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Sample records for hair dye chemicals

  1. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... Print and Share (615 KB) En Español Hair dye is used to color your hair. Hair relaxers are used to make ...

  2. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1331. [PubMed Abstract] Rauscher GH, Shore D, Sandler DP. Hair dye use and risk of adult acute ... 10):1448–1454. [PubMed Abstract] Lin J, Dinney CP, Grossman HB, Wu X. Personal permanent hair dye ...

  3. Effect of hair dyes and bleach on the hair protein patterns as revealed by isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Nagai, A; Komoriya, H; Bunai, Y; Yamada, S; Jiang, X Y; Ohya, I

    1991-06-01

    The effect of hair dyes, i.e., temporary, semi-permanent, or permanent hair dyes, or hair bleach on the isoelectric focusing (IEF) hair protein patterns was studied. A permanent hair dye (metallic, alkaline oxidative, or acidic oxidative) and hair bleach induced changes in the IEF hair protein patterns and in the intensity of hair protein bands. The changes in the IEF patterns, caused by the alkaline oxidative dye or the bleach, are considered to result from the combined effect of an alkaline agent and an oxidative agent in the alkaline oxidative dye and in the hair bleach. PMID:1889397

  4. Hair dye poisoning: An unusual encounter

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sunil Kumar; Tiwari, Rajjan; Ahlawat, Alok

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year-old female patient presented with alleged history of hair dye “Super Vasmol 33” intake. She presented with cervicofacial edema with upper airway obstruction. Although patient was being managed for airway obstruction, she developed cardiac arrest. Cardiac resuscitation could not be started at that point of time because managing airway was the priority in a patient who in hypoxic cardiac arrest. As soon as the airway was secured by emergency tracheostomy, cardiac resuscitation was initiated and the patient was successfully revived. PMID:24987242

  5. [Effects of hair dyeing on the heavy metals content in hair].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhen-lin; Rui, Yu-kui; Shen, Lin

    2008-09-01

    Cosmetic and hair dye has been one of the pollution resources of heavy metals. Contents of heavy metals in hair of dyed group and non-dyed group were analyzed by ICP-MS, the results showed that dyeing hair can change the content of heavy metals in hair, but the degree of effect is different for different element: contents of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd and Sb in hair of dyed group were higher than that of non-dyed group, but contents of As, Cr, Zn, Ag, Pb and Hg were lower. The cause of the above results could be that hair dye contains more Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd and Sb, but less As, Cr, Zn, Ag, Pb and Hg, and dyeing hair could restrain the metabolism and excretion of As, Cr, Zn, Ag, Pb and Hg from human body. PMID:19093590

  6. Paraphenylenediamine Containing Hair Dye: An Emerging Household Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Patra, Ambika Prasad; Shaha, Kusa Kumar; Rayamane, Anand P; Dash, Shreemanta Kumar; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Mohanty, Sachidananda

    2015-09-01

    Paraphenylenediamine poisoning is among one of the emerging causes of poisoning in Asian countries, because it is a constituent of hair dye formulations and is easily available in market at low cost. Hair dyes are rampantly used in Asian households compared with the western world. Locally, hair dye constituents may have allergic adverse effects, and acute systemic poisoning presents with characteristic angioedema, upper airway obstruction, rhabdomyolysis, methemoglobinemia, myoglobinuria, and acute renal failure. This study reports about the death of a 24-year-old Indian housewife who committed suicide by taking hair dye emulsion. She had an argument with her husband, and because of fit of rage, took a bowlful (80 mL) of hair dye emulsion kept prepared for the use by husband. She developed angioedema, cervical swelling, and rhabdomyolysis and died of acute renal failure within 24 hours. Toxicological analysis of viscera and blood revealed varying levels of paraphenylenediamine. Histopathological samples of kidney showed features of acute tubular necrosis and myoglobin casts in renal tubules. The aim of the study is to create awareness about the adverse effects of the hair dye, its poisoning outcome, and possible preventive measures. PMID:26056768

  7. Aberration corrected STEM to study an ancient hair dyeing formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarche, G.; Van Elslande, E.; Castaing, J.; Walter, P.

    2014-05-01

    Lead-based chemistry was initiated in ancient Egypt for cosmetic preparation more than 4000 years ago. Here, we study a hair-dyeing recipe using lead salts described in text since Greco-Roman times. We report direct evidence about the shape and distribution of PbS nanocrystals that form within the hair during blackening.

  8. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD...20 Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers...

  9. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD...20 Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers...

  10. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD...25 Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements....

  11. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD...25 Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements....

  12. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes)....

  13. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes)....

  14. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes)....

  15. Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection in the Zebrafish Lateral Line Rubel,1,2 and David W. Raible1,4 Abstract In humans, most hearing loss results from death of hair cells of mechanosensory hair cells. We discuss chemical screens to identify compounds that induce hair cell loss

  16. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.25 Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair...

  17. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.25 Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair...

  18. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.25 Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair...

  19. Right Bundle Branch Block: An Uncommon Cardiotoxic Manifestation of Hair Dye Poisoning-A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Deepak; Subramanian, Saravanan; Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Shanmugam, Kani

    2014-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning has been rising in incidence in the recent years. Apart from the commoner manifestations of upper airway edema, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, cardiac toxicity, convulsions and sudden cardiac death are relatively rare complications. We discuss a case of hair dye poisoning manifesting as oropharyngeal edema along with cardiac complication. The patient survived. PMID:24596762

  20. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.25 Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes)....

  1. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  2. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  6. In vitro and in vivo study of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, Alexey N; Sinichkin, Yury P; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I; Lakodina, Nina A; Altshuler, Gregory B; Tuchin, Valery V

    2002-07-01

    We present experimental results on the in vitro and in vivo study of dye diffusion into human skin and hair follicles. We have studied some commercially available dyes for potential using in the laser selective thermolysis. The degree and the depth of hair follicle dyeing inside the skin were determined. For hairs in different stages the sebaceous gland was stated as a reservoir for a dye administration. It was found that the penetration depth of dyes is about 1.2 mm from the skin surface. We have developed the biocompatible Indocyanine Green lotions and the method for in vivo dyeing and dye in depth monitoring. Shift on 16-21 nm of absorption peak of Indocyanine Green to the longer wavelengths due to Indocyanine Green binding with cell proteins in the human skin was found. PMID:12175299

  7. Hair Dye Use and Risk of Bladder Cancer in the New England Bladder Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Koutros, Stella; Silverman, Debra T.; Baris, Dalsu; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Morton, Lindsay M.; Colt, Joanne S.; Hein, David W.; Moore, Lee E.; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Cherala, Sai; Schned, Alan; Doll, Mark A.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amine components in hair dyes, and polymorphisms in genes that encode enzymes responsible for hair dye metabolism, may be related to bladder cancer risk. We evaluated the association between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk and effect modification by NAT1, NAT2, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genotypes in a population-based case-control study of 1,193 incident cases and 1,418 controls from Maine, Vermont, and New Hampshire enrolled between 2001 and 2004. Individuals were interviewed in person using a computer-assisted personal interview to assess hair dye use and information on potential confounders and effect modifiers. No overall association between age at first use, year of first use, type of product, color, duration, or number of applications of hair dyes and bladder cancer among women or men was apparent but increased risks were observed in certain subgroups. Women who used permanent dyes and had a college degree, a marker of socioeconomic status, had an increased risk of bladder cancer (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 8.9). Among these women, we found an increased risk of bladder cancer among exclusive users of permanent hair dyes who had NAT2 slow acetylation phenotype (OR=7.3, 95% CI: 1.6, 32.6) compared to never users of dye with NAT2 rapid/intermediate acetylation phenotype. While we found no relation between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk in women overall, we detected evidence of associations and gene-environment interaction with permanent hair dye use; however, this was limited to educated women. These results need confirmation with larger numbers, requiring pooling data from multiple studies. PMID:21678399

  8. Hair dye use and risk of bladder cancer in the New England bladder cancer study.

    PubMed

    Koutros, Stella; Silverman, Debra T; Baris, Dalsu; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Morton, Lindsay M; Colt, Joanne S; Hein, David W; Moore, Lee E; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Cherala, Sai; Schned, Alan; Doll, Mark A; Rothman, Nathaniel; Karagas, Margaret R

    2011-12-15

    Aromatic amine components in hair dyes and polymorphisms in genes that encode enzymes responsible for hair dye metabolism may be related to bladder cancer risk. We evaluated the association between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk and effect modification by N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1), NAT2, glutathione S-transferase Mu-1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase theta-1 (GSTT1) genotypes in a population-based case-control study of 1193 incident cases and 1418 controls from Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire enrolled between 2001 and 2004. Individuals were interviewed in person using a computer-assisted personal interview to assess hair dye use and information on potential confounders and effect modifiers. No overall association between age at first use, year of first use, type of product, color, duration or number of applications of hair dyes and bladder cancer among women or men was apparent, but increased risks were observed in certain subgroups. Women who used permanent dyes and had a college degree, a marker of socioeconomic status, had an increased risk of bladder cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-8.9]. Among these women, we found an increased risk of bladder cancer among exclusive users of permanent hair dyes who had NAT2 slow acetylation phenotype (OR = 7.3, 95% CI: 1.6-32.6) compared to never users of dye with NAT2 rapid/intermediate acetylation phenotype. Although we found no relation between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk in women overall, we detected evidence of associations and gene-environment interaction with permanent hair dye use; however, this was limited to educated women. These results need confirmation with larger numbers, requiring pooling data from multiple studies. PMID:21678399

  9. Hair ignition by dye laser for port-wine stain: risk factors evaluated.

    PubMed

    Molin, L; Hallgren, S

    1999-04-01

    Flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser is the preferred treatment for port-wine stain. Vascular hemoglobin and epidermal melanin are competing sites for dye laser absorption and damage. The case presented illustrates the potential hazard of ignition induced by dye laser treatment on the face of a patient receiving inhalation anesthesia. A 6-year-old girl with almost black hair was treated for a port-wine stain covering most of the right half of her face. She was treated with dye laser under general anesthesia administered by mask. A laser pulse close to the upper part of the eyebrow induced a blaze and the eyebrow was instantly destroyed by the fire. Regrowth of the eyebrow was complete after a few months. Hair specimens of various colors were exposed experimentally to dye laser irradiation in room and oxygen-saturated atmospheres. Risk factors of ignition are high laser dosage, a high oxygen level, repeated pulses and dark colored hair. PMID:11357290

  10. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair...

  11. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair...

  12. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair...

  13. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair...

  14. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair...

  15. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair...

  16. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M:F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet). Results: 54 Fifty-four (M:F 21:33) patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71%) patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from < 1 month to > 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use. PMID:26225326

  17. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864...DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains...

  18. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864...DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains...

  19. Chemical processing and shampooing impact cortisol measured in human hair

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, M. Camille; Karban, Laura V.; Benitez, Patrick; Goodteacher, Angela; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The assessment of cortisol in hair has gained popularity as a means to measure retrospective hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in a number of species; however, cortisol levels from human hair subjected to typical chemicals for cosmetic or hygienic purposes may be altered by the chemicals used. The purposed of this study was to determine if exposure of hair to chemical processing or shampooing impacts cortisol values. Methods Human hair not exposed to prior chemical processing was cut from the posterior vertex region of the head of 106 human subjects as close to the scalp as possible. The hair sample was divided into 4-6 full-length clusters depending on quantity of hair available. Each hair sample was processed for baseline (native) cortisol and remaining clusters were exposed to five standard chemical hair treatments (Experiment 1) or were shampooed 15 or 30 times (Experiment 2). Hair was ground and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Comparisons were made between native hair and processed hair using paired t-tests and Pearson correlation. Results Hair cortisol as assessed by EIA was significantly altered by chemical processing but in somewhat different ways. Exposure to bleach (harshest exposure), demi-perm (least exposure) or 15-30 shampoos resulted in a significant decrease in cortisol level while exposure to varying percentages of peroxides increased cortisol measured. There were no differences in cortisol levels associated with sex, age or tobacco use in the native hair for this particular group. Conclusion Chemical processing and frequent shampooing affect cortisol levels measured in hair. Chemically processed or excessively shampooed hair should be avoided when recruiting subjects for hair cortisol studies. PMID:25090265

  20. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements...

  1. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements...

  2. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements...

  3. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements...

  4. Hair dye-incorporated poly-?-glutamic acid/glycol chitosan nanoparticles based on ion-complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Young; Jeong, Young-IL; Choi, Ki-Choon

    2011-01-01

    Background p-Phenylenediamine (PDA) or its related chemicals are used more extensively than oxidative hair dyes. However, permanent hair dyes such as PDA are known to have potent contact allergy reactions in humans, and severe allergic reactions are problematic. Methods PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were prepared based on ion-complex formation between the cationic groups of PDA and the anionic groups of poly(?-glutamic acid) (PGA). To reinforce PDA/PGA ion complexes, glycol chitosan (GC) was added. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles were characterized using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier- transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Results Nanoparticles were formed by ion-complex formation between the amine groups of PDA and the carboxyl groups of PGA. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles are small in size (<100 nm), and morphological observations showed spherical shapes. FT-IR spectra results showed that the carboxylic acid peak of PGA decreased with increasing PDA content, indicating that the ion complexes were formed between the carboxyl groups of PGA and the amine groups of PDA. Furthermore, the intrinsic peak of the carboxyl groups of PGA was also decreased by the addition of GC. Intrinsic crystalline peaks of PDA were observed by XRD. This crystalline peak of PDA was completely nonexistent when nanoparticles were formed by ion complex between PDA, PGA, and GC, indicating that PDA was complexed with PGA and no free drug existed in the formulation. During the drug-release experiment, an initial burst release of PDA was observed, and then PDA was continuously released over 1 week. Cytotoxicity testing against HaCaT human skin keratinocyte cells showed PDA-incorporated nanoparticles had lower toxicity than PDA itself. Furthermore, PDA-incorporated nanoparticles showed reduced apoptosis and necrosis reaction at HaCaT cells. Conclusion The authors suggest that these microparticles are ideal candidates for a vehicle for decreasing side effects of hair dye. PMID:22131834

  5. Trichocyanines: a Red-Hair-Inspired Modular Platform for Dye-Based One-Time-Pad Molecular Cryptography.

    PubMed

    Leone, Loredana; Pezzella, Alessandro; Crescenzi, Orlando; Napolitano, Alessandra; Barone, Vincenzo; d'Ischia, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Current molecular cryptography (MoCryp) systems are almost exclusively based on DNA chemistry and reports of cryptography technologies based on other less complex chemical systems are lacking. We describe herein, as proof of concept, the prototype of the first asymmetric MoCryp system, based on an 8-compound set of a novel bioinspired class of cyanine-type dyes called trichocyanines. These novel acidichromic cyanine-type dyes inspired by red hair pigments were synthesized and characterized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Trichocyanines consist of a modular scaffold easily accessible via an expedient condensation of 3-phenyl- or 3-methyl-2H-1,4-benzothiazines with N-dimethyl- or o-methoxyhydroxy-substituted benzaldehyde or cinnamaldehyde derivatives. The eight representative members synthesized herein can be classified as belonging to two three-state systems tunable through four different control points. This versatile dye platform can generate an expandable palette of colors and appears to be specifically suited to implement an unprecedented single-use asymmetric molecular cryptography system. With this system, we intend to pioneer the translation of digital public-key cryptography into a chemical-coding one-time-pad-like system. PMID:26246999

  6. Trichocyanines: a Red-Hair-Inspired Modular Platform for Dye-Based One-Time-Pad Molecular Cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Loredana; Pezzella, Alessandro; Crescenzi, Orlando; Napolitano, Alessandra; Barone, Vincenzo; d’Ischia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Current molecular cryptography (MoCryp) systems are almost exclusively based on DNA chemistry and reports of cryptography technologies based on other less complex chemical systems are lacking. We describe herein, as proof of concept, the prototype of the first asymmetric MoCryp system, based on an 8-compound set of a novel bioinspired class of cyanine-type dyes called trichocyanines. These novel acidichromic cyanine-type dyes inspired by red hair pigments were synthesized and characterized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Trichocyanines consist of a modular scaffold easily accessible via an expedient condensation of 3-phenyl- or 3-methyl-2H-1,4-benzothiazines with N-dimethyl- or o-methoxyhydroxy-substituted benzaldehyde or cinnamaldehyde derivatives. The eight representative members synthesized herein can be classified as belonging to two three-state systems tunable through four different control points. This versatile dye platform can generate an expandable palette of colors and appears to be specifically suited to implement an unprecedented single-use asymmetric molecular cryptography system. With this system, we intend to pioneer the translation of digital public-key cryptography into a chemical-coding one-time-pad-like system. PMID:26246999

  7. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  8. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  9. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  10. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  11. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures...

  12. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  13. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  14. Final report on the safety assessment of 3-methylamino-4-nitrophenoxyethanol as used in hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C

    2008-01-01

    3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol is a semipermanent (direct) hair colorant used in 21 hair dyes and colors at use concentrations up to 0.15%. When applied to human skin in vitro, 0.42% of the applied 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol was recovered in the receptor fluid. In an acute toxicity study using rats, 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol at 1000 mg/kg resulted in hypoactivity, piloerection, dyspnea, and lateral recumbency in animals that later died. The surviving rats exhibited none of these signs. No abnormalities were found at necropsy. Subchronic toxicity tests using rats fed 25, 100, or 400 mg/kg day(-1)3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol for up to 93 days resulted in yellow urine and tails with all three dose levels and yellow fur occurred in the two high-dose groups. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for 3-Methyl-amino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol was 100 mg/kg day(- 1). Two percent 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol was a slight ocular irritant but not a dermal irritant using rabbits and it was not a sensitizer using the murine local lymph node Assay. There were no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects observed in doses up to 750 mg/kg day(-1) in rats; the NOAEL was defined as 100 mg/kg. 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol was not genotoxic in in vitro assays including multiple strains of Salmonela typhimurium and Escherichia coli, Chinese Hamster ovary cells, and human lymphocyte cultures. No carcinogenicity studies were available, nor were any clinical tests reported. As reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, there are gaps in the data available for of 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol. In particular, there is an absence of data from chronic animal studies. The Expert Panel considered that the low percutaneous absorption and that the available developmental toxicity data and the subchronic toxicity data, both of which resulted in relatively high NOAEL values, alleviate concern about the absence of chronic exposure data. In addition, several studies demonstrated that 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol is not genotoxic. Direct hair dyes, of which 3-Methylamino-4-Nitro-phenoxyethanol is one, although not the focus in all investigations, appear to have little evidence of an association with adverse events as reported in hair dye epidemiology studies. The lack of phototoxicity data was not considered to be a concern because this is a direct hair dye ingredient, which has little skin contact and residual color is attached to hair, not normally to skin. No human skin sensitization or irritation data were available. However, hair dyes containing 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol, as coal tar hair dye products, are exempt from the principal adulteration provision and from the color additive provisions in sections 601 and 706 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, when the label bears a caution statement and patch test instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation. The Expert Panel expects that following this procedure will prospectively identify individuals who would have an irritation/sensitization reaction and allow them to avoid significant exposures and concluded that 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol is safe as a cosmetic ingredient in the practices of use and use concentrations described in this safety report. PMID:18830863

  15. Human systemic exposure to [¹?C]-paraphenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dyes: Absorption, kinetics, metabolism, excretion and safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Skare, Julie A; Meuling, Wim J A; Wehmeyer, Kenneth R; de Bie, Albertus Th H J; Vaes, Wouter H J; Dufour, Eric K; Fautz, Rolf; Steiling, Winfried; Bramante, Mario; Toutain, Herve

    2015-07-01

    Systemic exposure was measured in humans after hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes containing 2.0% (A) or 1.0% (B) [(14)C]-p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Hair was dyed, rinsed, dried, clipped and shaved; blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours after application. [(14)C] was measured in all materials, rinsing water, hair, plasma, urine and skin strips. Plasma and urine were also analysed by HLPC/MS/MS for PPD and its metabolites (B). Total mean recovery of radioactivity was 94.30% (A) or 96.21% (B). Mean plasma Cmax values were 132.6 or 97.4 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL, mean AUC(0-?) values 1415 or 966 ng [(14)C]-PPDeq/mL*hr in studies A or B, respectively. Urinary excretion of [(14)C] mainly occurred within 24 hrs after hair colouring with a total excretion of 0.72 or 0.88% of applied radioactivity in studies A or B, respectively. Only N,N'-diacetylated-PPD was detected in plasma and the urine. A TK-based human safety assessment estimated margins of safety of 23.3- or 65-fold relative to respective plasma AUC or Cmax values in rats at the NOAEL of a toxicity study. Overall, hair dyes containing PPD are unlikely to pose a health risk since they are used intermittently and systemic exposure is limited to the detoxified metabolite N,N'-diacetyl-PPD. PMID:25846501

  16. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the hair bulb. This is where the hair's color pigment, or melanin, is produced. Most people lose ... and styling. Treatments that use chemicals, like hair color, bleach, straightening, or perms can cause hair damage ...

  17. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  18. Analysis of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on E. coli, human blood cells and Allium cepa suggests a greater toxic potential of hair dye.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Swati; Sasmal, Kankaayan; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Singh, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are among the most important emerging environmental contaminants in recent time. PPCPs include wide range of cosmetics, among which hair dyes, are immensely popular in modern society. However, impact of hair dye and its residual discharged to the environment in relation to human health and ecological imbalance have not been widely studied. Based on the result of initial survey among the group of populations of eastern India, three most popular and commonly used permanent hair dyes are selected. Working sample of dye is prepared as recommended on the instructions booklet of the hair dye. The effect of three dyes is studied on Escherichia coli, human red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and Allium cepa bulbs by growth inhibition, hemolysis, 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and A. cepa micronuclei assays respectively. The Lethal dose (LD) demonstrated significant differences among three dyes and the model systems. In vitro hemolytic assays performed on RBC, and MTT assays on WBC show the cytotoxic effects of hair dye. Significant growth inhibition of E. coli has also been noted. In addition, the root tips of A. cepa treated with the dye have shown major chromosomal abnormalities coupled with cell division retardation. Here low mitotic index confirm cell division retardation. Finally, results of in vitro studies of dye-DNA interactions demonstrate electrostatic interaction. Combing all these results it confirms that hair dyes are cytotoxic and may cause mutagenic effect on living cells irrespective of microbes, plant and animal system. PMID:26544094

  19. Clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of paraphenylene-diamine induced acute kidney injury following hair dye poisoning: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shigidi, Mazin; Mohammed, Osama; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Taha, Elshafie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In Africa and Asia hair dye is applied together with henna to decorate the hands and feet. Paraphenylene-diamine (PPD), a highly toxic constituent of hair dye can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods A cohort study was conducted during the period from April 2012 to March 2013 in Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Sudan. It targeted adults presenting acutely with an evident history and clinical features of hair dye poisoning, together with AKI as per the RIFLE criteria. Analysis of data was done using SPSS. Results 30 adults were included, their mean age was 25.6 ± 4.2 years, 93.3% were females. Exposure to PPD was suicidal in 86.7%. The mean duration to onset of renal symptoms was 34.8 ± 7.6 hours, maximum median serum creatinine was 8.6 ± 2.3 mg/dl, 86.7% had loss of kidney function as per the RIFLE classification and required dialysis. Initial renal recovery was seen after a mean duration of 9.8 ± 2.2 days. One patient died, 3.3%; all others, 96.7%, recovered normal kidney function. The amount of ingested PPD correlated significantly to the severity of symptoms, number of dialysis sessions required and time for renal recovery with P values < 0.05. Conclusion Hair dye poisoning was associated with prolonged hospital stay, requirement of dialysis and increased morbidity. The severity of symptoms directly correlates to the dose of PPD ingested, with the kidney damage being reversible in almost all survivors. PMID:25810799

  20. Hair dye treatment use and clinical course in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and cutaneous lupus.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Alonso, J; Sabio, J M; Pérez-Alvarez, F; Reche, I; Hidalgo, C; Jáimez, L

    2002-01-01

    The etiological role of hair dye treatment (HDT), some of them such as permanent hair dyes containing aromatic amines, in the development of SLE has been previously ruled out. However, the possible influence of HDT use on the course and prognosis of lupus patients has been assessed only in one short-term study. Since HDT is very extensive among the population, the knowledge of this possible negative effect may be very important. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the long-term influence of several HDTs on the course and clinical severity of patients with both systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and cutaneous lupus (CL). In this longitudinal case series study, 91 SLE patients and 22 CL patients were prospectively studied from October 1988 to May 2000. They were divided into three groups: (a) non-HDT users--patients who have never used HDT (n = 65); (b) P-HDT users--HDT permanent type users, alone or in combination with other types of HDT (n = 28); (c) non P-HDT--users of other treatments different from permanent tinting (bleach, lowlights, etc; n = 20). In each patient we determined: (1) number of flares/year in SLE patients and worsening of cutaneous lesions for CL; (2) Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) damage index; (3) predominant damaged organs/systems according to the HDT use and type of HDT; and (4) subjective impression about the disease evolution in relation to HDT use. No significant differences were found with respect to flares/year and SLICC/ACR damage index between the study groups. Non-HDT group presented more renal involvement and serositis than both HDT-user groups. No patient related the HDT use to the worsening of his disease. Therefore, in this study no evidence of an association between the long-term use of several types of HDT and the clinical activity and course of SLE and CL was found. PMID:12195784

  1. Does Hair Dye Use Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Finnish Women

    PubMed Central

    Heikkinen, Sanna; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Sarkeala, Tytti; Malila, Nea; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Role of hair dyes in the etiology of breast cancer has occasionally raised concern but previous research has concluded with mixed results. Remnants of prohibited aromatic amines have been found in many hair dye products, and elevated levels of DNA-adducts of these amines have been detected from breast epithelial cells of hair dye users. However, the IARC working group has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use and limited evidence in experimental animals for carcinogenicity of hair colorants. Material and Methods We investigated whether the use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer risk in women. The study design was a retrospective population-based case-control study in Finland, with a self-administered questionnaire from 6,567 breast cancer patients, aged 22–60 years and diagnosed in 2000–2007, and their 21,598 matched controls. We report odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) from a conditional logistic regression model applied to the frequency matched sets of cases and controls. Bias-adjusted odds ratios from the sensitivity analysis are also presented. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of breast cancer increased by 23% (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11–1.36) among women who used hair dyes compared to those who did not. In women born before 1950 an increase of 28% was noted (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10–1.48). We also observed a significant trend between the OR and cumulative use of hair dyes (P: 0.005). Bias-adjusted odds ratios varied between 1.04 and 2.50. Conclusions Our results suggest that use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer incidence. The impact on public health may be substantial due to vast popularity of hair coloring in modern societies. It should be noted that regardless of all efforts, a possibility of bias cannot definitively be ruled out and use of a prospective design is warranted. Based on the present results, it may be concluded however that safety of hair dyes in relation to breast cancer cannot yet be fully acknowledged and lack of external safety assessment within the cosmetics industry is of major concern. PMID:26263013

  2. Life time occupation, smoking, caffeine, saccharine, hair dyes and bladder carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Najem, G R; Louria, D B; Seebode, J J; Thind, I S; Prusakowski, J M; Ambrose, R B; Fernicola, A R

    1982-09-01

    A case-control study of bladder cancer in two northern counties of New Jersey was conducted to investigate a tumour that has been considered to be strongly associated with industrial and environmental exposures. The study population included 75 bladder cancer cases and 142 controls. Cases and controls were matched for race, sex, age, place of birth and place of residence. Statistically significant associations with bladder cancer and risk ratios of greater than 2.0 were found for cigarette smoking and for working in dye, petroleum (fuel) or plastics industries. No statistically significant association was found for: cigar and pipe smoking; caffeine, saccharine and alcohol consumption; and life time occupational history of working in other than dye, petroleum and plastics industries. No statistically significant differences between cases and controls were found in family history of cancer. Risk ratios of at least 2.5 (but without statistical significance possibly because of sample size) were found for workers in rodenticide and printing industries, for cable workers and for cancer in the spouses of bladder cancer cases. Simultaneous multiple primary cancer sites were found in 9.3% of the bladder cancer patients; this is higher than the 0.2-8% reported in the medical literature. The life time occupational history of the bladder cancer cases points to industrial determinants: some are known (petroleum and dye industries) but the association with the plastics industry is new. If our findings are confirmed, investigations will be needed to determine whether any specific chemical or combination of chemicals used in the plastics industry is responsible for bladder cancer induction. PMID:7129735

  3. Clinical and anthropological perspectives on chemical relaxing of afro-textured hair.

    PubMed

    Aryiku, S A; Salam, A; Dadzie, O E; Jablonski, N G

    2015-09-01

    The culturally engrained practice of 'relaxing' afro-textured hair has been linked with hair and scalp disorders. Herein, we discuss the evolution of human hair types, focusing in particular on afro-textured hair. We explore the biological features of this hair type, and discuss the different methods employed to straighten afro-textured hair, focusing in particular on chemical straightening. We also examine clinical, anthropological, and psychological issues associated with this latter practice. Examples of common scalp pathologies associated with chronic hair relaxing, such as alopecia, hair breakage, caustic burns and irritant contact dermatitis, are also highlighted. The data presented herein should enable clinicians to engage in culturally appropriate discussions with their patients about issues of appearance and conformity. PMID:25764359

  4. Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: an appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, D J; Henderson, L; Marzin, D; Müller, L; Parry, J M; Speit, G; Tweats, D J; Williams, G M

    2005-12-30

    The European Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP) guideline for testing of hair dyes for genotoxic/mutagenic/carcinogenic potential has been reviewed. The battery of six in vitro tests recommended therein differs substantially from the batteries of two or three in vitro tests recommended in other guidelines. Our evaluation of the chemical types used in hair dyes and comparison with other guidelines for testing a wide range of chemical substances, lead to the conclusion that potential genotoxic activity may effectively be determined by the application of a limited number of well-validated test systems that are capable of detecting induced gene mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal changes. We conclude that highly effective screening for genotoxicity of hair dyes can be achieved by the use of three assays, namely the bacterial gene mutation assay, the mammalian cell gene mutation assay (mouse lymphoma tk assay preferred) and the in vitro micronucleus assay. These need to be combined with metabolic activation systems optimised for the individual chemical types. Recent published evidence [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggests that our recommended three tests will detect all known genotoxic carcinogens, and that increasing the number of in vitro assays further would merely reduce specificity (increase false positives). Of course there may be occasions when standard tests need to be modified to take account of special situations such as a specific pathway of biotransformation, but this should be considered as part of routine testing. It is clear that individual dyes and any other novel ingredients should be tested in this three-test battery. However, new products are formed on the scalp by reaction between the chemicals present in hair-dye formulations. Ideally, these should also be tested for genotoxicity, but at present such experiences are very limited. There is also the possibility that one component could mask the genotoxicity of another (e.g. by being more toxic), and so it is not practical at this time to recommend routine testing of complete hair-dye formulations as well. The most sensible approach would be to establish whether any reaction products within the hair-dye formulation penetrate the skin under normal conditions of use and test only those that penetrate at toxicologically relevant levels in the three-test in vitro battery. Recently published data [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggest the three-test battery will produce a significant number of false as well as real positives. Whilst we are aware of the desire to reduce animal experiments, determining the relevance of positive results in any of the three recommended in vitro assays will most likely have to be determined by use of in vivo assays. The bone marrow micronucleus test using routes of administration such as oral or intraperitoneal may be used where the objective is extended hazard identification. If negative results are obtained in this test, then a second in vivo test should be conducted. This could be an in vivo UDS in rat liver or a Comet assay in a relevant tissue. However, for hazard characterisation, tests using topical application with measurement of genotoxicity in the skin would be more appropriate. Such specific site-of-contact in vivo tests would minimise animal toxicity burden and invasiveness, and, especially for hair dyes, be more relevant to human routes of exposure, but there are not sufficient scientific data available to allow recommendations to be made. The generation of such data is encouraged. PMID:16326131

  5. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  6. Extrapolation of systemic bioavailability assessing skin absorption and epidermal and hepatic metabolism of aromatic amine hair dyes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Manwaring, John; Rothe, Helga; Obringer, Cindy; Foltz, David J; Baker, Timothy R; Troutman, John A; Hewitt, Nicola J; Goebel, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes following typical product application conditions, skin penetration and epidermal and systemic metabolic conversion of the parent compound was assessed in human skin explants and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and hepatocyte cultures. To estimate the amount of the aromatic amine that can reach the general circulation unchanged after passage through the skin the following toxicokinetically relevant parameters were applied: a) Michaelis-Menten kinetics to quantify the epidermal metabolism; b) the estimated keratinocyte cell abundance in the viable epidermis; c) the skin penetration rate; d) the calculated Mean Residence Time in the viable epidermis; e) the viable epidermis thickness and f) the skin permeability coefficient. In a next step, in vitro hepatocyte Km and Vmax values and whole liver mass and cell abundance were used to calculate the scaled intrinsic clearance, which was combined with liver blood flow and fraction of compound unbound in the blood to give hepatic clearance. The systemic exposure in the general circulation (AUC) was extrapolated using internal dose and hepatic clearance, and Cmax was extrapolated (conservative overestimation) using internal dose and volume of distribution, indicating that appropriate toxicokinetic information can be generated based solely on in vitro data. For the hair dye, p-phenylenediamine, these data were found to be in the same order of magnitude as those published for human volunteers. PMID:26028483

  7. [Hairdressers live dangerously. Daily exposure to chemicals can cause respiratory tract problems].

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Thomas; Tondel, Martin

    2002-05-01

    Hairdressers are regularly exposed to toxic chemicals contained in bleach, hair spray, permanent wave solutions and hair dyes. Adequate ventilation and appropriate working procedures can reduce exposure, but never completely eliminate the risk for respiratory disease. PMID:12082780

  8. Evaluation of Chemical Fluorescent Dyes as a Protein Conjugation Partner for Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Stasevich, Timothy J.; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Naohito; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    To optimize live cell fluorescence imaging, the choice of fluorescent substrate is a critical factor. Although genetically encoded fluorescent proteins have been used widely, chemical fluorescent dyes are still useful when conjugated to proteins or ligands. However, little information is available for the suitability of different fluorescent dyes for live imaging. We here systematically analyzed the property of a number of commercial fluorescent dyes when conjugated with antigen-binding (Fab) fragments directed against specific histone modifications, in particular, phosphorylated H3S28 (H3S28ph) and acetylated H3K9 (H3K9ac). These Fab fragments were conjugated with a fluorescent dye and loaded into living HeLa cells. H3S28ph-specific Fab fragments were expected to be enriched in condensed chromosomes, as H3S28 is phosphorylated during mitosis. However, the degree of Fab fragment enrichment on mitotic chromosomes varied depending on the conjugated dye. In general, green fluorescent dyes showed higher enrichment, compared to red and far-red fluorescent dyes, even when dye?protein conjugation ratios were similar. These differences are partly explained by an altered affinity of Fab fragment after dye-conjugation; some dyes have less effect on the affinity, while others can affect it more. Moreover, red and far-red fluorescent dyes tended to form aggregates in the cytoplasm. Similar results were observed when H3K9ac-specific Fab fragments were used, suggesting that the properties of each dye affect different Fab fragments similarly. According to our analysis, conjugation with green fluorescent dyes, like Alexa Fluor 488 and Dylight 488, has the least effect on Fab affinity and is the best for live cell imaging, although these dyes are less photostable than red fluorescent dyes. When multicolor imaging is required, we recommend the following dye combinations for optimal results: Alexa Fluor 488 (green), Cy3 (red), and Cy5 or CF640 (far-red). PMID:25184362

  9. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  10. Internal structure changes in bleached black human hair resulting from chemical treatments: A Raman spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate in detail the influence of chemical treatments (reduction, hydrolyzed eggwhite protein (HEWP) treatment, and oxidation) on damaged hair keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of excessively bleached (damaged) black human hair resulting from a permanent waving process was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that L-cysteine (CYS) largely reacted with the gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) conformation of disulfide (-SS-) groups (while CYS did not react with the trans-gauche-trans (TGT) conformation). In particular, not only the GGG content, but also the cysteic acid content existing throughout the cortex region of the excessively bleached human hair remarkably decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction. On the other hand, the GGG content of the excessively bleached black human hair increased, while the TGT content decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction and then HEWP treatment processes. From these experiments, the authors concluded that some of the keratin associated protein (KAP), which has a rich -SS- content and cysteic acid content was eluted from the cortex region along with the disconnection of -SS- groups, thereby leading to the remarkable reduction in the reconnection of -SS- groups of the excessively bleached black human hair after the permanent waving process (the reduction and oxidation processes). Also, the authors concluded that the HEWP treatment process in the permanent waving process caused the reconstruction of the KAP, thereby contributing to the acceleration of the reconnection of -SS- groups during the oxidation process.

  11. Hair dye poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

  12. Chemical modification of cotton fabrics for improving utilization of reactive dyes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Long; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Deshuai

    2013-01-01

    The cotton fabric was chemically modified with the acrylamide through Michael addition reaction and Hoffman degradation reaction. And the optimum chemical modification conditions were determined. The molecular structure of the modified cotton fabric was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structures of both the raw and modified cotton fabrics were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. The raw and modified cotton fabrics were dyed using commercial reactive dyes with vinyl-sulfone groups. The results showed that the total dye utilization of modified cotton fabrics in the salt-free dyeing was higher than that of raw cotton fabrics in the conventional dyeing. And the color fastness properties and tear strength of modified fabrics were both satisfactory. PMID:23044144

  13. 2,6-Diaminopyridine-imprinted polymer and its potency to hair-dye assay using graphene/ionic liquid electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peini; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-02-15

    A new analytical approach for detecting diaminopyridine derivatives has been constructed using a molecular imprinting-electrochemical sensor. Opposed to the conventional strategy of employing diaminopyridine as the functional monomer and uracil derivatives as the target analyte, in the current study, the 2,6-Diaminopyridine-imprinted core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized with 2,6-Diaminopyridine as the template molecule and 6-aminouracil as the functional monomer. Graphene and ionic liquid which can assist 2,6-Diaminopyridine-imprinted core-shell nanoparticles in electrochemical reaction kinetics by increasing conductivity have been introduced to form one of the electrode modified layers. The proposed analytical method has been applied in 2,6-Diaminopyridine detection in hair-dyes and demonstrated appropriate sensitivity and selectivity, with a linear range of 0.0500-35.0 mg kg(-1) and a detection limit as low as 0.0275 mg kg(-1). PMID:25441409

  14. Taking Care of Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chemicals or other styling products, see a doctor. Hair Loss (Alopecia) It's normal for everyone to lose some ... out and are replaced with new ones. With hair loss, though, hair thins at a rate that can' ...

  15. POTENTIALLY TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN THE INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS AND ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this program were identification of the potential hazards associated with the production and use of industrial organic chemicals (IOC) and organic dyes and pigments (ODP) and determination of the state of the art of the control and treatment of potentially hazard...

  16. CHEMICAL- AND SEDIMENT-MEDIATED REDUCTION OF THE AZO DYE DISPERSE BLUE 79

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disperse Blue 79, a large volume disperse azo dye, and 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline (BDNA), an important intermediate in the preparation of Disperse Blue 79, were readily reduced chemically and in three anoxic sediment-water systems studied; half-lives were on the order of minutes ...

  17. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from textile dyeing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Facilities engaged in textile dyeing may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist textile dyers in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  18. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Media resources Stats and facts Conditions Hair loss Hair loss Many conditions, diseases, and improper hair care can ... dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment. CAUSES OF HAIR LOSS Other causes of hair loss, some of which ...

  19. Body Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  20. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives, spices, or other articles in any official establishment shall be taken, without cost to the Program, for examination, as often as may be deemed necessary for the efficient conduct of the...

  1. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives, spices, or other articles in any official establishment shall be taken, without cost to the Program, for examination, as often as may be deemed necessary for the efficient conduct of the...

  2. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives, spices, or other articles in any official establishment shall be taken, without cost to the Program, for examination, as often as may be deemed necessary for the efficient conduct of the...

  3. Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the substance that gives hair and skin its pigment. The lighter someone's hair, the less melanin there ... or red hair. Older people lose the melanin pigment in their hair as they age, making their ...

  4. Hair Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Hair care Hair care Short, long, curly, straight, up, down. Hair options can seem endless! Not all of what makes your hair look good comes from the outside, though. Good ...

  5. Oily hair

    MedlinePLUS

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  6. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... causes hair to fall out in round patches. PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT OF HAIR LOSS While the physical symptoms ... hair loss can be traumatic for patients, the psychosocial impact of hair loss can be just as ...

  7. Bioanalytical procedures for detection of chemical agents in hair in the case of drug-facilitated crimes.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal

    2007-08-01

    The use of a drug to modify a person's behavior for criminal gain is not a recent phenomenon. However, the recent increase in reports of drug-facilitated crimes (sexual assault, robbery) has caused alarm in the general public. The drugs involved can be pharmaceuticals, such as benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, lorazepam, etc.), hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem), sedatives (neuroleptics, some anti-H1) or anaesthetics (gamma-hydroxybutyrate, ketamine), drugs of abuse, such as cannabis, ecstasy or LSD, or more often ethanol. To perform successful toxicological examinations, the analyst must follow some important rules: (1) obtain as soon as possible the corresponding biological specimens (blood and urine); (2) collect hair about 1 month after the alleged event; (3) use sophisticated analytical techniques (gas or liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, MS/MS, headspace gas chromatography); and (4) take care in the interpretation of the findings. Drugs used to facilitate sexual assaults can be difficult to detect (active products at low doses, chemical instability), possess amnesic properties and can be rapidly cleared from the body (short half-life). In these situations, blood or even urine can be of low interest. This is the reason why some laboratories have developed an original approach based on hair testing. Hair was suggested as a valuable specimen in situations where, as a result of a delay in reporting the crime, natural processes have eliminated the drug from typical biological specimens. While there are a lot of papers that have focused on the identification of drugs in hair following chronic drug use, those dealing with a single dose are very scarce. The experience of the author and a review of the existing literature will be presented for cases involving benzodiazepines, hypnotics, gamma-hydroxybutyrate and various sedatives or chemical weapons. The expected concentrations in hair are in the low picogram/milligram range for most compounds. Hair analysis may be a useful adjunct to conventional drug testing in sexual assault. It should not be considered as an alternative to blood and urine analyses, but as a complement. This approach may find useful applications, but the definition of legally defensible cutoff values would require much more data. MS/MS technologies appear as a prerequisite in drug-facilitated cases. PMID:17340077

  8. Optimization of integrated chemical-biological degradation of a reactive azo dye using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Sudarjanto, Gatut; Keller-Lehmann, Beatrice; Keller, Jurg

    2006-11-01

    The integrated chemical-biological degradation combining advanced oxidation by UV/H(2)O(2) followed by aerobic biodegradation was used to degrade C.I. Reactive Azo Red 195A, commonly used in the textile industry in Australia. An experimental design based on the response surface method was applied to evaluate the interactive effects of influencing factors (UV irradiation time, initial hydrogen peroxide dosage and recirculation ratio of the system) on decolourisation efficiency and optimizing the operating conditions of the treatment process. The effects were determined by the measurement of dye concentration and soluble chemical oxygen demand (S-COD). The results showed that the dye and S-COD removal were affected by all factors individually and interactively. Maximal colour degradation performance was predicted, and experimentally validated, with no recirculation, 30 min UV irradiation and 500 mgH(2)O(2)/L. The model predictions for colour removal, based on a three-factor/five-level Box-Wilson central composite design and the response surface method analysis, were found to be very close to additional experimental results obtained under near optimal conditions. This demonstrates the benefits of this approach in achieving good predictions while minimising the number of experiments required. PMID:16814466

  9. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Hair Loss Overview What is the normal cycle of hair growth and loss? The normal cycle of hair growth lasts for 2 to ... some people may experience excessive (more than normal) hair loss. Hair loss of this type can affect men, ...

  10. Hair transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair transplant have male or female pattern baldness . Hair loss is on the front or top of the ... follicles to move. In some cases, people with hair loss from lupus , injuries, or other medical problems are ...

  11. Dry hair

    MedlinePLUS

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  12. Hair Removal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... maintain a steady temperature by providing some insulation. Terminal hair is coarser, darker, and longer than vellus ... hair that grows on your head. Around puberty, terminal hair starts to grow in the armpits and ...

  13. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination. 318.9 Section 318.9 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND...

  14. Photoaggravation of Hair Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Soo

    2009-01-01

    Photoaggravation of hair aging includes various chemical and physical changes in fiber properties which lead to an increase in fiber porosity, loss of mechanical strength and an increase in surface roughness. These changes come from lipid oxidation, disulfide bond cleavage, tryptophan degradation and cysteic acid formation. Hair exposed to sunlight is claimed to be more brittle, stiffer and drier than before irradiation and exhibits a reduced water-absorption capacity. Hair pigments function to provide photochemical protection to hair proteins. Hair pigments accomplish this protection by absorbing and filtering the impinging radiation and subsequently dissipating this energy as heat. However, in the process of protecting the hair proteins from light, the pigments are degraded or bleached. Dark hair is more resistant to photodegradation than light hair, because of the higher photostability of eumelanin compared to pheomelanin. Integral lipids of hair fibers are degraded by ultraviolet light, as well as by visible light, helping to explain the weakening of the cell membrane complex exposed to light radiation. PMID:20927230

  15. The oxidation of p-phenylenediamine, an ingredient used for permanent hair dyeing purposes, leads to the formation of hydroxyl radicals: Oxidative stress and DNA damage in human immortalized keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Thalita B; Hudari, Felipe; Munnia, Armelle; Peluso, Marco; Godschalk, Roger W; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B; den Hartog, Gertjan J M; Bast, Aalt; Barros, Silvia B M; Maria-Engler, Silvya S; Hageman, Geja J; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-12-15

    The hair-dyeing ingredient, p-phenylenediamine (PPD), was previously reported to be mutagenic, possibly by inducing oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanism of PPD in inducing oxidative stress upon skin exposure during hair-dyeing in human keratinocytes remains unknown. The aim of our studies was therefore to investigate the toxicity of PPD and its by-products in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) after auto-oxidation and after reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We found that the PPD half maximal effective cytotoxic concentration (EC50) to HaCaT is 39.37 and 35.63?g/mL after 24 and 48h, respectively, without addition of H2O2 to induce oxidation. When PPD (10 or 100?g/mL) is combined with 10.5?g/mL of H2O2, intracellular ROS production by HaCaT after 1h was significantly increased and enhanced levels of DNA damage were observed after 4h of exposure. After 24h incubations, 20?g/mL of PPD increased the level of DNA oxidation in HaCaT. Also, we found that the in vitro reaction between PPD and H2O2, even below the maximum allowance by cosmetic industries, released hydroxyl radicals which can damage DNA. Taken together, we conclude that PPD alone and when combined with H2O2 increases the formation of reactive oxygen species in human keratinocytes, leading to oxidative stress and subsequent DNA damage. These alterations suggest that the mechanism by which PPD exposure, alone or combined with H2O2, damages keratinocytes by the formation of the high reactive HO radicals. PMID:26456176

  16. ?-Cyclodextrin as a photosensitizer carrier: effect on photophysical properties and chemical reactivity of squaraine dyes.

    PubMed

    Arun, Kalliat T; Jayaram, Dhanya T; Avirah, Rekha R; Ramaiah, Danaboyina

    2011-06-01

    With the objective of understanding the utility of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) as a carrier system, we have investigated its interactions with a few near-infrared absorbing squaraine dyes (i.e., 1a,b and 2a,b) through absorption and steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The addition of ?-CD to the phloroglucinol dyes 1a,b resulted in a significant bathochromic shift in absorption, together with a ca. 1.5-2.5-fold enhancement in fluorescence intensity, whereas for the aniline-based dyes 2a,b, a hypsochromic shift in the absorption and a ca. 5-12-fold fluorescence enhancement were observed in a 10% (v/v) ethanol/water mixture. Benesi-Hildebrand analysis showed that both the dyes 1a,b and 2a,b form 2:1 stoichiometric complexes with ?-CD. The complex formation was confirmed by competitive binding analysis employing adamantyl-1-carboxylic acid (ACA) and adamantyl-1-ammonium chloride (ADAC). The displacement of the dyes 1a,b and 2a,b from the [dye-?-CD] complex by ADAC and ACA unambiguously establishes the encapsulation of these dyes in the hydrophobic nanocavity of ?-CD. Uniquely, the formation of the inclusion complexes with ?-CD provides unusual protection from nucleophilic attack by aminothiols such as cysteine and glutathione for dyes 1a,b, whereas negligible protection was observed for dyes 2a,b. These results demonstrate the substituent-dependent encapsulation of potentially useful squaraine dyes in ?-CD, thereby indicating its potential as a carrier system for the squaraine dyes 1a,b useful in photodynamic therapy. PMID:21574547

  17. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  18. Chemically Altering the Solubility and Durability of Dyes for Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Subashani; Holmes, Andrew B; Leeke, Gary A; Bilic, Ante; Collis, Gavin E

    2015-08-21

    By designing dyes with fluoroalkyl groups, the optical and electronic properties of the alkyl analogue were maintained while dramatically altering the solubility. Dyes, F-TABTA (8) and its masked derivative F-TABTSi (9), that enable them to be deposited under conventional organic solvent and scCO2 conditions, respectively, were developed. In liquid DSSC devices, the fluoroalkyl dye (F-TABTA, 8) performs slightly better than its alkyl analogue (D21L6, 10), and interestingly, it was found that the former device showed better stability over time. Deploying the silyl-masked precursor F-TABTSi (9), this dye was deposited onto TiO2 photoanodes from scCO2 in very short contact times (2.5 h), and ECEs of 7.70% were obtained that exceed the performance of the alkyl dye when deposited by conventional methods. PMID:26238416

  19. A History of the Chemical Innovations in Silver-Halide Materials for Color Photography(10) IV. Color Print Making by Silver Dye Bleach and Imbibition Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Yasushi

    Prior to the advent of the color photography based on dye-forming development, two color printing processes had been developed: 1) silver dye bleach (commercially introduced as Gasparcolor and then Cibachrome) and 2) imbibtion (introduced as Technicolor). While both processes utilized the available preformed dyes, the former could be said to be a chemical process because it consisted in a single and simple chemical bath of dye destruction, and on the other hand the latter to be a physical process in that the images were formed in multiple mechanical stages of old treatments. Although both processes presented marvelous performances at their earliest phases in the 1930s, they failed to expand their technological frameworks and eventually were surpassed by the dye-forming printing process.

  20. Biomedical applications and chemical nature of three dyes first synthesized by Raphael Meldola: isamine blue, Meldola's blue and naphthol green B.

    PubMed

    Hope-Roberts, M; Horobin, R W

    2012-05-01

    Brief accounts are given of the chemical nature, and past and current biomedical applications of three dyes first synthesized by Raphael Meldola: isamine blue, Meldola's blue and naphthol green B. PMID:22149360

  1. Hair loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... continual hair pulling or scalp rubbing Radiation therapy Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) Tumor of the ovary or ... a plucked hair Skin biopsy If you have ringworm on the scalp, your doctor may prescribe an ...

  2. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z Diseases and treatments E - H Hair loss Hair loss Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE-shah) Hereditary ... our skin, hair, and nails. Learn more about hair loss: Hair loss: Signs and symptoms Hair loss: Who ...

  3. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  4. Ethnic hair care products may increase false positives in hair drug testing.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, David A; Smith, Frederick P; Shepherd, Arica R

    2015-12-01

    The question of why different races appear more susceptible to hair contamination by external drugs remains controversial. This research studied susceptibility of head hair to external cocaine and methamphetamine when hair products have been applied. Three different chemical classes of ethnic hair products were applied to Caucasian, Asian, and African hair. Some products increased the methamphetamine and cocaine concentrations in all hair types. A unique finding of this research is that certain ethnic hair products can replace moisture as a diffusion medium, thereby increasing the susceptibility to contamination over 100-fold compared to petroleum-based products. PMID:26338354

  5. Purification and characterization of an extracellular laccase from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes, and decolorization of chemically different dyes.

    PubMed

    Nagai, M; Sato, T; Watanabe, H; Saito, K; Kawata, M; Enei, H

    2002-11-01

    A laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Lentinula edodes. The enzyme was purified to a homogeneous preparation using hydrophobic, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatographies. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the purified laccase, Lcc 1, to be a monomeric protein of 72.2 kDa. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of around pH 3.0. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was around 4.0, and it was most active at 40 degrees C and stable up to 35 degrees C. The enzyme contained 23.8% carbohydrate and some copper atoms. The enzyme oxidized 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, p-phenylendiamine, pyrogallol, guaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, catechol, and ferulic acid, but not veratryl alcohol, tyrosine, and beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) alanine. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc 1 showed close homology to the N-terminal sequences determined for laccases from Phlebia radiata, Trametes villosa, and Trametes versicolor, but only low similarity was observed to a previously reported laccase from L. edodes. Lcc 1 was effective in the decolorization of chemically different dyes - Remazole Brilliant Blue R, Bromophenol Blue, methyl red, and Naphtol Blue Black - without any mediators, but the decolorization of two dyes - red poly(vinylamine)sulfonate-anthrapyridone dye and Reactive Orange 16 - did require some redox mediators. PMID:12436315

  6. Hair casts

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Sweta S.; Parmar, Kirti S.; Shah, Bela J.

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

  7. Chemical and structural evaluation of activated carbon prepared from jute sticks for Brilliant Green dye removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Kabir, Mohammad Shajahan; Mostofa, Mohammad Golam; Miyazawa, Tomohisa

    2010-02-15

    Activated carbons have been prepared from jute sticks by chemical activation using ZnCl(2) and physical activation using steam for the removal of Brilliant Green dye from aqueous solution. The activated carbons and charcoal prepared from jute sticks were characterized by evaluating the surface chemistry, structural features and surface morphology. The maximum BET surface area was obtained to be 2304 m(2)/g for chemical activated carbon (ACC) while it is 730 and 80 m(2)/g for steam activated carbon (ACS) and charcoal, respectively. The FT-IR spectra exhibited that the pyrolysis and steam activation of jute sticks resulted in the release of aliphatic and O-containing functional groups by thermal effect. However, the release of functional groups is the effect of chemical reaction in the ZnCl(2) activation process. A honeycomb-type carbon structure in ACC was formed as observed on SEM images. Although charcoal and ACC were prepared at 500 degrees C the ACC exhibited much lower Raman sensitivity due to the formation of condensed aromatic ring systems. Due to high surface area and high porous structure with abundance of functional groups, the ACC adsorbed dye molecules with much higher efficiency than those of ACS and charcoal. PMID:19815339

  8. Uncombable hair

    PubMed Central

    Garty, B; Metzker, A; Mimouni, M; Varsano, I

    1982-01-01

    Uncombable hair is a familial abnormality of scalp hair structure which affects children and lessens as they grow older. It is suggested that the mode of inheritance of the condition is autosomal dominant. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:7125692

  9. Hair Changes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... They can be absorbed into the skin. Permanent hair-removal techniques (such as electrolysis) are thought to be safe during pregnancy. But ... They can be absorbed into the skin. Permanent hair-removal techniques (such as electrolysis) are thought to be safe during pregnancy. But ...

  10. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in hair loss. No 5. Are you taking any new medicines, or are you being treated for cancer? Yes Hair loss may be a side effect of ... has given birth within the last three months? Yes HORMONE CHANGES ... without any treatment. While follicular degeneration cannot be reversed, gentle ...

  11. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P < 0.001), hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P < 0.001), chemical relaxer use (P < 0.001), hooded hair dryer use (P < 0.001), and hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P < 0.001), density (P = 0.0016), diameter (P = 0.01), number of broken hairs (P < 0.001), and blood flow (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth. PMID:26300276

  12. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2010 Regional Mussel Watch (AMB02)

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2010-10-20

    The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF) and Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton (Shipyard) located in Bremerton, WA are committed to a culture of continuous process improvement for all aspects of Shipyard operations, including reducing the releases of hazardous materials and waste in discharges from the Shipyard. Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, a cooperative project among PSNS&IMF, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders (US Navy, EPA and Ecology 2002) has been helping to improve the environmental quality of the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet Watershed (ENVVEST 2006). An ambient monitoring program for sediment, water, and indigenous mussels began in 2009 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. This document presents the 2010 chemical residue data and stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) for the regional mussel watch stations located in Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. Indigenous bivalves were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc. The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These chemical residue data provide the first year of the biota ambient monitoring.

  13. Identifying rhodamine dye plume sources in near-shore oceanic environments by integration of chemical and visual sensors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Kang, Xiaodong; Li, Yunyi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Aiqun; Yu, Jiangchen; Li, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification) and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA) in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA) and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China), successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions. PMID:23507823

  14. Identifying Rhodamine Dye Plume Sources in Near-Shore Oceanic Environments by Integration of Chemical and Visual Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Kang, Xiaodong; Li, Yunyi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Aiqun; Yu, Jiangchen; Li, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification) and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA) in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA) and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China), successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions. PMID:23507823

  15. Changing Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair also can hurt the scalp or cause hair loss . Styling tools, such as curling irons and straightening ... this treatment for kids. Some people complain about hair loss or a burning scalp after getting their hair ...

  16. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of trichotillomania: recurrent hair pulling resulting in noticeable hair loss, unrelated to baldness or alopecia pleasure, excitement, or ... pulling out hair embarrassment or shame resulting from hair loss problems at home, school or work The cause ...

  17. Study of chemical reactivity in relation to experimental parameters of efficiency in coumarin derivatives for dye sensitized solar cells using DFT.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rojo, Rody; Baldenebro-López, Jesús; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    A group of dyes derived from coumarin was studied, which consisted of nine molecules using a very similar manufacturing process of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Optimized geometries, energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, and ultraviolet-visible spectra were obtained using theoretical calculations, and they were also compared with experimental conversion efficiencies of the DSSC. The representation of an excited state in terms of natural transition orbitals (NTOs) was studied. Chemical reactivity parameters were calculated and correlated with the experimental data linked to the efficiency of the DSSC. A new proposal was obtained to design new molecular systems and to predict their potential use as a dye in DSSCs. PMID:25959071

  18. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2012 Regional Mussel Watch

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2012-09-01

    Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders have worked collaboratively to improve the environmental quality of Sinclair and Dyes Inlets. A regional mussel monitoring program began in 2010 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. The program collected indigenous mussels to represent a time-integrated measure of bioavailable metals and organic chemicals present in the water column. This document supplements the 2010 indigenous mussel data with 2012 data to provide two years of data on the chemical residue of mussels present in the inter-tidal regions of Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. The 2012 data set added one station at PSNS&IMF and one market samples from Penn Cove. Indigenous mussels were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for percent lipids, percent moisture, stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver (Ag), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The average lengths between the 2010 and 2012 data were generally less than 30% relative percent difference (RPD). Generally, the metals concentrations were lower in 2012 than 2010 with some notable exceptions in Sinclair Inlet and Rich Passage where increases in Ag, Hg, Pb, Cu, and Zn exceeded an RPD of 50% between years. However, they did not exceed the bioaccumulation critical values or the critical body residues corresponding to the no observed effect dose (NOED) and the lowest observed effect dose (LOED) with one exception. The Cd concentrations exceeded the NOED and LOED for the Manchester Lab Pier and the Pike Place Market samples. For the PAHs and PCB, the 2012 data were generally lower than 2010 and some cases significantly lower for PAHs and none of the available invertebrate benchmarks were exceeded.

  19. Alignment control and softness creation in hair with glycylglycine.

    PubMed

    Breakspear, Steven; Fukuhara, Masaki; Itou, Takashi; Hirano, Yuji; Nojiri, Masayoshi; Kiyomine, Akira; Inoue, Shigeto

    2013-01-01

    Thick and coarse hair, as typically found among the Japanese population, frequently lacks softness that consumers are acutely aware of. Such poor feeling is accentuated by daily grooming, weathering, and chemical treatments, in particular, which can cause changes in the hair shape and the creation of frizzy or irregularly shaped hair. Existing technologies to improve the soft feel of hair, though effective, usually concentrate on the surface of the fiber and often leave the hair feeling either overconditioned or sometimes even sticky from product buildup. Hair softness is said to be governed by a number of factors, but primarily hair diameter and surface condition. In this study, we have also identified hair alignment as playing a critical role in hair softness. In addition, by studying how Japanese women perceive hair softness when touching their hair, we have identified that the strain on the hair fiber associated with these manipulations is far smaller than previously considered. With these factors in mind, we have studied the mechanisms behind a new softening technology containing glycylglycine (GG). It has been found that treatment with GG can give a tangible feeling of hair softness by dramatically improving alignment in unruly hair and by lowering the modulus of the fiber. Moreover, using the atomic force microscope, it has been revealed that the properties of the cell membrane complex of the hair cortex may be modified after GG treatment; the role of this additive in modifying the internal properties of the hair to create softness will thus be discussed. PMID:23449128

  20. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-07-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice-carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), was present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice-producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity, and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth on the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and preventing them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S) compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as being the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  1. Filtration techniques used by the textile industry for recovery of dyes, chemicals and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The continued increase in the cost of chemicals energy and water makes their recovery more important today than it was 20 years ago when ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration were first introduced to the textile industry. While the filtration techniques have only been used at a few installations, these plants have been able to save enough to pay for the recovery process in one to two years. One key to having a successful recovery operation is to have good automatic control of the process. This can drastically improve the economics of the textile process as well as minimizing the cost of the recovery system. The recovery of PVA, indigo, caustic and preparation chemicals will be presented.

  2. Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Chieng, Hei Ing; Lim, Linda B L; Priyantha, Namal

    2015-01-01

    Breadnut skin, in both its unmodified (KS) and base-modified (BM-KS) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic dye, malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments, carried out under optimized conditions, for the adsorption of MG were fitted using five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Sips) and six error functions to determine the best-fit model. The adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced when breadnut skin was chemically modified with NaOH, leading to an adsorption capacity of 353.0 mg g(-1), that was far superior to most reported adsorbents for the removal of MG. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on KS and BM-KS, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Regeneration experiments on BM-KS indicated that its adsorption capacity was still maintained at>90% even after five cycles. It can be concluded that NaOH-modified breadfruit skin has great potential to be utilized in real-life application as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG in wastewater treatment. PMID:25409587

  3. On the adsorption behavior of soluble, surface-chemically pure hemicyanine dyes at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Lunkenheimer, K; Laschewsky, A; Warszynski, P; Hirte, R

    2002-04-15

    Equilibrium surface tension (sigma(e)) versus concentration isotherms of surface-chemically pure aqueous solutions of the homologous series of N-n-alkyl-4'-(dimethylamino)-stilbazium bromides ("hemicyanines") were measured at 295 K. The adsorption parameters of saturation adsorption and standard free energy of adsorption of the hemicyanines were determined from the evaluation of the sigma(e) vs c isotherms using a two-state approach to the surface equation of state. The adsorption parameters reveal a very pronounced phenomenon of alternation (even/odd effect), which has so far not been found to a large extent such as this. Thus, the cross-sectional areas of the odd members are almost twice those of the related even members. Surface activity of the odd members is stronger than that of the even members. UV-vis investigations showed that there is no indication of aggregate formation in the adsorption layer. The thermodynamic results give evidence for distinct differences between the surface conformations of the even- and the odd-chain hemicyanine dyes although the reasons for this are not known. PMID:16290530

  4. Plasmonic enhancement of dye sensitized solar cells via a tailored size-distribution of chemically functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Andrei, Codrin; Lestini, Elena; Crosbie, Stephen; de Frein, Caoimhe; O'Reilly, Thomas; Zerulla, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    A substantial and stable increase of the current density Jsc of ruthenium (Ru) dye sensitized solar cells (DSC) of up to 16.18% and of the power efficiency of up to 25.5% is demonstrated in this article via plasmonic enhancement. The key aspect of this work is the use of a tailored bimodal size distribution of functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that have been chemically immobilized onto the mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer via short, stable dithiodibutyric acid linkers. The size distribution of the AuNPs is a result of theoretical calculations that aimed at the perfection of the absorption characteristics of the complete solar cell system over a wide range of wavelengths. The functionalization of the AuNPs serves to bind them at a close but defined distance to TiO2-particles and additionally to chemically protect them against potential corrosion by the electrolyte. Simulations of near field (enhanced absorption) and far field (scattering) contributions have been used to tailor a complex AuNPs bimodal size distribution that had subsequently demonstrated experimentally a close to optimum improvement of the absorbance over a wide wavelength range (500-675 nm) and therefore an impressive DSC efficiency enhancement. Finally, the modified DSCs are exhibiting pronounced longevity and stable performance as confirmed via long time measurements. In summary, the presented systems show increased performance compared to non plasmonic enhanced cells with otherwise identical composition, and are demonstrating a previously unpublished longevity for iodide electrolyte/AuNPs combinations. PMID:25354362

  5. Plasmonic Enhancement of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells via a Tailored Size-Distribution of Chemically Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Andrei, Codrin; Lestini, Elena; Crosbie, Stephen; de Frein, Caoimhe; O'Reilly, Thomas; Zerulla, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    A substantial and stable increase of the current density Jsc of ruthenium (Ru) dye sensitized solar cells (DSC) of up to 16.18% and of the power efficiency of up to 25.5% is demonstrated in this article via plasmonic enhancement. The key aspect of this work is the use of a tailored bimodal size distribution of functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that have been chemically immobilized onto the mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer via short, stable dithiodibutyric acid linkers. The size distribution of the AuNPs is a result of theoretical calculations that aimed at the perfection of the absorption characteristics of the complete solar cell system over a wide range of wavelengths. The functionalization of the AuNPs serves to bind them at a close but defined distance to TiO2-particles and additionally to chemically protect them against potential corrosion by the electrolyte. Simulations of near field (enhanced absorption) and far field (scattering) contributions have been used to tailor a complex AuNPs bimodal size distribution that had subsequently demonstrated experimentally a close to optimum improvement of the absorbance over a wide wavelength range (500–675 nm) and therefore an impressive DSC efficiency enhancement. Finally, the modified DSCs are exhibiting pronounced longevity and stable performance as confirmed via long time measurements. In summary, the presented systems show increased performance compared to non plasmonic enhanced cells with otherwise identical composition, and are demonstrating a previously unpublished longevity for iodide electrolyte/AuNPs combinations. PMID:25354362

  6. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance or splashes it on their skin or in their ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.

  7. Adsorption and Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Some Selected Dyes as Corrosion Inhibitors for Mild Steel in Acidic Medium: Gravimetric, Electrochemical, Quantum Chemical Studies and Synergistic Effect with Iodide Ions.

    PubMed

    Peme, Thabo; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O; Bahadur, Indra; Adekunle, Abolanle S; Kabanda, Mwadham M; Ebenso, Eno E

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition properties of some organic dyes, namely Sunset Yellow (SS), Amaranth (AM), Allura Red (AR), Tartrazine (TZ) and Fast Green (FG), for mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M HCl solution, were investigated using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization techniques and quantum chemical calculations. The results showed that the studied dyes are good corrosion inhibitors with enhanced inhibition efficiencies. The inhibition efficiency of all the studied dyes increases with increase in concentration, and decreases with increase in temperature. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency of the dyes increases in the presence of KI due to synergistic interactions of the dye molecules with iodide (I(-)) ions. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the studied dyes are mixed-type inhibitors both in the absence and presence of KI. The adsorption of the studied dyes on mild steel surface, with and without KI, obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and involves physical adsorption mechanism. Quantum chemical calculations revealed that the most likely sites in the dye molecules for interactions with mild steel are the S, O, and N heteroatoms. PMID:26364631

  8. TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of the biological, chemical, and physical treatability of wastewaters from selected typical dye baths. Twenty systems providing a broad cross section of dye classes, fibers, and application techniques, were examined. Wastes, produced usi...

  9. Capacity of a newly isolated fungus Pleurotus eryngii from Tunceli, Ovacik for chemical oxygen demand reduction and biodecolorization of Azo-Dye Congo Red.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, N; Gonen, U

    2015-01-01

    Biodecolorization of Congo red dye in both agar—plate and agitated liquid culture mediums by newly isolated white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii has been studied. This fungus isolated from Tunceli—Ovacik province of Turkey. We have also examined the chemical oxygen demand reduction after decolorization under agitated liquid culture medium. For agar plate screening the decolorization capacity of P. eryngii, growth and decolorization halos were determined on saboroud dextrose agar (SDA) plates containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/l of Congo red. P. eryngii showed certain decolorization capacities and was able to decolorize all studied concentrations of Congo red, but not to the same extent. Our results indicated that the new isolate P. eryngii had maximum decolorization (87% at 100 mg/l initial dye concentration) and chemical oxygen demand reduction (82% at 25 mg/l initial dye concentration) activities after 7 days under agitated submerged culture conditions. This new isolate could be an effective bioremediation tool for treatment of Congo red containing textile wastewater. PMID:26068912

  10. True porosity measurement of hair: a new way to study hair damage mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hessefort, Yin; Holland, Brian T; Cloud, Richard W

    2008-01-01

    This study employs a novel method, gas sorption (1), to quantify the porosity characteristics of hair by determining total pore volume, adsorption pore-size distribution, and the surface area of damaged hair. Damage mechanisms were studied by comparing the different pore volume and surface area resulting from two different types of damage: chemical and UV. Hair color measurement and tensile strength, both reflecting the changes in hair cortex, were also employed in this study. The results suggest that hair damage caused by oxidative bleach and UV oxidation follows different pathways. Chemical damage (oxidative bleach) nearly triples the hair surface area in the first minute of bleaching due to the increase in the number of pores, followed by a sudden drop after 10 min of bleaching from smaller pores breaking down into larger ones. In contrast, UV damage shows an immediate loss in surface area in the first 200 hr of exposure and a gradual increase as exposure time continues. PMID:18818850

  11. Laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David J

    2002-07-01

    Laser hair removal created controversy when it was first described over 5 years ago. It has now become an accepted modality for long-term hair reduction. It rivals electrolysis in the successful treatment of small hair-bearing areas. It surpasses any modality in the treatment of larger hair-bearing anatomic areas. PMID:12170888

  12. Hair follicle Formation of

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    Hair follicle Formation of new follicles Bud Healed skin Hair bulge Open wound Epidermis a b Dermis 1950s and help to explain the controversy. What is the origin of the cells that make up these new hair follicles? Are they derived from existing hair follicles located at the wound edge

  13. Gentamicin and FM1-43 enter sensory hair cells through mechanosensory transduction channel

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Richard B. (Richard Burd), 1964-

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation describes a novel mechanism for the entry of organic cations, including the styryl pyridinium dyes and the notoriously ototo.xic aminoglycoside antibiotic drugs, into sensory hair cells: permeation through ...

  14. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

  15. Reactive Fluorescent Dyes For Urethane Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.; Cuddihy, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Molecules of fluorescent dyes chemically bound in urethane conformal-coating materials to enable nondestructive detection of flaws in coats through inspection under ultraviolet light, according to proposal. Dye-bonding technique prevents outgassing of dyes, making coating materials suitable for use where flaw-free coats must be assured in instrumentation or other applications in which contamination by outgassing must be minimized.

  16. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

  17. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity *

    PubMed Central

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  18. Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its computational and algorithmic

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    1 Abstract Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its the complex behavior of long human hair, taking into account the hair-to-hair interactions. For long hair, we propose the thin shell volume (TSV) model for enhancing hair realism by simulating complex hair-hair

  19. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-04-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide, respectively, suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), has been present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth at the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and to prevent them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S)-compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  20. Diagnosis of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Coupe, Robert L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Common causes of hair loss include androgenic hair loss, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium, and traction alopecia. The author discusses their distinguishing clinical features and those of less common alopecias. ImagesFigures 1-4 PMID:21221382

  1. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Hair Treatments and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to hair treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  2. Recurrent Hair Loss Resulting from Generalized Proximal Trichorrhexis Nodosa in a Nigerian Female

    PubMed Central

    Ogunbiyi, Adebola; Ogun, Olabiyi; Enechukwu, Nkechi

    2014-01-01

    Hair and scalp disorders commonly seen in the African female have been associated with hair care practices. Distal trichorrhexis nodosa (TN) has been commonly reported with various forms of trauma to the hair from hair grooming practices. We report the case of recurrent generalized hair loss resulting from proximal TN in a 28-year-old Nigerian female with atopy. The use of chemical relaxers precipitated each episode of hair loss. Generalized proximal TN has been reported in those of afro Caribbean descent. The acute nature and extent of the hair loss suggest there may be some underlying structural defect in such individuals. PMID:25191046

  3. Hair transplantation update.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. PMID:26176286

  4. Effects of solar radiation on hair and photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Dario, Michelli F; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the negative effects of solar radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths) on hair properties like color, mechanical properties, luster, protein content, surface roughness, among others, will be discussed. Despite knowing that radiation damages hair, there are no consensus about the particular effect of each segment of solar radiation on the hair shaft. The hair photoprotection products are primarily targeted to dyed hair, specially auburn pigments, and gray shades. They are usually based on silicones, antioxidants and quaternary chemical UV filters that have more affinity for negatively charged hair surface and present higher efficacy. Unfortunately, there are no regulated parameters, like for skin photoprotection, for efficacy evaluation of hair care products, which makes impossible to compare the results published in the literature. Thus, it is important that researchers make an effort to apply experimental conditions similar to a real level of sun exposure, like dose, irradiance, time, temperature and relative humidity. PMID:26454659

  5. Dyes as tracers for vadose zone hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Markus; Wai, Nu Nu

    2003-03-01

    Dyes are important tracers to investigate subsurface water movement. For more than a century, dye tracers have provided clues about the hydrological cycle as well as flow and transport processes in the subsurface. Groundwater contamination often originates in the vadose zone. Agrochemicals applied to the soil surface, toxic compounds accidentally spilled by human activities, and contaminants released from waste repositories leach through the vadose zone and can ultimately pollute groundwater resources. Dyes are an important tool to assess flow pathways of such contaminants. This review compiles information on dyes used as hydrological tracers, with particular emphasis on vadose zone hydrology. We summarize briefly different human-applied tracers, including nondye tracers. We then provide a historical sketch of the use of dyes as tracers and describe newer developments in visualization and quantification of tracer experiments. Relevant chemical properties of dyes used as tracers are discussed and illustrated with dye intermediates and selected dye tracers. The types of dyes used as tracers in subsurface hydrology are summarized, and recommendations are made regarding the use of dye tracers. The review concludes with a toxicological assessment of dyes used as hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as tracers for water movement in the subsurface. All of these compounds, however, are to some degree retarded by the subsurface medium. Nevertheless, dyes are useful tracers to visualize flow pathways.

  6. Microspectral investigation of hair of one girl during six years by laser emission analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmenko, Elena L.; Sokolova, Tatiana N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2001-10-01

    Multiple chemical elements of clinical and nutritional interest were measured in the hair of a girl - cerebral palsy patient. Sixteen samples of hair were cut and investigated to determine time and nutrition trends by using laser and arc emission spectroscopy.

  7. Discovery of Black Dye Crystal Structure Polymorphs: Implications for Dye Conformational Variation in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Gong, Yun

    2015-12-23

    We present the discovery of a new crystal structure polymorph (1) and pseudopolymorph (2) of the Black Dye, one of the world's leading dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells, DSSCs (10.4% device performance efficiency). This reveals that Black Dye molecules can adopt multiple low-energy conformers. This is significant since it challenges existing models of the Black Dye···TiO2 adsorption process that renders a DSSC working electrode; these have assumed a single molecular conformation that refers to the previously reported Black Dye crystal structure (3). The marked structural differences observed between 1, 2, and 3 make the need for modeling multiple conformations more acute. Additionally, the ordered form of the Black Dye (1) provides a more appropriate depiction of its anionic structure, especially regarding its anchoring group and NCS bonding descriptions. The tendency toward NCS ligand isomerism, evidenced via the disordered form 2, has consequences for electron injection and electron recombination in Black Dye embedded DSSC devices. Dyes 2 and 3 differ primarily by the absence or presence of a solvent of crystallization, respectively; solvent environment effects on the dye are thereby elucidated. This discovery of multiple Black Dye conformers from diffraction, with atomic-level definition, complements recently reported nanoscopic evidence for multiple dye conformations existing at a dye···TiO2 interface, for a chemically similar DSSC dye; those results emanated from imaging and spectroscopy, but were unresolved at the submolecular level. Taken together, these findings lead to the general notion that multiple dye conformations should be explicitly considered when modeling dye···TiO2 interfaces in DSSCs, at least for ruthenium-based dye complexes. PMID:26599130

  8. Dye Painting with Fiber Reactive Dyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin-Murray, Betsy

    1977-01-01

    In her description of how to use dyes directly onto fabrics the author lists materials to be used, directions for mixing dyes, techniques for applying dyes, references for additional reading and sources for dye materials. Preceding the activity with several lessons in design and other textile techniques with the dye process will ensure a…

  9. ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL

    E-print Network

    Jülicher, Frank

    415 ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL J-Y. TINEVEZ , P. MARTIN Laboratoire The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair

  10. Defective calmodulin-dependent rapid apical endocytosis in zebrafish sensory hair cell mutants.

    PubMed

    Seiler, C; Nicolson, T

    1999-11-15

    Vertebrate mechanosensory hair cells contain a narrow "pericuticular" zone which is densely populated with small vesicles between the cuticular plate and cellular junctions near the apical surface. The presence of many cytoplasmic vesicles suggests that the apical surface of hair cells has a high turnover rate. The significance of intense membrane trafficking at the apical surface is not known. Using a marker of endocytosis, the styryl dye FM1-43, this report shows that rapid apical endocytosis in zebrafish lateral line sensory hair cells is calcium and calmodulin dependent and is partially blocked by the presence of amiloride and dihydrostreptomycin, known inhibitors of mechanotransduction channels. As seen in lateral line hair cells, sensory hair cells within the larval otic capsule also exhibit rapid apical endocytosis. Defects in internalization of the dye in both lateral line and inner ear hair cells were found in five zebrafish auditory/vestibular mutants: sputnik, mariner, orbiter, mercury, and skylab. In addition, lateral line hair cells in these mutants were not sensitive to prolonged exposure to streptomycin, which is toxic to hair cells. The presence of endocytic defects in the majority of zebrafish mechanosensory mutants points to a important role of apical endocytosis in hair cell function. PMID:10526320

  11. Female hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  12. Laser hair removal pearls.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal. PMID:18330794

  13. Hair Loss in New Moms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... regain normal fullness even earlier. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

  14. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  15. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles <200 nm being internalized by keratinocytes and dendritic cells at sites of barrier disruption (e.g., hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications. PMID:24387677

  16. [Forensic aspects of thermal changes in human head hair].

    PubMed

    Kijewski, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Under experimental conditions, head hairs of individuals of different age were exposed to defined increases of temperature up to 450 degrees C and examined by transmitted- and reflected-light microscopy with and without polarization. Preliminary tests had shown that the hair changes alone do not allow conclusions as to the temperature acting on the hair. Especially in the range of 200 to 300 degrees C, the temperature gradient during the heating process and the exposure time were additional influencing factors. Thick hair and hair with a high water content showed more pronounced thermal changes than thin hair. Elasticity and permeability of the cuticle and the cementing substance (cell membrane complex CMC) are also relevant factors. When heating head hairs lacking a medulla, a multiform pseudo-medulla formed under certain conditions. In the presence of thermally induced structural disturbances (e.g. by using hair straighteners), foreign substances can penetrate more easily into the hair shaft from outside. The possibility of such exogenous contamination has to be taken into consideration when performing chemical and toxicological analyses of hair. PMID:25004619

  17. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair-care habits. Wet hair and scalp with warm water. Shampoo works best on wet heads and hair. ... leading to unhealthy looking hair. Rinse well with warm water until the hair is suds-free. Rinsing well ...

  18. Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata) Information for adults A A A This image displays a close-up of the scalp with a round area of non-scarring hair loss typical of alopecia areata. Overview Alopecia areata is ...

  19. Hair Casts or Pseudonits

    PubMed Central

    França, Katlein; Villa, Ricardo Tadeu; Silva, Isabella Rezende; de Carvalho, Cristine Almeida; Bedin, Valcinir

    2011-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are thin, elongated, cylindrical concretions that encircle the hair shaft and can be easily dislodged. A case of pseudonits in a 9-year-old girl is reported. Though not unusual, false diagnoses are common. PMID:22223977

  20. Tips for Healthy Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  1. Biological Sampling and Analysis in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2007 Puget Sound Biota Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2008-10-09

    Evaluating spatial and temporal trends in contaminant residues in Puget Sound fish and macroinvertebrates are the objectives of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP). In a cooperative effort between the ENVironmental inVESTment group (ENVVEST) and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, additional biota samples were collected during the 2007 PSAMP biota survey and analyzed for chemical residues and stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N). Approximately three specimens of each species collected from Sinclair Inlet, Georgia Basin, and reference locations in Puget Sound were selected for whole body chemical analysis. The muscle tissue of specimens selected for chemical analyses were also analyzed for ?13C and ?15N to provide information on relative trophic level and food sources. This data report summarizes the chemical residues for the 2007 PSAMP fish and macro-invertebrate samples. In addition, six Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) samples were necropsied to evaluate chemical residue of various parts of the fish (digestive tract, liver, embryo, muscle tissue), as well as, a weight proportional whole body composite (WBWC). Whole organisms were homogenized and analyzed for silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, mercury, 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB homologues, percent moisture, percent lipids, ?13C, and ?15N.

  2. Ethylglucuronide in maternal hair as a biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Hilda L; Hund, Lauren; Shrestha, Shikhar; Rayburn, William F; Leeman, Lawrence; Savage, Daniel D; Bakhireva, Ludmila N

    2015-09-01

    While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair allows for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers in 85 pregnant women. Patients were recruited from a UNM prenatal clinic, which provides care to women with substance abuse and addiction disorders. The composite index, which was based on self-reported measures of alcohol use and allowed us to classify subjects into PAE (n = 42) and control (n = 43) groups, was the criterion measure used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of hEtG. Proximal segments of hair were collected at enrollment (average 22.0 gestational weeks) and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. At the same visit, maternal blood and urine specimens were collected for analysis of GGT, %dCDT, PEth, uEtG, and uEtS. The study population included mostly opioid-dependent (80%) patients, a large proportion of ethnic minorities (75.3% Hispanic/Latina, 8.2% American Indian, 4.7% African-American), and patients with low education (48.2% < high school). The mean maternal age at enrollment was 26.7 ± 4.8 years. Hair EtG demonstrated 19% sensitivity and 86% specificity. The sensitivities of other biomarkers were comparable (5-20%) to hEtG but specificities were higher (98-100%). Hair EtG sensitivity improved when combined with other biomarkers, especially with GGT (32.5%) and PEth (27.5%). In addition, validity of hEtG improved in patients with less frequent shampooing and those who did not use hair dyes/chemical treatments. These data suggest that hEtG alone is not a sufficiently sensitive or specific biomarker to be used separately for the identification of PAE, but might be useful in a battery along with other maternal biomarkers. PMID:26260252

  3. Influence of functionalized silicones on hair fiber-fiber interactions and on the relationship with the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly.

    PubMed

    Dussaud, Anne; Fieschi-Corso, Lara

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that silicones alter hair surface properties and that silicones have a significant impact on the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly, such as visual appearance, combing performance and manageability of the hair. In order to fine-tune the chemistry of functionlized silicones for specific consumer benefits and hair types, we investigated the influence of silicones on hair fiber-fiber interactions and their correlation to hair volume. The incline plane fiber loop method, implemented with a high-precision motorized rotary stage, was used to quantify the fiber-fiber interactions. Low load static friction was studied as a function of polymer molecular weight, dose and chemical architecture. This information was related to the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly, using virgin curly hair in high humidity. PMID:19450425

  4. Sensitive immunoassay detection of multiple environmental chemicals on protein microarrays using DNA/dye conjugate as a fluorescent label

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indirect competitive immunoassays were developed on protein microarrays for the sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple environmental chemicals in one sample. In this assay, a DNA/SYTOX Orange conjugate was employed as antibody labels to increase the fluorescence signal and sensitivity. Ep...

  5. ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

  6. [Scalp burns due to hair bleach].

    PubMed

    Wagenblast, Lene

    2011-02-28

    We present two cases of scalp burn or possible chemical reaction due to use of hair highlight products. One case was treated with serial excision of the scarred bald area after the burn, and the other case was treated with implantation of expanders and subsequent excision of the bald area. PMID:21362396

  7. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  8. Stability and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells based on papaya-leaf dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suyitno, Suyitno; Saputra, Trisma Jaya; Supriyanto, Agus; Arifin, Zainal

    2015-09-01

    The present article reports on the enhancement of the performance and stability of natural dye-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Natural dyes extracted from papaya leaves (PL) were investigated as sensitizers in TiO2-based DSSCs and evaluated in comparison with N719 dye. The acidity of the papaya-leaf extract dyes was tuned by adding benzoic acid. The TiO2 film-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates were prepared using the doctor-blade method, followed by sintering at 450 °C. The counter electrode was coated by chemically deposited catalytic platinum. The working electrodes were immersed in N719 dye and papaya dye solutions with concentrations of 8 g/100 mL. The absorbance spectra of the dyes were obtained by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. The energy levels of the dyes were measured by the method of cyclic voltammetry. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the characteristic functionalities of the dye molecules. The DSSC based on the N719 dye displayed a highest efficiency of 0.87% whereas those based on papaya-leaf dye achieved 0.28% at pH 3.5. The observed improved efficiency of the latter was attributed to the increased current density value. Furthermore, the DSSCs based on papaya-leaf dye with pH 3.5-4 exhibited better stability than those based on N719 dye. However, further studies are required to improve the current density and stability of natural dye-based DSSCs, including the investigation of alternative dye extraction routes, such as isolating the pure chlorophyll from papaya leaves and stabilizing it.

  9. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  10. Female adolescent hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Hawryluk, Elena Balestreire; English, Joseph C

    2009-08-01

    Hair abnormalities can have tremendous psychosocial impacts on adolescents and young adults, and may cause a great amount of anxiety regarding physical appearance, associated illnesses, and potential clinical course. The pathophysiology of such disorders may vary,with potential congenital, infectious, autoimmune, nutritional, or environmental causes. Hair abnormalities may present as changes in hair appearance or quality, becoming weathered or fractured.An abnormal increase in hair is present in hypertrichosis and hirsutism, whereas a thinning or shedding of hair is evident in patients with telogen effluviumand alopecia areata. Diagnosis is focused on a detailed clinical history and physical exam, in addition to laboratory testing, a variety of clinical diagnostic tests, and scalp biopsy, which may be necessary to confirm some diagnoses. Many hair disorders have no cure, but clinicians can have a positive impact on their patients by identifying the abnormality and educating the patient regarding disease course. However, some conditions such as infectious hair disorders or scarring alopecia should be identified promptly to initiate treatment and ensure clinical improvement or optimal outcome. PMID:19658203

  11. Global and local influences on the chemical composition of snowfall at Dye 3, Greenland: the record between 10 ka B.P. and 40 ka B.P.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, R. C.; Langway, C. C.

    1985-05-01

    Wisconsin Age ice from Dye 3, Greenland, shows a number of ? 18O level changes which indicate the occurrence of rapid climate transitions. In order to study the effect of climate change on geochemical fluxes we have selected several of these transitions for chemical analysis. At each transition we have measured chloride, nitrate and sulfate concentrations with 5 cm depth resolution. All three anionic species show significant variations which correlate with the measured ? 18O shifts. In general, periods of high ? 18O (warm periods) have lower anion concentrations than adjacent periods of low ? 18O (cold periods). However, the relative concentration shifts are not the same for all species, indicating that the concentration variations cannot be caused only by changes in snow accumulation rate acting on a constant anion flux. In addition to these rapid concentration changes, over the last 40 ka slower, secular variations in baseline concentrations also occurred. Baseline chloride and sulfate concentrations reached maxima near time of maximum ice volume. Baseline nitrate, on the other hand, remained relatively constant until near the end of the glaciation when its concentration rose. If a constant sulfate flux is assumed, the measured sulfate concentrations imply a dependence of snow accumulation rate on ? 18O for the Wisconsin which is similar to that presently observed in Greenland. The sulfate concentrations would then suggest that Wisconsin snowfall rates were, at times, as much as eight times lower than today.

  12. Preparation of silver nanowires coated with TiO2 using chemical binder and their applications as photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Inseok; Kang, Taeho; Cho, Woohyung; Kang, Yong Soo; Oh, Seong-Geun; Im, Seung Soon

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the core-shell structured Ag@TiO2 wire was prepared for application to dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The Ag nanowire, having an excellent electrical conductivity, was synthesized by using the facile microwave-assisted polyol reduction process. The diameter and length of Ag wires were 40-50 nm and 20-30 ?m, respectively, and the face-centered cubic silver crystal structure was obtained. In the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol as a chemical binder, the entire surface of Ag wire was coated with the TiO2 shell, which has thickness of 20 nm, through solvothermal method. The crystalline structure of TiO2 shell was the anatase phase possessing an advantage to achieve the high efficiency in DSSC. The core-shell structured Ag@TiO2 wire exhibited the high thermal stability. The high conversion efficiency (5.56%) in fabricated device with Ag@TiO2 electrode, which is about 10% higher than reference cell, was achieved by enhancement of short-current density (Jsc) value. The core-shell structured Ag@TiO2 wire could effectively reduce the charge recombination through the contribution to electron shortcut for improvement in the electron transfer rate and lifetime.

  13. Dynamic Hair Capture Princeton University

    E-print Network

    Dynamic Hair Capture Linjie Luo Princeton University Sylvain Paris Adobe Systems Inc. Hao Li University Figure 1: Our system reconstructs a temporally coherent set of hair fibers for real-world dynamic hair. It accommodates a variety of hair types and styles, as well as nontrivial motion (top: input

  14. Preoperative hair removal.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, H W; Hamilton, K R; Lone, F J

    1977-05-01

    This study compares the efficiency, safety and cost of hair removal before surgery, with a safety razor, an electric clipper and a depilatory. It was found that both the razor and the clipper damaged the surface of the skin, while the depilatory caused a mild lymphocytic reaction in the upper dermis. The depilatory was expensive and may cause sensitivity reactions in a few individuals, but was found to be the easiest and most efficient method of removing hair. It was concluded that if hair has to be removed a depilatory is the agent of choice. PMID:870157

  15. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721.4594 Section 721...Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a substituted azo metal complex dye (PMN P-94-499) is...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721.4594 Section 721...Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a substituted azo metal complex dye (PMN P-94-499) is...

  17. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    PubMed Central

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; El-Zawahry, Manal M.; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S. E.

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics. PMID:25258720

  18. Laboratory measurements of selected optical, physical, chemical, and remote-sensing properties of five water mixtures containing Calvert clay and a nonfluorescing dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Poole, L. R.; Witte, W. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 6.1 ppm to 24.3 ppm and sizes ranged between 1.5 micrometers and 10 micrometers with the most frequently occurring size less than 2 micrometers. Iron concentration was less than 1 percent of the total suspended solids. Nonfluorescing dye concentrations of the two mixtures were 20 ppm and 40 ppm. Attenuation coefficient for the five mixtures ranged from 4.8/m to 21.3/m. Variations in volume scattering function with phase angle were typical. Variations in attenuation and absorption coefficient with wavelength were similar for the mixtures without the dye. Attenuation coefficient of the mixtures with the dye increased for wavelengths less than 600 nm due to the dye's strong absorption peak near 500 nm. Reflectance increased as the concentration of Calvert clay increased and peaked near 600 nm. The nonfluorescent dye decreased the magnitude of the peak, but had practically no effect on the variation for wavelengths greater than 640 nm. At wavelengths less than 600 nm, the spectral variations of the mixtures with the dye were significantly different from those mixtures without the dye.

  19. Role of surfactant derived intermediates in the efficacy and mechanism for radiation chemical degradation of a hydrophobic azo dye, 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol.

    PubMed

    Das, Laboni; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Naik, Devidas B; Adhikari, Soumyakanti

    2015-11-15

    A combined methodology involving gamma and pulse radiolysis, product analysis and toxicity studies has been adopted to comprehend the degradation process of a model hydrophobic azo dye, 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol, emphasizing the role of the surfactant, which is an integral part of textile waste. Two new and important findings are underlined in this article. The first is the direct attestation of the hydrazyl radical-parent adduct, formed in the reaction of the dye with e(-)aq followed by protonation and subsequent addition to the unreacted dye molecule. This has been confirmed from concentration dependent studies. Secondly, we have clearly shown that in the reaction of hydroxyl radical with the dye in Triton X-100 media, the initially produced TX radicals cause reductive degradation of the dye. Identification and detailed analysis of HPLC and GCMS data reveals that similar products are formed in both the reactions of e(-)aq and OH radicals. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of 10(-4)moldm(-3) dye was found to be reduced significantly after irradiation. Thus, the present study not only depicts new pathways for the degradation of hydrophobic azo dye, but also demonstrates the role of a surfactant in the entire process. PMID:26001620

  20. Scurvy, corkscrew hair (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Scurvy is a nutritional disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C. Pinpoint bleeding around hair follicles, and " ... this picture, can occur as a result of scurvy. Bleeding along the gums is common. This disease ...

  1. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Puberty Video: Am I Normal? (Girls and Puberty) Movie: Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page ... Fungal Infections Some Kinds of Cancer Kids Get Movie: Hair When Can I Shave My Face? When ...

  2. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions ... and even steroid injections and other forms of therapy at the site of the hair loss often ...

  3. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.L.

    2000-07-25

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  4. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  5. Methods of hair removal.

    PubMed

    Olsen, E A

    1999-02-01

    The methods of hair removal vary between simple inexpensive means of home treatment (shaving, plucking, depilatories) to expensive and potentially time-consuming means used by paraprofessionals, nurses, and/or physicians (electrolysis, lasers, x-ray). The ways in which these different methods induce hair removal, the duration of such removal, and the nuances between devices within the same category of methods are discussed. PMID:10025738

  6. The impact of oxidative stress on hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage lipids, proteins, and DNA. They are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges, while the body possesses endogenous defense mechanisms. With age, production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defense mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the aging phenotype. While the role of oxidative stress has been widely discussed in skin aging, little focus has been placed on its impact on hair condition. Moreover, most literature on age-related hair changes focuses on alopecia, but it is equally important that the hair fibers that emerge from the scalp exhibit significant age-related changes that have equal impact on the overall cosmetic properties of hair. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the pre-emerging fiber include: oxidative metabolism, smoking, UVR, and inflammation from microbial, pollutant, or irritant origins. Sources of oxidative stress with impact on the post-emerging fiber include: UVR (enhanced by copper), chemical insults, and oxidized scalp lipids. The role of the dermatologist is recognition and treatment of pre- and post-emerging factors for lifetime scalp and hair health. PMID:26574302

  7. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andrew J.; Hailey, Dale W.; Stawicki, Tamara M.; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.; Simon, Julian A.; Ou, Henry C.

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anti-cancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analogue of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line. PMID:23467357

  8. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew J; Hailey, Dale W; Stawicki, Tamara M; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W; Simon, Julian A; Ou, Henry C

    2013-03-01

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analog of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line. PMID:23467357

  9. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  10. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of aging. Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin , which hair follicles produce. Follicles are ... slows. Hair strands become smaller and have less pigment. So the thick, coarse hair of a young ...

  11. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... zone Video library Find a dermatologist Teaching your child healthy hair care habits Many common hair care ... Damaged hair looks and feels unhealthy. Teaching your child how to shampoo Healthy hair care begins with ...

  12. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and ... dermatologist Home Public and patients Diseases and treatments Cosmetic treatments Chemical peels public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases ...

  13. Moss hair water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Wu, Nan; Hurd, Randy; Thomson, Scott; Pitt, William; Truscott, Tadd

    2013-11-01

    We present an investigation of water transportation on a moss (Syntrichia caninervis) indigenous to temperate deserts. The moss typically appears to be in a dry, brown state, but is rehydrated by water during the wet season, making the desert green. Small hairs (500-2000 ?m in length, and 40 ?m in diameter, d) growing out from the tip of the moss leaves transport water back to the leaves. Through high speed observations and mathematical modeling it appears that this transportation is driven by two different mechanisms. 1) Droplet transport is achieved in three ways: i) A large (10d) droplet attached between two intersecting fibers will move toward the bases of the leaves by the changing angle between the two hairs. ii) The shape of the moss hair is conical, thicker at the base, producing a gradient that moves fluid (5d) toward the leaf similar to cactus spines. iii) We also observe that in some cases a Plateau-Rayleigh instability trigger a series of droplets moving toward the base. 2) Micro-grooves on the moss hair transport a film of water along the moss hair when larger droplets are not available. These various water transportation strategies combine to help the moss to survive in the desert and provide valuable insight.

  14. Hair today, gone tomorrow: the degradation and conservation of archaeological hair fibers 

    E-print Network

    Sager, Rebecca M.

    2009-05-15

    . An added advantage found in the book was a short section on the use of silicone polymers in shampoos and conditioners. Although the silicone polymers used in the hair care products are different in polymer structure in comparison those used........................ 5 Methods of Conserving Archaeological Material from Underwater Sites ................................................................ 9 Archaeological Conservation Using Polymers .................. 10 Chemical and Physical...

  15. [Hair diseases in childhood].

    PubMed

    Hamm, H

    2002-05-01

    This paper focuses on four important hair diseases mainly occurring in children. Trichotillomania is the most relevant differential diagnosis of alopecia areata in childhood. Meticulous inspection and lack of telogen hairs in the trichogram from the margin of the lesion usually are sufficient for differentiation. The trichogram also plays a significant role for the diagnosis of the loose anagen hair (loose anagen syndrome), a fairly new, but not rare entity, especially in distinguishing it from telogen effluvium. Five different types of clinical presentation are distinguished in tinea capitis. For the necessary systemic therapy; the new antimycotics terbinafine and itraconazole represent good alternatives to the well-tried griseofulvin. Several effective therapeutic options are also available for head lice, the most frequent parasitary infestation of school age. However, because of its neurotoxicity and the increasing problem of lice resistance lindane should not be used any longer for the treatment of head lice. PMID:12090118

  16. Hair pulling: a review.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2005-10-01

    Hair pulling has been reported in humans, six different non-human primate species, mice, guineapigs, rabbits, sheep and muskox, dogs and cats. This behaviour seems to occur only in subjects who are confined in an artificial environment. It has been classified as a mental disorder in humans, as a behavioural pathology in animals. The hair is not only pulled but also, in most species, ingested. Hair pulling can be both self-directed and partner-directed, contains elements of aggression, manifests more often in females than in males, is associated with psychogenic distress, and resists treatment. Research data collected from affected animals are probably not normative, hence scientifically unreliable. The preemptive correction of husbandry deficiencies causing long-term stress may prevent the development of this bizarre behaviour in healthy subjects. PMID:16197702

  17. Mechanistic Studies on the Use of Polygonum multiflorum for the Treatment of Hair Graying

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming-Nuan; Lu, Jian-Mei; Zhang, Guang-Yuan; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Rong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Chinese medicine with a long history in hair growth promotion and hair blackening. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect and the mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum in hair blackening. C57BL/6 mice hair fade was induced with H2O2 and used in this research. Hair pigmentogenesis promotion activities of Polygonum Multiflorum Radix (PMR, raw crude drug), Polygonum Multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP, processed crude drug), and their major chemical constituent TSG were investigated. The regulation effects of several cytokines and enzymes such as POMC, ?-MSH, MC1R, ASIP, MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were investigated. PMR group gave out the most outstanding black hair among all groups with the highest contents of total melanin, ?-MSH, MC1R, and TYR. Promotion of hair pigmentogenesis was slightly decreased after processing in the PMRP group. TSG as the major constituent of PMR showed weaker hair color regulation effects than both PMR and PMRP. PMR, but not PMRP, should be used to blacken hair. The ?-MSH, MC1R, and TYR were the major targets in the medicinal use of PMR in hair graying. Chemical constituents other than TSG may contribute to the hair color regulation activity of PMR. PMID:26640791

  18. Determination of minimum enzymatic decolorization time of reactive dye solution by spectroscopic & mathematical approach.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Mithat; Ozdemir, Zafer Omer; Eroglu, Emre; Altikatoglu, Melda; Guney, Ibrahim

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic dyes are very important for textile dyeing, paper printing, color photography and petroleum products. Traditional methods of dye removal include biodegradation, precipitation, adsorption, chemical degradation, photo degradation, and chemical coagulation. Dye decolorization with enzymatic reaction is an important issue for several research field (chemistry, environment) In this study, minimum decolorization time of Remazol Brilliant Blue R dye with Horseradish peroxidase enzyme was calculated using with mathematical equation depending on experimental data. Dye decolorization was determined by monitoring the absorbance decrease at the specific maximum wavelength for dye. All experiments were carried out with different initial dye concentrations of Remazol Brilliant Blue R at 25 degrees C constant temperature for 30 minutes. The development of the least squares estimators for a nonlinear model brings about complications not encountered in the case of the linear model. Decolorization times for completely removal of dye were calculated according to equation. It was shown that mathematical equation was conformed exponential curve for dye degradation. PMID:25970889

  19. 40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). 721.2527 Section 721.2527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). 721.2527 Section 721.2527 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal...

  6. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Ma?gorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  7. A Simple Method for Purification of Vestibular Hair Cells and Non-Sensory Cells, and Application for Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Herget, Meike; Scheibinger, Mirko; Guo, Zhaohua; Jan, Taha A.; Adams, Christopher M.; Cheng, Alan G.; Heller, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of <3% at the protein level and <1% at the peptide level. Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses. PMID:23750277

  8. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10633 Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10633 Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to reporting under...

  18. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  19. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    E-print Network

    Gia Dvali; Cesar Gomez

    2012-03-29

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  20. A History of the Chemical Innovations in Silver-Halide Materials for Color PhotographyIII. Dye Tranfer Process — Instant Color Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Yasushi

    A historical review of the technological developments of instant color photographic process, is presented with emphasis on the innovation processes at the following main turning points: 1) the creation of instant photography by E. H. Land in 1948 (one step processing by transfer of image-forming materials), 2) the advent of instant color photography based on dye developer, by Polaroid Corp., in 1963 (departing from dye-forming development, forming a direct positive preformed-dye image with a negative emulsion, but constraining the sensitive-material designs), 3) the introduction of a color instant product containing redox dye releaser with improved auto-positive emulsion, by Eastman Kodak Co., in 1976 (producing much improved color image quality, freed from the design constraints), and 4) the realization of absolute one-step photography by the integral film- unit system, by Polaroid in 1972. And the patent litigation (1976-86) raised by Polaroid against Kodak allegedly infringing on the integral film-unit patents caused the vast impacts on the industry.

  1. Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths < 400 nm) and emit photons in the long-wavelength ultraviolet, visible, and, when dissolved in some solvents, near-infrared regions. In addition, these dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields, solvent-polarity- dependent fluorescence behavior, susceptibility to quenching by certain chemical species, and/or two-photon fluorescence, none of them has the combination of all of these attributes. Because the present dyes do have all of these attributes, they have potential utility as molecular probes in a variety of applications. Examples include (1) monitoring curing and deterioration of polymers; (2) monitoring protein expression; (3) high-throughput screening of drugs; (4) monitoring such chemical species as glucose, amines, amino acids, and metal ions; and (5) photodynamic therapy of cancers and other diseases.

  2. Hair removal by lasers and intense pulsed light sources.

    PubMed

    Dierickx, C C

    2000-12-01

    Unwanted pigmented hair is a common problem for many patients. Traditional methods of hair removal have included shaving, bleaching, plucking, waxing, use of chemical depilatories, and electrolysis. These techniques have been limited by their pain, inconvenience, and poor long-term efficacy. Only electrolysis has offered the potential for permanent hair removal. However, the technique is tedious, highly operator-dependent, and impractical for the treatment of large numbers of hairs. Recently, a number of lasers and other light sources have been developed specifically to target hair follicles. These include ruby, alexandrite, diode, and Nd:YAG lasers and an intense pulsed light source. These devices offer the potential for rapid treatment of large areas and long-lasting hair removal. This article explains the mechanisms of using light to remove hair, examines the attributes of specific laser systems, and explains the importance of patient selection and treatment protocol for the various systems in order to provide a safe and effective treatment. PMID:11149607

  3. Relationship Between Hair Cell Loss and Hearing Loss in Fishes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to intense sound or ototoxic chemicals can damage the auditory hair cells of vertebrates, resulting in hearing loss. Although the relationship between such hair cell damage and auditory function is fairly established for terrestrial vertebrates, there are limited data available to understand this relationship in fishes. Although investigators have measured either the morphological damage of the inner ear or the functional deficits in the hearing of fishes, very few have directly measured both in an attempt to find a relationship between the two. Those studies that have examined both auditory hair cell damage in the inner ear and the resulting hearing loss in fishes are reviewed here. In general, there is a significant linear relationship between the number of hair cells lost and the severity of hearing threshold shifts, although this varies between species and different hair cell-damaging stimuli. After trauma to the fish ear, auditory hair cells are able to regenerate to control level densities. With this regeneration also comes a restoration of hearing. Thus there is also a significant relationship between hair cell recovery and hearing recovery in fishes. PMID:26611069

  4. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  5. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dyes as sensitizers from Malaysia local fruit `Buah Mertajam'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Roshidah, N.; Hashim, M. Norhafiz; Mohamad, I. S.; Saad, N. Hidayah; Norizan, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the high conversion efficiency, low cost, green technology and easy to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using natural anthocyanin dyes as sensitizers. The DSSCs was fabricated by using natural anthocyanin dyes which were extracted from different parts of the plants inclusive `Buah Mertajam', `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. The natural anthocyanin dyes that found in flower, leaves and fruits were extracted by the simple procedures. This anthocyanin dye is used to replace the expensive chemical synthetic dyes due to its ability to effectively attach into the surface of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). A natural anthocyanin dyes molecule adsorbs to each particle of the TiO2 and acts as the absorber of the visible light. A natural anthocyanin dye from Buah Mertajam shows the best performance with the conversion efficiency of 5.948% and fill factor of 0.708 followed by natural anthocyanin dyes from `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. Buah Mertajam or scientifically known as eriglossum rubiginosum is a local Malaysia fruit.

  6. Chlorine disinfection of dye wastewater: implications for a commercial azo dye mixture.

    PubMed

    Vacchi, Francine Inforçato; Albuquerque, Anjaina Fernandes; Vendemiatti, Josiane Aparecida; Morales, Daniel Alexandre; Ormond, Alexandra B; Freeman, Harold S; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Umbuzeiro, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    Azo dyes, the most widely used family of synthetic dyes, are often employed as colorants in areas such as textiles, plastics, foods/drugs/cosmetics, and electronics. Following their use in industrial applications, azo dyes have been found in effluents and various receiving waters. Chemical treatment of effluents containing azo dyes includes disinfection using chlorine, which can generate compounds of varying eco/genotoxicity. Among the widely known commercial azo dyes for synthetic fibers is C.I. Disperse Red 1. While this dye is known to exist as a complex mixture, reports of eco/genotoxicity involve the purified form. Bearing in mind the potential for adverse synergistic effects arising from exposures to chemical mixtures, the aim of the present study was to characterize the components of commercial Disperse Red 1 and its chlorine-mediated decoloration products and to evaluate their ecotoxicity and mutagenicity. In conducting the present study, Disperse Red 1 was treated with chlorine gas, and the solution obtained was analyzed with the aid of LC-ESI-MS/MS to identify the components present, and then evaluated for ecotoxicity and mutagenicity, using Daphnia similis and Salmonella/microsome assays, respectively. The results of this study indicated that chlorination of Disperse Red 1 produced four chlorinated aromatic compounds as the main products and that the degradation products were more ecotoxic than the parent dye. These results suggest that a disinfection process using chlorine should be avoided for effluents containing hydrophobic azo dyes such commercial Disperse Red 1. PMID:23178834

  7. Organic components in hair-ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for the analysis of complex samples due to its outstanding mass resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (? 1 ppm), simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds. The characteristics of the FTICR-MS hair-ice spectra with as many as ten or more peaks at each nominal mass are discussed together with highly resolved spectra from water and soil samples different sources, respectively. Complete manual formula assignment for structure elucidation would be extremely time consuming, therefore, we used an automated post processing based on SciLab for exploitation of the data with the aim of an unambiguous assignment of as many peaks as possible. Once the formulae had been assigned, the obtained mass lists were first checked randomly and afterwards transformed into Excel format for further post-processing and description. Most important is the van Krevelen diagram, usually two-dimensional as atomic ratio H/C versus atomic ratio O/C, widely used to classify samples regarding polarity and aromaticity. By comparison with two references (Hockaday 2007, Sleighter 2007), which arranged various biopolymer substance classes in such Van Krevelen plots, lignin could be detected as the main hair-ice component.

  8. Hair cell regeneration: Look to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Edwin W.

    2005-04-01

    Less than 2 decades ago it was discovered that birds can regenerate hair cells in the auditory and vestibular parts of the inner ear after the native hair cells are destroyed by exposure to excessive noise or by mechanical trauma of aminoglycoside antibiotics. This discovery issued in a new era of hearing research-it suggested that some day it may be possible to actually restore hearing in people with congenital or acquired hearing loss due to the degeneration of sensory cells or supporting cells in the inner ear. Fifteen years is a very short time in the history of science. Consider the fact that we have actively sought chemical treatments to prevent or cure cancers for well over a half century and the ``war on Cancer,'' resulted in enormous public and private support. Progress has been great, and some forms of cancer can be treated with great success, but the overall 5-year survival rates have only risen from about 50% to 63%. Progress will continue and many more forms of cancer will be cured and prevented during the next half century. Similarly, during the first 15 years of hair cell regeneration research enormous progress has been made, and we now know that postnatal mammalian ears have the capacity to produce new hair cells. We are indeed a long way from restoring hearing through hair cell regeneration, but the future is pretty clear. I will review the progress of this field with an eye toward the future and what it means for treatments of today. In particular, I will address the potential cost versus benefits of bilateral implantation when applied to babies and young children.

  9. Slimy hairs: Hair sensors made with slime mould

    E-print Network

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a large single cell visible by unaided eye. We design a slime mould implementation of a tactile hair, where the slime mould responds to repeated deflection of hair by an immediate high-amplitude spike and a prolonged increase in amplitude and width of its oscillation impulses. We demonstrate that signal-to-noise ratio of the Physarum tactile hair sensor averages near six for the immediate response and two for the prolonged response.

  10. Fully solution-processed transparent conducting oxide-free counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells: spray-coated single-wall carbon nanotube thin films loaded with chemically-reduced platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yong; Kim, Yesel; Lee, Kyung Moon; Yoon, Woo Sug; Lee, Ho Seok; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Seung-Joo; Ahn, Yeong Hwan; Park, Ji-Yong; Lee, Tai Kyu; Lee, Soonil

    2014-08-27

    We report fully solution-processed fabrication of transparent conducting oxide-free counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by combining spray-coating of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and chemical reduction of chloroplatinic acid precursor to platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) with formic acid. The power conversion efficiency of a semitransparent DSSC with such SWCNT-based CE loaded with Pt NPs is comparable to that of a control device with a conventional CE. Quantification of Pt loading shows that network morphology of entangled SWCNTs is efficient in forming and retaining chemically reduced Pt NPs. Moreover, electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results show that mainly Pt NPs, which are tens of nanometers in diameter and reside at the surface of SWCNT CEs, contribute to electrocatalytic activity for triiodide reduction, to which we attribute strong correlation between power conversion efficiency of DSSCs and time constant deduced from equivalent-circuit analysis of impedance spectra. PMID:25122074

  11. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  12. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  13. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  14. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  15. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  16. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  17. Normal and Aging Hair Biology and Structure 'Aging and Hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. PMID:26370639

  18. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Andrea L.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1,677 women aged 16 to 40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income > $30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. PMID:23394967

  19. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women.

    PubMed

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1677 women aged 16-40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income >$30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. PMID:23394967

  20. Unnecessary Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  1. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... It tends to run in families. In general, hirsutism is a harmless condition. But many women find ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Keratoderma with woolly hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Keratoderma with woolly hair On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Reviewed November 2015 What is keratoderma with woolly hair? Keratoderma with woolly hair is a group of ...

  3. Hair cell tufts and afferent innervation of the bullfrog crista ampullaris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the bullfrog semicircular canal crista, hair cell tuft types were defined and mapped with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. Dye-filled planar afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.6-4.9 microns, highly branched arbors, and contacted 11-24 hair cells. Dye-filled isthmus afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.8-7.9 microns, with either small or large field arbors contacting 4-9 or 25-31 hair cells. The estimated mean number of contacts per innervated hair cell was 2.2 for planar and 1.3 for isthmus afferent neurons. Data on evoked afferent responses were available only for isthmus units that were observed to respond to our microrotational stimuli. Of 21 such afferent neurons, eight were successfully dye-filled. Within this sample, high-gain units had large field arbors and lower-gain units had small field arbors. The sensitivity of each afferent neuron was analyzed in terms of noise equivalent input (NEI), the stimulus amplitude for which the afferent response amplitude is just equivalent to the rms deviation of the instantaneous spike rate. NEI for isthmus units varied from 0.63 to 8.2 deg/s; the mean was 3.2 deg/s.

  4. Data mining with molecular design rules identifies new class of dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Low, Kian Sing; Ozoe, Hiroaki; Stathi, Panagiota; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Kurata, Hiroyuki; Rudolf, Petra; Kawase, Takeshi

    2014-12-28

    A major deficit in suitable dyes is stifling progress in the dye-sensitised solar cell (DSC) industry. Materials discovery strategies have afforded numerous new dyes; yet, corresponding solution-based DSC device performance has little improved upon 11% efficiency, achieved using the N719 dye over two decades ago. Research on these dyes has nevertheless revealed relationships between the molecular structure of dyes and their associated DSC efficiency. Here, such structure-property relationships have been codified in the form of molecular dye design rules, which have been judiciously sequenced in an algorithm to enable large-scale data mining of dye structures with optimal DSC performance. This affords, for the first time, a DSC-specific dye-discovery strategy that predicts new classes of dyes from surveying a representative set of chemical space. A lead material from these predictions is experimentally validated, showing DSC efficiency that is comparable to many well-known organic dyes. This demonstrates the power of this approach. PMID:25011389

  5. Data Mining with Molecular Design Rules Identifies New Class of Dyes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    A major deficit in suitable dyes is stiffling progress in the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) industry. Materials discovery strategies have afforded numerous new dyes; yet, corresponding solution-based DSC device performance has little improved upon 11% efficiency, achieved using the N719 dye over two decades ago. Research on these dyes has nevertheless revealed relationships between the molecular structure of dyes and their associated DSC efficiency. Here, we have codified such structure-property relationships in the form of molecular dye design rules, which have been judiciously sequenced in an algorithm to enable large-scale data mining of dye structures with optimal DSC performance. For the first time, we have a DSC-specific dye-discovery strategy that predicts new classes of dyes from surveying a representative set of chemical space. A lead material from these predictions is experimentally validated herein, showing DSC efficiency that is comparable to many well-known organic dyes. This demonstrates the power of this approach.

  6. Do You Have Hair Loss or Hair Shedding?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  7. Preserving fibre health: reducing oxidative stress throughout the life of the hair fibre.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J M; Davis, M G; Lucas, R L; Reilman, R; Styczynski, P B; Li, C; Mamak, M; McComb, D W; Williams, R E A; Godfrey, S; Navqi, K R; Chechik, V

    2015-12-01

    Hair health is an important attribute to women globally - specifically attributes such as shine, healthy tips, frizz-free and strength. However, many women will claim to have at least moderate hair damage caused by habits and practices such as washing, combing and brushing, use of heated implements and regular use of chemical treatments. The objective of this work was to investigate two mechanisms of damage - hair colouring and UV exposure - where oxidative processes are involved. The role of copper in these oxidative processes was then investigated: its presence in hair and its consequent impact on hair damage via free radical formation. Finally, the role of chelants N,N'-ethylene diamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and histidine in preventing free radical formation was investigated and shown to improve hair health. PMID:26574301

  8. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  9. Chemical reactions in TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes and their impacts to power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chuen-Shii; Jhang, Jhih-Wei; Chou, Sheng-Wei; Wu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by combining chemical modeling with experimentation. The interfacial chemical reactions in a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 system were simulated using a thermochemistry software package, which led to the design and testing of hybrid working electrodes. Chemical thermodynamic modeling proved that TiCl4 is an effective agent in removing Tin+ (n<4) and Snm+ (m<4) ion impurities from dry-mixed TiO2/SnO2 composite particles. Our results demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency of DSSC with a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrode exceeds that of the conventional DSSC with a TiO2 electrode due to the effects of light-scattering and the formation of additional absorbance (SnCl2), which is an unexpected side effect of TiCl4 treatment enabling the absorption of visible light. The proposed approach is ideally suited to establishing relationships between chemistry theory and the structure and performance of advanced DSSCs as well as photo-electro-chemical systems.

  10. Spectrophotometric characterization of useful dyes in laser photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danaila, Leon; Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Popescu, Alina; Pascu, Mihaela O.; Ion, Rodica-Mariana

    2000-02-01

    This paper present the physico-chemical properties of some synthetic porphyrin dyes obtained at ZECASIN SA. We have measured the absorption, excitation and fluorescence spectra of these dyes in different solvents. From them we have concluded that the most reliable due for our studies concerning the photodynamic therapy with UV lasers is Zn II- tetrakis-sulfonatophenyl porphyrin.

  11. Adsorption of cationic organic dyes in suspended-core fibers

    E-print Network

    Adsorption of cationic organic dyes in suspended-core fibers Barbara Wajnchold,1, * Michal Grabka,1 investigations reveal that the effect originates from the adsorption of the dye molecules on the fiber inner,7]. The mechanism of this phenomenon could be explained by chemical and/or physical adsorption. The adsorption

  12. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal. PMID:19834437

  13. Practical management of hair loss.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, J.; Wiseman, M.; Lui, H.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe an organized diagnostic approach for both nonscarring and scarring alopecias to help family physicians establish an accurate in-office diagnosis. To explain when ancillary laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for hair loss are based on randomized controlled studies, uncontrolled studies, and case series. MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 1998 with the MeSH words alopecia, hair, and alopecia areata. Articles were selected on the basis of experimental design, with priority given to the most current large multicentre controlled studies. Overall global evidence for therapeutic intervention for hair loss is quite strong. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common forms of nonscarring alopecias are androgenic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and alopecia areata. Other disorders include trichotillomania, traction alopecia, tinea capitis, and hair shaft abnormalities. Scarring alopecia is caused by trauma, infections, discoid lupus erythematosus, or lichen planus. Key to establishing an accurate diagnosis is a detailed history, including medication use, systemic illnesses, endocrine dysfunction, hair-care practices, and family history. All hair-bearing sites should be examined. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the scalp is useful, particularly to diagnose scarring alopecias. Once a diagnosis has been established, specific therapy can be initiated. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis and management of hair loss is an interesting challenge for family physicians. An organized approach to recognizing characteristic differential features of hair loss disorders is key to diagnosis and management. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10925761

  14. Hair Loss in New Moms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  15. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  16. Meta-analysis of hair removal laser trials.

    PubMed

    Sadighha, Afshin; Mohaghegh Zahed, Golnaz

    2009-01-01

    Traditional hair-removal techniques have included shaving, waxing, chemical depilation, and electrolysis. All of these methods result in temporary hair removal. The theory of selective photo thermolysis led to the development of a variety of different laser systems. These lasers range from the short end of spectrum, with the 694-nm ruby laser, to the middle, with the 755-nm alexandrite and 810-nm diode lasers, and to the long end with the 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser. We made a systematic review on the clinical trials with use of various laser sources for hair removal, so all clinical trials related to hair removal lasers in 1998-2003 were considered after elimination of heterogenite sources in data store. Trial results were synthetized on the basis of kind of laser. Our study clarified that hair reduction at least 6 months after the last treatment and hair reductions were 57.5, 42.3, 54.7, and 52.8% after three sessions for diode, Nd:YAG, alexandrite and ruby, respectively. We compared the result with use of analysis of variance method (Scheffes) and double comparison with use of Student's t test. Our results clarified that diode laser is the most effective, and Nd:YAG has the least effect of hair removal.It seems that diode and alexandrite lasers are proper for hair removal, but as we need high fluence in the darker skin types and this is accompanied with higher complications, diode is advised for lighter skin, and we advised alexandrite laser for darker skin types. PMID:18027066

  17. Studies on Dyeing Process Variables for Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Glycine Modified Cationized Cotton Muslin Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Kar, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Asis; Shome, Debashis; Konar, Adwaita

    2015-04-01

    Bleached cotton muslin fabric with or without pre-oxidized with NaIO4 (oxy-cotton) was chemically modified with glycine (amino acid) by pad dry calendar process to investigate the changes in textile properties and its dyeability with reactive dye. This glycine modified cotton incorporates new functional groups producing -NH3 + or -C=NH+ -ion (cationic groups) in acid bath to obtain cationized cotton making it amenable to a newer route of salt free reactive dyeing in acid bath. In the present work the process variables of reactive dyeing in the salt free acid bath for dyeing of amine (glycine) modified cationized cotton were studied and optimized. The present study also includes thorough investigation of changes in important textile related properties and dyeability with reactive dye after such chemical modifications. Between oxidized and unoxidized cotton muslin fabric, unoxidized cotton fabric shows better reactive dye uptake in both conventional alkaline bath dyeing and nonconventional salt free acid bath dyeing particularly for high exhaustion class of reactive dye with acceptable level of colour fastness and overall balance of other textile related properties. Moreover, application of dye fixing agent further improves surface colour depth (K/S) of the glycine treated cotton fabric for HE brand of reactive dyes. Corresponding reaction mechanisms for such modifications were supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally unoxidized cotton and pre-oxidized cotton further treated with glycine (amino acid) provide a new route of acid bath salt free reactive dyeing showing much higher dye uptake and higher degree of surface cover with amino acid residue anchored to modified cotton.

  18. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  19. Significant damage of the skin and hair following hair bleaching.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Won-Ji; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ki-Young

    2010-10-01

    Scalp burns can be caused by hair bleaching with excess procedures such as unnecessary heating and excessive treatment with bleaching agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and histological changes of the hair and skin after bleaching. Ammonium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (6% or 9%) solution mixed at a ratio of 1:2 (weight ratio) were sufficiently applied to human hairs and rat skin. The bleached hairs were brightened up to yellow by increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and time of bleach treatment. After bleaching, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe that the cuticle scales of the hairs were irregular and lifted. The mechanical properties of the bleached hairs, such as tensile strength and elongation, were slightly different than the untreated hairs. The tested rat skin showed severe swelling after treatment of the bleaching agent (9% hydrogen peroxide). The rat skin bleached with 9% hydrogen peroxide exhibited epidermal thinning and subepidermal vesicle formation. The extracellular matrix of the skin was seriously disrupted after bleaching. Therefore, the use of only suitable bleaching procedures is suggested in order to avoid injuries. PMID:20860738

  20. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp problems Itchy skin Painful skin / joints Rashes Scaly skin Skin cancer Why see a dermatologist? Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, ...

  1. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  2. Suspended-core optical fibres for organic dye absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wajnchold, Barbara; Umi?ska, Ada; Grabka, Micha?; Kotas, Dariusz; Pustelny, Szymon; Gawlik, Wojciech

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we report on our study of UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy in suspended-core optical fibres (SCFs) filled with organic-dye solutions. We compare two different dye classes, the anionic dye - bromophenol blue sodium salt (BB) and cationic dye - oxazine 725 perchlorate (OX). While the results obtained with BB are in a good agreement with the spectra measured in a standard reference cuvette, those obtained with OX are different and reveal much stronger absorption of light than in cuvettes. This stronger absorption indicates accumulation of the dye molecules on the short section of the core close to the end of the fibre. This observation demonstrates difference in physicochemical properties of the two dye classes and is important for the development of chemical sensors based on SCFs.

  3. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-10-14

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications. PMID:26428071

  4. ESTIMATION OF IONIZATION CONSTANTS OF AZO DYES AND RELATED AROMATIC AMINES: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionization constants for 214 dye molecules were calculated from molecular structures using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry). hese models used fundamental chemical structure theory to predict chemical reactivities ...

  5. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options. PMID:12469966

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  7. A green-chemical synthetic route to fabricate a lamellar-structured Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite exhibiting a high removal ability for organic dye.

    PubMed

    Wu, Longyun; Liu, Yuhua; Zhang, Lishu; Zhao, Lijun

    2014-04-14

    A novel lamellar-structured Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite was synthesized with a room-temperature solution-phase reduction method. A possible reaction mechanism and shape evolutionary process for the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite were supposed. The Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite shows a ferromagnetic behavior. Congo red (CR) was used to evaluate the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite wastewater treatment capability. It was found that 150 ppm of CR could be removed from an aqueous solution within 10 min using the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite, and the adsorption maximum is 2058 mg g(-1) which is higher than all previously reported values. The significantly reduced treatment time required to remove the CR and the simple, low-cost and pollution-free preparation method make the Co/Co(OH)2 nanocomposite promising for use in the highly efficient removal of dyes from wastewater. PMID:24519445

  8. Unifying the Various Incarnations of Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell

    E-print Network

    Jülicher, Frank

    Unifying the Various Incarnations of Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell Jean of the hair cells' responsiveness to small stimuli. As revealed by spontaneous oscillations and forms of mechanical excitability in response to force steps, the hair bundle that adorns each hair cell is both

  9. STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    #12;STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes May 2, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2 Hair structure and mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3 Oriented Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.4 Parameter values for natural hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 #12;2 Hair Interactions

  10. A Comparative Study of Ozone and Ultraviolet Light/Hydrogen Peroxide for Decolorizing Textile Dyeing Waste Water 

    E-print Network

    Namboodri, C. G.; Perkins, W. S.; Walsh, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Decolorizing textile mill spent dyebath effluents with UV radiation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (UV/peroxide) and with ozone was investigated. Direct, disperse, and acid dyes with known chemical structures were decolorized. The dyes...

  11. Hair shaft elongation, follicle growth, and spontaneous regression in long-term, gelatin sponge-supported histoculture of human scalp skin.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L.; Margolis, L. B.; Paus, R.; Hoffman, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms of human hair growth control and to test hair growth-modulatory drugs, appropriate in vitro models are required. Here, we report the long-term growth, shaft elongation, and spontaneous regression of human hair follicles in histoculture of intact scalp skin. Human scalp skin with abundant hair follicles in various stages of the hair growth cycle was grown for up to 40 days in a gelatin sponge-supported histoculture system at the air/liquid interface. Isolated follicles placed in the gelatin-sponge matrix also supported hair shaft elongation, with the hair follicle cells remaining proliferative and viable for very long periods. Hair shaft elongation occurred mainly during the first 10 days of histoculture of both intact skin and isolated follicles. However, hair follicles were viable and follicle keratinocytes continued to incorporate [3H]thymidine for up to several weeks after shaft elongation had ceased as shown by fluorescent-dye double staining, measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and by histological autoradiography of [3H]thymidine incorporation, respectively. Hair follicles could continue their cycle in histoculture; for example, apparent spontaneous catagen induction was observed both histologically and by the actual regression of the hair follicle. In addition, vellus follicles were shown to be viable at day 40 after initiation of culture. In the histocultured human scalp we demonstrated the association of mast cells with anagen follicles and macrophages with catagen follicles, suggesting a role of these cells in the hair cycle. This histoculture technique should serve as a powerful tool for future hair research in the human system as well as a screening assay for compounds that can perturb the hair cycle. Images PMID:1528891

  12. No hair theorems for positive ?

    E-print Network

    Sourav Bhattacharya; Amitabha Lahiri

    2007-11-19

    We extend all known black hole no-hair theorems to space-times endowed with a positive cosmological constant $\\Lambda.$ Specifically, we prove that static spherical black holes with $\\Lambda>0$ cannot support scalar fields in convex potentials and Proca-massive vector fields in the region between black hole and cosmic horizons. We also demonstrate the existence of at least one type of quantum hair, and of exactly one charged solution for the Abelian Higgs model. Our method of proof can be applied to investigate other types of quantum or topological hair on black holes in the presence of a positive $\\Lambda.$

  13. Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

    2010-03-01

    Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

  14. Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

    2009-12-01

    Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

  15. A closer look at the complex hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions forces at the human hair surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdadli, N.; Luengo, G. S.; Recherche, L.

    2008-03-01

    The complex chemical structure of the hair surface is far from being completely understood. Current understanding is based on Rivett's model1 that was proposed to explain the macroscopic hydrophobic nature of the surface of natural hair. In this model covalently-linked fatty acids are chemically grafted to the amorphous protein (keratin) through a thio-ester linkage2,3. Nevertheless, experience like wetting and electrical properties of human hair surface4 shows that the complexity of the hair surface is not fully understand based on this model in literature. Recent studies in our laboratory show for the first time microscopic evidence of the heterogeneous physico-chemical character of the hair surface. By using Chemical Force Microscopy, the presence of hydrophobic and ionic species are detected and localized, before and after a cosmetic treatment (bleaching). Based on force curve analysis the mapping of the local distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups of hair surface is obtained. A discussion on a more plausible hair model and its implications will be presented based on these new results.

  16. A mechanical model of overnight hair curling.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hang; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the observation of overnight hair curling procedure, we establish a mechanical model to describe the temporary wave formation of straight hair (initial curvature is zero), which incorporates the contact between hair and hair roller. Systematic studies are carried out to explore the effects of radius ratio between hair and hair roller, hair's average axial strain, creep time, Poisson's ratio and gravity on the curl retention. The variation of curl retention with respect to time obtained from our numerical model is validated by a simple theoretical model and by overnight curling experiments on hair samples. The results of simulation show that overnight hair curling is suitable to create a wavy hairstyle within about 7 hours, while the combined usage with hair fixatives enables a wavy hairstyle with desired curvature that lasts for a day or more. PMID:26338501

  17. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na

    2013-01-01

    Background Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. Objective This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. Methods A total of 44 female subjects were randomly treated with either APHG-1001 or placebo twice daily for 24 weeks. Using the phototrichogram analysis, a count of newly developed gray hair was estimated. Investigator assessment and subject self-assessment were also performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the compound. Results The mean number of newly developed gray hair at 24 weeks was 6.3/cm2 in the APHG-1001 group and 11.4/cm2 in the placebo group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). However, the investigator assessment and subject self-assessment did not show any significant change in the gross appearance of hair grayness by the end of the study. No severe adverse events in either group were observed. Moreover, the incidence of adverse events did not differ between the groups. Conclusion This clinical trial revealed that APHG-1001, which contains an extract of P. lobata, could prevent the development of new gray hair without any remarkable adverse effects. Thus, it can be considered as a viable treatment option for the prevention of gray hair. PMID:23717015

  19. Tryptophan in human hair: correlation with pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bertazzo, A; Biasiolo, M; Costa, C V; Cardin de Stefani, E; Allegri, G

    2000-08-01

    The distribution of tryptophan content in human hair of various colours was evaluated, in order to study the accumulation of this amino acid, precursor of serotonin, melatonin and niacin, in hair and the influence on hair pigmentation. Pigmentation is an important factor in determining drug incorporation into hair. Results from 1211 samples of hair from healthy subjects (577 men and 634 women) show that tryptophan levels are significantly higher in males (37.83 +/- 3.45 microg/g dry hair) than in females (26.62 +/- 2.40 microg/g hair). Besides sex, age also influences the distribution of tryptophan in human hair, the highest levels being found in both sexes in the first few years of life, probably due to the influence of milk, and in aging subjects in the groups of 61-80 and > 80 years. In order to investigate the influence of hair colour, hair samples were subdivided according to colour into blond, dark blond, red, light brown, brown, black, grey and white. The hair contents of tryptophan in both sexes was higher in brown and black hair than in blond hair, but in grey and white hair concentrations were the highest, demonstrating that tryptophan accumulates among hair fibres with age. Grouping subjects by age in relation to hair colour, we observed that at ages 1-5 and 6-12 years, colour did not influence tryptophan contents, but at ages 13-19 and 20-40 years tryptophan content increased significantly from blond to brown at 13-19 years and from blond to black at 20-40 years in both sexes. Therefore, variations in tryptophan levels of human hair appear to be correlated with differences in hair colour in both sexes. Tryptophan also accumulates in hair during keratinization, as shown by the presence of high levels of this amino acid in grey and white hair. PMID:11132729

  20. Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

  1. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  2. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  3. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal. PMID:16408139

  4. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is the same stuff that makes our skin's color fair or darker. It also helps determine whether a person will burn or tan in the sun . The dark or light color of someone's hair depends on how much melanin ...

  5. Follicular unit extraction hair transplant.

    PubMed

    Dua, Aman; Dua, Kapil

    2010-05-01

    Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT) of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of 'no visible scarring' in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the traditional FUT. The addition of latest automated FUE technique seeks to overcome some of the limitations in this relatively new technique and it is now possible to achieve more than a thousand grafts in one day in trained hands. This article reviews the methodology, limitations and advantages of FUE hair transplant. PMID:21031064

  6. TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

  7. Transfer characteristics of the hair cell's afferent synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, Erica C.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2006-04-01

    The sense of hearing depends on fast, finely graded neurotransmission at the ribbon synapses connecting hair cells to afferent nerve fibers. The processing that occurs at this first chemical synapse in the auditory pathway determines the quality and extent of the information conveyed to the central nervous system. Knowledge of the synapse's input-output function is therefore essential for understanding how auditory stimuli are encoded. To investigate the transfer function at the hair cell's synapse, we developed a preparation of the bullfrog's amphibian papilla. In the portion of this receptor organ representing stimuli of 400-800 Hz, each afferent nerve fiber forms several synaptic terminals onto one to three hair cells. By performing simultaneous voltage-clamp recordings from presynaptic hair cells and postsynaptic afferent fibers, we established that the rate of evoked vesicle release, as determined from the average postsynaptic current, depends linearly on the amplitude of the presynaptic Ca2+ current. This result implies that, for receptor potentials in the physiological range, the hair cell's synapse transmits information with high fidelity. auditory system | exocytosis | glutamate | ribbon synapse | synaptic vesicle

  8. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  9. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wo?owiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. PMID:23121872

  10. The latest innovations in hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T

    2011-08-01

    Hair restoration began as a result of the fortuitous finding by Dr. Norman Orentreich that hair follicles taken from an area of nonbalding scalp could be implanted into an area of male pattern hair loss and continue to grow terminal hair. Since that time, hair transplants have progressed from the use of large plugs to the use of follicular units (normally occurring clusters of hairs). This has allowed surgeons to create undetectable results in cases of androgenetic alopecia and well as other conditions associated with hair loss. Advances continue in hair restoration technique ranging from surgical approach to instrumentation and ways to enhance growth. In this article, the more recent surgical and medical innovations in hair reconstruction are reviewed. PMID:21792780

  11. Studies in treatment of disperse dye waste: Membrane-wet oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Dhale, A.D.; Mahajani, V.V.

    2000-07-01

    An integrated process, membrane-wet oxidation (MEMWO) has been demonstrated to treat the disperse dye bath waste. The dye bath waste stream containing azo class disperse dye CL 79, was studied to demonstrate the process. A nanofiltration membrane (MPT 30) showed > 99% color and 97% chemical oxygen demand (COD) rejection of dye compound. The concentrate was then treated by wet oxidation (WO) process. WO of dye was studied in the range of 160--225 C and oxygen partial pressure 0.69--1.38 MPa. A homogeneous copper sulfate was found to be a suitable catalyst to effectively destroy the dye as well as the real waste. While non catalytic WO of dye achieved 75% reduction in COD during 120 min with 99% color destruction, the catalytic WO showed about 90% reduction in COD. The performance of WO of actual waste stream was comparable with that of pure dye molecule.

  12. Development and Validation of a Triple Quad LC/MS Method for Fiber Dye Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly-Ingram, Ceirin M.

    This study aims to determine whether the analysis of dyed fiber through liquid chromatography (HPLC) with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) can be used as a reliable alternative to the current chemical techniques used to differentiate dyes. Other methods of analysis involving HPLC and MS have proven to be capable of distinguishing chemically different dyes within a few dye classifications, but none have proven capable of providing a complete alternative to the current accepted technique of thin layer chromatography (TLC). In theory, HPLC-triple quad MS is capable of providing more reproducible and reliable data than the conventional TLC methods with a much greater depth of measurable information with which to characterize dye components. In this study, dyes will be extracted from various types of fibers, including commonly worn types like cotton, polyester, nylon, and wool, and examine dyes from most of the eight different dye classes.

  13. Repigmentation of hair following adalimumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Tintle, Suzanne J; Dabade, Tushar S; Kalish, Robert A; Rosmarin, David M

    2015-06-01

    Repigmentation of canities, or age-related grey or white hair, is a rare occurrence. Generalized repigmentation of grey-white hair has been reported following inflammatory processes, and heterochromia (localized patches of hair repigmentation) is even more unusual, reported in association with medication use and malignancy. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are increasingly utilized medications for inflammatory disorders, including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Hair loss, or alopecia, has been described among the side effects of these medications, but changes in hair pigmentation in association with this class of drugs have not previously been reported. We describe a patient with hair repigmentation associated with adalimumab therapy. PMID:26158363

  14. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  15. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Hawking, Stephen W; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the ho...

  16. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Stephen W. Hawking; Malcolm J. Perry; Andrew Strominger

    2016-01-05

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  17. [Complications of synthetic hair implantation].

    PubMed

    Lange-Ionescu, S; Frosch, P J

    1995-01-01

    Five men (average age 35 years) suffering from the sequelae of hair implants were examined in the course of claims for legal compensation. Polyether amide hair fibres had been implanted, 1000 per patient and session. In all cases the improved implantation technique with a fine needle and subcutaneous knotting had been used in a total of three institutions. Three patients developed bacterial folliculitis after 4-8 weeks; in the other two patients this developed later, after 3-6 months. In two patients the possible triggering event was the wearing of a motorcycle helmet and a vacation in a tropical climate respectively. In another patient the artificial hair curled considerably after he visited a sauna. The implanted hair had fallen out almost completely in all cases (100% in two patients after 9-12 months, 50-75% in three patients after 7 months to 2 years). All patients showed cosmetically disturbing small scars and pigmentary changes. Despite an apparently improved complication rate, the new technique of hair fibre implantation remains a doubtful procedure and cannot be recommended in view of possible permanent sequelae. PMID:7875965

  18. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Women)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair root – the medical term for this is “folliculitis” . Shaving is a common cause. Before you decide ... the-counter topical medicine such as hydrocortisone cream. Folliculitis (Infection in the hair root): Soak in a ...

  19. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair root – the medical term for this is “folliculitis”. Shaving is a common cause. If you develop ... the-counter topical medicine such as hydrocortisone cream. Folliculitis (Infection in the hair root), Blisters, or Pimples ...

  20. Skin and hair changes during pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Most women have changes in their skin, hair, and nails during pregnancy. Most of these are normal and go away after pregnancy. ... changes in the texture and growth of your hair and nails during pregnancy. Some women say that ...

  1. Trichoscopic Hair Evaluation in Patients with Ectodermal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Górska, Renata; Rudnicka, Lidia; Zadurska, Ma?gorzata

    2015-07-01

    Hair abnormalities in ectodermal dysplasia may be difficult to identify. Among 16 patients with ectodermal dysplasia trichoscopy (hair dermoscopy) revealed predominance of pilosebaceous units with 1 hair (69%), abnormalities of hair shaft pigmentation (gray hair with single dark hairs, 56%), pili torti, trichothiodystrophy, trichorrhexis nodosa, and rarely, cicatricial alopecia. PMID:25935816

  2. A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching Hong Chen and Song Chun Zhu

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Song Chun

    to the original one. We test our models and algorithms in a data set of 300 human hairs extracted from a cosmetic-layer representa- tion (a-e) computed, we can reconstruct vivid hair images and generate hair sketches. We test our human animation, as well as in human recognition. For example, it is evident that hair style has

  3. Negative hair-bundle stiffness betrays a mechanism for mechanical amplification by the hair cell

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    Negative hair-bundle stiffness betrays a mechanism for mechanical amplification by the hair cell P. Hudspeth, August 15, 2000 Hearing and balance rely on the ability of hair cells in the inner ear to sense miniscule mechanical stimuli. In each cell, sound or acceleration deflects the mechanosensitive hair bundle

  4. Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus Michael E. Benser Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021 Hair bundles, the mechanically sensitive organelles of hair cells in the auditory and vestibular systems, are elastic structures that are deflected

  5. Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli, 1999 To enhance their mechanical sensitivity and frequency selectivity, hair cells amplify the mechanical stimuli to which they respond. Although cell-body contractions of outer hair cells are thought

  6. Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells in the sacculus

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells transduction by the inner ear. We present evidence for a single-cell correlate of this phenomenon, hair motion that incorporates the negative stiffness of the hair bundle as well as its two mechanisms

  7. Module Based Complexity Formation: Periodic Patterning in Feathers and Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism's lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specified number, size, and spacing. We explore how a field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical-chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators / inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (micro-environment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macro-environment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by Cellular Automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to “organ metamorphosis”, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential evolutionary novel steps using this module based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells. PMID:23539312

  8. Laser hair removal: where are we now?

    PubMed

    DiBernardo, B E; Perez, J; Usal, H; Thompson, R; Callahan, L; Fallek, S R

    1999-07-01

    The hair removal market is evolving rapidly. The goal has always been long-term epilation. Success is dependent on understanding hair biology and physiology and on knowledge of laser physics, skin optics, and tissue preservation with respect to these emerging laser technologies. These topics will be reviewed, as will specific categories of laser systems in the hair removal arena and the clinical aspects of laser hair removal today. PMID:10597703

  9. Promotive Effect of Topical Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on Hair Growth in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aldhalimi, Muhsin A.; Hadi, Najah R.; Ghafil, Fadaa A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is a vasodilatory medication used primarily as antihypertensive drug. It was discovered to have the side effect of hair growth and reversing baldness. Tretinoin is commonly used topically for acne treatment and in the treatment of photoaging. It is used by some as hair loss treatment. Objective. To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on hair growth in a mouse model. Materials and Methods. Coat hairs on the dorsal skin of seven weeks old male mice were gently clipped and then stained by using commercial dye. These mice were divided into four groups each of five treated with topical application of ethanol 95%, Ketoconazole solution 2%, Minoxidil solution 5%, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin solution 0.1%, respectively. The drugs were applied once daily for three weeks, the clipped area was photographed, and the ratio of regrown coat area was calculated. Results. The results demonstrated that Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin had a significant stimulatory effect on hair growth compared with the control group and Minoxidil was the most effective drug among them. PMID:24734193

  10. Polymeric nanoparticles-embedded organogel for roxithromycin delivery to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    G?ówka, Eliza; Wosicka-Fr?ckowiak, Hanna; Hyla, Kinga; Stefanowska, Justyna; Jastrz?bska, Katarzyna; Klapiszewski, ?ukasz; Jesionowski, Teofil; Cal, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Drug delivery into hair follicles with the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is gaining more importance as drug-loaded NPs may accumulate in hair follicle openings. The aim was to develop and evaluate a pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) with roxithromycin (ROX)-loaded NPs for follicular targeting. Polymeric NPs were evaluated in terms of particle shape, size, zeta potential, suspension stability, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. Lyophilized NPs were incorporated into the PLO and rheological measurements of the nanoparticles-embedded organogels were done. The fate of the NPs in the skin was traced by incorporation of a fluorescent dye into the NPs. As a result, ROX was efficiently incorporated into polymeric NPs characterized by the appropriate size (approximately 300 nm) allowing drug delivery to hair follicles. In ex vivo human skin penetration studies, horizontal skin sections revealed fluorescence deep in the hair follicles. Although the organogel has higher affinity to the lipidic follicular area than an aqueous suspension of NPs, it did not seem to improve penetration of the NPs along the hair shaft. The results proved that it was possible to achieve preferential targeting to the pilosebaceous unit using polymeric NPs formulated either into the aqueous suspension or semisolid topical formulation. PMID:25014763

  11. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  12. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  13. Facial hair policy in a respirator program

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmeyer, P.R. )

    1989-10-01

    In this paper the prohibition against facial hair for respirator users is explored. Reasons for the prohibition are given, along with suggestions for establishing or reviewing a policy. Recommendations are given for properly wording a facial hair policy, and the issue of facial hair on female workers is also addressed.

  14. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  15. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  16. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  17. ISHair: Importance Sampling for Hair Scattering

    E-print Network

    Pellacini, Fabio

    ISHair: Importance Sampling for Hair Scattering Jiawei Ou1,2 Feng Xie2 Parashar Krishnamachari2 Fabio Pellacini3 1 Sunday, September 2, 12 #12;hair bsdf model [KK89] · diffuse scattering kajiya 2 Sunday, September 2, 12 #12;hair bsdf model [MJC*03] · diffuse scattering kajiya and kay's model

  18. Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells ELIZABETH C. OESTERLE,* DIANA I. LURIE avian inner ear by using immunocytochemical techniques. NF-M was detected in auditory hair cells and VIIIth cranial nerve neurons. NF-M-positive hair cells are first detected at embryonic day 11 (E11

  19. COCHLEAR PROPERTIES AND MICROMACHINED HAIR-LIKE

    E-print Network

    White, Robert D.

    COCHLEAR PROPERTIES AND MICROMACHINED HAIR-LIKE SHEAR SENSORS by Shuangqin Liu A dissertation. A novel hair-like sensor using capacitive sensing scheme for direct shear measurement is designed, fabricated and tested. The capacitive sensor base is fabricated using PolyMUMPsTM foundry process and hair

  20. Safety and Efficacy Study of Hairstetics' ANCHORING SYSTEM For Hair Extensions For Subjects Affected With Hair Thinning

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-10

    Post Radiation/Chemotherapy Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Post-burn Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Cicatricial Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Androgenetic Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning; Alopecia Due to Traumatic Injuries Presents With Hair Thinning.; Alopecia Due to Skin Disease Presents With Hair Thinning.

  1. Burdens of mercury in residents of Temirtau, Kazakhstan I: hair mercury concentrations and factors of elevated hair mercury levels.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hui-Wen; Ullrich, Susanne M; Tanton, Trevor W

    2011-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is released either naturally in the environment or by anthropogenic activities. During its global circulation, Hg presents in a diversity of chemical forms and transforms between each other. Among Hg species, methylmercury (MeHg) is readily absorbed by humans via the aquatic food chain and thus it is very neurotoxic to exposed populations including fetuses due to perinatal exposure. In 2005, a survey was carried out in Temirtau, an Hg-contaminated site in North Central Kazakhstan, to investigate Hg concentrations in the hair samples of the residents and the relationship between Hg exposure levels and the related factors. Among the 289 hair samples, Hg concentrations ranged from 0.009 to 5.184µg/g with a mean of 0.577µg/g. Nearly 17% of the population exceeded 1µg/g for hair Hg, which corresponds to the reference of dose (RfD) 0.1µg/kg body weight/day developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Subgroups of males, people aged over 45 and fishermen or anglers were found to have elevated Hg exposure levels in their hair. A positive correlation was found between Hg concentrations in hair and frequencies of river fish consumption. As a result, the finding that people were exposed to high levels of Hg was expected due to the frequent consumption of fish caught from the polluted River Nura or the neighbouring lakes. A regression model showed that approximately 41% of variance of Hg concentrations in the study population's hair was attributed to the variables of gender, residential location, age and fishery occupation. The model implied that demographic characteristics together with dietary behaviour should be taken into account in studies associated with Hg exposure risk, in order to clearly define the group potentially sensitive to Hg exposure. PMID:20092877

  2. Ethanol Affects the Development of Sensory Hair Cells in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%–1.75% by volume) from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS. PMID:24324841

  3. Ecabet sodium alleviates neomycin-induced hair cell damage.

    PubMed

    Rah, Yoon Chan; Choi, June; Yoo, Myung Hoon; Yum, Gunhwee; Park, Saemi; Oh, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Seung Hoon; Kwon, Soon Young; Cho, Seung Hyun; Kim, Suhyun; Park, Hae-Chul

    2015-12-01

    Ecabet sodium (ES) is currently applied to some clinical gastrointestinal disease primarily by the inhibition of the ROS production. In this study, the protective role of ES was evaluated against the neomycin-induced hair cell loss using zebrafish experimental animal model. Zebrafish larvae (5-7 dpf), were treated with each of the following concentrations of ES: 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80?g/mL for 1 h, followed by 125?M neomycin for 1h. The positive control group was established by 125?M neomycin-only treatment (1h) and the negative control group with no additional chemicals was also established. Hair cells inside four neuromasts ( SO1, SO2, O1, OC1) were assessed using fluorescence microscopy (n=10). Hair cell survival was calculated as the mean number of viable hair cells for each group. Apoptosis and mitochondrial damage were investigated using special staining (TUNEL and DASPEI assay, respectively), and compared among groups. Ultrastructural changes were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Pre-treatment group with ES increased the mean number of viable hair cells as a dose-dependent manner achieving almost same number of viable hair cells with 40?M/ml ES treatment (12.98±2.59 cells) comparing to that of the negative control group (14.15±1.39 cells, p=0.72) and significantly more number of viable hair cells than that of the positive control group (7.45±0.91 cells, p<0.01). The production of reactive oxygen species significantly increased by 183% with 125?M neomycin treatment than the negative control group and significantly decreased down to 105% with the pre-treatment with 40?M/ml ES (n=40, p=0.04). A significantly less number of TUNEL-positive cells (reflecting apoptosis, p<0.01) and a significantly increased DASPEI reactivity (reflecting viable mitochondria, p<0.01) were observed in 40?M/ml ES pre-treatment group. Our data suggest that ES could protect against neomycin-induced hair cell loss possibly by reducing apoptosis, mitochondrial damages, and the ROS generation. PMID:26561773

  4. Analysis of in vivo penetration of textile dyes causing allergic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Worm, M.; Richter, H.; Sterry, W.; Meinke, M.

    2009-10-01

    Contact allergies to textile dyes are common and can cause severe eczema. In the present study, we investigated the penetration of a fluorescent textile dye, dissolved from a black pullover, into the skin of one volunteer during perspiration and nonperspiration. Previously, wearing this pullover had induced a severe contact dermatitis in an 82-year old woman, who was not aware of her sensitization to textile dyes. The investigations were carried out by in vivo laser scanning microscopy. It could be demonstrated that the dye was eluted from the textile material by sweat. Afterwards, the dye penetrated into the stratum corneum and into the hair follicles. Inside the hair follicles, the fluorescent signal was still detectable after 24 h, whereas it was not verifiable anymore in the stratum corneum, Laser scanning microscopy represents an efficient tool for in vivo investigation of the penetration and storage of topically applied substances and allergens into the human skin and reveals useful hints for the development and optimization of protection strategies.

  5. Live imaging of root hairs.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Silvia M; Dinneny, Jose R; Estevez, José M

    2015-01-01

    Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients. Growing root hairs requires intensive cell wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip growth. The cell wall of plants is a very rigid structure comprised largely of polysaccharides and hydroxyproline-rich O-glycoproteins. The importance of root hairs stems from their capacity to expand the surface of interaction between the root and the environment, in search for the necessary nutrients and water to allow plant growth. Therefore, it becomes crucial to deepen our knowledge of them, particularly in the light of the applicability in agriculture by allowing the expansion of croplands. Root hair growth is an extremely fast process, reaching growth rates of up to 1 ?m/min and it also is a dynamic process; there can be situations in which the final length might not be affected but the growth rate is. Consequently, in this chapter we focus on a method for studying growth dynamics and rates during a time course. This method is versatile allowing for it to be used in other plant organs such as lateral root, hypocotyl, etc., and also in various conditions. PMID:25408443

  6. Scald Burns From Hair Braiding.

    PubMed

    Meizoso, Jonathan P; Ramaley, Stephen R; Ray, Juliet J; Allen, Casey J; Guarch, Gerardo A; Varas, Robin; Teisch, Laura F; Pizano, Louis R; Schulman, Carl I; Namias, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Only one previous case report has described scald burns secondary to hair braiding in pediatric patients. The present case study is the largest to date of scald burns as a result of hair braiding in children and adults. Charts of all 1609 female patients seen at a single burn center from 2008 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with scald burns attributed to hair braiding. Demographics, injury severity, injury patterns, and complications were analyzed. Twenty-six patients (1.6%) had scald burns secondary to hair braiding with median TBSA 3%. Eighty-five percent of patients were pediatric with median age 8 years. Injury patterns were as follows: back (62%), shoulder (31%), chest (15%), buttocks (15%), abdomen (12%), arms (12%), neck (12%), and legs (4%). No patients required operative intervention. Three patients were admitted to the hospital. Two patients required time off from school for 6 and 10 days post burn for recovery. Complications included functional limitations (n = 2), hypertrophic scarring (n = 1), cellulitis requiring antibiotics (n = 1), and anxiety requiring medical/psychological therapy (n = 2). This peculiar mechanism of injury not only carries inherent morbidity that includes the risks of functional limitations, infection, and psychological repercussions but also increases usage of resources through hospital admissions and multiple clinic visits. Further work in the form of targeted outreach programs is necessary to educate the community regarding this preventable mechanism of injury. PMID:26594857

  7. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  8. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and fluorescence studies of novel tetrachloroperylene-azo hybrid dyes.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer; Shabir, Ghulam

    2014-07-01

    Novel rylene-azo hybrid dyes have been synthesized by condensation of azo-dyes with tetrachloroperylene dianhydride, possessing stupendous thermal, chemical and photochemical stability. Phenolic azo dyes are used for the nucleophilic replacement of chlorine substituents at 1,6,7,12-positions of perylene 3,4,9,10-dianhydride system. The absorption maxima (?(max)) of these dyes have been determined in diverse solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate and N, N-dimethylformamide. Fluorescence spectra are taken in water and highest fluorescence was exhibited by dyes containing carboxylic groups. The ?(max) and fluorescence of these dyes is greatly affected by polarity of solvents. The structures of newly synthesized rylene-azo hybrid dyes have been confirmed by UV, FTIR and (1)HNMR spectroscopy. PMID:24912451

  10. Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  11. Alterations in hair follicle dynamics in women.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

  12. Black hole?s 1/N hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    2013-02-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  13. Mammalian hairs in Early Cretaceous amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vullo, Romain; Girard, Vincent; Azar, Dany; Néraudeau, Didier

    2010-07-01

    Two mammalian hairs have been found in association with an empty puparium in a ˜100-million-year-old amber (Early Cretaceous) from France. Although hair is known to be an ancestral, ubiquitous feature in the crown Mammalia, the structure of Mesozoic hair has never been described. In contrast to fur and hair of some Jurassic and Cretaceous mammals preserved as carbonized filaments, the exceptional preservation of the fossils described here allows for the study of the cuticular structure. Results show the oldest direct evidence of hair with a modern scale pattern. This discovery implies that the morphology of hair cuticula may have remained unchanged throughout most of mammalian evolution. The association of these hairs with a possible fly puparium provides paleoecological information and indicates peculiar taphonomic conditions.

  14. Progressive hair straightening using an automated flat iron: function of silicones.

    PubMed

    Dussaud, Anne; Rana, Bhavna; Lam, Hui Tung

    2013-01-01

    An automated hair iron was built with which the hair temperature, contact force of the iron against the hair tress, and gliding speed were controlled. The changes in keratin were characterized by several techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, birefringence measurements, and wet tensile tests. Undamaged curly hair was ironed for several iron cycles at temperatures ranging from 120°C to 175°C and washed between each iron cycle. Irreversible straightening of curly hair was observed and depended on the temperature and the number of cycles. The birefringence data suggested that the straightening was related to a gradual decrease of the microfilament organization. Silicone treatment did not significantly affect the course of microfilament denaturation, but it improved the quality of straightening. It enhanced the fiber alignment under the gliding action of the iron. Progressive thermal straightening may be a promising method to achieve permanent smoothing of curly hair without chemical treatment. Ironing at the onset temperature (?154°C), before substantial disulfide bond scission occurred, seemed to be a good compromise between process speed, straightening performance, and hair integrity (i.e., reduced loss of cross-linking). PMID:23578835

  15. Regulation of root hair initiation and expansin gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2002-12-01

    The expression of two Arabidopsis expansin genes (AtEXP7 and AtEXP18) is tightly linked to root hair initiation; thus, the regulation of these genes was studied to elucidate how developmental, hormonal, and environmental factors orchestrate root hair formation. Exogenous ethylene and auxin, as well as separation of the root from the medium, stimulated root hair formation and the expression of these expansin genes. The effects of exogenous auxin and root separation on root hair formation required the ethylene signaling pathway. By contrast, blocking the endogenous ethylene pathway, either by genetic mutations or by a chemical inhibitor, did not affect normal root hair formation and expansin gene expression. These results indicate that the normal developmental pathway for root hair formation (i.e., not induced by external stimuli) is independent of the ethylene pathway. Promoter analyses of the expansin genes show that the same promoter elements that determine cell specificity also determine inducibility by ethylene, auxin, and root separation. Our study suggests that two distinctive signaling pathways, one developmental and the other environmental/hormonal, converge to modulate the initiation of the root hair and the expression of its specific expansin gene set. PMID:12468740

  16. Regulation of root hair initiation and expansin gene expression in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    The expression of two Arabidopsis expansin genes (AtEXP7 and AtEXP18) is tightly linked to root hair initiation; thus, the regulation of these genes was studied to elucidate how developmental, hormonal, and environmental factors orchestrate root hair formation. Exogenous ethylene and auxin, as well as separation of the root from the medium, stimulated root hair formation and the expression of these expansin genes. The effects of exogenous auxin and root separation on root hair formation required the ethylene signaling pathway. By contrast, blocking the endogenous ethylene pathway, either by genetic mutations or by a chemical inhibitor, did not affect normal root hair formation and expansin gene expression. These results indicate that the normal developmental pathway for root hair formation (i.e., not induced by external stimuli) is independent of the ethylene pathway. Promoter analyses of the expansin genes show that the same promoter elements that determine cell specificity also determine inducibility by ethylene, auxin, and root separation. Our study suggests that two distinctive signaling pathways, one developmental and the other environmental/hormonal, converge to modulate the initiation of the root hair and the expression of its specific expansin gene set.

  17. Alzheimer's Dye Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

  18. Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship between ion channel clustering and synaptic formation in hair cells and afferent neurons. In future studies, we will determine when hair cell precursors acquire electrical tuning, and, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, identify and characterize their L-VGCC and BK currents. We will also use biophysical techniques to determine the number of L-VGCC and BK channels and the size and gating kinetics of their underlying L-VGCC and BK conductances, correlating these variables with the amplitude and frequency of membrane oscillations produced by intracellular current steps. We expect these studies to determine how hair cells regulate ion channel expression to achieve specific physiological responses.

  19. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. PMID:26203266

  20. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    SciTech Connect

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  1. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

  2. Magnetic actuation of hair cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, David; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Cheon, Jinwoo; Bozovic, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    The bullfrog sacculus contains mechanically sensitive hair cells whose stereociliary bundles oscillate spontaneously when decoupled from the overlying membrane. Steady-state offsets on the resting position of a hair bundle can suppress or modulate this native motility. To probe the dynamics of spontaneous oscillation in the proximity of the critical point, we describe here a method for mechanical actuation that avoids loading the bundles or contributing to the viscous drag. Magnetite beads were attached to the tips of the stereocilia, and a magnetic probe was used to impose deflections. This technique allowed us to observe the transition from multi-mode to single-mode state in freely oscillating bundles, as well as the crossover from the oscillatory to the quiescent state.

  3. Anchoring groups for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Cole, Jacqueline M

    2015-02-18

    The dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) require one or more chemical substituents that can act as an anchor, enabling their adsorption onto a metal oxide substrate. This adsorption provides a means for electron injection, which is the process that initiates the electrical circuit in a DSSC. Understanding the structure of various DSSC anchors and the search for new anchors are critical factors for the development of improved DSSCs. Traditionally, carboxylic acid and cyanoacrylic acid groups are employed as dye anchors in DSSCs. In recent years, novel anchor groups have emerged, which make a larger pool of materials available for DSSC dyes, and their associated physical and chemical characteristics offer interesting effects at the interface between dye and metal oxide. This review focuses especially on the structural aspects of these novel dye anchors for TiO2-based DSSCs, including pyridine, phosphonic acid, tetracyanate, perylene dicarboxylic acid anhydride, 2-hydroxylbenzonitrile, 8-hydroxylquinoline, pyridine-N-oxide, hydroxylpyridium, catechol, hydroxamate, sulfonic acid, acetylacetanate, boronic acid, nitro, tetrazole, rhodanine, and salicylic acid substituents. We anticipate that further exploration and understanding of these new types of anchoring groups for TiO2 substrates will not only contribute to the development of advanced DSSCs, but also of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, water splitting systems, and other self-assembled monolayer-based technologies. PMID:25594514

  4. Laser photolysis of fluorone dyes in a chitosan matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Slyusareva, E A; Sizykh, A G; Gerasimova, M A; Slabko, V V; Myslivets, S A

    2012-08-31

    Kinetics of laser-induced photobleaching of fluorone dyes (fluorescein, dibromofluorescein, eosin Y, erythrosin B, Rose Bengal) is studied in a chitosan matrix. For all dyes the bleaching kinetics at the intensities of laser radiation 0.7 - 11.9 W cm{sup -2} demonstrates quasi-monomolecular behaviour. The results are analysed using a kinetic model, based on the four-level (S{sub 0}, S{sub 1}, T{sub 1}, T{sub n}) scheme of the dye with chemically active triplet states taken into account. It is shown that the rate constants of the chemical reaction involving higher triplet states in the dyes studied amount to (3.9 - 18.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} and exceed the analogous values for the reaction involving the first lower triplet states by nine orders of magnitude. The rate of reaction involving the first triplet states appeared to be higher by one - two orders of magnitude than that in the case of higher triplet states involved because of low population of the latter. The possible mechanism of dye bleaching with participation of chitosan that consists in reduction of the dye to the leuco form by transfer of hydrogen from the chitosan matrix is discussed. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasmas)

  5. Electrochemical removal of synthetic textile dyes from aqueous solutions using Ti/Pt anode: role of dye structure.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cynthia K C; Oliveira, Gustavo R; Fernandes, Nedja S; Zanta, Carmem L P S; Castro, Suely Souza Leal; da Silva, Djalma R; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the efficiency of electrochemical oxidation (EO) was investigated for removing a dye mixture containing Novacron Yellow (NY) and Remazol Red (RR) in aqueous solutions using platinum supported on titanium (Ti/Pt) as anode. Different current densities (20, 40 and 60 mA cm(-2)) and temperatures (25, 40 and 60 °C) were studied during electrochemical treatment. After that, the EO of each of these dyes was separately investigated. The EO of each of these dyes was performed, varying only the current density and keeping the same temperature (25 °C). The elimination of colour was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, and the degradation of organic compounds was analysed by means of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Data obtained from the analysis of the dye mixture showed that the EO process was effective in colour removal, in which more than 90% was removed. In the case of COD removal, the application of a current density greater than 40 mA cm(-2) favoured the oxygen evolution reaction, and no complete oxidation was achieved. Regarding the analysis of individual anodic oxidation dyes, it was appreciated that the data for the NY were very close to the results obtained for the oxidation of the dye mixture while the RR dye achieved higher colour removal but lower COD elimination. These results suggest that the oxidation efficiency is dependent on the nature of the organic molecule, and it was confirmed by the intermediates identified. PMID:24801286

  6. Determination of endogenous corticosterone in rodent's blood, brain and hair with LC-APCI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian; Xu, Hang; Wang, Weiwen; Li, Shifei; Chen, Zheng; Deng, Huihua

    2015-10-01

    Endogenous corticosterone in rodent's hair would be a potential biomarker to assess the response of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis to chronic stress. However, currently unknown is whether hair corticosterone is associated with endogenous corticosterone in blood and brain. The present study aimed to develop an enhanced assay for determination of endogenous corticosterone in blood, brain and hair, and to examine associations of hair corticosterone with blood and brain corticosterone under basal condition and association with blood corticosterone under chronic stressful condition. Hair at the back and blood samples were collected from non-stressed and stressed rodents, and prefrontal lobe and thalamus from non-stressed rodents. Chronic stress exerted on mice was 30-day repeated social defeat. The analyses were done using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive mode. Limits of detection and quantification were 0.2 and 0.5ng/ml for rat's blood, and 0.5 and 1.0pg/mg for rat's hair and brain, and 1.25 and 2.50ng/ml (or pg/mg) for mouse's blood (or hair). Recovery ranged from 84.2 to 108.0%. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were less than 10%. Additionally, correlation of hair corticosterone with blood corticosterone was significant in both mice and rats, but correlations with corticosterone in prefrontal lobe and thalamus were not significant in rats. Both hair and blood corticosterone were significantly higher in stressed mice compared with controls. PMID:26343018

  7. Molecular design and synthesis of a pH independent and cell permeant fluorescent dye and its applications.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Xiaojie; Liu, Chang; Huang, Kun; Zhang, Siwen; He, Song; Zhao, Liancheng; Zeng, Xianshun

    2015-06-21

    Fluorescent dyes have played crucial roles in the field of molecular imaging as fluorescent fluorophores. In this work, a novel water-soluble and pH-independent fluorescent xanthene dye, a hydroxyl regioisomeric 3',4'-benzorhodol, has been designed and synthesized. Compared with those of rhodol dyes, the absorption (ca. 570 nm) and maximum emission (ca. 620 nm) of the dye are largely red-shifted. Due to its ring-opened zwitterion structure in water media, the dye showed good membrane permeability and distributed in the whole cell cytoplasm upon incubation with live cells. Meanwhile, the dye could be easily modified to probes. The hydrazide derivative of the dye exhibited an excellent Hg(2+) selectivity over other relevant metal ions with a detection limit down to 3 nM. Thus, the excellent fluorescence properties and chemical properties of the dye allow it to be designed as a fluorescent chemosensor and biomarker for biological applications. PMID:25990913

  8. Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1

    E-print Network

    Quan, Long

    Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1 Eyal Ofek2 Long Quan1 Heung-Yeung Shum2 1 The Hong; the recovered hair rendered with the recovered diffuse color; a fraction of the longest recovered hair fibers rendered with the recovered diffuse color to show the hair threads; the recovered hair rendered

  9. A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering

    E-print Network

    Kazhdan, Michael

    1 A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering Kelly Ward Florence Bertails Tae-Yong Kim Stephen R. Marschner Marie-Paule Cani Ming C. Lin Abstract-- Realistic hair modeling in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because

  10. Half-flat Quantum Hair

    E-print Network

    Hugo Garcia-Compean; Oscar Loaiza-Brito; Aldo Martinez-Merino; Roberto Santos-Silva

    2013-10-27

    By wrapping D3-branes over 3-cycles on a half-flat manifold we construct an effective supersymmetric black hole in the N=2 low-energy theory in four-dimensions. Specifically we find that the torsion cycles present in a half-flat compactification, corresponding to the mirror symmetric image of electric NS flux on a Calabi-Yau manifold, manifest in the half-flat black hole as quantum hair. We compute the electric and magnetic charges related to the quantum hair, and also the mass contribution to the effective black hole. We find that by wrapping a number of D3-branes equal to the order of the discrete group associated to the torsional part of the half-flat homology, the effective charge and mass terms vanishes. We compute the variation of entropy and the corresponding temperature associated with the lost of quantum hair. We also comment on the equivalence between canceling Freed-Witten anomaly and the assumption of self-duality for the 5-form field strength. Finally from a K-theoretical perspective, we compute the presence of discrete RR charge of D-branes wrapping torsional cycles in a half-flat manifold.

  11. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

  12. A functional analysis of hair pulling.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, J T; Miltenberger, R G; Galensky, T L; Ellingson, S A; Long, E S

    1999-01-01

    We experimentally assessed the functions of hair pulling and hair manipulation of a 19-year-old woman (Kris) with moderate mental retardation and cerebral palsy. In Phase 1 a functional analysis revealed that Kris pulled and manipulated hair for the greatest amount of time in the alone condition, suggesting that the behaviors were maintained by some form of automatic reinforcement (Vaughan & Michael, 1982). In Phase 2 we assessed the nature of the sensory stimulation that maintained hair pulling by providing continuous access to previously pulled or cut hair and, thereafter, by having Kris wear a rubber glove. The results suggested that hair pulling was maintained by digital-tactile stimulation (automatic positive reinforcement). These findings are discussed, and recommendations for further analyses of automatically reinforced habit behaviors are provided. PMID:10513028

  13. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Sim?i?, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

    2007-07-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  14. Analysis of environmental contaminates in hair using an ion trap mass spectrometer with a filtered noise field waveboard

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A.; Hulsey, S.S.; Frantz, C.E.; Andresen, B.D.

    1994-12-31

    A variety of methods have been established using mass spectrometry (MS) for the analysis of chemicals in hair. Much of this past work has been focused on the detection of drugs of abuse. Human hair has been analyzed either directly by probe distillation (DIP) with some preliminary clean-up using HPLC or solid phase extraction (SPE). However, established drug analysis methods do not apply for the detection of some environmental contaminates. In this study, the authors selected 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and malathion as the target compounds. In addition two types of hair samples were analyzed: (1) human hair fortified with either TNT or malathion and (2) hair from mice who ingested the same analytes. The analytical method was DIP-EI-MS/MS with an ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a filtered noise field wave board.

  15. Computational hair quality categorization in lower magnifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heshmat, Barmak; Ikoma, Hayato; Lee, Ik Hyun; Rastogi, Krishna; Raskar, Ramesh

    2015-03-01

    We take advantage of human hair specific geometry to visualize sparse submicron cuticle peelings with highly oblique tip-side illumination. We show that the statistics of these features can directly estimate hair quality in much lower magnifications (down to 20x) with less powerful objectives when the features themselves are below the system resolution. Our technique has strong potential for lower cost, portable, and autonomous hair diagnostic apparatuses.

  16. Black holes with massive graviton hair

    E-print Network

    Richard Brito; Vitor Cardoso; Paolo Pani

    2013-09-03

    No-hair theorems exclude the existence of nontrivial scalar and massive vector hair outside four-dimensional, static, asymptotically flat black-hole spacetimes. We show, by explicitly building nonlinear solutions, that black holes can support massive graviton hair in theories of massive gravity. These hairy solutions are, most likely, the generic end state of the recently discovered monopole instability of Schwarzschild black holes in massive graviton theories.

  17. Physical means of treating unwanted hair.

    PubMed

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Alster, Tina S

    2008-01-01

    Unwanted facial and body hair is a common problem, generating a high level of interest for treatment innovations. A wide range of modalities for the management of unwanted hair have been advocated over the years with varying degrees of clinical success. Most recently, lasers and light sources have been used to address this problem with improved clinical success rates in properly selected patients. The full range of temporary and permanent hair removal techniques will be outlined in this review of physical means of treating unwanted hair. PMID:18844716

  18. Management of unwanted hair in females.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, S W

    2001-11-01

    The development of lasers as a treatment for unwanted hair has led to an increased interest in this field. Laser hair removal is frequently commercially led and there are few controlled studies to demonstrate efficacy. It is important to be aware of all treatment modalities for hair removal so that patients can be counselled adequately. This review covers all methods of hair removal from physical through hormonal to laser treatment and allows the reader to understand the pros and cons of each form of therapy. PMID:11722446

  19. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  20. Simplified nonlinear outer hair cell models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Niranjan; Grosh, Karl

    2005-04-01

    We present a consistent second-order expansion of nonlinear constitutive theories for outer hair cells. For a particular theory, we will test the validity of such a model for small variations in voltage and strain about the resting state of outer hair cells. An analysis of the various terms in the simplified nonlinear model and their relevance to outer hair cell mechanics are presented. Results show that the second-order expansion is adequate for modeling outer hair cell mechanics in a global model of the cochlea. Model predictions agree with the notion that voltage nonlinearities are the dominant ones at low sound levels in vivo. .

  1. Improved Biolistic Transfection of Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C) and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2) to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells. PMID:23049715

  2. Dye-labeled Ts1 toxin Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201404438

    E-print Network

    Bezanilla, Francisco

    Dye-labeled Ts1 toxin Hot Paper DOI: 10.1002/anie.201404438 Total Chemical Synthesis of Biologically Active Fluorescent Dye- Labeled Ts1 Toxin** Bobo Dang, Tomoya Kubota, Ana M. Correa, Francisco Bezanilla, and Stephen B. H. Kent* Abstract: Ts1 toxin is a protein found in the venom of the Brazilian

  3. Cochlear hair cell regeneration from neonatal mouse supporting cells

    E-print Network

    Bramhall, Naomi F

    2012-01-01

    Unlike lower vertebrates, capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration, mammals experience permanent sensorineural hearing loss following hair cell damage. Although low levels of hair cell regeneration have been demonstrated ...

  4. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

  5. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

  6. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. PMID:25869730

  7. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants,...

  8. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants,...

  9. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

  10. Dye-coated europium monosulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Srotoswini; Dollahon, Norman R.; Stoll, Sarah L.

    2011-05-15

    Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

  11. Hair follicles are viable after delayed FUE procedure.

    PubMed

    Mohebbipour Laran, Alireza; Mirmohammadi, Ramin; Rezaei Bana, Mohammadreza; Manoochehri, Shaghayegh

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, male pattern hair loss is usually managed with hair transplant. However, maintaining the hair follicle viability between extraction and implantation period is a great concern which restricts the hair transplantation period. However, it is possible that the hair follicles can be preserved and be viable for few days. Here, we report a case with delayed follicular unit extraction in three consecutive days with acceptable hair growth after a 5-month follow-up. PMID:25968165

  12. The search for ancient hair: a scientific approach to the probabilities and recovery of unattached hair in archaeological sites 

    E-print Network

    Turner-Pearson, Katherine

    2009-05-15

    importantly contaminated their samples with modern hair and did not test ancient hair at all. No standardized method has previously been established for searching for ancient hair in an archaeological site. This paper considers (a) a method of soil extraction...

  13. Inflationary Universe with Anisotropic Hair

    E-print Network

    Masa-aki Watanabe; Sugumi Kanno; Jiro Soda

    2009-04-30

    We study an inflationary scenario with a vector field coupled with an inflaton field and show that the inflationary universe is endowed with anisotropy for a wide range of coupling functions. This anisotropic inflation is a tracking solution where the energy density of the vector field follows that of the inflaton field irrespective of initial conditions. We find a universal relation between the anisotropy and a slow-roll parameter of inflation. Our finding has observational implications and gives a counter example to the cosmic no-hair conjecture.

  14. Hair Metabolomics: Identification of Fetal Compromise Provides Proof of Concept for Biomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sulek, Karolina; Han, Ting-Li; Villas-Boas, Silas Granato; Wishart, David Scott; Soh, Shu-E; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter David; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kenny, Louise Claire; Baker, Philip Newton

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the human metabolome has yielded valuable insights into health, disease and toxicity. However, the metabolic profile of complex biological fluids such as blood is highly dynamic and this has limited the discovery of robust biomarkers. Hair grows relatively slowly, and both endogenous compounds and environmental exposures are incorporated from blood into hair during growth, which reflects the average chemical composition over several months. We used hair samples to study the metabolite profiles of women with pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) and healthy matched controls. We report the use of GC-MS metabolite profiling of hair samples for biomarker discovery. Unsupervised statistical analysis showed complete discrimination of FGR from controls based on hair composition alone. A predictive model combining 5 metabolites produced an area under the receiver-operating curve of 0.998. This is the first study of the metabolome of human hair and demonstrates that this biological material contains robust biomarkers, which may lead to the development of a sensitive diagnostic tool for FGR, and perhaps more importantly, to stable biomarkers for a range of other diseases. PMID:25057319

  15. Species Identification Key of Korean Mammal Hair

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Eunok; CHOI, Tae-Young; WOO, Donggul; MIN, Mi-Sook; SUGITA, Shoei; LEE, Hang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology. PMID:24451929

  16. How to Stop Damaging Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  17. Contaminant characterization on hair and fiber surfaces using imaging TOF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewold, Gary S.; Gresham, Garold L.; Gianotto, Anita K.; Avci, Recep

    1999-02-01

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to evaluate the detection of contaminant chemicals on the surfaces of single synthetic textile and canine hair fibers. The results of the study showed that a variety of chemical classes can be detected. Both cocaine and heroin could be easily observed as intact protonated molecules ([M + H]+) in the cation spectra acquired from textile fibers. Two organophosphates were evaluated: malathion, which is a common pesticide, and pinacolyl methyl phosphonic acid (PMPA), which is the principal degradation product of the nerve agent soman (a close relative of sarin). Malathion could be observed as (CH3O)2P(equalsS)S-, which is formed by thiophosphate cleavage of the intact malathion. PMPA is observed as the conjugate base ([PMPA - H]-). Surfactant chemicals found in hair care products were successfully detected on single hair fibers. Specifically, alkyl sulfates, ethoxylated alkyl sulfates, silicones, and alkylammonium compounds could be readily identified in spectra acquired from single hair fiber samples exposed to shampoo and/or conditioner. Generally, the results of the study show that imaging SIMS is applicable to single fiber analysis, for a range of adsorbed compound types. The forensic application of this instrumental approach has not been widely recognized. However, the ability of the technique to acquire specific chemical information from trace samples clearly points to applications where the need for chemical analysis is great, but the amount of sample is limited.

  18. Decolorization of acid and basic dyes: understanding the metabolic degradation and cell-induced adsorption/precipitation by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cerboneschi, Matteo; Corsi, Massimo; Bianchini, Roberto; Bonanni, Marco; Tegli, Stefania

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli strain DH5? was successfully employed in the decolorization of commercial anthraquinone and azo dyes, belonging to the general classes of acid or basic dyes. The bacteria showed an aptitude to survive at different pH values on any dye solution tested, and a rapid decolorization was obtained under aerobic conditions for the whole collection of dyes. A deep investigation about the mode of action of E. coli was carried out to demonstrate that dye decolorization mainly occurred via three different pathways, specifically bacterial induced precipitation, cell wall adsorption, and metabolism, whose weight was correlated with the chemical nature of the dye. In the case of basic azo dyes, an unexpected fast decolorization was observed after just 2-h postinoculation under aerobic conditions, suggesting that metabolism was the main mechanism involved in basic azo dye degradation, as unequivocally demonstrated by mass spectrometric analysis. The reductive cleavage of the azo group by E. coli on basic azo dyes was also further demonstrated by the inhibition of decolorization occurring when glucose was added to the dye solution. Moreover, no residual toxicity was found in the E. coli-treated basic azo dye solutions by performing Daphnia magna acute toxicity assays. The results of the present study demonstrated that E. coli can be simply exploited for its natural metabolic pathways, without applying any recombinant technology. The high versatility and adaptability of this bacterium could encourage its involvement in industrial bioremediation of textile and leather dyeing wastewaters. PMID:26062529

  19. Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle

    E-print Network

    Baumgart, Johannes; Risler, Thomas; Hudspeth, A James

    2015-01-01

    The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps between the individual stereocilia. The investigation revealed that grouping stereocilia in a bundle dramatically reduces the total drag. During hair-bundle deflections, the tip links potentially induce drag by causing small but very dissipative relative motions between stereocilia; this effect is offset by the horizontal top connectors that restrain such relative movements at low frequencies. For higher frequencies the coupling liquid is sufficient to assure that the hair bundle moves as a unit with a low total drag. This...

  20. Diffuse Hair Loss Induced by Sertraline Use

    PubMed Central

    K?vrak, Yüksel; Ya?c?, ?brahim; Üstünda?, Mehmet Fatih; Özcan, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a rare side effect of psychotropic drugs. The most related drug class with this side effect is the mood stabilizers. Studies reporting the sertraline-induced alopecia are limited in number. Sertraline is a potent antidepressant which inhibits the serotonin reuptake from the presynaptic terminals selectively. The reason for hair loss could not be elucidated completely. Psychotropic drugs are usually considered to lead to hair loss through influencing the telogen phase of hair follicle. This paper reports a 21-year-old male with diffuse hair loss induced by sertraline use and improved by quitting the drug. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other case reports on sertraline-induced alopecia within 2 weeks. PMID:26457219

  1. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  2. What Is the Use of Elephant Hair?

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Conor L.; Stone, Howard A.; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2012-01-01

    The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own. PMID:23071700

  3. Visible Light Water Splitting Using Dye-Sensitized Oxide Semiconductors

    E-print Network

    in combustion engines or fuel cells, or combined catalytically with CO2 to make carbon con- taining fuels, and decomposition of the oxidized dye molecules. Laser flash pho- tolysis experiments allow us to measure fuels.3 In addition, the lessons learned from the design and study of 1966 ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH

  4. HIGH-SENSITIVITY THERMOSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY OF DYES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of dyes belonging to different chemical classes have been analyzed by thermospray (TSP) ionization mass spectrometry using a modified source containing a wire-repeller. etection limits were determined and found to be in the range 0.05-20ng, which are lower by a factor of...

  5. Characterization of Hairdresser Exposure to Airborne Particles during Hair Bleaching.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Patrik T; Marini, Sara; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Kåredal, Monica; Blomgren, Eva; Nielsen, Jörn; Buonanno, Giorgio; Gudmundsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms among hairdressers are often ascribed to the use of bleaching powders that contain persulfate salts. Such salts can act as allergens and airway irritants but the mechanisms behind the negative health effects are not fully known. In order to understand why some hairdressers experience respiratory symptoms during, and after, sessions of hair bleaching, it is of importance to characterize how exposure occurs. In this work we used time and particle size resolved instrumentation with the aim to measure the concentration of particles that hairdressers are exposed to during sessions of hair bleaching. We also used filter samples to collect particles for quantitative determination of persulfate (S2O8 (2-)) content and for analysis by light microscopy. Two different types of bleaching powders were used, one marked as dust-free and one without this marking (denoted regular). The time resolved instrumentation revealed that particles <10 µm were emitted, specifically when the regular powder was prepared and mixed with hydrogen peroxide. In contrast to other research our work also revealed that supercoarse particles (>10 µm) were emitted during application of the bleaching, when both the regular and the dust-free powders were used. The measured level of persulfate, sampled in the breathing zone of the hairdressers, was on average 26 µg m(-3) when the regular powder was used and 11 µg m(-3) when the dust-free powder was used. This indicates that use of dust-free powder does not eliminate exposure to persulfates, it only lowers the concentration. We show that the site of sampling, or position of the hairdresser with regards to the hair being bleached, is of high importance in the determination of persulfate levels and exposure. This work focuses on the physical and chemical characterization of the particles released to the air and the results are important for accurate exposure assessments. Accurate assessments may in turn lead to a better understanding of why some hairdressers experience respiratory symptoms from hair bleaching sessions. PMID:26371279

  6. Effect of photodamage on the outermost cuticle layer of human hair.

    PubMed

    Richena, M; Rezende, C A

    2015-12-01

    The surface of the hair is the region most exposed to solar radiation and to the environment in general. Many of the well-known damaging effects of sun exposure on hair must start or even be restricted to the most external cuticle layers. As such, this work investigates morphological, ultrastructural and chemical changes in the outermost cuticle layer of dark brown hair, using atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The results showed that after 230h of irradiation with a mercury lamp, small bumps with globular shape (heights lying in the 1-5nm range) appeared on the cuticle surface and their size increased with increasing irradiation times. In addition, the enlargement of pre-existing holes was also observed (holes increase around 350% in depth) and the height of the steps formed between the edges of two cuticle scales increased around 65%, as a result of 500h of irradiation. The damages in hair strands were accurately identified by analyzing exactly the same surface region before and after irradiation by AFM images. Finally, the results were discussed in terms of the chemical differences between the non-irradiated and the irradiated hair, for instance, the increased level of cystine oxidation as a consequence of photodegradation. PMID:26496793

  7. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.; Cobb, Ernest D.; Kilpatrick, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  8. Fluorometric procedures for dye tracing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, James F.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes the current fluorometric procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey in dye tracer studies such as time of travel, dispersion, reaeration, and dilution-type discharge measurements. The advantages of dye tracing are (1) low detection and measurement limits and (2) simplicity and accuracy in measuring dye tracer concentrations using fluorometric techniques. The manual contains necessary background information about fluorescence, dyes, and fluorometers and a description of fluorometric operation and calibration procedures as a guide for laboratory and field use. The background information should be useful to anyone wishing to experiment with dyes, fluorometer components, or procedures different from those described. In addition, a brief section on aerial photography is included because of its possible use to supplement ground-level fluorometry.

  9. Study of colouring effect of herbal hair formulations on graying hair

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijender; Ali, Mohammed; Upadhyay, Sukirti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To screen the hair colouring properties of hair colorants/ herbal hair colouring formulations. Materials and Methods: The dried aqueous herbal extracts of Gudhal leaves (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), Jatamansi rhizome (Nardostachys jatamansi), Kuth roots (Saussurea lappa), Kattha (Acacia catechu), Amla dried fruit (Embelica officinalis), were prepared. Coffee powder (Coffea arabica) and Henna powder (Lowsonia inermis) were taken in the form of powder (# 40). Fourteen herbal hair colorants were prepared from these dried aqueous herbal extracts and powders. Activities of hair colorants were observed on sheep wool fibers. On the basis of the above observation six hair colorants were selected. These six formulations were taken for trials on human beings. Observation: The formulation coded HD-3 gave maximum colouring effect on sheep wool fibers as well as on human beings and percentage of acceptance among the volunteers were in the following order: HD- 3 > HD- 4 > HD-1 > HD-13 > HD-14 > HD-11. Results and Discussion: The remarkable results were obtained from five herbal hair colorants, viz., HD-1, HD- 3, HD- 4, HD-13 and HD-14 on sheep wool fibers and human beings. Formulation HD-3, having gudhal, jatamansi, kuth, kattha, amla, coffee and henna, was the maximum accepted formulation and suggested that these herbs in combination acts synergistically in hair colouring action. It also concluded that jatamansi, present in different hair colorants, was responsible to provide maximum blackening on hair PMID:26130937

  10. Preoperative hair removal and surgical site infections: network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, A; Saliou, P; Lucet, J C; Mimoz, O; Keita-Perse, O; Grandbastien, B; Bruyère, F; Boisrenoult, P; Lepelletier, D; Aho-Glélé, L S

    2015-10-01

    Preoperative hair removal has been used to prevent surgical site infections (SSIs) or to prevent hair from interfering with the incision site. We aimed to update the meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials about hair removal for the prevention of SSIs, and conduct network meta-analyses to combine direct and indirect evidence and to compare chemical depilation with clipping. The PubMed, ScienceDirect and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized controlled trials analysing different hair removal techniques and no hair removal in similar groups. Paired and network meta-analyses were conducted. Two readers independently assessed the study limitations for each selected article according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. No study compared clipping with chemical depilation. Network meta-analyses with shaving as the reference showed significantly fewer SSIs with clipping, chemical depilation, or no depilation [relative risk 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.79; 0.60, 0.36-0.97; and 0.56, 0.34-0.96, respectively]. No significant difference was observed between the absence of depilation and chemical depilation or clipping (1.05, 0.55-2.00; 0.97, 0.51-1.82, respectively] or between chemical depilation and clipping (1.09, 0.59-2.01). This meta-analysis of 19 randomized controlled trials confirmed the absence of any benefit of depilation to prevent surgical site infection, and the higher risk of surgical site infection when shaving is used for depilation. Chemical depilation and clipping were compared for the first time. The risk of SSI seems to be similar with both methods. PMID:26320612

  11. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FAT, SKIN, NAILS, HAIR, BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human tissues and fluids including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, and urine. These methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well ...

  12. Evaluation of human hairs with terahertz wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serita, Kazunori; Murakami, Hironaru; Kawayama, Iwao; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2014-03-01

    Single human hairs using a scanning laser terahertz (THz) imaging system are evaluated. The system features near-field THz emission and far-field THz detection. A sample is set in the vicinity of a two-dimensional THz emitter, and an excitation laser beam is scanned over the emitter via a galvanometer. By detecting the transmitted THz wave pulses that are locally generated at the irradiation spots of the excitation laser, we can obtain the THz transmission image and the spectrum of the sample with imaging time of 47 s for 512×512 pixels and maximum resolution of ˜27 ?m. Using the system, we succeeded in observing the specific features of single human hairs in both the THz transmittance spectra and transmission images; it was found that the THz transmittance spectrum of gray hair shows a tendency of increase while that of black hair shows a decrease with increasing frequency above 1.2 THz. We could also observe the change of the moisture retention in the hair, and it is found that cuticles play one of the important roles in keeping moisture inside the hair. Those obtained data indicate that our system can be useful for evaluating single human hairs and those kinds of microscale samples.

  13. Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Johannes; Kozlov, Andrei S.; Risler, Thomas; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2011-11-01

    The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps between the individual stereocilia. The investigation revealed that grouping stereocilia in a bundle dramatically reduces the total drag. During hair-bundle deflections, the tip links potentially induce drag by causing small but very dissipative relative motions between stereocilia; this effect is offset by the horizontal top connectors that restrain such relative movements at low frequencies. For higher frequencies the coupling liquid is sufficient to assure that the hair bundle moves as a unit with a low total drag. This work reveals the mechanical characteristics originating from hair-bundle morphology and shows quantitatively how a hair bundle is adapted for sensitive mechanotransduction.

  14. Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle

    E-print Network

    Johannes Baumgart; Andrei S. Kozlov; Thomas Risler; A. James Hudspeth

    2015-05-14

    The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps between the individual stereocilia. The investigation revealed that grouping stereocilia in a bundle dramatically reduces the total drag. During hair-bundle deflections, the tip links potentially induce drag by causing small but very dissipative relative motions between stereocilia; this effect is offset by the horizontal top connectors that restrain such relative movements at low frequencies. For higher frequencies the coupling liquid is sufficient to assure that the hair bundle moves as a unit with a low total drag. This work reveals the mechanical characteristics originating from hair-bundle morphology and shows quantitatively how a hair bundle is adapted for sensitive mechanotransduction.

  15. Functional Utrastructure of Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae) Digestive Hairs

    PubMed Central

    P?achno, Bartosz Jan; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Ma?gorzata; ?wi?tek, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Digestive structures of carnivorous plants produce external digestive enzymes, and play the main role in absorption. In Lentibulariaceae, the ultrastructure of digestive hairs has been examined in some detail in Pinguicula and Utricularia, but the sessile digestive hairs of Genlisea have received very little attention so far. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by expanding their morphological, anatomical and histochemical characterization. Methods Several imaging techniques were used, including light, confocal and electron microscopy, to reveal the structure and function of the secretory hairs of Genlisea traps. This report demonstrates the application of cryo-SEM for fast imaging of whole, physically fixed plant secretory structures. Key Results and Conclusion The concentration of digestive hairs along vascular bundles in subgenus Genlisea is a primitive feature, indicating its basal position within the genus. Digestive hairs of Genlisea consist of three compartments with different ultrastructure and function. In subgenus Tayloria the terminal hair cells are transfer cells, but not in species of subgenus Genlisea. A digestive pool of viscous fluid occurs in Genlisea traps. In spite of their similar architecture, the digestive-absorptive hairs of Lentibulariaceae feature differences in morphology and ultrastructure. PMID:17550910

  16. Phytoremediation of dye contaminated soil by Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) seed and growth assessment of Vigna radiata in the remediated soil

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthy, V.; Geetha, R.; Rajendran, R.; Prabhavathi, P.; Karthik Sundaram, S.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Santhanam, P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was investigated for soil bioremediation through sababul plant biomass (Leucaena leucocephala). The soil contaminated with textile effluent was collected from Erode (chithode) area. Various physico-chemical characterizations like N, P, and K and electrical conductivity were assessed on both control and dye contaminated soils before and after remediation. Sababul (L. leucocephala) powder used as plant biomass for remediation was a tool for textile dye removal using basic synthetic dyes by column packing and eluting. The concentration of the dye eluted was compared with its original concentration of dye and were analyzed by using UV–vis spectrophotometer. Sababul plant biomass was analyzed for its physico-chemical properties and active compounds were detected by GC–MS, HPTLC and FTIR. Plant growth was assessed with green gram on the textile contaminated soil and sababul had the potential of adsorbing the dye as the contaminated soil and also check the growth of green gram. PMID:25183943

  17. Nodules on the Hair: A Rare Case of Mixed Piedra

    PubMed Central

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-01-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair. PMID:24778538

  18. Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis Tsinghua University

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Kun

    Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis Lvdi Wang1 1 Tsinghua University Yizhou Yu2 2 University) (b) (c) (f) (d) (e) (g) (h) Figure 1: Example-based hair geometry synthesis pipeline. (a) input hair) level-2 geometry reconstructed from (e); (g) level-1 of the output hierarchy; (h) final output hair

  19. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201.70... Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions. (1) Personal hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications, including shampoos and conditioners. (2) Hair...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  2. A Layered Wisps Model for Simulating Interactions inside Long Hair

    E-print Network

    Montréal, Université de

    A Layered Wisps Model for Simulating Interactions inside Long Hair Eric Plante Taarna Studios Inc@iro.umontreal.ca Abstract. This paper presents a method for animating long hair while mod­ elling both interactions between the hair and the character's body and between different hair wisps. Our method relies on a layered models

  3. AJ Hudspeth amplification of stimuli by hair cells

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    400 Mechanical AJ Hudspeth amplification of stimuli by hair cells Unlike any other known sensory receptor, the hair cell uses positive feedback to augment the stimulus to which it responds. In the internal ears of many vertebrates, hair cells amplify the inputs to their mechanosensitive hair bundles

  4. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or...

  5. Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells

    E-print Network

    Corey, David P.

    Colloquium Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells Jeffrey R. Holt and Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman 414, Boston, MA 02114 Deflection of the hair bundle atop a sensory hair deflections, hair cells adapt. Two fundamentally distinct models have been proposed to explain transducer

  6. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  8. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201.70... Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions. (1) Personal hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications, including shampoos and conditioners. (2) Hair...

  9. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or...

  10. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101...) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201.70... Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions. (1) Personal hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications, including shampoos and conditioners. (2) Hair...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  13. To appear in the ACM SIGGRAPH conference proceedings Hair Meshes

    E-print Network

    Keyser, John

    To appear in the ACM SIGGRAPH conference proceedings Hair Meshes Cem Yuksel Cyber Radiance Scott Schaefer Texas A&M University John Keyser Texas A&M University Figure 1: An example hair mesh model and the final hair model generated using this hair mesh and procedural styling operations. Abstract Despite

  14. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  15. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  16. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Fang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Nuo, Mingtu; Guo, Xudong; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (T?4) is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF) development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed T?4 in the epidermis, as well as T?4 global knockout mice, to study the role of T?4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of T?4 on hair growth. To study T?4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). To explore the effect of T?4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of T?4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in T?4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that T?4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased T?4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in T?4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, T?4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. T?4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts. PMID:26083021

  17. [Anaphylactic reaction following hair bleaching].

    PubMed

    Babilas, P; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    2005-12-01

    Ammonium persulphate is a potent bleach and oxidizing agent that is commonly present in hair bleaches. Because bleaching is so commonly performed, hairdressers often develop allergic contact dermatitis to ammonium persulphate. In addition to this delayed reaction, asthma and rhinitis may develop as immediate reactions in those exposed to the fumes. Severe anaphylactic reactions are rare. We report a 24-year-old woman who acquired dermatitis following contact with bleaching substances while working as a hairdresser. After changing her profession, the dermatitis disappeared. Following the private use of a hairdressing bleach containing ammonium persulphate, she suffered a severe anaphylactic reaction with unconsciousness. The patient also developed an anaphylactic reaction three hours following patch testing with the hairdresser battery. The rub test with ammonium persulphate (2.5%) in a 1:100 solution was positive. PMID:15688222

  18. Dye-Sensitization Of Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ajimsha, R. S.; Tyagi, M.; Das, A. K.; Misra, P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    Nannocrystalline and nanoporus thin films of ZnO were synthesized on glass substrates by using wet chemical drop casting method. X-ray diffraction measurements on these samples confirmed the formation of ZnO nanocrystallites in hexagonal wurtzite phase with mean size of {approx}20 nm. Photo sensitization of these nanostructured ZnO thin films was carried out using three types of dyes Rhodamine 6 G, Chlorophyll and cocktail of Rhodamine 6 G and Chlorophyll in 1:1 ratio. Dye sensitized ZnO thin films showed enhanced optical absorption in visible spectral region compared to the pristine ZnO thin films.

  19. Current status of hair restoration surgery.

    PubMed

    Caroli, Shobit; Pathomvanich, Damkerng; Amonpattana, Kulakarn; Kumar, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Hair restoration has emerged as a subspecialty of aesthetic plastic surgery practiced by a wide range of doctors including plastic surgeons, general surgeons, dermatologists, and even general practitioners. As a current trend, most doctors practice "Ultrarefined follicular unit hair transplantation" in which the entire procedure is done precisely with minimal donor scar. In selected cases, Mega or even Giga sessions are now done with natural appearance and almost undetectable scar, in a single session with good density. This article is an attempt to review the history of hair restoration surgery, describe a novel technique currently practiced in our center, and summarize possible future innovations. PMID:22808618

  20. Searching for nonminimally coupled scalar hairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saa, Alberto

    1996-06-01

    We study the asymptotically flat, static, and spherically symmetric black-hole solutions of the theory described by the action S=? dnx?-g\\{(1-??2)R-g?????? ?\\}, with n>~3 and arbitrary ?. We demonstrate the absence of scalar hairs for ?<0. For ?>~?c=(n-2)/4(n-1), we show that there is no scalar hair obeying \\|?(r)\\|<1/?? or \\|?(r)\\|>~1/??. For 0hairs such that \\|?(r)\\|<1/?? or 1/?

  1. Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saidel, William M.; Lanford, Pamela J.; Yan, Hong Y.; Popper, Arthur N.

    1995-01-01

    A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the same techniques to the saccule of Carassius auratus (Teleostei, Otophysi, Cyprinidae) and demonstrates similar types of hair cells to those found in Astronotus. Since Carassius and Astronous are species of extreme taxonomic distance within the Euteteostei, two classes of mechanoreceptive hair cells are likely to represent the primitive condition for sensory receptors in the euteleost inner ear and perhaps in all bony fish ears.

  2. The structure of people’s hair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

  3. Dye-Sensitized Approaches to Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Sensitization of wide band-gap semiconductors to photons of energy less than the band-gap is a key step in two technically important processes - panchromatic photography and photoelectrochemical solar cells. In both cases the photosensitive species is not the semiconductor - silver halide or metal oxide - but rather an electrochemically active dye. The gap between the highest occupied molecular level (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular level (LUMO) is less than the band-gap of the semiconductor with which it is associated. It can therefore absorb light of a wavelength longer than that to which the semiconductor itself is sensitive. The electrochemical process is initiated when the dye molecule relaxes from its photoexcited level by electron injection into the semiconductor, which therefore acts as a photoanode. If the dye is in contact with a redox electrolyte, the negative charge represented by the lost electron can be recovered from the reduced state of the redox system, which in return is regenerated by charge transfer from a cathode. An external load completes the electrical circuit. The system therefore represents a conversion of the energy of absorbed photons into an electrical current by a regenerative device in every functional respect analogous to a solid-state photovoltaic cell. As in any engineering system, choice of materials, their optimization and their synergy are essential to efficient operation. While a semiconductor-electrolyte contact is analogous to a Schottky contact, in that a barrier is established between two materials of different conduction mechanism, with the possibility of optical absorption, charge carrier pair generation and separation, it should be remembered that the photogenerated valence band hole in the semiconductor represents a powerful oxidizing agent. Given that the band-gap is related to the strength and therefore the stability of chemical bonding within the semiconductor, for narrow-gap materials the most likely reaction of such a hole is the photocorrosion of the semiconductor itself. However, only relatively narrow band-gap materials have an effective optical absorption through the visible spectrum, towards and into the infra-red. Materials with an optimal band-gap match to the solar spectrum, of the order of 1.5eV, are therefore electrochemically unstable. A stable photoelectrochemical cell, without some process of optical sensitization, and necessarily using a wide-gap semiconductor is sensitive only to the ultra-violet limit of the visible spectrum. Over recent years a suitable combination of semiconductor and sensitizer has been identified and optimized, so that now a solar spectrum conversion efficiency of over 11% has been verified in a sensitized photoelectrochemical device. One key to such an efficient system is the suppression of recombination losses. When the excited dye relaxes by electron loss, the separated charge carriers find themselves on opposite sides of a phase barrier -- the electron within the solid-state semiconductor, the positive charge externally, in association with the dye molecule. There is no valence---band involvement in the process, so the system represents a majority-carrier device, avoiding one of the major loss mechanisms in conventional photovoltaics. In consequence also a highly-disordered, even porous, semiconductor structure is acceptable, enabling surface adsorption of a sufficient concentration of the dye to permit total optical absorption of incident light of photon energy greater than the HOMO-LUMO gap of the dye molecule. The accepted wide-band semiconductor for photoelectrochemical applications is titanium dioxide in the anatase crystal structure. The size of the nanocrystals making up the semiconductor photoanode can be determined by hydrothermal processing of a precursor sol, and the film can be deposited on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate by any convenient thin-film process such as screen printing or tape casting. The preferred dye system is inspired by the natural processes involving chlorophyll, the coloring

  4. Comparative Transduction Mechanisms of Vestibular Otolith Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs regenerate following aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Hair cells in these organs are differentially sensitive to gentamicin, with saccular hair cells and hair cells in the utricular striola being damaged at lower gentamicin concentrations than hair cells in the utricular extrastriola. Regenerating hair cells in these organs have short hair bundles and can be classified into a number of phenotypes using the same morphological criteria used to identify their mature counterparts. Our studies suggest that some supporting cells can convert, or transdifferentiate,into hair cells without an intervening cell division. By stimulating these processes in humans, clinicians may be able to alleviate human deafness and peripheral vestibular disorders by regenerating and replacing lost hair cells. In vivo and in vitro studies were done on cell proliferation and hair cell regeneration.

  5. Incendiary potential of the flash-lamp pumped 585-nm tunable dye laser.

    PubMed

    Epstein, R H; Brummett, R R; Lask, G P

    1990-08-01

    The recently introduced pulsed flash-lamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to treat cutaneous port-wine stains. In our practice, infants and children receive general anesthesia for these brief, yet painful, treatments. Because the flammability of this laser has not been reported and because we administer supplemental oxygen and nitrous oxide, we analyzed the incendiary potential of this laser by measuring the flammability of gauze and Telfa strips, hair, clear plastic face masks and tracheal tubes, and green nasal cannulae in 21%-100% oxygen and in nitrous oxide at laser energies between 6.0 and 10.0 J/cm2. (Our clinical range is 6.0-7.0 J/cm2.) In room air, gauze, Telfa, masks, and tubes did not ignite; only gauze ignited at high energy in 100% oxygen. Hair ignited in room air only when struck repeatedly at high energy, but easily ignited in 100% oxygen. Wetting hair with saline prevented ignition in room air and decreased flammability in supplemental oxygen. Green nasal cannulae prongs were extremely flammable in oxygen. Caution should be taken when using supplemental oxygen/nitrous oxide during treatment with the tunable dye laser. PMID:2375518

  6. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  7. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  8. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog uticulus. 2: Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was motivated by an interest in seeing whether hair cell types in the bullfrog utriculus might differ in their voltage responses to hair bundle displacement. Particular interest was in assessing the contributions of two factors to the responses of utricular hair cells. First, interest in examining the effect of hair bundle morphology on the sensitivity of hair cells to natural stimulation was motivated by the observation that vestibular hair cells, unlike many auditory hair cells, are not free-standing but rather linked to an accessory cupular or otolithic membrane via the tip of their kinocilium. Interest also laid in examining the contribution, if any, of adaptation to the response properties of utricular hair cells. Hair cells in auditory and vibratory inner ear endorgans adapt to maintained displacements of their hair bundles, sharply limiting their low frequency sensitivity. This adaptation is mediated by a shift in the displacement-response curve (DRC) of the hair cell along the displacement axis. Observations suggest that the adaptation process occurs within the hair bundle and precedes mechanoelectric transduction. Recent observations of time-dependent changes in hair bundle stiffness are consistent with this conclusion. Adaptation would be expected to be most useful in inner ear endorgans in which hair cells are subject to large static displacements that could potentially saturate their instantaneous response and compromise their sensitivity to high frequency stimulation. The adaptation process also permits hair cells to maintain their sensory hair bundle in the most sensitive portion of their DRC. In vestibular otolith organs in which static sensitivity is desirable, any adaptation process in the hair cells may be undesirable. The rate and extent of the decline of the voltage responses was measured of utricular hair cells to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements. Then for similar resting potentials and response amplitudes, the voltage responses of individual hair cells were compared to both hair bundle displacement and intracellular current.

  9. Using protein nanofibrils to remove azo dyes from aqueous solution by the coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Morshedi, Dina; Mohammadi, Zeinab; Akbar Boojar, Masoud Mashhadi; Aliakbari, Farhang

    2013-12-01

    The ever-increasing applications of hazardous azo dyes as industrialized coloring agents have led to serious remediation challenges. In this study, proteinaceous nanofibrils were examined as coagulants for decolorization of azo dyes in aqueous solutions. The results provided some insight regarding the mechanism of dye removal. The strength of nanofibrils to remove dyes from solution was evaluated by remediation of acid red 88, Bismarck brown R, direct violet 51, reactive black 5, and Congo red. However, the efficiency of nanofibrils to coagulate with different dyes was variable (60-98%) and dependent on the structures of dyes and the physicochemical conditions of the solutions. Increasing the temperature or ionic strength declined the coagulation time and induced the rate of dye removal. Changing pH had contradictory effects on the dye removal efficiency which was more affected by the chemical structure of the dye rather than the change in stability of the coagulant. The efficiency of nanofibrils to remove dyes was more than that of charcoal, which is considered as one of the most common substances used for azo dye remediation which may be due to its well dispersion in the aqueous solutions, and slower rates of the coagulation than that of the adsorption process. Furthermore, cytotoxicity was not detected after treating cell cultures with the decolorized solutions. Accordingly, by integrating biological and biophysicochemical processes, proteinaceous nanofibrils can be promising candidates for treatment of colored wastewaters. Ease of production, proper and quick dispersion in water, without the production of dangerous dye by-products and derivatives, are some of the main advantages of nanofibrils. PMID:23999142

  10. The influence of hair bleach on the ultrastructure of human hair with special reference to hair damage.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takehito

    2011-05-01

    The influence of human hair bleaching agents with different bleaching strength on the ultrastructure of human hair was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer equipped with TEM (EDS-TEM). Two kinds of bleaching agents were used: a lightener agent with a weak bleaching effect and a powder-bleach with a stronger bleaching effect. From the comparison of the bleaching properties obtained by the electronic staining of black and white hair samples, it was suggested that the permeability of hair was increased by bleaching, and there was an increase of the stainability of hair subjected to electronic staining. The bleaching action provoked the decomposition of melanin granules and the flow out of granular contents into the intermacrofibrillar matrix. Some metal elements were detected in the melanin granular matrix by EDS-TEM. As a result, the diffusion of metal elements into the intermacrofibrillar matrix promoted further damage to the hair by catalytic action with the hydrogen peroxide in the bleaching agents outside the melanin granules. Further study will lead us to the edge of the development of a new bleaching agent, which reacts only with melanin granules and causes the minimum of damage to outside the melanin granules. PMID:21882590

  11. Microfluidic dye laser intracavity absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galas, J. C.; Peroz, C.; Kou, Q.; Chen, Y.

    2006-11-01

    The authors report absorption measurements on low concentration analytes using a microfluidic dye laser. The laser cavity is made of two gold mirrors coated on the end faces of two optical fibers inserted in a chip. Rhodamine 6G dye molecules dissolved in ethanol are used for laser amplification and absorption measurements are done with methylene blue dye solutions. When optically pumped with a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser at 532nm wavelength, the device shows a laser output emission at 565nm and a high sensitivity of the lasing output to the losses in the cavity, in good agreement with the results of numerical calculations.

  12. Bichromophoric Dyes for Wavelength Shifting of Dye-Protein Fluoromodules

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Ha H.; Szent-Gyorgyi, Christopher; Brotherton, Wendy L.; Schmidt, Brigitte F.; Zanotti, Kimberly J.; Waggoner, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    Dye-protein fluoromodules consist of fluorogenic dyes and single chain antibody fragments that form brightly fluorescent noncovalent complexes. This report describes two new bichromophoric dyes that extend the range of wavelengths of excitation or emission of existing fluoromodules. In one case, a fluorogenic thiazole orange (TO) was attached to an energy acceptor dye, Cy5. Upon binding to a protein that recognizes TO, red emission due to efficient energy transfer from TO to Cy5 replaces the green emission observed for monochromophoric TO bound to the same protein. Separately, TO was attached to a coumarin that serves as an energy donor. The same green emission is observed for coumarin-TO and TO bound to a protein, but efficient energy transfer allows violet excitation of coumarin-TO, versus longer wavelength, blue excitation of monochromophoric TO. Both bichromophores exhibit low nanomolar KD values for their respective proteins, >95% energy transfer efficiency and high fluorescence quantum yields. PMID:25679477

  13. Current standards in the diagnostics and therapy of hair diseases - hair consultation.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika

    2011-05-01

    Hair and scalp diseases present an extensive diagnostic and therapeutic task. Treating them is often a challenge for the physician in daily practice. Unclear diagnoses, chronic conditions with long-lasting therapies and the uncertainty of the patient may often lead to unsatisfying situations for both the patient as well as the doctor. The complaints can be divided into (1) hair loss, (2) increased hair growth and (3) abnormal hair quality. A structured history and the objectification of the clinical findings with the help of standardized diagnostic methods and score systems or classifications enable a diagnosis in most patients already at the first visit. Moreover, such structured processes strengthen the treatment satisfaction and compliance of both the patient and the therapist. In the meantime, diagnostic measures and clinical practice guidelines are available for the most common hair disorders. Expertise in basic psychosomatic care and an empathetic approach to the fears and concerns as well as practical advice for the daily contact with hair disorders should be integrated as separate elements in the management of hair diseases; in most cases they are gratefully welcomed by the patients. The aim of this article is to provide the physician with a guideline for the structured management of a hair patient. An overview of recent new developments and the currently available clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis and therapy of hair disorders is presented. PMID:21284803

  14. Recent Advances in Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes. PMID:25054183

  15. Recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization of synthetic dyes.

    PubMed

    Muhd Julkapli, Nurhidayatullaili; Bagheri, Samira; Bee Abd Hamid, Sharifah

    2014-01-01

    During the process and operation of the dyes, the wastes produced were commonly found to contain organic and inorganic impurities leading to risks in the ecosystem and biodiversity with the resultant impact on the environment. Improper effluent disposal in aqueous ecosystems leads to reduction of sunlight penetration which in turn diminishes photosynthetic activity, resulting in acute toxic effects on the aquatic flora/fauna and dissolved oxygen concentration. Recently, photodegradation of various synthetic dyes has been studied in terms of their absorbance and the reduction of oxygen content by changes in the concentration of the dye. The advantages that make photocatalytic techniques superior to traditional methods are the ability to remove contaminates in the range of ppb, no generation of polycyclic compounds, higher speed, and lower cost. Semiconductor metal oxides, typically TiO2, ZnO, SnO, NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, and also CdS have been utilized as photocatalyst for their nontoxic nature, high photosensitivity, wide band gap and high stability. Various process parameters like photocatalyst dose, pH and initial dye concentrations have been varied and highlighted. Research focused on surface modification of semiconductors and mixed oxide semiconductors by doping them with noble metals (Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) and organic matter (C, N, Cl, and F) showed enhanced dye degradation compared to corresponding native semiconductors. This paper reviews recent advances in heterogeneous photocatalytic decolorization for the removal of synthetic dyes from water and wastewater. Thus, the main core highlighted in this paper is the critical selection of semiconductors for photocatalysis based on the chemical, physical, and selective nature of the poisoning dyes. PMID:25054183

  16. Hair Loss: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for these devices are not known. Prescription medicine Finasteride: The FDA approved this medicine to treat men ... hair re-growth in many (about 66%) men. Finasteride works by stopping the body from making a ...

  17. Tips for Removing Gum without Cutting Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a jar of creamy style peanut butter or vegetable oil, such as olive oil. Cover the gum completely ... to work. Remove the gum from the hair. Vegetable oil is especially useful when removing gum from eyebrows ...

  18. Shapes of a Suspended Curly Hair

    E-print Network

    Miller, J.?T.

    We investigate how natural curvature affects the configuration of a thin elastic rod suspended under its own weight, as when a single strand of hair hangs under gravity. We combine precision desktop experiments, numerics, ...

  19. Hox in hair growth and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2003-05-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Hox gene family of transcriptional regulators has originally been known for specifying positional identities along the longitudinal body axis of bilateral metazoans, including mouse and man. It is believed that subsequent to this archaic role, subsets of Hox genes have been co-opted for patterning functions in phylogenetically more recent structures, such as limbs and epithelial appendages. Among these, the hair follicle is of particular interest, as it is the only organ undergoing cyclical phases of regression and regeneration during the entire life span of an organism. Furthermore, the hair follicle is increasingly capturing the attention of developmental geneticists, as this abundantly available miniature organ mimics key aspects of embryonic patterning and, in addition, presents a model for studying organ renewal. The first Hox gene shown to play a universal role in hair follicle development is Hoxc13, as both Hoxc13-deficient and overexpressing mice exhibit severe hair growth and patterning defects. Differential gene expression analyses in the skin of these mutants, as well as in vitro DNA binding studies performed with potential targets for HOXC13 transcriptional regulation in human hair, identified genes encoding hair-specific keratins and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) as major groups of presumptive Hoxc13 downstream effectors in the control of hair growth. The Hoxc13 mutant might thus serve as a paradigm for studying hair-specific roles of Hoxc13 and other members of this gene family, whose distinct spatio-temporally restricted expression patterns during hair development and cycling suggest discrete functions in follicular patterning and hair cycle control. The main conclusion from a discussion of these potential roles vis-à-vis current expression data in mouse and man, and from the perspective of the results obtained with the Hoxc13 transgenic models, is that members of the Hox family are likely to fulfill essential roles of great functional diversity in hair that require complex transcriptional control mechanisms to ensure proper spatio-temporal patterns of Hox gene expression at homeostatic levels.

  20. Hair Iodine for Human Iodine Status Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Prejac, Juraj; Višnjevi?, Vjeran; Skalnaya, Margarita G.; Mimica, Ninoslav; Drmi?, Stipe; Skalny, Anatoly V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today, human iodine deficiency is, after iron, the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine, which reflects very recent iodine exposure; a long-term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. Methods: We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The hair iodine median was 0.499??g/g, and was 0.482 and 0.508??g/g for men and women respectively, suggesting no sex-related difference. We studied hair iodine uptake by analyzing the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy, and excess. We estimated overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration was below 0.1–0.15??g/g. Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.1–2.0??g/g where the deposition of iodine in the hair was linearly increasing (R2=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0??g/g and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Conclusion: Hair appears to be a valuable and robust biological indicator tissue for assessing long-term iodine status. We propose that an adequate iodine status corresponds with hair iodine uptake saturation of 0.565–0.739??g/g (55–65%). PMID:24446669

  1. Organic Chemicals: Angels or Goblins?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Lloyd N.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses some of the controversial organic chemical substances such as DDT, Red Dye No. 2, DES, Tris, Laetrile, cyclamate, and saccharin. Concludes that the use of some has to be considered on a benefit/risk ratio. (GA)

  2. 76 FR 21339 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...semiconductors; chemical vapor deposition...formaldehyde, component of reaction polyurethane products...01/18/11 Dow Chemical Company...aminoethyl)-, reaction products with bu...Exhaust (G) Reaction dyeing cotton product...G) Chemical (G) reagent...

  3. Efficacy of antioxidants in human hair.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Martínez-Teipel, Blanca; Armengol, Ricard; Barba, Clara; Coderch, Luisa

    2012-12-01

    Hair is exposed every day to a range of harmful effects such as sunlight, pollution, cosmetic treatments, grooming practices and cleansing. The UV components of sunlight damage human hair, causing fibre degradation. UV-B attacks the melanin pigments and the protein fractions (keratin) of hair and UV-A produces free radical/reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the interaction of endogenous photosensitizers. Hair was dyed and the efficacy of two antioxidant formulations was demonstrated after UV exposure by evaluating, surface morphology, protein and amino acid degradation, lipidic peroxidation, colour and shine changes and strength/relaxation properties. UV treatment resulted in an increase in protein and lipid degradation, changes in colour and shine and in adverse consequences for the mechanical properties. Natural antioxidants obtained from artichoke and rice applied to pretreated hair improved mechanical properties and preserved colour and shine of fibres, coating them and protecting them against UV. Furthermore, the lipidic peroxidation of the protein degradation caused by UV was reduced for some treated fibres, suggesting an improvement in fibre integrity. This was more marked in the case of the fibres treated using the artichoke extract, whereas the rice extract was better preserving shine and colour of hair fibres. PMID:23123594

  4. Multi-class method for biomonitoring of hair samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Möder, Monika; Gaudl, Alexander; Alonso, Esteban; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Currently, non-invasive biomonitoring of human exposure to organic pollutants bases upon the analysis mainly of urine and human breast milk. While mostly persistent organic pollutants are the center of interest, the aim of our study was to develop a method for the determination of different chemical classes of emerging pollutants (organophosphorus flame retardants, plastic additives such as phthalates, bisphenol A, insecticides, antimicrobials, preservatives and musk fragrances) in hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preferred sample preparation included hydrolysis of the hair with trifluoroacetic acid in methanol followed by a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane/ethyl acetate. The validated method is characterized by recoveries higher than 77 % for most analytes, relative standard deviations below 16 % and limits of detection between 2 pg mg(-1) (HHCB) and 292 pg mg(-1) (propylparaben) using 50 mg of dry hair. After respective blank corrections, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and the musk fragrance HHCB were the predominant compounds determined in all hair samples at concentrations between 32 and 59 ng mg(-1) and 0.8-13 ng mg(-1), respectively. The bactericide triclosan and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were detected in selected hair samples at 2 and 0.8 ng mg(-1), respectively. PMID:26427497

  5. Causes and Consequences of Sensory Hair Cell Damage and Recovery in Fishes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael E; Monroe, J David

    2016-01-01

    Sensory hair cells are the mechanotransductive receptors that detect gravity, sound, and vibration in all vertebrates. Damage to these sensitive receptors often results in deficits in vestibular function and hearing. There are currently two main reasons for studying the process of hair cell loss in fishes. First, fishes, like other non-mammalian vertebrates, have the ability to regenerate hair cells that have been damaged or lost via exposure to ototoxic chemicals or acoustic overstimulation. Thus, they are used as a biomedical model to understand the process of hair cell death and regeneration and find therapeutics that treat or prevent human hearing loss. Secondly, scientists and governmental natural resource managers are concerned about the potential effects of intense anthropogenic sounds on aquatic organisms, including fishes. Dr. Arthur N. Popper and his students, postdocs and research associates have performed pioneering experiments in both of these lines of fish hearing research. This review will discuss the current knowledge regarding the causes and consequences of both lateral line and inner ear hair cell damage in teleost fishes. PMID:26515323

  6. Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of off-the-shelf hair and skin care products.

    PubMed

    Myers, Sharon L; Yang, Chun Z; Bittner, George D; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R; Baird, Donna D

    2015-05-01

    Use of personal care products is widespread in the United States but tends to be greater among African Americans than whites. Of special concern is the possible hazard of absorption of chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA) or anti-EA (AEA) in these products. Such exposure may have adverse health effects, especially when it occurs during developmental windows (e.g., prepubertally) when estrogen levels are low. We assessed the ethanol extracts of eight commonly used hair and skin products popular among African Americans for EA and AEA using a cell proliferation assay with the estrogen sensitive MCF-7:WS8 cell line derived from a human breast cancer. Four of the eight personal care products tested (Oil Hair Lotion, Extra-dry Skin Lotion, Intensive Skin Lotion, Petroleum Jelly) demonstrated detectable EA, whereas three (Placenta Hair Conditioner, Tea-Tree Hair Conditioner, Cocoa Butter Skin Cream) exhibited AEA. Our data indicate that hair and skin care products can have EA or AEA, and suggest that laboratory studies are warranted to investigate the in vivo activity of such products under chronic exposure conditions as well as epidemiologic studies to investigate potential adverse health effects that might be associated with use of such products. PMID:24849798

  7. The synthesis and spectral properties of a stimuli-responsive D-?-A charge transfer dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Gwon, Seon-Yeong; Bae, Jin-Seok; Son, Young-A.

    2011-01-01

    A new donor-?-acceptor (D-?-A) type isophorone dye was synthesized by the condensation reaction between 2-(3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-enylidene)-malononitrile and indole-3-carboxaldehyde. The chemical structure of the dye was characterized by 1H NMR, EA and MS. A novel, chromogenic, fluorescent dye based on indol as donor unit and isophorone as acceptor unit displayed marked UV-visible absorption changes and highly selective fluorescence quenching in the presence of fluoride ion. The dye also exhibited sizeable colour changes when used as a pH-induced molecular switch and as a detector for volatile organic compounds. The absorption and fluorescent intensity of the dye can be reversibly selected by protonation/deprotonation of the amine moiety via control of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), leading to a molecular switch with "on" and "off" states.

  8. Dye molecules in electrolytes: new approach for suppression of dye-desorption in dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Nansra; Jun, Yongseok; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-01-01

    The widespread commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells remains limited because of the poor long-term stability. We report on the influence of dye-molecules added in liquid electrolyte on long-term stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. Dye-desorption from the TiO2 surface during long-term cycling is one of the decisive factors that degrade photocurrent densities of devices which in turn determine the efficiencies of the devices. For the first time, desorption of dye from the TiO2 surface could be suppressed by controlling thermodynamic equilibrium; by addition of dye molecules in the electrolyte. The dye molecules in the electrolyte can suppress the driving forces for the adsorbed dye molecules to be desorbed from TiO2 nanoparticles. As a result, highly enhanced device stabilities were achieved due to the reduction of dye-desorption although there was a little decrease in the initial efficiencies.

  9. Hair and amino acids: the interactions and the effects.

    PubMed

    Oshimura, Eiko; Abe, Hiroshi; Oota, Rina

    2007-01-01

    The interaction and the function of some amino acids in hair care applications are discussed. When amino acids are applied to hair in the form of simple aqueous solution, uptake of the amino acids is mainly controlled by ionic equilibrium. When amino acids were incorporated in a hair conditioner, the result was quite different, suggesting the importance of interaction between the amino acids and the cationic surfactants. Uptake of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA), a derivative of glutamic acid, is enhanced by combining with arginine, an amino with strong affinity towards hair. Effects of some amino acids on bleached/dyed hair are described. A hair conditioner incorporated with alanine improves hair surface hydrophobicity of bleach-damaged hair. Histidine and phenylalanine improve tensile strength. PCA was proved to be effective to improve color-retention of dyed hair. PMID:17728935

  10. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  11. Hair cell damage recruited Lgr5-expressing cells are hair cell progenitors in neonatal mouse utricle

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jinchao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wu, Fengfang; Lin, Weinian

    2015-01-01

    Damage-activated stem/progenitor cells play important roles in regenerating lost cells and in tissue repair. Previous studies reported that the mouse utricle has limited hair cell regeneration ability after hair cell ablation. However, the potential progenitor cell population regenerating new hair cells remains undiscovered. In this study, we first found that Lgr5, a Wnt target gene that is not usually expressed in the neonatal mouse utricle, can be activated by 24 h neomycin treatment in a sub-population of supporting cells in the striolar region of the neonatal mouse utricle. Lineage tracing demonstrated that these Lgr5-positive supporting cells could regenerate new hair cells in explant culture. We isolated the damage-activated Lgr5-positive cells with flow cytometry and found that these Lgr5-positive supporting cells could regenerate hair cells in vitro, and self-renew to form spheres, which maintained the capacity to differentiate into hair cells over seven generations of passages. Our results suggest that damage-activated Lgr5-positive supporting cells act as hair cell progenitors in the neonatal mouse utricle, which may help to uncover a potential route to regenerate hair cell in mammals. PMID:25883551

  12. Hair transplantation in patients with inadequate head donor supply using nonhead hair: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Umar, Sanusi

    2011-10-01

    Follicular unit extraction is becoming an increasingly popular technique for hair transplantation, as it obviates the linear scarring associated with strip harvesting, and can provide highly presentable results. Using this technique, a few reports have described the small scale use of nonhead hair for head hair transplantation in men with inadequate head hair donor supply. In this report, 3 patients who were severely bald had hair transplanted from the chest, abdomen, legs, shoulders, or beard, as well as the head to achieve full coverage and excellent hairlines. Of the 3 cases, 2 had undergone previously unsuccessful hair transplant surgeries. Approximately 80% to 85% of the transplanted grafts survived. Although hair length and quality, surgery time, and the requirement for improved surgical skills remain challenges when using this technique, the sufficiently good outcomes from these selected candidates suggest that this technique may offer the possibility of restoring even severely bald states to normality in patients who would otherwise not be candidates for traditional hair transplantation surgery. PMID:21540728

  13. Fluorescence switch of dye-infiltrated SiO2 inverse opal based on acid-base vapors or light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Q.; Wang, J. X.; Shang, Y. L.; Song, Y. L.; Jiang, L.

    2011-03-01

    The acid-base vapors/light double responsive dye-infiltrated SiO2 inverse opal photonic crystals (PCs) were fabricated by sacrificial template method and a subsequent infiltration of spiropyran derivative dye molecules. The fluorescence of ring-open dye molecules infiltrated in PCs can be switched on/off based on different fluorescence properties of spiropyran dye under stimuli of acid-base vapors or light, when PCs with suitable stopband were selected. The fluorescence switch behavior based on PCs has potential applications in data storage, color displays, chemical and biological sensors.

  14. Clean Photothermal Heating and Controlled Release From Near Infrared Dye Doped Nanoparticles Without Oxygen Photosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K.; Spence, Graeme T.; Roland, Felicia M.; Smith, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    The photothermal heating and release properties of biocompatible organic nanoparticles, doped with a near-infrared croconaine (Croc) dye, were compared with analogous nanoparticles doped with the common near-infrared dyes ICG and IR780. Separate formulations of lipid-polymer-hybrid nanoparticles and liposomes, each containing Croc dye, absorbed strongly at 808 nm and generated clean laser-induced heating (no production of 1O2 and no photobleaching of the dye). In contrast, laser-induced heating of nanoparticles containing ICG or IR780 produced reactive 1O2 leading to bleaching of the dye and also decomposition of co-encapsulated payload such as the drug Doxorubicin. Croc dye was especially useful as a photothermal agent for laser controlled release of chemically sensitive payload from nanoparticles. Solution state experiments demonstrated repetitive fractional release of water soluble fluorescent dye from the interior of thermosensitive liposomes. Additional experiments used a focused laser beam to control leakage from immobilized liposomes with very high spatial and temporal precision. The results indicate that fractional photothermal leakage from nanoparticles doped with Croc dye is a promising method for a range of controlled release applications. PMID:26149326

  15. Dyeing mechanism and optimization of polyamide 6,6 functionalized with double barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Fernando Ribeiro; Zille, Andrea; Souto, Antonio Pedro

    2014-02-01

    The physico-chemical improvements occasioned by DBD plasma discharge in dyeing process of polyamide 6,6 (PA66) fibers were investigated. The SEM, fluorescence microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, surface energy, FTIR, XPS and pH of aqueous extracts confirm the high polar functionalization of PA66 fibers due to plasma incorporation of oxygen atoms from atmospheric air. DBD plasma-generated reactive species preferentially break the CN bonds, and not the aliphatic C-C chain of PA66. Formation of low-molecular weight acidic molecules that act as dye "carrier" and creation of micro-channels onto PA66 surface seems to favor dye diffusion into the fiber cores. Plasma treatment allows high level of direct dye diffusion and fixation in PA66 fibers at lower temperatures and shorter dyeing times than traditional dyeing methods.

  16. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Cloth dyeing by geothermal steam. An experiment in technology transfer from Japan to Hawaii, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Furumoto, A.S.

    1987-12-31

    This was an experiment to test whether cloth dyeing using geothermal steam (already proven in Japan) would be feasible in Hawaii. Results: Using a fabricated steam vat, cotton, silk, and synthetic can be dyed; the resulting material received high grades for steadfastness and permanency under dye testing. Techniques that were successful in Matsukawa, were replicated in Puna. However, attempts to embed leaf patterns on cloth using natural leaves and to extract natural dyes from Hawaiian plants were unsuccessful; the color of natural dyes deteriorated in hours. But chemical dyes gave brilliant hues or shades, in contrast to those in Japan where the steam there gave subdued tones. It is concluded that geothermal dyeing can be a viable cottage industry in Puna, Hawaii.

  17. Prevalence of new psychoactive substances: A retrospective study in hair.

    PubMed

    Rust, Kristina Yasmin; Baumgartner, Markus R; Dally, Annika M; Kraemer, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    New psychoactive substances are conquering the drug scene. Police seize different colourful packages with exceptional names. They are declared as 'bath salts', 'plant food', or 'research chemical powders'. Little is known about the actual prevalence of these drugs. Reanalysis of hair samples from routine cases concerning the presence of new psychoactive substances or 'smart drugs' should provide insight into changing patterns of designer drugs. All hair samples from 2009 and 2010 that originally tested positive for amphetamines or MDMA (N?=?325) were reanalyzed for new or smart drugs such as 4-fluoroamphetamine, piperazines (BZP, mCPP and TFMPP), cathinones (4-MMC (mephedrone), methylone, butylone, ethylone, MDPV, methcathinone and cathinone), methylphenidate and ketamine. Hair snippets were extracted using a two-step extraction procedure. The analytes were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (electrospray ionization; multiple-reaction-monitoring mode - information dependent acquisition - enhanced product ion scan). New psychoactive substances were found in 120 cases (37%). Concerning the piperazine drugs, mCPP was positive in 34 (10.5%) cases and TFMPP in one case. Five mCPP cases were also positive for trazodone, an antidepressant which is metabolized to mCPP. In 11 (3%) cases, 4-MMC was detected. Concerning the smart drugs, methylphenidate was found in 16 (5%). Ketamine was found in 45 (14%) cases. 4-Fluoroamphetamine was identified in 12 (4%) cases and methylone in one case.In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of these drugs. Consequently, at least the most common ones (e.g. mCPP, KET, 4-MMC and 4-FA) should be included in screening procedures in clinical and forensic toxicology. PMID:22522922

  18. Distance dependence of surface-enhanced resonance raman enhancement in Langmuir-Blodgett dye multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, T.M.; Uphaus, R.A.; Moebius, D.

    1986-11-06

    Monolayers of a surface-active dye incorporated into inert matrix material were transferred onto structurally defined silver island films by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The dye-containing monolayers were spaced from the surface by accurately known increments by deposition of inert spacer monolayers. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectra were observed from dye molecules spaced as distant as six spacer increments (ca. 16 nm) from the silver surface. These results indicate an electromagnetic mechanism is operative in this system in contradiction to a chemical mechanism which would require direct contact between the Raman-active species and the metal surface.

  19. EH AND S ANALYSIS OF DYE-SENSITIZED PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERMAN,B.; FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-10-01

    Photovoltaic solar cells based on a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide photoelectrode have been researched and reported since the early 1990's. Commercial production of dye-sensitized photovoltaic solar cells has recently been reported in Australia. In this report, current manufacturing methods are described, and estimates are made of annual chemical use and emissions during production. Environmental, health and safety considerations for handling these materials are discussed. This preliminary EH and S evaluation of dye-sensitized titanium dioxide solar cells indicates that some precautions will be necessary to mitigate hazards that could result in worker exposure. Additional information required for a more complete assessment is identified.

  20. Inhibition of caspases prevents ototoxic and ongoing hair cell death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Jonathan I.; Ogilvie, Judith M.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory hair cells die after acoustic trauma or ototoxic insults, but the signal transduction pathways that mediate hair cell death are not known. Here we identify several important signaling events that regulate the death of vestibular hair cells. Chick utricles were cultured in media supplemented with the ototoxic antibiotic neomycin and selected pharmacological agents that influence signaling molecules in cell death pathways. Hair cells that were treated with neomycin exhibited classically defined apoptotic morphologies such as condensed nuclei and fragmented DNA. Inhibition of protein synthesis (via treatment with cycloheximide) increased hair cell survival after treatment with neomycin, suggesting that hair cell death requires de novo protein synthesis. Finally, the inhibition of caspases promoted hair cell survival after neomycin treatment. Sensory hair cells in avian vestibular organs also undergo continual cell death and replacement throughout mature life. It is unclear whether the loss of hair cells stimulates the proliferation of supporting cells or whether the production of new cells triggers the death of hair cells. We examined the effects of caspase inhibition on spontaneous hair cell death in the chick utricle. Caspase inhibitors reduced the amount of ongoing hair cell death and ongoing supporting cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated sensory epithelia, however, caspase inhibitors did not affect supporting cell proliferation directly. Our data indicate that ongoing hair cell death stimulates supporting cell proliferation in the mature utricle.

  1. Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, B T

    2010-03-01

    Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application. PMID:20157224

  2. Hair Growth Promotion Activity and Its Mechanism of Polygonum multiflorum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunfei; Han, Mingnuan; Lin, Pei; He, Yanran; Yu, Jie; Zhao, Ronghua

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Radix (PMR) has long history in hair growth promotion and hair coloring in clinical applications. However, several crucial problems in its clinic usage and mechanisms are still unsolved or lack scientific evidences. In this research, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate hair growth promotion activity and possible mechanism of PMR and Polygonum multiflorum Radix Preparata (PMRP). Hair growth promotion activities were investigated by hair length, hair covered skin ratio, the number of follicles, and hair color. Regulation effects of several cytokines involved in the hair growth procedure were tested, such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF-7), Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), ?-catenin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Oral PMR groups had higher hair covered skin ratio (100 ± 0.00%) than oral PMRP groups (48%~88%). However, topical usage of PMRP had about 90% hair covered skin ratio. Both oral administration of PMR and topically given PMRP showed hair growth promotion activities. PMR was considered to be more suitable for oral administration, while PMRP showed greater effects in external use. The hair growth promotion effect of oral PMR was most probably mediated by the expression of FGF-7, while topical PMRP promoted hair growth by the stimulation of SHH expression. PMID:26294926

  3. Black Holes with Flavors of Quantum Hair?

    E-print Network

    Gia Dvali

    2006-07-20

    We show that black holes can posses a long-range quantum hair of super-massive tensor fields, which can be detected by Aharonov-Bohm tabletop interference experiments, in which a quantum-hairy black hole, or a remnant particle, passes through the loop of a magnetic solenoid. The long distance effect does not decouple for an arbitrarily high mass of the hair-providing field. Because Kaluza-Klein and String theories contain infinite number of massive tensor fields, we study black holes with quantum Kaluza-Klein hair. We show that in five dimensions such a black hole can be interpreted as a string of `combed' generalized magnetic monopoles, with their fluxes confined along it. For the compactification on a translation-invariant circle, this substructure uncovers hidden flux conservation and quantization of the monopole charges, which constrain the quantum hair of the resulting four-dimensional black hole. For the spin-2 quantum hair this result is somewhat unexpected, since the constituent `magnetic' charges have no `electric' counterparts. Nevertheless, the information about their quantization is encoded in singularity.

  4. Sea dye marker provides visibility for 20 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Laat, F.

    1966-01-01

    Sea dye marker block releases a visible slick which lasts at least twelve hours. The dye marker uses a fluorescent dye in a heat cured binder which, when immersed in seawater, releases the dye at a controlled rate.

  5. Natural fruit extracts as non-toxic fluorescent dyes for staining fungal chlamydospores.

    PubMed

    Vujanovic, Silva; Goh, Yit Kheng; Vujanovic, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Currently, most synthetic dyes utilized for fungal fluorescent staining are toxic, carcinogenic, or harmful to animals, humans, and the environment. This study proposes non-toxic extracts of fruits from the genera Rhamnus, Ribes, Sambucus, Viburnum, Sorbus and Beta as simple, safe, and ecological alternatives to chemical fluorescent dye for efficient staining of Fusarium chlamydospore cells using, as test strains, five different pathogenic Fusarium species. PMID:22806815

  6. Using the zebrafish lateral line to uncover novel mechanisms of action and prevention in drug-induced hair cell death

    PubMed Central

    Stawicki, Tamara M.; Esterberg, Robert; Hailey, Dale W.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hearing loss and balance disorders are caused by the permanent loss of mechanosensory hair cells of the inner ear. Identification of genes and compounds that modulate susceptibility to hair cell death is frequently confounded by the difficulties of assaying for such complex phenomena in mammalian models. The zebrafish has emerged as a powerful animal model for genetic and chemical screening in many contexts. Several characteristics of the zebrafish, such as its small size and external location of mechanosensory hair cells within the lateral line sensory organ, uniquely position it as an ideal model organism for the study of hair cell toxicity. We have used this model to screen for genes and compounds that affect hair cell survival during ototoxin exposure and have identified agents that would not be expected to play a role in this process based on a priori knowledge of their function. The identification of such agents yields better understanding of hair cell death and holds promise to stem hearing loss and balance disorders in the human population. PMID:25741241

  7. On the versatility of electronic structures in polymethine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Simon; Haefele, Alexandre; Monnereau, Cyrille; Charaf-Eddin, Azzam; Jacquemin, Denis; Le Guennic, Boris; Maury, Olivier; Andraud, Chantal

    2014-10-01

    This article provides an overview of the photophysical behavior diversity of polymethine chromophores which are ubiquitous in biological imaging and material sciences. One major challenge in this class of chromophore is to correlate the chemical structure to the observed optical properties, especially when symmetry-breaking phenomena occur. With the constant concern for rationalization of their spectroscopy, we propose an extended classification of polymethine dyes based on their ground state electronic configuration using three limit forms namely: cyanine, dipole and bis-dipole. The chemical modifications of the dye and the influence of exogenous parameters can promote dramatic spectroscopic changes that can be correlated to significant electronic reorganization between the three-abovementioned forms. The deep understanding of such phenomena should allow to identify, predict and take advantage of the versatile electronic structure of polymethines.

  8. Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2007-08-03

    Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via {beta}-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and {beta}-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/{beta}-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b.

  9. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated...overall condition of hair. (b) Minimum biobased content. The minimum biobased content for all hair care products shall...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated...overall condition of hair. (b) Minimum biobased content. The minimum biobased content for all hair care products shall...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated...overall condition of hair. (b) Minimum biobased content. The minimum biobased content for all hair care products shall...

  12. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2014-11-11

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  13. Sodium entry pathways in isolated goldfish hair cells

    E-print Network

    Ronan, Diane Elizabeth, 1970-

    2003-01-01

    Hair cells are the exquisitely-sensitive mechanosensory transducers of the inner ear. While the electrophysiology of hair cells has been extensively studied, little is known about the vital background processes that maintain ...

  14. Eyelash Transplantation Using Leg Hair by Follicular Unit Extraction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Fine hairs of the head and nape areas have been used as donor sources in eyelash transplantation but are straight, coarse, and grow rapidly, requiring frequent eyelash maintenance. This is the first reported case of eyelash transplantation by follicular unit extraction using leg hair as a donor source; findings were compared with that of another patient who underwent a similar procedure with donor hairs from the nape area. Although both patients reported marked improvement in fullness of eyelashes within 3 months postsurgery, the transplanted leg hair eyelashes required less frequent trimming (every 5–6 weeks) compared with nape hair eyelashes (every 2–3 weeks). Additionally, in leg hair eyelashes, the need for perming to sustain a natural looking eyelash curl was eliminated. Eyelash transplantation using leg donor hair in hirsute women may result in good cosmetic outcomes and require less maintenance compared with nape donor hair. PMID:25878935

  15. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2013-12-17

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  16. A computational approach for understanding adaptation in vertebrate hair cells

    E-print Network

    Niksch, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate hair cells respond to mechanical stimuli with an inward current that is carried by extracellular cations through mechanically-gated transmembrane ion channels called transduction channels, located in the hair ...

  17. Accidental neutron dosimetry with human hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Be?ková, V?ra; Zdychová, Vlasta; Bulánek, Boris; Prouza, Zden?k; Štefánik, Milan

    2014-11-01

    Human hair contains sulfur, which can be activated by fast neutrons. The 32S(n,p)32P reaction with a threshold of 2.5 MeV was used for fast neutron dose estimation. It is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the human body. Samples of human hair were irradiated in a radial channel of a training reactor VR-1. 32P activity in hair was measured both, directly by means of a proportional counter, and as ash dispersed in a liquid scintillator. Based on neutron spectrum estimation, a relationship between the neutron dose and induced activity was derived. The experiment verified the practical feasibility of this dosimetry method in cases of criticality accidents or malevolent acts with nuclear materials.

  18. Steady-state stiffness of utricular hair cells depends on macular location and hair bundle structure

    PubMed Central

    Spoon, Corrie; Moravec, W. J.; Rowe, M. H.; Grant, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial and temporal properties of head movement are encoded by vestibular hair cells in the inner ear. One of the most striking features of these receptors is the orderly structural variation in their mechanoreceptive hair bundles, but the functional significance of this diversity is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that hair bundle structure is a significant contributor to hair bundle mechanics by comparing structure and steady-state stiffness of 73 hair bundles at varying locations on the utricular macula. Our first major finding is that stiffness of utricular hair bundles varies systematically with macular locus. Stiffness values are highest in the striola, near the line of hair bundle polarity reversal, and decline exponentially toward the medial extrastriola. Striolar bundles are significantly more stiff than those in medial (median: 8.9 ?N/m) and lateral (2.0 ?N/m) extrastriolae. Within the striola, bundle stiffness is greatest in zone 2 (106.4 ?N/m), a band of type II hair cells, and significantly less in zone 3 (30.6 ?N/m), which contains the only type I hair cells in the macula. Bathing bundles in media that break interciliary links produced changes in bundle stiffness with predictable time course and magnitude, suggesting that links were intact in our standard media and contributed normally to bundle stiffness during measurements. Our second major finding is that bundle structure is a significant predictor of steady-state stiffness: the heights of kinocilia and the tallest stereocilia are the most important determinants of bundle stiffness. Our results suggest 1) a functional interpretation of bundle height variability in vertebrate vestibular organs, 2) a role for the striola in detecting onset of head movement, and 3) the hypothesis that differences in bundle stiffness contribute to diversity in afferent response dynamics. PMID:21918003

  19. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  20. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-11-24

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

  1. Dye sensitization of photoconductivity of polycrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryaev, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The DC photoconductivity of powder silicon samples with organic dyes applied to the surface of microcrystals was studied. Effective sensitization of photoconductivity in the absorption band of the dyes in the visible part of the spectrum was found.

  2. Bright Ideas for Chemical Biology

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, Luke D.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2009-01-01

    Small-molecule fluorescent probes embody an essential facet of chemical biology. Although numerous compounds are known, the ensemble of fluorescent probes is based on a modest collection of modular “core” dyes. The elaboration of these dyes with diverse chemical moieties is enabling the precise interrogation of biochemical and biological systems. The importance of fluorescence-based technologies in chemical biology elicits a necessity to understand the major classes of small-molecule fluorophores. Here, we examine the chemical and photophysical properties of oft-used fluorophores, and highlight classic and contemporary examples in which utility has been built upon these scaffolds. PMID:18355003

  3. High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-print Network

    McGehee, Michael

    High Excitation Transfer Efficiency from Energy Relay Dyes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Brian E-sensitized solar cells, the excited ERDs must be able to efficiently transfer energy to the sensitizing dyes, TT1, to increase the overall power conversion efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) from 3

  4. Modeling the efficiency of Frster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye-

    E-print Network

    McGehee, Michael

    Modeling the efficiency of Förster resonant energy transfer from energy relay dyes in dye resonant energy transfer can improve the spectral breadth, absorption and energy conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. In this design, unattached relay dyes absorb the high energy photons

  5. Hair transplantation update: procedural techniques, innovations, and applications.

    PubMed

    Bunagan, M J Kristine; Banka, Nusrat; Shapiro, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    The advances in hair transplantation, particularly the advent of follicular unit transplantation, have greatly elevated the outcome of this procedure. Various modifications to the basic technique as well as innovations focused on the different aspects of the hair transplantation procedure have further enhanced this type of hair restoration surgery. In addition, there is ongoing expansion of the indications and applications of this procedure beyond the usual male pattern hair loss. PMID:23159183

  6. Optofluidic ring resonator dye lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuze; Suter, Jonathan D.; Fan, Xudong

    2010-02-01

    We overview the recent progress on optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) dye lasers developed in our research group. The fluidics and laser cavity design can be divided into three categories: capillary optofluidic ring resonator (COFRR), integrated cylindrical optofluidic ring resonator (ICOFRR), and coupled optofluidic ring resonator (CpOFRR). The COFRR dye laser is based on a micro-sized glass capillary with a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The capillary circular cross-section forms the ring resonator and supports the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) that interact evanescently with the gain medium in the core. The laser cavity structure is versatile to adapt to the gain medium of any refractive index. Owing to the high Q-factor (>109), the lasing threshold of 25 nJ/mm2 is achieved. Besides directly pump the dye molecules, lasing through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between the donor and acceptor dye molecules is also studied in COFRR laser. The energy transfer process can be further controlled by designed DNA scaffold labeled with donor/acceptor molecules. The ICOFRR dye laser is based on a cylindrical ring resonator fused onto the inner surface of a thick walled glass capillary. The structure has robust mechanical strength to sustain rapid gain medium circulation. The CpOFRR utilizes a cylindrical ring resonator fused on the inner surface of the COFRR capillary. Since the capillary wall is thin, the individual WGMs of the cylindrical ring resonator and the COFRR couples strongly and forms Vernier effect, which provides a way to generate a single mode dye laser.

  7. Treatment of unwanted hair in auricular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gault, David

    2009-08-01

    In many microtia patients, the hairline is lower than ideal. Despite this, it is essential to position the reconstructed ear in the correct place. Here is a series of tips and tricks to deal with unwanted hair on the skin that covers an autogenous tissue reconstruction. Replacement of the skin with a fascial flap and skin graft remains the mainstay of treatment for a very-low-hairline case. Surgical removal of hair on the helical rim during the release procedure is also described. Laser depilation, surgical electrolysis, and even shaving techniques are also discussed. PMID:19809949

  8. Why neutron stars have three hairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Leo; Yagi, Kent; Pappas, George; Yunes, Nicolas; Apostolatos, Theocharis

    2015-04-01

    Neutron stars have recently been found to enjoy a certain `baldness' in their multipolar structure which is independent of the equation of state (EoS) of dense nuclear matter. This is reminiscent of the black hole no-hair relations, and in stark contrast to regular stars. Why is this? Is it because realistic EoSs are sufficiently similar, or because GR effects are especially important, or because the nuclear matter is `cold'? We explore the physics behind these and more hypotheses, and give a convincing explanation for the true origin of the three-hair relations.

  9. The elusive mechanotransduction machinery of hair cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Müller, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    Hair cells in the mammalian cochlea are specialized sensory cells that convert mechanical signals evoked by sound waves into electrochemical signals. Several integral membrane proteins have recently been identified that are closely linked to the mechanotransduction process. Efforts are under way to determine the extent to which they are subunits of the long thought-after mechanotransduction channel. Recent findings also suggest that mechanotransduction may have a role in fine tuning the length of the stereocilia and thus in the regulation of morphological features of hair cells that are inherently linked to the mechanotransduction process. PMID:26342686

  10. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James (Gilroy, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner.

  11. Dye laser amplifier including a low turbulence, stagnation-free dye flow configuration

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of for example 30 gallons/minute, a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell and a screen device for insuring that the dye stream passes into the dye cell in a substantially turbulent free, stagnation-free manner. 9 figs.

  12. Gsdma3 is required for hair follicle differentiation in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Zhou, Yue; Yang, Tian; Wang, Ning; Lian, Xiaohua; Yang, Li

    2010-12-01

    Hair follicle differentiation is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. However, the known cellular and molecular mechanisms are limited. Gsdma3 is a novel murine gene and considered to be a mutation hotspot. Six mutants have been reported in Gsdma3 and all these mutants exhibit hair loss and hyperkeratosis phenotypes. In order to verify how the lack of Gsdma3 affects the hair defects, we use alopecia and excoriation mice, a new mouse mutation in this gene, as our research model. This mutation exhibits progressive hair loss, from head to the whole back, and followed by hair regrowth. We test that Gsdma3 is expressed in matrix, inner root sheath, and hair shaft. Ultrastructural and histological analyses show abnormal hair structures and reduced hair keratins in AE mice. The loss of interlocking structures and abnormal constitutive protein indicate defects in anchoring hair shaft in the hair follicle and resisting external forces. Molecular analysis of Gsdma3 deficiency and overexpression shows an Msx2/Foxn1/acidic hair keratin genetic pathway is involved. Thus, Gsdma3 is necessary for normal hair follicle differentiation. PMID:20977888

  13. Many Paths to Alopecia via Compromised Regeneration of Hair

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    . These studies will provide new clues and targets for designing therapeutic strategies for hair loss. JournalMany Paths to Alopecia via Compromised Regeneration of Hair Follicle Stem Cells Ji Li1,2,3,4 , Ting regeneration, or increased destruction of hair follicles. Much work has elucidated the roles of diffusible

  14. Ultrastructural Analysis of Aminoglycoside-Induced Hair Cell Death

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    ^pital St. Eloi, BP 74103, Montpellier, 34090 France ABSTRACT Loss of the mechanosensory hair cells. The relationship between hair cell death from iat- rogenic damage, noise-induced hearing loss, and age- related hearing loss is not well understood. Of these forms of hair cell loss, drug exposure is the most easily

  15. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with terms...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with terms...

  20. Gene Expression by Mouse Inner Ear Hair Cells during Development

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Déborah I.; Shen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells of the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance. As a consequence, pathogenic variants in genes specifically expressed in hair cells often cause hereditary deafness. Hair cells are few in number and not easily isolated from the adjacent supporting cells, so the biochemistry and molecular biology of hair cells can be difficult to study. To study gene expression in hair cells, we developed a protocol for hair cell isolation by FACS. With nearly pure hair cells and surrounding cells, from cochlea and utricle and from E16 to P7, we performed a comprehensive cell type-specific RNA-Seq study of gene expression during mouse inner ear development. Expression profiling revealed new hair cell genes with distinct expression patterns: some are specific for vestibular hair cells, others for cochlear hair cells, and some are expressed just before or after maturation of mechanosensitivity. We found that many of the known hereditary deafness genes are much more highly expressed in hair cells than surrounding cells, suggesting that genes preferentially expressed in hair cells are good candidates for unknown deafness genes. PMID:25904789