Sample records for hair dye chemicals

  1. Hair Dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Søsted

    \\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

  2. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. PMID:24656996

  3. Chemical and photo-oxidative hair damage studied by dye diffusion and electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. B. RUETSCH; B. YANG; Y. K. KAMATH

    2003-01-01

    Microspectrophotometric and electrophoretic methods were used to characterize and quantify the effects of primary damage to hair from chemical and photochemical oxidative processes. The diffusion of molecules proceeding from the fiber surface to the center of untreated and modified (by chemical and photochemical oxidative processes) hair fibers was mapped by fluorescence microscopy and quantified by calculating diffusion coefficients of a

  4. Erythema Multiforme Following Application of Hair Dye

    PubMed Central

    Koley, Sankha; Sarkar, Jyotirindranath; Choudhary, Sanjiv; Dhara, Suparna; Choudhury, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reaction with varying degrees of blistering and ulceration. Common causes of EM are herpes simplex virus infection, mycoplasma infection, drug hypersensitivity, vaccination and drug–virus interaction. EM induced by contact dermatitis is rare. Paraphenylene diamine, a common ingredient in many hair dyes, is well known to produce allergic contact dermatitis. We report a 35-year-old lady presenting with EM following severe contact dermatitis to hair dye. So far as we know, this is the first report from India describing EM following contact dermatitis. PMID:22707781

  5. Hair dye sensitivity testing: a critical commentary.

    PubMed

    Orton, David; Basketter, David

    2012-06-01

    Although the large majority of users do not experience adverse skin reactions to hair dye products, a minority do. Most serious among these are allergic skin reactions, commonly to p-phenylenediamine and its derivatives. The consumer or hairdresser is expected (by the manufacturer) to limit the chance of expression of allergy by conducting a 'sensitivity test', which should provide the consumer with an alert for possible allergic reactivity. However, a self-conducted consumer test can only be useful if it meets a number of important criteria, including evidence that the test protocol works, that it can and is likely to be used successfully by the consumer or hairdresser, and that it does not present a significant health risk (e.g. an increased risk of developing allergy). In short, as with any in vivo test, the benefit must outweigh the risks. In formulating such a test, it should be determined in advance what are the acceptable levels of specificity (correct identification of negatives) and sensitivity (correct identification of positives). It is our view that any hair dye sensitivity test, whether supplied by the hair dye manufacturer or a third party, should be able to answer these questions. PMID:22568837

  6. Oxidative DNA damage induced by hair dye components ortho-phenylenediamines and the enhancement by superoxide dismutase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariko Murata; Tomoko Nishimura; Fang Chen; Shosuke Kawanishi

    2006-01-01

    There is an association between occupational exposure to hair dyes and incidence of cancers. Permanent oxidant hair dyes are consisted of many chemical components including ortho-phenylenediamines. To clarify the mechanism of carcinogenesis by hair dyes, we examined DNA damage induced by mutagenic ortho-phenylenediamine (o-PD) and its derivatives, 4-chloro-ortho-phenylenediamine (Cl-PD) and 4-nitro-ortho-phenylenediamine (NO2-PD), using 32P-labeled DNA fragments obtained from the human

  7. Thermal analysis of hair treated with oxidative hair dye under influence of conditioners agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robson Miranda da GamaTatiana; Tatiana Santana Balogh; Simone França; Tânia Cristina Sá Dias; Valcinir Bedin; André Rolim Baby; Jivaldo do Rosário Matos; Maria Valéria Robles Velasco

    This research aimed the effect on Caucasian hair tresses treated with oxidative hair dye, either incorporated or not with\\u000a conditioners agents, analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The formulations\\u000a of hair dyes were emulsions oil-in-water with light blond color containing or not the conditioners agents: silanetriol and\\u000a panthenol; PEG-12 dimethicone; hydrolyzed silk, hydrolyzed milk protein, and

  8. Hair dyes are mutagenic: identification of a variety of mutagenic ingredients.

    PubMed Central

    Ames, B N; Kammen, H O; Yamasaki, E

    1975-01-01

    We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for dectecting carcinogens as mutagens. We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for detecting carcinogens as mutagens. We show here that 89% (150/169) of commercial oxidative-type (hydrogen peroxide) hair dye formulations are mutagenic in this test. Of the 18 components of these hair dyes, nine show various degrees of mutagenicity:2,4-diaminoanisole, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminoanisole, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, m-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, and 2,5-diaminotoluene. Three hair dye components (p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminotuluene, and 2,5-diaminoanisole) become strongly mutagenic after oxidation by H2O2: the mutagenic product of p-phenylenediamine is identified as the known trimer, Bandrowski's base. 2,4-Diaminotoluene, a hair dye component until recently, is also shown to be mutagenic: this compound has been shown to be a carcinogen in rats and is used in large amounts in the polyurethane foam industry. About 20,000,000 people (mostly women) dye their hair in the U.S. and the hazard could be considerable if these chemicals are actually mutagenic and carcinogenic in humans. Images PMID:1094469

  9. Natural dyeing of wool and hair with indigo carmine (C.I. Natural Blue 2), a renewable resource based blue dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunsanee Komboonchoo; Thomas Bechtold

    2009-01-01

    Indigo carmine can be used as a source of blue dye for wool and hair dyeing. The option to use indigo carmine in combination with other natural dyes in a one-bath procedure as a hybrid dyeing concept is of interest both for natural dyeing and for coloration of hair. The present study shows that indigo carmine dyeing on wool exhibits

  10. Right Bundle Branch Block: An Uncommon Cardiotoxic Manifestation of Hair Dye Poisoning-A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Deepak; Subramanian, Saravanan; Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Shanmugam, Kani

    2014-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning has been rising in incidence in the recent years. Apart from the commoner manifestations of upper airway edema, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, cardiac toxicity, convulsions and sudden cardiac death are relatively rare complications. We discuss a case of hair dye poisoning manifesting as oropharyngeal edema along with cardiac complication. The patient survived. PMID:24596762

  11. A temporary henna tattoo causing hair and clothing dye allergy.

    PubMed

    Matulich, Jacqueline; Sullivan, John

    2005-07-01

    Contact dermatitis following the application of temporary paint-on henna tattoos indicates a potentially serious problem of active sensitization. We describe 2 cases involving sisters who travelled to Bali together and acquired a temporary black henna tattoo to the lower back region. Both sisters subsequently developed a contact dermatitis at the tattoo site, the dermatitis disseminating in one sister. There was persistent hyperpigmentation at the tattoo site in both sisters several months after the application. Patch testing revealed a positive reaction to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) in both sisters. One sister also showed reactions to other hair dyes and to multiple organic dyes. Allergic contact dermatitis to PPD contained in temporary henna tattoos is an increasing problem worldwide, with cross-reaction to related compounds and permanent skin changes, a frequent consequence of sensitization to this significant allergen. PMID:15982229

  12. The incorporation of dyes into hair as a model for drug binding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saundra F. DeLauder; David A. Kidwell

    2000-01-01

    The binding of charged substances from external aqueous media to hair has been investigated through the use of fluorescence microscopy. Eleven hair samples, reflecting various ethnic groups and cosmetic treatments, were tested. Rhodamine 6G, a cationic dye representative of drugs such as cocaine and opiates, showed incorporation throughout the hair of all samples except one. In contrast, fluorescein, an anionic

  13. Is There a True Concern Regarding the Use of Hair Dye and Malignancy Development?

    PubMed Central

    Saitta, Peter; Cook, Christopher E.; Messina, Jane L.; Brancaccio, Ronald; Wu, Benedict C.; Grekin, Steven K.; Holland, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Many advances in the cosmetic industry have increased our ability to enhance youth and beauty. Hair-coloring products are one such innovation. Over the past several decades, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to understanding the possible long-term side effects associated with hair-dye use, specifically looking at cancer risk. This paper describes the hair-coloring process, highlights the potentially carcinogenic ingredients in various hair-dying products, and reviews the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair-dye use to the risk of developing several types of malignancies. PMID:23320124

  14. Proposal of an in silico profiler for categorisation of repeat dose toxicity data of hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Nelms, M D; Ates, G; Madden, J C; Vinken, M; Cronin, M T D; Rogiers, V; Enoch, S J

    2015-05-01

    This study outlines the analysis of 94 chemicals with repeat dose toxicity data taken from Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety opinions for commonly used hair dyes in the European Union. Structural similarity was applied to group these chemicals into categories. Subsequent mechanistic analysis suggested that toxicity to mitochondria is potentially a key driver of repeat dose toxicity for chemicals within each of the categories. The mechanistic hypothesis allowed for an in silico profiler consisting of four mechanism-based structural alerts to be proposed. These structural alerts related to a number of important chemical classes such as quinones, anthraquinones, substituted nitrobenzenes and aromatic azos. This in silico profiler is intended for grouping chemicals into mechanism-based categories within the adverse outcome pathway paradigm. PMID:24888375

  15. THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HAIR II. CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS AND PATHOLOGICAL HAIRS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lowell A. Goldsmith; Howard P. Baden

    1971-01-01

    The direct measurement of the ultrasonically determined modulus of elasticity (UME) has been extended to chemically modified hair and to pathological hairs. Single hairs are equilibrated at 75% relative humidity and studied with simultaneous stress-strain tests and direct measurements of the UME. Disulfide reduction with IM dithiothreitol produced more extensible hairs in which the UME retains its characteristic relationship to

  16. Exposure of hairdressers to ortho- and meta-toluidine in hair dyes

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Gabriella M; Jönsson, Bo A G; Axmon, Anna; Lindh, Christian H; Lind, Marie-Louise; Gustavsson, Mats; Broberg, Karin; Boman, Anders; Meding, Birgitta; Lidén, Carola; Albin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinogenic aromatic amines derived from hair dyes have recently received new attention. One of these is ortho (o)-toluidine, which is classified as carcinogenic to humans. Objectives To clarify exposure of hairdressers to potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines, including o-toluidine. Methods We measured eight potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines in the blood of 295 hairdressers, 32 users of hair dyes and 60 controls. The study was restricted to female non-smokers. Lifestyle data were collected for all participants using self-administered questionnaires. Blood samples were taken for analysis of ortho-, meta (m)- and para (p)-toluidine; 2-, 3- and 4-ethylaniline, 2,3- and 3,4-dimethylaniline as haemoglobin adducts. The samples were analysed with gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results Generally, adduct concentrations were in the range of 0–200?pg/g haemoglobin. A comparison of the adduct concentrations found in hairdressers, consumers and controls showed no statistically significant differences. However, for hairdressers, o- and m-toluidine concentrations increased significantly with the weekly number of hair waving (p=0.020) and permanent hair dyeing treatments (p=0.026), respectively. o-Toluidine and m-Toluidine concentrations also tended (p=0.076 and 0.080, respectively) to increase with the frequency of light-colour permanent hair dye treatments. Conclusions Hairdressers who use light-colour permanent hair dyes, other permanent hair dyes and hair waving treatments seem to be exposed to o- and m-toluidine as indicated by associations with the number of treatments performed. Analyses of hair waving and hair dye products should be performed to identify the possible sources of exposure to o- and m-toluidine. PMID:24912758

  17. Permeant lipophilicity and vehicle composition influence accumulation of dyes in hair follicles of human skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ylva Y. Grams; Soile Alaruikka; Lisa Lashley; Julia Caussin; Lynne Whitehead; Joke A. Bouwstra

    2003-01-01

    In skin and hair research drug targeting to the hair follicle is of great interest. Therefore the influence of permeant lipophilicity and vehicle composition on local accumulation has been examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Formulations saturated with either Oregon Green® 488, Bodipy® FL C5 or Bodipy® 564\\/570 C5 were prepared. The dyes were applied in citric acid buffer,

  18. Detection of carcinogenic chromium in synthetic hair dyes using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gondal, M A; Maganda, Y W; Dastageer, M A; Al Adel, F F; Naqvi, A A; Qahtan, T F

    2014-03-10

    A laser induced breakdown spectroscopic (LIBS) system, consisting of a pulsed 266 nm laser radiation, in conjunction with a high-resolution spectrograph, a gated intensified charge coupled device camera, and a built-in delay generator were used to develop a sensitive detector to quantify the concentration of toxic substances such as chromium in synthetic hair dyes available on the local market. The strong atomic transition line of chromium (Cr I) at 427.5 nm wavelength was used as a fingerprint wavelength to calibrate the detection system and also to quantify the levels of chromium in the hair dye samples. The limit of detection achieved by our LIBS detection system for chromium was 1.2 ppm, which enabled us to detect chromium concentration in the range of 5-11 ppm in the commercial hair dyes available on the local market. The concentrations of chromium in the hair dyes measured using our system were validated using a standard analytical technique such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), and acceptable agreement (nearly 8%) was found between the results obtained by the two methods (LIBS and ICPMS). This study is highly significant for human health, specifically for people using synthetic hair dyes for changing the color of their hair. PMID:24663421

  19. Hair dyes and temporary tattoos are a real hazard for adolescents?

    PubMed

    Haluk Akar, H; Adatepe, S; Tahan, F; Solmaz, I

    2014-01-01

    Temporary tattoos, especially those that contain black dyes, have become rampant among teenagers in recent years. Most of these tattoos, in addition to hair dyes include paraphenylenediamine (PPD). PPD is a well-known skin sensitizer, which causes allergic contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis skin lesions from PPD are mostly seen as erythema multiforme-like eruption, a bullous contact dermatitis or as an exudative erythema. Herein, we report on our finding on a 15 year-old adolescent female who had been unaware of being previously sensitized to PPD from a black henna tattoo, and angioedema-like reaction which occurred after her first exposure to hair dye. PMID:24702872

  20. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for...purposes are mixtures of synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in...

  1. Analysis of hair by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. ROBBINS; M. K. BAHL

    as sulfate-containing surfactants. A primary reaction in the weathering of human hair involves degradation of disulfide sulfur, and ultraviolet radiation is a principal cause of this degradation. This reaction occurs primarily at or near the hair surface and appears to involve degradation of cystine residues via the C-S fission mechanism. Chemical bleaching of disulfide in hair by alkaline hydrogen peroxide

  2. Is there a true concern regarding the use of hair dye and malignancy development?: a review of the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair dye use to the risk of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Saitta, Peter; Cook, Christopher E; Messina, Jane L; Brancaccio, Ronald; Wu, Benedict C; Grekin, Steven K; Holland, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Many advances in the cosmetic industry have increased our ability to enhance youth and beauty. Hair-coloring products are one such innovation. Over the past several decades, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to understanding the possible long-term side effects associated with hair-dye use, specifically looking at cancer risk. This paper describes the hair-coloring process, highlights the potentially carcinogenic ingredients in various hair-dying products, and reviews the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair-dye use to the risk of developing several types of malignancies. PMID:23320124

  3. Pre-testing in hair dye users: an assessment of the Colourstart system.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; English, John

    2009-01-01

    To avoid adverse reactions to allergenic ingredients, manufacturers recommend "sensitivity testing" prior to use of hair dyes. However, there is no standardised method and the recommendation is often not followed. We assessed the ability of a standardised test system from one manufacturer (Colourstart, a small skin surface water-slide transfer containing p-phenylenediamine (PPD)) for its ability to elicit a reaction in those with a previously diagnosed contact allergy to PPD, the main hair dye allergen. Thirty volunteers with diagnosed PPD allergy (10 each of 3+, 2+ and 1+) were assessed with the Colourstart system according to the manufacturer's instructions. Responses were recorded after 48h exposure. Colourstart identified 100% of those with a 3+ reaction to the diagnostic patch test, 80% of the 2+ reactors and just 10% of the 1+ reactors. Thus, Colourstart successfully identified those individuals with the greatest sensitivity to PPD, who might therefore be at risk of a severe reaction if they dyed their hair. It also identified 83% of those who reported a severe/very severe history of hair dye adverse reaction. However, its proper use and interpretation are necessary if those consumers most at risk are to have the information necessary to avoid serious adverse reactions to hair dyes. PMID:19251577

  4. Effects of repeated applications of two semi-permanent hair dyes to the skin of A and DBAf mice.

    PubMed Central

    Searle, C. E.; Jones, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    Two proprietary semi-permanent hair dyes were tested for carcinogenicity in A and DBAf mice by repeated topical applications in aqueous acetone. Mice of both strains developed lymphoid tumours but experimental differences were marked only in DBAf mice. A number of tumours of the ovary and uterus, and some skin papillomas near the penis, occured in dye-treated but not in control DBAf mice. As many hair-dye constituents are known mutagens, adequate carcinogenicity testing of these substances, and epidemiological study of exposed human populations, are needed for evaluating possible health hazard from hair dyeing. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:588414

  5. Occupational exposure of hairdressers to [14C]-para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: a mass balance study.

    PubMed

    Hueber-Becker, Frédérique; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Dufour, Eric K; Meuling, Wim J A; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Toutain, Herve; Bolt, Hermann M

    2007-01-01

    We monitored the exposure of hairdressers to oxidative hair dyes for 6 working days under controlled conditions. Eighteen professional hairdressers (3/day) coloured hairdresser's training heads bearing natural human hair (hair length: approximately 30 cm) for 6 h/working day with a dark-shade oxidative hair dye containing 2% [14C]-para-phenylenediamine (PPD). Three separate phases of hair dyeing were monitored: (A) dye preparation/hair dyeing, (B) rinsing/shampooing/conditioning and (C) cutting/drying/styling. Ambient air and personal monitoring samples (vapours and particles), nasal and hand rinses were collected during all study phases. Urine (pre-exposure, quantitative samples for the 0-12, 12-24, 24-48 h periods after start of exposure) and blood samples (blank, 4, 8 or 24 h) were collected from all exposed subjects. Radioactivity was determined in all biological samples and study materials, tools and washing liquids, and a [14C]-mass balance was performed daily. No adverse events were noted during the study. Waste, equipment, gloves and coveralls contained 0.41+/-0.16%, dye mixing bowls 2.88+/-0.54%, hair wash 45.47+/-2.95%, hair+scalp 53.46+/-4.06% of the applied radioactivity, respectively. Plasma levels were below the limit of quantification (10 ng PPDeq/mL). Total urinary 0-48 h excretion of [14C] levels ranged from a total of <2-18 microg PPDeq and was similar in subjects exposed during the different phases of hair dyeing. Minimal air levels at or slightly above the limit of quantification were found in a few personal air monitoring samples during the phases of hair dyeing and hair cutting, but not during the rinsing phase. Air area monitoring samples or nasal rinses contained no measurable radioactivity. Hand residues ranged from 0.006 to 0.15 microg PPDeq/cm2, and were found predominantly after the cutting/drying phase. The mean mass balance of [14C] across the six study days was 102.50+/-2.20%. Overall, the mean, total systemic exposure of hairdressers to oxidative hair dyes during a working day including 6 hair dyeing processes was estimated to be <0.36 microg PPDeq/kg body weight/working day. Our results suggest that (a) current safety precautions for the handling of hair dyes offer sufficient protection against local and systemic exposure and (b) professional exposure to oxidative hair dyes does not pose a risk to human health. PMID:17030383

  6. Knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dyes among females visiting a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M.; Moussa, Noura A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Use of hair dye is extremely common worldwide. However, our literature search failed to find studies concerning the knowledge and attitudes of the public with regard to hair dyes. We sought to explore the knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dye among females. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional survey conducted on females who attended various outpatient clinics at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a tertiary referral hospital open to the general public. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire about the use of hair dyes was distributed randomly among females attending the outpatient clinics at a university hospital in 2008. RESULTS: The response rate was 87.2%, with completion of 567 of the 650 distributed questionnaires. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 32.0 (10.2) years. Among respondents, 82.6% (464/562) had at some point dyed their hair. Furthermore, 69.3% (334/482) had dyed their hair in the past 12 months. The mean (SD) age of the participants when they first dyed their hair was 22.2 (7.1) years (range, 7-50). Of the participants, 76.8% (354/461) used permanent dyes, and about the same percentage of participants believed such dyes were the safest hair dye type. However, 52.4% (278/531) of the participants believed that hair dyes are harmful, and 36% (191/531) believed that hair dyes could cause cancer. Younger females tend to dye their hair less frequently (P<.001), whereas those with less education tend to dye their hair more frequently (P=.013). CONCLUSION: Use of hair dye is very common among females. Because the practice starts at a very young age, we conclude that hair dyes are overused and misused. The public should be informed about the risks associated with excessive hair dye use. PMID:22048508

  7. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products. PMID:23974582

  8. P2X antagonists inhibit styryl dye entry into hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Crumling, Mark A.; Tong, Mingjie; Aschenbach, Krista L.; Liu, Li Qian; Pipitone, Christine M.; Duncan, R. Keith

    2009-01-01

    The styryl pyridinium dyes, FM1-43 and AM1-43, are fluorescent molecules that can permeate the mechanotransduction channels of hair cells, the sensory receptors of the inner ear. When these dyes are applied to hair cells, they enter the cytoplasm rapidly, resulting in a readily detectable increase in intracellular fluorescence that is often used as a molecular indication of mechanotransduction channel function. However, such dyes can also permeate the ATP receptor, P2X2. Therefore, we explored the contribution of P2X receptors to the loading of hair cells with AM1-43. The chick inner ear was found to express P2X receptors and to release ATP, similar to the inner ear of mammals, allowing for the endogenous stimulation of P2X receptors. The involvement of these receptors was evaluated pharmacologically, by exposing the sensory epithelium of the chick inner ear to 5 ?M AM1-43 under different experimental conditions and measuring the fluorescence in hair cells after fixation of the tissue. Pre-exposure of the tissue to 5 mM EGTA for 15 minutes, which should eliminate most of the gating “tip links” of the mechanotransduction channels, deceased fluorescence by only 44%. In contrast, P2X receptor antagonists (PPADS, suramin, TNP-ATP, and d-tubocurarine) had greater effects on dye loading. PPADS, suramin, and TNP-ATP all decreased intracellular AM1-43 fluorescence in hair cells by at least 69% when applied at a concentration of 100 ?M. The difference between d-tubocurarine-treated and control fluorescence was statistically insignificant when d-tubocurarine was applied at a concentration that blocks the mechanotransduction channel (200 ?M). At a concentration that also blocks P2X2 receptors (2 mM), d-tubocurarine decreased dye loading by 72%. From these experiments, it appears that AM1-43 can enter hair cells through endogenously activated P2X receptors. Thus, the contribution of P2X receptors to dye entry must be considered when using styryl pyridinium dyes to detect hair cell mechanotransduction channel activity in the absence of explicit mechanical stimulation of stereocilia. PMID:19272432

  9. Hair Dyes and Risk of Glioma Among Nebraska Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen F. Heineman; Mary H. Ward; Rodney D. McComb; Dennis D. Weisenburger; Shelia Hoar Zahm

    2005-01-01

    The etiology of brain cancer is not well understood. We conducted a population-based case–control study among 112 white women in Nebraska who were newly diagnosed with glioma between July 1988 and June 1993, and 215 controls, to identify risk factors for this disease. A 1.7-fold increased risk of glioma was observed for women who ever used hair coloring products (95%

  10. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  11. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-15

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm(-1) to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm(-1) were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm(-1), from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair. PMID:23537511

  12. Voltammetric investigation of hair dye constituents: application to the quantification of p-phenylenediamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan S. Lawrence; Emma L. Beckett; James Davis; Richard G. Compton

    2001-01-01

    The application of electrochemical techniques to the determination of common hair dye constituents was investigated. Cyclic voltammetry was used to probe the electrode response to p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 4-chlororesorcinol and m-aminophenol with square wave voltammetry used to effect quantitative measurements. The nature of the electrode response was characterised and issues of surface fouling resulting from the deposition of electrogenerated reaction products

  13. Analysis of the Results from the Patch Test to Para-Phenylenediamine in the TRUE Test in Patients with a Hair Dye Contact Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Sang Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy (HDCA). However, no recent studies have been published that describe the results of reactions to patch tests using PPD and hair dyes in Korea. Objective To analyze the results of the patch tests to PPD using the thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous (TRUE) Test system in patients with HDCA and to investigate patients' awareness that hair dyes contains allergens, which cause the development of HDCA. Methods Eighty-four patients with suspected HDCA (32 men and 52 women) underwent patch testing using the TRUE Test system and their own hair dyes. The patients' demographic data, behavior associated with hair dyeing, and clinical manifestations of HDCA were examined retrospectively. Results Positive patch-test reactions to hair dyes occurred in 53.6% of patients who used hair dyes, and they were diagnosed with HDCA. Although there was a significant correlation between HDCA and PPD sensitization (p=0.001), only 40% of the patients with HDCA showed positive reactions to PPD. Of the 45 patients diagnosed with HDCA, only 7 (15.6%) were aware that their hair dyes contained allergens that caused HDCA. Conclusion This study's findings show that PPD is an effective HDCA marker. However, we propose that investigations on hair dye components other than PPD should be conducted to develop and validate additional predictive HDCA markers. PMID:25834356

  14. Final report on the safety assessment of 3-methylamino-4-nitrophenoxyethanol as used in hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C

    2008-01-01

    3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol is a semipermanent (direct) hair colorant used in 21 hair dyes and colors at use concentrations up to 0.15%. When applied to human skin in vitro, 0.42% of the applied 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol was recovered in the receptor fluid. In an acute toxicity study using rats, 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol at 1000 mg/kg resulted in hypoactivity, piloerection, dyspnea, and lateral recumbency in animals that later died. The surviving rats exhibited none of these signs. No abnormalities were found at necropsy. Subchronic toxicity tests using rats fed 25, 100, or 400 mg/kg day(-1)3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol for up to 93 days resulted in yellow urine and tails with all three dose levels and yellow fur occurred in the two high-dose groups. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for 3-Methyl-amino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol was 100 mg/kg day(- 1). Two percent 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol was a slight ocular irritant but not a dermal irritant using rabbits and it was not a sensitizer using the murine local lymph node Assay. There were no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects observed in doses up to 750 mg/kg day(-1) in rats; the NOAEL was defined as 100 mg/kg. 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol was not genotoxic in in vitro assays including multiple strains of Salmonela typhimurium and Escherichia coli, Chinese Hamster ovary cells, and human lymphocyte cultures. No carcinogenicity studies were available, nor were any clinical tests reported. As reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, there are gaps in the data available for of 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol. In particular, there is an absence of data from chronic animal studies. The Expert Panel considered that the low percutaneous absorption and that the available developmental toxicity data and the subchronic toxicity data, both of which resulted in relatively high NOAEL values, alleviate concern about the absence of chronic exposure data. In addition, several studies demonstrated that 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol is not genotoxic. Direct hair dyes, of which 3-Methylamino-4-Nitro-phenoxyethanol is one, although not the focus in all investigations, appear to have little evidence of an association with adverse events as reported in hair dye epidemiology studies. The lack of phototoxicity data was not considered to be a concern because this is a direct hair dye ingredient, which has little skin contact and residual color is attached to hair, not normally to skin. No human skin sensitization or irritation data were available. However, hair dyes containing 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol, as coal tar hair dye products, are exempt from the principal adulteration provision and from the color additive provisions in sections 601 and 706 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, when the label bears a caution statement and patch test instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation. The Expert Panel expects that following this procedure will prospectively identify individuals who would have an irritation/sensitization reaction and allow them to avoid significant exposures and concluded that 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol is safe as a cosmetic ingredient in the practices of use and use concentrations described in this safety report. PMID:18830863

  15. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  16. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

  17. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

  18. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

  19. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

  20. Human systemic exposure to [(14)C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Skare, Julie A; Meuling, Wim J A; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Vaes, Wouter H J; Dufour, Eric K; Fautz, Rolf; Steiling, Winfried; Bramante, Mario; Toutain, Herve

    2015-07-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [(14)C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [(14)C] was measured in all materials, rinsing water, hair, plasma, urine and skin strips. Plasma and urine were also analysed by HLPC/MS/MS for PPD and its metabolites (B). Total mean recovery of radioactivity was 94.30% (A) or 96.21% (B). Mean plasma Cmax values were 132.6 or 97.4 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL, mean AUC0-? values 1415 or 966 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL*hr in studies A or B, respectively. Urinary excretion of [(14)C] mainly occurred within 24 hrs after hair colouring with a total excretion of 0.72 or 0.88% of applied radioactivity in studies A or B, respectively. Only N,N'-diacetylated-PPD was detected in plasma and the urine. A TK-based human safety assessment estimated margins of safety of 23.3- or 65-fold relative to respective plasma AUC or Cmax values in rats at the NOAEL of a toxicity study. Overall, hair dyes containing PPD are unlikely to pose a health risk since they are used intermittently and systemic exposure is limited to the detoxified metabolite N,N'-diacetyl-PPD. PMID:25846501

  1. Chemical characterization of hair using ion beams

    E-print Network

    Yulo, Ma. Melinda S

    1979-01-01

    *(I number' o f elements detected, followed by prot on ( 3 . 5iJ I!eV/emu ) and hei ium- 3 ( 7 . 67 I&ieV/amu ) . 7hc detec':I on limits 7 ' 5 in a single hair ran-'ed ['r era ?. 'i x id ug I e . o 0. 72 up, II u; . i. np; the oxygen-18 beam... of nain ent a' la numer ous que' tions: ', . '"I ch, . le!, ;!t- and?hat dif. !canoes in !!cncer. ? tr ations aic!. sir?if icant? . '-Io:r do external conditi ons ct t;?ace sc c ice? I "hat I s '! hc sign ~ I c; nce of' mhi s th: s-' s wi ll folio...

  2. Simultaneous determination of 13 components in oxidative hair dyes by high-performance chromatography using an ion-pair reagent.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying; Wang, Honghui; Dong, Qingmu; Chen, Hexiu; Lin, Rui; Cai, Yanping

    2012-01-01

    A reliable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 13 dye intermediates, including benzenediamines, aminophenols, benzenediols, naphthalenediol, and diaminopyridine, in oxidative hair dyes. Samples were extracted with 50% ethanol by adding sodium dithionite to prevent oxidation. The influences of buffer type, buffer pH, ion-pair reagent, and elution gradient were studied. A C18 column with aqueous compatibility and acetonitrile-citric acid mobile phase system (pH 2.6) with sodium 1-octanesulfonate as ion-pair reagent were selected for the separation of target compounds. Detection was performed by a diode array detector, (DAD) and two different wavelengths (280 and 331 nm) were used for quantification. Results showed that 13 dye intermediates got good separation within 25 min. The detection limits of these compounds were in the range of 0.2-2 mg/l. The calibration curves were linear within 2-500 mg/l with 0.999 as a typical correlation coefficient. The recoveries of target compounds in hair dyes ranged from 81.7% to 102.0% with four addition levels. The method described was validated by five different laboratories and successfully applied to the analysis of commercial oxidative hair dyes. PMID:23089354

  3. Quantitative detection of chemical compounds in human hair with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

    E-print Network

    Potma, Eric Olaf

    Quantitative detection of chemical compounds in human hair with coherent anti-Stokes Raman to selectively detect molecular agents in hair fibers is of direct relevance to understanding the chemical for inspecting the morphology of both the surface and interior of the hair.5,6 Although morphology stud- ies

  4. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  5. Hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone reduce production of melanin in melanoma cells by tyrosinase activity inhibition and decreasing tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  6. Laccase?catalysed polymeric dye synthesis from plant?derived phenols for potential application in hair dyeing: Enzymatic colourations driven by homo? or hetero?polymer synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jong?Rok; Kim, Eun?Ju; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Park, Hyo?Keun; Kim, Young?Mo; Kwon, Jung?Hee; Kim, Wang?Gi; Lee, Ji?Yeon; Chang, Yoon?Seok

    2010-01-01

    Summary Laccase efficiently catalyses polymerization of phenolic compounds. However, knowledge on applications of polymers synthesized in this manner remains scarce. Here, the potential of laccase?catalysed polymerization of natural phenols to form products useful in hair dyeing was investigated. All 15 tested phenols yielded coloured products after laccase treatment and colour diversity was attained by using mixtures of two phenolic monomers. After exploring colour differentiation pattern of 120 different reactions with statistical regression analysis, three monomer combinations, namely gallic acid and syringic acid, catechin and catechol, and ferulic acid and syringic acid, giving rise to brown, black, and red materials, respectively, were further characterized because such colours are commercially important for grey hair dyeing. Selected polymers could strongly absorb visible light and their hydrodynamic sizes ranged from 100 to 400?nm. Analyses of enzyme kinetic constants, liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization?mass spectrometry (ESI?MS) coupled with collision?induced dissociation MS/MS indicate that both monomers in reactions involving catechin and catechol, and ferulic acid and syringic acid, are coloured by heteropolymer synthesis, but the gallic acid/syringic acid combination is based on homopolymer mixture formation. Comparison of colour parameters from these three reactions with those of corresponding artificial homopolymer mixtures also supported the idea that laccase may catalyse either hetero? or homo?polymer synthesis. We finally used selected materials to dye grey hair. Each material coloured hair appropriately and the dyeing showed excellent resistance to conventional shampooing. Our study indicates that laccase?catalysed polymerization of natural phenols is applicable to the development of new cosmetic pigments. PMID:21255331

  7. Chemical and photochemical degradation of human hair: A free-volume microprobe study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N. Chandrashekara; C. Ranganathaiah

    2010-01-01

    The microstructural changes in human hair due to chemical and photochemical oxidative processes have been monitored in terms of free volume employing Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). The results show that upon UV exposure the photosensitive amino acid residues present in the amorphous domains of virgin\\/bleached hair cross-link under ambient conditions. Further, the bleached hair readily undergoes photodamage in comparison

  8. Chemical hair relaxation and adverse outcomes among Negroid women in South West Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olayinka A Olasode

    2009-01-01

    Background The use of chemical hair relaxers has found widesp read use in African Negroid women because of the desire to straighten their cur ly hair. The hair texture in Negroids is essentially coily and the process of straightening makes easier to comb and style. This beautification process, however, is not without its own hazards to the users. We document

  9. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Alterations in the cuticle, cortex, and medulla are necessary to modify the hair cosmetically. The hair can be modified externally by the use of shampoos to remove excess sebum, conditioners to restore shine, and styling aids to increase manageability. Several different formulations of all these products exist, depending on the needs of the patient. Furthermore, the hair can be modified both externally and internally through the use of hair dyes, permanent waving lotions, and hair straighteners. Use of these products causes external damage to the hair shaft by disrupting the overlapping cuticular scales, rendering the hair susceptible to static electricity and the effects of humidity while decreasing manageability and shine. Internal damage created by these products decreases the hair shaft's elastic properties, allowing increased hair breakage. The dermatologist can better aid the patient with hair difficulties if he or she has an understanding of the formulation and effects of products designed to cleanse, beautify, and modify the hair. PMID:2022094

  10. The effects of henna (hair dye) on the embryonic development of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Bangeppagari; Wei-bing, Peng; Ke-chun, Liu; Marigoudar, Shambanagouda R; Xi-qiang, Chen; Xi-min, Wang; Xue, Wang

    2014-09-01

    The powder of henna is extensively used as decorative skin paint for nail coloring and as a popular hair dye in Asian countries. Its human health risk is extensive, and it is frequently released as waste into the aquatic environment raising the concerns. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were employed to study the developmental effects of henna. Normal fertilized zebrafish embryos under standard water were selected for the control and test chambers. Three predetermined sublethal concentrations (100, 200, and 275 ?M) of henna in 24-well cell culture plates were tested on 1-h postfertilized embryo (pfe) for 96 h. Observation for rates of survival and mortality was recorded; digital camera was used to image morphological anomalies of embryos with a stereomicroscope; and functional abnormalities at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were performed. The hatching rates of embryos were reduced significantly when treated with 200 and 275 ?M or higher concentrations of henna. Slow blood circulation in the whole body was observed with a median effect on hatching exposed to 200 and 275 ?M of henna at 48-h pfe. At 72- and 96-h pfe, blood circulation was ceased in the whole body but still had a heartbeat. At 96-h pfe, pericardial sac edema, yolk sac edema, head deformation, spine crooked malformation, and tail malformation (bent tails or hook-like tails) were observed in the surviving larvae at 100 ?M. In summary, exposure to henna at 100, 200, and 275 ?M causes some altered morphological and physiological abnormalities including increased mortality, hatching delay, slow blood circulation, pericardial sac edema, yolk sac edema, abnormal body axes, twisted notochord, tail deformation, weak heartbeat, and growth retardation and was also detected in some treated embryos and groups having adverse effects on embryonic development of zebrafish provoking potential human developmental risk studies. PMID:24859694

  11. Chemical screening for hair cell loss and protection in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Coffin, Allison B; Ou, Henry; Owens, Kelly N; Santos, Felipe; Simon, Julian A; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2010-03-01

    In humans, most hearing loss results from death of hair cells, the mechanosensory receptors of the inner ear. Two goals of current hearing research are to protect hair cells from degeneration and to regenerate new hair cells, replacing those that are lost due to aging, disease, or environmental challenges. One limitation of research in the auditory field has been the relative inaccessibility of the mechanosensory systems in the inner ear. Zebrafish possess hair cells in both their inner ear and their lateral line system that are morphologically and functionally similar to human hair cells. The external location of the mechanosensory hair cells in the lateral line and the ease of in vivo labeling and imaging make the zebrafish lateral line a unique system for the study of hair cell toxicity, protection, and regeneration. This review focuses on the lateral line system as a model for understanding loss and protection of mechanosensory hair cells. We discuss chemical screens to identify compounds that induce hair cell loss and others that protect hair cells from known toxins and the potential application of these screens to human medicine. PMID:20192852

  12. Changing Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair straight. These products break the chemical bonds (attachments) that make hair curly. Once broken, the relaxers ... treatment for kids. Some people complain about hair loss or a burning scalp after getting their hair ...

  13. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  14. [Hairdressers live dangerously. Daily exposure to chemicals can cause respiratory tract problems].

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Thomas; Tondel, Martin

    2002-05-01

    Hairdressers are regularly exposed to toxic chemicals contained in bleach, hair spray, permanent wave solutions and hair dyes. Adequate ventilation and appropriate working procedures can reduce exposure, but never completely eliminate the risk for respiratory disease. PMID:12082780

  15. Pretreatment of a dyeing wastewater using chemical coagulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joonghwan Mo; Jeong-Eun Hwang; Jonggeon Jegal; Jaephil Kim

    2007-01-01

    For pretreatment of the feed water of membrane processes, chemical coagulants such as HOC-100A, alum, and ferric chloride were used. The feed water used in this experiment was a synthetic dyeing wastewater composed of Direct Red 75, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), NaCl and Na2SO4. Total concentration of the materials in the feed water was 2500ppm. The following optimum coagulation pretreatment conditions

  16. Chemical and photochemical degradation of human hair: a free-volume microprobe study.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekara, M N; Ranganathaiah, C

    2010-12-01

    The microstructural changes in human hair due to chemical and photochemical oxidative processes have been monitored in terms of free volume employing Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). The results show that upon UV exposure the photosensitive amino acid residues present in the amorphous domains of virgin/bleached hair cross-link under ambient conditions. Further, the bleached hair readily undergoes photodamage in comparison with the virgin hair implying the diminished photoprotective action of the melanin granules within it. Swelling of hair fiber was evident in the early stages of UV exposure (<300h), bleaching, and humidification subsequent to irradiation. Swelling and cross-linking were the two main processes observed following UV exposure, which oppositely affect the free volume holes size. Supplementary techniques such as DSC and XRD were used to support/extend the interpretation of the PALS results. The UV irradiation resulted in reduction of the average crystallite size in hair, which is attributed to the possible fragmentation of protein domains. The present work is the first positron lifetime measurement on human hair that demonstrates the ability of PALS to provide information on hair damage at molecular level, a vital input for cosmetic industry and applicable to biopolymers research as well. PMID:20709563

  17. Low-pulse energy Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment for hair-dye-induced Riehl's melanosis.

    PubMed

    On, Hye Rang; Hong, Won Jin; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2015-06-01

    Riehl's melanosis, a form of dermatitis characterized by reticulate pigmentation, typically presents as a gray-brown to black hyperpigmentation on the face and neck. Among the various etiologic factors suggested, photoallergic reaction and pigmented contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to drugs, coal tar dyes, optical whitener, or other ingredients found in cosmetics are believed to be the major contributing factors in this disease. The histopathological features of Riehl's melanosis mainly consist of pigmentary incontinence along with infiltration of numerous dermal melanophages and lymphohistiocytes.1,2 Additionally, notable clinical improvements in the treatment of this condition have been reported for intense pulsed light (IPL) therapy, in comparison to long-term topical application of bleaching agents.2 Here, we report the cases of two Asian patients treated with a low-pulse energy 1,064-nm Q-switched (QS) Nd:YAG laser for hair dye-induced Riehl's melanosis on the face and neck. In conclusion, we observed that Riehl's melanosis on the face and neck was effectively and safely treated with a low-pulse energy 1,064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser. We suggest that this method can be used in Asian patients with Riehl's melanosis at risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation from excessive light or laser energy delivery. PMID:25602355

  18. The construction of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells from chemically-derived nanoporous photoelectrodes

    E-print Network

    Park, Byungwoo

    The construction of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells from chemically-derived nanoporous Available online 24 October 2014 Keywords: Tandem solar cell Selective etching Dye-sensitized solar cell Nanoporous electrode a b s t r a c t A tandem dye-sensitized solar cell (tandem-DSSC) was synthesized

  19. Determination of dye precursors in hair coloring products by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motoko Narita; Kazuo Murakami; Jean-Michel Kauffmann

    2007-01-01

    The simultaneous determination of seven aminophenols, resorcinol and p-phenylenediamine in hair coloring products was performed by liquid chromatography (HPLC) with amperometric detection (ED). The aminophenols were separated on a ODS C18 reversed-phase column by isocratic elution with a mobile phase based on 0.1M acetate buffer pH 4.5–methanol (90:10%, v\\/v) at a flow rate 0.8mLmin?1. The limit of detection (S\\/N=3) for

  20. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  1. On-line diffusion profile of a lipophilic model dye in different depths of a hair follicle in human scalp skin.

    PubMed

    Grams, Ylva Y; Whitehead, Lynne; Lamers, Gerda; Sturmann, Nico; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2005-10-01

    In skin and hair research, drug targeting to the hair follicle is of great interest in the treatment of skin diseases. The aim of this study is to visualize on-line the diffusion processes of a model fluorophore into the hair follicle at different depths using fresh human scalp skin and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Up to a depth of 500 microm in the skin, a fast increase of fluorescence is observed in the gap followed by accumulation of the dye in the hair cuticle. Penetration was also observed via the stratum corneum and the epidermis. Little label reached depths greater than 2000 microm. Fat cells accumulated the label fastest, followed by the cuticular area and the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. Sweat glands revealed very low staining, whereas the bulb at a depth of 4000 microm was visualized only by autofluorescence. From this study, we conclude that on-line visualization is a promising technique to access diffusion processes in deep skin layers even on a cellular level. Furthermore, we conclude that the gap and the cuticle play an important role in the initial diffusion period with the label in the cuticle originating from the gap. PMID:16185278

  2. Electron spectroscopy and microscopy applied to chemical and structural analysis of hair.

    PubMed

    Beard, B C; Johnson, A; Cambria, F M; Trinh, P N

    2005-01-01

    The application of surface specific x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) will be shown to be an effective means for the elucidation of hair fiber surface chemistry and structure. Example studies of bleaching and fiber conditioning treatments are discussed. The bleached fiber surface is found to become more hydrophilic due to the loss of the naturally occurring hydrocarbon overlayer and oxidation of surface functional groups as a result of bleaching. Comparison between generic bleaching regimens illustrates the importance of increased pH and the presence of surfactant for effective treatment. Adsorption of conditioning diester quat and dimethicone molecules reintroduces a hydrophobic like surface layer on the hair fiber. Spectroscopic data indicated a segregated adsorption structure of the chemically different conditioning molecules. Electron microscope images of the conditioned hair shows a smooth uniform surface. PMID:15744444

  3. Sorption of Acid Dyes by Chemically Modified Peanut Hulls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Low; C. K. Lee; W. H. Koo

    1999-01-01

    Dyes, while comprising only a very small fraction of the total organic load in wastewater, render themselves easily recognizable substances in the aqueous environment. At present there are no general and economically suitable methods for the removal of dyes from textile effluents. Though dyes can be removed by activated carbon, the cost of treatment is high. Treatment of textile wastewater

  4. Internal structure changes in bleached black human hair resulting from chemical treatments: A Raman spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate in detail the influence of chemical treatments (reduction, hydrolyzed eggwhite protein (HEWP) treatment, and oxidation) on damaged hair keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of excessively bleached (damaged) black human hair resulting from a permanent waving process was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that L-cysteine (CYS) largely reacted with the gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) conformation of disulfide (-SS-) groups (while CYS did not react with the trans-gauche-trans (TGT) conformation). In particular, not only the GGG content, but also the cysteic acid content existing throughout the cortex region of the excessively bleached human hair remarkably decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction. On the other hand, the GGG content of the excessively bleached black human hair increased, while the TGT content decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction and then HEWP treatment processes. From these experiments, the authors concluded that some of the keratin associated protein (KAP), which has a rich -SS- content and cysteic acid content was eluted from the cortex region along with the disconnection of -SS- groups, thereby leading to the remarkable reduction in the reconnection of -SS- groups of the excessively bleached black human hair after the permanent waving process (the reduction and oxidation processes). Also, the authors concluded that the HEWP treatment process in the permanent waving process caused the reconstruction of the KAP, thereby contributing to the acceleration of the reconnection of -SS- groups during the oxidation process.

  5. Immunologic cross-reactivity between respiratory chemical sensitizers: Reactive dyes and cyanuric chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meinir Jones; Cynthia Graham; Anthony Newman Taylor; Katherine Sarlo; Viviene Hoyle; Meryl H. Karol

    1998-01-01

    Background: CyCl is a low molecular weight reactive chemical used as an intermediate in the production of plastics, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and fiber-reactive dyes. It is a potent inducer of specific IgE antibody. The CyCl functionality is a structural component of monochlorotriazine and dichlorotriazine dyes. Objective: We have investigated the immunologic cross-reactivity between cyanuric chloride (CyCl) and reactive dyes and it

  6. Chronological ageing of human hair keratin fibres.

    PubMed

    Thibaut, S; de Becker, E; Bernard, B A; Huart, M; Fiat, F; Baghdadli, N; Luengo, G S; Leroy, F; Angevin, P; Kermoal, A M; Muller, S; Peron, M; Provot, G; Kravtchenko, S; Saint-Léger, D; Desbois, G; Gauchet, L; Nowbuth, K; Galliano, A; Kempf, J Y; Silberzan, I

    2010-12-01

    Examination of very long hair (length > 2.4 m) using a large range of evaluation methods including physical, chemical, biochemical and microscopic techniques has enabled to attain a detailed understanding of natural ageing of human hair keratin fibres. Scrutinizing hair that has undergone little or no oxidative aggression--because of the absence of action of chemical agents such as bleaching or dyeing--from the root to the tip shows the deterioration process, which gradually takes place from the outside to the inside of the hair shaft: first, a progressive abrasion of the cuticle, whilst the cortex structure remains unaltered, is evidenced along a length of roughly 1 m onwards together with constant shine, hydrophobicity and friction characteristics. Further along the fibre, a significant damage to cuticle scales occurs, which correlates well with ceramides and 18-Methyl Eicosanoic Acid (18-MEA) decline, and progressive decrease in keratin-associated protein content. Most physical descriptors of mechanical and optical properties decay significantly. This detailed description of natural ageing of human hair fibres by a fine analysis of hair components and physical parameters in relationship with cosmetic characteristics provides a time-dependent 'damage scale' of human hair, which may help in designing new targeted hair care formulations. PMID:20384898

  7. Effect of white African mineral hair dye on the activities of phosphatases and malondialdehyde level in selected tissues of albino rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B Adebayo; T. O Sunmonu; F. A Adekola; G. A Olatunji

    2005-01-01

    The effect of white African mineral dye Yombofita (YF) on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the skin, liver, kidney and serum of albino rats was investigated. The chemical analysis of the dye was first carried out using solubility test, pH determination and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analysis. Six different concentrations (0.05,

  8. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

  9. Identification of genetic and chemical modulators of zebrafish mechanosensory hair cell death.

    PubMed

    Owens, Kelly N; Santos, Felipe; Roberts, Brock; Linbo, Tor; Coffin, Allison B; Knisely, Anna J; Simon, Julian A; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2008-02-01

    Inner ear sensory hair cell death is observed in the majority of hearing and balance disorders, affecting the health of more than 600 million people worldwide. While normal aging is the single greatest contributor, exposure to environmental toxins and therapeutic drugs such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and antineoplastic agents are significant contributors. Genetic variation contributes markedly to differences in normal disease progression during aging and in susceptibility to ototoxic agents. Using the lateral line system of larval zebrafish, we developed an in vivo drug toxicity interaction screen to uncover genetic modulators of antibiotic-induced hair cell death and to identify compounds that confer protection. We have identified 5 mutations that modulate aminoglycoside susceptibility. Further characterization and identification of one protective mutant, sentinel (snl), revealed a novel conserved vertebrate gene. A similar screen identified a new class of drug-like small molecules, benzothiophene carboxamides, that prevent aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death in zebrafish and in mammals. Testing for interaction with the sentinel mutation suggests that the gene and compounds may operate in different pathways. The combination of chemical screening with traditional genetic approaches is a new strategy for identifying drugs and drug targets to attenuate hearing and balance disorders. PMID:18454195

  10. Application of fungal moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and chemical coagulation for dyeing wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye Ok Park; Sanghwa Oh; Rabindra Bade; Won Sik Shin

    2011-01-01

    A combined process consisting of Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBRs) with Polyurethane-Dyeing Sludge Carbonaceous Material\\u000a (PU-DSCM) foam and chemical coagulation was investigated for dyeing wastewater treatment. The pilot-scale MBBR system was\\u000a composed of two aerobic MBBRs in series. Each reactor was filled with 20% (v\\/v) of Polyurethane-Dye Sludge Carbonaceous Material\\u000a foam (PU-DSCM foam) inoculated with a white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, for

  11. Removal of Acid Dyes from Aqueous Solutions using Chemically Activated Carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özgül Gerçel; H. Ferdi Gerçel

    2009-01-01

    Textile dyes (Acid Yellow 17 and Acid Orange 7) were removed from its aqueous solution in batch and continuous packed bed adsorption systems by using thermally activated Euphorbia macroclada carbon with respect to contact time, initial dye concentration, and temperature. The activated carbon was prepared using a cheap plant-based material called Euphorbia macroclada, which was chemically modified with K2CO3. Lagergren-first-order

  12. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Each hair follicle contains a certain number of pigment cells. These pigment cells continuously produce a chemical called melanin (say: ... each hair contains. As we get older, the pigment cells in our hair follicles gradually die. When ...

  13. Simple reversible fiber optic chemical sensors using solvatochromic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, S. M.; Anderson, Brian L.; Langry, Kevin C.

    1992-03-01

    There are many environmental and process-control sensor applications where speed and reversibility are more important than selectivity. These might include monitoring the fate and transport of contaminants in laboratory columns and microcosms, measuring hydrocarbons in waste treatment streams, mapping the extent of a plume of a known contaminant, or monitoring solvent concentrations (e.g., acetone, dichloromethane, etc.) in a manufacturing process stream. In each case, there is prior knowledge of the type of contaminant and interferences, and in many cases the target molecule is at a relatively high concentration. For such applications, the sensor should be fast and reversible to allow real-time tracking of rapidly changing concentrations; however, it does not need to be very selective and might even respond to a wide variety of compounds. We are exploring new types of sensors for these applications. The sensors are based on reversible color changes that occur when solvatochromic (SV) dyes experience polarity changes. The optical sensors are made by immobilizing the SV dye in a polymer film that is coated on the end of a clad optical fiber or on the sides (i.e., evanescent region) of an unclad optical fiber. For the sensors described here interaction of a fluorescent SV dye with analyte vapors changes the amount of light absorbed by the dye and thus the fluorescence intensity that is measured with the optical fiber. Initial experiments have focused on fuel-related contaminants (e.g., xylene, benzene), and commercial solvents (e.g., acetone, dichloromethane--DCM). This paper will focus on the xylene and DCM results.

  14. Photophysical and quantum chemical studies on the interactions of oxazine-1 dye with cucurbituril macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Mhejabeen; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Mohanty, Jyotirmayee; Bhasikuttan, Achikanath C; Pal, Haridas

    2015-02-19

    Supramolecular host-guest interaction of cationic oxazine-1 (OX1) dye with two cucurbit[n]uril (CBn) hosts, namely, CB7 and CB8, has been investigated using photophysical and quantum chemical studies. Both CB7 and CB8 display much stronger binding affinities for OX1 dye compared to conventional cyclodextrin (CD) hosts, which arises due to strong ion-dipole interaction in stabilizing the dye-host inclusion complexes in the present systems. From photophysical studies supported by (1)H NMR results and quantum chemical calculations, it is inferred that 1:1 inclusion complexes are mainly formed in the present systems, though a small percentage of 1:2 (dye·host2) complexes are also indicated from time-resolved (TR) fluorescence studies. Longer rotational relaxation times for dye-CBn systems compared to the free dye as estimated from TR anisotropy studies support the inclusion complex formation in the present systems. The binding constant value is estimated to be significantly higher for the OX1-CB7 system than the OX1-CB8 system, and these results are in accordance with compatible portal diameter of CB7 cavity compared to the much larger portal diameter of CB8 cavity relative to the width of the OX1 molecule. Accordingly, CB7 cavity renders a relatively stronger binding than the CB8 cavity for an axially incorporated OX1 dye into the host cavity. Results from the quantum chemical calculations are overall supportive to the inferences drawn from photophysical measurements. Observed results clearly suggest that the dimensions of the CBn cavities play an important role in determining the interaction strength and stoichiometry of the host-guest complexes formed and thus bring out significant changes in the photophysical properties of the bound dye. The host-assisted modulation in the photophysical properties of the dye, as observed in the present study, has a direct relevance to applications like aqueous dye lasers, sensors, fluorescence assays, and so on. PMID:25601388

  15. Distribution and localization of hydrophobic and ionic chemical groups at the surface of bleached human hair fibers.

    PubMed

    Korte, Michael; Akari, Sabri; Kühn, Harald; Baghdadli, Nawel; Möhwald, Helmuth; Luengo, Gustavo S

    2014-10-21

    A chemical mapping with high lateral resolution using an atomic force microscope in the pulsed force mode with chemically modified tips, introduced as "dynamic chemical force microscopy" (dCFM), was carried out to investigate the chemical properties of the cuticle of human hair and its changes following an oxidative treatment. Chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips, CH3- and NH2-terminated, were applied to achieve a defined chemical contrast (hydrophobic and ionic) in aqueous medium. A comparative Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection identified the dominant chemical groups of the surface vicinity of the hair fiber resulting from the bleaching process. The combined experimental results lead to the conclusion that the hydrophobic top layer is partially removed after bleaching, resulting mostly in hydrophilic SO3(-) end groups at the top of the surface of the hair, with a mean surface density "?(mean)" of negatively charged groups of approximately 2.2 molecules/nm(2), corresponding to ?600 ?g/m(2) cysteic acid. This indicates that thioester bonds are disrupted and fatty acids are removed as a result of cysteine oxidation. At the molecular level, our results indicate a clustered "self-assembled monolayer" alignment of cysteic acid with a crystal-like structuring, reminiscent of the "fluid mosaic model of cell membranes", with a surface energy of approximately 0.04 N/m. Despite previous extensive works of AFM on human hair, this is, to our knowledge, the first time that the hydrophobic and ionic sites at the top surface of hair have been imaged at the nanoscale with dCFM. PMID:25203784

  16. Kinetics of chemical decolorization of the azo dye C.I. Reactive Orange 96 by sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Yoo

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of decolorization of azo dyes based on the extracellular chemical reduction with sulfide (H2S, HS?, S2?) was postulated for sulfate reducing environments. To design technical decolorization processes of textile wastewater treatment with sulfide produced by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), kinetics is of great significance. Batch experiments were made in order to investigate the kinetics of abiotic decolorization of

  17. CHEMICAL- AND SEDIMENT-MEDIATED REDUCTION OF THE AZO DYE DISPERSE BLUE 79

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disperse Blue 79, a large volume disperse azo dye, and 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline (BDNA), an important intermediate in the preparation of Disperse Blue 79, were readily reduced chemically and in three anoxic sediment-water systems studied; half-lives were on the order of minutes ...

  18. Detection of alprazolam in hair by negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin M. Höld; Dennis J. Crouch; Diana G. Wilkins; Douglas E. Rollins; Robert A. Maes

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive and specific method for the quantitative determination of alprazolam (AL) in hair has been developed. After the addition of deuterium labeled triazolam as an internal standard, hair samples (20 mg) were digested with 1 N NaOH at 40 °C overnight. Calibrators containing known concentrations of AL dried onto drug-free hair were also prepared and digested. After digestion, the

  19. Microscopic hair changes associated with hair coloring, hair waving and hair ironing in Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Talghini, Shahla; Ranjkesh, Mohammadreza

    2013-10-15

    Although, of no vital value, hair plays a significant role in expressing any person's psychosocial status. Many cosmetic and styling methods are available for hair. This study aimed to examine the microscopic changes in women with hair coloring, hair waving, or hair ironing in comparison with normal controls. In a cross-sectional study, 154 Iranian women were recruited and categorized in 4 groups: controls (n = 35) who had not dyed, waved or ironed their hair within the last 6 months; dyed-hair group (n = 49) who had dyed their hair using standard chemical hair colors at least three times within the last 6 months; waved-hair group (n = 35) who had frizzled their hair within the last 6 months and ironed-hair group (n = 35) who had ironed their hair at least 3 times a weak using a temperature more than 30 degrees C within the last 6 months. Hair samples of all four groups were examined microscopically, and the results were compared with the controls. The rate of abnormal findings was 17.1% in the controls, 53.1% in the dyed-hair group, 45.7% in the waved-hair group, and 54.3% in the ironed-hair group. Abnormal findings were significantly more frequent in the last three groups comparing with the controls (p < 0.05). Trichorrhexis was 17.1, 34.7, 40 and 11.4%; kinking was 0, 2, 2.9 and 25.7%; pseudo pili-annulati was 0, 6.1, 0 and 17.1%; trichonodosis was 0, 6.1, 0 and 0%; tracheoschises was 0, 2, 2.9 and 0% and trichoptilosis was 0, 2, 0 and 0% in the mentioned groups, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, hair coloring, waving and ironing all can induce abnormalities in the hair in comparison with the hairs of nonusers. PMID:24506020

  20. Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. PMID:24817050

  1. Current chemical concepts of acids and bases and their application to anionic (“acid”) and cationic (“basic”) dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Puchtler; S. N. Meloan; M. Spencer

    1985-01-01

    Summary In biomedical studies, dyes are divided into “acid” and “basic” dyes. This classification cannot be reconciled with current chemical definitions of acids and bases. Brönsted-Lowry acids are compounds that can donate protons; bases are proton acceptors. The definition of acids and bases is independent of the electric charge, i.e. acids and bases can be neutral, anionic or cationic. Reactions

  2. Exogenous Factors in Hair Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liran Horev

    2004-01-01

    The health and beauty of human hair have immeasurable psychological importance. Hair structure and its cycle are influenced by intentionally or nonintentionally delivered factors such as grooming, heat styling, chemical agents and climatic exposure. All of these factors are capable of causing loss of hair color and luster, harshness, stiffness, weakness, brittleness and flyaway, transient loss of hair or scarring

  3. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives, spices, or other articles in any official establishment shall be taken, without cost to the Program, for examination, as often as may be deemed necessary for the efficient conduct of the...

  4. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives, spices, or other articles in any official establishment shall be taken, without cost to the Program, for examination, as often as may be deemed necessary for the efficient conduct of the...

  5. The characterisation of treated and dyed hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Guthrie; A. Kazlauciunas; L. Rongong; S. Rush

    1995-01-01

    Studies have been undertaken to evaluate some of the factors that influence the dyeing of hair with dyes from the Arianor series. Dyed, bleached and untreated hair was examined by differential thermal analysis, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and surface potential assessment. It has been found that marked changes in surface potentials arise on relatively mild treatment of

  6. On-Line Diffusion Profile of a Lipophilic Model Dye in Different Depths of a Hair Follicle in Human Scalp Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ylva Y. Grams; Lynne Whitehead; Gerda Lamers; Nico Sturmann; Joke A. Bouwstra

    2005-01-01

    In skin and hair research, drug targeting to the hair follicle is of great interest in the treatment of skin diseases. The aim of this study is to visualize on-line the diffusion processes of a model fluorophore into the hair follicle at different depths using fresh human scalp skin and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Up to a depth of 500

  7. Correlating Titania Morphology and Chemical Composition with Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Santulli, A.C.; Wong, S.; Koenigsmann, C.; Tiano, A.L., DeRosa, D.

    2011-04-20

    We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO{sub 2} as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural morphology of films of these nanostructured materials has been directly characterized using SEM and indirectly probed using dye desorption. Furthermore, the surfaces of these nanomaterials were studied using TEM in order to visualize their structure, prior to their application within DSSCs. Surface areas of the materials have been quantitatively analyzed by collecting BET adsorption and dye desorption data. Additional investigation using open circuit voltage decay measurements reveals the efficiency of electron conduction through each TiO{sub 2} material. Moreover, the utilization of various chemically distinctive titanate materials within the DSSCs has also been investigated, demonstrating the deficiencies of using these particular chemical compositions within traditional DSSCs.

  8. Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the substance that gives hair and skin its pigment. The lighter someone's hair, the less melanin there ... or red hair. Older people lose the melanin pigment in their hair as they age, making their ...

  9. Effect of different human hair bleaching conditions on the hair coloration with hair boosting shampoo as colorant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; K. W. Lau; Y. L. Chow

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, detailed simulation of human hair bleaching was conducted. The materials and chemical used as well as the hair\\u000a bleaching procedures were described. After bleaching, the colour change of the hair was evaluated in accordance with CIE Lab\\u000a system and the hair bleaching results was analysed. Following the hair bleaching process, hair coloration was employed with\\u000a the use

  10. Electron spectroscopy and microscopy applied to chemical and structural analysis of hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Beard; A. Johnson; F. M. Cambria; P. N. Trinh

    2005-01-01

    The application of surface specific x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) will be shown to be an effective means for the elucidation of hair fiber surface chemistry and structure. Example studies of bleaching and fiber conditioning treatments are discussed. The bleached fiber surface is found to become more hydrophilic due to the loss of the naturally occurring

  11. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hair treatments include hair coloring, hair curling (permanents), hair bleaching, and hair straightening (relaxers) agents. Hair coloring procedures ... the second is a fixation or neutralization solution. Hair bleaching involves the use of hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners ...

  12. Hair Removal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... maintain a steady temperature by providing some insulation. Terminal hair is coarser, darker, and longer than vellus ... hair that grows on your head. Around puberty, terminal hair starts to grow in the armpits and ...

  13. Room-temperature chemical integration of ZnO nanoarchitectures on plastic substrates for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Geng-Jia; Lin, Shou-Yen; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    ZnO nanoarchitectured anodes composed of the ZnO nanocactus array and the top ZnO particle layer are chemically integrated on ITO-PET substrates using a facile room-temperature chemical bath deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the absence of high-temperature post-treatment and mechanical compression, a notable efficiency of 5.24% is simply achieved in the flexible ZnO DSSC. PMID:24362771

  14. Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Dyed Hair by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J

    2015-06-16

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces into the hair matrix a complex mixture of chemicals that interferes with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS(3) scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg of hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrixes and showed good linearity (40-1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value of r(2) > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semicontrolled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in nondyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet. PMID:25969997

  15. Surface-activated chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry for the analysis of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in hair after extraction and sample dilution.

    PubMed

    Cristoni, Simone; Basso, Elisa; Gerthoux, Piermario; Mocarelli, Paolo; Gonella, Elisabetta; Brambilla, Maura; Crotti, Sara; Bernardi, Luigi Rossi

    2007-01-01

    Surface-activated chemical ionization (SACI) was employed for the analysis of cocaine and its metabolite, benzoylecgonine, extracted from hair. Following decontamination and acid hydrolysis procedures on the hair sample, the sample solution was diluted (1:10) and directly analyzed by liquid chromatography/surface-activated chemical ionization multiple collisional stage single reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC/SACI-MS(3)-SRM) without solid-phase extraction (SPE) pre-purification and concentration procedures. To increase the selectivity of the method, MS(3) was chosen instead of the less selective MS/MS. This data was compared with that achieved using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), the reference method used by the Italian Government Institute of Health protocol. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.003 ng/(mg hair) for cocaine and 0.02 ng/(mg hair) for benzoylecgonine and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 0.01 ng/(mg hair) for cocaine and 0.04 ng/(mg hair) for benzoylecgonine. The squared correlation coefficient (R(2)) of the calibration curve was 0.9887-0.9980 for cocaine and 0.9987-0.9997 for benzoylecgonine. The percent accuracy error was 2-5% for both cocaine and benzoylecgonine using the LC/SACI-MS(3)-SRM approach, whereas it was higher for benzoylecgonine (20-25%) using the LC/SACI-MS/MS-SRM approach compared with the GC/MS data due to hair matrix contamination. In both cases, high precision was achieved (1-3% precision error), which confirmed the stability of the developed methods. PMID:17610217

  16. Dyeing, moisture regain and mechanical properties of wool fabric grafted with PMMA by chemical and radiation-initiated methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Naggar, A. M.; Marie, M. M.; El Gendy, E. H.; El Miligy, A. A.

    1996-04-01

    PMMA polymer has been grafted onto wool fabric by two methods of grafting preirradiation method and chemical initiation using KMnO 4/H 2SO 4 system. The grafted wool showed an enhancement in dyeability towards some basic dyes differing in size and chemical structure. Preirradiated grafted wool exhibited a relatively higher dyeing affinity than that prepared by the chemical method. Graft yield of up to 26% of PPMA did not have a noticeable effect on the moisture regain of wool fabric. Further increase in graft yield was found to cause a slight reduction in moisture regain. The tensile strength was reduced by the graft process, but elongation at break was not affected.

  17. Forensic discrimination of dyed hair color: I. UV-visible microspectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Julie A; Siegel, Jay A; Goodpaster, John V

    2010-03-01

    Current protocols for examining hair do not attempt to differentiate hair color using instrumental analysis. In this study, hair samples treated with 55 different red hair dyes were analyzed using UV-visible microspectrophotometry between 200 and 700 nm. Using air as a background reference gave the best results, although mounting media such as glycerin could also be used. The contribution of the hair substrate is predominantly observed in the range of 300-400 nm while the dye peak is evident in the range of 425-550 nm. It was found that the presence of hair dye reduces the overall intrasample variability of the hair color. In addition, visual inspection and spectral interpretation showed that dyed hair exhibits distinct and discernable shades. The color of all samples was stable during storage and while all hair dyes fade with washing, significant fading of the color was only evident after daily washing for 3 weeks. PMID:20141558

  18. Facile fabrication of mesoporous TiO 2 electrodes for dye solar cells: chemical modification and repetitive coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seigo Ito; Takayuki Kitamura; Yuji Wada; Shozo Yanagida

    2003-01-01

    A chemical dispersing technique for preparing a coating paste of TiO2 nanoparticles is disclosed to fabricate mesoporous electrodes for dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells. The suspension of TiO2 (P-25) powder was stirred in aqueous nitric acid at 80°C, and then evaporated to dryness, giving the nitric acid-adsorbed P-25 powder. The coating paste was obtained by mixing the nitric acid-adsorbed P-25 with

  19. Chemical bath deposition of ZnO nanowire nanoparticle composite electrodes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen-Hao Ku; Jih-Jen Wu

    2007-01-01

    ZnO nanowire (NW)-layered basic zinc acetate (LBZA)\\/ZnO nanoparticle (NP) composite electrodes with different NP occupying extents have been synthesized using a simple wet-chemical route for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By employing mercurochrome as the sensitizer, superior efficiencies (eta) of 1.27-2.37% are obtained using the ZnO NW-LBZA\\/ZnO NP composite electrodes composed of a 5.5 µm thick NW array with

  20. Screening for forensically relevant benzodiazepines in human hair by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Cirimele; P. Kintz; B. Ludes

    1997-01-01

    A procedure is presented for the detection in human hair of forensically relevant benzodiazepines, i.e. nordiazepam, oxazepem, bromazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, flunitrazepam, alprazolam and triazolam. The method involves decontamination of hair with methylene chloride, pulverization in a ball mill, incubation of 50 mg powdered hair in Soerensen buffer (pH 7.6) in the presence of prazepam-d5 used as internal standard, liquid-liquid extraction

  1. Phenylazoindole dyes - Part I: The syntheses, characterizations, crystal structures, quantum chemical calculations and antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefero?lu, Zeynel; Yalç?n, Ergin; Babür, Banu; Sefero?lu, Nurgül; Hökelek, Tuncer; Y?lmaz, Ebru; ?ahin, Ertan

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the synthesis of four new phenylazo indole dyes (dye 1-4) were carried out by diazotization of 4-aminoacetophenone and coupling with various 2- and 1,2-disubstituted indole derivatives. The dyes were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, HRMS and X-ray single crystal diffraction methods. Azo-hydrazone tautomeric bahavior of the dyes in different solvents (DMSO, methanol, acetic acid and chloroform) was investigated by using 1H NMR and UV-vis results. The experimental results were compared with the corresponding calculated values. The results of experimental data and theoretical calculations showed that the azo tautomer is more stable than hydrazone tautomer. In addition to this, the antimicrobial activity of the dyes was also evaluated.

  2. Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found significant differences in the binding behavior of cationic polymers and surfactants (polyquaternium-55 and quaternium-26) on both hair types. PMID:24139434

  3. Adsorptive removal of basic dye by chemically activated Parthenium biomass: equilibrium and kinetic modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hem Lata; V. K. Garg; R. K. Gupta

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the removal of a basic dye (rhodamine-B) by the activated carbon prepared from Parthenium biomass by sulphuric acid treatment method (SWC). The effectiveness of the prepared adsorbent has been studied as a function of agitation time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and pH. The removal of rhodamine-B by SWC followed second order kinetic model. The second order

  4. Development of Multiscale Simulator for Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Nanoporous Electrode Based on Quantum Chemical Calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiya, Kei; Lv, Chen; Suzuki, Ai; Sahnoun, Riadh; Koyama, Michihisa; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Momoji; Del Carpio, Carlos A.; Miyamoto, Akira

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we have developed a novel multiscale simulator for a dye-sensitized TiO2 porous electrode. In the simulator, we can estimate the properties of the dye-sensitized TiO2 porous electrode using the three-dimensional mesoscopic structure model constructed on the basis of our original porous structure simulator. The microscopic physical properties of the materials were estimated by quantum chemistry calculation using a tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics program. From the calculation results, we determined the absorption coefficient and the diffusion coefficient of excited carriers used in the macroscopic simulation for photoelectrode characteristics. By using this multiscale simulator, we will be able to determine the best electrode system efficiently.

  5. Study of a natural dye solubilisation in o\\/w microemulsions and its dyeing behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roshan Paul; Conxita Solans; Pilar Erra

    2005-01-01

    The manufacture of synthetic dyes involves many non eco-friendly chemical procedures. For this reason, the application of natural dyes in textile dyeing is being explored worldwide. The dye exhaustion, fixation and levelness of dyeing depends on several factors such as the properties of fibres, the molecular structure of dyes, and the medium of the dyebath. The solubilisation of insoluble natural

  6. Hair casts.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Sweta S; Parmar, Kirti S; Shah, Bela J

    2014-10-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

  7. Hair casts

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Sweta S.; Parmar, Kirti S.; Shah, Bela J.

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

  8. Dry hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air (environmental dryness) Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition (for example, kwashiorkor disease ) Underactive parathyroid ( hypoparathyroidism ) Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism )

  9. Low temperature preparation of mesoporous TiO 2 films for efficient dye-sensitized photoelectrode by chemical vapor deposition combined with UV light irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takurou N. Murakami; Yujiro Kijitori; Norimichi Kawashima; Tsutomu Miyasaka

    2004-01-01

    A new method for fabricating plastic film-based mesoporous TiO2 electrodes for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells is described. TiO2 nanocrystalline layers electrophoretically deposited on indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film was post-treated with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of Ti alkoxide followed by UV light irradiation at temperatures below 110°C. UV-assisted CVD treatment drastically enhanced dye-sensitized photocurrent and improved photovoltage up to

  10. Purification and characterization of an extracellular laccase from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes, and decolorization of chemically different dyes.

    PubMed

    Nagai, M; Sato, T; Watanabe, H; Saito, K; Kawata, M; Enei, H

    2002-11-01

    A laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Lentinula edodes. The enzyme was purified to a homogeneous preparation using hydrophobic, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatographies. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the purified laccase, Lcc 1, to be a monomeric protein of 72.2 kDa. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of around pH 3.0. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was around 4.0, and it was most active at 40 degrees C and stable up to 35 degrees C. The enzyme contained 23.8% carbohydrate and some copper atoms. The enzyme oxidized 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, p-phenylendiamine, pyrogallol, guaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, catechol, and ferulic acid, but not veratryl alcohol, tyrosine, and beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) alanine. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc 1 showed close homology to the N-terminal sequences determined for laccases from Phlebia radiata, Trametes villosa, and Trametes versicolor, but only low similarity was observed to a previously reported laccase from L. edodes. Lcc 1 was effective in the decolorization of chemically different dyes - Remazole Brilliant Blue R, Bromophenol Blue, methyl red, and Naphtol Blue Black - without any mediators, but the decolorization of two dyes - red poly(vinylamine)sulfonate-anthrapyridone dye and Reactive Orange 16 - did require some redox mediators. PMID:12436315

  11. A versatile chemical conversion synthesis of Cu2S nanotubes and the photovoltaic activities for dye-sensitized solar cell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A versatile, low-temperature, and low-cost chemical conversion synthesis has been developed to prepare copper sulfide (Cu2S) nanotubes. The successful chemical conversion from ZnS nanotubes to Cu2S ones profits by the large difference in solubility between ZnS and Cu2S. The morphology, structure, and composition of the yielded products have been examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements. We have further successfully employed the obtained Cu2S nanotubes as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The light-to-electricity conversion results show that the Cu2S nanostructures exhibit high photovoltaic conversion efficiency due to the increased surface area and the good electrocatalytical activity of Cu2S. The present chemical route provides a simple way to synthesize Cu2S nanotubes with a high surface area for nanodevice applications. PMID:25246878

  12. A versatile chemical conversion synthesis of Cu2S nanotubes and the photovoltaic activities for dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Xuemin; Shen, Wenzhong; Hou, Zhaoyang; Ke, Sanmin; Xu, Chunlong; Jiang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    A versatile, low-temperature, and low-cost chemical conversion synthesis has been developed to prepare copper sulfide (Cu2S) nanotubes. The successful chemical conversion from ZnS nanotubes to Cu2S ones profits by the large difference in solubility between ZnS and Cu2S. The morphology, structure, and composition of the yielded products have been examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements. We have further successfully employed the obtained Cu2S nanotubes as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The light-to-electricity conversion results show that the Cu2S nanostructures exhibit high photovoltaic conversion efficiency due to the increased surface area and the good electrocatalytical activity of Cu2S. The present chemical route provides a simple way to synthesize Cu2S nanotubes with a high surface area for nanodevice applications. PMID:25246878

  13. Chemical and structural evaluation of activated carbon prepared from jute sticks for Brilliant Green dye removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Kabir, Mohammad Shajahan; Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Miyazawa, Tomohisa

    2010-02-15

    Activated carbons have been prepared from jute sticks by chemical activation using ZnCl(2) and physical activation using steam for the removal of Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solution. The activated carbons and charcoal prepared from jute sticks were characterized by evaluating the surface chemistry, structural features and surface morphology. The maximum BET surface area was obtained to be 2304 m(2)/g for chemical activated carbon (ACC) while it is 730 and 80 m(2)/g for steam activated carbon (ACS) and charcoal, respectively. The FT-IR spectra exhibited that the pyrolysis and steam activation of jute sticks resulted in the release of aliphatic and O-containing functional groups by thermal effect. However, the release of functional groups is the effect of chemical reaction in the ZnCl(2) activation process. A honeycomb-type carbon structure in ACC was formed as observed on SEM images. Although charcoal and ACC were prepared at 500 degrees C the ACC exhibited much lower Raman sensitivity due to the formation of condensed aromatic ring systems. Due to high surface area and high porous structure with abundance of functional groups, the ACC adsorbed dye molecules with much higher efficiency than those of ACS and charcoal. PMID:19815339

  14. Chemical modification of chitosan by tetraethylenepentamine and adsorption study for anionic dye removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Yi Huang; Xiao-Yun Mao; Huai-Tian Bu; Xiao-Yuan Yu; Gang-Biao Jiang; Ming-Hua Zeng

    2011-01-01

    To utilize the contribution of introduced amino groups to the adsorption of an anionic dye (eosin Y), a batch adsorption system was applied to study the adsorption of eosin Y from aqueous solution by tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) modified chitosan (TEPA–CS). Experiments were carried out as a function of particle size, initial pH, agitation rate, adsorbent dosage, agitation period, temperature and initial

  15. Development and validation of a gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair and its application to forensic toxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hicham Kharbouche; Frank Sporkert; Stéphanie Troxler; Marc Augsburger; Patrice Mangin; Christian Staub

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor and direct metabolite of ethanol. EtG is incorporated into the growing hair allowing retrospective investigation of chronic alcohol abuse. In this study, we report the development and the validation of a method using gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC–NCI-MS\\/MS) for the quantification of EtG in hair. EtG was extracted from about 30mg

  16. Room-temperature chemical integration of ZnO nanoarchitectures on plastic substrates for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Geng-Jia; Lin, Shou-Yen; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    ZnO nanoarchitectured anodes composed of the ZnO nanocactus array and the top ZnO particle layer are chemically integrated on ITO-PET substrates using a facile room-temperature chemical bath deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the absence of high-temperature post-treatment and mechanical compression, a notable efficiency of 5.24% is simply achieved in the flexible ZnO DSSC.ZnO nanoarchitectured anodes composed of the ZnO nanocactus array and the top ZnO particle layer are chemically integrated on ITO-PET substrates using a facile room-temperature chemical bath deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the absence of high-temperature post-treatment and mechanical compression, a notable efficiency of 5.24% is simply achieved in the flexible ZnO DSSC. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images of ZnO NP seed layer, XRD pattern of ZnO TP film, photographs of the flexible ZnO NC-TP anode and the corresponding DSSC, influences of array length on density of primary NW array as well as Jsc and efficiency of the ZnO NC DSSCs, photovoltaic performances of flexible D149-sensitized ZnO NC-TP DSSCs fabricated using 10 ?m thick ZnO NC arrays and ZnO TP films with various thicknesses, J-V curve of ZnO NC-TP-g DSSC, transmittance spectra of ITO-PET and ITO-glass substrates, and bending test results of the unsealed ZnO NC-TP DSSC cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05267b

  17. Treatment of a wastewater resulting from dyes manufacturing with ozone and chemical coagulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Sarasa; M. P Roche; M. P Ormad; E Gimeno; A Puig; J. L Ovelleiro

    1998-01-01

    The degradation of the compounds present in a previously chlorinated wastewater resulting from the production of azoic dyes has been studied in this project. Towards this end, the first step developed was the characterization of the spillage water by GC\\/MS and GC\\/FID. Secondly, a combined ozone+Ca(OH)2 treatment was carried out, determining its efficiency on this wastewater. The majority of compounds

  18. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of human hair.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Alexander; Riemann, Iris; Stark, Martin; König, Karsten

    2007-02-01

    In vivo and in vitro multiphoton imaging was used to perform high resolution optical sectioning of human hair by nonlinear excitation of endogenous as well as exogenous fluorophores. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) based on time-resolved single photon counting and near-infrared femtosecond laser pulse excitation was employed to analyze the various fluorescent hair components. Time-resolved multiphoton imaging of intratissue pigments has the potential (i) to identify endogenous keratin and melanin, (ii) to obtain information on intrahair dye accumulation, (iii) to study bleaching effects, and (iv) to monitor the intratissue diffusion of pharmaceutical and cosmetical components along hair shafts. PMID:17152070

  19. Comparison of the effects of some reactive chemicals on the proteins of whole hair, cuticle and cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH CHAO; A. EDWARD NEWSOM; IRENE M. WAINWRIGHT; ROGER A. MATHEWS

    treatments and by alkali relaxing to the greatest extent of all. The radioactive tagging experiments showed that virgin hair contains an appreciable number of free sulfhydryl groups and that the treatmen. ts, except for bleaching, increase the number of such groups. The data suggest that sulfhydryl groups were about equally distributed between cuticle and cortex protein after thioglycolate reduction and

  20. Topical liposome delivery of molecules to hair follicles in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingna Li; Robert M. Hoffman

    1997-01-01

    The hair cycle consisting of growing and resting phases, is subject to widespread disease such as androgenic alopecia or loss of pigment which are in need of effective, targeted therapeutics. In order to develop a hair-follicle delivery system we demonstrate here that phosphatidylcholine liposomes entrapping either the fluorescent dye calcein or the pigment melanin can deliver these molecules into the

  1. UV-vis spectroscopy and semiempirical quantum chemical studies on methyl derivatives of annulated analogues of azafluoranthene and azulene dyes.

    PubMed

    Danel, K S; Gasiorski, P; Matusiewicz, M; Ca?us, S; Uchacz, T; Kityk, A V

    2010-09-15

    Paper reports the measured optical absorption and fluorescence spectra of 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-7-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (MCPDPPQ), as well as 6-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-3H-indeno[1,2,3-de]pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (MDPIPQ) and 9-methyl-6-phenyl-6H-5,6,7-triazadibenzo[f,h]naphtho[3,2,1-cd]azulene (MPTNA) representing cyclized five- or seven-membered regioisomeric products of MCPDPPQ, respectively. The spectra has been recorded in solvents of different polarity and compared with the results of quantum chemical calculations performed by means of the semiempirical method PM3 in combination with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Cyclization of MCPDPPQ into MDPIPQ or MPTNA is accompanied by a significant red shift of the first optical absorption and fluorescence bands. While the solvent polarity rises all the dyes exhibit the blue shift of the first absorption band and the red shift of the fluorescence band. These trends have been reproduced within the semiempirical calculations in combination with the Lippert-Mataga dielectric polarization model and explained by specific orientations of the dipole moments in the ground and excited states. All dyes may be considered as candidates for the luminescent or electroluminescent applications. Depending on solvent polarity they emit light in the green-yellow range of the visible spectra. PMID:20510645

  2. Photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye using Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin film prepared by chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marathe, Sunil D.; Shrivastava, Vinod S.

    2015-02-01

    Many attempts have been made by researchers for the removal of various dyes using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2; however, removal of `hazardous Ponceau S dye' using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 has been not studied yet. In the present work, environmental application of Nano structured Ni doped TiO2 has been studied. Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by the chemical method on a glass substrate. The prepared thin film was characterized by XRD, SEM, and EDX. The crystal size calculated from XRD is about 26.2 nm. The SEM analysis reveals nano spherical morphology of average particle size about 92 nm. The optical analysis was carried by using UV-visible spectroscopy. The band gap estimated from absorbance spectra for thin film was around 3.5 eV, making suitable Ni-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye. In photocatalytic application different parameters like dye concentration, contact time, pH, UV light and sunlight were optimized for the removal of Ponceau S dye, respectively. The change in chemical oxygen demand after photo catalytic treatment was also studied.

  3. The construction of tandem dye-sensitized solar cells from chemically-derived nanoporous photoelectrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hongsik; Hwang, Taehyun; Lee, Sangheon; Nam, Seunghoon; Kang, Joonhyeon; Lee, Byungho; Park, Byungwoo

    2015-01-01

    A tandem dye-sensitized solar cell (tandem-DSSC) was synthesized on the basis of thin-film semiconductor electrodes. The nanoporous p-type NiO films were successfully obtained by simultaneous deposition of Al and Ni, followed by selective etching of Al and oxidation. Likewise, the n-type photoanode was made where Ag was etched in nitric acid after the initial formation of Ag/TiO2 nanocomposites. Such dye-sensitized photoelectrodes were combined to construct a tandem solar cell which exhibited an enhanced open-circuit voltage. Also, the tandem devices were subjected to various light fluxes to correlate the experimental cell parameters (open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, fill factor, recombination shunt resistance, etc.) with the ideal one-diode model. Interestingly, impedance spectra of the tandem cell was well matched with the parameters from each of the n-type or p-type DSSC, indicative of successfully-designed tandem structure.

  4. Dyeing Wool with Fungi

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sue Assinder

    2002-01-01

    In this activity (p.23 of PDF), learners dye wool with fungi. Learners discover that natural chemicals in fungi can dye wool different colors. Note: Natural dyeing normally requires a color fixative such as alum. This is not necessary if you use an aluminum, tin, or copper pot as the metal in the pot will take part in the dyeing reaction. However, if you use a non-stick saucepan you should add a few copper coins to the mix. Safety note: Always wash your hands after touching fungi! Adult supervision recommended.

  5. Hair colouring, permanent styling and hair structure.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S; Sinclair, R

    2003-07-01

    Hair is an important component of body image and has immense psychological importance for both men and women. Women, in particular, over the ages have modified their appearance through changing their hair colour or style. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown or red. These natural variations are an important part of our identity that can be manipulated according to the dictates of fashion, culture or society. Different types of hair have varying affinity for the different colouring and waving methods. Damaged hair also has a different affinity for hair products than normal healthy hair. The hair shaft is remarkably strong and resistant to the extremes of nature. Hair cosmetics are widely available and manipulate the structural properties of hair. Whilst most procedures are safe, there is considerable potential for damage to the hair and hair problems of acute onset, including hair breakage, hair loss and loss of condition, are frequently blamed on the last product used on the hair. Hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair. PMID:17163926

  6. CHEMICAL LEUCODERMA: INDIAN SCENARIO, PROGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, A K; Saraswat, Abir; Srivastav, P K

    2010-01-01

    Chemical leucoderma is an industrial disorder in developed countries and the common causative chemicals are phenols and catechols. Due to stringent controls and preventive measures the incidence has come down. In the recent past various chemicals in consumer products have also been documented to produce depigmentation. In India due to lax quality control measures chemical leucoderma due to consumer items is not uncommon.The various consumer items documented to cause contact depigmentation are sticker bindis, rain shoes, plastic chappals, hair dye/ black henna(kali mehndi), alta, wallets and even mobile plastic covers. PMID:21063517

  7. Fundamental DSC investigations of alpha-keratinous materials as basis for the interpretation of specific effects of chemical, cosmetic treatments on human hair.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, F-J; Sendelbach, G; Popescu, C

    2007-01-01

    Alpha-keratinous materials can be considered as two-phase, filament/matrix composites, in which partly crystalline, alpha-helical intermediate filaments (if) are embedded in an amorphous matrix of IF-associated proteins (IFAP). Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) of keratins in water was found to be especially suited to analyze various aspects of the thermal stability of these main morphological components. Results and considerations are reviewed, which were gained by applying the principles derived from fundamental investigations to the specific effects of oxidation (bleaching) and reduction (perm-waving). Properties and interactions of the main morphological components of human hair are considered that are specifically related to the various aspects of their thermal stability. The overall view of the results shows that the course of the thermal unfolding of the alpha-helix in the IFs is independent of the chemical history of hair. The matrix properties are the primary factor controlling the kinetics of the onset of the denaturation process in the IF/IFAP-composite. PMID:17728931

  8. Prevention of hair surface aging.

    PubMed

    Wiesche, Erik Schulze Zur; Körner, Andrea; Schäfer, Karola; Wortmann, Franz-Josef

    2011-01-01

    The hydrophobic character of the surface of human hair is particularly attributed to the lipid components of the epicuticle and to a layer of covalently bound fatty acids. This outer f-layer mainly consists of 18-methyl eicosanoic acid (18-MEA), which is covalently bound to the underlying protein matrix, forming the epicuticle as composite surface structure. Daily weathering and chemical treatments, specifically oxidative bleaching, decrease the hydrophobicity of the outer hair surface drastically.Multiple daily stress, simulated by an automatic test device including shampooing, blow drying and sun light exposure, changed the lipid composition of hair significantly. A marked loss of 18-MEA was observed. Decreasing contact angles are the direct consequence. A new method to determine the "pseudo-static" contact angle on hair was developed. The results correlate with the corresponding data obtained by dynamic contact angle measurements according to Wilhelmy. Besides that, the resorption time of water droplets by the hair surface provides additional information about the intactness of the outer f-layer.Specific proteolipids, which are lipid-modified keratins, are able to reconstruct the surface layer of damaged hair by creating renewed surface hydrophobicity and extending the water resorption time by the hair surface. PMID:21635851

  9. Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won-Soo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine,

  10. Chemistry of hair colorant processesScience as an aid to formulation and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN F. CORBETT

    The chemistry of color formation in permanent hair colorants is discussed with particular reference to the in-fiber production of blue, red, and yellow dyes and to the effect of pH on the relative rates of formation of these dyes. The formulation of semipermanent (direct) colorants requires consideration of molecular size, wash fastness, light fastness, and color of the dyes used.

  11. Chemical modification of chitosan by tetraethylenepentamine and adsorption study for anionic dye removal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Yi; Mao, Xiao-Yun; Bu, Huai-Tian; Yu, Xiao-Yuan; Jiang, Gang-Biao; Zeng, Ming-Hua

    2011-07-15

    To utilize the contribution of introduced amino groups to the adsorption of an anionic dye (eosin Y), a batch adsorption system was applied to study the adsorption of eosin Y from aqueous solution by tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) modified chitosan (TEPA-CS). Experiments were carried out as a function of particle size, initial pH, agitation rate, adsorbent dosage, agitation period, temperature and initial concentration of eosin Y. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to fit the adsorption isotherms. From the values of correlation coefficients (R2), it was observed that the experimental data fit very well to the Langmuir model, giving a maximum sorption capacity of 292.4mg/g at 298K. Kinetic studies showed that the kinetic data were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic study revealed negative value of enthalpy change (?H°) and free energy change (?G°), indicating spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption of eosin Y on to TEPA-CS. PMID:21550023

  12. Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes and chemical treatment methods for COD and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Azbar; T. Yonar; K. Kestioglu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison of various advanced oxidation processes (O3, O3\\/UV, H2O2\\/UV, O3\\/H2O2\\/UV, Fe2+\\/H2O2) and chemical treatment methods using Al2(SO4)3·18H2O, FeCl3 and FeSO4 for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent is undertaken. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) showed a superior performance compared to conventional chemical treatment, which maximum achievable color

  13. Hair loss: is there a relationship with hair care practices in Nigeria?

    PubMed

    Nnoruka, Edith Nkechi; Nnoruka, Nkechi Edith

    2005-10-01

    BACKGROUND Hair loss occurs in all ethnic populations, but the etiology varies considerably from group to group. In black women, many forms of alopecia are associated with hair care practices. However, the causes of alopecias in African women have not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE This descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study was undertaken to document common complaints on initial presentation for hair loss, hair care practices and patterns of hair loss, and to determine if there is a relationship between hair loss and hair care practices. METHODS A total of 39 female patients seen over a 12 month period were enrolled in the study. Demographic information recorded included age, sex, marital status and occupation. Information regarding medical history included initial presenting complaints, duration of hair loss, site of hair loss, whether there was skin or systemic involvement, hair care practices and the duration of these practices. Examination of the scalp, a hair-pull test, documentation of the pattern of hair loss, relevant laboratory tests and biopsies were carried out. RESULTS All 39 patients were adults. Major complaints at initial presentation, apart from hair loss, included itchy scalp in 17 patients (43.6%), painful scalp in 11 patients (28.2%), hair breakage in seven patients (17.9%) and flaking scalp in four patients (10.3%). All the women relaxed their hair at some point in time. Chemical relaxants were consistently used by 22 patients (53.7%), eight patients (20.5%) alternated these with plaits/braids, and nine patients (23.1%) wore extensions. The use of local concoctions in hair care management was reported by three patients (7.7%). Scarred alopecias were observed in 20 patients (51.3%), while 19 (48.7%) had non-scarred alopecias. Those who reported prolonged and frequent use of chemical relaxants [mean duration (+/- standard deviation) 23.2+/-9.3 years] exhibited scarred alopecia more commonly than those who did not often use chemical relaxants (P<0.001). The application of local concoctions or pomades was also a regular practice amongst females with scarred alopecias. CONCLUSIONS Itchiness, pain, ready hair breakage and flaking scalp were common complaints at initial presentation. A range of alopecias were documented, and it was also observed that duration of hair care practice and hair styling were relevant to hair loss, particularly for women with central centifugal cicatricial alopecias (CCCAs), which resulted in scarring. PMID:16187950

  14. Filtration techniques used by the textile industry for recovery of dyes, chemicals and energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    The continued increase in the cost of chemicals energy and water makes their recovery more important today than it was 20 years ago when ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration were first introduced to the textile industry. While the filtration techniques have only been used at a few installations, these plants have been able to save enough to pay for the recovery process

  15. Fifteen Drugs, Dyes, and Other Chemicals Newly Listed as Known or Likely Human Carcinogens

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    The National Toxicology Program, part of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEH), has provided this information on both commercial and non-commercial chemicals. The newly listed compounds are included in the 8th Report on Carcinogens Summary, the text of which is available on the NIEH homepage.

  16. The nail and hair in forensic science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Ralph Daniel; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Antonella Tosti

    2004-01-01

    Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the

  17. Measurements of hair volume by laser stereometry.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Roger; Zisa, Franco; Jachowicz, Janusz

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional laser stereometer was constructed utilizing an x-y two-dimensional translational stage and a laser device, which provides distance information in the z-direction. The distance data is obtained by triangulation of the reflecting red laser beam from the surface of the measured object, in this case hair. Since hair fiber assemblies do not have a continuous solid surface, each z-dimension reading is obtained as an average of measurements obtained from multiple reflections corresponding to fibers at various depths below the outermost hair surface. We demonstrate the utility of this technique to perform the analysis of either an entire hair tress or relatively short sections of tresses prepared from straight, curly, and frizzy hair and subjected to cosmetic treatments such as washing, conditioning, dyeing, etc. An interpretation is provided for the three-dimensional images of hair assemblies as well as for the calculated volume of space occupied by a hair tress. In addition, we investigated various strategies for testing the volume retention of styling polymers. PMID:19450418

  18. Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.

    PubMed

    Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts. PMID:16197431

  19. Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Chieng, Hei Ing; Lim, Linda B L; Priyantha, Namal

    2015-01-01

    Breadnut skin, in both its unmodified (KS) and base-modified (BM-KS) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic dye, malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments, carried out under optimized conditions, for the adsorption of MG were fitted using five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Sips) and six error functions to determine the best-fit model. The adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced when breadnut skin was chemically modified with NaOH, leading to an adsorption capacity of 353.0 mg g(-1), that was far superior to most reported adsorbents for the removal of MG. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on KS and BM-KS, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Regeneration experiments on BM-KS indicated that its adsorption capacity was still maintained at>90% even after five cycles. It can be concluded that NaOH-modified breadfruit skin has great potential to be utilized in real-life application as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG in wastewater treatment. PMID:25409587

  20. Plasmonic Enhancement of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells via a Tailored Size-Distribution of Chemically Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Andrei, Codrin; Lestini, Elena; Crosbie, Stephen; de Frein, Caoimhe; O'Reilly, Thomas; Zerulla, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    A substantial and stable increase of the current density Jsc of ruthenium (Ru) dye sensitized solar cells (DSC) of up to 16.18% and of the power efficiency of up to 25.5% is demonstrated in this article via plasmonic enhancement. The key aspect of this work is the use of a tailored bimodal size distribution of functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that have been chemically immobilized onto the mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer via short, stable dithiodibutyric acid linkers. The size distribution of the AuNPs is a result of theoretical calculations that aimed at the perfection of the absorption characteristics of the complete solar cell system over a wide range of wavelengths. The functionalization of the AuNPs serves to bind them at a close but defined distance to TiO2-particles and additionally to chemically protect them against potential corrosion by the electrolyte. Simulations of near field (enhanced absorption) and far field (scattering) contributions have been used to tailor a complex AuNPs bimodal size distribution that had subsequently demonstrated experimentally a close to optimum improvement of the absorbance over a wide wavelength range (500–675 nm) and therefore an impressive DSC efficiency enhancement. Finally, the modified DSCs are exhibiting pronounced longevity and stable performance as confirmed via long time measurements. In summary, the presented systems show increased performance compared to non plasmonic enhanced cells with otherwise identical composition, and are demonstrating a previously unpublished longevity for iodide electrolyte/AuNPs combinations. PMID:25354362

  1. Plasmonic enhancement of dye sensitized solar cells via a tailored size-distribution of chemically functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Andrei, Codrin; Lestini, Elena; Crosbie, Stephen; de Frein, Caoimhe; O'Reilly, Thomas; Zerulla, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    A substantial and stable increase of the current density Jsc of ruthenium (Ru) dye sensitized solar cells (DSC) of up to 16.18% and of the power efficiency of up to 25.5% is demonstrated in this article via plasmonic enhancement. The key aspect of this work is the use of a tailored bimodal size distribution of functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that have been chemically immobilized onto the mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer via short, stable dithiodibutyric acid linkers. The size distribution of the AuNPs is a result of theoretical calculations that aimed at the perfection of the absorption characteristics of the complete solar cell system over a wide range of wavelengths. The functionalization of the AuNPs serves to bind them at a close but defined distance to TiO2-particles and additionally to chemically protect them against potential corrosion by the electrolyte. Simulations of near field (enhanced absorption) and far field (scattering) contributions have been used to tailor a complex AuNPs bimodal size distribution that had subsequently demonstrated experimentally a close to optimum improvement of the absorbance over a wide wavelength range (500-675 nm) and therefore an impressive DSC efficiency enhancement. Finally, the modified DSCs are exhibiting pronounced longevity and stable performance as confirmed via long time measurements. In summary, the presented systems show increased performance compared to non plasmonic enhanced cells with otherwise identical composition, and are demonstrating a previously unpublished longevity for iodide electrolyte/AuNPs combinations. PMID:25354362

  2. Formation of nanostructure on hair surface: its characteristic optical properties and application to hair care products.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shunsuke; Sato, Hirayuki; Shibuichi, Satoshi; Okamoto, Masayuki; Inoue, Shigeto; Satoh, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Uneven structures on hair fiber surface, such as lift up of cuticle or build up of hair spray ingredients, generally cause a diffuse reflection which results in a dull and unhealthy appearance. However, in the case of finer structure than wavelength of visible light, the optical properties change significantly. An application of the phenomenon to hair care products is reported in this paper. Formation of the fine structure on hair surface was achieved by only a shampoo and rinse-off conditioner system including amino-silicone. Chroma enhancement of hair and light introduction into hair fibers were observed simultaneously with formation of the fine structure on the hair surface. The light introduction phenomenon is understood in terms of "Effective Medium Approximation" (EMA). The simulation study based on EMA indicates that a very low refractive index surface is expected to be realized, which well explains the optical experimental results. When the shampoo and conditioner system developed to form the structure on fiber surface was applied to dyed hair, enhancement and long-lasting of vivid appearance was confirmed in spite of dye elution. PMID:17728928

  3. True porosity measurement of hair: a new way to study hair damage mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hessefort, Yin; Holland, Brian T; Cloud, Richard W

    2008-01-01

    This study employs a novel method, gas sorption (1), to quantify the porosity characteristics of hair by determining total pore volume, adsorption pore-size distribution, and the surface area of damaged hair. Damage mechanisms were studied by comparing the different pore volume and surface area resulting from two different types of damage: chemical and UV. Hair color measurement and tensile strength, both reflecting the changes in hair cortex, were also employed in this study. The results suggest that hair damage caused by oxidative bleach and UV oxidation follows different pathways. Chemical damage (oxidative bleach) nearly triples the hair surface area in the first minute of bleaching due to the increase in the number of pores, followed by a sudden drop after 10 min of bleaching from smaller pores breaking down into larger ones. In contrast, UV damage shows an immediate loss in surface area in the first 200 hr of exposure and a gradual increase as exposure time continues. PMID:18818850

  4. Laser Hair Removal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... permanently removing hair is electrolysis. Temporary removal of hair can be accomplished with, razors, depilatories, waxing, threading, and plucking. Bleaching can be helpful in minimizing the appearance of ...

  5. TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of the biological, chemical, and physical treatability of wastewaters from selected typical dye baths. Twenty systems providing a broad cross section of dye classes, fibers, and application techniques, were examined. Wastes, produced usi...

  6. Capacity of a newly isolated fungus Pleurotus eryngii from Tunceli, Ovacik for chemical oxygen demand reduction and biodecolorization of Azo-Dye Congo Red.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, N; Gonen, U

    2015-01-01

    Biodecolorization of Congo red dye in both agar—plate and agitated liquid culture mediums by newly isolated white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii has been studied. This fungus isolated from Tunceli—Ovacik province of Turkey. We have also examined the chemical oxygen demand reduction after decolorization under agitated liquid culture medium. For agar plate screening the decolorization capacity of P. eryngii, growth and decolorization halos were determined on saboroud dextrose agar (SDA) plates containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/l of Congo red. P. eryngii showed certain decolorization capacities and was able to decolorize all studied concentrations of Congo red, but not to the same extent. Our results indicated that the new isolate P. eryngii had maximum decolorization (87% at 100 mg/l initial dye concentration) and chemical oxygen demand reduction (82% at 25 mg/l initial dye concentration) activities after 7 days under agitated submerged culture conditions. This new isolate could be an effective bioremediation tool for treatment of Congo red containing textile wastewater. PMID:26068912

  7. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Sisti, A; Duque-Estrada, B

    2009-10-01

    Hair loss in women is a very common clinical complaint, and is usually associated with severe emotional distress. In this article, the authors review the most common clinical causes of hair loss in women, and emphasize the role of hormonal changes in the regulation of hair loss and hair growth. PMID:19749676

  8. Aging of hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation. PMID:17166201

  9. Influence of thermal hair straightening on ethyl glucuronide content in hair.

    PubMed

    Ettlinger, Jana; Kirchen, Luc; Yegles, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Hair analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has become a valuable marker for the detection of moderate and chronic alcohol consumption. It has been shown that bleaching and perming may decrease EtG content in hair. So far, no studies exist about the influence of thermal hair straightening on EtG content in hair. Forty-one positive EtG hair samples were treated in vitro with a hair straightener at 200°C. Duration of treatment of 1 min was chosen for this study. After washing, pulverization, incubation in ultrasonic bath, solid-phase extraction, and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, EtG was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry - negative ion chemical ionization (GC-MS-NICI). The EtG contents in straightened hair strands were then compared with those in the corresponding untreated strands. In 20 of 41 hair samples, a decrease of EtG content was found ranging from 0.7% to 79.3% (average 20%) whereas in 21 cases an increase was shown ranging from 2.0% to 50.9% (average 15%). The variation of the results seems to depend on hair colour. The decrease may be explained by thermic in vitro destruction of EtG. The increase may be explained by denaturation of the hair matrix by thermal treatment possibly causing a better extraction of EtG during incubation in ultrasonic bath. This in vitro study indicates that thermal hair straightening has an impact on the EtG content in hair. This has to be considered for a correct interpretation of EtG results in hair. However, these results should be confirmed by in vivo studies. PMID:24817051

  10. Photooxidation of different organic dyes (RB, MO, TB, and BG) using Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 nanophotocatalyst prepared by novel chemical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorai, Tanmay K.; Biswas, Soumya K.; Pramanik, Panchanan

    2008-09-01

    The nano-structured Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts with anatase phase have been developed for the oxidation of non-biodegradable different organic dyes like methyl orange (MO), rhodamine B (RB), thymol blue (TB) and bromocresol green (BG) using UV-Hg-lamp. The different compositions of Fe xTi 1- xO 2 ( x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1) nanocatalysts synthesized by chemical method (CM), have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, specific surface area (BET), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) analysis, XPS, ESR and zeta potential. From XRD analysis, the results indicate that all the compositions of Fe(III) doped in TiO 2 catalysts gives only anatase phase not rutile phase. For complete degradation of all the solutions of the dyes (MO, RB, TB, and BG), the composition with x = 0.005 is more photoactive compared all other compositions of Fe xTi 1- xO 2, and degussa P25. The decolorization rate of different dyes decreases as Fe(III) concentration in TiO 2 increases. The energy band gap of Fe(III)-doped TiO 2 is found to be 2.38 eV. The oxidation state of iron has been found to be 3+ from XPS and ESR show that Fe 3+ is in low spin state.

  11. Why does curly hair get less tangled than straight hair?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Jean-Baptiste

    2007-08-01

    We address the question of hair tangles and show experimentally that curly hair tends to become less tangled than straight hair. A statistical model based on geometry confirms our findings. The model gives an interesting geometric approach to hair behavior.

  12. A sensitive fluorescence technique using dansyl chloride to assess hair damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUKHVINDER S. SANDHU; CLARENCE R. ROBBINS

    1989-01-01

    A simple and sensitive procedure amenable to visual or spectrofluorometric quantitation has been developed to detect certain types of hair damage. We have found that hair treated with the fluorescent dye 1-dimeth- ylamino-naphthalene-5-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl chloride) acquires fluorescence under ultraviolet light. The fluorescence intensity is a function of the amount of dansyl chloride binding to the hair and can be

  13. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

  14. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-04-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide, respectively, suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), has been present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth at the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and to prevent them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S)-compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  15. Hair Loss in New Moms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hair loss in new moms Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... shedding after having a baby. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

  16. Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Soo

    2011-12-01

    Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine, ceramide in decreasing order. Minor constituents of IHL are cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate and cholesterol oleate. Cuticle or cortical cell surface in hair are abundant in fatty acids unlike the keratinized area of epidermis or sebaceous gland, and about 30-40% of such fatty acids are composed of 18-methyl-eicosanoic acid which is known to be bound to proteins by ester or thioester bond. Various factors including moisture, solvent, oxidative damage during bleaching or permanent waving affect IHL. Photochemical changes also can occur in IHL as well as in hair protein and hair pigment. Lipid metabolism is thought to play an essential role in lipid envelope of hair, but also involvement in hair development and function. PMID:21906914

  17. Overlap of laccases\\/cellobiose dehydrogenase activities during the decolourisation of anthraquinonic dyes with close chemical structures by Pycnoporus strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Vanhulle; Estelle Enaud; Marie Trovaslet; Nancy Nouaimeh; Christian-Marie Bols; Tajalli Keshavarz; Thierry Tron; Giovanni Sannia; Anne-Marie Corbisier

    2007-01-01

    Pycnoporus strains were used as model to understand the role of laccases in the in vivo decolourisation of three anthraquinonic dyes. The decolourisation capability of Pycnoporus sanguineus MUCL 41582 (PS7), which produces laccases as the main oxidative enzyme, was assayed and compared with the decolourisation capability of a control strain, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus MUCL 39533 (PC330) described as laccase-deficient strain. In

  18. Healthy Hair: What Is it?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney D Sinclair

    2007-01-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity.

  19. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917 ...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917 ...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917 ...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917 ...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917 ...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is...

  4. Bubble hair and other acquired hair shaft anomalies due to hot ironing on wet hair.

    PubMed

    Savitha, As; Sacchidanand, S; Revathy, Tn

    2011-07-01

    Bubble hair is an acquired hair shaft abnormality characterized by multiple airfilled spaces within the hair shaft. It is a result of thermal injury. We report a classic case of 22-year-old female who complained of dry brittle hair of two-week duration. Patient had used hot iron on wet hair twice to straighten hair. Hair microscopy was diagnostic and showed multiple air-filled spaces within the hair shaft. PMID:22223976

  5. Hair Cell Generator Potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL L. ALKON; ANTHONY BAK

    1973-01-01

    A technique is introduced using a piezoelectric device to stimu- late hair cells of a molluscan statocyst while recording their responses intra- cellularly. Statocyst displacements produced with the technique are cali- brated with stroboscopic photography. Properties of the hair cells' response to currents and mechanical stimulation are studied. The hair cell generator potential arises from a conductance increase and, for

  6. Improved visible light photocatalytic activity of titania loaded with silver on discoloration of a heterocyclic aromatic chemical dye solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongfang

    2012-04-01

    The photocatalytic activity of silver deposited Degussa P25 titanium dioxide (Ag-DP25) in the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) was investigated. The as-prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), infrared spectra and surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) techniques. The obtained results show that the silver dopant could effectively inhibit the recombination of the photoinduced electron and holes, improving the absorption capability for visible light of photocatalyst and leading to increased surface OH group density. The degradation experiment reveals that the catalytic property of Ag-DP25 in the degradation of MB dye is more efficient than that of commercially available Degussa P25 TiO2 (DP25) samples under visible-light irradiation. Besides, degradation kinetics of MB dye can, be well described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation and shows pseudo-first order law.

  7. An expert system for the dyeing recipes determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Convert; L. Schacher; P. Viallier

    2000-01-01

    This article deals with the modelization of the reasoning of an expert in dyeing. The dyeing operation is one of the latest stage in the whole textile process which alters the intrinsic properties of the articles. At present, there are expert systems for dyeing industries. Most of them have been developed by dyes and chemical auxiliary suppliers, and these tools

  8. Fungal laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, and chemical mediators: Combined actions for the decolorization of different classes of textile dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilaria Ciullini; Silvia Tilli; Andrea Scozzafava; Fabrizio Briganti

    2008-01-01

    Dyes belonging to the mono-, di-, tri- and poly-azo as well as anthraquinonic and mono-azo Cr-complexed classes, chosen among the most utilized in textile applications, were employed for a comparative enzymatic decolorization study using the extracellular crude culture extracts from the white rot fungus Funalia (Trametes) trogii grown on different culture media and activators able to trigger different levels of

  9. Adsorption of Procion Blue MX-R dye from aqueous solutions by lignin chemically modified with aluminium and manganese.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Matthew A; Prola, Lizie D T; Lima, Eder C; Puchana-Rosero, M J; Cataluña, Renato; Saucier, Caroline; Umpierres, Cibele S; Vaghetti, Julio C P; da Silva, Leandro G; Ruggiero, Reinaldo

    2014-03-15

    A macromolecule, CML, was obtained by purifying and carboxy-methylating the lignin generated from acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse during bioethanol production from biomass. The CMLs complexed with Al(3+) (CML-Al) and Mn(2+) (CML-Mn) were utilised for the removal of a textile dye, Procion Blue MX-R (PB), from aqueous solutions. CML-Al and CML-Mn were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning differential calorimetry (SDC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and pHPZC. The established optimum pH and contact time were 2.0 and 5h, respectively. The kinetic and equilibrium data fit into the general order kinetic model and Liu isotherm model, respectively. The CML-Al and CML-Mn have respective values of maximum adsorption capacities of 73.52 and 55.16mgg(-1) at 298K. Four cycles of adsorption/desorption experiments were performed attaining regenerations of up to 98.33% (CML-Al) and 98.08% (CML-Mn) from dye-loaded adsorbents, using 50% acetone+50% of 0.05molL(-1) NaOH. The CML-Al removed ca. 93.97% while CML-Mn removed ca. 75.91% of simulated dye house effluents. PMID:24462989

  10. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair. PMID:20502852

  11. Dyes as tracers for vadose zone hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Markus; Wai, Nu Nu

    2003-03-01

    Dyes are important tracers to investigate subsurface water movement. For more than a century, dye tracers have provided clues about the hydrological cycle as well as flow and transport processes in the subsurface. Groundwater contamination often originates in the vadose zone. Agrochemicals applied to the soil surface, toxic compounds accidentally spilled by human activities, and contaminants released from waste repositories leach through the vadose zone and can ultimately pollute groundwater resources. Dyes are an important tool to assess flow pathways of such contaminants. This review compiles information on dyes used as hydrological tracers, with particular emphasis on vadose zone hydrology. We summarize briefly different human-applied tracers, including nondye tracers. We then provide a historical sketch of the use of dyes as tracers and describe newer developments in visualization and quantification of tracer experiments. Relevant chemical properties of dyes used as tracers are discussed and illustrated with dye intermediates and selected dye tracers. The types of dyes used as tracers in subsurface hydrology are summarized, and recommendations are made regarding the use of dye tracers. The review concludes with a toxicological assessment of dyes used as hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as tracers for water movement in the subsurface. All of these compounds, however, are to some degree retarded by the subsurface medium. Nevertheless, dyes are useful tracers to visualize flow pathways.

  12. Hair loss in infancy.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Romero, J A; Grimalt, R

    2014-02-01

    Hair diseases represent a significant portion of cases seen by pediatric dermatologists although hair has always been a secondary aspect in pediatricians and dermatologists training, on the erroneous basis that there is not much information extractable from it. Dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders with simple diagnostic techniques. The hair is easily accessible to examination but, paradoxically, this approach is often disregarded by non-dermatologist. This paper has been written on the purpose of trying to serve in the diagnostic process of daily practice, and trying to help, for example, to distinguish between certain acquired and some genetically determined hair diseases. We will focus on all the data that can be obtained from our patients' hair and try to help on using the messages given by hair for each patient. Quite often it is extremely hard to distinguish between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. We will specially focus in the most common physiological changes that may mislead to an incorrect diagnosis. Specific treatment for those hair diseases that do have one, and basic general approach to improve the cosmetic appearance of hair, will be also be discussed for those hair disturbances that do not have a specific treatment. PMID:24566566

  13. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. PMID:24680003

  14. Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

    1977-01-01

    In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

  15. Hair Cell Generator Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Alkon, Daniel L.; Bak, Anthony

    1973-01-01

    A technique is introduced using a piezoelectric device to stimulate hair cells of a molluscan statocyst while recording their responses intracellularly. Statocyst displacements produced with the technique are calibrated with stroboscopic photography. Properties of the hair cells' response to currents and mechanical stimulation are studied. The hair cell generator potential arises from a conductance increase and, for a certain range, is a logarithmic function of the amplitude of the displacement stimulus. PMID:4705640

  16. Damage to Human Hair Caused by Repeated Bleaching Combined with Daily Weathering during Daily Life Activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Masukawa; Hisashi Tsujimura; H. Tanamachi; H. Narita; Genji Imokawa

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although it is well known that chemical oxidation with alkaline hydrogen peroxide damages human hair, little is known about the effects of bleaching during daily life activities which may alter hair components. Objective: To determine the effects of bleaching combined with daily weathering on lipids and amino acids in hair. Methods: Levels of lipids and amino acids were analyzed

  17. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles <200 nm being internalized by keratinocytes and dendritic cells at sites of barrier disruption (e.g., hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications. PMID:24387677

  18. Acidity control of plasma-chemical oxidation: applications to dye removal, urban waste abatement and microbial inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisset, Jean-Louis; Benstaali, Baghdad; Moussa, David; Fanmoe, Jean; Njoyim-Tamungang, Estella

    2011-06-01

    Electric discharges burning in humid air at atmospheric pressure over aqueous solutions induce acid effects in the liquid phase resulting from the formation of nitric acid and peroxynitrous acid as transient precursor. These acid effects affect the degradation mechanisms of organic wastes and the relevant kinetic rates; therefore they thus must be controlled (e.g. using buffers). Nitrogen reactive species such as peroxynitrous acid or its salt are directly concerned with both acid effects as precursor to nitric acid, and strong oxidizing properties E°(ONO2H/NO2) = 2.02 V/SHE. Illustrating examples are given in the case of an organic dye (Alizarin S) removal and the gliding discharge treatment of urban wastewaters. Additional arguments are presented to explain the biocidal effect of humid air discharges.

  19. Laser hair removal pearls.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal. PMID:18330794

  20. How to diagnose hair loss.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Adrianna J; Price, Vera H

    2013-01-01

    This review presents a systematic approach to the diagnosis of hair loss. An accurate diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, laboratory tests, and scalp biopsy. Whether the hair loss is a cicatricial or noncicatricial alopecia guides one's history taking. After assessing the patient's global appearance, the hair and scalp are evaluated, aided by a hair pull, hair tug, Hair Card, and hair mount. Scalp biopsies can confirm a diagnosis and are essential in all cases of cicatricial alopecia. In all patients with hair loss a complete blood count, ferritin, thyroid stimulating hormone, and vitamin D 25OH should be ordered. PMID:23159173

  1. Healthy hair: what is it?

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth. PMID:18004288

  2. Functional assembly of mammalian cochlear hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Marcotti, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Hair cells in the mammalian inner ear convert sound into electrical signals that are relayed to the nervous system by the chemical neurotransmitter glutamate. Electrical information encoding sound is then passed through the central nervous system to the higher auditory centres in the brain, where it is used to construct a temporally and spatially accurate representation of the auditory landscape. To achieve this, hair cells must encode fundamental properties of sound stimuli at extremely high rates, not only during mechano-electrical transduction, which occurs in the hair bundles at the cell apex, but also during electrochemical transduction at the specialized ribbon synapses at the cell base. How is the development of such a sophisticated cell regulated? More specifically, to what extent does physiological activity contribute to the progression of the intrinsic genetic programmes that drive cell differentiation? Hair cell differentiation takes about 3 weeks in most rodents, from terminal mitosis during embryonic development to the onset of hearing around 2 weeks after birth. Until recent years, most of the molecules involved in hair cell development and function were unknown, which was mainly due to difficulties in working with the mammalian cochlea and the very small number of hair cells, about 16,000 in humans, present in the auditory organ. Recent advances in the ability to record from the acutely isolated cochlea maintained in near-physiological conditions, combined with the use of genetically modified mouse models, has allowed the identification of several proteins and molecular mechanisms that are crucial for the maturation and function of hair cells. In this article, I highlight recent findings from my laboratory that have furthered our understanding of how developing hair cells acquire the remarkable sensitivity of adult auditory sensory receptors. PMID:22143883

  3. Dyeing properties of natural dyes extracted from eucalyptus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ali; N. Nisar; T. Hussain

    2007-01-01

    A natural dye was extracted from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and was used to dye cotton by direct dyeing method at different dyeing conditions. Then, the fastness properties of dyeing with different dyeing techniques were compared.

  4. Society of Hair Testing guidelines for drug testing in hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail A. A. Cooper; Robert Kronstrand; Pascal Kintz

    The Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) Guidelines for Drug Testing in Hair provide laboratories with recommended best practice guidelines whether they are currently offering drug testing in hair, or plan to offer a hair testing service in the future. The guidelines include reference to recommended sample collection and storage procedures, through sample preparation, pre-treatment and analysis and the use of

  5. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Wagenblast, Lene

    2011-02-28

    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area. PMID:21362396

  6. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond C Kelly; Tom Mieczkowski; Stacy A Sweeney; James A Bourland

    2000-01-01

    There is currently a debate in the literature on chemical drug analysis concerning the contribution of biophysical attributes associated with specimens and specimen donors to assay outcome. In recent years this debate has focused on hair analysis, but has in the past also been raised in urinalysis interpretation. In this article we examine several aspects of that controversy. First, we

  7. Can a topical scalp treatment reduce hair bulb extraction?

    PubMed

    Gruber, James V; Bouldin, Lisa; Lou, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Generally speaking, when people talk about "hair breakage" they are typically referring to the idea that as they comb or brush their hair, the fibers are elongating and snapping at some weak point in the fiber length. It is well established that as people chemically treat their hair, the keratin proteins are degraded further and the hair become more brittle and susceptible to breakage. For the consumer, hair breakage is registered as hair fibers noted in their comb or brush, and in the drain that they see after a cosmetic treatment. However, a fundamental question that needs to be asked is whether or not the hairs that are seen in the drain are really the result of hair breakage (i.e., a fiber snapping) or are they the result of hairs that are actually being extracted from the scalp by their root bulbs. If the bulk of the hair fibers are actually extracted by the bulb, than it seems somewhat superfluous to try and improve hair strength by improving the exterior of the fiber. The fiber is dead and topical treatments can only smooth, and possibly moisten already established fiber structure and integrity. This paper will attempt to address hair strength by looking at the scalp and follicle as the target for treatment, showing that topical application of a product containing a blend of well-known skin active ingredients can demonstrate potential reductions in hair extractions. An in vivo testing protocol in which 15 voluntary participants with at least 12" hair length were professionally shampooed, and then treated, half-head, with a commercial conditioner, or the same conditioner that contained 5% of a mixture of yeast peptides, fruit acids and green tea polyphenols every day for five days will be discussed. At the beginning and end of the treatment period, the number of hairs that either broke along the fiber, or extracted by the bulb were gathered, separated and counted for both the treated and untreated side of the head. The results of this one-week study demonstrate that the number of hairs that actually break pales in comparison to the number of hairs that are extracted complete with intact root bulb from the follicle. PMID:17728937

  8. Non-invasive evaluation of hair interior morphology by X-ray microscope.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Joon; Kwon, Oh Sang; Park, Won Seok; Youn, Hwa Shik; Choi, Chong Won; Kim, Kyu Han; Eun, Hee Chul

    2006-11-01

    Lots of trials have been performed to obtain better microscopic images of hair structure. Although scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provide detailed images of hair, artificial processing may modify the original images during sample preparation. To overcome this limitation, we applied newly-developed X-ray microscopy with an 80-100 nm spatial resolution to produce a detailed view of the morphological change of hair interior. This X-ray microscopy permits us to penetrate a hair shaft without any artificial change and also provides precise images of hair interior with fine resolution. We evaluated the interior morphological change of Japanese standard hair tress No. 8 by various treatments such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, heating, hair dyeing, decolorizing bleaching agents and permanent waving. Internal morphological images were relatively similar in both heated and UV-irradiated hair. They revealed coarsening of cuticles and dehydration of cortex and medulla. When compared with TEM, X-ray microscopy provides more intact images in the cuticle and may be a useful tool in observing fine cracks of hair cortex. Additionally, X-ray images were intact and not influenced by any processing procedures. In observing the external and internal structure of hair, its resolution seems to be somewhat lesser than TEM and there are also several remaining weaknesses to be improved. Hopefully, forthcoming technology will solve these problems in the near future. PMID:17073990

  9. Hair bleaching and skin burning.

    PubMed

    Forster, K; Lingitz, R; Prattes, G; Schneider, G; Sutter, S; Schintler, M; Trop, M

    2012-12-31

    Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation. PMID:23766754

  10. Biological Sampling and Analysis in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2007 Puget Sound Biota Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2008-10-09

    Evaluating spatial and temporal trends in contaminant residues in Puget Sound fish and macroinvertebrates are the objectives of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP). In a cooperative effort between the ENVironmental inVESTment group (ENVVEST) and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, additional biota samples were collected during the 2007 PSAMP biota survey and analyzed for chemical residues and stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N). Approximately three specimens of each species collected from Sinclair Inlet, Georgia Basin, and reference locations in Puget Sound were selected for whole body chemical analysis. The muscle tissue of specimens selected for chemical analyses were also analyzed for ?13C and ?15N to provide information on relative trophic level and food sources. This data report summarizes the chemical residues for the 2007 PSAMP fish and macro-invertebrate samples. In addition, six Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) samples were necropsied to evaluate chemical residue of various parts of the fish (digestive tract, liver, embryo, muscle tissue), as well as, a weight proportional whole body composite (WBWC). Whole organisms were homogenized and analyzed for silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, mercury, 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB homologues, percent moisture, percent lipids, ?13C, and ?15N.

  11. Photo yellowing of human hair.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

    2007-09-25

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content. PMID:17627835

  12. Multiple Chemical Sensitivities Following Intolerance to Azo Dye in Sweets in a 5-year-old Girl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoko Inomata; Hiroyuki Osuna; Hiroyuki Fujita; Toru Ogawa; Zenro Ikezawa

    2006-01-01

    Background: Cases of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) have been reported predominantly in adult pa- tients, but pediatric cases have rarely been reported. Methods: We present a 5-year-old girl who suffered from recurrent reactions accompanied by urticaria, an- gioedema, headaches, dyspnea, loss of consciousness, and abdominal pain that were not eradicated, but were instead exacerbated, by various treatments with antihistamines and

  13. Proptosis after hair pulling.

    PubMed

    Yip, Chee-Chew; McCulley, Timothy J; Kersten, Robert C; Kulwin, Dwight R

    2003-03-01

    We describe proptosis due to a subperiosteal orbital hematoma that originated from a subgaleal bleed caused by hair pulling. A 13-year-old boy presented with a one-week history of progressive proptosis after his older sister pulled his hair during an argument. Computerized tomography showed a subgaleal hematoma and a right superior subperiosteal orbital hematoma. Progressive proptosis and compressive optic neuropathy developed, necessitating surgical evacuation with a favorable outcome.Hair pulling can result in a subgaleal bleed with extension to the orbital subperiosteal space. When managing patients with a subgaleal hematoma, this vision-threatening complication should be considered and treated accordingly. PMID:12644765

  14. Reduction of azo dyes by desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Yoo; J. Libra; U. Wiesmann

    2000-01-01

    Azo dyes are widely used in textile finishing, and have become of concern in wastewater treatment because of their color, bio-recalcitrance, and potential toxicity to animals and humans. Thus, wastewater with azo dyes must be decolorized and furthermore mineralized in appropriate systems combining biological and chemical processes. In this study, the potential for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) to decolorize azo

  15. ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

  16. Painting With Natural Dyes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

    1999-07-01

    This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

  17. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye.

    PubMed

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450°C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8g/100mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it. PMID:25875031

  18. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andrew J.; Hailey, Dale W.; Stawicki, Tamara M.; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.; Simon, Julian A.; Ou, Henry C.

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anti-cancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analogue of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line. PMID:23467357

  19. Photocatalytic and combined anaerobic–photocatalytic treatment of textile dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Harrelkas; A. Paulo; M. M. Alves; L. El Khadir; O. Zahraa; M. N. Pons; F. P. van der Zee

    2008-01-01

    A photocatalytic process based on immobilized titanium dioxide was used to treat crude solutions of azo, anthraquinone and phthalocyanine textile dyes. In addition, the process was applied to the treat autoxidized chemically reduced azo dyes, i.e. representatives of recalcitrant dye residues after biological sequential anaerobic–aerobic treatment. Photocatalysis was able to remove more than 90% color from crude as well as

  20. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... actually a modified type of skin. Hair grows everywhere on the human body except the palms of ... of sweat glands. The eccrine glands are found everywhere, although they're mostly in the forehead, palms, ...

  1. Are picro-dye reactions for collagens quantitative?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Puchtler; S. N. Meloan; F. S. Waldrop

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of picro-dye reactions demonstrated wide variations in the binding of different dyes. Picro-Sirius Red F3BA was recommended because it colors all collagens intensely and is suitable for polarization microscopy. Recent publications on quantitative uses of this stain were surprising. To obtain further information on the chemical mechanisms of dye binding by proteins, 94 sulfonated azo dyes were tested

  2. Laboratory measurements of selected optical, physical, chemical, and remote-sensing properties of five water mixtures containing Calvert clay and a nonfluorescing dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Poole, L. R.; Witte, W. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 6.1 ppm to 24.3 ppm and sizes ranged between 1.5 micrometers and 10 micrometers with the most frequently occurring size less than 2 micrometers. Iron concentration was less than 1 percent of the total suspended solids. Nonfluorescing dye concentrations of the two mixtures were 20 ppm and 40 ppm. Attenuation coefficient for the five mixtures ranged from 4.8/m to 21.3/m. Variations in volume scattering function with phase angle were typical. Variations in attenuation and absorption coefficient with wavelength were similar for the mixtures without the dye. Attenuation coefficient of the mixtures with the dye increased for wavelengths less than 600 nm due to the dye's strong absorption peak near 500 nm. Reflectance increased as the concentration of Calvert clay increased and peaked near 600 nm. The nonfluorescent dye decreased the magnitude of the peak, but had practically no effect on the variation for wavelengths greater than 640 nm. At wavelengths less than 600 nm, the spectral variations of the mixtures with the dye were significantly different from those mixtures without the dye.

  3. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of aging. Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin , which is produced by hair follicles. ... slows. Hair strands become smaller and have less pigment. So the thick, coarse hair of a young ...

  4. Hair today, gone tomorrow: the degradation and conservation of archaeological hair fibers 

    E-print Network

    Sager, Rebecca M.

    2009-05-15

    . An added advantage found in the book was a short section on the use of silicone polymers in shampoos and conditioners. Although the silicone polymers used in the hair care products are different in polymer structure in comparison those used........................ 5 Methods of Conserving Archaeological Material from Underwater Sites ................................................................ 9 Archaeological Conservation Using Polymers .................. 10 Chemical and Physical...

  5. Just Dyeing to Find Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monhardt, Becky Meyer

    1996-01-01

    Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

  6. Modeling and experiment of dye-sensitized solar cell with vertically aligned ZnO nanorods through chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuono, Ruri Agung; Risanti, Doty D.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model based on electron diffusion differential equation and Schottky barrier model was developed to determine the current-voltage characteristics of DSSC. To verify the model DSSC with ZnO nanorods photoelectrode which was chemically bath deposited onto the TCO was fabricated. According to modeling results, increasing of recombination current density J at these interfaces results in a decrease in Schottky barrier height ?b and therefore improves the photovoltage under the open-circuit condition. It is found that the open-circuit voltage remains constant when the TCO/ZnO Schottky barrier height was varied in the range of 0.45 - 0.6 eV. This theoretical model consistents with the experimental result in which the fabricated DSSCs can produce conversion efficiency in the range of 0.98 - 1.16%. The trend in photovoltage calculated in the theoretical model basically agrees with the experimental result, although the calculated photocurrent is somewhat over estimated compared to the experimental results. The model presents that the ideality factor for ZnO nanorods, which also contributes to the enhancement of photovoltage, increases in the range of 2.75 - 3.0 as the annealing temperature is increased in the experiment.

  7. Photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell low temperature growth of ZnO nanorods using chemical bath deposition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Gwan; Choi, Young-Cheol; Lee, Do-Kyung; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Jae Hong

    2012-04-01

    Nanostructured ZnO photoelectrodes were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates that were spin-coated with a sol-gel based ZnO seed layer via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at varying times of 1, 2, 4, and 8 h. Then, TiO2 nanoparticulate electrodes were prepared on ZnO nanorods using the doctor blade technique. The uniformly grown ZnO nanorod layer had a length of approximately 710 nm on the FTO glass substrate with wurtzite structures which was confirmed through X-ray diffraction patterns. The length and diameter of the ZnO nanorods increased with an increase in the deposition time. The DSSCs fabricated with TiO2 nanoparticulate/grown ZnO nanorods and grown for 8 h showed the maximum efficiency (5.51%) with a short circuit current density (J(sc)) of 12.21 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.70 at 100 mW/cm2 light intensity. PMID:22849148

  8. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

  9. Development and characterization of an IPMC hair-like transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akle, Barbar J.; Challita, Elio; Khairalah, Nady

    2015-04-01

    Hair-like sensors are very common in natural and biological systems. Such sensors are used to measure acoustic pressures, fluid flows, and chemical concentrations among others. Hair-like actuators are also used to control fluid flows and perform temperature management. This study presents a manufacturing technique for a hair-like IPMC transducer. A thorough study is presented on the building process of the sensor. The method used to control the diameter and the electrodes thickness of the transducer is developed. The sensing behavior of the manufactured transducers is experimentally characterized.

  10. Hair Cell Interactions in the Statocyst of Hermissenda

    PubMed Central

    Detwiler, Peter B.; Alkon, Daniel L.

    1973-01-01

    Hair cells in the statocyst of Hermissenda crassicornis respond to mechanical stimulation with a short latency (<2 ms) depolarizing generator potential that is followed by hyperpolarization and inhibition of spike activity. Mechanically evoked hyperpolarization and spike inhibition were abolished by cutting the static nerve, repetitive mechanical stimulation, tetrodotoxin (TTX), and Co++. Since none of these procedures markedly altered the generator potential it was concluded that the hyperpolarization is an inhibitory synaptic potential and not a component of the mechanotransduction process. Intracellular recordings from pairs of hair cells in the same statocyst and in statocysts on opposite sides of the brain revealed that hair cells are connected by chemical and/or electrical synapses. All chemical interactions were inhibitory. Hyperpolarization and spike inhibition result from inhibitory interactions between hair cells in the same and in opposite statocysts. PMID:4356414

  11. Hair analyses: worthless for vitamins, limited for minerals.

    PubMed

    Hambidge, K M

    1982-11-01

    Despite many major and minor problems with interpretation of analytical data, chemical analyses of human hair have some potential value. Extensive research will be necessary to define this value, including correlation of hair concentrations of specific elements with those in other tissues and metabolic pools and definition of normal physiological concentration ranges. Many factors that may compromise the correct interpretation of analytical data require detailed evaluation for each specific element. Meanwhile, hair analyses are of some value in the comparison of different populations and, for example, in public health community surveys of environmental exposure to heavy metals. On an individual basis, their established usefulness is much more restricted and the limitations are especially notable for evaluation of mineral nutritional status. There is a wide gulf between the limited and mainly tentative scientific justification for their use on an individual basis and the current exploitation of multielement chemical analyses of human hair. PMID:7137078

  12. Mechanisms of Active Hair Bundle Motion in Auditory Hair Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Ricci; A. C. Crawford; R. Fettiplace

    2002-01-01

    Sound stimuli vibrate the hair bundles on auditory hair cells, but the resulting motion attributable to the mechanical stimulus may be modified by forces intrinsic to the bundle, which drive it actively. One category of active hair bundle motion has prop- erties similar to fast adaptation of the mechanotransducer channels and is explicable if gating of the channels contributes significantly

  13. Surface architecture of X-irradiated hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Klein-Szanto, A J; de Rey, B M

    1978-08-01

    The combined use of scanning electron-microscopy and chemical separation of epidermis permitted the study of the irradiated and normal hair follicle surface characteristics. Irradiation reduced the length and density of the hair follicles, producing at the same time marked alterations and deformities of the individual follicles. As most of these changes were dose- and time-dependent, these structures, studied by these techniques, provide an interesting model as biological indicators of radiation dose. PMID:701533

  14. Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis.

    PubMed

    Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Hardy, Emilie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-06-01

    Although increasing interest is being observed in hair analysis for the biomonitoring of human exposure to pesticides, some limitations still have to be addressed for optimum use of this matrix in that specific context. One main possible issue concerns the need to differentiate chemicals biologically incorporated into hair from those externally deposited on hair surface from contaminated air or dust. The present study focuses on the development of a washing procedure for the decontamination of hair before analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes. For this purpose, three different procedures of artificial contamination (with silica, cellulose, and aqueous solution) were used to simulate pesticides deposition on hair surface. Several washing solvents (four organic: acetone, dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile; and four aqueous: water, phosphate buffer, shampoo, sodium dodecylsulfate) were evaluated for their capacity to remove artificially deposited pesticides from hair surface. The most effective washing solvents were sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol for aqueous and organic solvents, respectively. Moreover, after a first washing with sodium dodecylsulfate or methanol, the majority of externally deposited pesticides was removed and a steady-state was reached since significantly lower amounts were removed by additional second and third washings. Finally, the effectiveness of a decontamination procedure comprising washing with sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol was successively demonstrated. In parallel, it was determined that the final procedure did not affect the chemicals biologically incorporated, as hair strands naturally containing pesticides were used. Such a procedure appears to remove in one-shot the fraction of chemicals located on hair surface and does not require repeated washing steps. PMID:24817049

  15. Hair pulling: a review.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2005-10-01

    Hair pulling has been reported in humans, six different non-human primate species, mice, guineapigs, rabbits, sheep and muskox, dogs and cats. This behaviour seems to occur only in subjects who are confined in an artificial environment. It has been classified as a mental disorder in humans, as a behavioural pathology in animals. The hair is not only pulled but also, in most species, ingested. Hair pulling can be both self-directed and partner-directed, contains elements of aggression, manifests more often in females than in males, is associated with psychogenic distress, and resists treatment. Research data collected from affected animals are probably not normative, hence scientifically unreliable. The preemptive correction of husbandry deficiencies causing long-term stress may prevent the development of this bizarre behaviour in healthy subjects. PMID:16197702

  16. European hair and eye color

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Frost

    2006-01-01

    Human hair and eye color is unusually diverse in northern and eastern Europe. The many alleles involved (at least seven for hair color) and their independent origin over a short span of evolutionary time indicate some kind of selection. Sexual selection is particularly indicated because it is known to favor color traits and color polymorphisms. In addition, hair and eye

  17. Photo yellowing of human hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. S. Nogueira; M. Richena; L. E. Dicelio; I. Joekes

    2007-01-01

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white,

  18. Rhodamine B diffusion in hair as a probe for structural integrity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. dos Santos Silva; I. Joekes

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the diffusion of Rhodamine B into bleached, photo bleached and abraded hair, treated or not with an emulsion of ceramide using two different techniques: spectrophotometry and fluorescence optical microscopy with image analysis. This comparison, combined with the Einstein–Smoluchowski equation, allowed validating a methodology that uses the apparent diffusion coefficient of a dye

  19. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Ma?gorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  20. Study of hair shine and hair surface smoothness.

    PubMed

    Gao, Timothy; Pereira, Abel; Zhu, Sam

    2009-01-01

    A new hair visual appearance measurement system called SAMBA from Bossa Nova Technologies (Venice, CA) has been employed to measure effects of cosmetic treatments on hair shine and surface smoothness of different types of hair samples. Experimental procedures for evaluations of shine value and surface cuticle angle of hair samples treated with rinse-off products (shampoo or/and conditioner) have been successfully established and applied. We demonstrated that hair spray and conditioner formulas containing PPG-3 benzyl ether myristate (PBEM) (1) showed great performance on shine enhancement for hairs with light and medium colors. Instrumental measurement of shine values was also conducted to compare different commercial shampoo and conditioner products. This study showed reliable utility of SAMBA system and demonstrated the shine enhancement of PBEM in hair care. PMID:19450419

  1. First-principles study of Carbz-PAHTDDT dye sensitizer and two Carbz-derived dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Narges; Wang, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Two new carbazole-based organic dye sensitizers are designed and investigated in silico. These dyes are designed through chemical modifications of the ?-conjugated bridge of a reference organic sensitizer known as Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) dye. The aim of designing these dyes was to reduce the energy gap between their highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and to red-shift their absorption response compared to those of the reference S9 dye sensitizer. This reference dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. To investigate geometric and electronic structure, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were conducted on the new dyes as well as the reference dye. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the TD-DFT simulation is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths. The theoretical studies have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap and red-shifted absorption spectra for both of the new candidate dyes. In particular, the new S9-D1 dye is found to have significant reduced HOMO-LUMO energy gap, greater push-pull character and higher wavelengths of absorption when compared to the reference dye. Such findings suggest that the new dyes are promising and suitable for optoelectronic applications. PMID:24595721

  2. Investigating hair properties relevant for hair 'handle'. Part I: hair diameter, bending and frictional properties.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, F-J; Schwan-Jonczyk, A

    2006-02-01

    The expert working group 'Hair Care Products' of the DGK currently conducts a wide study to contribute to the understanding of how single hair fibre and hair collective properties contribute towards hair 'handle' and 'feel'. During the first stage of this study four hair types were selected from a large group of individual European hair braids, according to either similar or widely different panel ratings for handle. Against the background of the panel test and the state of the literature the working group readily identified the bending properties of single fibres interacting in the tress as a fibre collective and fibre friction as being of central relevance for hair 'handle' and 'feel'. Fibre diameters of the hair types were determined by Optical Fibre Diameter Analyzer and by weighing. From these data mean ellipticity and bending stiffness distributions were calculated. Single fibre friction was determined by the capstan method in the root, middle and tip regions. Significant differences were determined between the hair types in diameters, ellipticity, bending stiffness and friction. The results lead to conclude that 'handle' is perceived as inferior when the hair is thick and bending stiffness thus high. For such hair differences in handle rating are related to differences in friction, namely in the tip region. For thin and thus 'soft' hair fibre friction seems to play only a minor role. PMID:18492202

  3. Determination of minimum enzymatic decolorization time of reactive dye solution by spectroscopic & mathematical approach.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Mithat; Ozdemir, Zafer Omer; Eroglu, Emre; Altikatoglu, Melda; Guney, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing, paper printing, color photography and petroleum products. Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation, precipitation, adsorption, chemical degradation, photo degradation, and chemical coagulation. Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an important issue for several research field (chemistry, environment) In this study, minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data. Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance decrease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye. All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 degrees C constant temperature for 30 minutes. The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model. Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation. It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation. PMID:25970889

  4. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible) investigations, NMR chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA) parameters of 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine for dye sensitized solar cells using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladis Anitha, E.; Joseph Vedhagiri, S.; Parimala, K.

    2015-02-01

    The molecular structure, geometry optimization, vibrational frequencies of organic dye sensitizer 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine (DACP) were studied based on Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrum was investigated by time dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Features of the electronic absorption spectrum in the UV-Visible regions were assigned based on TD-DFT calculation. The absorption bands are assigned to transitions. The interfacial electron transfer between semiconductor TiO2 electrode and dye sensitizer DACP is due to an electron injection process from excited dye to the semiconductor's conduction band. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOS) have also been determined. The chemical shielding anisotropic (CSA) parameters are calculated from the NMR analysis, Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  5. Hair breakage--how to measure and counteract.

    PubMed

    Haake, Hans-Martin; Marten, Sandra; Seipel, Werner; Eisfeld, Wolf

    2009-01-01

    A system to determine the efficacy of hair treatments in terms of anti-breakage and split end prevention was developed which involves the repeated combing of hair strands. The device allows ten hair strands to be combed simultaneously. First, the influences of chemical hair treatments like bleaching on hair breakage were examined. In a next step, the protective effects of benchmark products from the market were studied. Since nearly all commercial products with anti-breakage claims contain silicones combined with cationic polymers, alternative actives were searched. In a test series with different waxes in shampoo formulations with a variable number of parameters, the particle size was found to be the factor with the strongest influence on the amount of wax deposited on the shampooed hair. Therefore, a targeted development was started, resulting in a combination of several ethers dispersed in sodium laureth sulfate. Excellent conditioning, anti-breakage and split ends protection properties of the compound were found, showing also a dosage dependency. The latter could be explained by analyzing the amounts of waxes applied on treated hair. In these experiments, a dependency on the concentration in the shampoo was found. PMID:19450416

  6. Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolanta Polak; Anna Jarosz-Wilko?azka

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system

  7. The structural implications of water hardness metal uptake by human hair.

    PubMed

    Evans, A O; Marsh, J M; Wickett, R R

    2011-10-01

    Human hair can extract significant levels of calcium and magnesium, water hardness metals, from tap water immediately following chemical treatments and during hygiene practices. We have previously shown that this uptake is primarily a function of the condition of the hair. Depending on the extent of chemical damage, the hair can extract notable amounts of water hardness metals even from soft water. As water hardness metals concentrate primarily in the cuticle layers of the hair fibre, it is hypothesized that their presence will affect the structural properties that are chiefly driven by the cuticle. We examined hair mechanics and styling by technical measures of single-fibre torsional and tensile properties, combability and style retention as a function of the calcium and magnesium content of virgin and bleached hair. Our work has indicated that water hardness can affect hair properties. Fibre stiffening was induced by the presence of water hardness metals inside the fibres of both virgin and bleached hair. A reduction in combing forces was also observed, and this effect is believed to be a result of the stiffening. The style retention of virgin hair was improved by water hardness metals, whereas that of bleached hair was slightly reduced. PMID:21923661

  8. Confocal microscopy of hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Lagarde; P. Peyre; D. Redoules; D. Black; M. Briot; Y. Gall

    1994-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is an excellent method for studying the localization of fluorescent stains. Used in this way, superior 3D images can be obtained from multiple optical sections with very shallow depth of field. The main advantage of this technique is that the sample is not damaged. We have taken serial confocal sections of hair and via specific image enhancement routines

  9. Determination of selected trace elements in human head hair by neutron activation analysis

    E-print Network

    Courson, Leonard Austin

    1981-01-01

    . No requirement was made that hair which had been bleached, dyed or otherwise chemically treated be eliminated from the sample collection effort, since treated hair is a common feature of the population. After an individual sample was collected, it was sealed...DETERMINATION OF SELECTED TRACE ELFMENTS IN HUMAN HEAD HAIR BY NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS A Thesis by LEONARD AUSl IN COURSDN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in partial ful fillment of the requirements...

  10. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  13. Hair cell regeneration: Look to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Edwin W.

    2005-04-01

    Less than 2 decades ago it was discovered that birds can regenerate hair cells in the auditory and vestibular parts of the inner ear after the native hair cells are destroyed by exposure to excessive noise or by mechanical trauma of aminoglycoside antibiotics. This discovery issued in a new era of hearing research-it suggested that some day it may be possible to actually restore hearing in people with congenital or acquired hearing loss due to the degeneration of sensory cells or supporting cells in the inner ear. Fifteen years is a very short time in the history of science. Consider the fact that we have actively sought chemical treatments to prevent or cure cancers for well over a half century and the ``war on Cancer,'' resulted in enormous public and private support. Progress has been great, and some forms of cancer can be treated with great success, but the overall 5-year survival rates have only risen from about 50% to 63%. Progress will continue and many more forms of cancer will be cured and prevented during the next half century. Similarly, during the first 15 years of hair cell regeneration research enormous progress has been made, and we now know that postnatal mammalian ears have the capacity to produce new hair cells. We are indeed a long way from restoring hearing through hair cell regeneration, but the future is pretty clear. I will review the progress of this field with an eye toward the future and what it means for treatments of today. In particular, I will address the potential cost versus benefits of bilateral implantation when applied to babies and young children.

  14. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. ...substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye...

  15. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. ...substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. ...identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye...

  16. Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinevez, J.-Y.; Martin, P.; Jülicher, F.

    2009-02-01

    The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but display non-monotonic movements in response to abrupt force steps. Extracellular calcium changes or static biases to the bundle's position at rest could affect the kinetics of bundle motion and evoke transitions between the different classes of motility. The calcium-dependent location of a bundle's operating point within its nonlinear force-displacement relation controlled the type of movements observed. A unified theoretical description, in which mechanical activity stems from myosin-based adaptation and electro-mechanical feedback by Ca2+, could account for the fast and slow manifestations of active hair-bundle motility.

  17. Human hair growth ex vivo is correlated with in vivo hair growth: selective categorization of hair follicles for more reliable hair follicle organ culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oh Sang Kwon; Jun Kyu Oh; Mi Hyang Kim; So Hyun Park; Hyun Keol Pyo; Kyu Han Kim; Kwang Hyun Cho; Hee Chul Eun

    2006-01-01

    Of the numerous assays used to assess hair growth, hair follicle organ culture model is one of the most popular and powerful in vitro systems. Changes in hair growth are commonly employed as a measurement of follicular activity. Hair cycle stage of mouse vibrissa follicles in vivo is known to determine subsequent hair growth and follicle behavior in vitro and

  18. Lithium treatment of chronic hair pulling.

    PubMed

    Christenson, G A; Popkin, M K; Mackenzie, T B; Realmuto, G M

    1991-03-01

    Ten patients with chronic hair pulling received trials of lithium carbonate of 2 to 14 months' duration. Eight patients demonstrated decreased hair pulling and mild to marked hair regrowth. Three responders experienced increased hair pulling subsequent to discontinuation of lithium treatment. Lithium's effect on hair pulling may be related to its observed benefits in treating aggressivity, impulsivity, and mood instability. PMID:1900831

  19. A practical model for hair mutual interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnny T. Chang; Jingyi Jin; Yizhou Yu

    2002-01-01

    Hair exhibits strong anisotropic dynamic properties which demand distinct dynamic models for single strands and hair-hair interactions. While a single strand can be modeled as a multibody open chain expressed in generalized coordinates, modeling hair-hair interactions is a more difficult problem. A dynamic model for this purpose is proposed based on a sparse set of guide strands. Long range connections

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dyes as sensitizers from Malaysia local fruit `Buah Mertajam'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Roshidah, N.; Hashim, M. Norhafiz; Mohamad, I. S.; Saad, N. Hidayah; Norizan, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the high conversion efficiency, low cost, green technology and easy to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using natural anthocyanin dyes as sensitizers. The DSSCs was fabricated by using natural anthocyanin dyes which were extracted from different parts of the plants inclusive `Buah Mertajam', `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. The natural anthocyanin dyes that found in flower, leaves and fruits were extracted by the simple procedures. This anthocyanin dye is used to replace the expensive chemical synthetic dyes due to its ability to effectively attach into the surface of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). A natural anthocyanin dyes molecule adsorbs to each particle of the TiO2 and acts as the absorber of the visible light. A natural anthocyanin dye from Buah Mertajam shows the best performance with the conversion efficiency of 5.948% and fill factor of 0.708 followed by natural anthocyanin dyes from `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. Buah Mertajam or scientifically known as eriglossum rubiginosum is a local Malaysia fruit.

  1. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability.

    PubMed

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  2. Unnecessary Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  3. Polymerization into Human Hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLARENCE ROBBINS; RICHARD CRAWFORD; D. W. McNEIL; JULIUS NACHTIGAL

    Synopsis-THIOGLYCOLIC ACID (TGA)-CUMENE HYDROPEROXIDE (CHP) and BISULFITE--CHP systems are described for po)ymerizing METHYL METHACRYLATE (MMA) in HUMAN HAIR. An ethanol-water solvent system was employed. Diffusion rate control appears to predominate over a variety of reaction conditions. The influence of reagent concentrations and so)vent effects on the reaction is also describe:). POLY- MERIZATION is shown to occur more rapidly into either

  4. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  5. Fully solution-processed transparent conducting oxide-free counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells: spray-coated single-wall carbon nanotube thin films loaded with chemically-reduced platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Yesel; Lee, Kyung Moon; Yoon, Woo Sug; Lee, Ho Seok; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Seung-Joo; Ahn, Yeong Hwan; Park, Ji-Yong; Lee, Tai Kyu; Lee, Soonil

    2014-08-27

    We report fully solution-processed fabrication of transparent conducting oxide-free counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by combining spray-coating of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and chemical reduction of chloroplatinic acid precursor to platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) with formic acid. The power conversion efficiency of a semitransparent DSSC with such SWCNT-based CE loaded with Pt NPs is comparable to that of a control device with a conventional CE. Quantification of Pt loading shows that network morphology of entangled SWCNTs is efficient in forming and retaining chemically reduced Pt NPs. Moreover, electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results show that mainly Pt NPs, which are tens of nanometers in diameter and reside at the surface of SWCNT CEs, contribute to electrocatalytic activity for triiodide reduction, to which we attribute strong correlation between power conversion efficiency of DSSCs and time constant deduced from equivalent-circuit analysis of impedance spectra. PMID:25122074

  6. The relationship between levels of PCBs and pesticides in human hair and blood: preliminary result.

    PubMed

    Altshul, Larisa; Covaci, Adrian; Hauser, Russ

    2004-08-01

    Human hair as a biologic measure of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has some advantages over the more commonly used blood and adipose tissue samples. However, one of the primary limitations is the difficulty in distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous contamination. In addition, there are currently no standardized methods for hair sample collection, washing, and chemical analysis. There is also very limited information describing the correlation between levels of organic contaminants in hair and other body compartments. To explore levels of POPs in blood and hair, samples from 10 volunteers were collected and analyzed for select organochlorine pesticides and 57 individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. We demonstrated that the method for analyzing organic contaminants in human hair was reliable and reproducible. Washing hair with shampoo decreased levels of PCBs, pesticides, and lipids by 25-33% on average and up to 62% for low-chlorinated congeners. The percentage of lipids and the levels of organochlorines in hair were higher than in serum. We found strong correlation (r = 0.8) between p,p -DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) levels in hair and blood and moderate correlations for the more persistent PCB congeners, but no correlations or weak correlations for other organochlorines. The present study provides preliminary evidence on the utility of hair analysis for POPs; however, further larger studies are recommended before hair analysis can be successfully applied in epidemiologic studies on POPs. PMID:15289166

  7. Evolution of Sensory Hair Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison Coffin; Matthew Kelley; Geoffrey A. Manley; Arthur N. Popper

    \\u000a The ears of all vertebrate species use sensory hair cells (Fig. 3.1) to convert mechanical energy to electrical signals compatible with the nervous system. However, although the basic structure\\u000a of hair cells is ubiquitous among the vertebrates and hair cells are also found in the lateral line of fishes and aquatic\\u000a amphibians, a growing body of literature has demonstrated considerable

  8. Photodamage determination of human hair.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Barba, Clara; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Parra, José Luis; Coderch, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Sunlight on human hair causes photo-degradation. This results in bleaching due to melanin oxidation through free radicals, and induces keratin impairment. Protein degradation, tryptophan degradation, lipidic peroxidation and electron paramagnetic resonance can be used to evaluate proteic and lipidic photodecomposition and free radical formation in hair fibres subjected to antioxidant action and different UV intensities. All these methodologies have been optimised to determine protein, lipid and melanin degradation in hair subjected to different UV intensities. PMID:22119660

  9. A newly identified surface coat on cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Santi, P A; Anderson, C B

    1987-01-01

    Routine electron microscope methods do not well preserve or stain the surface coat or glycocalyx on cochlear hair cells. In other tissues, enhanced preservation and staining of these glycoconjugates was obtained following fixation with glutaraldehyde containing a cationic dye (e.g., Alcian blue and ruthenium red). When cochleas were fixed with glutaraldehyde containing Alcian blue, the endolymphatic surface of hair cells, but not the supporting cells, displayed an extensive (approximately 90 nm thick) surface coat. Alcian blue positive material was also observed in the tectorial and basilar membranes and in a portion of the spiral ligament. In addition, acellular bands of Alcian blue positive material were observed between the tectorial membrane and the reticular lamina or inner sulcus cells. Although the function of these cochlear glycoconjugates is not yet known, it is proposed that they serve to attach the tectorial membrane to the organ of Corti, and they are involved in stereocilia fusion following sound exposure and ototoxic drug administration. PMID:3583936

  10. Hair pulling (trichotillomania).

    PubMed

    Galski, T

    1983-01-01

    Based on the findings in this case and common elements reported in other articles on trichotillomania, there seems to be evidence that the "irresistible urge" to pull out the hair has its beginnings in the early years of a child's life. The nature of the parent-child relationships appears to be especially important in establishing psychological antecedents for the later development of trichotillomania. Specifically, the trichotillomanic's mother sets the stage for the emergence of this symptom by extending the child's dependence upon her as the primary need-gratifier beyond early childhood into latency, adolescence, and adulthood. As a result the child is not gradually propelled to participate in newer and more complex learning experiences that ultimately lead to a sense of mastery and independent functioning in the environment. Important developmental stimuli are not presented at the appropriate times and the child is not exposed to certain types of interactions at the optimal times so that some very important ego functions do not develop, or develop minimally, or in a distorted manner. Simply, the mother cannot "let go" of her child, apparently deriving gratification of her own needs through infantilization of the child; as a result the child develops a limited or illusory sense of self sufficiency. Continuation of such an unhealthy symbiotic relationship, however, is found in many forms of psychopathology and the fact that it also underlies trichotillomania may partially account for hair pulling as a symptom associated with such a wide range of nosological categories. It is the main contention of this study, however, that the quality of the parent-child relationships impairs the ego development and causes failure of the trichotillomanic patient to establish object constancy. Without the establishment of object constancy an individual requires visible evidence that the object/person capable of gratifying basic security needs is present or available. In trichotillomania the hair seems to symbolize the need-gratifying object/person who is lost when the hair is pulled out and, more importantly, regained when it is eaten or restored. It appears to be this latter component of trichotillomania, i.e., reincorporation of the need-gratifying object/person, which reassures the patient that infantile needs can be gratified and security can be reestablished. Unfortunately, the trichotillomanic is driven to repeatedly and compulsively remove hair so that it can be regained temporarily since object constancy is never really established. PMID:6201939

  11. How to Stop Damaging Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Removing gum without cutting hair Stop hair damage Styling without damage Tips for healthy hair Nail care ... once a week — or even less often. Applying styling products that offer long-lasting hold Changes that ...

  12. Hair Shaft Abnormalities – Clues to Diagnosis and Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Itin; Susanna K. Fistarol

    2005-01-01

    Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks

  13. Optofluidic dye lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis

    2008-01-01

    Optofluidic dye lasers are microfabricated liquid dye lasers enabled by the microfluidics technology. The integration of dye\\u000a lasers with microfluidics not only facilitates the implementation of complete “lab-on-a-chip” systems, but also allows the\\u000a dynamical control of the laser properties which is not achievable with solid-state optical components. We review the recent\\u000a demonstrations of on-chip liquid dye lasers and some of

  14. Solid state dye lasers with scattering feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costela, A.; Cerdán, L.; García-Moreno, I.

    2013-11-01

    Over the last decade, significant advances have been made toward the development of practical, tunable solid state dye lasers, which resulted in improved lasing efficiency with reduced dye photodegradation. To achieve this goal, a “chemical” approach was followed, where attention was focused onto the particular dye/host interaction and compatibility, specifically choosing already existing hosts for a given dye, synthesizing new dyes and/or matrices, or chemically modifying existing ones. Nevertheless, this approach was limited by a single fact learnt from the experience: there is no universal matrix which optimizes the efficiency and photostability of all dyes. This limitation could be overcome by following a “physical” approach, where the emission properties of the active medium are tailored by means of physical and structural modifications of the dye host. Following this approach, in this paper recent theoretical and experimental work is reviewed where it is demonstrated that following a simultaneous “physical” and “chemical” approach to tailor the emission properties of the host materials for solid state dye lasers, may lead, under specific circumstances, to the improvement of both the laser efficiency and photostability. In particular, it is demonstrated that optical scattering is not always detrimental either to conventional bulk lasers (laser rods or colloidal suspensions) or to integrated devices, but may give place, on the contrary, to dramatic improvements in the laser operation of organic (hybrid) laser rods, and to alternative ways of obtaining laser light from integrated devices based on the phenomenon of coherent random lasing, where feedback is provided by light scattering in an appropriate medium, without the need to manufacture complex periodic structures in the substrate. The processing and pumping flexibility of these materials, together with their low cost and capability of efficient emission across the whole visible spectrum makes them very attractive for the fabrication and development of coherent light sources suitable for integration in optoelectronic and disposable spectroscopic and sensing devices.

  15. Dye Like A Natural

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners stain fabrics--on purpose! Learners explore the art of natural dyeing by using dyes and substrates that are both derived from plant or animal sources as well as mordant solutions. Learners compare the color and effectiveness of different mordant/dye combinations on the different substrates.

  16. GaN-nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Y. Chen; C. T. Yip; M. K. Fung; A. B. Djurisic; W. K. Chan

    2010-01-01

    GaN nanowires typically exhibit high electron mobility and excellent chemical stability. However, stability of GaN is detrimental for successful attachment of dye molecules and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here we demonstrate DSSCs based on GaN\\/gallium oxide and GaN\\/TiO x core-shell structures, and we show that coating of GaN nanowires with a TiO x shell significantly increases dye

  17. Ultrasound for wool dyeing and finishing.

    PubMed

    McNeil, S J; McCall, R A

    2011-01-01

    The effects of ultrasound at 35-39 kHz on several wool dyeing and finishing processes have been investigated as a way of reducing environmental impact. Ultrasound improved the effectiveness of cleaning scoured wool in water and to a lesser extent in water-nonionic surfactant. Scanning electron microscopy did not indicate any surface damage. Fluorescence microscopy revealed increased levels of sulphydryl groups on the wool surface suggesting ultrasound caused the removal of thioester-bound lipids. Ultrasound pre-treatment increased the effectiveness of subsequent oxidative-reductive bleaching, but had no effect on the uptake of acid levelling and acid milling dyes. The pre-treatment retarded the uptake of reactive dye, possibly by increasing the crystallinity of the fibre or removing surface bound lipids. Ultrasound did not improve dyeing under conditions that are currently used in industry, but did show potential to reduce the chemical and energy requirements of dyeing wool with reactive and acid milling dyes, but not acid levelling dyes. PMID:20675174

  18. The dermal papilla: an instructive niche for epithelial stem and progenitor cells in development and regeneration of the hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) of the hair follicle is both a chemical and physical niche for epithelial progenitor cells that regenerate the cycling portion of the hair follicle and generate the hair shaft. Here, we review experiments that revealed the importance of the DP in regulating the characteristics of the hair shaft and frequency of hair follicle regeneration. More recent work showed that the size of this niche is dynamic and actively regulated and reduction in DP cell number per follicle is sufficient to cause hair thinning and loss. The formation of the DP during follicle neogenesis provides a context to contemplate the mechanisms that maintain DP size and the potential to exploit these processes for hair preservation or restoration. PMID:24985131

  19. Effect of sun protection agent on preventing hair colour fading and hair damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; Y. L. Chow

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of sun protection agent on different hair samples including, (i) unbleached hair sample, (ii) bleached\\u000a hair sample and (iii) bleached hair sample with subsequent hair coloration, were studied. This paper was aimed at evaluating\\u000a the effectiveness of sun protection agent on the different hair conditions. The hair samples were divided into two sets; one\\u000a was

  20. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  1. Data mining with molecular design rules identifies new class of dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Ozoe, Hiroaki; Stathi, Panagiota; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Rudolf, Petra; Kawase, Takeshi

    2014-12-28

    A major deficit in suitable dyes is stifling progress in the dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC) industry. Materials discovery strategies have afforded numerous new dyes; yet, corresponding solution-based DSC device performance has little improved upon 11% efficiency, achieved using the N719 dye over two decades ago. Research on these dyes has nevertheless revealed relationships between the molecular structure of dyes and their associated DSC efficiency. Here, such structure-property relationships have been codified in the form of molecular dye design rules, which have been judiciously sequenced in an algorithm to enable large-scale data mining of dye structures with optimal DSC performance. This affords, for the first time, a DSC-specific dye-discovery strategy that predicts new classes of dyes from surveying a representative set of chemical space. A lead material from these predictions is experimentally validated, showing DSC efficiency that is comparable to many well-known organic dyes. This demonstrates the power of this approach. PMID:25011389

  2. Data Mining with Molecular Design Rules Identifies New Class of Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    A major deficit in suitable dyes is stiffling progress in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) industry. Materials discovery strategies have afforded numerous new dyes; yet, corresponding solution-based DSC device performance has little improved upon 11% efficiency, achieved using the N719 dye over two decades ago. Research on these dyes has nevertheless revealed relationships between the molecular structure of dyes and their associated DSC efficiency. Here, we have codified such structure-property relationships in the form of molecular dye design rules, which have been judiciously sequenced in an algorithm to enable large-scale data mining of dye structures with optimal DSC performance. For the first time, we have a DSC-specific dye-discovery strategy that predicts new classes of dyes from surveying a representative set of chemical space. A lead material from these predictions is experimentally validated herein, showing DSC efficiency that is comparable to many well-known organic dyes. This demonstrates the power of this approach.

  3. Black Holes with Short Hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David Brown, J.; Husain, Viqar

    We present spherically symmetric black hole solutions for Einstein gravity coupled to anisotropic matter. We show that these black holes have arbitrarily short hair, and argue for stability by showing that they can arise from dynamical collapse. We also show that a recent "no short hair" theorem does not apply to these solutions.

  4. Photodamage determination of human hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Estibalitz Fernández; Clara Barba; Cristina Alonso; Meritxell Martí; José Luis Parra; Luisa Coderch

    Sunlight on human hair causes photo-degradation. This results in bleaching due to melanin oxidation through free radicals, and induces keratin impairment. Protein degradation, tryptophan degradation, lipidic peroxidation and electron paramagnetic resonance can be used to evaluate proteic and lipidic photodecomposition and free radical formation in hair fibres subjected to antioxidant action and different UV intensities. All these methodologies have been

  5. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation. PMID:17440329

  6. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal. PMID:19834437

  7. Oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the low-temperature direct growth of graphitic nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we report an oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method for the direct growth of graphitic nanofibers (GNFs) on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate at a low temperature (550 °C). By adding moderate concentrations of oxygen in a gas mixture of argon, ethylene, and hydrogen during LPCVD, an extremely dense GNF forest can be obtained on a nickel-coated FTO glass substrate. Though this process, the graphitic nanofibers are grown homogenously on a large area of FTO glass. It was observed that oxygen-assisted LPCVD leads to the direct growth of high-quality GNFs as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In combination with an N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with a GNF counter electrode showed a power conversion efficiency of 5.51% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm?2) illumination, which approached that of the DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (5.44%). The results demonstrated that our directly grown GNFs could be promising candidates for counter electrodes to achieve high performance in DSSCs.

  8. Human hair growth ex vivo is correlated with in vivo hair growth: selective categorization of hair follicles for more reliable hair follicle organ culture.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Oh, Jun Kyu; Kim, Mi Hyang; Park, So Hyun; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Kim, Kyu Han; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul

    2006-02-01

    Of the numerous assays used to assess hair growth, hair follicle organ culture model is one of the most popular and powerful in vitro systems. Changes in hair growth are commonly employed as a measurement of follicular activity. Hair cycle stage of mouse vibrissa follicles in vivo is known to determine subsequent hair growth and follicle behavior in vitro and it is recommended that follicles be taken at precisely the same cyclic stage. This study was performed to evaluate whether categorization of human hair follicles by the growth in vivo could be used to select follicles of the defined anagen stage for more consistent culture. Occipital scalp samples were obtained from three subjects, 2 weeks later after hair bleaching. Hair growth and follicle length of isolated anagen VI follicles were measured under a videomicroscope. Follicles were categorized into four groups according to hair growth and some were cultured ex vivo for 6 days. Follicles showed considerable variations with respect to hair growth and follicle length; however, these two variables were relatively well correlated. Hair growth in culture was closely related with hair growth rate in vivo. Moreover, minoxidil uniquely demonstrated a significant increase of hair growth in categorized hair follicles assumed at a similar early anagen VI stage of hair cycle. Selection of follicles at a defined stage based on hair-growth rate would permit a more reliable outcome in human hair follicle organ culture. PMID:16328343

  9. Chemical reactions in TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes and their impacts to power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chuen-Shii; Jhang, Jhih-Wei; Chou, Sheng-Wei; Wu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by combining chemical modeling with experimentation. The interfacial chemical reactions in a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 system were simulated using a thermochemistry software package, which led to the design and testing of hybrid working electrodes. Chemical thermodynamic modeling proved that TiCl4 is an effective agent in removing Tin+ (n<4) and Snm+ (m<4) ion impurities from dry-mixed TiO2/SnO2 composite particles. Our results demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency of DSSC with a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrode exceeds that of the conventional DSSC with a TiO2 electrode due to the effects of light-scattering and the formation of additional absorbance (SnCl2), which is an unexpected side effect of TiCl4 treatment enabling the absorption of visible light. The proposed approach is ideally suited to establishing relationships between chemistry theory and the structure and performance of advanced DSSCs as well as photo-electro-chemical systems.

  10. Significant damage of the skin and hair following hair bleaching.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Won-Ji; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ki-Young

    2010-10-01

    Scalp burns can be caused by hair bleaching with excess procedures such as unnecessary heating and excessive treatment with bleaching agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and histological changes of the hair and skin after bleaching. Ammonium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (6% or 9%) solution mixed at a ratio of 1:2 (weight ratio) were sufficiently applied to human hairs and rat skin. The bleached hairs were brightened up to yellow by increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and time of bleach treatment. After bleaching, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe that the cuticle scales of the hairs were irregular and lifted. The mechanical properties of the bleached hairs, such as tensile strength and elongation, were slightly different than the untreated hairs. The tested rat skin showed severe swelling after treatment of the bleaching agent (9% hydrogen peroxide). The rat skin bleached with 9% hydrogen peroxide exhibited epidermal thinning and subepidermal vesicle formation. The extracellular matrix of the skin was seriously disrupted after bleaching. Therefore, the use of only suitable bleaching procedures is suggested in order to avoid injuries. PMID:20860738

  11. Studies on Dyeing Process Variables for Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Glycine Modified Cationized Cotton Muslin Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Kar, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Asis; Shome, Debashis; Konar, Adwaita

    2015-04-01

    Bleached cotton muslin fabric with or without pre-oxidized with NaIO4 (oxy-cotton) was chemically modified with glycine (amino acid) by pad dry calendar process to investigate the changes in textile properties and its dyeability with reactive dye. This glycine modified cotton incorporates new functional groups producing -NH3 + or -C=NH+ -ion (cationic groups) in acid bath to obtain cationized cotton making it amenable to a newer route of salt free reactive dyeing in acid bath. In the present work the process variables of reactive dyeing in the salt free acid bath for dyeing of amine (glycine) modified cationized cotton were studied and optimized. The present study also includes thorough investigation of changes in important textile related properties and dyeability with reactive dye after such chemical modifications. Between oxidized and unoxidized cotton muslin fabric, unoxidized cotton fabric shows better reactive dye uptake in both conventional alkaline bath dyeing and nonconventional salt free acid bath dyeing particularly for high exhaustion class of reactive dye with acceptable level of colour fastness and overall balance of other textile related properties. Moreover, application of dye fixing agent further improves surface colour depth (K/S) of the glycine treated cotton fabric for HE brand of reactive dyes. Corresponding reaction mechanisms for such modifications were supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally unoxidized cotton and pre-oxidized cotton further treated with glycine (amino acid) provide a new route of acid bath salt free reactive dyeing showing much higher dye uptake and higher degree of surface cover with amino acid residue anchored to modified cotton.

  12. Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

    2010-03-01

    Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

  13. Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

    2009-12-01

    Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

  14. A closer look at the complex hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions forces at the human hair surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdadli, N.; Luengo, G. S.; Recherche, L.

    2008-03-01

    The complex chemical structure of the hair surface is far from being completely understood. Current understanding is based on Rivett's model1 that was proposed to explain the macroscopic hydrophobic nature of the surface of natural hair. In this model covalently-linked fatty acids are chemically grafted to the amorphous protein (keratin) through a thio-ester linkage2,3. Nevertheless, experience like wetting and electrical properties of human hair surface4 shows that the complexity of the hair surface is not fully understand based on this model in literature. Recent studies in our laboratory show for the first time microscopic evidence of the heterogeneous physico-chemical character of the hair surface. By using Chemical Force Microscopy, the presence of hydrophobic and ionic species are detected and localized, before and after a cosmetic treatment (bleaching). Based on force curve analysis the mapping of the local distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups of hair surface is obtained. A discussion on a more plausible hair model and its implications will be presented based on these new results.

  15. A closer look at the complex hydrophilic\\/hydrophobic interactions forces at the human hair surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Baghdadli; G S Luengo; L Recherche

    2008-01-01

    The complex chemical structure of the hair surface is far from being completely understood. Current understanding is based on Rivett's model1 that was proposed to explain the macroscopic hydrophobic nature of the surface of natural hair. In this model covalently-linked fatty acids are chemically grafted to the amorphous protein (keratin) through a thio-ester linkage2,3. Nevertheless, experience like wetting and electrical

  16. Electroluminescence of the dye-sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Trupke, T.; Wuerfel, P. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik] [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Uhlendorf, I.; Lauermann, I. [Inst. fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)] [Inst. fuer Angewandte Photovoltaik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1999-03-18

    Measurements of the electroluminescence of dye-sensitized solar cells are presented for the first time. Forward biasing of a dye-sensitized solar cell leads to electron injection into the dye which is adsorbed on a nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} film. Application of the generalized Planck equation yields {Delta}{mu}{sub D}, the difference of chemical potentials of dye molecules in an excited state and in the ground state, which are involved in the optical transition. The authors find that {Delta}{mu}{sub D} is equal to the voltage between the contacts of the cell, after the latter is corrected for a voltage drop over a series resistance.

  17. Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

    2012-05-10

    This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from chest hair were higher. EtG in armpit hair was lower and in leg hair higher than in scalp hair. It is concluded that the combined use of FAEE and EtG essentially increases the accuracy of interpretation since both markers complement each other by a different sensitivity to sources of error. PMID:22036309

  18. ESTIMATION OF IONIZATION CONSTANTS OF AZO DYES AND RELATED AROMATIC AMINES: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionization constants for 214 dye molecules were calculated from molecular structures using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry). hese models used fundamental chemical structure theory to predict chemical reactivities ...

  19. Hair-testing for illicit drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Parkes

    2004-01-01

    Human hair may contain deposits of illicit drugs. Testing of hair will provide an indicator of drug use at the time the hair was grown. Hair samples have several advantages over urine samples, particularly length of surveillance period (months rather than days) and resistance to tampering. Any form of drug-testing must be seen as a component of a clinical plan

  20. Amino Acid Analysis of Cosmetically Altered Hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLARENCE R. ROBBINS; CHARLES KELLY

    Synopsis--Bleached and permanent waved hair, treated on the head by consumers, as well as unaltered hair, were hydrolyzed and examined by automatic amino acid analysis. The hydrolyzates of severely bleached hair were found to contain substantially less cystine and smaller quantities of tyrosine and methionine as compared to hydrolyzates from unaltered hair. Relatively large amounts of cysteic acid were also

  1. STR genotyping of exogenous hair shaft DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate S. Robertson; Dennis McNevin; James Robertson

    2007-01-01

    Most hairs found at crime scenes yield low quality and\\/or low quantities of nuclear DNA. This DNA is further depleted when stringent hair cleaning procedures are applied in the laboratory, suggesting that detectable DNA exists exogenously. The phenomenon of exogenous hair DNA is the subject of this study. DNA was extracted from washed and unwashed hairs and the resulting Profiler™

  2. Hair-color modeling and head detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Zhao; Dihua Sun; Hengpan He

    2008-01-01

    A method based on hair-color modeling to detect human head in color images was proposed. The presented algorithm compared the performance of four different chrominance spaces for the distribution of hair color and built a human hair color model in YCbCr space. A Gaussian mixture density model was used to describe the distribution of hair color and segmentation threshold value

  3. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Spilde; Antonio Lanzirotti; Clifford Qualls; Genevieve Phillips; Abdul-Mehdi Ali; Larry Agenbroad; Otto Appenzeller; Matjaz Perc

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between

  4. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Hair Follicle Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Millar

    2002-01-01

    Clinical conditions causing hair loss, such as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, and scarring alopecia, can be psychologically devastating to individuals and are the target of a multimillion dollar pharmaceutical industry. The importance of the hair follicle in skin biology, however, does not rest solely with its ability to produce hair. Hair follicles are self-renewing and contain reservoirs of multipotent stem

  5. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options. PMID:12469966

  6. Quantum hair on black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Sidney; Preskill, John; Wilczek, Frank

    1992-07-01

    A black hole may carry quantum numbers that are not associated with massless gauge fields, contrary to the spirit of the ``no-hair'' theorems. We describe in detail two different types of black-hole hair that decay exponentially at long range. The first type is associated with discrete gauge charge and the screening is due to the Higgs mechanism. The second type is associated with color magnetic charge, and the screening is due to color confinement. In both cases, we perform semiclassical calculations of the effect of the hair on local observables outside the horizon, and on black-hole thermodynamics. These effects are generated by virtual cosmic strings, or virtual electric flux tubes, that sweep around the event horizon. The effects of discrete gauge charge are nonperturbative in h, but the effects of color magnetic charge become h-independent in a suitable limit. We present an alternative treatment of discrete gauge charge using dual variables, and examine the possibility of black-hole hair associated with discrete global symmetry. We draw the distinction between primary hair, which endows a black hole with new quantum numbers, and secondary hair, which does not, and we point out some varieties of secondary hair that occur in the standard model of particle physics. Reserch supported in part by DOE grant DE-FG02-90ER40542.

  7. Hair morphology and systematics of Physalis ( Solanaceae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Almut Seithe; Janet R. Sullivan

    1990-01-01

    Hair morphology was exammed on developing seedlings and mature plants of ten species from five of seven series inPhysalis. The taxonomic importance of hair development and the distribution of hair types then was evaluated with respect to other comparative data. Two classes of hair types were observed, as found in earlier investigations ofSolanum andRhododendron. The first hair class comprises a

  8. Example-based hair geometry synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lvdi Wang; Yizhou Yu; Kun Zhou; Baining Guo

    2009-01-01

    We present an example-based approach to hair modeling because creating hairstyles either manually or through image-based acquisi- tion is a costly and time-consuming process. We introduce a hierar- chical hair synthesis framework that views a hairstyle both as a 3D vector field and a 2D arrangement of hair strands on the scalp. Since hair forms wisps, a hierarchical hair clustering

  9. A Comparative Study of Ozone and Ultraviolet Light/Hydrogen Peroxide for Decolorizing Textile Dyeing Waste Water 

    E-print Network

    Namboodri, C. G.; Perkins, W. S.; Walsh, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Decolorizing textile mill spent dyebath effluents with UV radiation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (UV/peroxide) and with ozone was investigated. Direct, disperse, and acid dyes with known chemical structures were decolorized. The dyes...

  10. Peruvian natural dye plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay K. Antúnez de Mayolo

    1989-01-01

    The use of natural dyes to color textiles and other objects has a long history in Andean South America, but has for the most\\u000a part become a lost technology with the introduction of synthetic dyes. A literature and field survey to recover information\\u000a about the traditional use of dye plants in Peru, from pre-Hispanic to recent times, was accompanied by

  11. Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2010-01-01

    Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

  12. Ultrasonic assisted dyeing. IV. Dyeing of cationised cotton with lac natural dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Kamel; Reda M. El-Shishtawy; B. M. Youssef; H. Mashaly

    2007-01-01

    The dyeing of cationised cotton fabrics with lac natural dye has been studied using both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The effects of dye bath pH, salt concentration, ultrasonic power, dyeing time and temperature were studied and the resulting shades obtained by dyeing with ultrasonic and conventional techniques were compared. Colour strength values obtained were found to be higher with ultrasonic

  13. [Anaphylaxis to blue dyes].

    PubMed

    Langner-Viviani, F; Chappuis, S; Bergmann, M M; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    In medicine, vital blue dyes are mainly used for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in oncologic surgery. Perioperative anaphylaxis to blue dyes is a rare but significant complication. Allergic reactions to blue dyes are supposedly IgE-mediated and mainly caused by triarylmethanes (patent blue and isosulfane blue) and less frequently by methylene blue. These substances usually do not feature on the anesthesia record and should not be omitted from the list of suspects having caused the perioperative reaction, in the same manner as latex and chlorhexidine. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity to vital blue dyes can be established by skin test. We illustrate this topic with three clinical cases. PMID:24834647

  14. Household Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... garden center and theater groups often need surplus paint. Some communities have organized waste exchanges where household ... household chemicals. Never use hair spray, cleaning solutions, paint products, or pesticides near an open flame (e. ...

  15. Photocatalytic and combined anaerobic-photocatalytic treatment of textile dyes.

    PubMed

    Harrelkas, F; Paulo, A; Alves, M M; El Khadir, L; Zahraa, O; Pons, M N; van der Zee, F P

    2008-08-01

    A photocatalytic process based on immobilized titanium dioxide was used to treat crude solutions of azo, anthraquinone and phthalocyanine textile dyes. In addition, the process was applied to the treat autoxidized chemically reduced azo dyes, i.e. representatives of recalcitrant dye residues after biological sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment. Photocatalysis was able to remove more than 90% color from crude as well as autoxidized chemically reduced dye solutions. UV-absorbance and COD were also removed but to a lower extent (50% in average). The end products of photocatalytic treatment were not toxic toward methanogenic bacteria. The results demonstrate that photocatalysis can be used as a pre- or post-treatment method to biological anaerobic treatment of dye-containing textile wastewater. PMID:18585754

  16. Follicular Unit Extraction Hair Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Aman; Dua, Kapil

    2010-01-01

    Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT) of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of ‘no visible scarring’ in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the traditional FUT. The addition of latest automated FUE technique seeks to overcome some of the limitations in this relatively new technique and it is now possible to achieve more than a thousand grafts in one day in trained hands. This article reviews the methodology, limitations and advantages of FUE hair transplant. PMID:21031064

  17. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal. PMID:16408139

  18. BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT OF AZO DYES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion...

  19. Testing human hair for cannabis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Cirimele; P. Kintz; P. Mangin

    1995-01-01

    To validate information on cannabis use, we investigated human hair and pubic hair for cannabinoids (THC and THC-COOH) by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Samples (100 mg approximately) were decontaminated with methylene chloride, then pulverized and dissolved in 1 ml 1 N NaOH for 10 min at 95 °C in the presence of 200 ng of deuterated standards. After cooling, samples were

  20. Trichotillomania (hair pulling) in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Harry H; Holmes, George R

    2003-02-01

    Although the clinical diagnosis of trichotillomania has been observed for more than a century, not until the last decade has there been a focus on this diagnosis in early childhood. This small case series focuses on the clinical evaluation of 10 toddlers, average of 26 mo., presenting at a specialty child and adolescent psychiatry clinic with hair pulling. Authors suggest that hair pulling in this age group might better be conceptualized as an anxiety disorder. PMID:12674287

  1. 77 FR 71561 - Health and Safety Data Reporting; Addition of Certain Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ...industrial gases, inorganic dyes and pigments, alkalis and chlorine, and carbon black...including importers) of inorganic dyes and pigments (NAICS code 325131). Manufacturers...industrial gases, synthetic organic dyes and pigments, gum and wood chemicals, cyclic...

  2. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  3. Tie-Dye Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gretchen Cessna

    2001-03-01

    In their travels to the indigo dye pits of northern Nigeria, the authors were struck by the beauty, history, and chemistry of indigo dyeing. They returned from Nigeria eager to develop a laboratory exercise that would expose students to the science of ind

  4. Decolorization of reactive dyes by immobilized laccase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricio Peralta-Zamora; Cláudia M. Pereira; Elaine R. L. Tiburtius; Sandra G. Moraes; Maria A. Rosa; Rosana C. Minussi; Nelson Durán

    2003-01-01

    Immobilization of laccase by Trametes versicolor on silica chemically modified with imidazol groups, amberlite IRA-400, glass–ceramic chemically modified with carbodiimide\\/glutaraldehyde and by aminoprolyltriethoxysilane\\/glutaraldehyde and montmorillonite modified by aminoprolyltriethoxysilane\\/glutaraldehyde were afforded. These supports were used in the decolorization of textile reactive dyes (Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Remazol Black B, Reactive Orange 122 and Reactive Red 251). One of the most efficient

  5. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  6. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  7. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

  8. African-American Hair: Tips for Everyday Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health and beauty Hair care African-American hair African-American hair: Tips for everyday care Unique in appearance and structure, African-American hair is especially fragile and prone to injury ...

  9. Studies in treatment of disperse dye waste: Membrane-wet oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Dhale, A.D.; Mahajani, V.V.

    2000-07-01

    An integrated process, membrane-wet oxidation (MEMWO) has been demonstrated to treat the disperse dye bath waste. The dye bath waste stream containing azo class disperse dye CL 79, was studied to demonstrate the process. A nanofiltration membrane (MPT 30) showed > 99% color and 97% chemical oxygen demand (COD) rejection of dye compound. The concentrate was then treated by wet oxidation (WO) process. WO of dye was studied in the range of 160--225 C and oxygen partial pressure 0.69--1.38 MPa. A homogeneous copper sulfate was found to be a suitable catalyst to effectively destroy the dye as well as the real waste. While non catalytic WO of dye achieved 75% reduction in COD during 120 min with 99% color destruction, the catalytic WO showed about 90% reduction in COD. The performance of WO of actual waste stream was comparable with that of pure dye molecule.

  10. First-principles study of Carbz-PAHTDDT dye sensitizer and two Carbz-derived dyes for dye sensitized solar cells

    E-print Network

    Mohammadi, Narges

    2014-01-01

    Two new carbazole-based organic dye sensitizers are designed and investigated in silico. These dyes are designed through chemical modifications of the conjugated bridge of a reference organic sensitizer known as Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) dye. The aim of designing these dyes was to reduce the energy gap between their highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and to red-shift their absorption response compared to those of the reference S9 dye sensitizer. This reference dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. To investigate geometric and electronic structure, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were conducted on the new dyes as well as the reference dye. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the TD-DFT simulation is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths.The theoretical studies have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap ...

  11. Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

    2013-06-01

    Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. PMID:23301816

  12. Hair breakage during combing. IV. Brushing and combing hair.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Clarence; Kamath, Yash

    2007-01-01

    During combing of hair, longer fiber breaks (>2.5 cm) occur principally by impact loading of looped crossover hairs, while short segment breaks (<2.5 cm) occur primarily by end wrapping. Brushing provides breakage similarly but with a higher ratio of long-to-short segment breaks, and the ratio of long-to-short segment breaks (L/S) is a good way to follow these two pathways of breakage under different conditions. For example, bleaching hair, a longer comb stroke, increasing fiber curvature, wet combing versus dry combing, and brushing versus combing all provide for an increase in long segment breaks and this ratio, with the largest effect produced by brushing. PMID:18305876

  13. Characteristics of dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoji Furukawa; Hiroshi Iino; Tomohisa Iwamoto; Koudai Kukita; Shoji Yamauchi

    2009-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are expected to be used for future clean energy. Recently, most of the researchers in this field use Ruthenium complex as dye in the dye-sensitized solar cells. However, Ruthenium is a rare metal, so the cost of the Ruthenium complex is very high. In this paper, various dye-sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using natural dye, such

  14. Mordant dyes as sensitisers in dye-sensitised solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith R. Millington; Keith W. Fincher; A. Lee King

    2007-01-01

    Many mordant dyes commonly used in the textile industry form coordination complexes at the surface of nanocrystalline TiO2. Dyes having a salicylate chelating group are particularly effective. Forty-nine commercial mordant dyes were studied as sensitisers in a non-optimised dye-sensitised solar cell (DSSC) and their performance compared to the N3 ruthenium complex. Although N3 produced the highest output, six mordant dyes

  15. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  16. Trichoscopic Hair Evaluation in Patients with Ectodermal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Górska, Renata; Rudnicka, Lidia; Zadurska, Ma?gorzata

    2015-07-01

    Hair abnormalities in ectodermal dysplasia may be difficult to identify. Among 16 patients with ectodermal dysplasia trichoscopy (hair dermoscopy) revealed predominance of pilosebaceous units with 1 hair (69%), abnormalities of hair shaft pigmentation (gray hair with single dark hairs, 56%), pili torti, trichothiodystrophy, trichorrhexis nodosa, and rarely, cicatricial alopecia. PMID:25935816

  17. 1. Introduction: current issues in hair loss-related disorders

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    1. Introduction: current issues in hair loss-related disorders 2. Basic biology of hair follicles 3. Physiological regeneration: modulating the regeneration of existing hair follicles by the extra-hair follicle environment and systemic hormone factors 4. Regeneration of hair fibers from existing follicles after hair

  18. Unexpected radiation hazard in dyes of textiles.

    PubMed

    Abdel Ghany, Hayam A; Ibrahim, Eman M

    2014-01-01

    Textile dyes are among the most problematic pollutants because of their toxicity on several organisms and ecosystems. Many of the chemicals used in the textile industry may represent some health concerns. The determination of the radioactivity in textile dyes is therefore very important for both human health and environment. The study was designated to determine, for the first time, the values of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in nine different dyes employed in the textile industry using gamma spectrometry with a Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were 29.37?±?4.48, 1.15?±?0.13 and 565?±?4 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated radium equivalents for all samples were lower than the maximum admissible value (370 Bq/kg). The absorbed dose rates due to the natural radioactivity of the investigated samples ranged from 2.94?±?0.05 to 166?±?3 nGy/h. So, the absorbed dose rates for all samples of textile dyes were lower than the international recommended value (55 nGy/h) except the yellow dye (166?±?3 nGy/h), which recorded a significant radiological hazard. The external hazard index was also calculated. Conclusively, the results have indicated that the textile dyes may possess a measurable amount of radioactivity that should be taken into account. Therefore, safety rules and precautions should be applied for dyes used in the textile industry and for people working in this field. PMID:25322918

  19. Hair loss in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Todorova, Antonia; Al Khuzaei, Safaa; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Ring, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Hair loss in elderly women has been becoming a major topic in the daily practice of dermatology. Aging of hair follicles seems to affect hair growth and pigmentation, the molecular mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Further senile changes in physiology and immunity may influence the onset and course of hair diseases. Some preexisting diseases such as androgenetic alopecia usually worsen after menopause, while others, like discoid lupus erythematosus, may attenuate. Hormone surveying, especially with regard to internal androgen-producing tumors, is indicated in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia of sudden exacerbation or with unusual manifestation or other virilizing signs. The prevalence of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis appears to be much lower in postmenopausal ages as compared to earlier onset. Acute or chronic telogen effluvium is not uncommonly superimposed on androgenetic alopecia. Trichotillomania shows a marked female predominance in the senile age group with a higher rate of psychopathology. Worldwide, tinea capitis has been increasingly observed in postmenopausal women. Frontal fibrosing alopecia, giant cell arteritis and erosive pustular dermatosis involve mainly elder women leading to scarring alopecia. Alopecia induced by tumor metastasis to the scalp must be considered in women with underlying neoplasms, especially breast cancer. Overall, hair loss in postmenopausal women is often multifactorial and warrants a close inspection. PMID:20172841

  20. Effect of emission wavelength on photo-stability of laser dye: experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagtap, Krishna; Ray, A. K.; Sinha, S.; Dasgupta, K.; Sarkar, S. K.

    2012-09-01

    Photo-stability of laser dyes has been an important consideration for dye lasers. In this work, photo-stability of dye and its effect has been investigated as a function of dye laser wavelengths rather than commonly studied photo-chemical degradation pathways upon excitation with pump laser. Here, we report a significant improvement in photo-stability of the liquid dye laser at peak emission wavelength compared to edge wavelengths of the dye gain curve, which was related with an increase in rate of stimulated emission of dye at peak wavelength. Thus, high laser efficiency harmonizes to high photo-stability of the dye at peak wavelength which is useful for the applications of dye lasers. As a representative case, the photo-stability rates of pyrromethene 567 (PM567) dye at different laser emission wavelengths were studied using a 10-Hz Nd-YAG (532 nm) laser-pumped dye laser set-up under lasing and non-lasing conditions. Deterioration of dye laser efficiency on account of photo-degradation of dye molecules was theoretically simulated using a time-dependent rate equation model, which has been found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  1. Evaluation of the permeability of hair growing ingredient encapsulated PLGA nanospheres to hair follicles and their hair growing effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Tsujimoto; Kaori Hara; Yusuke Tsukada; C. C. Huang; Yoshiaki Kawashima; Minoru Arakaki; Hajime Okayasu; Haruko Mimura; Nobuhiko Miwa

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the process of encapsulating hair growing ingredients in the PLGA nanospheres by emulsion solvent diffusion method and investigates the feasibility of using the PLGA nanospheres as the DDS (Drug delivery System) carriers for delivering various hair growing ingredients to hair follicles. In-vitro and in-vivo tests were conducted to verify the performances of encapsulated PLGA nanospheres with three

  2. A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching Hong Chen and Song Chun Zhu

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Song Chun

    in graphics. We decompose a color hair im- age into three bands: a color band (a) (by Luv transform), a lowA Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching Hong Chen and Song Chun Zhu Departments Human hair is a very complex visual pattern whose rep- resentation is rarely studied in the vision

  3. Active Hair Bundle Motion Linked to Fast Transducer Adaptation in Auditory Hair Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Ricci; A. C. Crawford; R. Fettiplace

    2000-01-01

    During transduction in auditory hair cells, hair bundle deflection opens mechanotransducer channels that subsequently reclose or adapt to maintained stimuli, a major component of the adap- tation occurring on a submillisecond time scale. Using a photo- diode imaging technique, we measured hair bundle motion in voltage-clamped turtle hair cells to search for a mechanical correlate of fast adaptation. Excitatory force

  4. Seasonality of Hair Shedding in Healthy Women Complaining of Hair Loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kunz; Burkhardt Seifert; Ralph M. Trüeb

    2009-01-01

    Background: A number of otherwise healthy women with or without clinical alopecia complain of recurrent hair loss, presumably reflecting seasonality in the growth and shedding of hair. Objective: To test the hypothesis that periodicity in hair shedding reflects seasonal changes in human hair growth. Methods: Retrospective case study over a period of 6 years of apparently healthy women with the

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Cartilage-hair hypoplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of each hair, which contains some of the pigment that contributes the hair's color, is missing. The ... system ; immunodeficiency ; incidence ; inherited ; leukemia ; lymphoma ; mitochondria ; molecule ; pigment ; population ; protein ; recessive ; respiratory ; ribosomal RNA ; RNA ; short ...

  6. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe: a critical review and recommendation.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; John, Swen M; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Lidén, Carola; White, Ian R; Duus Johansen, Jeanne

    2015-08-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods involved (i) a survey targeting all members of the COST action 'StanDerm' (TD1206) consortium, (ii) analysis of data in the database of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), and (iii) literature review. Information from 19 European countries was available, partly from national networks, and partly from one or several departments of dermatology or, occasionally, occupational medicine. Apart from some substances being tested only in single departments, a broad overlap regarding 'important' allergens was evident. Some of the substances are no longer permitted for use in cosmetics (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges. PMID:26080054

  7. Polymeric nanoparticles-embedded organogel for roxithromycin delivery to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    G?ówka, Eliza; Wosicka-Fr?ckowiak, Hanna; Hyla, Kinga; Stefanowska, Justyna; Jastrz?bska, Katarzyna; Klapiszewski, ?ukasz; Jesionowski, Teofil; Cal, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Drug delivery into hair follicles with the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is gaining more importance as drug-loaded NPs may accumulate in hair follicle openings. The aim was to develop and evaluate a pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) with roxithromycin (ROX)-loaded NPs for follicular targeting. Polymeric NPs were evaluated in terms of particle shape, size, zeta potential, suspension stability, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. Lyophilized NPs were incorporated into the PLO and rheological measurements of the nanoparticles-embedded organogels were done. The fate of the NPs in the skin was traced by incorporation of a fluorescent dye into the NPs. As a result, ROX was efficiently incorporated into polymeric NPs characterized by the appropriate size (approximately 300 nm) allowing drug delivery to hair follicles. In ex vivo human skin penetration studies, horizontal skin sections revealed fluorescence deep in the hair follicles. Although the organogel has higher affinity to the lipidic follicular area than an aqueous suspension of NPs, it did not seem to improve penetration of the NPs along the hair shaft. The results proved that it was possible to achieve preferential targeting to the pilosebaceous unit using polymeric NPs formulated either into the aqueous suspension or semisolid topical formulation. PMID:25014763

  8. Application of XANES profiles to X-ray spectromicroscopy for biomedical specimens: part II. Mapping oxidation state of cysteine in human hair.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takafumi; Takehara, Kouji; Shimizu, Norio; Kitajima, Yoshinori; Shinohara, Kunio; Ito, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Human hair fibers are primarily composed of keratin protein, characterized by a very high content of cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, which ordinarily forms cystine via a disulfide bond. It is known that some cystine residues are converted to cysteic acid during permanent waving or hair coloring, although details of their distribution and extent are still unclear. In this study, by using difference in XANES profiles of cystine and cysteic acid at the S-K absorption edge, the formation of cysteic acid was confirmed for homogenized samples of permed or bleached hair. Furthermore chemical mapping of cysteic acid was performed on hair-section samples with X-ray contact microscopy. The peripheral region, cuticle, in bleached hair showed the highest content of cysteic acid compared with the other parts, while permed hair showed relatively uniform distribution. This finding suggests that perming and bleaching damage hair by different mechanisms. PMID:21876281

  9. Ethanol Affects the Development of Sensory Hair Cells in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%–1.75% by volume) from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS. PMID:24324841

  10. MEMBRANE ELECTROMECHANICS AT HAIR-CELL SYNAPSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. BROWNELL; B. FARRELL; R. M. RAPHAEL

    Both outer hair cell electromotility and neurotransmission at the inner hair cell synapse are rapid mechanical events that are synchronized to the hair-cell receptor potential. We analyze whether the forces and potentials resulting from membrane flexoelectricity could affect synaptic vesicle fusion. The results suggest that the coupling of membrane curvature with membrane potential is of sufficient magnitude to influence neurotransmitter

  11. Light scattering from human hair fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen R. Marschner; Henrik Wann Jensen; Mike Cammarano; Steve Worley; Pat Hanrahan

    2003-01-01

    Light scattering from hair is normally simulated in computer graphics using Kajiya and Kay's classic phenomenological model. We have made new measurements of scattering from individual hair fibers that exhibit visually significant effects not predicted by Kajiya and Kay's model. Our measurements go beyond previous hair measurements by examining out-of-plane scattering, and together with this previous work they show a

  12. Detection, Analysis and Matching of Hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaser Yacoob; Larry S. Davis

    2005-01-01

    We develop computational models for measuring hair appearance for comparing different people. The models and methods developed have applications to person recognition and face image indexing. An automatic hair detection algorithm is described and results reported. A multidimensional representation of hair appearance is presented and computational algorithms are described. Results on a dataset of 524 subjects are reported. Identification of

  13. Effect of hair color on luster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. KEIS; K. R. RAMAPRASAD; Y. K. KAMATH

    2004-01-01

    The effect of color on instrumentally evaluated luster of hair dyed to different colors and depths of shades is studied. For natural hair colors, such as blond, brown, and black, the increase in luster with increasing color is associated with a decrease in diffusely scattered light as a result of light absorption by melanin granules. On dyed hair the interpretation

  14. Gene Delivery to the Hair Follicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manabu Ohyama; Jonathan C. Vogel

    2003-01-01

    Skin and appendages such as hair follicles are attractive candidates for gene therapy targets because they are easily accessible and can be removed and genetically manipulated in culture. Hair follicles are of special interest because our understanding of hair follicle biology and pathophysiology has progressed significantly in recent years, and we now have a much better understanding of how genes,

  15. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20?), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47?), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61?), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95?). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95? conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

  16. Natural dyes in modern textile dyehouses — how to combine experiences of two centuries to meet the demands of the future?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Bechtold; A Turcanu; E Ganglberger; S Geissler

    2003-01-01

    Plant materials which are available from farming regions in the moderate Austrian climate were investigated to serve as sources for natural dyes in textile dyeing operations. The extraction of the dye components from the plant materials was performed with boiling water without addition of chemicals or solvents. Based upon a rigorous selection of possible plant sources, a selection of natural

  17. Hair Melanins and Hair Color: Ultrastructural and Biochemical Aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Ortonne; Giuseppe Prota

    1993-01-01

    The color variants of mammalian hair, including spotting and albinism, are the result of melanocyte activity and have been shown to be determined by the action of multiple genes, some of which operate through the milieu in which the pigment cell resides; others appear to act intracellularly to control the type of melanogenesis. Although there has been much descriptive work

  18. [Respiratory tract diseases caused by chemically irritating or toxic pollutants at the work site].

    PubMed

    Baur, X

    1995-05-01

    Update statistics of job-related diseases show there is still a high level in reported and also in recognised and financially compensated airway diseases caused by the action of chemically irritating or toxic substances during work. Most reported cases occur in the chemical and metal processing industries. Main triggering substances are said to be isocyanates, aerosols of pollutants produced during welding, cutting, casting or moulding (smoke), by solvents and hair dyes. Experiments prove that a variety of these noxious substances produce dose-dependent hypersensitivity of the bronchial system. Long-term monitoring of granary workers clearly points to both the possibility of and the need for early diagnosis followed by mandatory and immediate abstention from further exposure to avoid occurrence of irreversible disease patterns. Work-related health risks over and above job-conditioned diseases must be generally included in the protective measures in accordance with the new EC guidelines. PMID:7610103

  19. The current status of microscopical hair comparisons.

    PubMed

    Rowe, W F

    2001-12-01

    Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation) leads to three conclusions: (1) microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2) the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3) forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court's Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing. PMID:12805721

  20. Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection.

    PubMed

    Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2012-06-23

    Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection. PMID:22171023

  1. Progressive hair straightening using an automated flat iron: function of silicones.

    PubMed

    Dussaud, Anne; Rana, Bhavna; Lam, Hui Tung

    2013-01-01

    An automated hair iron was built with which the hair temperature, contact force of the iron against the hair tress, and gliding speed were controlled. The changes in keratin were characterized by several techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, birefringence measurements, and wet tensile tests. Undamaged curly hair was ironed for several iron cycles at temperatures ranging from 120°C to 175°C and washed between each iron cycle. Irreversible straightening of curly hair was observed and depended on the temperature and the number of cycles. The birefringence data suggested that the straightening was related to a gradual decrease of the microfilament organization. Silicone treatment did not significantly affect the course of microfilament denaturation, but it improved the quality of straightening. It enhanced the fiber alignment under the gliding action of the iron. Progressive thermal straightening may be a promising method to achieve permanent smoothing of curly hair without chemical treatment. Ironing at the onset temperature (?154°C), before substantial disulfide bond scission occurred, seemed to be a good compromise between process speed, straightening performance, and hair integrity (i.e., reduced loss of cross-linking). PMID:23578835

  2. GaN-nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Y. Chen; C. T. Yip; M. K. Fung; A. B. Djuriši?; W. K. Chan

    2010-01-01

    GaN nanowires typically exhibit high electron mobility and excellent chemical stability. However, stability of GaN is detrimental\\u000a for successful attachment of dye molecules and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here we demonstrate\\u000a DSSCs based on GaN\\/gallium oxide and GaN\\/TiO\\u000a x\\u000a core–shell structures, and we show that coating of GaN nanowires with a TiO\\u000a x\\u000a shell significantly increases dye

  3. Apoptosis in the Hair Follicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia V Botchkareva; Gurpreet Ahluwalia; Douglas Shander

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in many physiological processes, ranging from morphogenetic events to adult tissue homeostasis, and defects in its regulation contribute to many disorders. Here we review molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in the hair follicle (HF), whose cyclical growth pattern is repeatedly interrupted by apoptosis-driven involution (catagen). We review the common mechanisms underlying apoptosis in the HF during

  4. The Mechanism of Hair Bleaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LESZEK J. WOLFRAM; I. HUI

    Synopsis--The color of mammalian HAIRS is due mainly to the inclusion of discrete, darkly colored MELANIN granules in the keratinized cytoplasmic protein of the fiber-forming cells. During BLEACHING the melanin pigment undergoes irreversible physicochemical changes which result either in the toning down or complete elimination of the original fiber color. The modification of the fiber protein (KERATIN) attendant upon bleaching

  5. Hair follicle sebaceous gland (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Each pore on the surface of the skin is an opening to a canal called a follicle. The follicle also contains a hair and an oil gland (sebaceous gland). The oil gland helps remove old skin cells, keeps the skin lubricated, and prevents ...

  6. On Hair Color in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Gilkerson; Leslie Lamport

    2004-01-01

    Sex-linked coloration is a familiar phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Most people are familiar with the bright coloration of the male in many species of birds [2]. Instances of sex-linking of hair color in mammals are rare, but not unknown. For example, the tricolor pattern in the domestic house cat felix domesticus is found almost exclusively in the female [4].

  7. Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  8. Optical coherence tomography examination of hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Jianshu; Yang, Hongqin; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Human hair is a keratinous tissue composed mostly of flexible keratin, which can form a complex architecture consisting of distinct compartments or units (e.g. hair bulb, inner root sheath, shaft). Variations in hair shaft morphology can reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities in cross section and diameter, as well as ultramorphological characterization and follicle shapes, might be visualized non-invasively by high-speed 2D and 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this study, swept source OCT (ThorLabs) was used to examine human hair. Preliminary results showed that the high-speed OCT was a suitable and promising tool for non-invasive analysis of hair conditions.

  9. Drug Testing in Hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Kintz

    Given the limitations of self-reports on drug use, testing for drugs-of-abuse is important for most clinical and forensic\\u000a toxicological situations, both for assessing the reality of the intoxication and for evaluation of the level of drug impairment.\\u000a It is generally accepted that chemical testing of biological fluids is the most objective means of diagnosis of drug use.\\u000a The presence of

  10. Hair-based sensors for micro-autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi M.; Peterson, Rebecca L.; Najafi, Khalil

    2012-06-01

    We seek to harness microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies to build biomimetic devices for low-power, high-performance, robust sensors and actuators on micro-autonomous robot platforms. Hair is used abundantly in nature for a variety of functions including balance and inertial sensing, flow sensing and aerodynamic (air foil) control, tactile and touch sensing, insulation and temperature control, particle filtering, and gas/chemical sensing. Biological hairs, which are typically characterized by large surface/volume ratios and mechanical amplification of movement, can be distributed in large numbers over large areas providing unprecedented sensitivity, redundancy, and stability (robustness). Local neural transduction allows for space- and power-efficient signal processing. Moreover by varying the hair structure and transduction mechanism, the basic hair form can be used for a wide diversity of functions. In this paper, by exploiting a novel wafer-level, bubble-free liquid encapsulation technology, we make arrays of micro-hydraulic cells capable of electrostatic actuation and hydraulic amplification, which enables high force/high deflection actuation and extremely sensitive detection (sensing) at low power. By attachment of cilia (hair) to the micro-hydraulic cell, air flow sensors with excellent sensitivity (< few cm/s) and dynamic range (> 10 m/s) have been built. A second-generation design has significantly reduced the sensor response time while maintaining sensitivity of about 2 cm/s and dynamic range of more than 15 m/s. These sensors can be used for dynamic flight control of flying robots or for situational awareness in surveillance applications. The core biomimetic technologies developed are applicable to a broad range of sensors and actuators.

  11. New perylene derivative dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ceylan Zafer; Mahmut Kus; Gulsah Turkmen; Haluk Dincalp; Serafettin Demic; Baha Kuban; Yildirim Teoman; Siddik Icli

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the influence of the spacer alkyl chain length of perylenemonoimide (PMI) dyes on the device performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We observed that the dyes with longer and brunched alkyl chains exhibit higher efficiencies in DSSCs. In line with these statements we now report the highest efficiency obtained under standard conditions for a perylene imide derivative

  12. Anthraquinone dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaoyan Li; Xichuan Yang; Ruikui Chen; Jingxi Pan; Haining Tian; Hongjun Zhu; Xiuna Wang; Anders Hagfeldt; Licheng Sun

    2007-01-01

    Three anthraquinone dyes with carboxylic acid as anchoring group are designed and synthesized as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Preliminary photophysical and photoelectrochemical measurements show that these anthraquinone dyes have very low performance on DSSC applications, although they have broad and intense absorption spectra in the visible region (up to 800nm). Transient absorption kinetics, fluorescence lifetime measurements and density

  13. Dye Removal from Textile Dye Wastewater Using Recycled Alum Sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Chu

    2001-01-01

    The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh

  14. Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship between ion channel clustering and synaptic formation in hair cells and afferent neurons. In future studies, we will determine when hair cell precursors acquire electrical tuning, and, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, identify and characterize their L-VGCC and BK currents. We will also use biophysical techniques to determine the number of L-VGCC and BK channels and the size and gating kinetics of their underlying L-VGCC and BK conductances, correlating these variables with the amplitude and frequency of membrane oscillations produced by intracellular current steps. We expect these studies to determine how hair cells regulate ion channel expression to achieve specific physiological responses.

  15. Clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic features of body hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Panchaprateep, Ratchathorn; Tanus, Aline; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-05-01

    Dermoscopic examination of hair and scalp, also named "trichoscopy," is an essential tool in diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases. Trichoscopy is fast and noninvasive and can be used to evaluate hair disorders in all body areas. Body hair disorders are uncommon, and most publications on their dermoscopic features are limited to case reports or series. In this review we present the available information on the dermoscopic diagnosis of body hair disorders including keratosis pilaris, trichostasis spinulosa, pili multigemini, circle hairs, rolled hairs, eruptive vellus hair cyst, and ingrown hairs. PMID:25748313

  16. Study of hair surface energy and conditioning.

    PubMed

    Gao, Timothy; He, Yingxia; Landa, Peter; Tien, Jung-Mei

    2011-01-01

    A new test method has been developed to determine surface energy of hair fibers through measurements of contact angles at two hair/liquid interfaces. By measuring changes in surface energy of the same hair fiber before and after a cosmetic treatment, effects of active ingredients and the performance of tested formulations can be evaluated.The establishment of the method is based on Fowkes theory (1,2) described with two components, a dispersive and a non-dispersive component. The non-polar liquid used in this study was diiodomethane, and the polar liquid was benzyl alcohol. A Kruss 100 Tensiometer was used to measure contact angles of hair fibers. Virgin dark brown and regular bleached hairs were treated with selected conditioner formulations. Reductions in combing forces of hair tresses before and after respective treatments were correlated with decreases in average surface energy of hair fibers obtained from the corresponding tresses.Experimental results indicate that the average surface energy of hair fibers treated with conditioners decreases and the hydrophobicity of the hair surface increases, the results correlate well with the reduction in combing forces after respective treatments. This research work provides a new methodology to evaluate/screen conditioning performance of hair care ingredients and formulations for development of better products. PMID:21635842

  17. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges.

  18. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one's self esteem and emotional well-being, as one's appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. PMID:26203266

  19. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  20. Laser dye technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, P R

    1999-09-01

    The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

  1. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  2. Visible Volume Buffer for Efficient Hair Expression and Shadow Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waiming Kong; Masayuki Nakajima

    1999-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on hair modeling and hair rendering with considerable success. However, the immense number of hair strands means that memory and CPU time requirements are very severe. To reduce the memory and the time needed for hair modeling and rendering, a visible volume buffer is proposed. Instead of using thousands of thin hairs, the memory usage

  3. Hair breakage during combing. III. The effects of bleaching and conditioning on short and long segment breakage by wet and dry combing of tresses.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Clarence; Kamath, Yash

    2007-01-01

    A recent publication (1), provided evidence for two types of hair breakage during combing, short segment breakage (approximately less than 1.27 cm) and longer segment breakage. We have confirmed these results and refined the separation distance between short and long segment breakage at about 2.54 cm. Furthermore, chemical bleaching increased both short and long segment breakage while a commercial hair conditioner decreased both types of breakage. Whether the hair is chemically bleached or conditioned, for dry combing, short segment breakage increases with increasing comb strokes, that is, short segment breakage increases as combing damages the ends of the hair, however, long segment breakage does not increase with increasing comb strokes. Wet combing provided a decrease in short segment breakage and an increase in long segment breaks, but no increase in breakage with increasing comb strokes. Mechanical combing of tresses shows similar results qualitatively, however the variance was too large and adjustments need to be made to provide for a larger number of broken hairs to bring the mechanical and hand combing results in line. For dry combing, as the comb descends through the hair, hairs above it are made parallel and those beneath are either made parallel or knot by, hairs looping around other hairs or hairs looping around comb teeth and other hairs several cm between the comb and the hair tips. As the comb advances through the looped/knotted hairs long breaks occur or as the comb descends near the tips wrapped ends can result. End wrapping by inertia & possibly static charge produces short segment breaks which are more severe if the hair is cut at 90 degrees versus a tapered cut. For wet combing, clumping of hairs by a capillary action produces fewer short segment breaks, by reducing end wrapping: however, crossed hair interactions occur & because of higher friction more severe snags arise higher up in the tress, and lower hair breaking load due to plasticization by water, producing a larger number of long segment breaks. The very best practical way to evaluate hair strength is by counting the actual number of short and long segment breaks and by considering both wet and dry combing. PMID:17728947

  4. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W. (Tijeras, NM)

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  5. Direct measurement of beta-agonists in swine hair extract in multiplexed mode by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microfluidic paper.

    PubMed

    Dou, Bin; Luo, Yong; Chen, Xu; Shi, Bo; Du, Yuguang; Gao, Zhigang; Zhao, Weijie; Lin, Bingcheng

    2015-02-01

    Bare gold nanoparticles selectively enhance the Raman signal of beta-agnonists in swine hair extract at 780 nm, which enables analysis of beta-agonists in swine hair extract without chemical labeling, purification, or separation. The analysis is multiplexable and the LOD of beta-agonists is around ng/mL in the assistance of microfluidic paper. PMID:25296903

  6. Determination of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene and norcocaine in human hair using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Moore; Cynthia Coulter; Katherine Crompton

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative analytical procedure for the determination of cocaine, benzoylecgonine and cocaethylene and norcocaine in hair has been developed and validated. The hair samples were washed, incubated, and any drugs present were quantified using mixed mode solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection in positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode. For confirmation, two transitions were monitored and

  7. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

  8. Mouse Skin Is Particularly Susceptible to Tumor Initiation During Early Anagen of the Hair Cycle: Possible Involvement of Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley J. Miller; Zhi-Gang Wei; Caroline Wilson; Leonard Dzubow; Tung-Tien Sun; Robert M. Lavker

    1993-01-01

    Stem cells are believed to be a necessary target of chemical carginogens. Based on autoradiographic, ultrastructural, and biologic criteria, we have recently proposed that hair follicle stem cells reside not in the bulb, but in the upper outer root sheath in an area called the bulge. Proliferating cells have been shown to be more susceptible to tumor initiation, and we

  9. The mutagenic potency of chrysoidines and bismark brown dyes.

    PubMed

    Sole, G M; Chipman, J K

    1986-11-01

    Chrysoidine dyes are used by fishermen to colour bait and recent epidemiological evidence has suggested that this may explain why they are at increased risk of urothelial cancer. In recent years Bismark brown dyes have been used as chrysoidine substitutes. Previous mutagenicity studies on these azo-dyes have examined only one variety of dye and used only one type of activating enzyme. In this study six samples of chrysoidine and three samples of Bismark brown dye have been obtained from chemical suppliers and from angling sources. They have been analysed by n.m.r. spectroscopy to determine whether they contain ring methyl groups. The mutagenic potency of each dye has been assessed by the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsomal mutagenicity assay utilizing the TA100 and TA98 stains. Those dyes with methyl substitutions have been found to be more potent mutagens than their non-methylated counterparts using either human or rat metabolic preparations and irrespective of whether the enzymes have been induced with phenobarbitone. PMID:3769140

  10. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Sim?i?, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

    2007-07-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  11. A functional analysis of hair pulling.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, J T; Miltenberger, R G; Galensky, T L; Ellingson, S A; Long, E S

    1999-01-01

    We experimentally assessed the functions of hair pulling and hair manipulation of a 19-year-old woman (Kris) with moderate mental retardation and cerebral palsy. In Phase 1 a functional analysis revealed that Kris pulled and manipulated hair for the greatest amount of time in the alone condition, suggesting that the behaviors were maintained by some form of automatic reinforcement (Vaughan & Michael, 1982). In Phase 2 we assessed the nature of the sensory stimulation that maintained hair pulling by providing continuous access to previously pulled or cut hair and, thereafter, by having Kris wear a rubber glove. The results suggested that hair pulling was maintained by digital-tactile stimulation (automatic positive reinforcement). These findings are discussed, and recommendations for further analyses of automatically reinforced habit behaviors are provided. PMID:10513028

  12. Do Hair Bulb Melanocytes Undergo Apotosis During Hair Follicle Regression (Catagen)?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Desmond J. Tobin; Evelin Hagen; Vladimir A. Botchkarev; Ralf Paus

    1998-01-01

    The fate of the hair follicle pigmentary unit during the cyclical involution of anagen hair follicles is unknown. Using the C57BL\\/6 mouse model for hair research, hair follicle melanocytes were examined during the anagen–catagen transformation, comparing spontaneous and pharmacologically induced catagen development. This study shows that both spontaneous catagen and dexamethasone-induced catagen display similar changes in the pigmentary unit. Catagen

  13. The Actions of Calcium on Hair Bundle Mechanics in Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryline Beurg; Jong-Hoon Nam; Andrew Crawford; Robert Fettiplacey

    2008-01-01

    Sound stimuli excite cochlear hair cells by vibration of each hair bundle, which opens mechanotransducer (MT) channels. We have measured hair-bundle mechanics in isolated rat cochleas by stimulation with flexible glass fibers and simultaneous recording of the MT current. Both inner and outer hair-cell bundles exhibited force-displacement relationships with a nonlinearity that reflects a time-dependent reduction in stiffness. The nonlinearity

  14. Hair care practices in African American women.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Chemene R; Quinn, Timothy M; Kelly, A Paul

    2003-10-01

    Hair care in African American women is wrought with historical and cultural issues. Dermatologists need to improve their understanding of hair and scalp disorders in their African American patient population by being informed about the styling methods commonly used by and for these patients. The styling habits described in this article are intended to encompass the hairstyles adapted by a wide range of African American women with varying hair textures. PMID:14604079

  15. Molecular design and synthesis of a pH independent and cell permeant fluorescent dye and its applications.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiaojie; Liu, Chang; Huang, Kun; Zhang, Siwen; He, Song; Zhao, Liancheng; Zeng, Xianshun

    2015-06-21

    Fluorescent dyes have played crucial roles in the field of molecular imaging as fluorescent fluorophores. In this work, a novel water-soluble and pH-independent fluorescent xanthene dye, a hydroxyl regioisomeric 3',4'-benzorhodol, has been designed and synthesized. Compared with those of rhodol dyes, the absorption (ca. 570 nm) and maximum emission (ca. 620 nm) of the dye are largely red-shifted. Due to its ring-opened zwitterion structure in water media, the dye showed good membrane permeability and distributed in the whole cell cytoplasm upon incubation with live cells. Meanwhile, the dye could be easily modified to probes. The hydrazide derivative of the dye exhibited an excellent Hg(2+) selectivity over other relevant metal ions with a detection limit down to 3 nM. Thus, the excellent fluorescence properties and chemical properties of the dye allow it to be designed as a fluorescent chemosensor and biomarker for biological applications. PMID:25990913

  16. Enzymatic reduction of complex redox dyes using NADH-dependent reductase from Bacillus subtilis coupled with cofactor regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojca Boži?; Sina Pricelius; Georg M. Guebitz; Vanja Kokol

    2010-01-01

    Conventional vat dyeing involves chemical reduction of dyes into their water-soluble leuco form generating considerable amounts\\u000a of toxic chemicals in effluents. In the present study, a new ?-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide disodium salt (NADH)-dependent\\u000a reductase isolated from Bacillus subtilis was used to reduce the redox dyes CI Acid Blue 74, CI Natural Orange 6, and CI Vat Blue 1 into their

  17. Laser photolysis of fluorone dyes in a chitosan matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Slyusareva, E A; Sizykh, A G; Gerasimova, M A; Slabko, V V; Myslivets, S A

    2012-08-31

    Kinetics of laser-induced photobleaching of fluorone dyes (fluorescein, dibromofluorescein, eosin Y, erythrosin B, Rose Bengal) is studied in a chitosan matrix. For all dyes the bleaching kinetics at the intensities of laser radiation 0.7 - 11.9 W cm{sup -2} demonstrates quasi-monomolecular behaviour. The results are analysed using a kinetic model, based on the four-level (S{sub 0}, S{sub 1}, T{sub 1}, T{sub n}) scheme of the dye with chemically active triplet states taken into account. It is shown that the rate constants of the chemical reaction involving higher triplet states in the dyes studied amount to (3.9 - 18.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} and exceed the analogous values for the reaction involving the first lower triplet states by nine orders of magnitude. The rate of reaction involving the first triplet states appeared to be higher by one - two orders of magnitude than that in the case of higher triplet states involved because of low population of the latter. The possible mechanism of dye bleaching with participation of chitosan that consists in reduction of the dye to the leuco form by transfer of hydrogen from the chitosan matrix is discussed. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasmas)

  18. The potential use of diisononyl phthalate metabolites hair as biomarkers to assess long-term exposure demonstrated by a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jen-Yi; Ho, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a widely used industrial plasticizer. People come into contact with this chemical by using plastic products made with it. Human health can be adversely affected by long-term DINP exposure. However, because the body rapidly excretes DINP metabolites, the use of single-point urine analysis to assess long-term exposure may produce inconsistent results in epidemiologic studies. Hair analysis has a useful place in biomonitoring, particularly in estimating long-term or historical exposure for some chemicals. Several studies have reported using hair analysis to assess the concentrations of heavy metals, drugs and organic pollutants in humans. As a biomarker, DINP metabolites were measured in rat hair in animal experiments to evaluated long-term exposure to DINP. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between the levels of DINP metabolites in hair and in urine. The levels of DINP metabolites in rat hair were significantly higher in the exposure group, relative to the control group (p<0.05). DINP metabolites had a positive correlation with increasing administered dose. Significant positive correlations for MINP, MOINP and MHINP were found between hair and urine (r=0.86, r=0.79 and r=0.74, respectively, p<0.05). Several metabolites in urine showed earlier saturation than in hair. In this report, we detected eight metabolites in hair and demonstrate that hair analysis has potential applications in the assessment of long-term exposure to DINP. PMID:25278043

  19. Hair Growth Cycle Affects Hair Follicle Destruction by Ruby Laser Pulses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tai-Yuan David Lin; Woraphong Manuskiatti; Christine C Dierickx; William A Farinelli; Marnie E Fisher; Thomas Flotte; Howard P Baden; R Rox Anderson

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown that normal mode ruby laser pulses (694 nm) are effective in selectively destroying brown or black pigmented hair follicles in adult Caucasians. This study investigated how the various stages of the hair follicle growth cycle influence follicle destruction by ruby laser treatment, using a model of predictable synchronous hair growth cycles in the infantile and adolescent

  20. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. Anat Rec, 298:1327-1335, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25869730

  1. Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyu; Avenarius, Matthew R; Gillespie, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C) and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 2) to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells. PMID:23049715

  2. Return of Function after Hair Cell Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ryals, Brenda M.; Dent, Micheal L.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of hair cell regeneration is to restore functional hearing. Because birds begin perceiving and producing song early in life, they provide a propitious model for studying not only whether regeneration of lost hair cells can return auditory sensitivity but also whether this regenerated periphery can restore complex auditory perception and production. They are the only animal where hair cell regeneration occurs naturally after hair cell loss and where the ability to correctly perceive and produce complex acoustic signals is critical to procreation and survival. The purpose of this review article is to survey the most recent literature on behavioral measures of auditory functional return in adult birds after hair cell regeneration. The first portion of the review summarizes the effect of ototoxic drug induced hair cell loss and regeneration on hearing loss and recovery for pure tones. The second portion reviews studies of complex, species-specific vocalization discrimination and recognition after hair cell regeneration. Finally, we discuss the relevance of temporary hearing loss and recovery through hair cell regeneration on complex call and song production. Hearing sensitivity is restored, except for the highest frequencies, after hair cell regeneration in birds, but there are enduring changes to complex auditory perception. These changes do not appear to provide any obstacle to future auditory or vocal learning. PMID:23202051

  3. Mutagenicity of textile dye products.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Klaus; Hafner, Christoph; Jäger, Ismene

    2004-01-01

    Within an EU-funded research project, 281 textile dye products in use at nine textile finishing companies from eight European countries were assessed for potential mutagenic properties. Most of the dyes belonged to the so-called existing substances. Data sources considered were data published in the literature, unpublished industrial data provided by dye producing companies, and laboratory testing. Data on mutagenicity are virtually absent for many of the dyes. Unpublished test results performed on behalf of the dye manufacturing industry proved to be an important data source that is not accessible under usual circumstances. Four dye stuffs contained in seven dye products in use at the textile finishing companies were judged to be mutagenic, based on published data from the literature. Mutagenicity testing using Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA98 and TA100, revealed positive results for about 28% (15 out of 53) of the dye products investigated. Upon further testing with the mouse lymphoma assay (L5178Y/TK(+/-)) 67% (6 out of 9) of Ames-positive dyes proved to be mutagenic in this mammalian cell test. All data sources combined led to an overall assessment of 14 dye products out of 281 being mutagenic. For 16 there is a suspicion of mutagenicity due to positive responses in one test but 71 of the dye products are without any data on mutagenicity. This paper describes the data aggregation process, evaluation criteria and the overall assessment, and exemplifies controversial evaluations. PMID:15052602

  4. Three-dimensional architecture of macrofibrils in the human scalp hair cortex.

    PubMed

    Harland, Duane P; Walls, Richard J; Vernon, James A; Dyer, Jolon M; Woods, Joy L; Bell, Fraser

    2014-03-01

    Human scalp hairs are comprised of a central cortex enveloped by plate-like cuticle cells. The elongate cortex cells of mature fibres are composed primarily of macrofibrils-bundles of hard-keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) chemically cross-linked within a globular protein matrix. In wool, three cell types (ortho-, meso- and paracortex) contain macrofibrils with distinctly different filament arrangements and matrix fractions, but in human hair macrofibril-cell type relationships are less clear. Here we show that hair macrofibrils all have a similar matrix fraction (?0.4) and are typically composed of a double-twist architecture in which a central IF is surrounded by concentric rings of tangentially-angled IFs. The defining parameter is the incremental angle increase (IF-increment) between IFs of successive rings. Unlike the wool orthocortex, hair double-twist macrofibrils have considerable inter-macrofibril variation in IF increment (0.05-0.35°/nm), and macrofibril size and IF increment are negatively correlated. Correspondingly, angular difference between central and outer-most IFs is up to 40° in small macrofibrils, but only 5-10° in large macrofibrils. Single cells were observed containing mixtures of macrofibrils with different diameters. These new observations advance our understanding of the nano-level and cell-level organisation of human hair, with implications for interpretation of structure with respect the potential roles of cortex cell types in defining the mechanical properties of hair. PMID:24486856

  5. Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Hartwig; Volker Auwärter; Fritz Pragst

    2003-01-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and

  6. ASSESSING MUTAGENICITY OF TEXTILE DYES FROM PALI (RAJASTHAN) USING AMES BIOASSAY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. MATHUR; P. BHATNAGAR; P. BAKRE

    2005-01-01

    In Rajasthan state particularly, textile mills represent an important economic sector. Pali district in Rajasthan has got largest number of textile industries in the State i.e.989 units, mostly engaged in cotton and synthetic textile printing and dyeing. These industries liberate a variety of chemicals, dyes, acids and alkalis besides other toxic compounds like heavy metals, which are known for their

  7. The use of caffeine as a liquid filter in coaxial flashlamp pumped dye lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, John; Colley, Ed; Hazle, John

    1982-07-01

    Problems of cooling and preserving laser dyes can be solved by adding caffeine or other suitable filter materials to the cooling water in coaxial systems. Systems using dissolved filter chemicals are cheap, versatile and assist in heat removal from coaxial type dye lasers.

  8. Psychotrichology: psychosomatic aspects of hair diseases.

    PubMed

    Harth, Wolfgang; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2013-02-01

    Hair growth and hair disorders with changes in hair density or quality not only influence an individual's appearance but also often lead to an enormous emotional burden with low self-confidence, impaired quality of life, and even psychological disorders. Psychosomatic hair diseases cover a wide spectrum of specific psycho-dermatological disease patterns. This review provides an overview and classification of psychosomatic hair diseases based on primary and secondary disorders. Somatoform disorders are among the primary psychiatric diseases, especially body dysmorphic disorder in which patients have an exaggerated and excessive preoccupation of normal and physiological hair loss. Self-inflicted skin diseases as trichotillomania, often with an impairment of impulse control, also belong to this group. Secondary/reactive psychosocial disorders may occur in congenital and acquired hair disorders. These may be accompanied by feelings of disfigurement, depressive and anxiety disorders including social avoidance. Furthermore, psychosomatic comorbidity could complicate coping with hair loss. Psychosomatic therapy and coping are based on an early and accurate differential diagnostic approach to psychosomatic disorders. Psychotrichological disorders need to be treated promptly with psychosomatic basic care, improvement of coping strategies, behavior therapy, depth psychology, and/or appropriate psychopharmacotherapy with antidepressants or anxiolytics. PMID:23176605

  9. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Geim; S. V. Dubonos; I. V. Grigorieva; K. S. Novoselov; A. A. Zhukov; S. Yu. Shapoval

    2003-01-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and\\/or

  10. Fouriertransform Raman spectroscopic study of human hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Akhtar; H. G. M. Edwards; D. W. Farwell; M. Nutbrown

    1997-01-01

    Fourier-transform Raman microscopic spectra of normal, untreated and bleached hair fibres are presented. Vibrational assignments are made and differences are ascribed to the production of cysteic acid from cysteine. Changes in conformation associated with the disulphide bond in the keratotic component are noted from the ?(CSSC) vibrational modes at wave numbers near 500 cm?1. Raman spectra of hair root ends

  11. The Value of Hair Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Trüeb

    2001-01-01

    As early as can be traced, written documents testify endeavors shown by humanity to please by means of the hair. Hair care, color and style play an important role in people’s physical appearance and self-perception. Dermatologists should be knowledgeable about the procedures people follow to look their best and should have the competence to provide patients with information on the

  12. Dermocosmetic aspects of hair and scalp.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-12-01

    Hair cosmetic agents are preparations intended for placing in contact with the hair and scalp, with the purpose of cleansing, promoting attractiveness, altering appearance, and/or protecting them in order to maintain them in good condition. Current shampoo formulations and styling products are tailored to the variations associated with age, gender, hair quality, hair care habit, and specific problems relating to the superficial condition of the scalp. The great amount of variables to be accounted for, some of them contradictory and hard to bring into accord, makes adequate product formulation a challenge and requires continuous research. Recent hair cosmetic developments include topical hair growth stimulants, photoprotectors, and anti-aging compounds. The advances in molecular technology have opened the avenue to the study of the molecular basis of hair growth and its deviations, as well as of the aging process. The discovery of potential pharmacological targets and the development of selective and effective delivery systems following topical application indicate further strategies for maintenance of healthy hair and scalp in the young and old. PMID:16382683

  13. The Hair Follicle and Immune Privilege

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Paus; Natsuho Ito; Masahiro Takigawa; Taisuke Ito

    2003-01-01

    This essay reviews the available evidence that the proximal hair follicle epithelium generates and maintains an area of relative immune privilege during a defined segment of the hair cycle (i.e., during anagen). This immune privilege is chiefly characterized by a very low level of expression of MHC class Ia antigens and by the local production of potent immunosuppressive agents, such

  14. Dyeing of wool with natural anthraquinone dyes from Fusarium oxysporum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Nagia; R. S. R. EL-Mohamedy

    2007-01-01

    Two anthraquinone compounds are described which were produced by liquid cultures of Fusarium oxysporum (isolate no. 4), isolated from the roots of citrus trees affected with root rot disease. These anthraquinone compounds are 2-acetyl-3,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone or 3-acetyl-2,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone. Dyeing of wool fabrics with these new anthraquinone compounds as natural dyes has been studied. The values of dyeing rate constant, half-time

  15. Fiberized fluorescent dye microtubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladev, Veselin; Eftimov, Tinko

    2013-03-01

    In the present work we study the effect of the length of fluorescent dye-filled micro-capillaries on the fluorescence spectra. Two types of micro-capillaries have been studied: a 100 ?m inner diameter fused silica capillary with a transparent coating and one of the holes of a fiber optic glass ferrule with 125 ?m inner diameter. The tubes were filled with solutions of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethanol and then in glycerin. Experimental data show that the maximum fluorescence and the largest spectral widths are observed for a sample length of about 0.25 mm for the used concentration. This results show that miniature tunable fiberized dye lasers can be developed using available standard micro-and fibre-optic components.

  16. Spectrofluorescent characterization of changes in hair chemistry induced by environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Roger L; Chen, Susan; Moore, David J

    2011-01-01

    Hair is frequently exposed to environmental stresses and chemical insults that result in damage to its internal structure and its outer cuticular components. Spectrofluorescence is a useful tool to monitor the health of biological tissues as it can measure the level of tryptophan (Trp), which is representative of protein integrity. In addition to Trp fluorescence, several other fluorophores are also present in hair and are believed to be attributed to kynurenenine, N-formylkynurenine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine, which are known metabolic and degradation products of Trp that are affected by environmental stresses normally experienced by hair. In this work, we were able to construct an endogenous fingerprint of fluorescent compounds present in hair by employing a range of excitation wavelengths from 270 nm to 450 nm with a resolution of 2 nm. As a result, we generated surface plots of fluorescence emission as a function of excitation and emission wavelengths (excitation-emission matrices). Thus, we were able to profile the levels of various structural molecules in hair before and after exposure to UV irradiation and thermal straightening irons as well as to chemical treatment such as bleaching and straightening. PMID:21635847

  17. Retinal tolerance to dyes

    PubMed Central

    Lüke, C; Lüke, M; Dietlein, T S; Hueber, A; Jordan, J; Sickel, W; Kirchhof, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dye solutions for intraoperative staining of epiretinal membranes and the internal limiting membrane improve the visualisation of these thin structures and facilitate their removal. In the present study the authors investigated the effects of indocyanine green 0.05%, trypan blue 0.15%, and patent blue 0.48% on bovine retinal function. Methods: Bovine retina preparations were perfused with a standard solution and the electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded repeatedly. After recording of stable ERG amplitudes the nutrient solution was substituted by one of the dye solutions. The duration of retinal exposure to a dye solution was varied between 10 seconds and 2 minutes. Thereupon, the preparation was reperfused with standard solution for at least 115 minutes. The percentage of b-wave reduction after exposition was calculated. Results: Reductions of the b-wave amplitude were found for each dye solution tested. The effects after application of patent blue and indocyanine green were completely reversible within the recovery time for an exposure period of 60 and 30 seconds, respectively. The application of trypan blue lead to a loss of the b-wave when the retina was exposed for 15 seconds or longer. This effect was only partly reversible within the recovery time. Conclusion: The ERG showed toxic effects of trypan blue after a short period of retinal exposure. The intraocular application of trypan blue should be limited to selected cases. However, intraocular application of indocyanine green and patent blue in a sufficient concentration and taking account of a short period of retinal exposure seems possible. PMID:16113379

  18. Dye laser tuner

    SciTech Connect

    Arthurs, E.G.; Purdie, A.F.

    1980-11-11

    A laser of the kind in which the lasing medium is a free flowing dye stream incorporates a means of tuning the output wave length of the laser, this means being in the form of a wedged birefringent plate which is driven in a linear mode by a linear translator so that the thickness of the birefringent plate traversed by the intracavity beam of laser light may be varied.

  19. Hydrothermal conversion of urban food waste to chars for removal of textile dyes from contaminated waters.

    PubMed

    Parshetti, Ganesh K; Chowdhury, Shamik; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-06-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization of urban food waste was carried out to prepare hydrochars for removal of Acridine Orange and Rhodamine 6G dyes from contaminated water. The chemical composition and microstructure properties of the synthesized hydrochars were investigated in details. Batch adsorption experiments revealed that hydrochars with lower degree of carbonization were more efficient in adsorption of dyes. Operational parameters such as pH and temperature had a strong influence on the dye uptake process. The adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental kinetic data in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations suggested that dye adsorption onto hydrochars was spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of dye removal appears to be associated with physisorption. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based modelling was further carried out to predict the dye adsorption capacity of the hydrochars. PMID:24727353

  20. Dye-coated europium monosulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Srotoswini [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Dollahon, Norman R. [Department of Biology, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Stoll, Sarah L., E-mail: sls55@georgetown.ed [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

  1. Protective role of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell loss in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Yen; Lee, Han-Jung; Liu, Chi-Fang; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chan, Ming-Huan

    2015-03-01

    Hair cells are highly sensitive to environmental insults and other therapeutic drugs. The adverse effects of drugs such as aminoglycosides can cause hair cell death and lead to hearing loss and imbalance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective activity of L-ascorbic acid, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin on neomycin-induced hair cell damage in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae at 5 days post fertilization (dpf). Results showed that the loss of hair cells within the neuromasts of the lateral lines after neomycin exposure was evidenced by a significantly lower number of neuromasts labeled with fluorescent dye FM1-43FX observed under a microscope. Co-administration with L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin protected neomycin-induced hair cell loss within the neuromasts. Moreover, these three compounds reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neuromasts exposed to neomycin, indicating that their antioxidant action is involved. In contrast, the neuromasts were labeled with specific fluorescent dye Texas-red conjugated with neomycin to detect neomycin uptake. Interestingly, the uptake of neomycin into hair cells was not influenced by these three antioxidant compounds. These data imply that prevention of hair cell damage against neomycin by L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin might be associated with inhibition of excessive ROS production, but not related to modulating neomycin uptake. Our findings conclude that L-ascorbic acid, NAC and apocynin could be used as therapeutic drugs to protect aminoglycoside-induced listening impairment after further confirmatory studies. PMID:25092119

  2. Complications related to pubic hair removal

    PubMed Central

    DEMARIA, Andrea L.; FLORES, Marissa; HIRTH, Jacqueline M.; BERENSON, Abbey B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the prevalence and correlates of complications related to pubic hair removal among a diverse clinical sample of women attending a public clinic. Study Design Women (aged 16 to 40 years) who received care from April to June 2012 at two publicly funded clinics completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire (n=369). After excluding women with missing data, analyses were conducted on 333 women. Additional measures were retrieved through a medical chart review. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze participant characteristics, pubic hair removal behaviors, and complications related to pubic hair removal. Results Most women (87%) admitted to current removal of at least some pubic hair, while the remainder responded that they had removed pubic hair in the past. Under or normal weight women were more likely to report total pubic hair removal than overweight or obese women. The majority (60%) had experienced at least one health complication due to removal, of which the most common were epidermal abrasion and ingrown hairs. Black and Hispanic women were less likely than white women to report complications. Overweight or obese women were almost twice as likely to report a complication and almost 3 times as likely if they were also total removers. Only 4% had seen a healthcare provider for a complication related to hair removal and only 4% discussed safe removal practices with their doctor. Conclusions Minor complications commonly occur as a result of pubic hair removal. Gynecological visits could provide a safe environment for women to discuss pubic hair removal practices. PMID:24486227

  3. Glandular hairs and essential oils in micropropagated plants of Salvia officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pinarosa Avato; Irene Morone Fortunato; Claudia Ruta; Roberta D’Elia

    2005-01-01

    Micropropagation of Salvia officinalis L. (the common sage) plants to verify their ability to produce the typical volatile oil is described. The morphology of the glandular hairs and the chemical composition of the essential oils from in vitro shoots and micropropagated plants have been studied. For comparative purposes, volatile constituents from field grown mother plants and derived rooted cuttings have

  4. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FAT, SKIN, NAILS, HAIR, BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human tissues and fluids including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, and urine. These methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well ...

  5. Biological decolorization of xanthene dyes by anaerobic granular biomass.

    PubMed

    Apostol, Laura Carmen; Pereira, Luciana; Pereira, Raquel; Gavrilescu, Maria; Alves, Maria Madalena

    2012-09-01

    Biodegradation of a xanthene dyes was investigated for the first time using anaerobic granular sludge. On a first screening, biomass was able to decolorize, at different extents, six azo dye solutions: acid orange 7, direct black 19, direct blue 71, mordant yellow 10, reactive red 2 and reactive red 120 and two xanthene dyes--Erythrosine B and Eosin Y. Biomass concentration, type of electron donor, induction of biomass with dye and mediation with activated carbon (AC) were variables studied for Erythrosine B (Ery) as model dye. Maximum color removal efficiency was achieved with 4.71 g VSS L?¹, while the process rates were independent of the biomass concentration above 1.89 g VSS L?¹. No considerable effects were observed when different substrates were used as electron donors (VFA, glucose or lactose). Addition of Ery in the incubation period of biomass led to a fivefold increase of the decolorization rate. The rate of Ery decolorization almost duplicated in the presence of commercial AC (0.1 g L?¹ AC?). Using different modified AC samples (from the treatment of AC?), a threefold higher rate was obtained with the most basic one, AC(H?), as compared with non-mediated reaction. Higher rates were obtained at pH 6.0. Chemical reduction using Na?S confirmed the recalcitrant nature of this dye. The results attest that decolorization of Ery is essentially due to enzymatic and adsorption phenomena. PMID:22437968

  6. Study of colouring effect of herbal hair formulations on graying hair

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijender; Ali, Mohammed; Upadhyay, Sukirti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To screen the hair colouring properties of hair colorants/ herbal hair colouring formulations. Materials and Methods: The dried aqueous herbal extracts of Gudhal leaves (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), Jatamansi rhizome (Nardostachys jatamansi), Kuth roots (Saussurea lappa), Kattha (Acacia catechu), Amla dried fruit (Embelica officinalis), were prepared. Coffee powder (Coffea arabica) and Henna powder (Lowsonia inermis) were taken in the form of powder (# 40). Fourteen herbal hair colorants were prepared from these dried aqueous herbal extracts and powders. Activities of hair colorants were observed on sheep wool fibers. On the basis of the above observation six hair colorants were selected. These six formulations were taken for trials on human beings. Observation: The formulation coded HD-3 gave maximum colouring effect on sheep wool fibers as well as on human beings and percentage of acceptance among the volunteers were in the following order: HD- 3 > HD- 4 > HD-1 > HD-13 > HD-14 > HD-11. Results and Discussion: The remarkable results were obtained from five herbal hair colorants, viz., HD-1, HD- 3, HD- 4, HD-13 and HD-14 on sheep wool fibers and human beings. Formulation HD-3, having gudhal, jatamansi, kuth, kattha, amla, coffee and henna, was the maximum accepted formulation and suggested that these herbs in combination acts synergistically in hair colouring action. It also concluded that jatamansi, present in different hair colorants, was responsible to provide maximum blackening on hair

  7. Hair cycle in dogs with different hair types in a tropical region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favarato, Evandro S; Conceição, Lissandro Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Hair cycle activity has been extensively studied in humans, sheep and laboratory animals, but there is a lack of information in dogs. Besides varying according to species, breed, sex and general health, hair growth is mainly affected by climatic variations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the follicle activity in three breeds of dogs with different hair types, in the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais (latitude 20 degrees 45'S), Brazil. Twenty-one male dogs of boxer, labrador and schnauzer breeds were trichographically analysed monthly over 12 consecutive months. Hair percentage of telogen and anagen hairs at the different stages of the hair cycle in boxers and labradors was not significantly different, but both differed from the schnauzers. A significant correlation between hair follicle cycle and environmental temperature and photoperiod was noted in the boxers and labradors. In these breeds, a larger number of telogen hairs were observed during the hottest months of the year, and an increase in anagen hairs during the coldest months. The mean percentage of telogen hairs was 93, 90 and 55.3% for boxer, labrador and schnauzer, respectively. PMID:18177286

  8. A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Ward; Florence Bertails; Tae-yong Kim; Stephen R. Marschner; Marie-paule Cani; Ming C. Lin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract— Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans,in computer,graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved, problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make it

  9. Heterochromia of the scalp hair following Blaschko lines.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2007-01-01

    Heterochromia of the scalp hair is characterized by the presence of tufts of hair of a color that differs from the general hair color. It is considered a disorder of pigmentation when the tufts are asymmetrically distributed. We report four patients with isolated congenital tufts of heterochromia in the scalp hair following the Blaschko lines of the head. PMID:17300655

  10. Spontaneous Oscillation by Hair Bundles of the Bullfrog's Sacculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Martin; D. Bozovic; Y. Choe; A. J. Hudspeth

    2003-01-01

    One prominent manifestation of mechanical activity in hair cells is spontaneous otoacoustic emission, the unprovoked emanation of sound by an internal ear. Because active hair bundle motility probably constitutes the active process of nonmammalian hair cells, we investigated the ability of hair bundles in the bullfrog's sacculus to produce oscillations that might underlie spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. When maintained in the

  11. Influence of bleaching on stability of benzodiazepines in hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yegles; Y. Marson; R. Wennig

    2000-01-01

    In order to study the influence of hair bleaching on benzodiazepines concentrations, hair was treated with a bleaching product (Poly Blonde, Schwarzkopf & Henkel) for 20 min. The treated hair specimen was obtained from a person who died after an overdose of several illicit drugs associated with benzodiazepines. Bleached and non bleached hair were washed (acetone and water), pulverised and

  12. A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Ward; Florence Bertalis; Tae Yong Kim; Stephen R. Marschner; Marie-paule Cani; Ming C. Lin

    2007-01-01

    Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans in computer graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved, problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make

  13. The sensory and motor roles of auditory hair cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carole M. Hackney; Robert Fettiplace

    2006-01-01

    Cochlear hair cells respond with phenomenal speed and sensitivity to sound vibrations that cause submicron deflections of their hair bundle. Outer hair cells are not only detectors, but also generate force to augment auditory sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Two mechanisms of force production have been proposed: contractions of the cell body or active motion of the hair bundle. Here, we

  14. The Hair Follicle: A Paradoxical Androgen Target Organ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie A. Randall; Nigel A. Hibberts; M. Julie Thornton; Kazuto Hamada; Alison E. Merrick; Shoji Kato; Tracey J. Jenner; Isobel De Oliveira; Andrew G. Messenger

    2000-01-01

    Androgens are the main regulator of normal human hair growth. After puberty, they promote transformation of vellus follicles, producing tiny, unpigmented hairs, to terminal ones, forming larger pigmented hairs, in many areas, e.g. the axilla. However, they have no apparent effect on the eyelashes, but can cause the opposite transformation on the scalp leading to the replacement of terminal hairs

  15. Phototendering of wool sensitized by naturally occurring polyphenolic dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald J Smith; Ian J Miller; Vincent Daniels

    2005-01-01

    A number of naturally occurring polyphenolics have been used since antiquity to dye wool. These colourants, originally extracted from plants and insects, can be fixed to wool fibres by a metal ion mordant with the free carboxylic acid and sulphydryl groups present in wool protein providing the necessary metal ion binding sites.Wool undergoes a variety of chemical reactions induced by

  16. Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Forgacs; Tibor Cserháti; Gyula Oros

    2004-01-01

    The more recent methods for the removal of synthetic dyes from waters and wastewater are complied. The various methods of removal such as adsorption on various sorbents, chemical decomposition by oxidation, photodegradation, and microbiological decoloration, employing activated sludge, pure cultures and microbe consortiums are described. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed and their efficacies are compared.

  17. Beyond generalized hair cells: Molecular cues for hair cell types

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are crucial for inner ear neurosensory development. The proneural TF Atoh1 regulates the differentiation of hair cells (HCs) whereas Neurog1 and Neurod1 regulate specification and differentiation of neurons, respectively, but also affect HC development. Expression of Delta and Jagged ligands in nascent HCs and Notch receptors in supporting cells induce supporting cell differentiation through the regulation of neurogenic bHLH TFs (such as Hes1, Hes5) and suppression of limited Atoh1 expression. In sensorineural hearing loss, HCs are lost followed by supporting cells and progressive degeneration of neurons, at least in rodents. Regaining complete hearing may require reconstituting the organ of Corti (OC) from scratch, including the two types of HCs, inner (IHC) and outer (OHC) hair cells with the precise sorting of two types of afferent (type I and II) and efferent (lateral, LOC and medial, MOC olivo-cochlear) innervation. We review effects of bHLH TF dosage and their cross-regulation to differentiate HC types in the OC. We categorize findings of specific gene expressions in HCs: 1. as markers without meaning for the regeneration task, 2. as stabilizers who are needed to maintain or complete differentiation, and 3. as decision making genes, expressed and acting early enough to be useful in this process. Only one TF has been characterized that fits the last aspect: Atoh1. We propose that temporal and intensity variations of Atoh1 are naturally modulated to differentiate specific types of HCs. Importantly, the molecular means to modify the Atoh1 expression are at least partially understood and can be readily implemented in the attempts to regenerate specific types of HCs. PMID:23201032

  18. Functional Utrastructure of Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae) Digestive Hairs

    PubMed Central

    P?achno, Bartosz Jan; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Ma?gorzata; ?wi?tek, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Digestive structures of carnivorous plants produce external digestive enzymes, and play the main role in absorption. In Lentibulariaceae, the ultrastructure of digestive hairs has been examined in some detail in Pinguicula and Utricularia, but the sessile digestive hairs of Genlisea have received very little attention so far. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by expanding their morphological, anatomical and histochemical characterization. Methods Several imaging techniques were used, including light, confocal and electron microscopy, to reveal the structure and function of the secretory hairs of Genlisea traps. This report demonstrates the application of cryo-SEM for fast imaging of whole, physically fixed plant secretory structures. Key Results and Conclusion The concentration of digestive hairs along vascular bundles in subgenus Genlisea is a primitive feature, indicating its basal position within the genus. Digestive hairs of Genlisea consist of three compartments with different ultrastructure and function. In subgenus Tayloria the terminal hair cells are transfer cells, but not in species of subgenus Genlisea. A digestive pool of viscous fluid occurs in Genlisea traps. In spite of their similar architecture, the digestive-absorptive hairs of Lentibulariaceae feature differences in morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:17550910

  19. Molecular basis of hair cell loss.

    PubMed

    Furness, David N

    2015-07-01

    Mechanisms that lead to the death of hair cells are reviewed. Exposure to noise, the use of ototoxic drugs that damage the cochlea and old age are accompanied by hair cell death. Outer hair cells are often more susceptible than inner hair cells, partly because of an intrinsically greater susceptibility; high frequency cells are also more vulnerable. A common factor in hair cell loss following age-related changes and exposure to ototoxic drugs or high noise levels is the generation of reactive oxygen species, which can trigger intrinsic apoptosis (the mitochondrial pathway). However, hair cell death is sometimes produced via an extracellular signal pathway triggering extrinsic apoptosis. Necrosis and necroptosis also play a role and, in various situations in which cochlear damage occurs, a balance exists between these possible routes of cell death, with no one mechanism being exclusively activated. Finally, the numerous studies on these mechanisms of hair cell death have led to the identification of many potential therapeutic agents, some of which have been used to attempt to treat people exposed to damaging events, although clinical trials are not yet conclusive. Continued work in this area is likely to lead to clinical treatments that could be used to prevent or ameliorate hearing loss. PMID:25676005

  20. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of whole hairs.

    PubMed

    Pudney, Paul D A; Bonnist, Eleanor Y M; Mutch, Kevin J; Nicholls, Rachel; Rieley, Hugh; Stanfield, Samuel

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the application of Raman spectroscopy to whole hair fibers. Previously this has proved difficult because the hairs are relatively opaque, and spatial resolution diminishes with depth because of the change in refractive index. A solution is to couple confocal Raman with multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis, which separates spectral differences with depth despite this reduction in resolution. Initially, it is shown that the cuticle can be separated from the cortex, showing the differences in the proteins, which can then be plotted as a function of depth, with the cuticle factor being seen only at the surface as expected. Hairs that had been treated in different ways, e.g., by bleaching, treatment with the active molecule resorcinol followed by rinsing and treatment with a full hair care product, were also examined. In all cases, changes to the hair are identified and are associated with specific parts of the fiber. Since the hair fiber is kept intact, it can be repeatedly treated and measured, hence multistep treatment processes can be followed. This method expands the potential use of Raman spectroscopy in hair research. PMID:24359655

  1. Stem cell dynamics in mouse hair follicles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying V.; White, Brian S.; Shalloway, David I.; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2011-01-01

    Understanding tissue stem cell behavior is a prerequisite for elucidating the mechanisms that govern their self-renewal and differentiation. Previously, we provided single cell lineage tracing and proliferation history data (based on H2B-GFP label dilution over time) in mouse hair follicles. We proposed a population deterministic model with symmetric stem cell fate decisions throughout life. Here we provide data suggesting that in hair follicle stem cells the self-renewing divisions within the niche (bulge) are symmetric with respect to localization of daughter cells near the basement membrane, an important niche component. In contrast, when cells migrate from the niche to the differentiating zone where they become short-lived progenitors, their daughter cells can adopt assymetric orientation relative to the basement membrane. Furthermore, we document the dynamic re-localization of cells within the bulge to accommodate the hair follicle morphological changes through the hair cycle. In addition, we provide a method to compute the change in number of cells generated by division from H2B-GFP pulse-chase data, and to estimate the minimum cell loss encountered when the fold change can be experimentally determined. We computed a minimum of 42% of bulge cell loss during one hair cycle, a massive rate of loss previously unrecognized. Finally, we showed that a multipotent population of cells found at the junction zone between hair follicle and epidermis, known to express Lrig1, cycle more rapidly than some other hair follicle compartments. PMID:20372093

  2. The Significance of Hair for Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Toseeb, Umar; Keeble, David R. T.; Bryant, Eleanor J.

    2012-01-01

    Hair is a feature of the head that frequently changes in different situations. For this reason much research in the area of face perception has employed stimuli without hair. To investigate the effect of the presence of hair we used faces with and without hair in a recognition task. Participants took part in trials in which the state of the hair either remained consistent (Same) or switched between learning and test (Switch). It was found that in the Same trials performance did not differ for stimuli presented with and without hair. This implies that there is sufficient information in the internal features of the face for optimal performance in this task. It was also found that performance in the Switch trials was substantially lower than in the Same trials. This drop in accuracy when the stimuli were switched suggests that faces are represented in a holistic manner and that manipulation of the hair causes disruption to this, with implications for the interpretation of some previous studies. PMID:22461902

  3. Comparative Transduction Mechanisms of Vestibular Otolith Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs regenerate following aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Hair cells in these organs are differentially sensitive to gentamicin, with saccular hair cells and hair cells in the utricular striola being damaged at lower gentamicin concentrations than hair cells in the utricular extrastriola. Regenerating hair cells in these organs have short hair bundles and can be classified into a number of phenotypes using the same morphological criteria used to identify their mature counterparts. Our studies suggest that some supporting cells can convert, or transdifferentiate,into hair cells without an intervening cell division. By stimulating these processes in humans, clinicians may be able to alleviate human deafness and peripheral vestibular disorders by regenerating and replacing lost hair cells. In vivo and in vitro studies were done on cell proliferation and hair cell regeneration.

  4. [Histology of skin and hair follicle].

    PubMed

    Prost-Squarcioni, Catherine

    2006-02-01

    The skin consists of an outer epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis. It includes nerves, blood vessels, glands and hair follicles. Epidermis is a continually renewing, stratified squamous epithelium. It is populated by keratinocytes (80 %) and dendritic cells (20 %) : melanocytes, Langerhans and Merkel cells. In standard histology, keratinocytes are arranged in layers that represent different stages of their differentiation while melanocytes and Langerhans cells appear as clear cells respectively between the basal and the supra-basal cells of epidermis. The Merkel cells cannot be clearly identified. Dendritic processes of the dendritic cells can only be recognized by immunocytochemistry. At the dermal-epidermal junction, a PAS reactive basement membrane follows the contour of the basal cells. Dermis consists of collagenous and elastic fibers embedded into an amorphous ground substance. Fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells and lymphocytes are its resident cells. Hypodermis is composed of adipocyte lobules defined by fibrous connective tissue septa. Hair follicle consists of 3 parts : the lower portion, from the base of the follicle including hair bulb to the insertion of the arrector pili muscle or buldge ; the isthmus, from the insertion of the arrector pili to the entrance of the sebaceous duct, and the infundibulum, from the entrance of the sebaceous duct to the follicular orifice. The lower portion is composed of the dermal hair papilla, the hair matrix, the hair, and the inner and the outer root sheaths. The hair matrix cells within hair bulb give rise to the hair and to the inner root sheath. With the electron microscope, one can obtain a more detailed view of the characteristic skin structures. Much of them can now be explained in terms of function and in many instances, in correlation with its biochemical composition. An attempt has been made in this paper to precisely give the location of molecules that are relevant in basic skin functions and understanding of auto-immune and genetic diseases. PMID:16457751

  5. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Fang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Nuo, Mingtu; Guo, Xudong; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (T?4) is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF) development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed T?4 in the epidermis, as well as T?4 global knockout mice, to study the role of T?4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of T?4 on hair growth. To study T?4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). To explore the effect of T?4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of T?4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in T?4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that T?4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased T?4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in T?4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, T?4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. T?4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts. PMID:26083021

  6. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog uticulus. 2: Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was motivated by an interest in seeing whether hair cell types in the bullfrog utriculus might differ in their voltage responses to hair bundle displacement. Particular interest was in assessing the contributions of two factors to the responses of utricular hair cells. First, interest in examining the effect of hair bundle morphology on the sensitivity of hair cells to natural stimulation was motivated by the observation that vestibular hair cells, unlike many auditory hair cells, are not free-standing but rather linked to an accessory cupular or otolithic membrane via the tip of their kinocilium. Interest also laid in examining the contribution, if any, of adaptation to the response properties of utricular hair cells. Hair cells in auditory and vibratory inner ear endorgans adapt to maintained displacements of their hair bundles, sharply limiting their low frequency sensitivity. This adaptation is mediated by a shift in the displacement-response curve (DRC) of the hair cell along the displacement axis. Observations suggest that the adaptation process occurs within the hair bundle and precedes mechanoelectric transduction. Recent observations of time-dependent changes in hair bundle stiffness are consistent with this conclusion. Adaptation would be expected to be most useful in inner ear endorgans in which hair cells are subject to large static displacements that could potentially saturate their instantaneous response and compromise their sensitivity to high frequency stimulation. The adaptation process also permits hair cells to maintain their sensory hair bundle in the most sensitive portion of their DRC. In vestibular otolith organs in which static sensitivity is desirable, any adaptation process in the hair cells may be undesirable. The rate and extent of the decline of the voltage responses was measured of utricular hair cells to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements. Then for similar resting potentials and response amplitudes, the voltage responses of individual hair cells were compared to both hair bundle displacement and intracellular current.

  7. Optofluidic microcavities: Dye-lasers and biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.; Lei, L.; Zhang, K.; Shi, J.; Wang, L.; Li, H.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, Y.; Chan, H. L. W.

    2010-01-01

    Optofluidic microcavities are integrated elements of microfluidics that can be explored for a large variety of applications. In this review, we first introduce the physics basis of optical microcavities and microflow control. Then, we describe four types of optofluidic dye lasers developed so far based on both simple and advanced device fabrication technologies. To illustrate the application potential of such devices, we present two types of laser intracavity measurements for chemical solution and single cell analyses. In addition, the possibility of single molecule detection is discussed. All these recent achievements demonstrated the great importance of the topics in biology and several other disciplines. PMID:24753719

  8. Exploring the ability of Sphingobacterium sp. ATM to degrade textile dye Direct Blue GLL, mixture of dyes and textile effluent and production of polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid using waste biomass generated after dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Dhawal P; Kurade, Mayur B; Waghmode, Tatoba R; Joshi, Swati M; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2010-10-15

    The degradation of textile effluent using microorganisms has been studied extensively, but disposal of generated biomass after dye degradation is a serious problem. Among all tested microorganisms, isolated Sphingobacterium sp. ATM effectively decolorized (100%) the dye Direct Blue GLL (DBGLL) and simultaneously it produced (64%) polyhydroxyhexadecanoic acid (PHD). The organism decolorized DBGLL at 300 mg l(-1) concentration within 24 h of dye addition and gave optimum production of PHD. The organism also decolorized three combinations of mixture of dyes. The organism decolorized textile effluent too when it was combined with medium. The organism produced a maximum of 66% and 61% PHD while decolorizing mixture of dyes and textile effluent respectively. Molasses was found to be more significant within all carbon sources used. The activity of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase was found to be higher after 24 h of addition of DBGLL. The enzymes responsible for dye degradation, viz. veratryl alcohol oxidase, laccase, DCIP (2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol) reductase, riboflavin reductase, and azo reductase were found to be induced during decolorization process of DBGLL and mixture of dyes. There was significant reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). FTIR analysis of samples before and after decolorization of dye confirmed the biotransformation of DBGLL. PMID:20591565

  9. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe. PMID:23725308

  10. Polar lipid composition of mammalian hair.

    PubMed

    Wix, M A; Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

    1987-01-01

    The types and amounts of polar lipids from the hair of monkey (Macacca fascicularis), dog (Canis familiaris), pig (Sus scrofa) and porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) have been determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. The polar lipid content of the hair samples ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 wt%. Lipid compositions included ceramides (57-63% of the polar lipid by weight), glycosphingolipids (7-9%) and cholesteryl sulfate (22-29%). Several minor components (4-7%) remain unidentified. The results suggest that cholesteryl sulfate may be an important determinant of the cohesiveness of hair. PMID:3581794

  11. The structure of people’s hair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

  12. Determination of selected trace elements in human head hair by neutron activation analysis 

    E-print Network

    Courson, Leonard Austin

    1981-01-01

    of Magnesium in Hair Distribution Histogram of Manganese in Hair Distribution Histogram of Sodium in Hair Distribution Histogram of Strontium in Hair Distribution Histogram of Titanium in Hair Distribution Histogram of Vanadium in Hair Distribution... 26 27 28 29 30 22 Distribution Histogram of Strontium in Hair by Sex 31 23 Distribution Histogram of Titanium in Hair by Sex 32 24 Distribution Histogram of Vanadium in Hair by Sex 33 INTRODUCTION )Measurements using neutron activation...

  13. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  14. Gel Electrophoresis of Dyes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Janice Stephens

    2011-01-01

    In this experiment related to plant biotechnology, learners discover how to prepare and load an electrophoresis gel. They will then run the gels in an electrophoresis system to separate several dyes that are of different molecular sizes and carry different charges. This technique is fundamental to many of the procedures used in biotechnology. This lesson guide includes background information for the educator, safety precautions, and questions with answers for learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended. Modifications for use with younger learners are described in a related PDF (see related resource).

  15. Hair care practices in African-American patients.

    PubMed

    Roseborough, Ingrid E; McMichael, Amy J

    2009-06-01

    The unique properties of hair in those patients of African descent allow a limitless range of hair-care options. For the clinician, a general understanding of hair-care practices is an important aid in the diagnosis and treatment of hair shaft and scalp disorders. This review highlights common hair-care practices in women, men, and children of color. Cleansing, moisturizing, and styling techniques are discussed, as well as potential complications associated with their use. PMID:19608061

  16. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. Setting: The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Participants: Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. Measurements: The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. Results: More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Conclusion: Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population. PMID:25276273

  17. The Mechanics of Curly Hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James; Lazarus, Arnaud; Berry, Breanna; Audoly, Basile; Reis, Pedro

    2012-02-01

    We explore the oft-neglected role of intrinsic natural curvature on the mechanics of elastic rods. Our testbed, a hanging hair, is a deceivingly simple system that exhibits complex mechanics and geometrically nonlinear behavior. Through a combination of precision desktop-scale experiments, numerical simulations, and theoretical analysis, we seek physical insight into the nontrivial configurations adopted by a naturally curved elastic rod that is suspended under its own weight. In particular, we aim to gain predictive understanding of the transition from planar to non-planar solutions as well as the localization of torsion in the non-planar configurations. The experimentally observed behavior of our custom-fabricated naturally curved rods is captured well by simulations and is rationalized through scaling arguments.

  18. [Anaphylactic reaction following hair bleaching].

    PubMed

    Babilas, P; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2005-12-01

    Ammonium persulphate is a potent bleach and oxidizing agent that is commonly present in hair bleaches. Because bleaching is so commonly performed, hairdressers often develop allergic contact dermatitis to ammonium persulphate. In addition to this delayed reaction, asthma and rhinitis may develop as immediate reactions in those exposed to the fumes. Severe anaphylactic reactions are rare. We report a 24-year-old woman who acquired dermatitis following contact with bleaching substances while working as a hairdresser. After changing her profession, the dermatitis disappeared. Following the private use of a hairdressing bleach containing ammonium persulphate, she suffered a severe anaphylactic reaction with unconsciousness. The patient also developed an anaphylactic reaction three hours following patch testing with the hairdresser battery. The rub test with ammonium persulphate (2.5%) in a 1:100 solution was positive. PMID:15688222

  19. A Review of Surgical Methods (Excluding Hair Transplantation) and Their Role in Hair Loss Management Today

    PubMed Central

    Sattur, Sandeep S

    2011-01-01

    There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today. PMID:21976899

  20. Hair zinc and copper: Relationship to hair type and serum concentrations in children and adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Laitinen; E. Vuori; H. K. Åkerblom

    1988-01-01

    The zinc and copper serum and hair concentrations of 691 3-18-y-old girls and boys previously determined as a part of the\\u000a Multicentre Study of Atherosclerosis Precursors in Finnish Children and Adolescents were further analyzed in order to find\\u000a a possible association between these two zinc and copper indices. The influence of hair color and the diameter of individual\\u000a hair strands

  1. Effects of pH of Dyes on Characteristics of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoji Furukawa; Hiroshi Iino; Koudai Kukita; Kaoru Kaminosono

    2010-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dyes and synthesized dyes in which rear metal was not contained. Effects of pH of dyes on the characteristics of the dye-sensitized solar cells were also examined. As a result, it was found that the conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated using red-cabbage dye with a pH of 2.5 was 0.10

  2. Synthesis and characterization of triphenylamine-based organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jihyun Heo; Jin-Woo Oh; Ho-Ik Ahn; Su-Bin Lee; Sang-Eun Cho; Mi-Ra Kim; Jin-Kook Lee; Nakjoong Kim

    2010-01-01

    We synthesized three organic dyes (DYE 1, DYE 2, and DYE 3) containing triphenylamine (TPA) moieties as electron donors and cyanoacrylic acid moieties as electron acceptors, designed at the molecular level, and developed them for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Among all the dyes, DYE 2 exhibited the highest overall solar-energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 4.06% with a short-circuit photocurrent

  3. Nanotribological characterization of human head hair by friction force microscopy in dry atmosphere and aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Nikogeorgos, Nikos; Fletcher, Ian W; Boardman, Christopher; Doyle, Peter; Ortuoste, Nerea; Leggett, Graham J

    2010-06-01

    Friction force microscopy was employed for the tribological investigation of human head hair in two different environments: a dry atmosphere and de-ionized water. The fibers were immobilized by embedding them in indium. The effects of bleaching, conditioning, and immersion in methanolic KOH were quantified in terms of the relative coefficient of friction (?). The virgin fibers were clearly distinguished in terms of friction coefficient from the chemically damaged ones in both environments, while all categories of hair exhibited higher friction coefficients in the aqueous environment. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used as a complementary technique to examine the presence of fatty acids on the cuticular surface of the different categories of hair as well as the conditioner distribution. Neither bleaching nor 30 min treatment in methanolic KOH was found adequate to completely remove the fatty acids from the fibers' surface. Conditioner species were detected along the whole cuticular surface. PMID:20831350

  4. Optical and morphological investigation of hair of patients with Chediak Higashi syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Goyo-Rivas, Jose

    1998-04-01

    The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare disease and is very often observed in a single family. In Venezuelan Los Andes area, its appearance is not uncommon. One of the peculiar aspects of CHS patients is the color, texture and structure of the hairs. We have, therefore, investigated structure, morphology and composition of hairs and compared those properties with that of normal human subject grown in the same geographical region. A few hairs were cut along its length and their fluorescence was investigated. For CHS patients, dark patches were observed. Investigations of chemical compositions of these regions were carried out of using Energy Dispersive Analysis and it was found the presence of Na, K and Ca ions. Fluorescence spectral studies were carried out at room temperature. Observed spectra reveal two peaks, however, those were not useful for positive identification of CHS.

  5. Nanoscale determination of ecotoxicological hall-mark in animal hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Ristoiu, Tania

    2010-11-01

    Biomonitoring studies for estimation population health surveillance and exposure risk assessment of different chemical contaminants such as chlorinated compounds or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds has become an important task especially after the Stockholm Convention. If before the toxicological evaluation of humans were done using invasive methods like surgery or pricking, today many scientists tried to elaborate non-invasive analytical methods without disparage the final results. During the last years studies it was observed a relative higher pollution with organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in surrounding regions of Dej, Transylvania. These past studies shown that pollution with chlorinated compounds as chlorinated solvents are attributed to the industrial activities from this region. The levels in soil and river water of these compounds were: ~ 20 - 60 ?g.kg-1 and ~ 15 - 45 ?g.L-1, respectively. In case of PAHs the following results were obtained for soil and river water: for two ring specie was between ~ 26 - 35 ?g.kg-1 and ~ 21 - 30 ?g.L-1, respectively; for three ring species was 15 - 35 ?g.kg-1 and ~ 10 - 24 ?g.L-1, respectively; and in case of four ring species was between 10 - 20 ?g.kg-1 and ~ 3 - 15 ?g.L-1, respectively. These results carry on concern regarding the bioaccumulation of these pollutants by humans through food web chain. In order to establish the uptake level of these compounds by humans, home grown animal hair as pig and cow were analyzed through SIM-GC-MS mode and ECD-FID-GC. The presence of chlorinated solvents detected in pig and cows hair were as follows: compounds from chloromethane family ~ 5 - 10 ng.kg-1 dry weight; compounds from chloroethane family ~ 7 - 34 ng.kg-1 dry weight for pig hair, and ~ 12 - 17 ng.kg-1 dry weight for compounds from chloromethane family and 14 - 48 ng.kg-1 dry weight for cow hair. Difference between accumulation levels of PAH metabolites were observed also between cow and pig hair samples.

  6. FLUX OF IONIC DYES ACROSS MICRONEEDLE-TREATED SKIN: EFFECT OF DYE MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Yasmine A.; Garland, Martin J.; McInnes, Fiona; Donnelly, Ryan F.; El-Khordagui, Labiba K.; Wilson, Clive

    2014-01-01

    Drug flux across microneedle (MN)-treated skin is influenced by the characteristics of the MN array, microconduits and drug molecules in addition to the overall diffusional resistance of microconduits and viable tissue. Relative implication of these factors has not been fully explored. In the present study, the in vitro permeation of a series of six structurally related ionic xanthene dyes with different molecular weights (MW) and chemical substituents, across polymer MN-pretreated full thickness porcine skin was investigated in relation of their molecular characteristics. Phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4, the medium used in skin permeation experiments, was used to determine the equilibrium solubility of the dyes and their partition coefficient both in the isotropic n-octanol/ aqueous system and porcine skin/ aqueous system. Additionally, dissociation constants were determined potentiometrically. Results indicated that for rhodamine dyes, skin permeation of the zwitterionic form which predominates at physiological pH, was significantly reduced by an increase in MW, the presence of the chemically reactive isothiocyanate substituent reported to interact with stratum corneum proteins and the skin thickness. These factors were generally shown to override aqueous solubility, an important determinant of drug diffusion in an aqueous milieu. Findings provided more insight into the mechanism of drug permeation across MN-treated skin, of importance to both the design of MN-based transdermal drug delivery systems and in vitro skin permeation research. PMID:22960319

  7. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James E., Jr.; Cobb, E.D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The outstanding characteristics of dye tracing are: (1) the low detection and measurement limits, and (2) the simplicity and accuracy of measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a general guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section is included on aerial photography because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry. (USGS)

  8. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  9. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of organic dyes with various electron-accepting substituents for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Weidelener, Martin; Powar, Satvasheel; Kast, Hannelore; Yu, Ze; Boix, Pablo P; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Geiger, Thomas; Kuster, Simon; Nüesch, Frank; Bach, Udo; Mishra, Amaresh; Bäuerle, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Four new donor-?-acceptor dyes differing in their acceptor group have been synthesized and employed as model systems to study the influence of the acceptor groups on the photophysical properties and in NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. UV/Vis absorption spectra showed a broad range of absorption coverage with maxima between 331 and 653?nm. Redox potentials as well as HOMO and LUMO energies of the dyes were determined from cyclic voltammetry measurements and evaluated concerning their potential use as sensitizers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs). Quantum-chemical density functional theory calculations gave further insight into the frontier orbital distributions, which are relevant for the electronic processes in p-DSCs. In p-DSCs using an iodide/triiodide-based electrolyte, the polycyclic 9,10-dicyano-acenaphtho[1,2-b]quinoxaline (DCANQ) acceptor-containing dye gave the highest power conversion efficiency of 0.08%, which is comparable to that obtained with the perylenemonoimide (PMI)-containing dye. Interestingly, devices containing the DCANQ-based dye achieve a higher V(OC) of 163?mV compared to 158?mV for the PMI-containing dye. The result was further confirmed by impedance spectroscopic analysis showing higher recombination resistance and thus a lower recombination rate for devices containing the DCANQ dye than for PMI dye-based devices. However, the use of the strong electron-accepting tricyanofurane (TCF) group played a negative role in the device performance, yielding an efficiency of only 0.01% due to a low-lying LUMO energy level, thus resulting in an insufficient driving force for efficient dye regeneration. The results demonstrate that a careful molecular design with a proper choice of the acceptor unit is essential for development of sensitizers for p-DSCs. PMID:25234556

  11. Influence of internal structure of hair fiber on hair appearance. II. Consideration of the visual perception mechanism of hair appearance.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Shinobu; Satoh, Naoki; Nakamura, Koichi

    2002-01-01

    The optical properties of hair fibers were studied, focusing on the reflections (highlights) from both the front and the back surfaces of the fiber in consideration and on the effect these have on the perceptions of hair appearance. The two reflections are distinguished from each other by sight, because only the back surface reflection is colored by melanin granules and/or dyestuffs inside the fiber. When we observe a flat plate as a model for hair without a cuticle structure, the visual angle between the two light loci correlates with the thickness of the model plate and gives an impression of depth. In the case of hair with a cuticle angle, the visual angle is maintained even when the fiber thickness is reduced. This visual angle causes an overestimation of the thickness and enhances the impression of depth. The visual angle changes dramatically with a curl curvature change of the hair tress, meaning that the impression of depth is also dynamically changed by a small change in hairstyle. The dynamic change in the impression of depth probably causes a vibrant impression. The following are required for beautiful hair appearance along with an impression of depth and vibrancy: (a). Internal structure without light scattering origins is essential to observe vivid colored highlights from the back surface. (b). Well-ordered cuticles are essential to get intensive double highlights from the front and back surfaces. (c). A properly curved hairstyle is essential to obtaining a more vibrant impression. PMID:12512015

  12. The influence of hair bleach on the ultrastructure of human hair with special reference to hair damage.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takehito

    2011-05-01

    The influence of human hair bleaching agents with different bleaching strength on the ultrastructure of human hair was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer equipped with TEM (EDS-TEM). Two kinds of bleaching agents were used: a lightener agent with a weak bleaching effect and a powder-bleach with a stronger bleaching effect. From the comparison of the bleaching properties obtained by the electronic staining of black and white hair samples, it was suggested that the permeability of hair was increased by bleaching, and there was an increase of the stainability of hair subjected to electronic staining. The bleaching action provoked the decomposition of melanin granules and the flow out of granular contents into the intermacrofibrillar matrix. Some metal elements were detected in the melanin granular matrix by EDS-TEM. As a result, the diffusion of metal elements into the intermacrofibrillar matrix promoted further damage to the hair by catalytic action with the hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching agents outside the melanin granules. Further study will lead us to the edge of the development of a new bleaching agent, which reacts only with melanin granules and causes the minimum of damage to outside the melanin granules. PMID:21882590

  13. Transforming hair into heteroatom-doped carbon with high surface area.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Kiran N; Song, Min Young; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2014-07-01

    Herein, a unique approach to dispose of human hair by pyrolizing it in a regulated environment is presented, yielding highly porous, conductive hair carbons with heteroatoms and high surface area. ?-keratin in the protein network of hair serves as a precursor for the heteroatoms and carbon. The carbon framework is ingrained with heteroatoms such as nitrogen and sulfur, which otherwise are incorporated externally through energy-intensive, hazardous, chemical reactions using proper organic precursors. This judicious transformation of organic-rich waste not only addresses the disposal issue, but also generates valuable functional carbon materials from the discard. This unique synthesis strategy involving moderate activation and further graphitization enhances the electrical conductivity, while still maintaining the precious heteroatoms. The effect of temperature on the structural and functional properties is studied, and all the as-obtained carbons are applied as metal-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Carbon graphitized at 900 °C emerges as a superior ORR electrocatalyst with excellent electrocatalytic performance, high selectivity, and long durability, demonstrating that hair carbon can be a promising alternative for costly Pt-based electrocatalysts in fuel cells. The ORR performance can be discussed in terms of heteroatom doping, surface properties, and electrical conductivity of the resulting porous hair carbon materials. PMID:24664643

  14. Dye-Sensitization Of Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ajimsha, R. S.; Tyagi, M.; Das, A. K.; Misra, P.; Kukreja, L. M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India)

    2010-12-01

    Nannocrystalline and nanoporus thin films of ZnO were synthesized on glass substrates by using wet chemical drop casting method. X-ray diffraction measurements on these samples confirmed the formation of ZnO nanocrystallites in hexagonal wurtzite phase with mean size of {approx}20 nm. Photo sensitization of these nanostructured ZnO thin films was carried out using three types of dyes Rhodamine 6 G, Chlorophyll and cocktail of Rhodamine 6 G and Chlorophyll in 1:1 ratio. Dye sensitized ZnO thin films showed enhanced optical absorption in visible spectral region compared to the pristine ZnO thin films.

  15. Levitated droplet dye laser

    E-print Network

    Azzouz, H; Balslev, S; Johansson, J; Mortensen, N A; Nilsson, S; Kristensen, A

    2006-01-01

    We present the first observation, to our knowledge, of lasing from a levitated, dye droplet. The levitated droplets are created by computer controlled pico-liter dispensing into one of the nodes of a standing ultrasonic wave (100 kHz), where the droplet is trapped. The free hanging droplet forms a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating spectrometer. With this setup we have achieved reproducible lasing spectra in the visible wavelength range from 610 nm to 650 nm. The levitated droplet technique has previously successfully been applied for a variety of bio-analytical applications at single cell level. In combination with the lasing droplets, the capability of this high precision setup has potential applications within highly sensitive intra-cavity absorban...

  16. Levitated droplet dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouz, H.; Alkhafadiji, L.; Balslev, S.; Johansson, J.; Mortensen, N. A.; Nilsson, S.; Kristensen, A.

    2006-05-01

    We present the first observation, to our knowledge, of lasing from a levitated, dye droplet. The levitated droplets are created by computer controlled pico-liter dispensing into one of the nodes of a standing ultrasonic wave (100 kHz), where the droplet is trapped. The free hanging droplet forms a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating spectrometer. With this setup we have achieved reproducible lasing spectra in the visible wavelength range from 610 nm to 650 nm. The levitated droplet technique has previously successfully been applied for a variety of bio-analytical applications at single cell level. In combination with the lasing droplets, the capability of this high precision setup has potential applications within highly sensitive intra-cavity absorbance detection.

  17. Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

    2011-05-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead. PMID:21416400

  18. Effects of dissolved oxygen on dye removal by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Wei, Ming-Chi; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Li, Heng-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hua; Fang, Yung-Tai; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2010-10-15

    Effects of dissolved oxygen concentrations on dye removal by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) were investigated. The Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test was employed to evaluate toxicity of decolorized solution. Three dyes, Acid Orange 7 (AO7, monoazo), Reactive Red 120 (RR120, diazo), and Acid Blue 9 (AB9, triphenylmethane), were selected as model dyes. The dye concentration and Fe(0) dose used were 100 mg L(-1) and 30 g L(-1), respectively. Under anoxic condition, the order for dye decolorization was AO7>RR120>AB9. An increase in the dissolved oxygen concentrations enhanced decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of the three dyes. An increase in gas flow rates also improved dye and COD removals by Fe(0). At dissolved oxygen of 6 mg L(-1), more than 99% of each dye was decolorized within 12 min and high COD removals were obtained (97% for AO7, 87% for RR120, and 93% for AB9). The toxicity of decolorized dye solutions was low (I(5)<40%). An increase in DO concentrations obviously reduced the toxicity. When DO above 2 mg L(-1) was applied, low iron ion concentration (13.6 mg L(-1)) was obtained in the decolorized AO7 solution. PMID:20667424

  19. Shapes of a Suspended Curly Hair

    E-print Network

    Miller, J.?T.

    We investigate how natural curvature affects the configuration of a thin elastic rod suspended under its own weight, as when a single strand of hair hangs under gravity. We combine precision desktop experiments, numerics, ...

  20. Observing Cells in Plucked Hair Follicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, John

    1991-01-01

    A simple technique is described by which the cells attached to plucked hair can be observed and used to demonstrate dividing and differentiating cell populations. The necessary equipment and the procedure are listed. (Author/KR)

  1. Tips for Removing Gum without Cutting Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a jar of creamy style peanut butter or vegetable oil, such as olive oil. Cover the gum completely ... to work. Remove the gum from the hair. Vegetable oil is especially useful when removing gum from eyebrows ...

  2. Storable, thermally activated, near-infrared chemiluminescent dyes and dye-stained microparticles for optical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Baumes, Jeffrey M.; Gassensmith, Jeremiah J.; Giblin, Jay; Lee, Jung-Jae; White, Alexander G.; Culligan, William J.; Leevy, W. Matthew; Kuno, Masaru; Smith, Bradley D.

    2011-01-01

    Optical molecular imaging employs relatively harmless, low-energy light and technically straightforward instrumentation. Self-illuminating, chemiluminescent systems are especially attractive since they have inherently high signal contrast due to the lack of background emission. Currently, chemiluminescence imaging involves short-lived molecular species that are not stored but instead generated in situ, and they typically emit visible light, which does not penetrate far through heterogeneous biological media. Here, we describe a new paradigm for optical molecular imaging using squaraine rotaxane endoperoxides (SREPs), interlocked fluorescent and chemiluminescent dye molecules that have a squaraine chromophore encapsulated inside a macrocycle endoperoxide. SREPs can be stored indefinitely at temperatures below ?20 °C, but upon warming to body temperature they undergo a unimolecular chemical reaction and emit near infrared light that can pass through a living mouse. Dye-stained microparticles are easily prepared for in vivo near-infrared optical imaging using commercial imaging stations. PMID:21107365

  3. Hox in hair growth and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2003-05-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Hox gene family of transcriptional regulators has originally been known for specifying positional identities along the longitudinal body axis of bilateral metazoans, including mouse and man. It is believed that subsequent to this archaic role, subsets of Hox genes have been co-opted for patterning functions in phylogenetically more recent structures, such as limbs and epithelial appendages. Among these, the hair follicle is of particular interest, as it is the only organ undergoing cyclical phases of regression and regeneration during the entire life span of an organism. Furthermore, the hair follicle is increasingly capturing the attention of developmental geneticists, as this abundantly available miniature organ mimics key aspects of embryonic patterning and, in addition, presents a model for studying organ renewal. The first Hox gene shown to play a universal role in hair follicle development is Hoxc13, as both Hoxc13-deficient and overexpressing mice exhibit severe hair growth and patterning defects. Differential gene expression analyses in the skin of these mutants, as well as in vitro DNA binding studies performed with potential targets for HOXC13 transcriptional regulation in human hair, identified genes encoding hair-specific keratins and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) as major groups of presumptive Hoxc13 downstream effectors in the control of hair growth. The Hoxc13 mutant might thus serve as a paradigm for studying hair-specific roles of Hoxc13 and other members of this gene family, whose distinct spatio-temporally restricted expression patterns during hair development and cycling suggest discrete functions in follicular patterning and hair cycle control. The main conclusion from a discussion of these potential roles vis-à-vis current expression data in mouse and man, and from the perspective of the results obtained with the Hoxc13 transgenic models, is that members of the Hox family are likely to fulfill essential roles of great functional diversity in hair that require complex transcriptional control mechanisms to ensure proper spatio-temporal patterns of Hox gene expression at homeostatic levels.

  4. Assessment of styling performance in hair gels and hair sprays by means of a new two-point stiffness test.

    PubMed

    Hoessel, Peter; Riemann, Solveig; Knebl, Robert; Schroeder, Jens; Schuh, Gerd; Castillo, Catalina

    2010-01-01

    A new two-point bending stiffness method on flat hair strands was developed and validated after application of hair styling gels and hair styling sprays. A special mold was used to align single hair fibers after applying the formulations to the hair. The styling gels used contain different commercially available thickeners and styling polymers, e.g., carbomer, acrylates/beheneth-25 methacrylate copolymer, Polyquaternium-86, PVP, VP/VA copolymers, and VP/methacrylamide/vinylimidazole copolymer. Evaluation of hair sprays was performed after spray application on flat hair strands. Commercially available hair styling resins were used, e.g. acrylates/t-butylacrylamide copolymer, octylacrylamide/acrylates/butylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymer, and VP/VA copolymer (30:70). The new stiffness test method provided the best correlation with practically relevant sensory assessments on hair strands and a panel test in which styling gels were evaluated. However, we did not observe a correlation between the new stiffness method on flat hair strands and practical assessments in hair spray application. We postulate that different polymer/hair composites are responsible for these discrepancies. Hairs on model heads for half-side testing are spot-welded after spray application, while hairs are seam-welded in the stiffness test after alignment of single hair fibers. This alignment is necessary to achieve reproducible results. PMID:20939974

  5. Forage-based feeding of hair sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Wildeus

    Interest in hair sheep production in the U.S. has been increasing with a decline on return for wool, an increased acceptance of smaller carcasses in non-traditional markets, and a shift towards forage-based production (Notter, 2000). Hair sheep are generally smaller in size and have lower growth rates than more traditional wool sheep, but are reputed to be more tolerant to

  6. Surface interaction of quaternary amines with hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Beard; J. Hare

    2002-01-01

    Surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has shown specific 1?1 (ionic) interaction between cationic alkyl\\u000a quaternary surfactant molecules and the anionic sulfonate groups present on the hair surface. The primary driving force for\\u000a the adsorption of alkyl quaternary amine molecules to the surface of the hair from aqueous solution is the ionic interaction\\u000a between quaternary groups and the surface

  7. Hair Iodine for Human Iodine Status Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Prejac, Juraj; Višnjevi?, Vjeran; Skalnaya, Margarita G.; Mimica, Ninoslav; Drmi?, Stipe; Skalny, Anatoly V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today, human iodine deficiency is, after iron, the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine, which reflects very recent iodine exposure; a long-term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. Methods: We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The hair iodine median was 0.499??g/g, and was 0.482 and 0.508??g/g for men and women respectively, suggesting no sex-related difference. We studied hair iodine uptake by analyzing the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy, and excess. We estimated overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration was below 0.1–0.15??g/g. Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.1–2.0??g/g where the deposition of iodine in the hair was linearly increasing (R2=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0??g/g and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Conclusion: Hair appears to be a valuable and robust biological indicator tissue for assessing long-term iodine status. We propose that an adequate iodine status corresponds with hair iodine uptake saturation of 0.565–0.739??g/g (55–65%). PMID:24446669

  8. Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sancun Hao; Jihuai Wu; Yunfang Huang; Jianming Lin

    2006-01-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) were assembled by using natural dyes extracted from black rice, capsicum, erythrina variegata flower, rosa xanthina, and kelp as sensitizers. The ISC from 1.142mA to 0.225mA, the VOC from 0.551V to 0.412V, the fill factor from 0.52 to 0.63, and Pmax from 58?W to 327?W were obtained from the DSC sensitized with natural dye extracts.

  9. Red ginseng extract promotes the hair growth in cultured human hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-young; Cho, Hong-il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-03-01

    Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

  10. Woolly Hair with Complete Atrioventricular Dissociation: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Sudhanan, V Madhu; Choudhary, Ranju; Bhukaria, Atishay; Chaudhary, Shyam Sunder

    2015-01-01

    Woolly hair is a rare congenital abnormality of structure of the scalp hair characterized by tightly coiled hair involving part or the entire scalp. There are mainly two types of woolly hair; autosomal dominant/hereditary woolly hair and autosomal recessive/familial woolly hair. We hereby report two cases of autosomal recessive/familial woolly hair from a single family associated with complete atrioventricular dissociation in one sibling, which is a very rare association and only a single case has been reported in literature with this association. This case report signifies the importance of cardiac evaluation in woolly hair and stresses the fact that hair examination is not just cosmetic but can be lifesaving. PMID:26180456

  11. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling

    PubMed Central

    Sennett, Rachel; Rendl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic hair follicle induction and formation are regulated by mesenchymal-epithelial interactions between specialized dermal cells and epidermal stem cells that switch to a hair fate. Similarly, during postnatal hair growth, communication between mesenchymal dermal papilla cells and surrounding epithelial matrix cells coordinates hair shaft production. Adult hair follicle regeneration in the hair cycle again is thought to be controlled by activating signals originating from the mesenchymal compartment and acting on hair follicle stem cells. Although many signaling pathways are implicated in hair follicle formation and growth, the precise nature, timing, and intersection of these inductive and regulatory signals remains elusive. The goal of this review is to summarize our current understanding and to discuss recent new insights into mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. PMID:22960356

  12. Protein purification by aminosquarylium cyanine dye-affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Graça, Vânia C; Sousa, Fani; Santos, Paulo F; Almeida, Paulo S

    2015-01-01

    Affinity chromatography (AC) is one of the most important techniques for the separation and purification of biomolecules, being probably the most selective technique for protein purification. It is based on unique specific reversible interactions between the target molecule and a ligand. In this affinity interaction, the choice of the ligand is extremely important for the success of the purification protocol. The growing interest in AC has motivated an intense research effort toward the development of materials able to overcome the disadvantages of conventional natural ligands, namely their high cost and chemical and biological lability. In this context, synthetic dyes have emerged, in recent decades, as a promising alternative to biological ligands. Herein, detailed protocols for the assembling of a new chromatographic dye-ligand affinity support bearing an immobilized aminosquarylium cyanine dye on an agarose-based matrix (Sepharose CL-6B) and for the separation of a mixture o f three standard proteins: lysozyme, ?-chymotrypsin, and trypsin are provided. PMID:25749942

  13. Decolorization of textile dyes by fungal pellets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozfer Yesilada; Dilek Asma; Seval Cing

    2003-01-01

    Decolorization of various dyes by pellets of white rot fungi was studied. All fungal pellets used could remove more than 75% of the color of these dyes in 24 h. Effect of various conditions such as initial pH, concentration of dye, amount of pellet, temperature and agitation on Astrazone blue dye decolorization activity of Funalia trogii was tested and the

  14. Bleaching phototrichogram: an improved method for hair growth assessment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Ho; Kwon, Oh Sang; Oh, Jun Kyu; Park, Won Seok; Moon, Sang Eun; Eun, Hee Chul

    2005-10-01

    The phototrichogram (PT) is a non-invasive tool for monitoring hair growth in vivo. However, the majority of PT techniques are of little use to clinicians bacause they are time-consuming and/or difficult to perform. Consequently, there is a need for an easy and time-saving PT technique. This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy and availability of a modified PT, bleaching phototrichogram (BPT), by comparing it with the conventional phototrichogram (CPT). Ten healthy male volunteers (age range 26-33 years) comprised the study subjects. Hairs were clipped from two adjacent circular areas in the occipital region of each subject. The clipped hairs in the first area were bleached and photographed two days later. The second area was photographed just after clipping and two days later. In each area, the following biological parameters of hair growth were analyzed; 1: hair density (number/cm2), 2: anagen hair ratio (%), 3: linear hair growth rate (mm/day), 4: non-vellus hair ratio (%) and 5: anagen hair thickness (microm). The hair density, anagen hair ratio, linear hair growth rate, and anagen hair thickness by BPT were similar to the CPT values with no significant differences, although the non-vellus hair ratio by BPT was higher than the CPT value. The BPT has a higher clinical usefulness than the CPT because it saves much time with satisfactory accuracy. PMID:16361728

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  17. Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes. PMID:25054183

  18. Statistical examination of hair color as a potential biasing factor in hair analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Mieczkowski; Richard Newel

    2000-01-01

    We review eight different data sets in this paper for the purposes of assessing the possibility that reported color of hair can produce a systematic bias in the interpretation of hair assays. We review studies or data sets that include heroin and its metabolites, cocaine and its metabolites, MDMA and its analogs, and amphetamine and methamphetamine. The studies have utilized

  19. Hair Loss and Hair-Pulling in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Corrine K; Coleman, Kristine; Worlein, Julie; Novak, Melinda A

    2013-01-01

    Alopecia is a common problem in rhesus macaque colonies. A possible cause of this condition is hair-pulling; however the true relationship between hair-pulling and alopecia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hair loss and hair-pulling in 1258 rhesus macaques housed in 4 primate colonies across the United States. Alopecia levels ranged from 34.3% to 86.5% (mean, 49.3%) at the primate facilities. At facilities reporting a sex-associated difference, more female macaques were reported to exhibit alopecia than were males. In contrast, more males were reported to hair-pull. Animals reported to hair-pull were significantly more likely to have some amount of alopecia, but rates of hair-pulling were substantially lower than rates of alopecia, ranging from 0.6% to 20.5% (mean, 7.7%) of the populations. These results further demonstrate that hair-pulling plays only a small role in alopecia in rhesus macaques. PMID:23849443

  20. Hair loss and hair-pulling in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Lutz, Corrine K; Coleman, Kristine; Worlein, Julie; Novak, Melinda A

    2013-07-01

    Alopecia is a common problem in rhesus macaque colonies. A possible cause of this condition is hair-pulling; however the true relationship between hair-pulling and alopecia is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between hair loss and hair-pulling in 1258 rhesus macaques housed in 4 primate colonies across the United States. Alopecia levels ranged from 34.3% to 86.5% (mean, 49.3%) at the primate facilities. At facilities reporting a sex-associated difference, more female macaques were reported to exhibit alopecia than were males. In contrast, more males were reported to hair-pull. Animals reported to hair-pull were significantly more likely to have some amount of alopecia, but rates of hair-pulling were substantially lower than rates of alopecia, ranging from 0.6% to 20.5% (mean, 7.7%) of the populations. These results further demonstrate that hair-pulling plays only a small role in alopecia in rhesus macaques. PMID:23849443

  1. Dynamics of Arthropod Filiform Hairs. IV. Hair Motion in Air and Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raghuram Devarakonda; Friedrich G. Barth; Joseph A. C. Humphrey

    1996-01-01

    Filiform cuticular hairs responding to movements of the surrounding medium are widespread mechanoreceptors in both terrestrial and aquatic arthropods. In this study we compare the motion response of such hairs to sinusoidal oscillations in air and in water, by applying a previously developed mathematical model (Humphrey et al. 1993). In addition to the physics underlying stimulus uptake in the two

  2. Characterization of Hair Follicle Antigens Targeted by the Anti-Hair Follicle Immune Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Desmond J. Tobin

    2003-01-01

    Alopecia areata is a common disfiguring hair loss disorder that primarily affects the hair follicle as it enters the prolonged growth phase called anagen. The last few years have yielded an explosion of more rigorously obtained data on the etiology and pathogenesis of this disorder. While a consensus is rapidly building in support of an autoimmune pathogenesis, there are still

  3. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Eligia; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S.

    2004-06-01

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven of the 70 respondents showing no traces of mercury, while nine had levels beyond the 5 ppm limit set by the Human Biomonitor II [Bundesgesundheitsblatt 39 (1996) 221]. Further studies using PIXE analysis of hair is recommended on the same communities with a wider area base to show that PIXE analysis on hair samples as an alternative procedure which is faster without sacrificing reliability.

  4. PELE'S HAIR: case studies from Kilauea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, C. B.

    2010-12-01

    Pele’s hair are long, thin strands of basaltic volcanic glass formed when small drops of magma are spun or drawn out by the wind or streams of volcanic gas into long hair-like strands. Named for Pele, the Hawaiian goddess of fire, they are basically found in Hawaiian eruption deposits. Pele’s hair is deep yellow or gold and is commonly found downwind from active vents concentrated in hollows or other low energy ‘traps’. In literature the origin of these thin strands of glass have been linked to fountains from Hawaiian eruptions. Beside the high fountaining, Pele’s hair are actually found in other environments. In this work we investigated in detail the dimensions, surface textures and the nature of Pele’s hair, from four typical environment of formation at Hawaiian volcanoes: high fountaining, weak explosive activity, lava ocean entry and a lava skylight. Samples has been characterized in terms of textural and morphological features, in thin section and under the SEM. Pele’s hair consists of long strands of gold sideromelane, showing variable length, from an half mm to tens of mm, often without surface vesicles and sometimes including Pele’s tears inside or at the end. They are often found incomplete, since they are easily broken on landing or even during transport. Their surfaces are mostly rough, with ‘ploughs’ of different sizes and large cavities. Vesicles are visible in the cross sections of Pele’s hair. There are two mostly size population of bubbles: one elongated and central and parallel to the axis of elongation and the other one smaller, and rounded and dispersed across the cross section of the fibers. Pele’s hair often shows, in thin section, a single inner elongate vesicle in the middle of the fragment linked to bubble coalescence phenomena, along the entire length of the hair. Samples from the four volcanic environments show different features in terms of their shape, surface textures and micro-textures, pointing out that varying degrees of cooling, degassing and shear affect the texture and the processes of formation of Pele’s hair.

  5. Dyeing Properties of Natural Dye Syzygium cuminii on Silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Swamy, V.; Ninge Gowda, K. N.; Sudhakar, R.

    2014-04-01

    Dyeing behavior of natural dye extracted from the bark of Syzygium cuminii L has been studied on silk fabric. Colour values and colour co-ordinates were examined in terms of K/S and L* a* b* C and h. A range of shades were obtained by using various mordants and mordanting techniques. Dye was tested for some of the eco-parameters using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and GC/MS. The test results were compared with the set standards to determine the eco-friendliness of natural dye. Their concentrations were much below the stipulated limits. Dyed samples were tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were found to possess antibacterial activity.

  6. FTIR Spectroscopy Applied in Remazol Blue Dye Oxidation by Laccases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Hernández, J.; Zavala-Soto, M. E.; Bibbins-Martínez, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.; Díaz-Godinez, G.; Rojas-López, M.

    2008-04-01

    We have used FTIR with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) technique to analyze the decolourization process of Remazol Blue dye (RB19) caused by the oxidative activity of laccase enzyme. It is known that laccases catalyze the oxidation of a large range of phenolic compounds and aromatic amines carrying out one-electron oxidations, although also radicals could be formed which undergo subsequent nonenzymatic reactions. The enzyme laccase is a copper-containing polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.2) which has been tested as a potential alternative in detoxification of environmental pollutants such as dyes present in wastewaters generated for the textile industry. In order to ensure degradation or avoid formation of toxic compounds it is important to establish the mechanism by which laccase oxidizes dyes. In this research individual ATR-FTIR spectra have been recorded for several reaction times between 0 to 236 hours, and the temporal dependence of the reaction was analyzed through the relative diminution of the intensity of the infrared band at 1127 cm-1 (associated to C-N vibration), with respect to the intensity of the band at 1104 cm-1 (associated to S = O) from sulphoxide group. Decolourization process of this dye by laccase could be attributed to its accessibility on the secondary amino group, which is a potential point of attack of laccases, abstracting the hydrogen atom. This decolourization process of remazol blue dye by laccase enzyme might in a future replace the traditionally high chemical, energy and water consuming textile operations.

  7. Optimization of extraction and dyeing conditions for traditional turmeric dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiran Sachan; VP Kapoor

    Water soluble yellow dye was extracted from turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa L.), collected from Lucknow, Shillong and from local market, through aqueous\\/solvent extraction procedure using vacuum evaporator and spray drying of aqueous extract. Shillong sample was found to contain higher dye content (21.3-27.6%) followed by Lucknow sample (15.5- 18.9%) and market sample (14.0-18.2%). Shillong sample was also been found to

  8. Contact dermatitis due to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) on a temporal tattoo with henna. Cross reaction to azoic dyes.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, María Cristina; Puig, Lluis; Alomar, Agustín

    2006-09-01

    Henna is used as a hair dye and to make temporary tattoos on the skin. It is usually mixed with p-phenylendiamine (PPD) to increase colour intensity and to reduce the time of fixation on the skin proteins. PPD can cross react with azoic dyes which are used as textile dyes. We studied a patient with skin eczema in the area of a henna temporary tattoo. The epicutaneous tests performed with the standard Trolab and Chemotecnique hair dressing and textile batteries, showed positive results to PPD, p-toluendiamine, 5-4aminophenol, Yellow 3, Orange Red and Red 1, and negative results to three types of henna. The eczema in this patient was due to sensitisation to PPD on a henna tattoo with cross reaction to azoic dyes. The recent fashion of applying temporal tattoos in occidental countries may produce an increase in the frequency of contact dermatitis due to henna mixtures with cross- reaction to related compounds and possibly producing permanent skin changes. PMID:17672289

  9. Further evaluation of probabilities in human scalp hair comparisons.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, R A; Hepworth, D G

    1990-11-01

    Placing value on associative hair evidence is an integral part of court presentation. A modified repeat of the hair probability study by Gaudette and Keeping has been undertaken, with steps taken to remedy shortcomings of the original work. The results of this study demonstrate that, with the application of rigid selection criteria, the frequency of coincidental matches in forensic science hair comparisons is low. It also demonstrates that routine hair classification is not feasible, because of inconsistency in examiner discrimination. The macroscopic selection of 5 to 13 mutually dissimilar hairs has been shown to be frequently unrepresentative of the microscopic range of features present in a known hair sample. PMID:2262768

  10. Early development of cochlear hair cell stereociliary surface morphology.

    PubMed

    Sobin, A; Anniko, M

    1984-01-01

    The early development of the surface structures of differentiating cochlear hair cells (guinea-pig) was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A basal-to-apical gradient was evident in hair cell maturation. Inner hair cells developed before outer hair cells at the same level in the cochlea. The first sign of the onset of hair cell differentiation was a regularization of the pattern of microvilli on the future hair cell. Later, the cluster of regularized microvilli was rebuilt to form the stereociliary bundle, with a stepwise increase in the length of those stereocilia facing the stria vascularis. PMID:6517743

  11. Recycling of wastewaters of textile dyeing industries using advanced treatment technology and cost analysis—Case studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ranganathan; K. Karunagaran; D. C. Sharma

    2007-01-01

    Textile dyeing industries in Tirupur and Karur of Tamil Nadu (India) usually discharge effluents ranging between 80 and 200m3\\/t of production. Dyeing is performed either by conventional winch process or by advanced soft flow reactor process. Hypochlorite, the commonly used bleaching chemical is being gradually phased out by alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution that generates less effluent and fewer solids in

  12. Prevalence of new psychoactive substances: A retrospective study in hair.

    PubMed

    Rust, Kristina Yasmin; Baumgartner, Markus R; Dally, Annika M; Kraemer, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    New psychoactive substances are conquering the drug scene. Police seize different colourful packages with exceptional names. They are declared as 'bath salts', 'plant food', or 'research chemical powders'. Little is known about the actual prevalence of these drugs. Reanalysis of hair samples from routine cases concerning the presence of new psychoactive substances or 'smart drugs' should provide insight into changing patterns of designer drugs. All hair samples from 2009 and 2010 that originally tested positive for amphetamines or MDMA (N?=?325) were reanalyzed for new or smart drugs such as 4-fluoroamphetamine, piperazines (BZP, mCPP and TFMPP), cathinones (4-MMC (mephedrone), methylone, butylone, ethylone, MDPV, methcathinone and cathinone), methylphenidate and ketamine. Hair snippets were extracted using a two-step extraction procedure. The analytes were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (electrospray ionization; multiple-reaction-monitoring mode - information dependent acquisition - enhanced product ion scan). New psychoactive substances were found in 120 cases (37%). Concerning the piperazine drugs, mCPP was positive in 34 (10.5%) cases and TFMPP in one case. Five mCPP cases were also positive for trazodone, an antidepressant which is metabolized to mCPP. In 11 (3%) cases, 4-MMC was detected. Concerning the smart drugs, methylphenidate was found in 16 (5%). Ketamine was found in 45 (14%) cases. 4-Fluoroamphetamine was identified in 12 (4%) cases and methylone in one case.In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of these drugs. Consequently, at least the most common ones (e.g. mCPP, KET, 4-MMC and 4-FA) should be included in screening procedures in clinical and forensic toxicology. PMID:22522922

  13. On the nature of the lowest electron transitions in the borine dye derivatives benz[cd]indole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachkovsky, O. D.; Yashchuk, V. M.; Navozenko, O. M.; Naumenko, A. P.; Slominskii, Yu. L.

    2014-09-01

    The fluorescence and absorption spectra of new boron-containing dyes have been analyzed in detail basing on the results of quantum chemical calculations that were performed to obtain the equilibrium molecular geometry and electron structure of the dye molecules. It has been found that the cyclization of both terminal groups by BF2 bridge changes the total charge in the symmetrical dyes and practically does not change the bond lengths in the ?-electron system which increases the quantum yield of fluorescence. The possibility to vary the absorption region and total neutral charge makes these dyes promising for using as additives in light emitting layers of OLED deposited by vacuum evaporation.

  14. Using the zebrafish lateral line to uncover novel mechanisms of action and prevention in drug-induced hair cell death

    PubMed Central

    Stawicki, Tamara M.; Esterberg, Robert; Hailey, Dale W.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hearing loss and balance disorders are caused by the permanent loss of mechanosensory hair cells of the inner ear. Identification of genes and compounds that modulate susceptibility to hair cell death is frequently confounded by the difficulties of assaying for such complex phenomena in mammalian models. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful animal model for genetic and chemical screening in many contexts. Several characteristics of the zebrafish, such as its small size and external location of mechanosensory hair cells within the lateral line sensory organ, uniquely position it as an ideal model organism for the study of hair cell toxicity. We have used this model to screen for genes and compounds that affect hair cell survival during ototoxin exposure and have identified agents that would not be expected to play a role in this process based on a priori knowledge of their function. The identification of such agents yields better understanding of hair cell death and holds promise to stem hearing loss and balance disorders in the human population. PMID:25741241

  15. Using the zebrafish lateral line to uncover novel mechanisms of action and prevention in drug-induced hair cell death.

    PubMed

    Stawicki, Tamara M; Esterberg, Robert; Hailey, Dale W; Raible, David W; Rubel, Edwin W

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hearing loss and balance disorders are caused by the permanent loss of mechanosensory hair cells of the inner ear. Identification of genes and compounds that modulate susceptibility to hair cell death is frequently confounded by the difficulties of assaying for such complex phenomena in mammalian models. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful animal model for genetic and chemical screening in many contexts. Several characteristics of the zebrafish, such as its small size and external location of mechanosensory hair cells within the lateral line sensory organ, uniquely position it as an ideal model organism for the study of hair cell toxicity. We have used this model to screen for genes and compounds that affect hair cell survival during ototoxin exposure and have identified agents that would not be expected to play a role in this process based on a priori knowledge of their function. The identification of such agents yields better understanding of hair cell death and holds promise to stem hearing loss and balance disorders in the human population. PMID:25741241

  16. Inhibition of caspases prevents ototoxic and ongoing hair cell death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Jonathan I.; Ogilvie, Judith M.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory hair cells die after acoustic trauma or ototoxic insults, but the signal transduction pathways that mediate hair cell death are not known. Here we identify several important signaling events that regulate the death of vestibular hair cells. Chick utricles were cultured in media supplemented with the ototoxic antibiotic neomycin and selected pharmacological agents that influence signaling molecules in cell death pathways. Hair cells that were treated with neomycin exhibited classically defined apoptotic morphologies such as condensed nuclei and fragmented DNA. Inhibition of protein synthesis (via treatment with cycloheximide) increased hair cell survival after treatment with neomycin, suggesting that hair cell death requires de novo protein synthesis. Finally, the inhibition of caspases promoted hair cell survival after neomycin treatment. Sensory hair cells in avian vestibular organs also undergo continual cell death and replacement throughout mature life. It is unclear whether the loss of hair cells stimulates the proliferation of supporting cells or whether the production of new cells triggers the death of hair cells. We examined the effects of caspase inhibition on spontaneous hair cell death in the chick utricle. Caspase inhibitors reduced the amount of ongoing hair cell death and ongoing supporting cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated sensory epithelia, however, caspase inhibitors did not affect supporting cell proliferation directly. Our data indicate that ongoing hair cell death stimulates supporting cell proliferation in the mature utricle.

  17. Dynamic expression of Runx1 in skin affects hair structure.

    PubMed

    Raveh, Eli; Cohen, Shulamit; Levanon, Ditsa; Negreanu, Varda; Groner, Yoram; Gat, Uri

    2006-11-01

    The three mammalian Runx transcription factors, some of which are known to be involved in human genetic diseases and cancer, are pivotal players in embryo development and function as key regulators of cell fate determination and organogenesis. Here, we report the expression of Runx1 during the development of hair and other skin appendages in the mouse and describe the effect of Runx1 on the structural hair output. In hair follicles, where the three Runx proteins are expressed, Runx1 expression is most prominent in both mesenchymal and epithelial compartments. The epithelial expression includes the hair keratin forming layers of the hair shaft and the bulge, where interestingly, Runx1 is co-expressed with keratin 15, a putative hair follicle stem cell marker. In the hair mesenchyme, during early stages of hair morphogenesis, Runx1 is expressed in a discrete dermal sub-epithelial layer, while at later stages it is found in a hair cycle dependent pattern in the dermal papilla. To elucidate the function of Runx1 in the hair follicle we have generated a Runx1 epidermal conditional knockout and found that the mutant mice display a remarkable structural deformation of the zigzag hair type. The data delineate Runx1 as a novel specific marker of several hair follicle cell types and sheds light on its role in hair morphogenesis and differentiation. PMID:17011173

  18. Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-01-01

    The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

  19. A drug rape case involving triazolam detected in hair and urine.

    PubMed

    Johansen, S Stybe; Dahl-Sørensen, R

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, there has been heightened awareness regarding the use of drugs to modify a person's behavior to facilitate crime. A drug rape case involving the potent, short-acting sedative triazolam will be presented. On three occasions, the victim consumed green tea and chocolate before being massaged and ultimately sexually abused. Screening for alcohol, commonly used drugs and illicit substances in blood and urine sampled during the forensic examination 20 h after the last incident, was negative. Consequently, hair samples for chemical analysis were taken from the assaulted individual 34 days after the last incidents. The hair was cut into three 2-cm segments (0-6 cm) that were washed, dissolved in extraction solvent and screened and verified by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS) and with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), respectively. In the 2-cm hair segment corresponding to the period of the alleged assaults, the presence of the sedative triazolam was revealed at a concentration of 1.0 pg/mg hair. The preserved urine sample, taken 20 h after the last incident, was reanalyzed by UPLC-MS/MS for metabolites of triazolam, and 39 ?g/l ?-hydroxytriazolam was detected in the hydrolyzed urine. This case illustrates that hair is a valuable forensic specimen in situations where natural processes have eliminated the drug from typical biological specimens due to delays in the crime being reported. Furthermore, it was possible to verify the hair finding with a urine sample by detection of a metabolite of triazolam. PMID:22160334

  20. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.