49 years of age (RR = 3.33; 95% CI: 1.1 and 10.85) and a highly significant (P = 0.0008) dose-response relationship among women who used hair dyes for changing their natural color as opposed to covering gray hair. The numbers of patients and controls included in this study were small and several hypotheses were tested. Additional epidemiologic studies are needed before firm conclusions can be reached concerning the nature of these associations. PMID:6928044

  5. Paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed; Ali, El-Tigani; Hussien, Rasha; Zijlstra, Eduard

    2011-11-01

    A 14-year-old female was referred to the pediatric nephrology unit with a short history of progressive angio-oedema of the face requiring tracheostomy. She ingested an unusual substance which caused swollen tongue, cervical oedema and dark coloured brown urine. These clinical features with the laboratory tests confirmed the diagnosis of paraphenylene diamine (PPD) poisoning. Psychological assessment confirmed that the child had severe depression. The suicide attempt was just immediately after failure in the final qualifying examination to secondary school. She did not have any family support but she used to be punished in different ways. In Sudan PPD in its pure form is available in the local market and until recently there was no restrictions for its use or trade. Adolescents are well aware of its toxic effects and it is commonly used to attempt suicide. Legislation and laws should prevent its use in different hair dye formulations and look for another substitute. Clinical management is hampered by the lack of a rapid diagnostic test; no other treatment other than supportive measures can be offered. PMID:21543462

  6. In situ detection and identification of hair dyes using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

    PubMed

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    Hair is one of the most common types of physical evidence found at a crime scene. Forensic examination may suggest a connection between a suspect and a crime scene or victim, or it may demonstrate an absence of such associations. Therefore, forensic analysis of hair evidence is invaluable to criminal investigations. Current hair forensic examinations are primarily based on a subjective microscopic comparison of hair found at the crime scene with a sample of suspect's hair. Since this is often inconclusive, the development of alternative and more-accurate hair analysis techniques is critical. In this study, we utilized surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to demonstrate that artificial dyes can be directly detected on hair. This spectroscopic technique is capable of a confirmatory identification of analytes with single molecule resolution, requires minimal sample, and has the advantage of fluorescence quenching. Our study reveals that SERS can (1) identify whether hair was artificially dyed or not, (2) determine if a permanent or semipermanent colorants were used, and (3) distinguish the commercial brands that are utilized to dye hair. Such analysis is rapid, minimally destructive, and can be performed directly at the crime scene. This study provides a novel perspective of forensic investigations of hair evidence. PMID:25635868

  7. Chemical processing and shampooing impact cortisol measured in human hair

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, M. Camille; Karban, Laura V.; Benitez, Patrick; Goodteacher, Angela; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The assessment of cortisol in hair has gained popularity as a means to measure retrospective hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a number of species; however, cortisol levels from human hair subjected to typical chemicals for cosmetic or hygienic purposes may be altered by the chemicals used. The purposed of this study was to determine if exposure of hair to chemical processing or shampooing impacts cortisol values. Methods Human hair not exposed to prior chemical processing was cut from the posterior vertex region of the head of 106 human subjects as close to the scalp as possible. The hair sample was divided into 4-6 full-length clusters depending on quantity of hair available. Each hair sample was processed for baseline (native) cortisol and remaining clusters were exposed to five standard chemical hair treatments (Experiment 1) or were shampooed 15 or 30 times (Experiment 2). Hair was ground and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Comparisons were made between native hair and processed hair using paired t-tests and Pearson correlation. Results Hair cortisol as assessed by EIA was significantly altered by chemical processing but in somewhat different ways. Exposure to bleach (harshest exposure), demi-perm (least exposure) or 15-30 shampoos resulted in a significant decrease in cortisol level while exposure to varying percentages of peroxides increased cortisol measured. There were no differences in cortisol levels associated with sex, age or tobacco use in the native hair for this particular group. Conclusion Chemical processing and frequent shampooing affect cortisol levels measured in hair. Chemically processed or excessively shampooed hair should be avoided when recruiting subjects for hair cortisol studies. PMID:25090265

  8. Detection of carcinogenic chromium in synthetic hair dyes using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gondal, M A; Maganda, Y W; Dastageer, M A; Al Adel, F F; Naqvi, A A; Qahtan, T F

    2014-03-10

    A laser induced breakdown spectroscopic (LIBS) system, consisting of a pulsed 266 nm laser radiation, in conjunction with a high-resolution spectrograph, a gated intensified charge coupled device camera, and a built-in delay generator were used to develop a sensitive detector to quantify the concentration of toxic substances such as chromium in synthetic hair dyes available on the local market. The strong atomic transition line of chromium (Cr I) at 427.5 nm wavelength was used as a fingerprint wavelength to calibrate the detection system and also to quantify the levels of chromium in the hair dye samples. The limit of detection achieved by our LIBS detection system for chromium was 1.2 ppm, which enabled us to detect chromium concentration in the range of 5-11 ppm in the commercial hair dyes available on the local market. The concentrations of chromium in the hair dyes measured using our system were validated using a standard analytical technique such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), and acceptable agreement (nearly 8%) was found between the results obtained by the two methods (LIBS and ICPMS). This study is highly significant for human health, specifically for people using synthetic hair dyes for changing the color of their hair. PMID:24663421

  9. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M:F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet). Results: 54 Fifty-four (M:F 21:33) patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71%) patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from < 1 month to > 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use. PMID:26225326

  10. Suitability of the in vitro Caco-2 assay to predict the oral absorption of aromatic amine hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Obringer, Cindy; Manwaring, John; Goebel, Carsten; Hewitt, Nicola J; Rothe, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Oral absorption is a key element for safety assessments of cosmetic ingredients, including hair dye molecules. Reliable in vitro methods are needed since the European Union has banned the use of animals for the testing of cosmetic ingredients. Caco-2 cells were used to measure the intestinal permeability characteristics (Papp) of 14 aromatic amine hair dye molecules with varying chemical structures, and the data were compared with historical in vivo oral absorption rat data. The majority of the hair dyes exhibited Papp values that indicated good in vivo absorption. The moderate to high oral absorption findings, i.e. ≥60%, were confirmed in in vivo rat studies. Moreover, the compound with a very low Papp value (APB: 3-((9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-4-(methylamino)-1-anthracenyl)amino)-N,N-dimethyl-N-propyl-1-propanaminium) was poorly absorbed in vivo as well (5% of the dose). This data set suggests that the Caco-2 cell model is a reliable in vitro tool for the determination of the intestinal absorption of aromatic amines with diverse chemical structures. When used in combination with other in vitro assays for metabolism and skin penetration, the Caco-2 model can contribute to the prediction and mechanistic interpretation of the absorption, metabolism and elimination properties of cosmetic ingredients without the use of animals. PMID:26578466

  11. Permeation of hair dye ingredients, p-phenylenediamine and aminophenol isomers, through protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiao-Shu; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2009-04-01

    Skin irritation and contact allergies are skin disorders common to hairdressers. The predominant oxidative hair dye components, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and aminophenol isomers, can cause contact dermatitis. Use of protective gloves can prevent dermal contact with skin irritants. This study investigates the permeation behaviors of p-aminophenol (PAP), m-aminophenol (MAP), o-aminophenol (OAP) and PPD in single and mixed challenge solutions with disposable natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves, disposable polyvinylchloride (PVC) gloves and neoprene (NP) gloves. The challenge solutions were 4% PPD (w/v), 3% OAP (w/v), 2% PAP (w/v) and 2% MAP (w/v) in ethanol or 12% hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cocktail solutions of the four chemicals were also tested. An American Society for Testing and Materials type permeation cell, ethanol liquid collection and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection of samples taken from the collection medium every 10 min facilitated determination of breakthrough times (BTs), cumulative permeated masses and steady-state permeation rates (SSPRs). Experiments were 4 h long for the NRL and PVC gloves and 8 h for NP gloves. No chemicals tested broke through the NP gloves when exposed for 8 h. In the ethanol solution, PPD and OAP started breaking through the PVC gloves at 40 min. The SSPRs of PVC gloves were higher than those for NRL gloves in all challenge conditions for both single chemicals and mixtures. No tested chemicals in hydrogen peroxide solutions permeated the gloves during the 4-h tests. The chemical composition of the challenge solution was a main effecter of BTs and SSPRs for the NRL glove. For disposable PVC gloves, the main factors of BTs were molecular size [molar volume (MV)] and polarity (logK(ow)), and the primary factors of SSPRs were concentration, MV and logK(ow). In conclusion, disposable NRL gloves and disposable PVC gloves should not be used repeatedly for handling the hair dye products. Hydrogen peroxide did not accelerate chemical breakthrough. The compositions of the challenge solutions and physical and chemical properties (MV and logK(ow)) affected permeation behaviors for different gloves. PMID:19279162

  12. Application of TLC and HPTLC in the analysis of semipermanent hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Mariani, E; Bargagna, A; Longobardi, M; Dorato, S

    1994-02-01

    Synopsis Semipermanent or direct colouring includes any product capable of affecting to some extent a change in the natural hair colour that will last through at least five shampoo washings. Semipermanent dyes are simple and easy to use, as opposed to oxidation dyes, and are normally formulated for application on nonbleached hair. Following increases in supply of such formulations, we have started an analysis for quality control purposes of 21 commonly marketed dyestuffs (nitroaminobenzenes, anthraquinone and Arianor dyes) and 20 colouring products manufactured by four leading companies. By using TLC (silica gel and reversed phase) and HPTLC (silica gel) procedures we have determined relative retention values to 1,3-diamino-4-nitrobenzene of standards and dyes found in the commercial products. All the values reported (standards and samples) are the average of five analytical results (+/-SD). PMID:19250501

  13. Effects of repeated applications of two semi-permanent hair dyes to the skin of A and DBAf mice.

    PubMed Central

    Searle, C. E.; Jones, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    Two proprietary semi-permanent hair dyes were tested for carcinogenicity in A and DBAf mice by repeated topical applications in aqueous acetone. Mice of both strains developed lymphoid tumours but experimental differences were marked only in DBAf mice. A number of tumours of the ovary and uterus, and some skin papillomas near the penis, occured in dye-treated but not in control DBAf mice. As many hair-dye constituents are known mutagens, adequate carcinogenicity testing of these substances, and epidemiological study of exposed human populations, are needed for evaluating possible health hazard from hair dyeing. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:588414

  14. Occupational exposure of hairdressers to [14C]-para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: a mass balance study.

    PubMed

    Hueber-Becker, Frdrique; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Dufour, Eric K; Meuling, Wim J A; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Toutain, Herve; Bolt, Hermann M

    2007-01-01

    We monitored the exposure of hairdressers to oxidative hair dyes for 6 working days under controlled conditions. Eighteen professional hairdressers (3/day) coloured hairdresser's training heads bearing natural human hair (hair length: approximately 30 cm) for 6 h/working day with a dark-shade oxidative hair dye containing 2% [14C]-para-phenylenediamine (PPD). Three separate phases of hair dyeing were monitored: (A) dye preparation/hair dyeing, (B) rinsing/shampooing/conditioning and (C) cutting/drying/styling. Ambient air and personal monitoring samples (vapours and particles), nasal and hand rinses were collected during all study phases. Urine (pre-exposure, quantitative samples for the 0-12, 12-24, 24-48 h periods after start of exposure) and blood samples (blank, 4, 8 or 24 h) were collected from all exposed subjects. Radioactivity was determined in all biological samples and study materials, tools and washing liquids, and a [14C]-mass balance was performed daily. No adverse events were noted during the study. Waste, equipment, gloves and coveralls contained 0.41+/-0.16%, dye mixing bowls 2.88+/-0.54%, hair wash 45.47+/-2.95%, hair+scalp 53.46+/-4.06% of the applied radioactivity, respectively. Plasma levels were below the limit of quantification (10 ng PPDeq/mL). Total urinary 0-48 h excretion of [14C] levels ranged from a total of <2-18 microg PPDeq and was similar in subjects exposed during the different phases of hair dyeing. Minimal air levels at or slightly above the limit of quantification were found in a few personal air monitoring samples during the phases of hair dyeing and hair cutting, but not during the rinsing phase. Air area monitoring samples or nasal rinses contained no measurable radioactivity. Hand residues ranged from 0.006 to 0.15 microg PPDeq/cm2, and were found predominantly after the cutting/drying phase. The mean mass balance of [14C] across the six study days was 102.50+/-2.20%. Overall, the mean, total systemic exposure of hairdressers to oxidative hair dyes during a working day including 6 hair dyeing processes was estimated to be <0.36 microg PPDeq/kg body weight/working day. Our results suggest that (a) current safety precautions for the handling of hair dyes offer sufficient protection against local and systemic exposure and (b) professional exposure to oxidative hair dyes does not pose a risk to human health. PMID:17030383

  15. Personal hair dye use and cancer: a systematic literature review and evaluation of exposure assessment in studies published since 1992.

    PubMed

    Rollison, Dana E; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Pinney, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Hair dyes are widely used, and permanent hair dye is the most commonly used type of product. Permanent hair dye colors are formed by an oxidative process involving arylamines, giving rise to concerns about the potential adverse health effects of long-term exposure, especially cancer. A 1993 International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC) review concluded that evidence was inadequate to evaluate the carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use. This systematic review synthesizes the results from studies of personal hair dye use and cancer published since 1993, taking into consideration the quality of exposure assessment. Thirty-one English-language articles published in January 1992-February 2005 that investigated the association between personal hair dye use and cancer were identified through the PubMed search engine. Quality of exposure assessment was rated between 1+ (lowest quality: assessed ever use of hair dyes) and 4+ (highest quality: assessed dye type [permanent/nonpermanent], dye color/shade, frequency and duration of use). Because of the heterogeneity of the exposure assessment across the studies, a formal meta-analysis was not conducted. Associations between personal hair dye use and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, acute leukemia, and bladder cancer were observed in at least one well-designed study with detailed exposure assessment (rated 3+ or 4+), but were not consistently observed across studies. Results for bladder cancer studies suggest that subsets of the population may be genetically susceptible to hair dye exposures, but these findings are based on small subgroups in one well-designed case-control study. Replication of these findings is needed to determine whether the reported associations are real or spurious. PMID:17492526

  16. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products. PMID:23974582

  17. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  18. Hair dye-incorporated poly-?-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Young; Jeong, Young-IL; Choi, Ki-Choon

    2011-01-01

    Background p-Phenylenediamine (PDA) or its related chemicals are used more extensively than oxidative hair dyes. However, permanent hair dyes such as PDA are known to have potent contact allergy reactions in humans, and severe allergic reactions are problematic. Methods PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared based on ion-complex formation between the cationic groups of PDA and the anionic groups of poly(?-glutamic acid) (PGA). To reinforce PDA/PGA ion complexes, glycol chitosan (GC) was added. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier- transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Results Nanoparticles were formed by ion-complex formation between the amine groups of PDA and the carboxyl groups of PGA. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles are small in size (<100 nm), and morphological observations showed spherical shapes. FT-IR spectra results showed that the carboxylic acid peak of PGA decreased with increasing PDA content, indicating that the ion complexes were formed between the carboxyl groups of PGA and the amine groups of PDA. Furthermore, the intrinsic peak of the carboxyl groups of PGA was also decreased by the addition of GC. Intrinsic crystalline peaks of PDA were observed by XRD. This crystalline peak of PDA was completely nonexistent when nanoparticles were formed by ion complex between PDA, PGA, and GC, indicating that PDA was complexed with PGA and no free drug existed in the formulation. During the drug-release experiment, an initial burst release of PDA was observed, and then PDA was continuously released over 1 week. Cytotoxicity testing against HaCaT human skin keratinocyte cells showed PDA-incorporated nanoparticles had lower toxicity than PDA itself. Furthermore, PDA-incorporated nanoparticles showed reduced apoptosis and necrosis reaction at HaCaT cells. Conclusion The authors suggest that these microparticles are ideal candidates for a vehicle for decreasing side effects of hair dye. PMID:22131834

  19. Chemical characterization of melanins in sheep wool and human hair.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, H; Ito, S; Wakamatsu, K

    1996-04-01

    The color of hair and wool in mammals and feathers in birds is mostly determined by the quantity and quality of melanins that are synthesized in follicular melanocytes and transferred to keratinocytes. These are two chemically distinct types of melanin pigments: the black to brown eumelanins and the yellow to reddish pheomelanins. Melanins in sheep wool and human hair of various colors were characterized by HPLC methods to estimate 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA)-derived units in eumelanins and benzothiazine units in pheomelanins. Melanins were also characterized by spectrophotometric methods after differential solubilization in alkalies. It was demonstrated that 1) black wool in Asiatic sheep contains eumelanin with the DHICA content similar to black mouse melanin, while black to brown melanins from human hair contain much lower ratios of DHICA-derived units, comparable to the slaty mutation in mice, 2) dark brown to brown hair in human contains eumelanin whose chemical properties are indistinguishable from those of black hair; 3) dark red wool and red human hair contain pheomelanic pigments whose chemical properties are rather different from those of yellow pheomelanins in mice, and 4) light brown, blonde, and red hairs in human can be differentiated from each other with this methodology. PMID:8857665

  20. Hair dyes, analgesics, tranquilizers and perineal talc application as risk factors for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tzonou, A; Polychronopoulou, A; Hsieh, C C; Rebelakos, A; Karakatsani, A; Trichopoulos, D

    1993-09-30

    In a hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer conducted in Athens (1989-1991), 189 women with histologically confirmed common malignant epithelial tumors of the ovary were compared with 200 hospital visitor controls. All interviews were conducted by personal interview in the 2 participating hospitals and the data were analyzed by modelling through logistic regression, controlling for demographic and reproductive variables. Tranquilizing and hypnotic drugs (mostly diazepam) were not associated with risk of ovarian cancer: the adjusted relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.96 (0.57 to 1.63), whereas use of analgesics (mostly salicylates) was associated with significantly reduced risk of the disease (RR 0.51; CI 0.26 to 1.02). There was no evidence that perineal application of talc was associated with increased risk (RR 1.05; CI 0.28 to 3.98) but the frequency of reporting talc use was low in the study population. There was a statistically significant (p for trend 0.007) and a dose-dependent association between hair dyeing and risk of ovarian cancer. Compared to never-users, women dyeing their hair up to 4 times per year had a relative risk of 1.74 (0.91 to 3.32) whereas those dyeing their hair 5 or more times per year had a relative risk of 2.16 (1.19 to 3.89). PMID:8375924

  1. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  2. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  3. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  4. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  5. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  6. Trichocyanines: a Red-Hair-Inspired Modular Platform for Dye-Based One-Time-Pad Molecular Cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Loredana; Pezzella, Alessandro; Crescenzi, Orlando; Napolitano, Alessandra; Barone, Vincenzo; d’Ischia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Current molecular cryptography (MoCryp) systems are almost exclusively based on DNA chemistry and reports of cryptography technologies based on other less complex chemical systems are lacking. We describe herein, as proof of concept, the prototype of the first asymmetric MoCryp system, based on an 8-compound set of a novel bioinspired class of cyanine-type dyes called trichocyanines. These novel acidichromic cyanine-type dyes inspired by red hair pigments were synthesized and characterized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Trichocyanines consist of a modular scaffold easily accessible via an expedient condensation of 3-phenyl- or 3-methyl-2H-1,4-benzothiazines with N-dimethyl- or o-methoxyhydroxy-substituted benzaldehyde or cinnamaldehyde derivatives. The eight representative members synthesized herein can be classified as belonging to two three-state systems tunable through four different control points. This versatile dye platform can generate an expandable palette of colors and appears to be specifically suited to implement an unprecedented single-use asymmetric molecular cryptography system. With this system, we intend to pioneer the translation of digital public-key cryptography into a chemical-coding one-time-pad-like system. PMID:26246999

  7. Trichocyanines: a Red-Hair-Inspired Modular Platform for Dye-Based One-Time-Pad Molecular Cryptography.

    PubMed

    Leone, Loredana; Pezzella, Alessandro; Crescenzi, Orlando; Napolitano, Alessandra; Barone, Vincenzo; d'Ischia, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Current molecular cryptography (MoCryp) systems are almost exclusively based on DNA chemistry and reports of cryptography technologies based on other less complex chemical systems are lacking. We describe herein, as proof of concept, the prototype of the first asymmetric MoCryp system, based on an 8-compound set of a novel bioinspired class of cyanine-type dyes called trichocyanines. These novel acidichromic cyanine-type dyes inspired by red hair pigments were synthesized and characterized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Trichocyanines consist of a modular scaffold easily accessible via an expedient condensation of 3-phenyl- or 3-methyl-2H-1,4-benzothiazines with N-dimethyl- or o-methoxyhydroxy-substituted benzaldehyde or cinnamaldehyde derivatives. The eight representative members synthesized herein can be classified as belonging to two three-state systems tunable through four different control points. This versatile dye platform can generate an expandable palette of colors and appears to be specifically suited to implement an unprecedented single-use asymmetric molecular cryptography system. With this system, we intend to pioneer the translation of digital public-key cryptography into a chemical-coding one-time-pad-like system. PMID:26246999

  8. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  9. N-acetylation of three aromatic amine hair dye precursor molecules eliminates their genotoxic potential.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Andreas; Pfuhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    N-acetylation has been described as a detoxification reaction for aromatic amines; however, there is only limited data available showing that this metabolic conversion step changes their genotoxicity potential. To extend this database, three aromatic amines, all widely used as precursors in oxidative hair dye formulations, were chosen for this study: p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 2,5-diaminotoluene (DAT) and 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene (AHT). Aiming at a deeper mechanistic understanding of the interplay between activation and detoxification for this chemical class, we compared the genotoxicity profiles of the parent compounds with those of their N-acetylated metabolites. While PPD, DAT and AHT all show genotoxic potential in vitro, their N-acetylated metabolites completely lack genotoxic potential as shown in the Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, micronucleus test with cultured human lymphocytes (AHT), chromosome aberration assay with V79 cells (DAT) and Comet assay performed with V79 cells. For the bifunctional aromatic amines studied (PPD and DAT), monoacetylation was sufficient to completely abolish their genotoxic potential. Detoxification through N-acetylation was further confirmed by comparing PPD, DAT and AHT in the Comet assay using standard V79 cells (N-acetyltransferase (NAT) deficient) and two NAT-proficient cell lines,V79NAT1*4 and HaCaT (human keratinocytes). Here we observed a clear shift of dose-response curves towards decreased genotoxicity of the parent aromatic amines in the NAT-proficient cells. These findings suggest that genotoxic effects will only be found at concentrations where the N-acetylation (detoxifying) capacity of the cells is overwhelmed, indicating that a 'first-pass' effect in skin could be taken into account for risk assessment of these topically applied aromatic amines. The findings also indicate that the use of liver S-9 preparations, which generally underestimate Phase II reactions, contributes to the generation of irrelevant positive results in standard genotoxicity tests for this chemical class. PMID:24275315

  10. Hair as a monitor of toxic chemicals exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.F.; Adams, S.; Baumgartner, W.A.

    1982-08-31

    The possibility of using hair analysis as a monitor of exposure to hydrazines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. Two female Hartley guinea pigs injected with 0.6 milligrams (mg) of Aroclor-1254 had analyzable concentrations of the PCB in their hair. Analysis was made using glass capillary gas chromatography with an electron-capture detector. The levels ranged from 10 picograms/milligram (pg/mg) of Aroclor-1254 in washed hair to 100pg/mg in unwashed hair. Female Fischer-344 rats injected intraperitoneally with 60mg/kg unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH), 10mg/kg monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and/or 10mg/kg hydrazine did not have detectable amounts of these chemicals in their hair at 14, 30 or 42 days after injection. The hair samples did take up the hydrazines when suspended above solutions of the test compounds. The authors concluded that analyzing the PCB content of hair may be useful in providing a history of on-the-job PCB exposure.

  11. The hair dyes PPD and PTD fail to induce a T(H)2 immune response following repeated topical application in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Helga; Sarlo, Katherine; Scheffler, Heike; Goebel, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    1,4-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and the structurally-related 1,4-toluenediamine (PTD) are frequently used oxidative hair dye precursors that can induce a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction known as contact allergy. Very rare cases of Type 1 (IgE-mediated) allergic responses associated with PPD or PTD have been reported among hair dye users. As part of an effort to determine if repeated dermal exposure to the dyes could induce a T-helper-2 (T(H)2) response, we used a dermal exposure regimen in mice reported to identify a T(H)2 response. Ear swelling was evident at post-final exposure to PPD and PTD, indicating that an immune response was observed. However, cytokine mRNA after repeated topical exposure to these two chemicals showed no shift in the expression toward the typical T(H)2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 compared to the T(H)1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-?. Consistent with these cytokine profiles, no concomitant increase in total serum IgE antibody titer or in B220+IgE+ lymphocytes in lymph nodes and skin application site skin was detected. In contrast, using an identical exposure regimen, animals topically exposed to the known respiratory (Type 1) allergen toluene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) showed significant expression of IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA compared to IFN? as well as an increase in total serum IgE and in B220+IgE+ cells in lymph nodes and skin application site. The data generated are consistent with the pattern of adverse reactions to hair dyes seen clinically, which overwhelmingly is of delayed rather than immediate-type hypersensitivity. Although current animal models have a limited ability to detect rare T(H)2 responses to contact allergens, the present study results support the view that exposure to hair dyes is not associated with relevant T(H)2 induction. PMID:21299354

  12. Analysis of the Results from the Patch Test to Para-Phenylenediamine in the TRUE Test in Patients with a Hair Dye Contact Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Sang Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy (HDCA). However, no recent studies have been published that describe the results of reactions to patch tests using PPD and hair dyes in Korea. Objective To analyze the results of the patch tests to PPD using the thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous (TRUE) Test system in patients with HDCA and to investigate patients' awareness that hair dyes contains allergens, which cause the development of HDCA. Methods Eighty-four patients with suspected HDCA (32 men and 52 women) underwent patch testing using the TRUE Test system and their own hair dyes. The patients' demographic data, behavior associated with hair dyeing, and clinical manifestations of HDCA were examined retrospectively. Results Positive patch-test reactions to hair dyes occurred in 53.6% of patients who used hair dyes, and they were diagnosed with HDCA. Although there was a significant correlation between HDCA and PPD sensitization (p=0.001), only 40% of the patients with HDCA showed positive reactions to PPD. Of the 45 patients diagnosed with HDCA, only 7 (15.6%) were aware that their hair dyes contained allergens that caused HDCA. Conclusion This study's findings show that PPD is an effective HDCA marker. However, we propose that investigations on hair dye components other than PPD should be conducted to develop and validate additional predictive HDCA markers. PMID:25834356

  13. An overview of chemical straightening of human hair: technical aspects, potential risks to hair fibre and health and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Vilela, A L; Botelho, A J; Muehlmann, L A

    2014-02-01

    Personal image, as it relates to external beauty, has attracted much attention from the cosmetic industry, and capillary aesthetics is a leader in consumption in this area. There is a great diversity of products targeting both the treatment and beautification of hair. Among them, hair straighteners stand out with a high demand by costumers aiming at beauty, social acceptance and ease of daily hair maintenance. However, this kind of treatment affects the chemical structure of keratin and of the hair fibre, bringing up some safety concerns. Moreover, the development of hair is a dynamic and cyclic process, where the duration of growth cycles depends not only on where hair grows, but also on issues such as the individual's age, dietary habits and hormonal factors. Thus, although hair fibres are composed of dead epidermal cells, when they emerge from the scalp, there is a huge variation in natural wave and the response to hair cosmetics. Although it is possible to give the hair a cosmetically favourable appearance through the use of cosmetic products, for good results in any hair treatment, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of the process. Important information, such as the composition and structure of the hair fibres, and the composition of products and techniques available for hair straightening, must be taken into account so that the straightening process can be designed appropriately, avoiding undesirable side effects for hair fibre and for health. This review aims to address the morphology, chemical composition and molecular structure of hair fibres, as well as the products and techniques used for chemical hair relaxing, their potential risk to hair fibre and to health and the legal aspects of their use. PMID:24102549

  14. FM Dye Photo-Oxidation as a Tool for Monitoring Membrane Recycling in Inner Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoli, Silvio O.

    2014-01-01

    Styryl (FM) dyes have been used for more than two decades to investigate exo- and endocytosis in conventional synapses. However, they are difficult to use in the inner hair cells of the auditory pathway (IHCs), as FM dyes appear to penetrate through mechanotransducer channels into the cytosol of IHCs, masking endocytotic uptake. To solve this problem we applied to IHCs the FM dye photo-oxidation technique, which renders the dyes into electron microscopy markers. Photo-oxidation allowed the unambiguous identification of labeled organelles, despite the presence of FM dye in the cytosol. This enabled us to describe the morphologies of several organelles that take up membrane in IHCs, both at rest and during stimulation. At rest, endosome-like organelles were detected in the region of the cuticular plate. Larger tubulo-cisternal organelles dominated the top and nuclear regions. Finally, the basal region, where the IHC active zones are located, contained few labeled organelles. Stimulation increased significantly membrane trafficking in the basal region, inducing the appearance of labeled vesicles and cistern-like organelles. The latter were replaced by small, synaptic-like vesicles during recovery after stimulation. In contrast, no changes in membrane trafficking were induced by stimulation in the cuticular plate region or in the top and nuclear regions. We conclude that synaptic vesicle recycling takes place mostly in the basal region of the IHCs. Other organelles participate in abundant constitutive membrane trafficking throughout the rest of the IHC volume. PMID:24505482

  15. Determination of aromatic amines in hair dye and henna samples by ion-pair extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akyz, Mehmet; Ata, Sevket

    2008-05-12

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been proposed for the determination of carcinogenic and toxic aromatic amines in hair dye, henna and dyed hair samples. The method includes ion-pair extraction of aromatic amines from aqueous samples with bis-2-ethylhexylphosphate (BEHPA) released after solving the samples in acidic solution followed by sonication, derivatisation of compounds with isobutyl chloroformate (IBCF) and their GC-MS analysis in both electron impact (EI) and positive and negative ion chemical ionisation (PNICI) mode as their isobutyloxycarbonyl (isoBOC) derivatives. The obtained recoveries of aromatic amines ranged from 92.2 to 98.4% and the precision of this method, as indicated by the relative standard deviations (RSDs) was within the range of 0.7-4.2%. The detection limits obtained from calculations by using GC-MS results based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)=3 were within the range from 0.02 to 0.20 ng/g. In the present study, the commercially available 54 permanent hair dye, 35 modified or natural henna and 15 dyed hair samples were analysed for the aromatic amines by the proposed method and the method was shown to be suitable to determine the aromatic amine ingredients and metabolites of these commercial products. PMID:18280687

  16. Severe aplastic anaemia following the use of hair dye: report of two cases and review of literature.

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, J. E.; Manoharan, A.

    1985-01-01

    We describe two female patients aged 31 and 62 y who developed severe aplastic anaemia following the use of hair dye containing para-toluenediamine. One received a bone marrow transplant but died after developing graft versus host disease and severe opportunistic infection. The second responded to treatment with methylprednisolone, oxymetholone and antithymocyte globulin and 3 y later she has a normal blood count apart from mild thrombocytopenia. In this paper we also review previously described case reports of aplastic anaemia apparently associated with the use of hair dye. PMID:4070106

  17. Severe aplastic anaemia following the use of hair dye: report of two cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, J E; Manoharan, A

    1985-11-01

    We describe two female patients aged 31 and 62 y who developed severe aplastic anaemia following the use of hair dye containing para-toluenediamine. One received a bone marrow transplant but died after developing graft versus host disease and severe opportunistic infection. The second responded to treatment with methylprednisolone, oxymetholone and antithymocyte globulin and 3 y later she has a normal blood count apart from mild thrombocytopenia. In this paper we also review previously described case reports of aplastic anaemia apparently associated with the use of hair dye. PMID:4070106

  18. Human systemic exposure to [¹⁴C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Skare, Julie A; Meuling, Wim J A; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Vaes, Wouter H J; Dufour, Eric K; Fautz, Rolf; Steiling, Winfried; Bramante, Mario; Toutain, Herve

    2015-07-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [(14)C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [(14)C] was measured in all materials, rinsing water, hair, plasma, urine and skin strips. Plasma and urine were also analysed by HLPC/MS/MS for PPD and its metabolites (B). Total mean recovery of radioactivity was 94.30% (A) or 96.21% (B). Mean plasma Cmax values were 132.6 or 97.4 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL, mean AUC(0-∞) values 1415 or 966 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL*hr in studies A or B, respectively. Urinary excretion of [(14)C] mainly occurred within 24 hrs after hair colouring with a total excretion of 0.72 or 0.88% of applied radioactivity in studies A or B, respectively. Only N,N'-diacetylated-PPD was detected in plasma and the urine. A TK-based human safety assessment estimated margins of safety of 23.3- or 65-fold relative to respective plasma AUC or Cmax values in rats at the NOAEL of a toxicity study. Overall, hair dyes containing PPD are unlikely to pose a health risk since they are used intermittently and systemic exposure is limited to the detoxified metabolite N,N'-diacetyl-PPD. PMID:25846501

  19. Morbidity and Mortality in 7,684 Women According to Personal Hair Dye Use: The Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for 37 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Permanent hair dye contains aromatic amines which are carcinogenic, and can cause allergic skin reactions. In the long term personal use of hair dye might therefore influence both morbidity and mortality. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that personal use of hair dye in women is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population. Methods We included 7,684 women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with information on the use of personal hair dye. We assessed the risk of cancer, skin diseases, other morbidities, and mortality during a median follow-up of 27 years (range 0–37). Results The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for malignant melanoma in women with versus without personal use of hair dye was 2.07 (95% confidence interval 1.25–3.42). There was no increased risk of other cancer types. For other skin diseases and other major causes of morbidity we found no differences between the two groups, except for a minor excess of digestive diseases and increased risk of Parkinson’s disease among women using hair dye. Finally, we found no difference in all-cause mortality comparing women using personal hair dye or not. After correction for multiple comparisons, none of the results remained significant. However, in sensitivity analysis the excess risk of malignant melanoma remained increased with a hazard ratio of 2.58 (95%CI 1.33–5.03) among users of personal hair dye. Conclusions Personal use of hair dye does not have major influences on morbidity and mortality. Our finding of a 2-fold risk of malignant melanoma in women using hair dye is hypothesis generating. PMID:26986063

  20. [Dermatitis Caused by Hair Dye (Quinone Produced by the Action of Aqueous Hydrogen Peroxide on p-Phenylenediamine Hydrochloride), by Juan de Aza].

    PubMed

    Conde-Salazar Gmez, Luis

    2009-03-01

    In the first issue of Actas Dermo-Sifiliogrficas, Juan de Aza published a magnificent article on contact dermatitis caused by hair dyes, which reflects his profound knowledge of allergy and how the skin responds to chemical stimuli. It gives a brilliant description of irritative and allergic dermatitis, although without naming the allergic form explicitly. Of note is how he is concerned about the composition of dyes>; so much so that he contacted the local laboratory to determine their chemical composition and how they work. It is a delight to study the case histories and treatments administered to these 15 patients. During the months of treatment, he reports trying different officinal formulas that, although unknown to most of today's dermatologists, nevertheless managed to cure the patients in the end. PMID:19445873

  1. Simultaneous determination of 13 components in oxidative hair dyes by high-performance chromatography using an ion-pair reagent.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying; Wang, Honghui; Dong, Qingmu; Chen, Hexiu; Lin, Rui; Cai, Yanping

    2012-01-01

    A reliable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 13 dye intermediates, including benzenediamines, aminophenols, benzenediols, naphthalenediol, and diaminopyridine, in oxidative hair dyes. Samples were extracted with 50% ethanol by adding sodium dithionite to prevent oxidation. The influences of buffer type, buffer pH, ion-pair reagent, and elution gradient were studied. A C18 column with aqueous compatibility and acetonitrile-citric acid mobile phase system (pH 2.6) with sodium 1-octanesulfonate as ion-pair reagent were selected for the separation of target compounds. Detection was performed by a diode array detector, (DAD) and two different wavelengths (280 and 331 nm) were used for quantification. Results showed that 13 dye intermediates got good separation within 25 min. The detection limits of these compounds were in the range of 0.2-2 mg/l. The calibration curves were linear within 2-500 mg/l with 0.999 as a typical correlation coefficient. The recoveries of target compounds in hair dyes ranged from 81.7% to 102.0% with four addition levels. The method described was validated by five different laboratories and successfully applied to the analysis of commercial oxidative hair dyes. PMID:23089354

  2. Safety Evaluation of Metal Exposure From Commonly Used Hair Dyes and Tattoo Inks in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Onyeloni, Sunday O; Bassey, Francisca I; Tesi, Godswill; Martincigh, Bice S

    2016-01-01

    In the study described in this article, the concentrations of metals (cadmium, copper, chromium, aluminum, lead, nickel, zinc, cobalt, manganese, and iron) in samples of some commonly used hair dyes and tattoo inks were determined with a view to providing information on the hazards associated with the use of these products. The concentrations of metals were measured after nitric acid/perchloric acid/hydrogen peroxide digestion by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results indicated that the tattoo ink samples contained allergenic metals such as nickel, chromium, and cobalt at concentrations above the suggested limit of 1 μg/g for greater skin protection, and the toxic metals were below their respective prescribed limits, as impurities in ingredients for use for cosmetics, in the majority of the samples. PMID:26867288

  3. Hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone reduce production of melanin in melanoma cells by tyrosinase activity inhibition and decreasing tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  4. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  5. Laccase‐catalysed polymeric dye synthesis from plant‐derived phenols for potential application in hair dyeing: Enzymatic colourations driven by homo‐ or hetero‐polymer synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jong‐Rok; Kim, Eun‐Ju; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Park, Hyo‐Keun; Kim, Young‐Mo; Kwon, Jung‐Hee; Kim, Wang‐Gi; Lee, Ji‐Yeon; Chang, Yoon‐Seok

    2010-01-01

    Summary Laccase efficiently catalyses polymerization of phenolic compounds. However, knowledge on applications of polymers synthesized in this manner remains scarce. Here, the potential of laccase‐catalysed polymerization of natural phenols to form products useful in hair dyeing was investigated. All 15 tested phenols yielded coloured products after laccase treatment and colour diversity was attained by using mixtures of two phenolic monomers. After exploring colour differentiation pattern of 120 different reactions with statistical regression analysis, three monomer combinations, namely gallic acid and syringic acid, catechin and catechol, and ferulic acid and syringic acid, giving rise to brown, black, and red materials, respectively, were further characterized because such colours are commercially important for grey hair dyeing. Selected polymers could strongly absorb visible light and their hydrodynamic sizes ranged from 100 to 400 nm. Analyses of enzyme kinetic constants, liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization‐mass spectrometry (ESI‐MS) coupled with collision‐induced dissociation MS/MS indicate that both monomers in reactions involving catechin and catechol, and ferulic acid and syringic acid, are coloured by heteropolymer synthesis, but the gallic acid/syringic acid combination is based on homopolymer mixture formation. Comparison of colour parameters from these three reactions with those of corresponding artificial homopolymer mixtures also supported the idea that laccase may catalyse either hetero‐ or homo‐polymer synthesis. We finally used selected materials to dye grey hair. Each material coloured hair appropriately and the dyeing showed excellent resistance to conventional shampooing. Our study indicates that laccase‐catalysed polymerization of natural phenols is applicable to the development of new cosmetic pigments. PMID:21255331

  6. Laccase-catalysed polymeric dye synthesis from plant-derived phenols for potential application in hair dyeing: Enzymatic colourations driven by homo- or hetero-polymer synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Park, Hyo-Keun; Kim, Young-Mo; Kwon, Jung-Hee; Kim, Wang-Gi; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2010-05-01

    Laccase efficiently catalyses polymerization of phenolic compounds. However, knowledge on applications of polymers synthesized in this manner remains scarce. Here, the potential of laccase-catalysed polymerization of natural phenols to form products useful in hair dyeing was investigated. All 15 tested phenols yielded coloured products after laccase treatment and colour diversity was attained by using mixtures of two phenolic monomers. After exploring colour differentiation pattern of 120 different reactions with statistical regression analysis, three monomer combinations, namely gallic acid and syringic acid, catechin and catechol, and ferulic acid and syringic acid, giving rise to brown, black, and red materials, respectively, were further characterized because such colours are commercially important for grey hair dyeing. Selected polymers could strongly absorb visible light and their hydrodynamic sizes ranged from 100 to 400 nm. Analyses of enzyme kinetic constants, liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) coupled with collision-induced dissociation MS/MS indicate that both monomers in reactions involving catechin and catechol, and ferulic acid and syringic acid, are coloured by heteropolymer synthesis, but the gallic acid/syringic acid combination is based on homopolymer mixture formation. Comparison of colour parameters from these three reactions with those of corresponding artificial homopolymer mixtures also supported the idea that laccase may catalyse either hetero- or homo-polymer synthesis. We finally used selected materials to dye grey hair. Each material coloured hair appropriately and the dyeing showed excellent resistance to conventional shampooing. Our study indicates that laccase-catalysed polymerization of natural phenols is applicable to the development of new cosmetic pigments. PMID:21255331

  7. Analysis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on E. coli, human blood cells and Allium cepa suggests a greater toxic potential of hair dye.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Swati; Sasmal, Kankaayan; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are among the most important emerging environmental contaminants in recent time. PPCPs include wide range of cosmetics, among which hair dyes, are immensely popular in modern society. However, impact of hair dye and its residual discharged to the environment in relation to human health and ecological imbalance have not been widely studied. Based on the result of initial survey among the group of populations of eastern India, three most popular and commonly used permanent hair dyes are selected. Working sample of dye is prepared as recommended on the instructions booklet of the hair dye. The effect of three dyes is studied on Escherichia coli, human red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and Allium cepa bulbs by growth inhibition, hemolysis, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and A. cepa micronuclei assays respectively. The Lethal dose (LD) demonstrated significant differences among three dyes and the model systems. In vitro hemolytic assays performed on RBC, and MTT assays on WBC show the cytotoxic effects of hair dye. Significant growth inhibition of E. coli has also been noted. In addition, the root tips of A. cepa treated with the dye have shown major chromosomal abnormalities coupled with cell division retardation. Here low mitotic index confirm cell division retardation. Finally, results of in vitro studies of dye-DNA interactions demonstrate electrostatic interaction. Combing all these results it confirms that hair dyes are cytotoxic and may cause mutagenic effect on living cells irrespective of microbes, plant and animal system. PMID:26544094

  8. Dermal carcinogenicity study by mouse-skin painting with 2,4-toluendediamine alone or in representative hair dye formulations.

    PubMed

    Giles, A L; Chung, C W

    1976-01-01

    The chronic toxicity of 2,4-toluenediamine (2,4-TDA) alone or in conbination with a hair dye complex (2,5-toluenediamine, p-phenylenediamine, and resorcinol) was studied in Swiss-Webster mice of both sexes by a skin-painting technique. The predominant neoplasms seen in these mice were primary pulmonary adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Skin neoplasms were seen in most groups of mice, including untreated control mice. Statistical analysis of the incidences of skin neoplasms among the various groups of mice did not show any significant differences. The 2,4-TDA alone or mixed with the hair dye complex did not produce any abnormal proliferation and maturation of the squamous epithelium of the skin. The 2,4-TDA under our experimental conditions was found to be nontoxic and noncarcinogenic to the skin of mice. PMID:813012

  9. Chemical abuse in the elderly: evidence from hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Cirimele, Vincent

    2008-04-01

    The use of a drug to modify a person's behavior for criminal gain is not a recent phenomenon. However, the recent increase in reports of drug-facilitated crimes (sexual assault, robbery) has caused some alarm in the general public. Drugs involved can be pharmaceuticals such as benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, lorazepam, clonazepam), hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem), sedatives (neuroleptics, some antihistamines), or anesthetics (GHB, ketamine); drugs of abuse such as cannabis, ecstasy, or LSD; or, more often, ethanol. Mistreatment of older people, whether it is abuse or neglect, can be classified as physical, psychologic, or financial/material. Several types of mistreatment may occur simultaneously. Very few data are available in the international literature. It seems that mental abuse and neglect are more frequent, but physical abuse such as beating, pushing, kicking, and possibly sexual abuse have also been reported. Drugs used to facilitate sexual assaults can be difficult to detect (active products at low dosages, chemical instability), can possess amnesic properties, and can be rapidly cleared from the body (short half-life). In these situations, blood, or even urine, can be inadequate. This is the reason why some laboratories have developed an original approach based on hair testing. Hair was suggested as a valuable specimen in situations in which, as a result of a delay in reporting the crime, natural processes have eliminated the drug from typical biologic specimens. Hair analysis may be a useful adjunct to conventional drug testing in sexual assault. It should not be considered as an alternative to blood and urine analyses, but as a complement. Mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry technologies appear to be required for analyses in drug-facilitated cases. The experience of the authors is presented in cases involving the elderly and chemical poisoning. PMID:18367982

  10. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Alterations in the cuticle, cortex, and medulla are necessary to modify the hair cosmetically. The hair can be modified externally by the use of shampoos to remove excess sebum, conditioners to restore shine, and styling aids to increase manageability. Several different formulations of all these products exist, depending on the needs of the patient. Furthermore, the hair can be modified both externally and internally through the use of hair dyes, permanent waving lotions, and hair straighteners. Use of these products causes external damage to the hair shaft by disrupting the overlapping cuticular scales, rendering the hair susceptible to static electricity and the effects of humidity while decreasing manageability and shine. Internal damage created by these products decreases the hair shaft's elastic properties, allowing increased hair breakage. The dermatologist can better aid the patient with hair difficulties if he or she has an understanding of the formulation and effects of products designed to cleanse, beautify, and modify the hair. PMID:2022094

  11. Does Hair Dye Use Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Finnish Women

    PubMed Central

    Heikkinen, Sanna; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Sarkeala, Tytti; Malila, Nea; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Role of hair dyes in the etiology of breast cancer has occasionally raised concern but previous research has concluded with mixed results. Remnants of prohibited aromatic amines have been found in many hair dye products, and elevated levels of DNA-adducts of these amines have been detected from breast epithelial cells of hair dye users. However, the IARC working group has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use and limited evidence in experimental animals for carcinogenicity of hair colorants. Material and Methods We investigated whether the use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer risk in women. The study design was a retrospective population-based case-control study in Finland, with a self-administered questionnaire from 6,567 breast cancer patients, aged 22–60 years and diagnosed in 2000–2007, and their 21,598 matched controls. We report odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) from a conditional logistic regression model applied to the frequency matched sets of cases and controls. Bias-adjusted odds ratios from the sensitivity analysis are also presented. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of breast cancer increased by 23% (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11–1.36) among women who used hair dyes compared to those who did not. In women born before 1950 an increase of 28% was noted (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10–1.48). We also observed a significant trend between the OR and cumulative use of hair dyes (P: 0.005). Bias-adjusted odds ratios varied between 1.04 and 2.50. Conclusions Our results suggest that use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer incidence. The impact on public health may be substantial due to vast popularity of hair coloring in modern societies. It should be noted that regardless of all efforts, a possibility of bias cannot definitively be ruled out and use of a prospective design is warranted. Based on the present results, it may be concluded however that safety of hair dyes in relation to breast cancer cannot yet be fully acknowledged and lack of external safety assessment within the cosmetics industry is of major concern. PMID:26263013

  12. Quantitative detection of chemical compounds in human hair with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerley, Maxwell; Lin, Chia-Yu; Oertel, David C.; Marsh, Jennifer M.; Ward, Jimmie L.; Potma, Eric Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is used to determine the distribution and concentration of selected compounds in intact human hair. By generating images based on ratiometric CARS contrast, quantitative concentration maps of both water and externally applied d-glycine are produced in the cortex of human hair fibers. Both water and d-glycine are found to homogeneously distribute throughout the cortical regions of the hair. The ability to selectively detect molecular agents in hair fibers is of direct relevance to understanding the chemical and physical mechanisms that underlie the performance of hair-care products. PMID:19725730

  13. Life time occupation, smoking, caffeine, saccharine, hair dyes and bladder carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Najem, G R; Louria, D B; Seebode, J J; Thind, I S; Prusakowski, J M; Ambrose, R B; Fernicola, A R

    1982-09-01

    A case-control study of bladder cancer in two northern counties of New Jersey was conducted to investigate a tumour that has been considered to be strongly associated with industrial and environmental exposures. The study population included 75 bladder cancer cases and 142 controls. Cases and controls were matched for race, sex, age, place of birth and place of residence. Statistically significant associations with bladder cancer and risk ratios of greater than 2.0 were found for cigarette smoking and for working in dye, petroleum (fuel) or plastics industries. No statistically significant association was found for: cigar and pipe smoking; caffeine, saccharine and alcohol consumption; and life time occupational history of working in other than dye, petroleum and plastics industries. No statistically significant differences between cases and controls were found in family history of cancer. Risk ratios of at least 2.5 (but without statistical significance possibly because of sample size) were found for workers in rodenticide and printing industries, for cable workers and for cancer in the spouses of bladder cancer cases. Simultaneous multiple primary cancer sites were found in 9.3% of the bladder cancer patients; this is higher than the 0.2-8% reported in the medical literature. The life time occupational history of the bladder cancer cases points to industrial determinants: some are known (petroleum and dye industries) but the association with the plastics industry is new. If our findings are confirmed, investigations will be needed to determine whether any specific chemical or combination of chemicals used in the plastics industry is responsible for bladder cancer induction. PMID:7129735

  14. The effects of henna (hair dye) on the embryonic development of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Bangeppagari; Wei-bing, Peng; Ke-chun, Liu; Marigoudar, Shambanagouda R; Xi-qiang, Chen; Xi-min, Wang; Xue, Wang

    2014-09-01

    The powder of henna is extensively used as decorative skin paint for nail coloring and as a popular hair dye in Asian countries. Its human health risk is extensive, and it is frequently released as waste into the aquatic environment raising the concerns. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were employed to study the developmental effects of henna. Normal fertilized zebrafish embryos under standard water were selected for the control and test chambers. Three predetermined sublethal concentrations (100, 200, and 275 ?M) of henna in 24-well cell culture plates were tested on 1-h postfertilized embryo (pfe) for 96 h. Observation for rates of survival and mortality was recorded; digital camera was used to image morphological anomalies of embryos with a stereomicroscope; and functional abnormalities at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were performed. The hatching rates of embryos were reduced significantly when treated with 200 and 275 ?M or higher concentrations of henna. Slow blood circulation in the whole body was observed with a median effect on hatching exposed to 200 and 275 ?M of henna at 48-h pfe. At 72- and 96-h pfe, blood circulation was ceased in the whole body but still had a heartbeat. At 96-h pfe, pericardial sac edema, yolk sac edema, head deformation, spine crooked malformation, and tail malformation (bent tails or hook-like tails) were observed in the surviving larvae at 100 ?M. In summary, exposure to henna at 100, 200, and 275 ?M causes some altered morphological and physiological abnormalities including increased mortality, hatching delay, slow blood circulation, pericardial sac edema, yolk sac edema, abnormal body axes, twisted notochord, tail deformation, weak heartbeat, and growth retardation and was also detected in some treated embryos and groups having adverse effects on embryonic development of zebrafish provoking potential human developmental risk studies. PMID:24859694

  15. Hair dye poisoning--an emerging problem in the tropics: an experience from a tertiary care hospital in South India.

    PubMed

    Chrispal, Anugrah; Begum, Anisa; Ramya, I; Zachariah, Anand

    2010-04-01

    Super-Vasmol, a cheap, freely-available hair dye is emerging as a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India. It contains potential toxins including paraphenylene diamine, resorcinol, sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and propylene glycol which can result in multiorgan dysfunction. A retrospective study was conducted over 3.5 years (January 2006-July 2009) of 13 consecutive patients with Super-Vasmol poisoning admitted to a tertiary care, referral hospital in South India. A chart review including records of clinical presentations, laboratory findings and treatment details was carried out. Eleven of the patients were women and the mean age was 27.2 years. The predominant clinical features were cervico-facial oedema and pain, cola-coloured urine and oliguria. Laboratory investigations revealed elevated hepatic transaminases (100%), leucocytosis (92.3%), elevated creatinine phosphokinase (92.3%), metabolic acidosis (84.6%), hypocalcaemia (61.5%), hyperphosphataemia (46.2%) and renal failure (38.5%). Eight of the patients were discharged with complete recovery. Trends towards a poor outcome were evident among the following patients: late presentation at our centre; when no gastric lavage was done at the primary-care centre; those requiring tracheostomy/intubation at the primary centre; presentation with a low Glasgow Coma Score or seizures; established renal failure; and those who subsequently require dialysis, mechanical ventilation or intensive care. Hair dye poisoning classically presents with cervico-facial oedema, severe rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. Early therapy with tracheostomy and aggressive forced diuresis are essential in order to prevent the high mortality associated with this toxin. It is imperative to raise public awareness of the potential toxicity of the dye as well as to educate physicians about the need for aggressive and early treatment. PMID:20305106

  16. Fentanyl in hair. Chemical factors involved in accumulation and retention of fentanyl in hair after external exposure or in vivo deposition.

    PubMed

    Stout, P R; Claffey, D J; Ruth, J A

    1998-07-01

    The levels of fentanyl extractable from mouse hair after chronic systemic administration and the suitability of externally loaded hair samples for establishing control and comparison samples were determined. Additionally, the effects of chemical modification of specific polar functionalities within the hair protein matrix on the deposition and recovery of fentanyl in hair subjected to external loading were determined. BALB/c mice entering a second phase of synchronized hair growth were treated ip with fentanyl (0.02, 0.05, or 0.10 mg/kg) on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for 3 weeks. At that time, fentanyl concentrations in hair, as determined by GC/MS, were 0.025-0.050 ng/mg of hair. Hair samples exposed to fentanyl in phosphate buffer (ionized drug) showed no significant accumulation of drug into the hair, as determined by loss of fentanyl from the loading solution or by extraction of the hair. Hair samples exposed to nonionized fentanyl in methanolic solution (10, 50, and 100 ng/ml) showed significant accumulation of drug in the hair and significant removal of drug from the incubation solution. Fentanyl removal from solution plateaued after 24 hr, suggesting equilibration between fentanyl in solution and fentanyl in the hair. A mass balance between drug lost from the incubation solution and drug recovered from hair samples suggests that 94% of accumulated fentanyl is tightly bound to the hair matrix or resides in water-inaccessible compartments within the hair. These results suggest that fentanyl accumulation after in vivo administration differs, in the nature of storage, from fentanyl accumulation from external solutions and that external spiking of hair may not provide suitable control samples. Chemical modification of hair protein functionalities (reaction with diazomethane to esterify carboxylic acid groups or with acetic anhydride and pyridine to acetylate amine and hydroxyl functionalities) led to reproducible protein structure modification, as demonstrated by Fourier transform-IR and by pH titration. Hair from BALB/c mice was used. The accumulation of fentanyl was examined in hair samples exposed to fentanyl in methanol or methylene chloride solutions (10 ng/ml, 24 hr). Fentanyl was recovered from hair by 24-hr extraction in phosphate buffer, pH 6. Esterification of hair resulted in significantly less uptake of nonionized fentanyl from a methanolic solution and significantly lower recovery of drug from hair, relative to untreated hair, suggesting that carboxylic acid functionalities are necessary for the incorporation of drug. Acetylation of hair resulted in increased removal of fentanyl from methylene chloride solutions and increased recovery of fentanyl. This is consistent with the creation or expansion of a less polar compartment. Fentanyl uptake from a methanolic solution was also greater in acetylated hair. These results demonstrate that solution-accessible ionizable functionalities of hair play a significant role in the accumulation and retention of nonionized fentanyl from organic solutions. PMID:9660852

  17. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new

  18. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  19. Basic Red 51, a permitted semi-permanent hair dye, is cytotoxic to human skin cells: Studies in monolayer and 3D skin model using human keratinocytes (HaCaT).

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Thalita B; Tiago, Manoela; Faio-Flores, Fernanda; de Moraes Barros, Silvia B; Bast, Aalt; Hageman, Geja; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

    2014-06-01

    The use of hair dyes is closely associated with the increase of cancer, inflammation and other skin disorders. The recognition that human skin is not an impermeable barrier indicates that there is the possibility of human systemic exposure. The carcinogenic potential of hair dye ingredients has attracted the attention of toxicologists for many decades, mainly due to the fact that some ingredients belong to the large chemical family of aromatic amines. Herein, we investigated the cytotoxicity of Basic Red 51 (BR51) in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). BR51 is a temporary hair dye that belongs to the azo group (NN); the cleavage of this bond may result in the release of toxic aromatic amines. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) in HaCaT cells is 13?g/mL. BR51 induced a significant decrease on expression of p21 in a dose dependent manner. p53 was not affected, whereas BR51 decreased procaspase 8 and cleaved procaspase 9. These results proved that caspase 3 is fully involved in BR51-induced apoptosis. The dye was also able to stop this cell cycle on G2 in sub-toxic doses. Moreover, we reconstructed a 3D artificial epidermis using HaCaT cells; using this model, we observed that BR51 induced cell injury and cells were undergoing apoptosis, considering the fragmented nuclei. Subsequently, BR51 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to an increase on the levels of 8-oxo-dG. In conclusion, we provide strong evidence that consumer and/or professional exposure to BR51 poses risk to human health. PMID:24657526

  20. The Chemical Forms of Mercury in Human Hair: A Study using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    George, Graham N.; Singh, Satya P.; Myers, Gary J.; Watson, Gene E.; Pickering, Ingrid J.

    2013-01-01

    Human hair is frequently used as a bio-indicator of mercury exposure. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to examine the chemical forms of mercury in human hair samples taken from individuals with high fish consumption and concomitant exposure to methylmercury. The mercury is found to be predominantly methylmercury cysteine or closely related species, comprising approximately 80% of the total mercury with the remainder an inorganic thiolate-coordinated mercuric species. No appreciable role was found for selenium in coordinating mercury in hair. PMID:20225071

  1. Comparison of structural and chemical properties of black and red human hair melanosomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Hong, Lian; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Adhyaru, Bhavin; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Bowers, Clifford R; Simon, John D

    2005-01-01

    Melanosomes in black and red human hair are isolated and characterized by various chemical and physical techniques. Different yields of 4-amino-hydroxyphenolanaline by HI hydrolysis (a marker for pheomelanin) and pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid by KMnO(4)/H(+) oxidation (a marker for eumelanin) indicate that the melanosomes in black hair are eumelanosomes, whereas those in red hair are mainly pheomelanosomes. Atomic force microscopy reveals that eumelanosomes and pheomelanosomes have ellipsoidal and spherical shapes, respectively. Eumelanosomes maintain structural integrity upon extraction from the keratin matrix, whereas pheomelanosomes tend to fall apart. The black-hair eumelanosomes have an average of 14.6 +/- 0.5% amino acids content, which is attributed to the internal proteins entrapped in the melanosomes granules. The red-hair melanosomes contain more than 44% of amino acid content even after extensive proteolytic digestion. This high content of amino acids and the poorly reserved integrity of red-hair melanosomes suggest that some proteins are possibly covalently bonded with the melanin constituents in addition to those that are entrapped inside the melanin species. Soluene solubilization assay indicates the absorbance of melanin per gram of sample, adjusted for the amino acid content, is a factor of 2.9 greater for the black-hair melanosomes than the red-hair melanosomes. Metal analysis reveals significant amounts of diverse heavy metal ions bound to the two types of melanosomes. The amount of Cu(II) and Zn(II) are similar but Fe(III) content is four times higher in the red-hair melanosomes. (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and infrared spectra are presented and are shown to be powerful techniques for discerning differences in the amino acid contents, the 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid:5,6-dihydroxyindole ratio, and the degree of cross-linking in the pigment. Excellent agreement is observed between these spectral results and the chemical degradation data. PMID:15504086

  2. Influence of chemical straightening on the stability of drugs of abuse in hair.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Jeanita S; Phinney, Karen W

    2015-01-01

    Chemical straightening, also known as a relaxer, is ubiquitously used among African American women to obtain straighter hair compared with their natural tresses. This study focused on the stability of drugs of abuse in hair after a single application of the relaxer. Commercially available 'Lye' or 'No-Lye' chemical straightening products (Silk Elements™) were applied in vitro to drug-fortified hair (standard reference materials (SRM) 2379 and 2380) and hairs clipped from established drug users. Target analytes (cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BZE), cocaethylene (CE), phencyclidine and tetrahydrocannabinol) were isolated using solid-phase extraction and then analyzed with isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selective ion monitoring. After either treatment, drug concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in both the SRM sample and the hair from authentic abusers. In the SRM groups, 6-67% of the original concentration remained after a single chemical treatment. Similarly, only 5-30% of the original concentration remained in authentic drug hairs that had formerly tested positive for COC, BZE and CE. PMID:25298521

  3. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J; Baker, Timothy R; Troutman, John A; Hewitt, Nicola J; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis-Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. PMID:26028483

  4. Human systemic exposure to a [14C]-para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin.

    PubMed

    Hueber-Becker, Frdrique; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Meuling, Wim J A; Benech-Kieffer, Florence; Toutain, Herv

    2004-08-01

    We investigated the absorption of a commercial [14C]-PPD-containing oxidative dark-shade hair dye in human volunteers as well as in vitro using human or pig ear skin. The hair of eight male volunteers was cut to a standard length, dyed, washed, dried, clipped and collected. Hair, washing water, materials used in the study and a 24-h scalp wash were collected for determination of radioactivity. Blood, urine and faeces were analysed up to 120 h after hair dyeing. An identical [14C]-PPD-containing hair dye formulation was applied in vitro for 0.5 h to human and pig ear skin, and radioactivity was determined in skin compartments after 24 h. In humans, the recovery rate was 95.7+/-1.5% of the applied radioactivity. Washing water, cut hair, gloves, paper towels, caps or scalp wash contained a total of 95.16+/-1.46% of the applied [14C]. Absorbed radioactivity amounted to 0.50+/-0.24% in the urine and 0.04+/-0.04% in the faeces, corresponding to a mean of 7.0+/-3.4 mg [14C]-PPD-equivalents absorbed. Within 24 h after application, most of the radioactivity was eliminated. The Cmax of [14C]-PPD-equivalents in the plasma was 0.087 microgeq/ml, the Tmax was approximately 2 h, and the mean the AUC(0-12h) was 0.67 microgeq h/ml. In vitro tests in human or pig skin found total absorbed amounts of 2.4+/-1.6% (10.6+/-6.7 microgeq/cm2) or 3.4+/-1.7% (14.6+/-6.9 microgeq/cm2), respectively. Percentage-based in vitro results were considerably higher than corresponding in vivo data, whereas, in units of microg/cm2, they corresponded to a total absorbed amount of 7.40 or 10.22 mgeq for human or pig skin, respectively. All results suggested that hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes produces minimal systemic exposure that is unlikely to pose a risk to human health. PMID:15207372

  5. Low-pulse energy Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment for hair-dye-induced Riehl's melanosis.

    PubMed

    On, Hye Rang; Hong, Won Jin; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2015-06-01

    Riehl's melanosis, a form of dermatitis characterized by reticulate pigmentation, typically presents as a gray-brown to black hyperpigmentation on the face and neck. Among the various etiologic factors suggested, photoallergic reaction and pigmented contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to drugs, coal tar dyes, optical whitener, or other ingredients found in cosmetics are believed to be the major contributing factors in this disease. The histopathological features of Riehl's melanosis mainly consist of pigmentary incontinence along with infiltration of numerous dermal melanophages and lymphohistiocytes.1,2 Additionally, notable clinical improvements in the treatment of this condition have been reported for intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy, in comparison to long-term topical application of bleaching agents.2 Here, we report the cases of two Asian patients treated with a low-pulse energy 1,064-nm Q-switched (QS) Nd:YAG laser for hair dye-induced Riehl's melanosis on the face and neck. In conclusion, we observed that Riehl's melanosis on the face and neck was effectively and safely treated with a low-pulse energy 1,064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser. We suggest that this method can be used in Asian patients with Riehl's melanosis at risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation from excessive light or laser energy delivery. PMID:25602355

  6. Changing Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... make curly hair straight. These products break the chemical bonds (attachments) that make hair curly. Once broken, the ... newly grown hair. The more you use these chemicals, the more damaged your hair can ... use heat to break the bonds in your hair. These techniques don't last ...

  7. Internal structure changes in bleached black human hair resulting from chemical treatments: A Raman spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate in detail the influence of chemical treatments (reduction, hydrolyzed eggwhite protein (HEWP) treatment, and oxidation) on damaged hair keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of excessively bleached (damaged) black human hair resulting from a permanent waving process was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that L-cysteine (CYS) largely reacted with the gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) conformation of disulfide (-SS-) groups (while CYS did not react with the trans-gauche-trans (TGT) conformation). In particular, not only the GGG content, but also the cysteic acid content existing throughout the cortex region of the excessively bleached human hair remarkably decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction. On the other hand, the GGG content of the excessively bleached black human hair increased, while the TGT content decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction and then HEWP treatment processes. From these experiments, the authors concluded that some of the keratin associated protein (KAP), which has a rich -SS- content and cysteic acid content was eluted from the cortex region along with the disconnection of -SS- groups, thereby leading to the remarkable reduction in the reconnection of -SS- groups of the excessively bleached black human hair after the permanent waving process (the reduction and oxidation processes). Also, the authors concluded that the HEWP treatment process in the permanent waving process caused the reconstruction of the KAP, thereby contributing to the acceleration of the reconnection of -SS- groups during the oxidation process.

  8. Sunscreens and hair photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2006-01-01

    Photoprotection as it pertains to hair is not a common topic addressed by the dermatologist. Hair is nonliving and requires no protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation because carcinogenesis of the hair shaft itself is not possible. If hair proteins are altered by sun exposure, damaged hair can be removed and replaced by new growth. Thus, at first glance, the whole issue of photoprotection for the hair might seem irrelevant; however, patients frequently consult the dermatologist for advice on hair growth and appearance problems. Hair photoprotection is an important part of maintaining the cosmetic value of the hair shaft. This article focuses on the chemical effects of UV radiation on the hair shaft, hair photoaging, intrinsic hair UV photoprotective mechanisms, and the use of hair sunscreens. The whole science of hair and photoprotection is currently in its infancy and an area of focused research within the hair care product and salon industries. PMID:16311170

  9. Hair cosmetics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  10. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  11. Permeability of hair dye compounds p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diaminesulfate and resorcinol through protective gloves in hairdressing.

    PubMed

    Lind, Marie-Louise; Johnsson, Stina; Meding, Birgitta; Boman, Anders

    2007-07-01

    Dermal exposure to skin irritants and contact allergens is frequent in hairdressing. Hair dyeing is popular today and involves exposure to highly potent contact allergens, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Use of protective gloves to prevent contact with skin-damaging substances is essential. The aim of the present study was to determine the resistance to permeation by PPD, toluene-2,5-diaminesulfate (TDS) and resorcinol (RES) through protective gloves used in hairdressing in Sweden. The permeation of PPD, TDS and RES through four types of protective gloves made of natural rubber latex (NRL), polyvinylchloride (PVC), nitrile rubber (NR) and polyethene (PE) was tested using the American Society for Testing and Materials (1-inch) test cell. Exposure solutions were 5% PPD (w/v), 0.75% TDS and 10% RES in borate buffer with 0.2 M ascorbic acid. The cumulative breakthrough, the so-called 'time-lag breakthrough' (Lag-BT), and permeation rate were determined for each substance and glove. For the NRL glove, the permeated amounts were below the analytical detection levels for all the tested substances. The NR glove was permeated only by RES, with a Lag-BT of 183 min. The PE glove was the thinnest glove and had a Lag-BT of 32 min for PPD; however, the steady-state permeation rate was only 0.031 nmol cm(-2) min(-1). The PVC glove gave the lowest protection against PPD and RES. TDS did not permeate any of the tested gloves. All the tested gloves were disposable, and all need to be changed often and disposed of after use. In conclusion, if properly used, all the tested gloves give considerable protection against permeation of PPD, TDS and RES. PMID:17595170

  12. Distribution and chemical speciation of arsenic in ancient human hair using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Kakoulli, Ioanna; Prikhodko, Sergey V; Fischer, Christian; Cilluffo, Marianne; Uribe, Mauricio; Bechtel, Hans A; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    Pre-Columbian populations that inhabited the Tarapacá mid river valley in the Atacama Desert in Chile during the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period (AD 500-1450) show patterns of chronic poisoning due to exposure to geogenic arsenic. Exposure of these people to arsenic was assessed using synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy measurements on ancient human hair. These combined techniques of high sensitivity and specificity enabled the discrimination between endogenous and exogenous processes that has been an analytical challenge for archeological studies and criminal investigations in which hair is used as a proxy of premortem metabolism. The high concentration of arsenic mainly in the form of inorganic As(III) and As(V) detected in the hair suggests chronic arsenicism through ingestion of As-polluted water rather than external contamination by the deposition of heavy metals due to metallophilic soil microbes or diffusion of arsenic from the soil. A decrease in arsenic concentration from the proximal to the distal end of the hair shaft analyzed may indicate a change in the diet due to mobility, though chemical or microbiologically induced processes during burial cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:24320096

  13. A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.

    PubMed

    Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

    2001-04-01

    A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits. PMID:11590742

  14. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... measure and monitor your vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated as appropriate. You may receive: Breathing support, including a tube through the mouth into the lungs and a ...

  15. Chemical modification of cotton fabrics for improving utilization of reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Long; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Deshuai

    2013-01-01

    The cotton fabric was chemically modified with the acrylamide through Michael addition reaction and Hoffman degradation reaction. And the optimum chemical modification conditions were determined. The molecular structure of the modified cotton fabric was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structures of both the raw and modified cotton fabrics were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. The raw and modified cotton fabrics were dyed using commercial reactive dyes with vinyl-sulfone groups. The results showed that the total dye utilization of modified cotton fabrics in the salt-free dyeing was higher than that of raw cotton fabrics in the conventional dyeing. And the color fastness properties and tear strength of modified fabrics were both satisfactory. PMID:23044144

  16. Chemical transformations of chlorophyll and its application in the design of a new generation of environmentally safe dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Boris D.; Rumyantseva, Svetlana V.; Moryganov, Andrey P.; Berezin, Mikhail B.

    2004-02-01

    Chemical transformations of chlorophyll and physicochemical properties of its derivatives are considered. These compounds can be used in the design of a new generation of chlorophyll- and porphyrin-based dyes environmentally more safe than currently used arene dyes and possessing renewable sources of raw materials. The first results on the use of chlorophyll derivatives for dyeing wool, acetate fibres and cotton are reported.

  17. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Each hair follicle contains a certain number of pigment cells. These pigment cells continuously produce a chemical called melanin (say: ... each hair contains. As we get older, the pigment cells in our hair follicles gradually die. When ...

  18. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Why Does Hair Turn Gray? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does Hair Turn Gray? Print A A A Text Size ... ever watched someone try to cover up gray hair by dyeing it? Or maybe you wonder why ...

  19. 2,6-Diaminopyridine-imprinted polymer and its potency to hair-dye assay using graphene/ionic liquid electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peini; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-02-15

    A new analytical approach for detecting diaminopyridine derivatives has been constructed using a molecular imprinting-electrochemical sensor. Opposed to the conventional strategy of employing diaminopyridine as the functional monomer and uracil derivatives as the target analyte, in the current study, the 2,6-Diaminopyridine-imprinted core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized with 2,6-Diaminopyridine as the template molecule and 6-aminouracil as the functional monomer. Graphene and ionic liquid which can assist 2,6-Diaminopyridine-imprinted core-shell nanoparticles in electrochemical reaction kinetics by increasing conductivity have been introduced to form one of the electrode modified layers. The proposed analytical method has been applied in 2,6-Diaminopyridine detection in hair-dyes and demonstrated appropriate sensitivity and selectivity, with a linear range of 0.0500-35.0 mg kg(-1) and a detection limit as low as 0.0275 mg kg(-1). PMID:25441409

  20. Protective effect of conditioning agents on Afro-ethnic hair chemically treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsion.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tania Cristina de S; Baby, Andr Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valria Robles

    2008-06-01

    Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, products are formulated as emulsions with high pH value (9.0-12.0), which, after applied on hair, cause considerable damage, making it dry and fragile. This research work evaluated the protective effect of lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone, cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer, jojoba oil, and aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol, as conditioning agents, on Afro-ethnic hair locks treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsions by protein loss, combability, and traction to rupture. Standard Afro-ethnic hair locks were prepared following a protocol for straightening emulsion application. Considering the assays performed, the addition of conditioning agents to the straightening emulsion with ammonium thioglycolate benefited the hair fiber, thus diminishing protein loss, protecting the hair thread, and improving resistance to breakage. Jojoba oil and lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone were the conditioning agents that presented the best results. Straightening emulsions with ammonium thioglycolate containing aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol and cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer were the ones that provided higher breakage resistance of the thread. PMID:18482015

  1. Human percutaneous absorption of a direct hair dye comparing in vitro and in vivo results: implications for safety assessment and animal testing.

    PubMed

    Lademann, J; Richter, H; Jacobi, U; Patzelt, A; Hueber-Becker, F; Ribaud, C; Benech-Kieffer, F; Dufour, E K; Sterry, W; Schaefer, H; Leclaire, J; Toutain, H; Nohynek, G J

    2008-06-01

    Although in vitro skin absorption studies often detect small residues of applied test material in the epidermis/dermis, it is uncertain whether the residue is within the living skin. We studied the dermal absorption of a hair dye hydroxyanthraquinone-aminopropyl methyl morpholinium methosulphate (HAM) in human skin in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, skin (back and scalp) received 0.5% HAM in a commercial formulation at 20microg/cm2 After 0.5 or 48h, skin was tape stripped, followed by cyanoacrylate biopsies (CAB). Sebum from scalp sites was collected for 48h. In vitro, skin was treated with 20mg/cm2 dye for 0.5h, penetration determined after 24h. In vivo, at 0.5h, total recovery (back) was 0.67microg/cm2 (tape strips+CAB). Fluorescence microscopy showed HAM in the hair follicle openings (HFO). At 0.5h, scalp tape strips contained 1.80microg/cm2, HFO 0.82microg/cm2. At 48h, HFO contained 0.21microg/cm2, sebum 0.80microg/cm2. In vivo, skin residues were in the non-living skin and eliminated via desquamation and sebum secretion. In vitro, the SC contained 1.50microg/cm2, epidermis/dermis 0.86microg/cm2, receptor fluid<0.04microg/cm2, a total of 0.90microg/cm2 was considered to be bioavailable. In vitro epidermis/dermis residues were nearly identical to those located in non-living skin in vivo. In conclusion, in vitro percutaneous penetration studies may produce seemingly bioavailable material , which raises the need for a Threshold of Skin Absorption (TSA) addressing a negligible dermal absorption in order to avoid unnecessary in vivo toxicity studies on substances that produce no significant human systemic exposure. PMID:18417263

  2. Protection of oxidative hair color fading from shampoo washing by hydrophobically modified cationic polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Foltis, L; Moore, D J; Rigoletto, R

    2009-01-01

    The fading of oxidative color in hair as a result of daily shampoo washing activities has become a common problem and a source of frequent complaints by consumers. The fading occurs primarily through hair dye solubility in water. One aspect of the current study investigates the physical and chemical factors that influence hair color fading during the washing process. This is accomplished by testing hair dye dissolution in water from dyed hair samples with variation of surfactant type, pH, and hair type. Furthermore, a new approach to preventing color fading is developed aiming to provide an effective barrier function for hair dye from dissolving into water. The preliminary investigation of a series of polymers with various functional groups indicates that polymers with hydrophobically modified and cationic functionalities are most effective in preventing hair dye dissolution in water. It is also evident that a synergistic effect of the polymer's hydrophobic moieties and cationic charges are important on hair color protection during shampoo washing processes. A primary example of a polymer within this category is a cationic terpolymer of vinylpyrrolidone, dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide, and methacryloylaminopropyl lauryldimonium chloride (INCI: Polyquaternium-55). The color protection benefit of this polymer is evaluated using newly developed methodologies for evaluating hair color changes, such as hair color fading tests through multiple shampoo washes with mannequin heads and hair tresses, both derived from human hair, colorimetry, and quantitative digital image analysis. In addition, new infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques are used to detect the hair dye deposition behavior inside hair fibers both with and without the color protection treatment. Both visual and instrumental measurement results indicate that Polyquaternium-55 provides a high level of color protection when formulated in a hair color protection regimen with up to 50% color protection. This regimen significantly outperforms commercial products that were tested containing a color protection claim. The proposed mechanism for the anti-fading action of hydrophobically modified polymers includes a cationic charge-reinforced hydrophobic barrier. This model is supported by evaluating the color fastness effect of several different polymer chemistries and by measuring hair surface hydrophobicity changes. PMID:19450422

  3. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome triggered by chemical hair relaxer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Booker, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    This case report describes a 41-year-old Afro-Caribbean lady presenting with a constellation of pyrexia, conjunctivitis, arthralgia, sterile dysuria, apthous ulceration, labial crusting and widespread erythema multiforme. A diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome was made. She had taken no medications recently (the most common precipitant of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome) and a full screen for the common and atypical bacterial and viral triggers was negative. The identified trigger was the use of a chemical hair relaxant treatment a few days previously. With supportive measures and a course of oral prednisolone, the patient quickly improved and made a full recovery. This case highlights the importance of considering occupational and recreational precipitants of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. PMID:19918477

  4. Photophysical and quantum chemical studies on the interactions of oxazine-1 dye with cucurbituril macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Mhejabeen; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Mohanty, Jyotirmayee; Bhasikuttan, Achikanath C; Pal, Haridas

    2015-02-19

    Supramolecular host-guest interaction of cationic oxazine-1 (OX1) dye with two cucurbit[n]uril (CBn) hosts, namely, CB7 and CB8, has been investigated using photophysical and quantum chemical studies. Both CB7 and CB8 display much stronger binding affinities for OX1 dye compared to conventional cyclodextrin (CD) hosts, which arises due to strong ion-dipole interaction in stabilizing the dye-host inclusion complexes in the present systems. From photophysical studies supported by (1)H NMR results and quantum chemical calculations, it is inferred that 1:1 inclusion complexes are mainly formed in the present systems, though a small percentage of 1:2 (dyehost2) complexes are also indicated from time-resolved (TR) fluorescence studies. Longer rotational relaxation times for dye-CBn systems compared to the free dye as estimated from TR anisotropy studies support the inclusion complex formation in the present systems. The binding constant value is estimated to be significantly higher for the OX1-CB7 system than the OX1-CB8 system, and these results are in accordance with compatible portal diameter of CB7 cavity compared to the much larger portal diameter of CB8 cavity relative to the width of the OX1 molecule. Accordingly, CB7 cavity renders a relatively stronger binding than the CB8 cavity for an axially incorporated OX1 dye into the host cavity. Results from the quantum chemical calculations are overall supportive to the inferences drawn from photophysical measurements. Observed results clearly suggest that the dimensions of the CBn cavities play an important role in determining the interaction strength and stoichiometry of the host-guest complexes formed and thus bring out significant changes in the photophysical properties of the bound dye. The host-assisted modulation in the photophysical properties of the dye, as observed in the present study, has a direct relevance to applications like aqueous dye lasers, sensors, fluorescence assays, and so on. PMID:25601388

  5. Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

  6. POTENTIALLY TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN THE INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS AND ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this program were identification of the potential hazards associated with the production and use of industrial organic chemicals (IOC) and organic dyes and pigments (ODP) and determination of the state of the art of the control and treatment of potentially hazard...

  7. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from textile dyeing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Facilities engaged in textile dyeing may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist textile dyers in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  8. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Media resources Stats and facts Conditions Hair loss Hair loss Many conditions, diseases, and improper hair care can ... dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment. CAUSES OF HAIR LOSS Other causes of hair loss, some of which ...

  9. Hair transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this procedure: Scarring Unnatural-looking tufts of new hair growth It is possible that the transplanted hair will ... Most hair transplants result in excellent hair growth within several ... may be needed to create best results. The replaced hairs are ...

  10. Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. PMID:24817050

  11. Matting of scalp hair.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, M; Fabrizi, G; Calvieri, S; Schepis, C

    1996-01-01

    Matting of the hair is a rare condition characterized by an irreversible tangling of scalp hair. This phenomenon has an uncertain etiopathogenesis, and it is assumed that physical, chemical and electrostatic factors may lead to its onset. In our case, vigorous brushing of the hair can be suggested as the etiological factor of matting. PMID:8864371

  12. Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, Lutz; Mathes, Christiane; Hansen, Steffi; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-06-01

    Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery.

  13. Interactions of the N3 dye with the iodide redox shuttle: quantum chemical mechanistic studies of the dye regeneration in the dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, Abu Md; Schreckenbach, Georg

    2011-09-01

    The iodide/triiodide redox couple plays a unique role in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). It is a necessary and unique part of every highly efficient DSSC published to date; alternative redox couples do not perform nearly as well. Hence, a detailed molecular-level understanding of its function is desirable. A density-functional theory (DFT) study has been carried out on the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the dye regeneration mechanism involving the iodide/triiodide redox couple and the prototypical N3 dye in the DSSC. The intermediate complexes between the oxidized dye and iodide have been identified. These are outer-sphere complexes of the general formula [dye(+)I(-)]. Solvent effects are seen to play a critical role in the thermodynamics, whereas relativistic spin-orbit effects are less important. Both the kinetic and thermodynamic data reveal that the formation of complexes between [dye(+)I(-)] and I(-) is the rate limiting step for the overall dye regeneration process. The regeneration of the neutral dye proceeds with the liberation of I; processes involving atomic iodine or I(-) are inferior, both from thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. The overall dye regeneration reaction is an exothermic process. PMID:21773632

  14. Oily hair

    MedlinePLUS

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  15. Hair Transplants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair ... What should first be done before considering a hair transplant? Before the procedure, an ASDS doctor will ...

  16. Hair Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Hair care Hair care Short, long, curly, straight, up, down. Hair options can seem endless! Not all of what makes your hair look good comes from the outside, though. Good ...

  17. Hair Changes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... normal hair growth cycle begins to return. Is hair growth in other places common during pregnancy? Some women ... normal hair growth cycle begins to return. Is hair growth in other places common during pregnancy? Some women ...

  18. Bioanalytical procedures for detection of chemical agents in hair in the case of drug-facilitated crimes.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal

    2007-08-01

    The use of a drug to modify a person's behavior for criminal gain is not a recent phenomenon. However, the recent increase in reports of drug-facilitated crimes (sexual assault, robbery) has caused alarm in the general public. The drugs involved can be pharmaceuticals, such as benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, lorazepam, etc.), hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem), sedatives (neuroleptics, some anti-H1) or anaesthetics (gamma-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine), drugs of abuse, such as cannabis, ecstasy or LSD, or more often ethanol. To perform successful toxicological examinations, the analyst must follow some important rules: (1) obtain as soon as possible the corresponding biological specimens (blood and urine); (2) collect hair about 1 month after the alleged event; (3) use sophisticated analytical techniques (gas or liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, MS/MS, headspace gas chromatography); and (4) take care in the interpretation of the findings. Drugs used to facilitate sexual assaults can be difficult to detect (active products at low doses, chemical instability), possess amnesic properties and can be rapidly cleared from the body (short half-life). In these situations, blood or even urine can be of low interest. This is the reason why some laboratories have developed an original approach based on hair testing. Hair was suggested as a valuable specimen in situations where, as a result of a delay in reporting the crime, natural processes have eliminated the drug from typical biological specimens. While there are a lot of papers that have focused on the identification of drugs in hair following chronic drug use, those dealing with a single dose are very scarce. The experience of the author and a review of the existing literature will be presented for cases involving benzodiazepines, hypnotics, gamma-hydroxybutyrate and various sedatives or chemical weapons. The expected concentrations in hair are in the low picogram/milligram range for most compounds. Hair analysis may be a useful adjunct to conventional drug testing in sexual assault. It should not be considered as an alternative to blood and urine analyses, but as a complement. This approach may find useful applications, but the definition of legally defensible cutoff values would require much more data. MS/MS technologies appear as a prerequisite in drug-facilitated cases. PMID:17340077

  19. Correlating titania morphology and chemical composition with dye-sensitized solar cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santulli, Alexander C.; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Tiano, Amanda L.; DeRosa, Donald; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2011-06-01

    We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO2 as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural morphology of films of these nanostructured materials has been directly characterized using SEM and indirectly probed using dye desorption. Furthermore, the surfaces of these nanomaterials were studied using TEM in order to visualize their structure, prior to their application within DSSCs. Surface areas of the materials have been quantitatively analyzed by collecting BET adsorption and dye desorption data. Additional investigation using open circuit voltage decay measurements reveals the efficiency of electron conduction through each TiO2 material. Moreover, the utilization of various chemically distinctive titanate materials within the DSSCs has also been investigated, demonstrating the deficiencies of using these particular chemical compositions within traditional DSSCs.

  20. Correlating Titania Morphology and Chemical Composition with Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Santulli, A.C.; Wong, S.; Koenigsmann, C.; Tiano, A.L., DeRosa, D.

    2011-04-20

    We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO{sub 2} as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural morphology of films of these nanostructured materials has been directly characterized using SEM and indirectly probed using dye desorption. Furthermore, the surfaces of these nanomaterials were studied using TEM in order to visualize their structure, prior to their application within DSSCs. Surface areas of the materials have been quantitatively analyzed by collecting BET adsorption and dye desorption data. Additional investigation using open circuit voltage decay measurements reveals the efficiency of electron conduction through each TiO{sub 2} material. Moreover, the utilization of various chemically distinctive titanate materials within the DSSCs has also been investigated, demonstrating the deficiencies of using these particular chemical compositions within traditional DSSCs.

  1. Treatment of wastewater containing acid rose red dye by biologically aerated filter after chemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Gu, X; Zhou, X; Wang, W; Lin, D

    2007-08-01

    Combined processes of pre-chemical oxidation and biological aerated filter (BAF) were used to treat wastewater containing non-biodegradable acid rose red dye. Advance oxidation processes (AOPs) of ozone and Fenton reagent were applied for pre-chemical oxidation, which reduced the degree of color and organic matter simultaneously increasing the biodegradability of the wastewater. The majority of the organic matter was removed by BAF. When using ozone as pre-chemical oxidation, the operation is simpler. The combined processes of AOPs, including ozone and Fenton reagent, followed by BAF reduced the color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) to less than 20 degrees and 40 mg l(-1), respectively from the influent concentration of about 4000 degree color and 300 mg l(-1) COD. The effluent water quality could meet the required standard for grey water reuses. PMID:17879842

  2. Adsorption of anionic dyes in aqueous solution using chemically modified barley straw.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shariff; Fatimah, Is; Ang, Ha-Ming; Wang, Shaobin

    2010-01-01

    An agricultural waste derived adsorbent was prepared by chemically modified barley straw with NaOH and a cationic surfactant hexadecylpyridinium chloride monohydrate (CPC). The prepared adsorbent, BMBS, was used for removal of anionic dyes; Acid Blue (AB40) and Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) from aqueous solution in a batch adsorption system. The adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR and elemental composition. The stability of CPC adsorbed on straw surface was also evaluated by exposing to aqueous solution. In adsorption tests, influence of operation parameters such as contact time, initial concentration and pH of solution on AB40 and RB4 uptake were investigated and discussed. The CPC was observed strongly attached to straw surface and removal percentage of AB40 and RB4 was increased with increasing in contact time. The adsorption of dyes on modified straw surface was favorable at high acidic condition and desorption was found relatively low upon exposing to the desorption agent (i.e water). Dynamic experiment revealed that the kinetic data fitted well to the pseudo-second-order model for both of the dyes. The isotherm study also indicated that RB4 and AB40 adsorption suited well with the Langmuir model, The maximum adsorption capacity determined from the Langmuir isotherm at 25 degrees C was 51.95 mg g(-1) and 31.5 for AB40 and RB4, respectively. PMID:20818062

  3. [AOX Pollution in Wastewater Treatment Process of Dyeing and Dyestuff Chemical Industries].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang-yang; Liu, Rui; Xu, Can-can; Shu, Xiao-ming; Xu, Jiang-jun; Lan, Ya-qiong; Chen, L-jun

    2015-09-01

    Selecting six large-scale dyeing factories and four large-scale dyestuff chemical factories in the well-developed Yangtze River Delta region, this study aimed to investigate the AOX pollution status in the raw wastewater as well as in the activated sludge treatment system. The components of AOX were characterized by GC-MS. Results showed that AOX concentration was low in wastewater from the six dyeing enterprises, ranging 0. 15-1. 62 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and 0. 06-1. 30 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. All the biologically treated effluent met the emission limits of 8 mg.L-1 in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Dyeing and Finishing of Textile Industry. Sludge in five factories with AOX was below 621 mg.kg-1, only one factory was with high AOX concentration of 3 280 mg.kg-1. By comparison, AOX concentration greatly varied between the wastewater from dyestuff chemical factories, was 1. 70 mg.L-1 to 78. 72 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and was 1. 88 mg.L-1 to 33. 11 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. AOX concentration in the activated sludge was as high as 960-2,297 mg.kg-1. Chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroanilines, chlorine nitroanilines and halophenols were typical TOX components detectable in the dyestuff chemical wastewater. Halophenols and chlorine nitroanilines could be efficiently removed. Single chloroanilines and single chloronitrobenzenes seemed to be easier removable than polychlorinated anilines and polychlorinated nitrobenzenes. Polychlorinated benzenes were also easily removal but the products chlorobenzene was hard to remove. PMID:26717692

  4. Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair include the lips, the palms of the hands, and the soles of the feet.) Some of the hair on your body is easy to see, like your eyebrows and the hair on your head, arms, and legs. But other hair, like that on your cheek, is almost invisible. Depending on where it is, hair has different ...

  5. Hair Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an inch. Most hairs grow for up to six years and then fall out. New hairs grow in their place. Hair helps keep you warm. It also protects your eyes, ears and nose from small particles in the air. Common problem with the hair and scalp include hair loss, infections, and flaking.

  6. Toxicity Appraisal of Untreated Dyeing Industry Wastewater Based on Chemical Characterization and Short Term Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Altaf, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing wastewaters only on a chemical basis may be insufficient owing to their complex nature. The purpose of this study was to assess toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater based on analytical techniques and short term toxicity based bioassays. In this study, screening of the fractionated wastewater through GC-MS showed the presence of phenols, phthalic acid derivatives and chlorpyrifos. Metal analysis revealed that chromium, arsenic and mercury were present in amounts higher than the wastewater discharge limits. Textile dyeing wastewater was found to be highly mutagenic in the Ames test. DNA damage in sheep lymphocytes decreased linearly with an increase in the dilution of wastewater. MTT assay showed that 8.3 percent v/v wastewater decreased cell survival percentage to 50 %. It can be concluded from this study that short term toxicity tests such as Ames test, in vitro comet assay, and cytotoxicity assays may serve as useful indicators of wastewater pollution along with their organic and inorganic chemical characterizations. PMID:26920697

  7. Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals. Analysis of human fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, L.; Umana, M.; Bursey, J.; Gutknecht, W.; Handy, R.; Hyldburg, P.; Michael, L.; Moseley, A.; Raymer, J.; Smith, D.

    1986-01-01

    Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals are detailed in this book which surveys and evaluates methods and procedures to identify and quantitative chemical constituents in human tissues and body fluids, including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath. The book details attempts to determine 1) the feasibility of correlating preferred methods with specific tissues or fluids and/or with readily identifiable chemical characteristics, and 2) which biological matrices serve as the best indicators of past or present exposure to chemical constituents of concern. The methods studied have been evaluated of their ease and rapidly, as well as cost, accuracy and precision. Target compounds studied were those inorganic and organic chemicals basically of current or previous concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Information provided for the methods evaluated includes sections regarding various types of instrumentation and sample preparation. Sections on method/analyte correlation suggest physical or chemical properties which might be used to predict the applicability of a given analytical method to the analysis of that chemical in a specific biological matrix.

  8. Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... curly, blond and straight, or some other combination? Hair color comes from melanin (say: MEL-uh-nun), the ... you inherit from your parents): Usually, a kid's hair color is determined by one or both parents' hair ...

  9. Dry hair

    MedlinePLUS

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  10. Hair Removal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... maintain a steady temperature by providing some insulation. Terminal hair is coarser, darker, and longer than vellus ... hair that grows on your head. Around puberty, terminal hair starts to grow in the armpits and ...

  11. Hair loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that is applied to the scalp to stimulate hair growth. Other medicines, such as hormones, may be prescribed to decrease hair loss and promote hair growth. Drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride can be ...

  12. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention ... Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ...

  13. Spectral studies of pH dye films for detection of toxic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Wieslaw; Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Golubkov, Sergei P.; Borsuk, Pavel S.

    1993-09-01

    The molecular absorption spectra of pH dyes, employed for ammonia sensing are investigated. Differences of absorption spectra of Bromothymol Blue and Bromocresol Purple dyes, dissolved in water and entrapped in Polymethylphenylsiloxane film are discussed. Correspondence of dye-films absorption bands shape to the Gauss distribution shape in the spectral region of light source emission band was determined.

  14. Technical approaches of a natural dye extracted from Phytolacca americana L.-berries with chemical mordants.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Youn; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2014-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. is a large semi-succulent herbaceous plant which reaches three meters in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is imported into Korea and has been frequently used as a traditional natural drug for diseases such as systemic edema and nephritis. Its berries, that is, fruits are shiny dark purple held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. They are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, maturing into white and then blackish purple. It is not well known how the berries are used for a natural staining yet. In this study, using Phytolacca americana L.-berries, a natural staining was analyzed. Moreover, due to the broad use of chemical mordants, five different mordants including copper acetate, aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid, Iron II sulfate and potassium dichromate were combined. Extracted dye from the berries stained silk fabrics with ivory. The original purple color from the berries disappeared and transformed into ivory. Although the silk fabrics were differentially stained by the berries that were combined with mordants of aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid and potassium dichromate, only differences in lightness and darkness were observed. Interestingly, the combination of the dye from the berries with a mordant of copper acetate and Iron II sulfate induced the staining of the silk fabrics into khaki and dark khaki, respectively. This study is the first systemic report on staining silk fabrics with Phytolacca americana L.-berries and chemical mordants and suggests application of natural products to the fiber industry. PMID:24704646

  15. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Loss Overview What is the normal cycle of hair growth and loss? The normal cycle of hair growth lasts for 2 to 3 years. Each hair ... the hormones return to pre-pregnancy levels, that hair falls out and the normal cycle of growth and loss starts again. Some medicines can cause ...

  16. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. 318.9 Section 318.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY...

  17. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. 318.9 Section 318.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY...

  18. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. 318.9 Section 318.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY...

  19. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. 318.9 Section 318.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  20. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. 318.9 Section 318.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  1. Application of a combined process of moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and chemical coagulation for dyeing wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Shin, W S; Kim, Y H; Han, Myung Ho; Choi, S J

    2006-01-01

    A combined process consisted of a Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) and chemical coagulation was investigated for textile wastewater treatment. The pilot scale MBBR system is composed of three MBBRs (anaerobic, aerobic-1 and aerobic-2 in series), each reactor was filled with 20% (v/v) of polyurethane-activated carbon (PU-AC) carrier for biological treatment followed by chemical coagulation with FeCl2. ln the MBBR process, 85% of COD and 70% of color (influent COD = 807.5 mg/L and color = 3,400 PtCo unit) were removed using relatively low MLSS concentration and short hydraulic retention time (HRT = 44 hr). The biologically treated dyeing wastewater was subjected to chemical coagulation. After coagulation with FeCl2, 95% of COD and 97% of color were removed overall. The combined process of MBBR and chemical coagulation has promising potential for dyeing wastewater treatment. PMID:17163056

  2. Contact urticaria to cosmetic and industrial dyes.

    PubMed

    Davari, P; Maibach, H I

    2011-01-01

    Contact urticaria (CU) defines the weal-and-flare reaction that occurs after external cutaneous contact with a causative agent. These reactions often cause discomfort for patients, affect their quality of life, and in severe cases may be life-threatening. Some dyes are known to be urticariogens. Many people have daily exposure to these urticariogens, because of the widespread use of dyes, for example in textiles, cosmetics and foods. We reviewed industrial and cosmetic dyes such as hair dyes, basic blue 99 dye, patent blue dyes, henna, red dyes, curcumin and reactive dyes, which can potentially cause CU. Overall, the reported cases of CU lacked appropriate controls. Hair-dye constituents such as preservatives and intensifiers may play an important role as causative agents of CU. We recommend appropriate protection guidelines to reduce the incidence of CU in high-risk groups such as hairdressers, dye-factory workers or workers in dye-related industries. PMID:20456377

  3. Taking Care of Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chemical treatments: Relaxers. Relaxers (straighteners) work by breaking chemical bonds in curly hair. Relaxers containing lye can cause skin irritation and hair breakage. Although "no lye" relaxers may cause less ... before a chemical relaxing treatment can increase these risks. And don' ...

  4. Structural, Nanomechanical and Nanotribological Characterization of Human Hair Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Latorre, Carmen; Wei, Guohua

    Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber. Healthy, soft hair with good feel, shine, color and overall aesthetics is generally highly desirable. It is important to study hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners as well as damaging processes such as chemical dyeing and permanent wave treatments because they affect the maintenance and grooming process and therefore alter many hair properties. Nanoscale characterization of the cellular structure, the mechanical properties, as well as the morphological, frictional and adhesive properties (tribological properties) of hair is essential if we wish to evaluate and develop better cosmetic products, and crucial to advancing the understanding of biological and cosmetic science. The atomic/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM) and nanoindenter have recently become important tools for studying the micro/nanoscale properties of human hair. In this chapter, we present a comprehensive review of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of various hair and skin as a function of ethnicity, damage, conditioning treatment, and various environments. Various cellular structures of human hair and fine sublamellar structures of the cuticle are identified and studied. Nanomechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, creep and scratch resistance are discussed. Nanotribological properties such as roughness, friction, and adhesion are presented, as well as investigations of conditioner distribution, thickness and binding interactions.

  5. The oxidation of p-phenylenediamine, an ingredient used for permanent hair dyeing purposes, leads to the formation of hydroxyl radicals: Oxidative stress and DNA damage in human immortalized keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Thalita B; Hudari, Felipe; Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco; Godschalk, Roger W; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B; den Hartog, Gertjan J M; Bast, Aalt; Barros, Silvia B M; Maria-Engler, Silvya S; Hageman, Geja J; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-12-15

    The hair-dyeing ingredient, p-phenylenediamine (PPD), was previously reported to be mutagenic, possibly by inducing oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanism of PPD in inducing oxidative stress upon skin exposure during hair-dyeing in human keratinocytes remains unknown. The aim of our studies was therefore to investigate the toxicity of PPD and its by-products in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) after auto-oxidation and after reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We found that the PPD half maximal effective cytotoxic concentration (EC50) to HaCaT is 39.37 and 35.63 μg/mL after 24 and 48 h, respectively, without addition of H2O2 to induce oxidation. When PPD (10 or 100 μg/mL) is combined with 10.5 μg/mL of H2O2, intracellular ROS production by HaCaT after 1 h was significantly increased and enhanced levels of DNA damage were observed after 4 h of exposure. After 24 h incubations, 20 μg/mL of PPD increased the level of DNA oxidation in HaCaT. Also, we found that the in vitro reaction between PPD and H2O2, even below the maximum allowance by cosmetic industries, released hydroxyl radicals which can damage DNA. Taken together, we conclude that PPD alone and when combined with H2O2 increases the formation of reactive oxygen species in human keratinocytes, leading to oxidative stress and subsequent DNA damage. These alterations suggest that the mechanism by which PPD exposure, alone or combined with H2O2, damages keratinocytes by the formation of the high reactive HO∙ radicals. PMID:26456176

  6. Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Dyed Hair by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J

    2015-06-16

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces into the hair matrix a complex mixture of chemicals that interferes with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS(3) scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg of hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrixes and showed good linearity (40-1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value of r(2) > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semicontrolled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in nondyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet. PMID:25969997

  7. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. In some cases, treating the underlying cause will ...

  8. Hair Removal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ovary syndrome and other hormonal disorders can cause dark, coarse hair to grow on the face, especially ... It works best on light-skinned people with dark hair because the melanin (colored pigment) in the ...

  9. Chemically Altering the Solubility and Durability of Dyes for Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Subashani; Holmes, Andrew B; Leeke, Gary A; Bilic, Ante; Collis, Gavin E

    2015-08-21

    By designing dyes with fluoroalkyl groups, the optical and electronic properties of the alkyl analogue were maintained while dramatically altering the solubility. Dyes, F-TABTA (8) and its masked derivative F-TABTSi (9), that enable them to be deposited under conventional organic solvent and scCO2 conditions, respectively, were developed. In liquid DSSC devices, the fluoroalkyl dye (F-TABTA, 8) performs slightly better than its alkyl analogue (D21L6, 10), and interestingly, it was found that the former device showed better stability over time. Deploying the silyl-masked precursor F-TABTSi (9), this dye was deposited onto TiO2 photoanodes from scCO2 in very short contact times (2.5 h), and ECEs of 7.70% were obtained that exceed the performance of the alkyl dye when deposited by conventional methods. PMID:26238416

  10. Treatment of textile dye wastewaters using ferrous sulphate in a chemical coagulation/flocculation process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carmen S D; Madeira, Luís M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2013-01-01

    The coagulation/flocculation treatment using FeSO4 x 7H2O as a coagulant is evaluated in this work for the removal of organic compounds and colour from synthetic effluents simulating the cotton, acrylic and polyester dyeing wastewaters. The coagulant dose, temperature, pH, stirring speed and stirring time that maximized the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and colour for each effluent are determined for the coagulation process. The effect of the stirring speed, stirring time and the dose of flocculant (Magnafloc 155 or Superfloc C-573) on the flocculation stage is also evaluated for effluents pretreated by coagulation at the optimal conditions previously determined. The obtained results showed that the optimal operating conditions are different for each effluent, and the process (coagulation/flocculation) as a whole was efficient in terms of colour removal (-91% for cotton, -94% for acrylic effluents; polyester effluent is practically colourless). However, the DOC removal observed is not significant (33% for polyester, -45% for cotton and -28% for acrylic effluents). On the other hand, the remaining dissolved iron content is appropriate for further integrating the treatment with an iron-catalysed Fenton process, thus reducing the consumption of chemicals in the overall treatment. PMID:23837323

  11. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z Diseases and treatments E - H Hair loss Hair loss Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE-shah) Hereditary ... our skin, hair, and nails. Learn more about hair loss: Hair loss: Signs and symptoms Hair loss: Who ...

  12. A History of the Chemical Innovations in Silver-Halide Materials for Color Photography(10) IV. Color Print Making by Silver Dye Bleach and Imbibition Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Yasushi

    Prior to the advent of the color photography based on dye-forming development, two color printing processes had been developed: 1) silver dye bleach (commercially introduced as Gasparcolor and then Cibachrome) and 2) imbibtion (introduced as Technicolor). While both processes utilized the available preformed dyes, the former could be said to be a chemical process because it consisted in a single and simple chemical bath of dye destruction, and on the other hand the latter to be a physical process in that the images were formed in multiple mechanical stages of old treatments. Although both processes presented marvelous performances at their earliest phases in the 1930s, they failed to expand their technological frameworks and eventually were surpassed by the dye-forming printing process.

  13. Biomedical applications and chemical nature of three dyes first synthesized by Raphael Meldola: isamine blue, Meldola's blue and naphthol green B.

    PubMed

    Hope-Roberts, M; Horobin, R W

    2012-05-01

    Brief accounts are given of the chemical nature, and past and current biomedical applications of three dyes first synthesized by Raphael Meldola: isamine blue, Meldola's blue and naphthol green B. PMID:22149360

  14. Quantitative analysis of methadone and two major metabolites in hair by positive chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, D G; Nagasawa, P R; Gygi, S P; Foltz, R L; Rollins, D E

    1996-10-01

    A sensitive and specific method for the quantitative determination of D,L-methadone (MD) and its metabolites, D,L-2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3, 3-diphenylpyrrolinium (EDDP) and D,L-2-ethyl-5-methyl-3, 3-diphenyl-1-pyrroline (EMDP), in hair has been developed. Deuterated internal standards of MD, EMDP, and EDDP were added to 20-mg hair samples and digested overnight at room temperature with 1N sodium hydroxide. Calibration standards containing known concentrations of MD, EMDP, and EDDP dried onto human hair were also digested. Digest solutions were extracted by a liquid-liquid extraction procedure and analyzed with splitless injection on a Finnigan MagnumTM ion trap mass spectrometer. Chromatographic separation was achieved with helium carrier gas on a DB-5MS-30M-0.25-micron capillary column. Positive chemicaionization was used with acetone as the reagent gas. The assay was linear from 0.5 ng/mg (MD and EDDP) or 1.0 ng/mg (EMDP) to 50.0 ng/mg of human hair with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. Intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation were determined to be less than 20% for all three analytes at 2.0 and 10.0 ng/mg of hair. Recovery was estimated to be greater than 70% (MD and EDDP) and 53% (EMDP) at 2.0 and 10.0 ng/mg of hair. The method has been applied to the analysis of both human and rat hair. Male long-Evans rats were shaved prior to dosing to obtain their drug-free hair. Animals were then administered 15 mg/kg MD by intraperitoneal injection daily for five days. Fourteen days after the first dose, hair was collected and analyzed for MD, EMDP, and EDDP. The mean plus standard error of the mean (SEM; n = 3) concentrations of MD and EDDP in pigmented hair were 31.1 ng/mg +/- 9.6 ng/mg and 8.6 +/- 2.4 ng/mg, respectively. EMDP was detected in the hair of one of three rats. In another experiment, hair was collected from two human subjects who had received long-term methadone therapy for the treatment of heroin addiction. Subject A received 60 mg of methadone daily for at least six months; subject B received 80 mg of methadone daily for at least six months. The hair concentrations of MD were 10.1 ng/mg and 21.0 ng/mg for Subjects A and B, respectively. The hair concentrations of EDDP were 0.5 ng/mg and 2.6 ng/mg for Subjects A and B, respectively. EMDP was not detected in the hair of these two subjects. This method is being used to evaluate the incorporation of MD, EMDP, and EDDP in human and rat hair in dose-response studies. PMID:8889670

  15. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  16. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  17. Hair casts

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Sweta S.; Parmar, Kirti S.; Shah, Bela J.

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

  18. Ethnic hair care products may increase false positives in hair drug testing.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, David A; Smith, Frederick P; Shepherd, Arica R

    2015-12-01

    The question of why different races appear more susceptible to hair contamination by external drugs remains controversial. This research studied susceptibility of head hair to external cocaine and methamphetamine when hair products have been applied. Three different chemical classes of ethnic hair products were applied to Caucasian, Asian, and African hair. Some products increased the methamphetamine and cocaine concentrations in all hair types. A unique finding of this research is that certain ethnic hair products can replace moisture as a diffusion medium, thereby increasing the susceptibility to contamination over 100-fold compared to petroleum-based products. PMID:26338354

  19. Capacity of Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus for decolorization of chemically different dyes.

    PubMed

    Novotn, C; Rawal, B; Bhatt, M; Patel, M; Sasek, V; Molitoris, H P

    2001-08-23

    The rate and efficiency of decolorization of poly R-478- or Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR)-containing agar plates (200 microg x g(-1)) were tested to evaluate the dye degradation activity in a total of 103 wood-rotting fungal strains. Best strains were able to completely decolorize plates within 10 days at 28 degrees C. Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus were selected and used for degradation of six different groups of dyes (azo, diazo, anthraquinone-based, heterocyclic, triphenylmethane, phthalocyanine) on agar plates. Both fungi efficiently degraded dyes from all groups. Removal of RBBR, Bromophenol blue, Cu-phthalocyanine, Methyl red and Congo red was studied with I. lacteus also in liquid medium. Within 14 days, the following color reductions were attained: RBBR 93%, Bromophenol blue 100%, Cu-phthalocyanine 98%, Methyl red 56%, Congo red 58%. The ability of I. lacteus to degrade RBBR spiked into sterile soil was checked, the removal being 77% of the dye added within 6 weeks. The capacity of selected white rot fungal species to remove efficiently diverse synthetic dyes from water and soil environments is documented. PMID:11500204

  20. The use of chromophore and fluorophore degradation to quantitate UV dose: FD&C dyes as chemical identicators for UV sterilization.

    PubMed

    Putt, Karson S; Kernick, Edward R; Lohse, Brieanna K; Lomboy, James; O'Brien, Terry; Pugh, Randall B

    2012-11-01

    The accurate measurement of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, especially within a container or vessel is one of the challenges facing the broad implementation of UV sterilization. Currently, biological indicators are the best method to determine whether an applied UV dose has the necessary efficacy to achieve sterilization. To overcome some of the challenges of using a biological indicator, chemical indicators based upon the degradation of food, drug and cosmetic (FD&C) dyes were developed. In this work, the relationship between UV dose and dye degradation was elucidated and used to create standard curves which could be used as a quantitative measurement system. The use of dye degradation as a measurement of UV dose is especially useful when the levels of UV irradiation within a container cannot be measured directly. Additionally, due to the highly colored nature of the FD&C dyes, the visual changes present upon dye irradiation can be used as a qualitative visual indicator of the UV dose. PMID:22974691

  1. Body Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Light is beamed through the skin to stop hair growth. The laser light can cause pain sometimes, but creams are used to numb the skin. If you use a lot of these creams, they can ... having laser hair removal. Avoid sunlight when your skin is healing ...

  2. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in hair loss. No 5. Are you taking any new medicines, or are you being treated for cancer? Yes Hair loss may be a side effect of ... has given birth within the last three months? Yes HORMONE CHANGES ... without any treatment. While follicular degeneration cannot be reversed, gentle ...

  3. Uncombable hair

    PubMed Central

    Garty, B; Metzker, A; Mimouni, M; Varsano, I

    1982-01-01

    Uncombable hair is a familial abnormality of scalp hair structure which affects children and lessens as they grow older. It is suggested that the mode of inheritance of the condition is autosomal dominant. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:7125692

  4. A versatile chemical conversion synthesis of Cu2S nanotubes and the photovoltaic activities for dye-sensitized solar cell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A versatile, low-temperature, and low-cost chemical conversion synthesis has been developed to prepare copper sulfide (Cu2S) nanotubes. The successful chemical conversion from ZnS nanotubes to Cu2S ones profits by the large difference in solubility between ZnS and Cu2S. The morphology, structure, and composition of the yielded products have been examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements. We have further successfully employed the obtained Cu2S nanotubes as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The light-to-electricity conversion results show that the Cu2S nanostructures exhibit high photovoltaic conversion efficiency due to the increased surface area and the good electrocatalytical activity of Cu2S. The present chemical route provides a simple way to synthesize Cu2S nanotubes with a high surface area for nanodevice applications. PMID:25246878

  5. A versatile chemical conversion synthesis of Cu2S nanotubes and the photovoltaic activities for dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Xuemin; Shen, Wenzhong; Hou, Zhaoyang; Ke, Sanmin; Xu, Chunlong; Jiang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    A versatile, low-temperature, and low-cost chemical conversion synthesis has been developed to prepare copper sulfide (Cu2S) nanotubes. The successful chemical conversion from ZnS nanotubes to Cu2S ones profits by the large difference in solubility between ZnS and Cu2S. The morphology, structure, and composition of the yielded products have been examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements. We have further successfully employed the obtained Cu2S nanotubes as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The light-to-electricity conversion results show that the Cu2S nanostructures exhibit high photovoltaic conversion efficiency due to the increased surface area and the good electrocatalytical activity of Cu2S. The present chemical route provides a simple way to synthesize Cu2S nanotubes with a high surface area for nanodevice applications. PMID:25246878

  6. Chemical and structural evaluation of activated carbon prepared from jute sticks for Brilliant Green dye removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Kabir, Mohammad Shajahan; Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Miyazawa, Tomohisa

    2010-02-15

    Activated carbons have been prepared from jute sticks by chemical activation using ZnCl(2) and physical activation using steam for the removal of Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solution. The activated carbons and charcoal prepared from jute sticks were characterized by evaluating the surface chemistry, structural features and surface morphology. The maximum BET surface area was obtained to be 2304 m(2)/g for chemical activated carbon (ACC) while it is 730 and 80 m(2)/g for steam activated carbon (ACS) and charcoal, respectively. The FT-IR spectra exhibited that the pyrolysis and steam activation of jute sticks resulted in the release of aliphatic and O-containing functional groups by thermal effect. However, the release of functional groups is the effect of chemical reaction in the ZnCl(2) activation process. A honeycomb-type carbon structure in ACC was formed as observed on SEM images. Although charcoal and ACC were prepared at 500 degrees C the ACC exhibited much lower Raman sensitivity due to the formation of condensed aromatic ring systems. Due to high surface area and high porous structure with abundance of functional groups, the ACC adsorbed dye molecules with much higher efficiency than those of ACS and charcoal. PMID:19815339

  7. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, M N

    1987-07-01

    Porosity, elasticity, and texture influence the hair's ability to be changed. The types of color--temporary, gradual, natural, semipermanent, and permanent--depend upon the size of the "coloring" molecule to determine whether they penetrate the cortex (permanent) or precipitate on the cuticle. Different types of hair--thick or coarse, fine or thin--have varying affinity for different products and coloring/waving methods. Damaged hair is treated differently from hair with healthy, less porous shafts. Because so many people have color-treated hair today, dermatologists should be aware of all the latest changes and improvements, in order to assist patients with damaged or congenitally deformed hair. Acid-based permanents are becoming the most commonly used. Daily care with shampooing and conditioning has attained its most sophisticated level with the use of anionic and cationic surfactants in all hair-care products. It is also important for the dermatologist to be aware of what help is available for his or her patients. Cosmetic companies are eager to help any patient with severe problems with texture, dullness, over-fine or congenitally defective hair. The physician should send the patient with a severe problem directly to the nearest company headquarters or major city office to have a hair analysis, and receive suggestions from the experts of that company. For patients with moderate to mild problems, the dermatologist should be able to recommend three or four good salons in the local area with which he or she is familiar. Our main goal as physicians is to take care of the entire patient and to enable him or her to have a good self-image. PMID:3608250

  8. [Allergy to dyes in stockings].

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Schulz, K H

    1984-09-28

    Skin allergies caused by the wearing of stockings and hose have received little attention. Findings in patients of an allergy department, enquiries at stocking counters of stores and recent publications indicate, however, that probably many more persons have an allergy to stocking dyes than is generally thought. Skin tests with isolated stocking dyes indicate that azo dye dispersion yellow 3, dispersion orange 3 and dispersion red 1 are the most important contact allergens. They were demonstrated in 18-21 of the 23 hose examined. In textile materials, azo dye dispersion blue 124 is predominant among allergens. Cross-reactions may occur to other dispersion azo dyes, used in cosmetics, textiles, toiletries and hygenic articles, permitted food additives and hair dyes. It is suggested that in persons who have dye allergy or intolerance, decolouration followed by colouring with natural colours be undertaken. PMID:6479046

  9. Nanomechanical responses of human hair.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Aniruddha; Bhattacharya, Manjima; Dalui, Srikanta; Acharya, Megha; Das, Pradip Sekhar; Chanda, Dipak Kr; Acharya, Saikat Deb; Sivaraman, Sankar Kalidas; Nath, Shekhar; Mandal, Ashok Kumar; Ghosh, Jiten; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Here we report the first ever studies on nanomechanical properties e.g., nanohardness and Young׳s modulus for human hair of Indian origin. Three types of hair samples e.g., virgin hair samples (VH), bleached hair samples (BH) and Fe-tannin complex colour treated hair samples (FT) with the treatment by a proprietary hair care product are used in the present work. The proprietary hair care product involves a Fe-salt based formulation. The hair samples are characterized by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) genesis line map, EDAX spot mapping, nanoindentation, tensile fracture, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The nanoindentation studies are conducted on the cross-sections of the VH, BH and FT hair samples. The results prove that the nanomechanical properties e.g., nanohardness and Young׳s modulus are sensitive to measurement location e.g., cortex or medulla and presence or absence of the chemical treatment. Additional results obtained from the tensile fracture experiments establish that the trends reflected from the evaluations of the nanomechanical properties are general enough to hold good. Based on these observations a schematic model is developed. The model explains the present results in a qualitative yet satisfactory manner. PMID:26719934

  10. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... much heat on your hair (like using a hot iron or hot blow drying). Another type of ...

  11. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... En Espaol Making a Change Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... much heat on your hair (like using a hot iron or hot blow drying). Another type of ...

  12. UV-vis spectroscopy and semiempirical quantum chemical studies on methyl derivatives of annulated analogues of azafluoranthene and azulene dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danel, K. S.; G?siorski, P.; Matusiewicz, M.; Ca?us, S.; Uchacz, T.; Kityk, A. V.

    2010-09-01

    Paper reports the measured optical absorption and fluorescence spectra of 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-7-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-1 H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (MCPDPPQ), as well as 6-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-3 H-indeno[1,2,3- de]pyrazolo[3,4- b]quinoline (MDPIPQ) and 9-methyl-6-phenyl-6 H-5,6,7-triazadibenzo[ f,h]naphtho[3,2,1- cd]azulene (MPTNA) representing cyclized five- or seven-membered regioisomeric products of MCPDPPQ, respectively. The spectra has been recorded in solvents of different polarity and compared with the results of quantum chemical calculations performed by means of the semiempirical method PM3 in combination with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Cyclization of MCPDPPQ into MDPIPQ or MPTNA is accompanied by a significant red shift of the first optical absorption and fluorescence bands. While the solvent polarity rises all the dyes exhibit the blue shift of the first absorption band and the red shift of the fluorescence band. These trends have been reproduced within the semiempirical calculations in combination with the Lippert-Mataga dielectric polarization model and explained by specific orientations of the dipole moments in the ground and excited states. All dyes may be considered as candidates for the luminescent or electroluminescent applications. Depending on solvent polarity they emit light in the green-yellow range of the visible spectra.

  13. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P<0.001), hair breakage (P=0.040), and desire to change hair (P=0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P=0.002) and washing (P=0.010), washing frequency (P<0.001), chemical relaxer use (P<0.001), hooded hair dryer use (P<0.001), and hair shaft conditioner use (P=0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P<0.001), density (P=0.0016), diameter (P=0.01), number of broken hairs (P<0.001), and blood flow (P=0.03). There was no significant difference in hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth. PMID:26300276

  14. The construction of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells from chemically-derived nanoporous photoelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hongsik; Hwang, Taehyun; Lee, Sangheon; Nam, Seunghoon; Kang, Joonhyeon; Lee, Byungho; Park, Byungwoo

    2015-01-01

    A tandem dye-sensitized solar cell (tandem-DSSC) was synthesized on the basis of thin-film semiconductor electrodes. The nanoporous p-type NiO films were successfully obtained by simultaneous deposition of Al and Ni, followed by selective etching of Al and oxidation. Likewise, the n-type photoanode was made where Ag was etched in nitric acid after the initial formation of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites. Such dye-sensitized photoelectrodes were combined to construct a tandem solar cell which exhibited an enhanced open-circuit voltage. Also, the tandem devices were subjected to various light fluxes to correlate the experimental cell parameters (open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, fill factor, recombination shunt resistance, etc.) with the ideal one-diode model. Interestingly, impedance spectra of the tandem cell was well matched with the parameters from each of the n-type or p-type DSSC, indicative of successfully-designed tandem structure.

  15. Quantum chemical computations and Fourier transform infrared spectral studies of a nonlinear food dye E110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehalatha, M.; Sekar, N.; Jayakumar, V. S.; Joe, I. Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of a well-known food dye sunset yellow FCF (E110) has been recorded and analysed. Assignments of the vibrational spectrum has been facilitated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results of the optimized molecular structure obtained on the basis of B3LYP with 6-31G(d) along with the 'LANL2DZ' basis sets give clear evidence for the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and strong hydrogen bonding enhancing the optical nonlinearity of the molecule. The first hyperpolarizability of the acidic monoazo dye 'E110' is computed. Azo stretching frequencies have been lowered due to conjugation and ?-electron delocalization. Hydroxyl vibrations with intramolecular H-bonding are analyzed, supported by the computed results. The natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis confirms this strong hydrogen bond between the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group and nitrogen of the azo group of the molecule. Assignments of benzene and naphthalene ring vibrations are found to agree well with the theoretical wave numbers.

  16. Quantum chemical computations and Fourier transform infrared spectral studies of a nonlinear food dye E110.

    PubMed

    Snehalatha, M; Sekar, N; Jayakumar, V S; Joe, I Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of a well-known food dye sunset yellow FCF (E110) has been recorded and analysed. Assignments of the vibrational spectrum has been facilitated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results of the optimized molecular structure obtained on the basis of B3LYP with 6-31G(d) along with the 'LANL2DZ' basis sets give clear evidence for the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and strong hydrogen bonding enhancing the optical nonlinearity of the molecule. The first hyperpolarizability of the acidic monoazo dye 'E110' is computed. Azo stretching frequencies have been lowered due to conjugation and pi-electron delocalization. Hydroxyl vibrations with intramolecular H-bonding are analyzed, supported by the computed results. The natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis confirms this strong hydrogen bond between the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group and nitrogen of the azo group of the molecule. Assignments of benzene and naphthalene ring vibrations are found to agree well with the theoretical wave numbers. PMID:17524763

  17. Removing Hair Safely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the skin, and into the hair follicle. An electric current travels down the wire and destroys the hair ... a period of time. Tweezer epilators also use electric current to remove hair. The tweezers grasp the hair ...

  18. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! ... is alopecia (say: al-uh-PEE-shuh). The Hair-y Story The hair on your head is ...

  19. Changing Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair also can hurt the scalp or cause hair loss . Styling tools, such as curling irons and straightening ... this treatment for kids. Some people complain about hair loss or a burning scalp after getting their hair ...

  20. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2010 Regional Mussel Watch (AMB02)

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2010-10-20

    The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF) and Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton (Shipyard) located in Bremerton, WA are committed to a culture of continuous process improvement for all aspects of Shipyard operations, including reducing the releases of hazardous materials and waste in discharges from the Shipyard. Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, a cooperative project among PSNS&IMF, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders (US Navy, EPA and Ecology 2002) has been helping to improve the environmental quality of the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet Watershed (ENVVEST 2006). An ambient monitoring program for sediment, water, and indigenous mussels began in 2009 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. This document presents the 2010 chemical residue data and stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) for the regional mussel watch stations located in Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. Indigenous bivalves were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc. The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These chemical residue data provide the first year of the biota ambient monitoring.

  1. Identifying rhodamine dye plume sources in near-shore oceanic environments by integration of chemical and visual sensors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Kang, Xiaodong; Li, Yunyi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Aiqun; Yu, Jiangchen; Li, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification) and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA) in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA) and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China), successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions. PMID:23507823

  2. Identifying Rhodamine Dye Plume Sources in Near-Shore Oceanic Environments by Integration of Chemical and Visual Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Kang, Xiaodong; Li, Yunyi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Aiqun; Yu, Jiangchen; Li, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification) and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA) in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA) and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China), successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions. PMID:23507823

  3. Hair breakage index: an alternative tool for damage assessment of human hair.

    PubMed

    Mhaskar, Sudhakar; Kalghatgi, Bhargavi; Chavan, Madhavi; Rout, Suryamani; Gode, Vaishali

    2011-01-01

    Improper hair care, mechanical abrasion, sun damage and chemical treatment changes the physical and morphological characteristics of hair. Several methods involving microscopic techniques, protein loss and assessment of tensile properties of the hair are generally used to evaluate the extent of damage caused. These are also used to determine the protective effect of hair care products. In the present investigation, the hair breakage index (HBI) was used as an alternative tool to determine the change in the properties of hair on weathering. HBI is a measure of the diameter of hair in a given cross sectional area of a marked region of hair on the scalp. The hair diameter changes as we progress towards the tip of the hair due to breakage. The ratio of the diameter of hair bundle in the distal region to the diameter of hair bundle in the proximal region from the scalp is used as an indicator of hair breakage. Higher HBI value is an indicator of hair damage.A study was conducted for duration of 16 weeks to assess the effect of weathering due to grooming practices on HBI values. The HBI and break stress for a group of 30 subjects were measured at baseline and at the end of 16 weeks (NU). Since Coconut oil (CNO) is known to have a positive benefit on tensile properties of hair, another matched group of 30 subjects who oiled their hair daily with CNO was used as a positive control (CNO). The HBI and break stress for this group were also measured at the baseline and after 16 weeks. It was observed that the HBI significantly increased in the NU group versus the CNO user group. The break stress also significantly decreased in the NU group suggesting its correlation with the HBI data. This study demonstrates the usefulness of HBI as a simple and effective tool for determining hair damage and its protection by different hair care products. PMID:21635848

  4. Development and validation of a gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair and its application to forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Kharbouche, Hicham; Sporkert, Frank; Troxler, Stphanie; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice; Staub, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor and direct metabolite of ethanol. EtG is incorporated into the growing hair allowing retrospective investigation of chronic alcohol abuse. In this study, we report the development and the validation of a method using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS/MS) for the quantification of EtG in hair. EtG was extracted from about 30 mg of hair by aqueous incubation and purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using mixed mode extraction cartridges followed by derivation with perfluoropentanoic anhydride (PFPA). The analysis was performed in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode using the transitions m/z 347-->163 (for the quantification) and m/z 347-->119 (for the identification) for EtG, and m/z 352-->163 for EtG-d(5) used as internal standard. For validation, we prepared quality controls (QC) using hair samples taken post mortem from 2 subjects with a known history of alcoholism. These samples were confirmed by a proficiency test with 7 participating laboratories. The assay linearity of EtG was confirmed over the range from 8.4 to 259.4 pg/mg hair, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) above 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated with 3.0 pg/mg. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the method was fixed at 8.4 pg/mg. Repeatability and intermediate precision (relative standard deviation, RSD%), tested at 4 QC levels, were less than 13.2%. The analytical method was applied to several hair samples obtained from autopsy cases with a history of alcoholism and/or lesions caused by alcohol. EtG concentrations in hair ranged from 60 to 820 pg/mg hair. PMID:19109074

  5. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... impact of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively affected. 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  6. Study of chemical reactivity in relation to experimental parameters of efficiency in coumarin derivatives for dye sensitized solar cells using DFT.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rojo, Rody; Baldenebro-López, Jesús; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    A group of dyes derived from coumarin was studied, which consisted of nine molecules using a very similar manufacturing process of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Optimized geometries, energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, and ultraviolet-visible spectra were obtained using theoretical calculations, and they were also compared with experimental conversion efficiencies of the DSSC. The representation of an excited state in terms of natural transition orbitals (NTOs) was studied. Chemical reactivity parameters were calculated and correlated with the experimental data linked to the efficiency of the DSSC. A new proposal was obtained to design new molecular systems and to predict their potential use as a dye in DSSCs. PMID:25959071

  7. 40 CFR 721.5915 - Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. 721.5915 Section 721.5915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.5915 Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. (a) Chemical... as a polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye (PMN P-93-658) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5915 - Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. 721.5915 Section 721.5915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.5915 Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. (a) Chemical... as a polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye (PMN P-93-658) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5915 - Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. 721.5915 Section 721.5915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.5915 Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. (a) Chemical... as a polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye (PMN P-93-658) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5915 - Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. 721.5915 Section 721.5915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.5915 Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. (a) Chemical... as a polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye (PMN P-93-658) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5915 - Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. 721.5915 Section 721.5915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.5915 Polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye. (a) Chemical... as a polysubstituted phenylazopolysubstitutedphenyl dye (PMN P-93-658) is subject to reporting...

  12. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2012 Regional Mussel Watch

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2012-09-01

    Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders have worked collaboratively to improve the environmental quality of Sinclair and Dyes Inlets. A regional mussel monitoring program began in 2010 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. The program collected indigenous mussels to represent a time-integrated measure of bioavailable metals and organic chemicals present in the water column. This document supplements the 2010 indigenous mussel data with 2012 data to provide two years of data on the chemical residue of mussels present in the inter-tidal regions of Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. The 2012 data set added one station at PSNS&IMF and one market samples from Penn Cove. Indigenous mussels were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for percent lipids, percent moisture, stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver (Ag), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The average lengths between the 2010 and 2012 data were generally less than 30% relative percent difference (RPD). Generally, the metals concentrations were lower in 2012 than 2010 with some notable exceptions in Sinclair Inlet and Rich Passage where increases in Ag, Hg, Pb, Cu, and Zn exceeded an RPD of 50% between years. However, they did not exceed the bioaccumulation critical values or the critical body residues corresponding to the no observed effect dose (NOED) and the lowest observed effect dose (LOED) with one exception. The Cd concentrations exceeded the NOED and LOED for the Manchester Lab Pier and the Pike Place Market samples. For the PAHs and PCB, the 2012 data were generally lower than 2010 and some cases significantly lower for PAHs and none of the available invertebrate benchmarks were exceeded.

  13. Filtration techniques used by the textile industry for recovery of dyes, chemicals and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The continued increase in the cost of chemicals energy and water makes their recovery more important today than it was 20 years ago when ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration were first introduced to the textile industry. While the filtration techniques have only been used at a few installations, these plants have been able to save enough to pay for the recovery process in one to two years. One key to having a successful recovery operation is to have good automatic control of the process. This can drastically improve the economics of the textile process as well as minimizing the cost of the recovery system. The recovery of PVA, indigo, caustic and preparation chemicals will be presented.

  14. A hybrid bis(amino-styryl) substituted Bodipy dye and its conjugate diacid: synthesis, structure, spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Nano, Adela; Retailleau, Pascal; Hagon, Jerry P; Harriman, Anthony; Ziessel, Raymond

    2014-06-01

    A new type of fluorescent pH indicator has been developed whereby two dissimilar amino-styryl units are attached to a boron dipyrromethene (Bodipy) dye. The photophysical properties of this hybrid dye, and its simpler counterparts bearing only a single amino-styryl residue, depend on the polarity of the surrounding medium. Of the two terminal amines, DFT (B3LYP/6-31G**) calculations and spectroscopic measurements support the notion that julolidine is oxidised and protonated under milder conditions than is N,N-dimethylaniline. For the hybrid dye, similar DFT calculations carried out for the mono-protonated analogues indicate that the julolidine residue is the stronger base while the resultant conjugate acid is the weaker one. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic titrations show that protonation of the hybrid dye occurs in two well-resolved steps, whereby addition of the first proton introduces a thermodynamic barrier for entry of the second. In the hybrid dye, the pKA values for the respective conjugate acids differ markedly from those derived for the mono-amino-styryl dyes and display negative co-operativity. Effectively, this means that electronic interactions running along the molecular backbone make it more difficult, relative to the individual dyes, to protonate both amino sites. As such, this dye operates as a probe over an unusually wide pH range. PMID:24691184

  15. A review of hair care products for black individuals.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Karla; Hernandez, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Physicians should be prepared to provide professional guidance to black individuals with both chemically treated and natural (ie, nonchemically treated) hair. Patients may seek advice from physicians if they decide to discontinue use of chemical relaxers or if they have sustained damage such as chemical burns, breakage, or hair loss from the misuse of various hair care products. Properly advising this patient population requires a basic understanding of hair morphology in black individuals as well as the unique characteristics of this hair type and the products used to address its needs. Although some products may promote healing properties, misusing or overusing them may cause adverse effects. This article will provide clinicians with a basic understanding of chemically treated and natural hair in black individuals. We also discuss hair care products that are ideal for this patient population and the potential adverse effects based on their chemical formulations. PMID:24999639

  16. Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Chieng, Hei Ing; Lim, Linda B L; Priyantha, Namal

    2015-01-01

    Breadnut skin, in both its unmodified (KS) and base-modified (BM-KS) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic dye, malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments, carried out under optimized conditions, for the adsorption of MG were fitted using five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Sips) and six error functions to determine the best-fit model. The adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced when breadnut skin was chemically modified with NaOH, leading to an adsorption capacity of 353.0 mg g(-1), that was far superior to most reported adsorbents for the removal of MG. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on KS and BM-KS, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Regeneration experiments on BM-KS indicated that its adsorption capacity was still maintained at>90% even after five cycles. It can be concluded that NaOH-modified breadfruit skin has great potential to be utilized in real-life application as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG in wastewater treatment. PMID:25409587

  17. Deposition of zinc oxide photoelectrode using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Young; Kim, Sang Ho

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the characteristics of zinc oxide (ZnO) photoelectrodes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. ZnO has many advantages, such as high binding energy, breakdown strength, cohesion, hardness, and electron mobility. On the F-doped SnO2 (FTO) electrode, we deposited ZnO as a function of thickness, and we examined the thickness effect on the I-V, fill factor, open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density, and especially the power conversion efficiency of the built in dye-sensitized solar cell. To study the thickness effect on the conduction and recombination of electrons in the ZnO electrode, we analyzed the alignment of grains, crystallinity, impedance, and cyclic I-V properties. The thickness of ZnO changed the electron diffusion length and recombination time. As a result, the maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.63% was obtained with a moderately thick (8.06 ?m) ZnO. PMID:25971050

  18. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Hair Loss (Alopecia) Page Content Article Body Almost all newborns ... before the mature hair comes in. So hair loss occurring in the first six months of life ...

  19. Plasmonic Enhancement of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells via a Tailored Size-Distribution of Chemically Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Andrei, Codrin; Lestini, Elena; Crosbie, Stephen; de Frein, Caoimhe; O'Reilly, Thomas; Zerulla, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    A substantial and stable increase of the current density Jsc of ruthenium (Ru) dye sensitized solar cells (DSC) of up to 16.18% and of the power efficiency of up to 25.5% is demonstrated in this article via plasmonic enhancement. The key aspect of this work is the use of a tailored bimodal size distribution of functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that have been chemically immobilized onto the mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer via short, stable dithiodibutyric acid linkers. The size distribution of the AuNPs is a result of theoretical calculations that aimed at the perfection of the absorption characteristics of the complete solar cell system over a wide range of wavelengths. The functionalization of the AuNPs serves to bind them at a close but defined distance to TiO2-particles and additionally to chemically protect them against potential corrosion by the electrolyte. Simulations of near field (enhanced absorption) and far field (scattering) contributions have been used to tailor a complex AuNPs bimodal size distribution that had subsequently demonstrated experimentally a close to optimum improvement of the absorbance over a wide wavelength range (500–675 nm) and therefore an impressive DSC efficiency enhancement. Finally, the modified DSCs are exhibiting pronounced longevity and stable performance as confirmed via long time measurements. In summary, the presented systems show increased performance compared to non plasmonic enhanced cells with otherwise identical composition, and are demonstrating a previously unpublished longevity for iodide electrolyte/AuNPs combinations. PMID:25354362

  20. Use of hair colouring products and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Zheng, T; Holford, T R; Mayne, S T; Owens, P H; Boyle, P; Zhang, B; Zhang, Y W; Zahm, S H

    2002-08-01

    This case-control study was designed to test the hypothesis that the risk of breast cancer varies by type and colour of the hair colouring products used. A total of 608 cases and 609 controls were included in the study. We found no increased risk associated with the overall use of hair dye products or exclusive use of permanent or temporary types of hair dye products. Among those who reported to have exclusively used semi-permanent types of hair colouring products, some of the ORs were elevated. However, none of the ORs related to age at first use, duration of use, total number of applications, and years since first use, was statistically significant. There was also no increased risk of breast cancer associated with exclusive use of dark or light hair colouring products, or use of mixed types or colours of hair dye products. We also found no increased risk of breast cancer associated with hair dye use based on an individual's reason for using a hair colouring product, such as to cover grey or to change natural hair colour. These data suggest that the use of hair colouring products does not have a major impact on the risk of breast cancer. PMID:12142056

  1. Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.

    PubMed

    Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts. PMID:16197431

  2. Dye lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, F.P. )

    1990-01-01

    This book includes chapters on continuous-wave dye lasers and properties of dye lasers and a chapter on continuous-wave dye lasers. There is also a chapter on wavemeters. This book provides an introduction to dye lasers and contains information for scientists and engineers who deal with their applications.

  3. Formation of nanostructure on hair surface: its characteristic optical properties and application to hair care products.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shunsuke; Sato, Hirayuki; Shibuichi, Satoshi; Okamoto, Masayuki; Inoue, Shigeto; Satoh, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Uneven structures on hair fiber surface, such as lift up of cuticle or build up of hair spray ingredients, generally cause a diffuse reflection which results in a dull and unhealthy appearance. However, in the case of finer structure than wavelength of visible light, the optical properties change significantly. An application of the phenomenon to hair care products is reported in this paper. Formation of the fine structure on hair surface was achieved by only a shampoo and rinse-off conditioner system including amino-silicone. Chroma enhancement of hair and light introduction into hair fibers were observed simultaneously with formation of the fine structure on the hair surface. The light introduction phenomenon is understood in terms of "Effective Medium Approximation" (EMA). The simulation study based on EMA indicates that a very low refractive index surface is expected to be realized, which well explains the optical experimental results. When the shampoo and conditioner system developed to form the structure on fiber surface was applied to dyed hair, enhancement and long-lasting of vivid appearance was confirmed in spite of dye elution. PMID:17728928

  4. Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Some Selected Dyes as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Acidic Medium: Gravimetric, Electrochemical, Quantum Chemical Studies and Synergistic Effect with Iodide Ions.

    PubMed

    Peme, Thabo; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O; Bahadur, Indra; Adekunle, Abolanle S; Kabanda, Mwadham M; Ebenso, Eno E

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition properties of some organic dyes, namely Sunset Yellow (SS), Amaranth (AM), Allura Red (AR), Tartrazine (TZ) and Fast Green (FG), for mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M HCl solution, were investigated using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The results showed that the studied dyes are good corrosion inhibitors with enhanced inhibition efficiencies. The inhibition efficiency of all the studied dyes increases with increase in concentration, and decreases with increase in temperature. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency of the dyes increases in the presence of KI due to synergistic interactions of the dye molecules with iodide (I(-)) ions. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the studied dyes are mixed-type inhibitors both in the absence and presence of KI. The adsorption of the studied dyes on mild steel surface, with and without KI, obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and involves physical adsorption mechanism. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the most likely sites in the dye molecules for interactions with mild steel are the S, O, and N heteroatoms. PMID:26364631

  5. Capacity of a newly isolated fungus Pleurotus eryngii from Tunceli, Ovacik for chemical oxygen demand reduction and biodecolorization of Azo-Dye Congo Red.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, N; Gonen, U

    2015-01-01

    Biodecolorization of Congo red dye in both agar—plate and agitated liquid culture mediums by newly isolated white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii has been studied. This fungus isolated from Tunceli—Ovacik province of Turkey. We have also examined the chemical oxygen demand reduction after decolorization under agitated liquid culture medium. For agar plate screening the decolorization capacity of P. eryngii, growth and decolorization halos were determined on saboroud dextrose agar (SDA) plates containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/l of Congo red. P. eryngii showed certain decolorization capacities and was able to decolorize all studied concentrations of Congo red, but not to the same extent. Our results indicated that the new isolate P. eryngii had maximum decolorization (87% at 100 mg/l initial dye concentration) and chemical oxygen demand reduction (82% at 25 mg/l initial dye concentration) activities after 7 days under agitated submerged culture conditions. This new isolate could be an effective bioremediation tool for treatment of Congo red containing textile wastewater. PMID:26068912

  6. Laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David J

    2002-07-01

    Laser hair removal created controversy when it was first described over 5 years ago. It has now become an accepted modality for long-term hair reduction. It rivals electrolysis in the successful treatment of small hair-bearing areas. It surpasses any modality in the treatment of larger hair-bearing anatomic areas. PMID:12170888

  7. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Sisti, A; Duque-Estrada, B

    2009-10-01

    Hair loss in women is a very common clinical complaint, and is usually associated with severe emotional distress. In this article, the authors review the most common clinical causes of hair loss in women, and emphasize the role of hormonal changes in the regulation of hair loss and hair growth. PMID:19749676

  8. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

  9. Effect of hair color on luster.

    PubMed

    Keis, K; Ramaprasad, K R; Kamath, Y K

    2004-01-01

    The effect of color on instrumentally evaluated luster of hair dyed to different colors and depths of shades is studied. For natural hair colors, such as blond, brown, and black, the increase in luster with increasing color is associated with a decrease in diffusely scattered light as a result of light absorption by melanin granules. On dyed hair the interpretation of data from a goniophotometer (GP) is more complicated. Using the colors covering the extremes and middle of the visible spectrum, our results demonstrate how dye composition (single or multicomponent), concentration, and penetration depth into the fiber affect the absorptive and scattering processes within the hair fiber to impact luster. Finally, we make an attempt to study the effect of hair color on subjective evaluation of luster. An equation for perceived luster, taking into account the spectral sensitivity of the human eye is derived. Theoretical considerations show that the luster of hair of different colors is perceived differently by the human eye. PMID:15608993

  10. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

  11. TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of the biological, chemical, and physical treatability of wastewaters from selected typical dye baths. Twenty systems providing a broad cross section of dye classes, fibers, and application techniques, were examined. Wastes, produced usi...

  12. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This

  13. Photoageing of hair fiber and photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Braida, D; Dubief, C; Lang, G

    1994-01-01

    Examination by transmission electron microscopy of hair exposed to sunlight has revealed important damage. Findings indicate an alteration of various cell components. Damage occurs in the cuticle and leads to its loss. Separation of macrofibrils and destruction of melanin pigments result in cortex damage. Some of the chemical and physical changes which occur in hair exposed to sunlight were studied: formation of carbonyl groups, cystine destruction, modification of the proteins obtained by reduction of the disulfide bonds, losses in mechanical strength and discoloration are discussed. Effects of UV and visible radiations were studied. All of them cause modification in hair properties. Experiments with artificial light sources were carried out to reproduce these alterations. The role of water during exposure was studied. In particular, discoloration of brown hair is largely affected by it. We showed that Xenon lamps were useful to follow the photooxidation of hair and simulate natural alterations. The properties of some protective materials were examined. PMID:8003327

  14. Influence of thermal hair straightening on ethyl glucuronide content in hair.

    PubMed

    Ettlinger, Jana; Kirchen, Luc; Yegles, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Hair analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has become a valuable marker for the detection of moderate and chronic alcohol consumption. It has been shown that bleaching and perming may decrease EtG content in hair. So far, no studies exist about the influence of thermal hair straightening on EtG content in hair. Forty-one positive EtG hair samples were treated in vitro with a hair straightener at 200C. Duration of treatment of 1 min was chosen for this study. After washing, pulverization, incubation in ultrasonic bath, solid-phase extraction, and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, EtG was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry - negative ion chemical ionization (GC-MS-NICI). The EtG contents in straightened hair strands were then compared with those in the corresponding untreated strands. In 20 of 41 hair samples, a decrease of EtG content was found ranging from 0.7% to 79.3% (average 20%) whereas in 21 cases an increase was shown ranging from 2.0% to 50.9% (average 15%). The variation of the results seems to depend on hair colour. The decrease may be explained by thermic in vitro destruction of EtG. The increase may be explained by denaturation of the hair matrix by thermal treatment possibly causing a better extraction of EtG during incubation in ultrasonic bath. This in vitro study indicates that thermal hair straightening has an impact on the EtG content in hair. This has to be considered for a correct interpretation of EtG results in hair. However, these results should be confirmed by in vivo studies. PMID:24817051

  15. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  16. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity *

    PubMed Central

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  17. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-07-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice-carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), was present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice-producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity, and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth on the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and preventing them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S) compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as being the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  18. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-04-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide, respectively, suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), has been present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth at the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and to prevent them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S)-compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  19. PIXE elemental analysis of South American mummy hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, A. Y.; Mangelson, N. F.; Rees, L. B.; Matheny, R. T.

    1996-04-01

    Hair samples were obtained from ten mummies of the archaic and formative cultures of the north coast of Chile. Each sample was divided into two portions. One portion was washed in acetone and then water and the second portion remained unwashed. All samples were then prepared by an acid digestion procedure and analyzed by PIXE. The washed and unwashed samples were compared to determine what elements were present in the material on the hair surface. Concentrations of the elements Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, and Pb are reported. Comparison was made to previously published elemental analyses of mummy hair and modern hair. One sample, which had a reddish hue, was found to contain unusually large quantities of Fe and As. Since the unwashed sample had much higher concentrations of these elements than the washed sample, it is believed that the reddish color originated in a mineral dye applied to the hair.

  20. Molecular Design, Characterization, and Application of Multiinformation Dyes for Multidimensional Optical Chemical Sensings. 2. Preparation of the Optical Sensing Membranes for the Simultaneous Measurements of pH and Water Content in Organic Media.

    PubMed

    Hisamoto, H; Manabe, Y; Yanai, H; Tohma, H; Yamada, T; Suzuki, K

    1998-04-01

    Optical chemical sensing of pH and water content in organic solvents is proposed, using multiinformation dyes (MIDs) based on the support matrixes for the dyes. In this investigation, four kinds of merocyanine-type dyes having a polymerizable olefin unit as the MIDs were synthesized. These dyes were copolymerized with hydrophilic monomer molecules to obtain dye-immobilized optical chemical sensor (optode) membranes. In this case, selection of the monomer molecule gave optode membranes having different color change properties, because different monomer molecules provided different chemical environments around the immobilized dye. These optode membranes were used for the measurement of pH and water content in organic solvents. These membranes offered two-dimensional sensing information in one spectrum when they were employed for water content sensing in organic solvents, in which the maximum wavelength represents the water content and the absorbance at this wavelength represents the pH of the water present. These polymer membranes have a long lifetime, which can be adequate for practical use. PMID:21644721

  1. On pathways for small molecules into and out of human hair fibers.

    PubMed

    Ptsch, L; Moeller, M R

    1996-01-01

    This paper represents an experimental approach of histology of the human hair fiber in dyeing and diffusion phenomena and its contribution to the interpretation of hair analysis results for drug abuse. Rhodamine B was applied to human hair fibers from either aqueous solution or methanol/ethanol solvent. The experiments were performed on natural hair of different ethnic groups as well as on extensively bleached hair strands. The microscopical study of the pathway of diffusion of rhodamine B into the hair fibers indicated that the reagent had entered the unmodified fibers at the scale edges between the cuticle cells. At the beginning of the diffusion process intercellular diffusion was the preferred route predominantly along the nonkeratinous regions of the cell membrane complex (CMC) and intermacrofibrillar cement. Penetration into the high sulfur regions of the fiber occurred as dyeing in aqueous solution proceeded and resulted in evenly stained cross sections. The dye distribution pattern observed in natural hair exposed to nonaqueous solution showed that rhodamine B did not penetrate the cortex cells as easy as from aqueous solution and selectively stained nonkeratinous regions only. The determination of the amount of dye taken up by the fibers by spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated that samples diffusion generally increased by time and temperature. It also depended on the morphology of the hair sample. The penetration of rhodamine B from aqueous solution was much greater than from methanol/ethanol solvent. PMID:8934709

  2. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... special types of cells: Melanocytes produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have ... the epidermis). Hair also contains a yellow-red pigment; people who have blonde or red hair have ...

  3. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Hair Treatments and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to hair treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  4. Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata) Information for adults A A ... scalp with a round area of non-scarring hair loss typical of alopecia areata. Overview Alopecia areata ...

  5. Combination treatment of low-fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and oral tranexamic acid for post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation due to allergic contact dermatitis to henna hair dye.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Bok; Park, Sae Mi; Kim, Jin-Wou; Yu, Dong Soo

    2016-04-01

    A 64-year-old female presented with facial hyperpigmentation. She had dyed her hair monthly with pure henna powder for the past seven months. After patch tests, the patient was diagnosed as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentastion due to allergic contact dermatitis to pure henna that has rarely been reported. The patient underwent Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment and was treated with oral tranexamic acid for 10 weeks. The hyperpigmentation on her forehead demonstrated substantial improvement. PMID:26734817

  6. Hair transplantation update.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. PMID:26176286

  7. Recurrent Hair Loss Resulting from Generalized Proximal Trichorrhexis Nodosa in a Nigerian Female

    PubMed Central

    Ogunbiyi, Adebola; Ogun, Olabiyi; Enechukwu, Nkechi

    2014-01-01

    Hair and scalp disorders commonly seen in the African female have been associated with hair care practices. Distal trichorrhexis nodosa (TN) has been commonly reported with various forms of trauma to the hair from hair grooming practices. We report the case of recurrent generalized hair loss resulting from proximal TN in a 28-year-old Nigerian female with atopy. The use of chemical relaxers precipitated each episode of hair loss. Generalized proximal TN has been reported in those of afro Caribbean descent. The acute nature and extent of the hair loss suggest there may be some underlying structural defect in such individuals. PMID:25191046

  8. Dye lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.

    1984-04-03

    A dye laser (FIG. 1, 5 or 6) includes a pumping laser source (e.g. 11), an optical resonator (e.g. 13-15), and a dye solution or dye cell (e.g. 12) disposed in the path of the pumping laser light in the resonator. The dye cell disclosed herein comprises a pair of closely spaced transparent discs (21). A motor (26) serves to spin the discs at a high rate of speed. The pumping laser light in the resonator is focused on the discs at a predetermined angle (i.e. the Brewster angle). New, unbleached dye is injected axially with respect to the discs so that the spin force causes a radial flow of the dye solution between the spinning discs and, of course, past the pumping laser light spot.

  9. Effects of solar radiation on hair and photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Dario, Michelli F; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the negative effects of solar radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths) on hair properties like color, mechanical properties, luster, protein content, surface roughness, among others, will be discussed. Despite knowing that radiation damages hair, there are no consensus about the particular effect of each segment of solar radiation on the hair shaft. The hair photoprotection products are primarily targeted to dyed hair, specially auburn pigments, and gray shades. They are usually based on silicones, antioxidants and quaternary chemical UV filters that have more affinity for negatively charged hair surface and present higher efficacy. Unfortunately, there are no regulated parameters, like for skin photoprotection, for efficacy evaluation of hair care products, which makes impossible to compare the results published in the literature. Thus, it is important that researchers make an effort to apply experimental conditions similar to a real level of sun exposure, like dose, irradiance, time, temperature and relative humidity. PMID:26454659

  10. Reactive Fluorescent Dyes For Urethane Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.; Cuddihy, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Molecules of fluorescent dyes chemically bound in urethane conformal-coating materials to enable nondestructive detection of flaws in coats through inspection under ultraviolet light, according to proposal. Dye-bonding technique prevents outgassing of dyes, making coating materials suitable for use where flaw-free coats must be assured in instrumentation or other applications in which contamination by outgassing must be minimized.

  11. Microspectral investigation of hair of one girl during six years by laser emission analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmenko, Elena L.; Sokolova, Tatiana N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2001-10-01

    Multiple chemical elements of clinical and nutritional interest were measured in the hair of a girl - cerebral palsy patient. Sixteen samples of hair were cut and investigated to determine time and nutrition trends by using laser and arc emission spectroscopy.

  12. Dye lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuder, J.E.; McGinnis, J.L.; Goldberg, H.A.; Hart, T.R.; Che, T.M.

    1989-10-31

    This patent describes a dye laser. It consists of a composite composition of an inorganic oxide glass monolith with a microporous structure containing an incorporated solution comprising a solvent component and a lasable dye component. Wherein the glass monolith has sealed outer surfaces.

  13. Relaxing/straightening of Afro-ethnic hair: historical overview.

    PubMed

    de S Dias, Tania Cristina; Baby, Andr Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Robles Velasco, Maria Valria

    2007-03-01

    Afro-ethnic hair, when compared with naturally straight hair, presents some important variations such as differences in diameter in many points of the thread, ellipsoidal threads, and low trend of hydrating the scalp thus turning the hair drier, because the natural sebum distribution is irregular along the thread. This kind of hair may be straightened through both chemical and thermal methods. Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, the products used are formulated in a cosmetic emulsion with high pH. In this review, we present the historical development of hair straightening or relaxing through the evolution of the product categories. PMID:17348987

  14. Damaged hair retrieval with ceramide-rich liposomes.

    PubMed

    Mndez, Sandra; Manich, Albert M; Mart, Meritxell; Parra, Jos L; Coderch, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Lipids from human hair consist mainly of cholesterol esters, free fatty acids, cholesterol, ceramides, and cholesterol sulfate. They are structured as lipid bilayers in the cell membrane complex (CMC) and make a large contribution to diffusion, cell cohesion, and mechanical strength. The loss of these lipids could impair the integrity of the hair, leading to deterioration in its tensile properties. Internal wool lipids (IWL) resemble those of the membranes of other keratinic tissues such as human hair or stratum corneum. The application of IWL structured as liposomes on pretreated hair samples has been demonstrated to restore the natural properties of the fibers. This study seeks to apply IWL liposomes to untreated hair fibers and to hair fibers subjected to chemical treatment. Differences in the lipidic composition of all chemically treated hairs were found with respect to the untreated ones. Lipid recovery of damaged hair due to the application of IWL liposomes was corroborated by lipid analysis of the hair. A high resistance to break of hair samples post-treated with IWL liposomes was observed. An increase in hydrogen bonds and electrostatic forces and an improvement in the cohesion between matrix and filaments were detected, probably because of some lipid recovery. PMID:22682400

  15. Growth of TiO2 nanosheet-array thin films by quick chemical bath deposition for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hu; Yang, Junyou; Feng, Shuanglong; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Jiansheng; Li, Gen

    2011-11-01

    Rutile TiO2 nanofilms, which were composed of many nanosheet-array domains with different orientations, were synthesized directly on fluorine-doped SnO2 conductive glass (FTO) substrates by a chemical deposition method in a short time in this paper. The average thickness of the nanosheets is about 10 nm; the nanosheets in each domain were parallel to each other and perpendicular to the substrate. The size and profile of the domains have a good correspondence to those of the FTO grains of the substrate, indicating a coherent nucleating and epitaxial growing nature of the films. The nanosheets split gradually and finally developed into nanofibers on prolonging the growing time to 20 h. Dye-sensitized solar cells, which were fabricated with the films, present an open-circuit voltage of 0.63 V and a short-circuit current of 7.02 mA/cm2, respectively.

  16. Laser hair removal pearls.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal. PMID:18330794

  17. Hair tourniquet syndrome: revisited.

    PubMed

    Hussin, P; Mawardi, M; Masran, M S; Ganaisan, P

    2015-01-01

    Hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition. It is an important emergency condition where urgent attention is needed. In this condition, body appendages are strangulated by hair that acts like a tourniquet. A strand or strands of hair act like a circumferential constriction band and subsequently strangulate the body appendages. Commonly affected sites include fingers, toes or even genitals. Failure to identify and release the acute constriction may result in amputation of affected body part. We report two cases of hair tourniquet syndrome of the thumb and toe that were successfully released without complications. PMID:26712259

  18. Hair cell ribbon synapses

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the apical compartment. Transmitter release occurs at several active zones along the basolateral membrane. The astonishing capability of the hair cell ribbon synapse for temporally precise and reliable sensory coding has been the subject of intense investigation over the past few years. This research has been facilitated by the excellent experimental accessibility of the hair cell. For the same reason, the hair cell serves as an important model for studying presynaptic Ca2+ signaling and stimulus-secretion coupling. In addition to common principles, hair cell synapses differ in their anatomical and functional properties among species, among the auditory and vestibular organs, and among hair cell positions within the organ. Here, we briefly review synaptic morphology and connectivity and then focus on stimulus-secretion coupling at hair cell synapses. PMID:16944206

  19. Female hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  20. Hair tourniquet syndrome: revisited

    PubMed Central

    HUSSIN, P.; MAWARDI, M.; MASRAN, M.S.; GANAISAN, P.

    2015-01-01

    Hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition. It is an important emergency condition where urgent attention is needed. In this condition, body appendages are strangulated by hair that acts like a tourniquet. A strand or strands of hair act like a circumferential constriction band and subsequently strangulate the body appendages. Commonly affected sites include fingers, toes or even genitals. Failure to identify and release the acute constriction may result in amputation of affected body part. We report two cases of hair tourniquet syndrome of the thumb and toe that were successfully released without complications. PMID:26712259

  1. Coping with cancer - hair loss

    MedlinePLUS

    Alopecia ... after fast-growing cells. While chemo can cause hair loss all over your body, radiation only affects the ... Hair loss usually happens 1 to 3 weeks after the first chemo or radiation treatment. The hair on ...

  2. Defective calmodulin-dependent rapid apical endocytosis in zebrafish sensory hair cell mutants.

    PubMed

    Seiler, C; Nicolson, T

    1999-11-15

    Vertebrate mechanosensory hair cells contain a narrow "pericuticular" zone which is densely populated with small vesicles between the cuticular plate and cellular junctions near the apical surface. The presence of many cytoplasmic vesicles suggests that the apical surface of hair cells has a high turnover rate. The significance of intense membrane trafficking at the apical surface is not known. Using a marker of endocytosis, the styryl dye FM1-43, this report shows that rapid apical endocytosis in zebrafish lateral line sensory hair cells is calcium and calmodulin dependent and is partially blocked by the presence of amiloride and dihydrostreptomycin, known inhibitors of mechanotransduction channels. As seen in lateral line hair cells, sensory hair cells within the larval otic capsule also exhibit rapid apical endocytosis. Defects in internalization of the dye in both lateral line and inner ear hair cells were found in five zebrafish auditory/vestibular mutants: sputnik, mariner, orbiter, mercury, and skylab. In addition, lateral line hair cells in these mutants were not sensitive to prolonged exposure to streptomycin, which is toxic to hair cells. The presence of endocytic defects in the majority of zebrafish mechanosensory mutants points to a important role of apical endocytosis in hair cell function. PMID:10526320

  3. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients. PMID:26278532

  4. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  5. Biomonitoring of mercury exposure with single human hair strand.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Melissa; Passos, Carlos Jos Sousa; Mergler, Donna; Chan, Hing Man

    2005-06-15

    Hair samples continue to be used extensively for biomonitoring of mercury (Hg) exposure. Routine methods require a bundle of 100-150 hair strands and involve chemical digestion. Recently, Hg analyzers that combine combustion, gold amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectrometry (C-GA-AAS) became commercially available. This method was shown to provide quick and sensitive measurements in solid samples such as hair. The objective of this study was to validate C-GA-AAS for measuring total Hg in single hair strands as an alternative method for Hg biomonitoring. Hair samples from 12 women with a wide range of Hg exposure were obtained from two projects conducted in Brazil and Canada. A 1:1 relationship was observed between C-GA-AAS and the established cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) for analysis of 1-cm segments from a bundle of hair. For individual hair variability, the average relative standard deviation (RSD) of Hg between hair strands was 6.5 +/- 2.8%, thus justifying the use of single hair strand for biomonitoring. With a limit of quantification of 0.10 ng of total Hg, a single hair strand can be used to assess monthly exposure. This technique will facilitate routine biomonitoring and thus help prevent Hg poisoning among the public. PMID:16047797

  6. Healthy hair: what is it?

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth. PMID:18004288

  7. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles <200 nm being internalized by keratinocytes and dendritic cells at sites of barrier disruption (e.g., hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications. PMID:24387677

  8. Discovery of Black Dye Crystal Structure Polymorphs: Implications for Dye Conformational Variation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Gong, Yun

    2015-12-23

    We present the discovery of a new crystal structure polymorph (1) and pseudopolymorph (2) of the Black Dye, one of the world's leading dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs (10.4% device performance efficiency). This reveals that Black Dye molecules can adopt multiple low-energy conformers. This is significant since it challenges existing models of the Black DyeTiO2 adsorption process that renders a DSSC working electrode; these have assumed a single molecular conformation that refers to the previously reported Black Dye crystal structure (3). The marked structural differences observed between 1, 2, and 3 make the need for modeling multiple conformations more acute. Additionally, the ordered form of the Black Dye (1) provides a more appropriate depiction of its anionic structure, especially regarding its anchoring group and NCS bonding descriptions. The tendency toward NCS ligand isomerism, evidenced via the disordered form 2, has consequences for electron injection and electron recombination in Black Dye embedded DSSC devices. Dyes 2 and 3 differ primarily by the absence or presence of a solvent of crystallization, respectively; solvent environment effects on the dye are thereby elucidated. This discovery of multiple Black Dye conformers from diffraction, with atomic-level definition, complements recently reported nanoscopic evidence for multiple dye conformations existing at a dyeTiO2 interface, for a chemically similar DSSC dye; those results emanated from imaging and spectroscopy, but were unresolved at the submolecular level. Taken together, these findings lead to the general notion that multiple dye conformations should be explicitly considered when modeling dyeTiO2 interfaces in DSSCs, at least for ruthenium-based dye complexes. PMID:26599130

  9. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair-care habits. Wet hair and scalp with warm water. Shampoo works best on wet heads and hair. ... leading to unhealthy looking hair. Rinse well with warm water until the hair is suds-free. Rinsing well ...

  10. HairMetal Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Hinners, Thomas A.; Terrill, Willie J.; Kent, Jane L.; Colucci, Anthony V.

    1974-01-01

    Extensive ambient extraction of several metals from human hair compromises some assumptions concerning the binding of metals to hair and the biochemical process of metal incorporation into hair. Hair metal concentrations can reveal metal intoxications and metal deficiencies. The scalp hair selected for investigation included specimens of different colors from both sexes for various donor ages and from different geographic exposure areas. The hair samples were washed by agitation for 30 min with a 1% solution of sodium lauryl sulfate in a pH 7.2 buffer, rinsed repeatedly with deionized water, and oven-dried at 110C before 2-g portions were taken for extraction and digestion. Extraction involved agitation of the washed hair samples for 21 hr with 40 ml of 1% nitric acid at room temperature (23C). The extracted hair was digested in order to quantitate the amount of metal that was not extracted. Metal measurements were made by conventional flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Potential interferences were investigated. Extraction varied between 82 and 100% for Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Zn, Cd, and Pb. Removal of Fe, Ni, and Cu was 3354%. Anatomical location, binding chemistry, biochemical incorporation, and mass screening are discussed. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3. PMID:4377869

  11. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePLUS

    ... System How the Body Works Main Page Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems > Skin > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A Text Size ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  12. Tips for Healthy Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  13. Content of heavy metals in the hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrashkov, S. A.; Petukhov, V. L.; Korotkevich, O. S.; Petukhov, I. V.

    2003-05-01

    The aim of our investigation was to determine of HM content in the hair of people and animals. Two of the main essential elements-Zn and Cu and two of the supertoxical heavy metals- Pb and Cd were chosen. The investigations were conducted in Russian Federation and Belarus Republic in 2001-2002. About 500 hair samples of people, dogs, cats, cattle, horses, yaks, pigs, sheep goats and rabbits were studied by the stripping voltammetric analysis (SVA) method with TA- 2 analyzer to determine Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd concentrations. The hair samples were prepared according to the methods developed in Tomsk University (Russia) and improved by the authors. The essence of the methods is the multiconsecutive burning of hair samples to ashes and boiling them in concentrated acids to dissolve chemical combinations and transform their metals into ion forms. The zinc concentration was the highest in all hair samples (58.65 ... 195.15 mg/kg). The copper content was several times less (5.49 ... 22.63 mg/kg). Lead and cadmium were detected in relatively low amounts (0.32 ... 2.42 mg/kg and 0.04 ... 0.92 mg/kg respectively). The highest Pb and Cd levels were detected in cats and people hair.

  14. Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

    1977-01-01

    In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a

  15. Laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Omar A; Avram, Mathew M; Hanke, C William; Kilmer, Suzanne L; Anderson, R Rox

    2011-01-01

    The extended theory of selective photothermolysis enables the laser surgeon to target and destroy hair follicles, thereby leading to hair removal. Today, laser hair removal (LHR) is the most commonly requested cosmetic procedure in the world and is routinely performed by dermatologists, other physicians, and non-physician personnel with variable efficacy. The ideal candidate for LHR is fair skinned with dark terminal hair; however, LHR can today be successfully performed in all skin types. Knowledge of hair follicle anatomy and physiology, proper patient selection and preoperative preparation, principles of laser safety, familiarity with the various laser/light devices, and a thorough understanding of laser-tissue interactions are vital to optimizing treatment efficacy while minimizing complications and side effects. PMID:21276162

  16. Laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Molly

    2005-01-01

    Since 1996, there have been numerous advances in hair laser removal that utilize melanin as a chromophore. All of the devices on the market may be used in patients with light skin (phototypes I-III) and yield hair reduction near 75%. The ruby (694 nm) laser, alexandrite (755 nm) laser, and diode (810 nm) laser, as well as intense pulsed light are commonly used devices for hair laser removal. The long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser represents the safest device for hair removal in dark-skinned patients because of its long wavelength, although the diode laser, alexandrite laser, and intense pulse light may be used. For treatment of light hair, combination radiofrequency and optical devices as well as photodynamic therapy are under investigation. PMID:16229722

  17. Influence of functionalized silicones on hair fiber-fiber interactions and on the relationship with the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly.

    PubMed

    Dussaud, Anne; Fieschi-Corso, Lara

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that silicones alter hair surface properties and that silicones have a significant impact on the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly, such as visual appearance, combing performance and manageability of the hair. In order to fine-tune the chemistry of functionlized silicones for specific consumer benefits and hair types, we investigated the influence of silicones on hair fiber-fiber interactions and their correlation to hair volume. The incline plane fiber loop method, implemented with a high-precision motorized rotary stage, was used to quantify the fiber-fiber interactions. Low load static friction was studied as a function of polymer molecular weight, dose and chemical architecture. This information was related to the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly, using virgin curly hair in high humidity. PMID:19450425

  18. Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-05-01

    Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method. PMID:25575805

  19. Biological Sampling and Analysis in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2007 Puget Sound Biota Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2008-10-09

    Evaluating spatial and temporal trends in contaminant residues in Puget Sound fish and macroinvertebrates are the objectives of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP). In a cooperative effort between the ENVironmental inVESTment group (ENVVEST) and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, additional biota samples were collected during the 2007 PSAMP biota survey and analyzed for chemical residues and stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). Approximately three specimens of each species collected from Sinclair Inlet, Georgia Basin, and reference locations in Puget Sound were selected for whole body chemical analysis. The muscle tissue of specimens selected for chemical analyses were also analyzed for δ13C and δ15N to provide information on relative trophic level and food sources. This data report summarizes the chemical residues for the 2007 PSAMP fish and macro-invertebrate samples. In addition, six Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) samples were necropsied to evaluate chemical residue of various parts of the fish (digestive tract, liver, embryo, muscle tissue), as well as, a weight proportional whole body composite (WBWC). Whole organisms were homogenized and analyzed for silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, mercury, 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB homologues, percent moisture, percent lipids, δ13C, and δ15N.

  20. Ethylglucuronide in maternal hair as a biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Hilda L; Hund, Lauren; Shrestha, Shikhar; Rayburn, William F; Leeman, Lawrence; Savage, Daniel D; Bakhireva, Ludmila N

    2015-09-01

    While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair allows for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers in 85pregnant women. Patients were recruited from a UNM prenatal clinic, which provides care to women with substance abuse and addiction disorders. The composite index, which was based on self-reported measures of alcohol use and allowed us to classify subjects into PAE (n=42) and control (n=43) groups, was the criterion measure used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of hEtG. Proximal segments of hair were collected at enrollment (average 22.0 gestational weeks) and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. At the same visit, maternal blood and urine specimens were collected for analysis of GGT, %dCDT, PEth, uEtG, and uEtS. The study population included mostly opioid-dependent (80%) patients, a large proportion of ethnic minorities (75.3% Hispanic/Latina, 8.2% American Indian, 4.7% African-American), and patients with low education (48.2%Hair EtG demonstrated 19% sensitivity and 86% specificity. The sensitivities of other biomarkers were comparable (5-20%) to hEtG but specificities were higher (98-100%). Hair EtG sensitivity improved when combined with other biomarkers, especially with GGT (32.5%) and PEth (27.5%). In addition, validity of hEtG improved in patients with less frequent shampooing and those who did not use hair dyes/chemical treatments. These data suggest that hEtG alone is not a sufficiently sensitive or specific biomarker to be used separately for the identification of PAE, but might be useful in a battery along with other maternal biomarkers. PMID:26260252

  1. 40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic... Specific Chemical Substances 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). Link to an amendment... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted diphenylazo dye (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917... Substances 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917... Substances 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917... Substances 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic... Specific Chemical Substances 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... substituted diphenylazo dye (PMN P-95-514) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic... Specific Chemical Substances 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... substituted diphenylazo dye (PMN P-95-514) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917... Substances 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917... Substances 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject...

  9. Sensitive immunoassay detection of multiple environmental chemicals on protein microarrays using DNA/dye conjugate as a fluorescent label

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indirect competitive immunoassays were developed on protein microarrays for the sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple environmental chemicals in one sample. In this assay, a DNA/SYTOX Orange conjugate was employed as antibody labels to increase the fluorescence signal and sensitivity. Ep...

  10. [Scrotal hair in infants].

    PubMed

    Sentchordi Montane, L; Quintanar Rioja, A; Ayala Bernardo de Quirós, L; Martínez Granero, M A; Bonet Serra, B

    2008-02-01

    The presence of pubic hair is exceptional in healthy infants of both sexes. In most of the cases described in the literature, the process was self-limited and no etiology was found. Nevertheless, in some patients, this finding has been associated with other manifestations of hyperandrogenism related to potentially serious diseases such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia or virilizing tumors. In the present article, we describe seven infants followed-up in the Pediatric Endocrine Clinic because of scrotal hair. In all patients, the process was self-limited and resolved spontaneously and no hormonal or developmental alterations were observed. Key words: Scrotal hair, infants, virilization. PMID:18341882

  11. Complications in hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2013-11-01

    Hair restoration requires a high level of specialized skill on the part of both the surgeon and the assistant team. Recipient-site problems can manifest from either surgeon or assistant error. The surgeon can create an unnatural hairline due to lack of knowledge of natural hair-loss patterns or badly executed recipient sites. He must also be cognizant of how hairs naturally are angled on the scalp to re-create a pattern that appears natural when making recipient sites. Assistants can also greatly contribute to the success or failure of surgery in their task of graft dissection and graft placement. PMID:24200385

  12. Detection and analysis of hair.

    PubMed

    Yacoob, Yaser; Davis, Larry S

    2006-07-01

    We develop computational models for measuring hair appearance for comparing different people. The models and methods developed have applications to person recognition and image indexing. An automatic hair detection algorithm is described and results reported. A multidimensional representation of hair appearance is presented and computational algorithms are described. Results on a data set of 524 subjects are reported. Identification of people using hair attributes is compared to eigenface-based recognition along with a joint, eigenface-hair-based identification. PMID:16792104

  13. Exposure to hair-coloring products and the risk of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed Central

    Herrinton, L J; Weiss, N S; Koepsell, T D; Daling, J R; Taylor, J W; Lyon, J L; Swanson, G M; Greenberg, R S

    1994-01-01

    An interview study of persons diagnosed with multiple myeloma between 1977 and 1981 and suitable control subjects was conducted to test the hypothesis that exposure to hair dyes increases the risk of multiple myeloma. Among women, there was little evidence that prior regular use of hair dyes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70, 1.4) or prior employment as a hairdresser (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.43, 2.7) increased risk; however, the former comparison was limited by the lack of detailed information concerning the exposure. Among men, there was a modest association of regular use of hair dyes (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.75, 2.9) with myeloma, but this was based on a small number of exposed persons. PMID:8017540

  14. Scurvy, corkscrew hair (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Scurvy is a nutritional disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C. Pinpoint bleeding around hair follicles, and " ... this picture, can occur as a result of scurvy. Bleeding along the gums is common. This disease ...

  15. Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal ...

  16. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive Published Members Online Dermatology Journals Edit This Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Female Pattern Hair Loss Share | The most common ...

  17. Arylamine organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mao; Chen, Jun

    2013-04-21

    Arylamine organic dyes with donor (D), ?-bridge (?) and acceptor (A) moieties for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received great attention in the last decade because of their high molar absorption coefficient, low cost and structural variety. In the early stages, the efficiency of DSCs with arylamine organic dyes with D-?-A character was far behind that of DSCs with ruthenium(II) complexes partly due to the lack of information about the relationship between the chemical structures and the photovoltaic performance. However, exciting progress has been recently made, and power conversion efficiencies over 10% were obtained for DSCs with arylamine organic dyes. It is thus that the recent research and development in the field of arylamine organic dyes employing an iodide/triiodide redox couple or polypyridyl cobalt redox shuttles as the electrolytes for either DSCs or solid-state DSCs has been summarized. The cell performance of the arylamine organic dyes are compared, providing a comprehensive overview of arylamine organic dyes, demonstrating the advantages/disadvantages of each class, and pointing out the field that needs to reinforce the research direction in the further application of DSCs. PMID:23396530

  18. Preparation of silver nanowires coated with TiO2 using chemical binder and their applications as photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kang, Taeho; Cho, Woohyung; Kang, Yong Soo; Oh, Seong-Geun; Im, Seung Soon

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the core-shell structured Ag@TiO2 wire was prepared for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The Ag nanowire, having an excellent electrical conductivity, was synthesized by using the facile microwave-assisted polyol reduction process. The diameter and length of Ag wires were 40-50 nm and 20-30 μm, respectively, and the face-centered cubic silver crystal structure was obtained. In the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol as a chemical binder, the entire surface of Ag wire was coated with the TiO2 shell, which has thickness of 20 nm, through solvothermal method. The crystalline structure of TiO2 shell was the anatase phase possessing an advantage to achieve the high efficiency in DSSC. The core-shell structured Ag@TiO2 wire exhibited the high thermal stability. The high conversion efficiency (5.56%) in fabricated device with Ag@TiO2 electrode, which is about 10% higher than reference cell, was achieved by enhancement of short-current density (Jsc) value. The core-shell structured Ag@TiO2 wire could effectively reduce the charge recombination through the contribution to electron shortcut for improvement in the electron transfer rate and lifetime.

  19. Methods of hair removal.

    PubMed

    Olsen, E A

    1999-02-01

    The methods of hair removal vary between simple inexpensive means of home treatment (shaving, plucking, depilatories) to expensive and potentially time-consuming means used by paraprofessionals, nurses, and/or physicians (electrolysis, lasers, x-ray). The ways in which these different methods induce hair removal, the duration of such removal, and the nuances between devices within the same category of methods are discussed. PMID:10025738

  20. Reduction of colorants in nylon flock dyeing effluent.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qinguo; Hoskote, Sunil; Hou, Yuejun

    2004-08-01

    The batch dyeing of fiber materials such as staple fibers and flock is usually carried out by exhaustion methods. However, the dyeing of flock fibers, either nylon, PET or acetate, with acid or disperse dyes is not 100% efficient in terms of dye utilization. Therefore, the remaining dyes in the spent dye bath are generally not reused, and are usually discharged with minimum treatment, together with the dyeing chemicals into the sewage wastewater system causing environmental pollution. We found that the colorants and chemical auxiliaries in the fiber dyeing effluents can be reduced by: (1) optimizing the acid dyeing conditions such as salt addition and pH control; (2) reuse of the spent dye bath that remain after the original dyeing process. In the lab scale trials, we have successfully raised the acid dye exhaustion to over 90% by optimizing the dyeing conditions. The reuse of the spent acid dye bath also showed promising results with dye exhaustion ranging from 91 to 93% after four times of reuse. PMID:15225938

  1. The impact of oxidative stress on hair.

    PubMed

    Treb, R M

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. They are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges, while the body possesses endogenous defense mechanisms. With age, production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defense mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the aging phenotype. While the role of oxidative stress has been widely discussed in skin aging, little focus has been placed on its impact on hair condition. Moreover, most literature on age-related hair changes focuses on alopecia, but it is equally important that the hair fibers that emerge from the scalp exhibit significant age-related changes that have equal impact on the overall cosmetic properties of hair. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the pre-emerging fiber include: oxidative metabolism, smoking, UVR, and inflammation from microbial, pollutant, or irritant origins. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the post-emerging fiber include: UVR (enhanced by copper), chemical insults, and oxidized scalp lipids. The role of the dermatologist is recognition and treatment of pre- and post-emerging factors for lifetime scalp and hair health. PMID:26574302

  2. Identification of Modulators of Hair Cell Regeneratin in the Zebrafish Lateral Line

    PubMed Central

    Namdaran, Parhum; Reinhart, Katherine E.; Owens, Kelly N.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2012-01-01

    The external location of the zebrafish lateral line makes it a powerful model for studying mechanosensory hair cell regeneration. We have developed a chemical screen to identify FDA-approved drugs and biologically active compounds that modulate hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. Of the 1,680 compounds evaluated, we identified 2 enhancers and 6 inhibitors of regeneration. The two enhancers, dexamethasone and prednisolone, are synthetic glucocorticoids that potentiated hair cell numbers during regeneration and also induced hair cell addition in the absence of damage. BrdU analysis confirmed that the extra hair cells arose from mitotic activity. We found that dexamethasone and prednisolone, like other glucocorticoids, suppress zebrafish caudal fin regeneration, indicating that hair cell regeneration occurs by a distinctly different process. Further analyses of the regeneration inhibitors revealed that two of the six, flubendazole and topotecan, significantly suppress hair cell regeneration by preventing proliferation of hair cell precursors. Flubendazole halted support cell division in M-phase, possibly by interfering with normal microtubule activity. Topotecan, a topoisomerase inhibitor, killed both hair cells and proliferating hair cell precursors. A third inhibitor, fulvestrant, moderately delays hair cell regeneration by reducing support cell proliferation. Our observation that hair cells do not regenerate when support cell proliferation is impeded confirms previous observations that cell division is the primary route for hair cell regeneration after neomycin treatment in zebrafish. PMID:22399774

  3. Microflora involved in textile dye waste removal.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Rahim, Wafaa M; Moawad, Hassan; Khalafallah, M

    2003-01-01

    Textile dyes are heavily used in factories for coloring different cloth materials. This work was designed to identify microorganisms capable of removing textile dyes, either by biodegradation or by biosorption. We expected to isolate microorganisms adapted to high dye concentrations from sites near textile industry complex. An experiment was conducted to study the efficiency of the isolates in removing textile dyes. The tested dyes were used as carbon and nitrogen sources for isolation of soil and/or water microorganisms capable of removing textile dyes wastes from factories effluent. The results indicated the low efficiency of both bacteria and actinomycetes in clean-up the effluent from the waste dyes in 10-21 days. On the other hand six fungal isolates were obtained by plating factory effluent on Martin's medium and media containing dyes as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen for growth. These isolates fell in two genera, Aspergillus and Trichoderma. Results of these studies revealed the potential capacity of these fungi to decolorize the tested dyes in comparatively short time (2-24 hours) indicating strong efficiency of dye bioremediation by the fungal isolates. Since the process involved is mostly fast interaction between the fungal mycelium and the dye in the media, the possible mechanism could be based on a biosorption of such chemicals on the intact fungal biomass, rather than direct biodegradation of the compounds. PMID:12761767

  4. Role of surfactant derived intermediates in the efficacy and mechanism for radiation chemical degradation of a hydrophobic azo dye, 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol.

    PubMed

    Das, Laboni; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Naik, Devidas B; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2015-11-15

    A combined methodology involving gamma and pulse radiolysis, product analysis and toxicity studies has been adopted to comprehend the degradation process of a model hydrophobic azo dye, 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol, emphasizing the role of the surfactant, which is an integral part of textile waste. Two new and important findings are underlined in this article. The first is the direct attestation of the hydrazyl radical-parent adduct, formed in the reaction of the dye with e(-)aq followed by protonation and subsequent addition to the unreacted dye molecule. This has been confirmed from concentration dependent studies. Secondly, we have clearly shown that in the reaction of hydroxyl radical with the dye in Triton X-100 media, the initially produced TX radicals cause reductive degradation of the dye. Identification and detailed analysis of HPLC and GCMS data reveals that similar products are formed in both the reactions of e(-)aq and OH radicals. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of 10(-4)moldm(-3) dye was found to be reduced significantly after irradiation. Thus, the present study not only depicts new pathways for the degradation of hydrophobic azo dye, but also demonstrates the role of a surfactant in the entire process. PMID:26001620

  5. Laboratory measurements of selected optical, physical, chemical, and remote-sensing properties of five water mixtures containing Calvert clay and a nonfluorescing dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Poole, L. R.; Witte, W. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 6.1 ppm to 24.3 ppm and sizes ranged between 1.5 micrometers and 10 micrometers with the most frequently occurring size less than 2 micrometers. Iron concentration was less than 1 percent of the total suspended solids. Nonfluorescing dye concentrations of the two mixtures were 20 ppm and 40 ppm. Attenuation coefficient for the five mixtures ranged from 4.8/m to 21.3/m. Variations in volume scattering function with phase angle were typical. Variations in attenuation and absorption coefficient with wavelength were similar for the mixtures without the dye. Attenuation coefficient of the mixtures with the dye increased for wavelengths less than 600 nm due to the dye's strong absorption peak near 500 nm. Reflectance increased as the concentration of Calvert clay increased and peaked near 600 nm. The nonfluorescent dye decreased the magnitude of the peak, but had practically no effect on the variation for wavelengths greater than 640 nm. At wavelengths less than 600 nm, the spectral variations of the mixtures with the dye were significantly different from those mixtures without the dye.

  6. Fast throughput determination of 21 allergenic disperse dyes from river water using reusable three-dimensional interconnected magnetic chemically modified graphene oxide followed by liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Li, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Shan-Shan; Zhan, Ping-Ping; Liu, Jun-Chao; Xu, Chang-Ping; Lu, Yi-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2016-01-29

    We report the template-free fabrication of three-dimensional hierarchical nanostructures, i.e., three-dimensional interconnected magnetic chemically modified graphene oxide (3D-Mag-CMGO), through a simple and low-cost self-assembly process using one-pot reaction based on solvothermal method. The excellent properties of the 3D-Mag-CMGO are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FTIR, elementary analyzer (EA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The easiness-to-handle of the magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (Mag-dSPE) procedure is developed for preconcentration of 21 allergenic disperse dyes from river water. The obtained results show the higher extraction capacity of 3D-Mag-CMGO with recoveries between 80.0-112.0%. Furthermore, an ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method for determination of 21 allergenic disperse dyes in river at sub-ppt levels has been developed with pretreatment of the samples by Mag-dSPE. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the allergenic disperse dyes are between 0.57-34.05ng/L. Validation results on linearity, specificity, trueness and precision, as well as on application to the analysis of 21 allergenic disperse dyes in fifty real samples demonstrate the applicability to environment monitoring analysis. PMID:26777090

  7. Modeling and experiment of dye-sensitized solar cell with vertically aligned ZnO nanorods through chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuono, Ruri Agung; Risanti, Doty D.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model based on electron diffusion differential equation and Schottky barrier model was developed to determine the current-voltage characteristics of DSSC. To verify the model DSSC with ZnO nanorods photoelectrode which was chemically bath deposited onto the TCO was fabricated. According to modeling results, increasing of recombination current density J at these interfaces results in a decrease in Schottky barrier height ?b and therefore improves the photovoltage under the open-circuit condition. It is found that the open-circuit voltage remains constant when the TCO/ZnO Schottky barrier height was varied in the range of 0.45 - 0.6 eV. This theoretical model consistents with the experimental result in which the fabricated DSSCs can produce conversion efficiency in the range of 0.98 - 1.16%. The trend in photovoltage calculated in the theoretical model basically agrees with the experimental result, although the calculated photocurrent is somewhat over estimated compared to the experimental results. The model presents that the ideality factor for ZnO nanorods, which also contributes to the enhancement of photovoltage, increases in the range of 2.75 - 3.0 as the annealing temperature is increased in the experiment.

  8. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew J; Hailey, Dale W; Stawicki, Tamara M; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W; Simon, Julian A; Ou, Henry C

    2013-03-01

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analog of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line. PMID:23467357

  9. Hair follicle differentiation and regulation.

    PubMed

    Rogers, George E

    2004-01-01

    Ten years ago, Hardy (1992) wrote a timely review on the major features of hair follicle development and hair growth which she referred to as a secret life. Many of these secrets are now being revealed. The information discussed in this brief review comprises the structure of the hair and hair follicle, the continuing characterisation of the genes for keratin and keratin associated proteins, the determination of the location of their expression in the different cell layers of the hair follicle, molecular signals which control keratin gene expression and post-translational events in the terminal stages of hair formation. PMID:15272381

  10. Usefulness of alkaline hydrogen peroxide oxidation to analyze eumelanin and pheomelanin in various tissue samples: application to chemical analysis of human hair melanins.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shosuke; Nakanishi, Yukiko; Valenzuela, Robert K; Brilliant, Murray H; Kolbe, Ludger; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2011-08-01

    Eumelanin and pheomelanin in tissue samples can be specifically measured as the markers pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and 4-amino-3-hydroxyphenylalanine after acidic permanganate oxidation and hydroiodic acid hydrolysis, respectively. Those degradation methods, although widely applied, are not easily performed in most laboratories. To overcome this difficulty, we developed alkaline H(2)O(2) oxidation in 1 M K(2)CO(3) that produces, in addition to the eumelanin marker PTCA, thiazole-2,4,5-tricarboxylic acid (TTCA) and thiazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid (TDCA) as markers for pheomelanin and pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA) as a marker for 5,6-dihydroxyindole-derived eumelanin. Those four degradation products can be easily separated by HPLC and analyzed with ultraviolet detection. The alkaline H(2)O(2) oxidation method is simple, reproducible and applicable to all pigmented tissues. Its application to characterize eumelanin and pheomelanin in human hair shows that PTCA and TTCA serve as specific markers for eumelanin and pheomelanin, respectively, although some caution is needed regarding the artificial production of TTCA from eumelanic tissue proteins. PMID:21535429

  11. Zeolite-Dye Microlasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vietze, U.; Krauß, O.; Laeri, F.; Ihlein, G.; Schüth, F.; Limburg, B.; Abraham, M.

    1998-11-01

    We present a new class of micro lasers based on nanoporous molecular sieve host-guest systems. Organic dye guest molecules of 1-ethyl-4-[4-( p-dimethylaminophenyl)-1,3-butadienyl]-pyridinium Perchlorat were inserted into the 0.73-nm-wide channel pores of a zeolite AlPO 4-5 host. The zeolitic microcrystal compounds were hydrothermally synthesized according to a particular host-guest chemical process. The dye molecules are found not only to be aligned along the host channel axis, but to be oriented as well. Single mode laser emission at 687 nm was obtained from a whispering gallery mode oscillating in a 8-μm-diameter monolithic microresonator, in which the field is confined by total internal reflection at the natural hexagonal boundaries inside the zeolitic microcrystals.

  12. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard ... the color of your hair. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia) What should I do after ...

  13. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... zone Video library Find a dermatologist Teaching your child healthy hair care habits Many common hair care ... Damaged hair looks and feels unhealthy. Teaching your child how to shampoo Healthy hair care begins with ...

  14. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... much of this hormone, you may have unwanted hair growth. In most cases, the exact cause is ...

  15. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Women)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Content Key Facts Removing pubic hair is a personal preference. There are no health benefits to removing pubic ... remove pubic hair. Removing pubic hair is a personal preference. Some girls trim their pubic hair, or go ...

  16. [Aging of skin and hair].

    PubMed

    Treb, R M

    2005-12-01

    Anti-aging medicine is dedicated to the advancement of technology to detect, prevent, and treat aging related disease and to promote research into methods to retard and optimize the aging process. Dermatology offers good basics for rational preventive and therapeutic anti-aging strategies. The role of the skin in anti-aging medicine is not merely that aging is most obvious on the skin, but that the skin is a highly accessible and unique organ that offers unequaled opportunities to the gerontologist for the study of age-related effects. The study of skin aging focuses on two main streams of interest: On one hand, the esthetic problem and its management; on the other, the biological problem of aging in terms of microscopic, biochemical, and molecular changes. Probably the same molecular mechanisms underlying the aging of skin and its appendages, including the pigmentary system, underlie age-dependent degenerative changes of the inner organs and entire organism. The skin and hair are subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging, and extrinsic or premature aging due to external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and cigarette smoking. Primary prevention encompasses measures that are taken before the aging process has started, secondary prevention when the first signs of aging have come into sight. Eventually, tertiary measures are aimed at correcting established signs of aging. Prevention starts with photoprotection and avoidance of cigarette smoking. In dermatologic practice sun protecting agents, dermocosmetic substances, hair growth promoting agents, and anti-aging compounds play an ever increasing role. Finally, tertiary anti-aging measures include minimally invasive cosmetic procedures such as chemical peels, microdermabrasion, soft tissue fillers, non-ablative laser rejuvenation, radiofrequency techniques and botulinum toxin, as well as laser skin resurfacing and corrective surgical procedures, including autologous hair transplantation. PMID:16405289

  17. [Tufted hair folliculitis].

    PubMed

    Treb, R M; Pericin, M; Hafner, J; Burg, G

    1997-04-01

    A case of tufted hair folliculutis presenting as circumscribed, tender and inflamed areas in the occiput with residual tufted follicles in a 28-year old man is reported. Tufted hair folliculitis is a characteristic localized scarring bacterial folliculitis of the scalp due to Staphylococcus aureus. Histopathological studies reveal perifollicular inflammation around the upper portions of the follicles sparing the hair root level. Within areas of inflammation, several follicles converge toward a common follicular duct with a widely dilated opening. Currently, tufted hair folliculitis is considered a variant of folliculitis decalvans of Quinquaud. Staphylococcal infection is believed to be an initial causative factor, and underlying differences in follicular anatomy or host response may be important in determining which reaction pattern occurs in an affected individual. The development of atrophy with loss of adnexal structures (in folliculitis decalvans) or of hair tufts (in tufting folliculitis) may depend upon the depth and destructive potential of the inflammatory process. The therapeutic approach is problematic; prolonged treatment with oral antibiotics may stabilize the disease, but good and at times more definitive results (as in the presented case) have been reported after radical surgical excision of the involved areas. PMID:9206717

  18. Evaluation of hair loss.

    PubMed

    Piraccini, Bianca Maria

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of a patient with hair problems is a fundamental step for the correct diagnosis of disease, as it gives important information and helps in choosing the diagnostic tools that should be utilized to confirm the clinical suspicion. The evaluation includes a clinical history and patient examination and is followed by invasive and noninvasive tests. Often, the sole clinical examination permits the correct diagnosis of the hair disease and the evaluation of its severity and progression. For this reason, time should be spent to get all of the necessary anamnestic data and to carefully examine the patient. Dermoscopy (trichoscopy) will afterward add additional data that can be further increased by scalp biopsy for histopathology and/or by other more specific tests. When approaching a patient with hair problems, it is mandatory to consider the strong psychological impact of hair diseases, which are very often associated with severe emotional distress. For this reason, patients should be managed with care by spending time listening to their complaints and by explaining in detail their disease and its possible treatments. The patient will only be able to properly adhere to treatment and to obtain the best result if she/he understands her/his hair problem and its possible solutions. PMID:26370640

  19. Moss hair water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Wu, Nan; Hurd, Randy; Thomson, Scott; Pitt, William; Truscott, Tadd

    2013-11-01

    We present an investigation of water transportation on a moss (Syntrichia caninervis) indigenous to temperate deserts. The moss typically appears to be in a dry, brown state, but is rehydrated by water during the wet season, making the desert green. Small hairs (500-2000 μm in length, and 40 μm in diameter, d) growing out from the tip of the moss leaves transport water back to the leaves. Through high speed observations and mathematical modeling it appears that this transportation is driven by two different mechanisms. 1) Droplet transport is achieved in three ways: i) A large (10d) droplet attached between two intersecting fibers will move toward the bases of the leaves by the changing angle between the two hairs. ii) The shape of the moss hair is conical, thicker at the base, producing a gradient that moves fluid (5d) toward the leaf similar to cactus spines. iii) We also observe that in some cases a Plateau-Rayleigh instability trigger a series of droplets moving toward the base. 2) Micro-grooves on the moss hair transport a film of water along the moss hair when larger droplets are not available. These various water transportation strategies combine to help the moss to survive in the desert and provide valuable insight.

  20. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  1. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  2. ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

  3. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  4. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    PubMed

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it. PMID:25875031

  5. Evaluation of hair humidity resistance/moisturization from hair elasticity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Average water regain and hair elasticity (Young's modulus) of virgin dark brown and bleached hair fibers under different relative humidity (RH) were determined. It is observed that hair water regain increases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 40-85%; and the remaining percent of hair elasticity decreases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 50-80%. Therefore, measurements of average hair elasticity at 50% and 80% RH, respectively, under various equilibrium times before and after cosmetic treatments can be used to evaluate effects of cosmetic treatments on water adsorption behavior of hair-improvement in hair humidity resistance or enhancement in hair moisture uptake. A Hair Humidity Resistance Factor (H(2)RF) has been defined. If R(2)HF > 1, the product improves hair humidity resistance-anti-frizz; if R(2)HF < 1, the product enhances hair water adsorption; when R(2)HF approximately 1, the product has no significant effect on hair water adsorption behavior. This method was applied to evaluate anti-frizz performance of several shampoo formulations containing Polyquaternium-10, or Polyquaternium-70, or Polyquaternium-67, or Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride. It was found PQ-70 shampoo showed the highest H(2)RF value and the best anti-frizz performance among these tested shampoos. The results were consistent with those obtained from Image Analysis. PMID:17728940

  6. The microbial degradation of azo dyes: minireview.

    PubMed

    Chengalroyen, M D; Dabbs, E R

    2013-03-01

    The removal of dyes in wastewater treatment plants still involves physical or chemical processes. Yet numerous studies currently exist on degradation based on the use of microbes-which is a well-studied field. However progress in the use of biological methods to deal with this environmentally noxious waste is currently lacking. This review focuses on the largest dye class, that is azo dyes and their biodegradation. We summarize the bacteria identified thus far which have been implicated in dye decolorization and discuss the enzymes involved and mechanisms by which these colorants are broken down. PMID:23108664

  7. [Hair diseases in childhood].

    PubMed

    Hamm, H

    2002-05-01

    This paper focuses on four important hair diseases mainly occurring in children. Trichotillomania is the most relevant differential diagnosis of alopecia areata in childhood. Meticulous inspection and lack of telogen hairs in the trichogram from the margin of the lesion usually are sufficient for differentiation. The trichogram also plays a significant role for the diagnosis of the loose anagen hair (loose anagen syndrome), a fairly new, but not rare entity, especially in distinguishing it from telogen effluvium. Five different types of clinical presentation are distinguished in tinea capitis. For the necessary systemic therapy; the new antimycotics terbinafine and itraconazole represent good alternatives to the well-tried griseofulvin. Several effective therapeutic options are also available for head lice, the most frequent parasitary infestation of school age. However, because of its neurotoxicity and the increasing problem of lice resistance lindane should not be used any longer for the treatment of head lice. PMID:12090118

  8. Fading of artificial hair color and its prevention by photofilters.

    PubMed

    Locke, B; Jachowicz, J

    2005-01-01

    Fading of artificial hair color has been investigated by simulating actual usage conditions through exposure to artificial radiation in a weatherometer, with 0.35 mW/(m(2) nm) at 340 nm, for 16 to 48 hours, and by periodical washing. Hair color was produced by using commercial two-part, permanent hair dyes with light auburn, medium auburn, and dark auburn shades. Formulations based on red couplers, such as 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene and 1-naphtol, as well as primary intermediates, such as 1-hydroxyethyl-4,5-diamino pyrazole sulfate, were employed. Results indicate that the extent of fading, as measured by the total color change parameter, dE, is greatest for colored hair subjected to both irradiation and shampooing, and significantly smaller for hair undergoing only irradiation or washing. Color loss has been also found to be dependent upon the hair type employed, with colored natural white and bleached hair undergoing much greater change than colored brown hair. It has been also shown that hair color based on pyrazole intermediates displayed the deepest fading as a result of shampooing (dE approximately 4-6 after ten shampooings) and irradiation/shampooing (dE approximately 14-16 after 32 hours of light exposure and four shampooings). The contribution of UV light (UVB + UVA) to the artificial hair-color loss was found experimentally to be dependent upon the irradiation dose and varied from 63% at 16 hours of irradiation time to 27% at 48 hours of light exposure. The theoretical extent of photoprotection by a formulation was assessed by calculating the percentage of UV light it attenuates in the wavelength range from 290 nm to 400 nm. The results indicate that UVB photofilters, such as octyl methoxy cinnamate, absorb less than 25% of the total UV irradiation at concentrations as high as 30 mg/(g hair). UVA absorbers were found to be more effective, with benzophenone-3 and benzophenone-4 absorbing about 40% of UV at the same concentration. Corresponding experimental data were in reasonable agreement with the theoretical predictions. The data are also presented for color protection with treatments containing two photo-absorbers: benzophenone-3-ZnO; benzophenone-4-ZnO; octyl methoxy cinnamate-ZnO; and dimethylpabaimidopropyl laurdimonium tosylate-benzophenone-3. PMID:16538296

  9. Fading of artificial hair colour and its prevention by photofilters.

    PubMed

    Locke, B; Jachowicz, J

    2006-06-01

    Fading of artificial hair colour has been investigated by simulating actual usage conditions through exposure to artificial radiation in a weatherometer, with 0.35 mW (m(2)nm)(-1) at 340 nm, for 16-48 h, and by periodical washing. Hair colour was produced by using commercial two-part, permanent hair dyes with light auburn, medium auburn and dark auburn shades. Formulations based on red couplers, such as 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene and 1-naphthol, as well as primary intermediates, such as 1-hydroxyethyl-4,5-diamino pyrazole sulphate, were employed. Results indicate that the extent of fading, as measured by the total colour change parameter, dE, is greatest for coloured hair subjected to both irradiation and shampooing, and significantly smaller for hair undergoing only irradiation or washing. Colour loss has been also found to be dependent upon the hair type employed, with coloured natural white and bleached hair undergoing much greater change than coloured brown hair. It has been also shown that hair colour based on pyrazole intermediates displayed the deepest fading as a result of shampooing (dE 4-6 after 10 shampooings) and irradiation per shampooing (dE 14-16 after 32 h of light exposure and four shampooings). The contribution of UV light (UVB + UVA) to the artificial hair-colour loss was found experimentally to be dependent upon the irradiation dose and varied from 63% at 16 h of irradiation time to 27% at 48 h of light exposure. The theoretical extent of photoprotection by a formulation was assessed by calculating the percentage of UV light it attenuates in the wavelength range from 290 to 400 nm. The results indicate that UVB photofilters, such as octyl methoxy cinnamate, absorb <25% of the total UV irradiation at concentrations as high as 30 mg (g hair)(-1). UVA absorbers were found to be more effective, with benzophenone-3 and benzophenone-4 absorbing about 40% of UV at the same concentration. Corresponding experimental data were in reasonable agreement with the theoretical predictions. The data are also presented for colour protection with treatments containing two photo-absorbers: benzophenone-3-ZnO; benzophenone-4-ZnO; octyl methoxy cinnamate-ZnO; and dimethylpabaimidopropyl laurdimonium tosylate-benzophenone-3. PMID:18489280

  10. 40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye... Substances 721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye... Substances 721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye... Substances 721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye... Substances 721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye... Substances 721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... reactive dye (PMN P-96-238) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. Synthetic dye decolourization by white rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, K; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2003-09-01

    Synthetic dyes are integral part of many industrial products. The effluents generated from textile dyeing units create major environmental problems and issues both in public and textile units. Industrial wastewater treatment is one of the major problems in the present scenario. Though, the physical and chemical methods offer some solutions to the problems, it is not affordable by the unit operators. Biological degradation is recognized as the most effective method for degrading the dye present in the waste. Research over a period of two decades had provided insight into the various aspects of biological degradation of dyes. It is observed that the white rot fungi have a non-specific enzyme system, which oxidizes the recalcitrant dyes. Detailed and extensive studies have been made and process developed for treatment of dye containing wastewaters by white rot fungi and their enzyme systems. An attempt is made to summarize the detailed research contributions on these lines. PMID:15242299

  16. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    PubMed Central

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; El-Zawahry, Manal M.; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S. E.

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics. PMID:25258720

  17. Nucleophilic addition of reactive dyes on amidoximated acrylic fabrics.

    PubMed

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; El-Zawahry, Manal M; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S E

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% of of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics. PMID:25258720

  18. The Growth of Human Hair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Helen J.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

  19. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying.

    PubMed

    Han, Ming-Nuan; Lu, Jian-Mei; Zhang, Guang-Yuan; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug), Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug), and their major chemical constituent TSG were investigated. The regulation effects of several cytokines and enzymes such as POMC, α-MSH, MC1R, ASIP, MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were investigated. PMR group gave out the most outstanding black hair among all groups with the highest contents of total melanin, α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR. Promotion of hair pigmentogenesis was slightly decreased after processing in the PMRP group. TSG as the major constituent of PMR showed weaker hair color regulation effects than both PMR and PMRP. PMR, but not PMRP, should be used to blacken hair. The α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR were the major targets in the medicinal use of PMR in hair graying. Chemical constituents other than TSG may contribute to the hair color regulation activity of PMR. PMID:26640791

  20. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming-Nuan; Lu, Jian-Mei; Zhang, Guang-Yuan; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug), Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug), and their major chemical constituent TSG were investigated. The regulation effects of several cytokines and enzymes such as POMC, α-MSH, MC1R, ASIP, MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were investigated. PMR group gave out the most outstanding black hair among all groups with the highest contents of total melanin, α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR. Promotion of hair pigmentogenesis was slightly decreased after processing in the PMRP group. TSG as the major constituent of PMR showed weaker hair color regulation effects than both PMR and PMRP. PMR, but not PMRP, should be used to blacken hair. The α-MSH, MC1R, and TYR were the major targets in the medicinal use of PMR in hair graying. Chemical constituents other than TSG may contribute to the hair color regulation activity of PMR. PMID:26640791

  1. Hair Follicle Miniaturization in a Woolly Hair Nevus: A Novel "Root" Perspective for a Mosaic Hair Disorder.

    PubMed

    Veraitch, Ophelia; Perez, Alfonso; Hoque, Shamali R; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Fleck, Roland A; Fenton, David A; Stefanato, Catherine M

    2016-03-01

    Woolly hair nevus is a mosaic disorder characterized by unruly, tightly curled hair in a circumscribed area of the scalp. This condition may be associated with epidermal nevi. We describe an 11-year-old boy who initially presented with multiple patches of woolly hair and with epidermal nevi on his left cheek and back. He had no nail, teeth, eye, or cardiac abnormalities. Analysis of plucked hairs from patches of woolly hair showed twisting of the hair shaft and an abnormal hair cuticle. Histopathology of a woolly hair patch showed diffuse hair follicle miniaturization with increased vellus hairs. PMID:26894777

  2. Enzymatic biotransformation of synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Couto, S

    2009-11-01

    Environmental pollution by discharge of dye-containing effluents represents a serious ecological concern in many countries. Public demands for colour-free discharges to receiving waters have made decolouration of a variety of industrial wastewater a top priority. The current existing techniques for dye removal have several drawbacks such as high cost, low efficiency, use of large amounts of chemicals and formation of toxic sub-products. This has impelled the search for alternative methods such as those based on oxidative enzymes. This approach is believed to be a promising technology since it is cost-effective, environmentally friendly and does not produce sludge. Enzymatic transformation of synthetic dyes can be described as the conversion of dye molecules by enzymes into simpler and generally colourless molecules. Detailed characterisation of the metabolites produced during enzymatic transformation of synthetic dyes as well as ecotoxicity studies is of great importance to assess the effectiveness of the biodegradation process. However, most reports on the biotreatment of dyes mainly deal with decolouration and there are few reports on the reduction in toxicity or on the identification of the biodegradation products. This implies a limitation to assess their true technical potential. PMID:20214593

  3. Development and characterization of an IPMC hair-like transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akle, Barbar J.; Challita, Elio; Khairalah, Nady

    2015-04-01

    Hair-like sensors are very common in natural and biological systems. Such sensors are used to measure acoustic pressures, fluid flows, and chemical concentrations among others. Hair-like actuators are also used to control fluid flows and perform temperature management. This study presents a manufacturing technique for a hair-like IPMC transducer. A thorough study is presented on the building process of the sensor. The method used to control the diameter and the electrodes thickness of the transducer is developed. The sensing behavior of the manufactured transducers is experimentally characterized.

  4. Hair analyses: worthless for vitamins, limited for minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Hambridge, K.M.

    1982-11-01

    Despite many major and minor problems with interpretation of analytical data, chemical analyses of human hair have some potential value. Extensive research will be necessary to define this value, including correlation of hair concentrations of specific elements with those in other tissues and metabolic pools and definition of normal physiological concentration ranges. Many factors that may compromise the correct interpretation of analytical data require detailed evaluation for each specific element. Meanwhile, hair analyses are of some value in the comparison of different populations and, for example, in public health community surveys of environmental exposure to heavy metals. On an individual basis, their established usefulness is much more restricted and the limitations are especially notable for evaluation of mineral nutritional status. There is a wide gulf between the limited and mainly tentative scientific justification for their use on an individual basis and the current exploitation of multielement chemical analyses of human hair.

  5. Study of hair shine and hair surface smoothness.

    PubMed

    Gao, Timothy; Pereira, Abel; Zhu, Sam

    2009-01-01

    A new hair visual appearance measurement system called SAMBA from Bossa Nova Technologies (Venice, CA) has been employed to measure effects of cosmetic treatments on hair shine and surface smoothness of different types of hair samples. Experimental procedures for evaluations of shine value and surface cuticle angle of hair samples treated with rinse-off products (shampoo or/and conditioner) have been successfully established and applied. We demonstrated that hair spray and conditioner formulas containing PPG-3 benzyl ether myristate (PBEM) (1) showed great performance on shine enhancement for hairs with light and medium colors. Instrumental measurement of shine values was also conducted to compare different commercial shampoo and conditioner products. This study showed reliable utility of SAMBA system and demonstrated the shine enhancement of PBEM in hair care. PMID:19450419

  6. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  7. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  8. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.L.

    2000-07-25

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  9. Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis.

    PubMed

    Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Hardy, Emilie; Salqubre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-06-01

    Although increasing interest is being observed in hair analysis for the biomonitoring of human exposure to pesticides, some limitations still have to be addressed for optimum use of this matrix in that specific context. One main possible issue concerns the need to differentiate chemicals biologically incorporated into hair from those externally deposited on hair surface from contaminated air or dust. The present study focuses on the development of a washing procedure for the decontamination of hair before analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes. For this purpose, three different procedures of artificial contamination (with silica, cellulose, and aqueous solution) were used to simulate pesticides deposition on hair surface. Several washing solvents (four organic: acetone, dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile; and four aqueous: water, phosphate buffer, shampoo, sodium dodecylsulfate) were evaluated for their capacity to remove artificially deposited pesticides from hair surface. The most effective washing solvents were sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol for aqueous and organic solvents, respectively. Moreover, after a first washing with sodium dodecylsulfate or methanol, the majority of externally deposited pesticides was removed and a steady-state was reached since significantly lower amounts were removed by additional second and third washings. Finally, the effectiveness of a decontamination procedure comprising washing with sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol was successively demonstrated. In parallel, it was determined that the final procedure did not affect the chemicals biologically incorporated, as hair strands naturally containing pesticides were used. Such a procedure appears to remove in one-shot the fraction of chemicals located on hair surface and does not require repeated washing steps. PMID:24817049

  10. Dye laser principles, with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duarte, F.J. . Dept. of Physics); Hillman, L.W. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers which explain dye laser principles. Topics covered include: laser dynamics, femtosecond dye lasers, CW dye lasers, technology of pulsed dye lases, photochemistry of laser dyes, and laser applications.

  11. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  12. Laser hair reduction and removal.

    PubMed

    Hovenic, Whitney; DeSpain, John

    2011-05-01

    Hair removal by any means is unlikely to decrease in popularity, especially with the advent of laser technology allowing for effective treatment of hypertrichosis and hirsutism. There are many effective laser and intense light sources. Although virtually all skin types can be treated, the ideal target is a dark hair on light colored skin, and treatment of nonpigmented or vellus hairs has been disappointing with this method. The physical hair removal methods will continue to be popular options. The practice of aesthetic medicine should include consideration of offering hair reduction using lasers or light sources. PMID:21763993

  13. Advances in Understanding Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Bruno A.

    2016-01-01

    In this short review, I introduce an integrated vision of human hair follicle behavior and describe opposing influences that control hair follicle homeostasis, from morphogenesis to hair cycling. The interdependence and complementary roles of these influences allow us to propose that the hair follicle is a true paradigm of a “Yin Yang” type, that is a cold/slow-hot/fast duality. Moreover, a new promising field is emerging, suggesting that glycans are key elements of hair follicle growth control. PMID:26918186

  14. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  15. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Treb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in peoples overall physical appearance and self-perception. With todays increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  16. Consumer allergy to oxidative hair coloring products: epidemiologic data in the literature.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Maya; Bons, Brigitte; Ryan, Cindy; Gerberick, G Frank

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative hair dyes have repeatedly come to the attention of the dermatologic community owing to concerns about contact dermatitis. A review of the scientific literature provides insight into the prevalence of p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-sensitized individuals and on the prevalence of hair dye dermatitis in various types of patient and nonpatient populations mainly from Europe and from the United States and Asia. Most of the results are obtained through patch testing with PPD. PPD is one of the main oxidation colorants; however, patch-test prevalence of PPD is not equivalent to prevalence of hair dye allergy. An analysis shows no clear increase in the frequency of positive patch-test reactions to PPD in eczema patients and in the general population. All the parameters through which the frequency of hair dye dermatitis resulting from exposure to PPD is evaluated have been stable in Europe, with a few exceptions that are discussed in the review. There is a statistically significant decrease (p < .0001) in the prevalence of positive patch-test reactions to PPD in North America (1970 to 2002). Data from studies in Asia are difficult to interpret. Pooled prevalence rates of positive patch-test reactions to PPD were calculated for the three continents. PMID:19470299

  17. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible) investigations, NMR chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA) parameters of 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine for dye sensitized solar cells using density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Gladis Anitha, E; Joseph Vedhagiri, S; Parimala, K

    2014-10-24

    The molecular structure, geometry optimization, vibrational frequencies of organic dye sensitizer 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine (DACP) were studied based on Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrum was investigated by time dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Features of the electronic absorption spectrum in the UV-Visible regions were assigned based on TD-DFT calculation. The absorption bands are assigned to transitions. The interfacial electron transfer between semiconductor TiO2 electrode and dye sensitizer DACP is due to an electron injection process from excited dye to the semiconductor's conduction band. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOS) have also been determined. The chemical shielding anisotropic (CSA) parameters are calculated from the NMR analysis, Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. PMID:25459717

  18. A Simple Method for Purification of Vestibular Hair Cells and Non-Sensory Cells, and Application for Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Herget, Meike; Scheibinger, Mirko; Guo, Zhaohua; Jan, Taha A.; Adams, Christopher M.; Cheng, Alan G.; Heller, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of <3% at the protein level and <1% at the peptide level. Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses. PMID:23750277

  19. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    PubMed

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium. PMID:21448562

  20. Hair removal by lasers and intense pulsed light sources.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, C C

    2000-12-01

    Unwanted pigmented hair is a common problem for many patients. Traditional methods of hair removal have included shaving, bleaching, plucking, waxing, use of chemical depilatories, and electrolysis. These techniques have been limited by their pain, inconvenience, and poor long-term efficacy. Only electrolysis has offered the potential for permanent hair removal. However, the technique is tedious, highly operator-dependent, and impractical for the treatment of large numbers of hairs. Recently, a number of lasers and other light sources have been developed specifically to target hair follicles. These include ruby, alexandrite, diode, and Nd:YAG lasers and an intense pulsed light source. These devices offer the potential for rapid treatment of large areas and long-lasting hair removal. This article explains the mechanisms of using light to remove hair, examines the attributes of specific laser systems, and explains the importance of patient selection and treatment protocol for the various systems in order to provide a safe and effective treatment. PMID:11149607

  1. Hair breakage--how to measure and counteract.

    PubMed

    Haake, Hans-Martin; Marten, Sandra; Seipel, Werner; Eisfeld, Wolf

    2009-01-01

    A system to determine the efficacy of hair treatments in terms of anti-breakage and split end prevention was developed which involves the repeated combing of hair strands. The device allows ten hair strands to be combed simultaneously. First, the influences of chemical hair treatments like bleaching on hair breakage were examined. In a next step, the protective effects of benchmark products from the market were studied. Since nearly all commercial products with anti-breakage claims contain silicones combined with cationic polymers, alternative actives were searched. In a test series with different waxes in shampoo formulations with a variable number of parameters, the particle size was found to be the factor with the strongest influence on the amount of wax deposited on the shampooed hair. Therefore, a targeted development was started, resulting in a combination of several ethers dispersed in sodium laureth sulfate. Excellent conditioning, anti-breakage and split ends protection properties of the compound were found, showing also a dosage dependency. The latter could be explained by analyzing the amounts of waxes applied on treated hair. In these experiments, a dependency on the concentration in the shampoo was found. PMID:19450416

  2. Relationship Between Hair Cell Loss and Hearing Loss in Fishes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to intense sound or ototoxic chemicals can damage the auditory hair cells of vertebrates, resulting in hearing loss. Although the relationship between such hair cell damage and auditory function is fairly established for terrestrial vertebrates, there are limited data available to understand this relationship in fishes. Although investigators have measured either the morphological damage of the inner ear or the functional deficits in the hearing of fishes, very few have directly measured both in an attempt to find a relationship between the two. Those studies that have examined both auditory hair cell damage in the inner ear and the resulting hearing loss in fishes are reviewed here. In general, there is a significant linear relationship between the number of hair cells lost and the severity of hearing threshold shifts, although this varies between species and different hair cell-damaging stimuli. After trauma to the fish ear, auditory hair cells are able to regenerate to control level densities. With this regeneration also comes a restoration of hearing. Thus there is also a significant relationship between hair cell recovery and hearing recovery in fishes. PMID:26611069

  3. Organic components in hair-ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for the analysis of complex samples due to its outstanding mass resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (≤ 1 ppm), simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds. The characteristics of the FTICR-MS hair-ice spectra with as many as ten or more peaks at each nominal mass are discussed together with highly resolved spectra from water and soil samples different sources, respectively. Complete manual formula assignment for structure elucidation would be extremely time consuming, therefore, we used an automated post processing based on SciLab for exploitation of the data with the aim of an unambiguous assignment of as many peaks as possible. Once the formulae had been assigned, the obtained mass lists were first checked randomly and afterwards transformed into Excel format for further post-processing and description. Most important is the van Krevelen diagram, usually two-dimensional as atomic ratio H/C versus atomic ratio O/C, widely used to classify samples regarding polarity and aromaticity. By comparison with two references (Hockaday 2007, Sleighter 2007), which arranged various biopolymer substance classes in such Van Krevelen plots, lignin could be detected as the main hair-ice component.

  4. A History of the Chemical Innovations in Silver-Halide Materials for Color PhotographyIII. Dye Tranfer Process — Instant Color Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Yasushi

    A historical review of the technological developments of instant color photographic process, is presented with emphasis on the innovation processes at the following main turning points: 1) the creation of instant photography by E. H. Land in 1948 (one step processing by transfer of image-forming materials), 2) the advent of instant color photography based on dye developer, by Polaroid Corp., in 1963 (departing from dye-forming development, forming a direct positive preformed-dye image with a negative emulsion, but constraining the sensitive-material designs), 3) the introduction of a color instant product containing redox dye releaser with improved auto-positive emulsion, by Eastman Kodak Co., in 1976 (producing much improved color image quality, freed from the design constraints), and 4) the realization of absolute one-step photography by the integral film- unit system, by Polaroid in 1972. And the patent litigation (1976-86) raised by Polaroid against Kodak allegedly infringing on the integral film-unit patents caused the vast impacts on the industry.

  5. Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinevez, J.-Y.; Martin, P.; Jlicher, F.

    2009-02-01

    The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but display non-monotonic movements in response to abrupt force steps. Extracellular calcium changes or static biases to the bundle's position at rest could affect the kinetics of bundle motion and evoke transitions between the different classes of motility. The calcium-dependent location of a bundle's operating point within its nonlinear force-displacement relation controlled the type of movements observed. A unified theoretical description, in which mechanical activity stems from myosin-based adaptation and electro-mechanical feedback by Ca2+, could account for the fast and slow manifestations of active hair-bundle motility.

  6. Hair cell afferent synapses.

    PubMed

    Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Grant, Lisa; Fuchs, Paul

    2008-08-01

    This review will cover advances in the study of hair cell afferent synaptic function occurring between 2005 and 2008. During this time, capacitance measurements of vesicular fusion have continued to be refined, optical methods have added insights regarding vesicle trafficking, and paired intracellular recordings have established the transfer function of the afferent synapse at high resolution. Further, genes have been identified with forms of deafness known as auditory neuropathy, and their role in afferent signaling explored in mouse models. With these advances, our view of the hair cell afferent synapse has continued to be refined, and surprising properties have been revealed that emphasize the unique role of this structure in neural function. PMID:18824101

  7. Hair cell regeneration: Look to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Edwin W.

    2005-04-01

    Less than 2 decades ago it was discovered that birds can regenerate hair cells in the auditory and vestibular parts of the inner ear after the native hair cells are destroyed by exposure to excessive noise or by mechanical trauma of aminoglycoside antibiotics. This discovery issued in a new era of hearing research-it suggested that some day it may be possible to actually restore hearing in people with congenital or acquired hearing loss due to the degeneration of sensory cells or supporting cells in the inner ear. Fifteen years is a very short time in the history of science. Consider the fact that we have actively sought chemical treatments to prevent or cure cancers for well over a half century and the ``war on Cancer,'' resulted in enormous public and private support. Progress has been great, and some forms of cancer can be treated with great success, but the overall 5-year survival rates have only risen from about 50% to 63%. Progress will continue and many more forms of cancer will be cured and prevented during the next half century. Similarly, during the first 15 years of hair cell regeneration research enormous progress has been made, and we now know that postnatal mammalian ears have the capacity to produce new hair cells. We are indeed a long way from restoring hearing through hair cell regeneration, but the future is pretty clear. I will review the progress of this field with an eye toward the future and what it means for treatments of today. In particular, I will address the potential cost versus benefits of bilateral implantation when applied to babies and young children.

  8. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  9. Normal and aging hair biology and structure 'aging and hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. PMID:26370639

  10. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  11. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  12. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  13. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  14. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  15. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin , which hair follicles produce. Follicles are structures in the skin ... grow hair. With aging, the follicles make less melanin, and this causes gray hair. Graying often begins in the 30s. Scalp hair ...

  16. Hair removal on dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Maglogiannis, Ilias; Delibasis, Kostantinos

    2015-08-01

    Digital Dermoscopy is a tool commonly used by dermatologists for assisting the diagnosis of skin lesions. The presence of hair in such dermoscopic images frequently occludes significant diagnostic information and reduces their value. In this work we propose algorithms that successfully identify and remove hair from the dermoscopic images. The proposed algorithms consist of two parts; the first deals with the identification of hair, while the second part concerns the image restoration using interpolation. For the evaluation of the algorithms we used ground truth images with synthetic hair and compared the results with the commonly used in the literature DullRazor tool. According to the experimental results the proposed hair removal algorithms can be used successfully in the detection and removal of both dark and light colored hair. PMID:26736913

  17. First-principles study of Carbz-PAHTDDT dye sensitizer and two Carbz-derived dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Narges; Wang, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Two new carbazole-based organic dye sensitizers are designed and investigated in silico. These dyes are designed through chemical modifications of the ?-conjugated bridge of a reference organic sensitizer known as Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) dye. The aim of designing these dyes was to reduce the energy gap between their highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and to red-shift their absorption response compared to those of the reference S9 dye sensitizer. This reference dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. To investigate geometric and electronic structure, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were conducted on the new dyes as well as the reference dye. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the TD-DFT simulation is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths. The theoretical studies have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap and red-shifted absorption spectra for both of the new candidate dyes. In particular, the new S9-D1 dye is found to have significant reduced HOMO-LUMO energy gap, greater push-pull character and higher wavelengths of absorption when compared to the reference dye. Such findings suggest that the new dyes are promising and suitable for optoelectronic applications. PMID:24595721

  18. Unnecessary Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  19. Optical properties of human hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Gregory B.; Ilyasov, Ildar K.; Prikhodko, Constantin V.

    1995-01-01

    Optical properties of human hair are the subject of great interest for the realization of any possible cosmetic applications. This paper represents the results of hair microstructure as an optical substance investigation, indicates melanin and keratin absorption spectra, and shows experimentally discovered anisotropia of optical properties of human hair. Radiation weakening coefficient value at the range from 450 up to 800 nm is estimated. Thresholds of hair destruction by Nd, Ho, Cu, and Er laser radiation are obtained. Perspectives of laser application for epilation and other medical purposes are evaluated.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women.

    PubMed

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1677 women aged 16-40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income >$30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. PMID:23394967

  1. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Andrea L.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1,677 women aged 16 to 40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income > $30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. PMID:23394967

  2. Determination of minimum enzymatic decolorization time of reactive dye solution by spectroscopic & mathematical approach.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Mithat; Ozdemir, Zafer Omer; Eroglu, Emre; Altikatoglu, Melda; Guney, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing, paper printing, color photography and petroleum products. Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation, precipitation, adsorption, chemical degradation, photo degradation, and chemical coagulation. Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an important issue for several research field (chemistry, environment) In this study, minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data. Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance decrease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye. All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 degrees C constant temperature for 30 minutes. The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model. Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation. It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation. PMID:25970889

  3. 40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). 721.2527 Section 721.2527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). 721.2527 Section 721.2527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  5. 40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic... Substances 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine...

  6. 40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic... Substances 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine...

  7. 40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic... Substances 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine...

  8. 40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic... Substances 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine...

  9. 40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic... Substances 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Keratoderma with woolly hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Keratoderma with woolly hair On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Reviewed November 2015 What is keratoderma with woolly hair? Keratoderma with woolly hair is a group of ...

  16. Do You Have Hair Loss or Hair Shedding?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  17. Woolly Hair with Systematized Epidermal Nevus

    PubMed Central

    Kalwaniya, Sarita; Morgaonkar, Manjaree; Jain, Suresh Kumar; Nyati, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Woolly hair is a hair shaft disorder characterized by fine and tightly curled hair. Woolly hair could be syndromic (associated with systemic disease) or non-syndromic (not associated with any systemic disease). Woolly hair is described in association with many skin, dental, ophthalmic and cardiac anomalies but association of woolly hair with bilateral systematized epidermal nevus described in our case is first of its kind. PMID:26538742

  18. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  19. The relationship between levels of PCBs and pesticides in human hair and blood: preliminary result.

    PubMed

    Altshul, Larisa; Covaci, Adrian; Hauser, Russ

    2004-08-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organic contaminants in hair and other body compartments. To explore levels of POPs in blood and hair, samples from 10 volunteers were collected and analyzed for select organochlorine pesticides and 57 individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. We demonstrated that the method for analyzing organic contaminants in human hair was reliable and reproducible. Washing hair with shampoo decreased levels of PCBs, pesticides, and lipids by 25-33% on average and up to 62% for low-chlorinated congeners. The percentage of lipids and the levels of organochlorines in hair were higher than in serum. We found strong correlation (r = 0.8) between p,p -DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels in hair and blood and moderate correlations for the more persistent PCB congeners, but no correlations or weak correlations for other organochlorines. The present study provides preliminary evidence on the utility of hair analysis for POPs; however, further larger studies are recommended before hair analysis can be successfully applied in epidemiologic studies on POPs. PMID:15289166

  20. Exogen, shedding phase of the hair growth cycle: characterization of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Milner, Yoram; Sudnik, James; Filippi, Mario; Kizoulis, Menas; Kashgarian, Michael; Stenn, Kurt

    2002-09-01

    The hair growth cycle is generally recognized to comprise phases of growth (anagen), regression (catagen), and rest (telogen). Whereas, heretofore, the hair shedding function has been assumed to be part of the telogen phase, using a laboratory mouse model and newly developed techniques for quantitative collection and spectroscopic determination of shed hair, we found that shedding actually occurs as a distinct phase. Although some shedding occurs throughout the growth cycle, the largest peak is coupled to anagen. Using hair dye and rhodamine labeling we established that the shafts that shed arise during the previous hair cycle. We found that over the cycle the ratio of shed overfur to shed underfur hair shafts varies with the cycle phase and that the shed shaft base is unique morphologically, having a cylindrical shape with scalloped or "nibbled" edges. By electron microscopy the mooring cells of the exogen root show intercellular separation suggesting a proteolytic process in the final shedding step. This is the first report describing a distinct shedding, or exogen, phase of the hair cycle. This study supports the notion that this phase is uniquely controlled and that the final step in the shedding process involves a specific proteolytic step. PMID:12230507

  1. 40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10633 Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  7. Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths < 400 nm) and emit photons in the long-wavelength ultraviolet, visible, and, when dissolved in some solvents, near-infrared regions. In addition, these dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields, solvent-polarity- dependent fluorescence behavior, susceptibility to quenching by certain chemical species, and/or two-photon fluorescence, none of them has the combination of all of these attributes. Because the present dyes do have all of these attributes, they have potential utility as molecular probes in a variety of applications. Examples include (1) monitoring curing and deterioration of polymers; (2) monitoring protein expression; (3) high-throughput screening of drugs; (4) monitoring such chemical species as glucose, amines, amino acids, and metal ions; and (5) photodynamic therapy of cancers and other diseases.

  8. Preserving fibre health: reducing oxidative stress throughout the life of the hair fibre.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J M; Davis, M G; Lucas, R L; Reilman, R; Styczynski, P B; Li, C; Mamak, M; McComb, D W; Williams, R E A; Godfrey, S; Navqi, K R; Chechik, V

    2015-12-01

    Hair health is an important attribute to women globally--specifically attributes such as shine, healthy tips, frizz-free and strength. However, many women will claim to have at least moderate hair damage caused by habits and practices such as washing, combing and brushing, use of heated implements and regular use of chemical treatments. The objective of this work was to investigate two mechanisms of damage--hair colouring and UV exposure--where oxidative processes are involved. The role of copper in these oxidative processes was then investigated: its presence in hair and its consequent impact on hair damage via free radical formation. Finally, the role of chelants N,N'-ethylene diamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and histidine in preventing free radical formation was investigated and shown to improve hair health. PMID:26574301

  9. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can

  10. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal. PMID:19834437

  11. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  12. Human Hair: An Educational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, John

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes some of the more recent developments in the use of human hairs for such instructional purposes as observing barr bodies and chromosomes, and for culturing to produce cells of both epithelial and fibroblastic morphology. Three main hair categories are also described. (JN)

  13. Hair Loss in New Moms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  14. Hair cell tufts and afferent innervation of the bullfrog crista ampullaris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the bullfrog semicircular canal crista, hair cell tuft types were defined and mapped with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. Dye-filled planar afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.6-4.9 microns, highly branched arbors, and contacted 11-24 hair cells. Dye-filled isthmus afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.8-7.9 microns, with either small or large field arbors contacting 4-9 or 25-31 hair cells. The estimated mean number of contacts per innervated hair cell was 2.2 for planar and 1.3 for isthmus afferent neurons. Data on evoked afferent responses were available only for isthmus units that were observed to respond to our microrotational stimuli. Of 21 such afferent neurons, eight were successfully dye-filled. Within this sample, high-gain units had large field arbors and lower-gain units had small field arbors. The sensitivity of each afferent neuron was analyzed in terms of noise equivalent input (NEI), the stimulus amplitude for which the afferent response amplitude is just equivalent to the rms deviation of the instantaneous spike rate. NEI for isthmus units varied from 0.63 to 8.2 deg/s; the mean was 3.2 deg/s.

  15. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dyes as sensitizers from Malaysia local fruit `Buah Mertajam'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Roshidah, N.; Hashim, M. Norhafiz; Mohamad, I. S.; Saad, N. Hidayah; Norizan, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the high conversion efficiency, low cost, green technology and easy to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using natural anthocyanin dyes as sensitizers. The DSSCs was fabricated by using natural anthocyanin dyes which were extracted from different parts of the plants inclusive `Buah Mertajam', `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. The natural anthocyanin dyes that found in flower, leaves and fruits were extracted by the simple procedures. This anthocyanin dye is used to replace the expensive chemical synthetic dyes due to its ability to effectively attach into the surface of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). A natural anthocyanin dyes molecule adsorbs to each particle of the TiO2 and acts as the absorber of the visible light. A natural anthocyanin dye from Buah Mertajam shows the best performance with the conversion efficiency of 5.948% and fill factor of 0.708 followed by natural anthocyanin dyes from `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. Buah Mertajam or scientifically known as eriglossum rubiginosum is a local Malaysia fruit.

  17. Scalp micropigmentation: a useful treatment for hair loss.

    PubMed

    Rassman, William R; Pak, Jae P; Kim, Jino

    2013-08-01

    Scalp micropigmentation (SMP) is a highly sophisticated medical tattoo process for balding or thinning hair. SMP looks amazingly simple, but this novel technique must be customized for each patient because the skin in each patient differs with regard to how the scalp reacts as it holds on to the tattoo dye. There are many variables involved with performing SMP that makes this process more of an art form than a science. SMP is a very labor-intensive process that could require multiple sessions and up to 20 hours of procedural time to satisfy the patient. This review discusses applications and technical considerations of the SMP process. PMID:24017991

  18. Chlorine disinfection of dye wastewater: implications for a commercial azo dye mixture.

    PubMed

    Vacchi, Francine Inforato; Albuquerque, Anjaina Fernandes; Vendemiatti, Josiane Aparecida; Morales, Daniel Alexandre; Ormond, Alexandra B; Freeman, Harold S; Zocolo, Guilherme Julio; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    Azo dyes, the most widely used family of synthetic dyes, are often employed as colorants in areas such as textiles, plastics, foods/drugs/cosmetics, and electronics. Following their use in industrial applications, azo dyes have been found in effluents and various receiving waters. Chemical treatment of effluents containing azo dyes includes disinfection using chlorine, which can generate compounds of varying eco/genotoxicity. Among the widely known commercial azo dyes for synthetic fibers is C.I. Disperse Red 1. While this dye is known to exist as a complex mixture, reports of eco/genotoxicity involve the purified form. Bearing in mind the potential for adverse synergistic effects arising from exposures to chemical mixtures, the aim of the present study was to characterize the components of commercial Disperse Red 1 and its chlorine-mediated decoloration products and to evaluate their ecotoxicity and mutagenicity. In conducting the present study, Disperse Red 1 was treated with chlorine gas, and the solution obtained was analyzed with the aid of LC-ESI-MS/MS to identify the components present, and then evaluated for ecotoxicity and mutagenicity, using Daphnia similis and Salmonella/microsome assays, respectively. The results of this study indicated that chlorination of Disperse Red 1 produced four chlorinated aromatic compounds as the main products and that the degradation products were more ecotoxic than the parent dye. These results suggest that a disinfection process using chlorine should be avoided for effluents containing hydrophobic azo dyes such commercial Disperse Red 1. PMID:23178834

  19. Meta-analysis of hair removal laser trials.

    PubMed

    Sadighha, Afshin; Mohaghegh Zahed, Golnaz

    2009-01-01

    Traditional hair-removal techniques have included shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis. All of these methods result in temporary hair removal. The theory of selective photo thermolysis led to the development of a variety of different laser systems. These lasers range from the short end of spectrum, with the 694-nm ruby laser, to the middle, with the 755-nm alexandrite and 810-nm diode lasers, and to the long end with the 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser. We made a systematic review on the clinical trials with use of various laser sources for hair removal, so all clinical trials related to hair removal lasers in 1998-2003 were considered after elimination of heterogenite sources in data store. Trial results were synthetized on the basis of kind of laser. Our study clarified that hair reduction at least 6 months after the last treatment and hair reductions were 57.5, 42.3, 54.7, and 52.8% after three sessions for diode, Nd:YAG, alexandrite and ruby, respectively. We compared the result with use of analysis of variance method (Scheffes) and double comparison with use of Student's t test. Our results clarified that diode laser is the most effective, and Nd:YAG has the least effect of hair removal.It seems that diode and alexandrite lasers are proper for hair removal, but as we need high fluence in the darker skin types and this is accompanied with higher complications, diode is advised for lighter skin, and we advised alexandrite laser for darker skin types. PMID:18027066

  20. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  1. Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Brave, V R; Khanna, Shally

    2010-01-01

    Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women) and indigo dye (fabric whitener) are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. Objective: To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+), fair (+), and poor (-) and statistically evaluated. Results: The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints. PMID:21189984

  2. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  3. Analytical strategy for detecting doping agents in hair.

    PubMed

    Thieme, D; Grosse, J; Sachs, H; Mueller, R K

    2000-01-10

    Lists of banned classes of doping agents are released by the International Olympic Committee, adopted by other sports authorities and updated regularly, including the substance classes stimulants, narcotics, diuretics, anabolic agents, peptide hormones, beta-blockers etc. There are different classes of restriction: anabolic and masking agents (anabolic steroids, diuretics etc.) are always banned for athletes regardless of their topical activity (training or competition) several substances are permitted with certain restrictions (caffeine below a cut-off value, or inhalation of some beta 2 agonists) beta-blockers are prohibited in competitions of certain sports disciplines the majority of the substances (stimulants, narcotics etc.) is prohibited during competitions, so that they do not have to be analysed in out-of-competition samples. A differentiation between training and competition period is impossible by means of hair analysis due to the uncertainty of (especially short-term) kinetic considerations related to hair growth. Therefore, the analytical identification of doping relevant substances in hair is not always a sufficient criterion for a doping offence and the identification of stimulants, beta-blockers etc. in hair would be entirely irrelevant. The most interesting target substances are certainly the anabolic agents, because their desired action (enhanced muscle strength) lasts longer than the excretion, leading to sophisticated procedures to circumvent positive analytical results in competition control. Besides the analysis of out-of-competition control samples, the long term detection of steroids in hair could provide complementary information. An analytical approach to the identification of exogenous steroids in hair requires consideration of the presence of many other steroids in the hair matrix interfering the analysis at trace levels, and of a limited chemical stability. The analysis of endogenous steroids in hair appears to be even more complicated, because the possibility of many biotransformation reactions from (into) other precursors (metabolites) has to be taken into account. Precursor substances of anabolic steroids (especially esters as application forms) are very promising analytical targets of hair analysis, because they can only be detected after an exogenous intake. The quantitative evaluation of active parent compounds like testosterone (which is actively involved in physiological processes of hair growth) in hair is still controversial. Clinical applications under reproducible conditions can be useful, but the biovariability of these parameters will probably prevent the definition of acceptable cut-off levels as a criterion of abuse. PMID:10689585

  4. Staining of keratin and keratohyalin with the reactive dye levafix red violet E-2BL.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, F S; Puchtler, H; Akamatsu, Y

    1976-07-01

    Demonstration of keratin in Zenker-fixed skin and in tissues stored in formalin can be difficult because such material is unsuitable for histochemical studies. A reactive dye, Levafix red violet E-2BL, proved useful for demonstration of keratohyalin and some types of keratin. Formalin-, Zenker- and methacarn-fixed sections were pretreated with alkaline alcohol, stained one hour at 60 C in an aqueous solution containing 0.25% Levafix red violet E-2BL plus 0.25% NaCl, rinsed in buffer solution pH 9, dehydrated and mounted. Keratohyalin granules and stratum corneum were colored red violet; hair and tonofibrils remained unstained. In sections prestained with Mayer's acid hemalum, keratohyalin was dark blue. Sulfonated monoazo dyes without reactive groups colored no tissue structures under the conditions of this technic; apparently, Levafix red violet E-2BL is bound via its reactive group. Polarization microscopic studies suggest binding of Levafix red violet E-2BL by an amorphous matrix of keratin. Correlations with chemical data indicate that the staining patterns parallel the distribution of proteins formed in the stratum granulosum. PMID:60802

  5. Chemical reactions in TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes and their impacts to power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chuen-Shii; Jhang, Jhih-Wei; Chou, Sheng-Wei; Wu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by combining chemical modeling with experimentation. The interfacial chemical reactions in a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 system were simulated using a thermochemistry software package, which led to the design and testing of hybrid working electrodes. Chemical thermodynamic modeling proved that TiCl4 is an effective agent in removing Tin+ (n<4) and Snm+ (m<4) ion impurities from dry-mixed TiO2/SnO2 composite particles. Our results demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency of DSSC with a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrode exceeds that of the conventional DSSC with a TiO2 electrode due to the effects of light-scattering and the formation of additional absorbance (SnCl2), which is an unexpected side effect of TiCl4 treatment enabling the absorption of visible light. The proposed approach is ideally suited to establishing relationships between chemistry theory and the structure and performance of advanced DSSCs as well as photo-electro-chemical systems.

  6. Effect of dye-metal complexation on photocatalytic decomposition of the dyes on TiO2 under visible irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Tariq; Chen, Chuncheng; Liu, Lili; Zhao, Dan; Ma, Wanghong; Lin, Jun; Zhao, Jincai

    2009-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of dyes (Acid Chrome Blue K (ACBK) and Alizarin Red (AR)) with strong complexation ability was investigated in the presence of metal ions under visible light irradiation. It was found that, at low dye-metal ratio, the photodegradation of ACBK was markedly inhibited by the addition of high oxidative potential Cu2+. However, at high dye-metal ratio, the presence of Cu2+ enhanced the photodegradation of ACBK. The negtive effect of Cu2+ on the photodegradation of AR was observed for all dye-metal ratios. The relative chemical inert Zn2+ tended to enhance the photodegradation of both anionic dyes. The mechanism underlying the different effect of Cu2+ was discussed from the different roles of surface-adsorbed and dye-coordinated Cu2+ in the photodegradation of dyes. PMID:19402432

  7. Heparanase Regulates Murine Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zcharia, Eyal; Philp, Deborah; Edovitsky, Evgeny; Aingorn, Helena; Metzger, Shula; Kleinman, Hynda K.; Vlodavsky, Israel; Elkin, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate, the main polysaccharide component of the extracellular matrix. Heparan sulfate moieties are responsible for the extracellular matrix barrier function, as well as for sequestration of heparin-binding growth factors in the extracellular matrix. Degradation of heparan sulfate by heparanase enables cell movement through extracellular barriers and releases growth factors from extracellular matrix depots, making them bioavailable. Here, we demonstrate a highly coordinated temporospatial pattern of heparanase expression and enzymatic activity during hair follicle cycling. This pattern paralleled the route and timing of follicular stem cell progeny migration and reconstitution of the lower part of the follicle, which is a prerequisite for hair shaft formation. By monitoring in vivo activation of luciferase reporter gene driven by heparanase promoter, we observed activation of heparanase gene transcription at a specific stage of the hair cycle. Heparanase was produced by rat vibrissa bulge keratinocytes, closely related to a follicular stem cell population. Heparanase contributed to the ability of the bulge-derived keratinocytes to migrate through the extracellular matrix barrier in vitro. In heparanase-overexpressing transgenic mice, increased levels of heparanase enhanced active hair growth and enabled faster hair recovery after chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Collectively, our results identify heparanase as an important regulator of hair growth and suggest that cellular mechanisms of its action involve facilitation of follicular stem cell progeny migration and release of extracellular matrix-resident, heparin-bound growth factors, thus regulating hair cycle. PMID:15793281

  8. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options. PMID:12469966

  9. Quantum hair on black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Sidney; Preskill, John; Wilczek, Frank

    1992-07-01

    A black hole may carry quantum numbers that are not associated with massless gauge fields, contrary to the spirit of the ``no-hair'' theorems. We describe in detail two different types of black-hole hair that decay exponentially at long range. The first type is associated with discrete gauge charge and the screening is due to the Higgs mechanism. The second type is associated with color magnetic charge, and the screening is due to color confinement. In both cases, we perform semiclassical calculations of the effect of the hair on local observables outside the horizon, and on black-hole thermodynamics. These effects are generated by virtual cosmic strings, or virtual electric flux tubes, that sweep around the event horizon. The effects of discrete gauge charge are nonperturbative in h, but the effects of color magnetic charge become h-independent in a suitable limit. We present an alternative treatment of discrete gauge charge using dual variables, and examine the possibility of black-hole hair associated with discrete global symmetry. We draw the distinction between primary hair, which endows a black hole with new quantum numbers, and secondary hair, which does not, and we point out some varieties of secondary hair that occur in the standard model of particle physics. Reserch supported in part by DOE grant DE-FG02-90ER40542.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  11. The Ethnic Differences of the Damage of Hair and Integral Hair Lipid after Ultra Violet Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jae Hong; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Jin, Xin-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic factors account for the majority of differences in skin color and hair morphology across human populations. Although many studies have been conducted to examine differences in skin color across populations, few studies have examined differences in hair morphology. Objective To investigate changing of integral hair lipids after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in three human ethnic groups. Methods We studied the UV irradiation induced hair damage in hairs of three human populations. UV irradiation had been performed with self-manufactured phototherapy system. Damaged hair samples were prepared at 12 and 48 hours after UVA (20 J/sec) and UVB (8 J/sec) irradiation. We evaluated the changes of hair lipid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), lipid TEM and HP-TLC. After UV irradiation, hair surface damage was shown. Results African hair showed more severe damage on hair surface than others. The lipid compositions across human populations were similar, but Asian hair had more integral hair lipids than other groups as a whole. Especially, free fatty acid contents were higher than other lipids. After UV irradiation, lipid contents were decreased. These patterns were shown in all human populations. Asian hair has more integral hair lipid than European or African hair. After UV irradiation, European and African hair samples exhibited more damage because they have less integral hair lipids. However, Asian hair samples have less damage. Conclusion We conclude that integral hair lipid may protect the hair against the UV light. PMID:23467772

  12. Black hole hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  13. Making cancer visible - Dyes in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Yap, Kiryu K; Neuhaus, Susan J

    2016-03-01

    Dyes share an intricate relationship with oncology. Dyes can cause cancer as chemical carcinogens, but can also be harnessed against cancer when used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Histopathology, imaging, and newer molecular diagnostics all rely on dyes, and their use in sentinel lymph node biopsies and intra-operative imaging has helped drive a paradigm shift in cancer surgery towards minimally-invasive and organ sparing approaches with enhanced resection accuracy. As therapeutic agents, the cytotoxicity of specific dyes can be employed in direct chemo-ablation or in photodynamic therapy. The same agent can have dual functionalities in cancer detection and treatment, in a novel field known as theranostics. This is facilitated by newer generation dyes conjugated with tumour-targeting probes such as antibodies, and these bio-conjugate agents can also incorporate nanotechnology or radio-isotopes. Further advances will be closely aligned with our increasing understanding of molecular oncology, and will form a new generation of cancer detection and treatment agents that promote precision medicine for cancer. Dyes and their roles have evolved and been reinvented, but they remain relevant as ever. This review explores the fascinating history of dyes, and their place in the state-of-the-art of oncology. PMID:26979638

  14. PA01.05. Formulation & Evaluation of herbomineral natural hair colorant

    PubMed Central

    Wanjari, Anita S.; Bhutada, S.; Jadhao, Sanjivani; Desa, Priti

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Irrespective of age, Graying of hairs (pallitya) has become a crucial problem in the present era. The varied reasons like genetic factor, environmental factor, life style, faulty food habits etc. are causative factors. To overcome the problem of Pallitya many synthetic dyes are used by the community. But these dyes are having chief disadvantage of producing hypersensitivity in some individuals. The efficacy of different formulations was assessed, on the white hairs procured from Barber's Shop. After that sensitivity was tested on human being. Purpose to formulate the herbomineral natural hair Colorant, to find out the efficacy of the different groups as a natural hair colorant, to Asses the sensitivity. Method: In the present study the combination of herbomineral colorant was formulated. For that Madayantika / Heena & Mandur bhasma were common drugs in the formulation & addition of kashtaushadhi from Keshranjana Gana i.e. Aamrashthi Phala Majja, Bibhitak Phala Twak, Bhrungaraj & Neelika in different proportions was done. Group 1 Heena + Mandur bhasma + Aamrasthi Phala Majjja Group 2 Heena + Mandur bhasma + Bibhitak phala Twaka Group 3 Heena + Mandur bhasma + Bhrungaraj Group 4 Heena + Mandur bhasma + Neelika The efficacy of different formulations was assessed, on the white hairs procured from Barber's Shop. After that sensitivity was tested on human being by applying the guase piece applied with the above formulations at under arm region. Result: Out of 4 groups, combination of Madayntika, Mandura bhasma & Neelika is found suitable hair colorant & non-sensitive to human being. Conclusion: Out of 4 groups, combination of Madayntika, Mandura bhasma & Neelika is found suitable hair colorant & non-sensitive to human being.

  15. Smoothened antagonists for hair inhibition.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie Jack; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu; Reddy, Satya; Fleischer, Laura L; Wang, Zenquan; Smith, Yvonne; Harter, William G; Yue, Wen-Song; Swaroop, Manju; Li, Ling; Ji, Christy Xiaodong; Dettling, Danielle; Osak, Bella; Fitzgerald, Laura R; Conradi, Robert

    2010-08-15

    A series of aminomethylpyrazoles were prepared and evaluated using cell-based Smoothened beta-lactamase reporter assay and Smoothened binding assay. Potent Smoothened antagonists 10k and 10l were found to inhibit hair growth in vivo in the C3H/HeN mouse hair growth model. The more selective compound 10l was tested negative in the 3T3 NRU assay, indicating a low risk for causing photo-irritation and was efficacious using the C3H/HeN mouse hair growth model although it was slightly less efficacious than that of the reference compound eflornithine (7). PMID:20620058

  16. Ultrasonic dyeing of cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Muzamil; Ahmed, Farooq; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Khatri, Zeeshan; Kim, Ick Soo

    2016-07-01

    Textile dyeing assisted by ultrasonic energy has attained a greater interest in recent years. We report ultrasonic dyeing of nanofibers for the very first time. We chose cellulose nanofibers and dyed with two reactive dyes, CI reactive black 5 and CI reactive red 195. The cellulose nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning of cellulose acetate (CA) followed by deacetylation. The FTIR results confirmed complete conversion of CA into cellulose nanofibers. Dyeing parameters optimized were dyeing temperature, dyeing time and dye concentrations for each class of the dye used. Results revealed that the ultrasonic dyeing produced higher color yield (K/S values) than the conventional dyeing. The color fastness test results depicted good dye fixation. SEM analysis evidenced that ultrasonic energy during dyeing do not affect surface morphology of nanofibers. The results conclude successful dyeing of cellulose nanofibers using ultrasonic energy with better color yield and color fastness results than conventional dyeing. PMID:26964959

  17. Tradescantia stamen hair mutation bioassay.

    PubMed

    Ma, T H; Cabrera, G L; Cebulska-Wasilewska, A; Chen, R; Loarca, F; Vandenberg, A L; Salamone, M F

    1994-10-16

    The Tradescantia stamen hair mutation (Trad-SH) assay (clone 4430) was evaluated for its efficiency and reliability as a screen for mutagens in an IPCS collaborative study on plant systems. Four coded chemicals, i.e. azidoglycerol (AG, 3-azido-1,2-propanediol), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), sodium azide (NaN3) and maleic hydrazide (MH) were distributed by the Radian Corporation to the five laboratories in five different countries for testing mutagenicity. Pink mutations were scored between the 7th and 14th day according to a standard protocol. Test results from the five individual laboratories were analyzed and compared after decoding. One out of the two laboratories that conducted tests on AG demonstrated that AG is a mutagen with genetically effective doses ranging from 50 to 100 micrograms/ml. MH yielded positive responses in all laboratories but no linear dose-response pattern was observed. The effective dose range for MH was between 1 and 45 micrograms/ml. The mutagenicity of MNU was reported by five laboratories in the dose range between 10 and 80 micrograms/ml. NaN3, which exhibited a relatively high degree of toxicity, elicited a positive mutagenic response in three of the five laboratories in which it was tested. As with MNU the effective dose for NaN3 ranged between 3 and 80 micrograms/ml. The results from the current study substantiate the Trad-SH assay as a reliable system for screening chemicals for their potential mutagenic effects. Although the study was carried out exclusively under laboratory conditions, a survey of the current literature would indicate that the Trad-SH assay could be an effective in situ monitor of gaseous, liquid, and radioactive pollutants as well. PMID:7523892

  18. A mechanical model of overnight hair curling.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hang; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the observation of overnight hair curling procedure, we establish a mechanical model to describe the temporary wave formation of straight hair (initial curvature is zero), which incorporates the contact between hair and hair roller. Systematic studies are carried out to explore the effects of radius ratio between hair and hair roller, hair's average axial strain, creep time, Poisson's ratio and gravity on the curl retention. The variation of curl retention with respect to time obtained from our numerical model is validated by a simple theoretical model and by overnight curling experiments on hair samples. The results of simulation show that overnight hair curling is suitable to create a wavy hairstyle within about 7 hours, while the combined usage with hair fixatives enables a wavy hairstyle with desired curvature that lasts for a day or more. PMID:26338501

  19. Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2010-01-01

    Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

  20. A green-chemical synthetic route to fabricate a lamellar-structured Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite exhibiting a high removal ability for organic dye.

    PubMed

    Wu, Longyun; Liu, Yuhua; Zhang, Lishu; Zhao, Lijun

    2014-04-14

    A novel lamellar-structured Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite was synthesized with a room-temperature solution-phase reduction method. A possible reaction mechanism and shape evolutionary process for the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite were supposed. The Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite shows a ferromagnetic behavior. Congo red (CR) was used to evaluate the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite wastewater treatment capability. It was found that 150 ppm of CR could be removed from an aqueous solution within 10 min using the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite, and the adsorption maximum is 2058 mg g(-1) which is higher than all previously reported values. The significantly reduced treatment time required to remove the CR and the simple, low-cost and pollution-free preparation method make the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite promising for use in the highly efficient removal of dyes from wastewater. PMID:24519445

  1. Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

    2009-12-01

    Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

  2. Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

    2010-03-01

    Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

  3. Concentration of heavy metals in hair and skin of silver and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Filistowicz, Andrzej; Dobrza?ski, Zbigniew; Przysiecki, Piotr; Nowicki, S?awomir; Filistowicz, Aneta

    2011-11-01

    The structure of hair and levels of main chemical elements (C, N, O, S, Cl, Ca, P, Al, Na) in the external layer of hair of silver and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in a non-industrialised, typically agricultural region of middle-west Poland was assessed using a scanning microscope. Additionally, analysis of the accumulation of certain heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in hair (washed) and skin (non-tanned) of those foxes was conducted. Heavy metal levels were determined using a spectrophotometric method (ICP-OES), and correlations between these levels in hair and skin were calculated. The microscopic external (morphological) and internal structures (histological) of the hair of farm and wild foxes were not differentiated; however, the hair of farm foxes (external layer) contained higher amounts of C, Na, Al and P. A significantly higher Pb content was noted in non-tanned skin of wild foxes in comparison to farm ones. In the case of farm foxes, a significantly higher Zn content in hair and Zn and Cu in skin was observed in comparison to wild ones. Positive significant correlations between Cr and Ni content (r = 0.622) and Zn and Cu (r = 0.721) in fox skin were noted. A similar relationship between Cr content in hair and Ni in skin (r = 0.643) and between Zn in hair and skin (r = 0.595) was also observed. PMID:21327483

  4. Evidence of Male Hair Pencil Pheromone in Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, Lucas E.; Silk, P.; Eveleigh, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Male Lepidoptera often possess specialized scales, called hair pencils that emit volatiles that are critical to mating success. Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), males will display hair pencils to females before attempting copulation. The importance of volatiles on these hair pencils is, however, not clear. We compared the proportion of successful copulations in unmanipulated mating pairs to pairs where males had their hair pencils either removed or chemically washed, and to pairs where females were antennectomized. Mean proportions of successful matings were significantly lower in pairs where hair pencils had been manipulated or where females had been antennectomized compared with unmanipulated mating pairs. There was no significant difference in mating success between treatments where hair pencils had been manipulated; however, mating success was significantly lower in hair pencil treatments than in antennectomized treatments. Mean copulation proportions in hair pencil/antennectomized treatments were also significantly less than in respective sham-operated treatments. Our results suggest that volatiles are associated with hair pencils, and they may be required for mating success in C. fumiferana. PMID:26945090

  5. Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

  6. Trichodystrophies: A hair-raising differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vij, Alok; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of an individual's hair is said to be reflective of internal health. Patients with hair shaft disorders commonly present with fragile, lusterless, sparse hair in addition to psychosocial distress. Hair shaft disorders may be hereditary or acquired and may present in children or adults. Due to the varied presentations, the differential diagnosis for hair is broad and often confusing. The authors present a question-by-question guide to help clinicians arrive at the correct diagnosis. PMID:26686013

  7. Topical Products for Human Hair Regeneration: A Comparative Study on an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Orasan, Meda Sandra; Coneac, Andrei; Muresan, Adriana; Mihu, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Background Hair loss and hair growth is the subject of tremendous amount of research. Objective This study investigated the efficacy of three chemical treatments used in humans for hair loss, using a rat model of hair regrowth. The products tested were 2% minoxidil, Hairgrow (Dar-Al-Dawa Pharma), Aminexil, Dercos (Vichy Laboratoires), and Kerium, Anti-chute (La Roche-Posay). Methods Thirty-two adult female Wistar-Bratislava rats were assigned to 4 groups. Two rectangular areas (2×4 cm) were shaved on either sides of the mid dorsal line (left side - control; right side - test area). Group I was treated topically with 2% minoxidil, group II with Aminexil, and group III with Kerium. Each rat received 0.3 ml of substance applied topically to the shaved dorsal skin every day for 28 days. Rats in group IV served as sham controls receiving no treatment. Hair regrowth was evaluated by trichoscopy (with a dermatoscope), grown hair weight (from a surface area of 1 cm2), and histopathological examination for skin thickness, follicle count, and percentage of anagen induction (morphometric assessment). Results Treatment with 2% minoxidil significantly induced hair regrowth as assessed by trichoscopy, hair weight examination, and morphometric evaluation. Hair weight examination and morphometric assessment demonstrated the lowest hair growth effect with Aminexil among the tested products. Treatment with Kerium was found to significantly induce hair regrowth (p<0.05 as compared to the control group). Conclusion Our study demonstrates that hair regrowth efficacy of products recommended for human use is not similar when tested on an animal model. PMID:26848220

  8. Age-dependent changes in eumelanin composition in hairs of various ethnic origins.

    PubMed

    Commo, S; Wakamatsu, K; Lozano, I; Panhard, S; Loussouarn, G; Bernard, B A; Ito, S

    2012-02-01

    Hair pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes of humans. From a chemical point of view, however, data remain scarce regarding human hair pigmentation characteristics. To determine melanin content and composition in human eumelanic hair from individuals of different ethnic origins and at different ages, we collected hair from 56 subjects with eumelanic hair from each group of African-American, East Asian, and Caucasian origin. The 56 subjects consist of 14, seven each of males and females, each from four age classes of younger than 11, between 12 and 19, between 20 and 45, and older than 46. We analysed hair colour scale, total melanin value, and contents of pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA). We measured age-dependent increases in the relative quantity of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs in the three ethnic groups. Regarding melanin composition, we observed an increase in the PDCA/PTCA ratio with age in African-American and Caucasian hairs until approaching the quite constant level of the ratio in East Asian hairs in the elderly individuals. Our results evidence differences in the content and composition of eumelanin in human hair among African-American, Caucasian and East Asian individuals. Furthermore, we show evidence of age-dependent changes in the quantity and quality of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs. In particular, the age-dependent modification of the PDCA/PTCA ratio, a marker for 5,6-dihydroxyindole units in eumelanin, suggests a chronological evolution of hair follicle melanocyte phenotype (e.g. decrease in dopachrome tautomerase expression). PMID:22017184

  9. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal. PMID:16408139

  10. Follicular unit extraction hair transplant.

    PubMed

    Dua, Aman; Dua, Kapil

    2010-05-01

    Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT) of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of 'no visible scarring' in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the traditional FUT. The addition of latest automated FUE technique seeks to overcome some of the limitations in this relatively new technique and it is now possible to achieve more than a thousand grafts in one day in trained hands. This article reviews the methodology, limitations and advantages of FUE hair transplant. PMID:21031064

  11. Poorly growing hair in a child.

    PubMed

    Bolotin, Diana; Ortel, Bernhard; Stein, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    A healthy 5-year-old Caucasian girl presented to the pediatric dermatology clinic for poor hair growth. The patient's father described slow hair growth and finely textured hair since birth. The patient had her first haircut 1 month before presentation. The family denied bald areas on the scalp, significant hair shedding, and sores on the scalp. The child did not scratch at her scalp or pull her hair. She are a normal diet and had normal growth and development otherwise. She was not taking any medications or over-the-counter supplements. There was no family history of hair disorders. On physical examination, the patient had short, fine, reddish blond hair that was of different lengths (Figure 1). There were no papules, pustules, scale, or crust on her scalp. Lymphadenopathy was absent. She had normal eyelashes and eyebrows. There were no lesions on her oral mucosa. No tooth or nail abnormalities were present. The rest of the physical examination was normal. The hair pull test resulted in 4 easily pulled hairs (3 anagen and 1 telogen). A hair mount was performed (Figure 2). The hair mount analysis revealed anagen hairs with distorted bulbs and ruffled cuticles extending a short distance distally from the bulb, consistent with loose anagen hair (Figure 2). All of the anagen hairs on the pull test demonstrated the above findings. Based on the patient's clinical presentation and the findings seen on light microscopy of the hair mount preparation, the patient was diagnosed with loose anagen syndrome. PMID:21137616

  12. Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

    2012-05-10

    This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from chest hair were higher. EtG in armpit hair was lower and in leg hair higher than in scalp hair. It is concluded that the combined use of FAEE and EtG essentially increases the accuracy of interpretation since both markers complement each other by a different sensitivity to sources of error. PMID:22036309

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na

    2013-01-01

    Background Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. Objective This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. Methods A total of 44 female subjects were randomly treated with either APHG-1001 or placebo twice daily for 24 weeks. Using the phototrichogram analysis, a count of newly developed gray hair was estimated. Investigator assessment and subject self-assessment were also performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the compound. Results The mean number of newly developed gray hair at 24 weeks was 6.3/cm2 in the APHG-1001 group and 11.4/cm2 in the placebo group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). However, the investigator assessment and subject self-assessment did not show any significant change in the gross appearance of hair grayness by the end of the study. No severe adverse events in either group were observed. Moreover, the incidence of adverse events did not differ between the groups. Conclusion This clinical trial revealed that APHG-1001, which contains an extract of P. lobata, could prevent the development of new gray hair without any remarkable adverse effects. Thus, it can be considered as a viable treatment option for the prevention of gray hair. PMID:23717015

  14. Antimicrobial and Dyeing Properties of Reactive Dyes with Thiazolidinon-4-one Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Reda, Gebremedihin; Gashaw, Tsegaye; Babu, Neelaiah; Upadhyay, Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Four imines, the condensation products of 2,4-dioxo-4-phenylbutanal with four primary amines, were condensed with mercapto acetic acid to obtain thiazolidinon-4-ones which on subsequent condensation with vanillin and isatin separately yielded eight thiazolidin-4-one derivatives. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analysis, molecular weight determination, IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectral measurements. Antibacterial and antifungal properties were studied in vitro against two bacteria and two fungi. The dyeing potential of synthesized reactive dyes was investigated with regard to silk, wool, cotton, and polyester fabrics under hot and cold dyeing conditions. PMID:24955258

  15. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... continue to produce new hair growth. Platelet-rich plasma therapy: This therapy uses your own blood. After ... still in the experimental stages. Like platelet-rich plasma therapy, more studies are needed to know whether ...

  16. Transfer characteristics of the hair cell's afferent synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, Erica C.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2006-04-01

    The sense of hearing depends on fast, finely graded neurotransmission at the ribbon synapses connecting hair cells to afferent nerve fibers. The processing that occurs at this first chemical synapse in the auditory pathway determines the quality and extent of the information conveyed to the central nervous system. Knowledge of the synapse's input-output function is therefore essential for understanding how auditory stimuli are encoded. To investigate the transfer function at the hair cell's synapse, we developed a preparation of the bullfrog's amphibian papilla. In the portion of this receptor organ representing stimuli of 400-800 Hz, each afferent nerve fiber forms several synaptic terminals onto one to three hair cells. By performing simultaneous voltage-clamp recordings from presynaptic hair cells and postsynaptic afferent fibers, we established that the rate of evoked vesicle release, as determined from the average postsynaptic current, depends linearly on the amplitude of the presynaptic Ca2+ current. This result implies that, for receptor potentials in the physiological range, the hair cell's synapse transmits information with high fidelity. auditory system | exocytosis | glutamate | ribbon synapse | synaptic vesicle

  17. Trace element analysis of hairs in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Siritapetawee, Jaruwan; Pattanasiriwisawa, Wanwisa; Sirithepthawee, Unchalee

    2010-03-01

    The trace elements of scalp hair samples from > or =60-year-old dementia patients and normal persons have been studied by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) in fluorescent mode and wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Comparisons of hair trace element levels of age-matched dementia patients and normal persons revealed significantly elevated amounts of calcium, chlorine and phosphorus in dementia patients relative to normal persons. The results of XANES measurements identify the chemical forms of deposited calcium and phosphorus in the hair samples of both dementia patients and normal persons to be calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) and phosphate (PO(4)(3-)), respectively. The amount of sulfur in hairs of dementia patients was found to be not significantly different from that in normal persons. The sulfur K-edge XANES spectra, however, show significantly higher accumulations of sulfur in the sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) form in hairs of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia patients. This study presents the possible roles of calcium, chlorine, phosphorus and sulfur in the etiology of dementia in elderly patients. PMID:20157282

  18. Studies on Dyeing Process Variables for Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Glycine Modified Cationized Cotton Muslin Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Kar, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Asis; Shome, Debashis; Konar, Adwaita

    2015-04-01

    Bleached cotton muslin fabric with or without pre-oxidized with NaIO4 (oxy-cotton) was chemically modified with glycine (amino acid) by pad dry calendar process to investigate the changes in textile properties and its dyeability with reactive dye. This glycine modified cotton incorporates new functional groups producing -NH3 + or -C=NH+ -ion (cationic groups) in acid bath to obtain cationized cotton making it amenable to a newer route of salt free reactive dyeing in acid bath. In the present work the process variables of reactive dyeing in the salt free acid bath for dyeing of amine (glycine) modified cationized cotton were studied and optimized. The present study also includes thorough investigation of changes in important textile related properties and dyeability with reactive dye after such chemical modifications. Between oxidized and unoxidized cotton muslin fabric, unoxidized cotton fabric shows better reactive dye uptake in both conventional alkaline bath dyeing and nonconventional salt free acid bath dyeing particularly for high exhaustion class of reactive dye with acceptable level of colour fastness and overall balance of other textile related properties. Moreover, application of dye fixing agent further improves surface colour depth (K/S) of the glycine treated cotton fabric for HE brand of reactive dyes. Corresponding reaction mechanisms for such modifications were supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally unoxidized cotton and pre-oxidized cotton further treated with glycine (amino acid) provide a new route of acid bath salt free reactive dyeing showing much higher dye uptake and higher degree of surface cover with amino acid residue anchored to modified cotton.

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Human Hair and Serum from E-Waste Recycling Workers in Southern China: Concentrations, Chiral Signatures, Correlations, and Source Identification.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; Yu, Le-Huan; Chen, She-Jun; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Ke-Hui; Yan, Xiao; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Sukun; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-02-01

    Hair is increasingly used as a biomarker for human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, the internal and external sources of hair POPs remain a controversial issue. This study analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human hair and serum from electronic waste recycling workers. The median concentrations were 894 ng/g and 2868 ng/g lipid in hair and serum, respectively. The PCB concentrations in male and female serum were similar, while concentrations in male hair were significantly lower than in female hair. Significant correlations between the hair and serum PCB levels and congener profiles suggest that air is the predominant PCB source in hair and that hair and blood PCB levels are largely dependent on recent accumulation. The PCB95, 132, and 183 chiral signatures in serum were significantly nonracemic, with mean enantiomer fractions (EFs) of 0.440-0.693. Nevertheless, the hair EFs were essentially racemic (mean EFs = 0.495-0.503). Source apportionment using the Chemical Mass Balance model also indicated primary external PCB sources in human hair from the study area. Air, blood, and indoor dust are responsible for, on average, 64.2%, 27.2%, and 8.79% of the hair PCBs, respectively. This study evidenced that hair is a reliable matrix for monitoring human POP exposure. PMID:26757157

  20. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wo?owiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Grecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. PMID:23121872

  1. The latest innovations in hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T

    2011-08-01

    Hair restoration began as a result of the fortuitous finding by Dr. Norman Orentreich that hair follicles taken from an area of nonbalding scalp could be implanted into an area of male pattern hair loss and continue to grow terminal hair. Since that time, hair transplants have progressed from the use of large plugs to the use of follicular units (normally occurring clusters of hairs). This has allowed surgeons to create undetectable results in cases of androgenetic alopecia and well as other conditions associated with hair loss. Advances continue in hair restoration technique ranging from surgical approach to instrumentation and ways to enhance growth. In this article, the more recent surgical and medical innovations in hair reconstruction are reviewed. PMID:21792780

  2. The coding of sound pressure and frequency in cochlear hair cells of the terrapin.

    PubMed

    Fettiplace, R; Crawford, A C

    1978-12-01

    Intracellular recordings have been made from single hair cells in the cochlea of the terrapin, and the site of recording has been verified by injection of a fluorescent dye through the recording electrode. A hair cell gives periodic voltage responses graded with the intensity and frequency of the sound stimulus, and produces the largest response at its characteristic frequency. When small current steps are injected through the recording electrode, the voltage response of the cell exhibits damped oscillations at its characteristic frequency. The results are consistent with the idea that the cochlear frequency selectivity arises in two stages and it is suggested that the second stage resides within the hair cell itself. PMID:33392

  3. Enzymatic phosphorylation of hair keratin enhances fast adsorption of cationic moieties.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Vadim; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-04-01

    The current study describes the in vitro phosphorylation of a human hair keratin, using protein kinase for the first time. Phosphorylation of keratin was demonstrated by (31)P NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) techniques. Phosphorylation induced a 2.5 fold increase of adsorption capacity in the first 10min for cationic moiety like methylene blue (MB). Thorough description of MB adsorption process was performed by several isothermal models. Reconstructed fluorescent microscopy images depict distinct amounts of dye bound to the differently treated hair. The results of this work suggest that the enzymatic phosphorylation of keratins might have significant implications in hair shampooing and conditioning, where short application times of cationic components are of prime importance. PMID:26756110

  4. A comparative study on the concentrations of 11-nor-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in head and pubic hair.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sangki; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2011-10-10

    In this study, the concentrations of 11-nor-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in pubic, axillary and beard hair were measured and the correlation between the concentrations of THCCOOH in head and pubic hair from same cannabis users were evaluated. The papers on body hair analysis for THCCOOH were rarely found although police officers submit body hair as a complimentary specimen to forensic laboratories in case cannabis users had no hair. Head, pubic, axillary, and beard hair were collected. All hair samples were cut into 0.5mm segments and decontaminated with methanol, digested with 1 mL of 1M NaOH at 85 C for 30 min and extracted in 2 mL of n-hexane:ethyl acetate (9:1) two times after adding 1 mL of 0.1N sodium acetate buffer (pH = 4.5) and 200 ?L of acetic acid followed by derivatization with 50 ?L of PFPA and 25 ?L of PFPOH for 30 min at 70 C. The extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry operating in negative chemical ionization mode (GC/MS/MS-NCI). We determined the concentrations of THCCOOH in both pubic and head hair. The concentrations of THCCOOH in pubic hair were higher than those in head hair. We also evaluated the concentrations of THCCOOH in body hair (pubic, axillary and beard hair) and head hair according to the positive/negative urine test results. There was no statistically significant difference in the concentrations of THCCOOH in head and body hair according to urine results. PMID:21802874

  5. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjrn Kre

    2015-11-01

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grtzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications. PMID:26428071

  6. 6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

  7. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

  8. 40 CFR 721.9520 - Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic). 721.9520 Section 721.9520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (PMN P-00-0559) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9520 - Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic). 721.9520 Section 721.9520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (PMN P-00-0559) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9520 - Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic). 721.9520 Section 721.9520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (PMN P-00-0559) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9520 - Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic). 721.9520 Section 721.9520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (PMN P-00-0559) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9520 - Methylated-para-rosaniline salt of a trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic). 721.9520 Section 721.9520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting... trisulfonated triarylmethane dye (PMN P-00-0559) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  13. Solvatochromic dyes detect the presence of homeopathic potencies.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Steven J

    2016-02-01

    A systematic approach to the design of simple, chemical systems for investigating the nature of homeopathic medicines has led to the development of an experimental protocol in which solvatochromic dyes are used as molecular probes of serially diluted and agitated solutions. Electronic spectroscopy has been used to follow changes in the absorbance of this class of dyes across the visible spectrum in the presence of homeopathic potencies. Evidence is presented using six different solvatochromic dyes in three different solvent systems. In all cases homeopathic potencies produce consistent and reproducible changes in the spectra of the dyes. Results suggest that potencies influence the supramolecular chemistry of solvatochromic dyes, enhancing either dye aggregation or disaggregation, depending upon dye structure. Comparable dyes lacking the intramolecular charge transfer feature of solvatochromic dyes are unaffected by homeopathic potencies, suggesting potencies require the oscillating dipole of solvatochromic dyes for effective interaction. The implications of the results presented, both for an eventual understanding of the nature of homeopathic medicines and their mode of action, together with future directions for research in this area, are discussed. PMID:26827998

  14. Decolorization of textile indigo dye by ligninolytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Balan, D S; Monteiro, R T

    2001-08-23

    The indigo dye is extensively used by textile industries and is considered a recalcitrant substance, which causes environmental concern. Chemical products used on textile processing, which affect the environment through effluents, can be voluminous, colored and varied. Vat textile dyes, like indigo, are often used and dye mainly cellulosic fibers of cotton. Decolorization of this dye in liquid medium was tested with ligninolytic basidiomycete fungi from Brazil. Decolorization started in a few hours and after 4 days the removal of dye by Phellinus gilvus culture was in 100%, by Pleurotus sajor-caju 94%, by Pycnoporus sanguineus 91% and by Phanerochaete chrysosporium 75%. No color decrease was observed in a sterile control. Thin layer chromatography of fungi culture extracts revealed only one unknown metabolite of Rf=0.60, as a result of dye degradation. PMID:11500207

  15. Red-edge laser action from borondipyrromethene dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca-Moreno, Inmaculada; Zhang, Dakui; Costela, ngel; Martn, Virginia; Sastre, Roberto; Xiao, Yi

    2010-04-01

    Long-wavelength fluorescent dyes with improved efficiency and stability are required to realize new photoelectronic and biophotonic applications. We have designed and synthesized novel 2,6- or 3,5-substituted BODIPY (BDP) dyes by a simple protocol to reach wavelength-finely tunable laser action from 600 to 725 nm. The influence of the nature and position of substituents on the laser behavior of the new BDP dyes have been systematically characterized as a function of dye concentration and chemical character of the medium. Regarding efficiency and photostability, the new chromophores outperform the laser action of dyes presently commercialized and considered as benchmarks over this spectral region when pumped under identical conditions. The results obtained provide insight into the always complicated composition-structure-properties relationship of dyes, and suggest possible synthesis routes for new BDP derivatives with properties optimized for specific applications.

  16. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  17. Repigmentation of hair following adalimumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Tintle, Suzanne J; Dabade, Tushar S; Kalish, Robert A; Rosmarin, David M

    2015-06-01

    Repigmentation of canities, or age-related grey or white hair, is a rare occurrence. Generalized repigmentation of grey-white hair has been reported following inflammatory processes, and heterochromia (localized patches of hair repigmentation) is even more unusual, reported in association with medication use and malignancy. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are increasingly utilized medications for inflammatory disorders, including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Hair loss, or alopecia, has been described among the side effects of these medications, but changes in hair pigmentation in association with this class of drugs have not previously been reported. We describe a patient with hair repigmentation associated with adalimumab therapy. PMID:26158363

  18. Validity of hair mineral testing.

    PubMed

    Shamberger, R J

    2002-01-01

    The variance of testing was compared between the College of American Pathologists clinical survey and that of a recent review about hair mineral testing. The review suggested that the accuracy of hair mineral testing was unreliable. In general, there was a greater range of variance in the College of American Pathologists testing results. These latter results are based on laboratory testing and are used as a "yardstick" to determine if a laboratory passes or fails that analyte and are considered a "gold standard." An extract, which resulted from a method that avoided the washing step, was compared among five laboratories. Very good precision resulted, indicating that the varied washing steps used by the laboratories in a recent review were probably the source of much variance. Analysis of hair analysis seemed to yield important information in several historical or forensic cases involving Ludwig von Beethoven, Napoleon Bonaparte, ex-US-presidents Zachary Taylor and Andrew Jackson, and Charles Hall, an Arctic explorer. Several elements that were reviewed, including arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, germanium, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, and thallium, showed relationships between body burden, dosage, and exposure or toxicity. Evidence of toxicity could not be found by measuring hair aluminum or vanadium. Chromium, selenium, and zinc seemed to have nutritional value. Ratios of hair elements with clinical importance could not be found. PMID:12117220

  19. Hair loss in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Todorova, Antonia; Al Khuzaei, Safaa; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Ring, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Hair loss in elderly women has been becoming a major topic in the daily practice of dermatology. Aging of hair follicles seems to affect hair growth and pigmentation, the molecular mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Further senile changes in physiology and immunity may influence the onset and course of hair diseases. Some preexisting diseases such as androgenetic alopecia usually worsen after menopause, while others, like discoid lupus erythematosus, may attenuate. Hormone surveying, especially with regard to internal androgen-producing tumors, is indicated in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia of sudden exacerbation or with unusual manifestation or other virilizing signs. The prevalence of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis appears to be much lower in postmenopausal ages as compared to earlier onset. Acute or chronic telogen effluvium is not uncommonly superimposed on androgenetic alopecia. Trichotillomania shows a marked female predominance in the senile age group with a higher rate of psychopathology. Worldwide, tinea capitis has been increasingly observed in postmenopausal women. Frontal fibrosing alopecia, giant cell arteritis and erosive pustular dermatosis involve mainly elder women leading to scarring alopecia. Alopecia induced by tumor metastasis to the scalp must be considered in women with underlying neoplasms, especially breast cancer. Overall, hair loss in postmenopausal women is often multifactorial and warrants a close inspection. PMID:20172841

  20. Pronounced infracuticular endocytosis in mammalian outer hair cells.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J; Mack, A F; Gummer, A W

    2001-11-01

    Endocytosis in cochlear hair cells was investigated by staining with the vital fluorescent dye FM 1-43, that partitions reversibly into membranes and is trapped in vesicles during endocytosis. The temporal development and spatial distribution of FM 1-43 induced fluorescence was investigated using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. FM 1-43 rapidly and intensely stained cochlear hair cells, leaving the supporting cells unstained. For short application (0.2-30 s), only the infracuticular region of outer hair cells (OHCs) was labeled, whereas for long application (30-60 s), the OHCs were also labeled in the infranuclear zone and along a central strand extending from the infracuticular zone down to the nucleus, as well as along the entire cell membrane. Except for the cell membrane, the infracuticular zone, directly below the cuticular plate, showed the most rapid and intense staining, and in most cases staining was spherically shaped with a diameter of 3-7 microm. Localization and size of this infracuticular staining coincided with Hensen's body, a specialized variant of the endoplasmic reticulum. In contrast to the OHCs, apical fluorescence of inner hair cells presented a homogeneous distribution. When OHCs were incubated in FM 1-43 for longer than 1 min, many points of contact between the central strand, the infracuticular zone and the lateral cell membrane were observed. Since Hensen's bodies are a specialty of OHCs and the fluorescent staining pattern of these cells was unique, it is proposed that Hensen's body is involved in the turnover of OHC-specific proteins, such as those involved in the molecular machinery of the motor action of the plasma membrane. PMID:11744276

  1. ESTIMATION OF IONIZATION CONSTANTS OF AZO DYES AND RELATED AROMATIC AMINES: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionization constants for 214 dye molecules were calculated from molecular structures using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry). hese models used fundamental chemical structure theory to predict chemical reactivities ...

  2. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  3. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  4. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  5. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  6. The effect of hair bundle shape on hair bundle hydrodynamics of inner ear hair cells at low and high frequencies.

    PubMed

    Shatz, L F

    2000-03-01

    The relationship between size and shape of the hair bundle of a hair cell in the inner ear and its sensitivity at asymptotically high and low frequencies was determined, thereby extending the results of an analysis of hair bundle hydrodynamics in two dimensions (Freeman and Weiss, 1990. Hydrodynamic analysis of a two-dimensional model for micromechanical resonance of free-standing hair bundles. Hear. Res. 48, 37-68) to three dimensions. A hemispheroid was used to represent the hair bundle. The hemispheroid had a number of advantages: it could represent shapes that range from thin, pencil-like shapes, to wide, flat, disk-like shapes. Also analytic methods could be used in the high frequency range to obtain an exact solution to the equations of motion. In the low frequency range, where an approximate solution was found using boundary element methods, the sensitivity of the responses of hair cells was mainly proportional to the cube of the heights of their hair bundles, and at high frequencies, the sensitivity of the hair cells was mainly proportional to the inverse of their heights. An excellent match was obtained between measurements of sensitivity curves in the basillar papilla of the alligator and bobtail lizards and the model's predictions. These results also suggest why hair bundles of hair cells in vestibular organs which are sensitive to low frequencies have ranges of heights that are an order of magnitude larger than the range of heights of hair bundles of hair cells found in auditory organs. PMID:10713494

  7. [The influence of melatonin on hair physiology].

    PubMed

    Fischer, T W

    2009-12-01

    Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone and a strong antioxidant, has long been known, particularly in animal-experiment based research and the wool-producing industry, to be a potent regulatory neuroendocrine substance in relation to hair growth, hair color and hair cycle, depending on light periods, seasonal rhythms, environmental factors and reproductive rhythms. Nevertheless, the biological mechanisms of this extremely versatile hormone, especially with regard to human hair follicles, are not fully understood. In recent years, however, essential knowledge has been gained on the melatoninergic system of the skin, melatonin levels in keratinocytes and hair follicles, extrapineal intrafollicular melatonin synthesis and noradrenalin-induced increase in synthesis, as well as hair cycle-dependent expression of the membrane-bound melatonin receptor MT2 and the nuclear receptor RORalpha. Functional data on the growth of human hair both in vitro and in vivo show that melatonin might play an essential role in hair physiology. PMID:19957072

  8. Skin and hair changes during pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Most women have changes in their skin, hair, and nails during pregnancy. Most of these are normal and go away after pregnancy. ... changes in the texture and growth of your hair and nails during pregnancy. Some women say that ...

  9. Mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair.

    PubMed

    Cone, E J

    1996-08-01

    Hair testing for drugs of abuse is a developing technology that offers the possibility of longer detection times than is commonly obtained with urine or blood analysis. There are many uncertainties concerning how drugs enter hair and factors that affect drug deposition and residence in hair. Possible routes of drug entry include diffusion from blood, sweat, sebum, and skin and entry from the environment. Evidence is reviewed regarding the importance of each of these routes as possible contributors to drug deposition in hair. Binding to specific sites in hair may involve both electrostatic forces and weaker attractions, such as van der Waals forces. Melanin and protein constituents of hair may serve as binding sites. Recent in vitro studies suggest that the color of hair or melanin content may be the major determinant of cocaine binding and, consequently, may result in color or ethnic bias in hair testing. PMID:8857565

  10. Hair Loss - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Hair Loss URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Hair Loss - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata. PMID:25097478

  12. Trichoscopic Hair Evaluation in Patients with Ectodermal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Grska, Renata; Rudnicka, Lidia; Zadurska, Ma?gorzata

    2015-07-01

    Hair abnormalities in ectodermal dysplasia may be difficult to identify. Among 16 patients with ectodermal dysplasia trichoscopy (hair dermoscopy) revealed predominance of pilosebaceous units with 1 hair (69%), abnormalities of hair shaft pigmentation (gray hair with single dark hairs, 56%), pili torti, trichothiodystrophy, trichorrhexis nodosa, and rarely, cicatricial alopecia. PMID:25935816

  13. Laser hair removal: where are we now?

    PubMed

    DiBernardo, B E; Perez, J; Usal, H; Thompson, R; Callahan, L; Fallek, S R

    1999-07-01

    The hair removal market is evolving rapidly. The goal has always been long-term epilation. Success is dependent on understanding hair biology and physiology and on knowledge of laser physics, skin optics, and tissue preservation with respect to these emerging laser technologies. These topics will be reviewed, as will specific categories of laser systems in the hair removal arena and the clinical aspects of laser hair removal today. PMID:10597703

  14. Helping children cope with hair loss.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    2006-11-01

    Alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis are emotionally devastating forms of hair loss, which are difficult to cure. When childhood hair loss is unresponsive to alopecia therapies, both traditional and nontraditional, children may be stigmatized and fall under extreme psychologic distress. The not-for-profit organization Locks of Love began providing custom hair prostheses to children in 1997 and has continued to serve the emotional and cosmetic needs of children with extensive hair loss. PMID:17186792

  15. Module Based Complexity Formation: Periodic Patterning in Feathers and Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism's lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specified number, size, and spacing. We explore how a field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical-chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators / inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (micro-environment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macro-environment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by Cellular Automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to organ metamorphosis, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential evolutionary novel steps using this module based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells. PMID:23539312

  16. TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

  17. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... scarring, and redness of the skin may occur. Laser energy directed at the dark color (melanin) in the hairs. This method is best for a large area of very dark hair. It does not work on blond or red hair. Temporary options include: ...

  18. [Significance of hair root status method].

    PubMed

    Braun-Falco, O; Heilgemeir, G P

    1977-03-01

    The significance of proposition of the hair root status method is reported. The percentage composition of the hair root patterns of neighboring areas of the capillitium and the behavior of the percentage of the individual hair root shapes were examined at time zero and four weeks later. These examinations were carried out in the frontal, parietal and occipital regions of each of 10 male test persons with clinically normal hair growth and statistically evaluated by means of the multi-variate Hotelling T2 test [8]. The hair root pattern of neighboring areas is the same within the different regions of the capillitium (p less than 0.05). Thus the hair root patterns investigated in the different regions of the capillitium are representative of this respective region. The hair root patterns of males with clinically normal hair growth (for the frontal, parietal and occipital region) does not differ with time (p less than 0.05). Therefore, examination of the hair root pattern at four week intervals can be used for controlling the hair growth capacity and therapeutic effects. The significance of the hair root status method for controlling therapeutic effects may be relative small in the individual case in a person with normal hair growth, but useful when evaluated in a collective of subjects. PMID:856769

  19. Facial hair policy in a respirator program

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmeyer, P.R. )

    1989-10-01

    In this paper the prohibition against facial hair for respirator users is explored. Reasons for the prohibition are given, along with suggestions for establishing or reviewing a policy. Recommendations are given for properly wording a facial hair policy, and the issue of facial hair on female workers is also addressed.

  20. Safety and Efficacy Study of Hairstetics' ANCHORING SYSTEM For Hair Extensions For Subjects Affected With Hair Thinning

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-10

    Post Radiation/Chemotherapy Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Post-burn Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Cicatricial Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Androgenetic Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning; Alopecia Due to Traumatic Injuries Presents With Hair Thinning.; Alopecia Due to Skin Disease Presents With Hair Thinning.