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1

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... Bad Reaction to Cosmetics? Tell FDA Cosmetics Tips Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers En Español Hair dye is ... hair relaxers. Hair Dyes Hair Relaxers Report Problems Hair Dyes There are different types of hair dyes used ...

2

Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Søsted

3

Hair dye poisoning and the developing world  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

Sampathkumar, Krishnaswamy; Yesudas, Sooraj

2009-01-01

4

Percutaneous penetration of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalp penetration of 7 hair dyes (oxidative and direct) that occurs under conditions of hair dye usage was evaluated for both rhesus monkey and man using 14C labeled materials by quantifying their absorbtion via urine assays. Both species showed a remarkably similar pattern of dye penetration. The extent of scalp penetratoon is slightly higher for direct dyes but in neither

L. J. Wolfram; H. I. Maibach

1985-01-01

5

Dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in human hair investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

To develop more effective oxidative hair coloring products, it is important to understand the localization of colored chromophores, which are formed from oxidative dyes, in the fine structure of hair. However, the dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in the fine structure of hair have not been extensively examined. In this study, we investigated the distribution and localization of colored chromophores formed by an oxidative hair coloring product in the fine structure of human hair by using a stable isotope-labeled oxidative dye with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). First, formation of the colored chromophore from a deuterium-labeled oxidative dye was examined by visible spectra similarly to a study of its formation using nonlabeled oxidative dye. Furthermore, the formation of binuclear indo dye containing deuterium in its chemical structure was confirmed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. As a result of the NanoSIMS image on a cross-sectional dyed hair, although deuterium ions were detected in whole hair cross-section, quite a few of them were detected at particulate regions. These particulate regions of the dyed black hair in which deuterium ions were intensely detected were identified as melanin granules, by comparing the dyeing behaviors of black and white hair. NanoSIMS analysis revealed that melanin granules of black human hair are important dyeing regions in oxidative hair coloring. PMID:23434703

Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

2013-06-01

6

Development of Hair Dye from Herbal Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The developments of hair dyes from herbal extracts are studied. Seven herbs, such as Jackfruit core, Sappan wood, Lac, Henna, Mangosteen, Amla and Turmeric were ex- tracted and used as pigment for hair dyes. The dyed hair conditions, which comprised concentrations of a developer (hydrogen peroxide), concentrations of crude herbal ex- tracts, and dyed hair treatment process were compared

Kongtun Janphuk Sumonthip; Suracherdkaiti Wichai

2009-01-01

7

The Pattern of Hair Dyeing in Koreans with Gray Hair  

PubMed Central

Background Hair graying is considered as a part of normal ageing process. Nonetheless, this process raises a significant cosmetic concern, especially among ethnic Korean elderly whose baseline hair color is black. For this reason, Korean elderly dye their hair with frequency despite the risk of dermatologic problems such as allergic contact dermatitis. Objective In this study, the authors investigate the prevalence and pattern of hair dyeing and its relation with scalp diseases in Korea. Methods Six hundred twenty subjects (330 men and 290 women) with graying hair were given a questionnaire survery and underwent a physical examination. Results Of the 620 total, 272 subjects (43.9%) dyed their hair. Hair dyeing was significantly more frequent among women than among men (p<0.001). Subjects from 50 to 69 years of age showed higher prevalence of hair dyeing when compared to either younger or older groups. Subjective self-assessment of the extent of hair graying was associated with increased prevalence of hair dyeing, that is, individuals who feel graying has advanced by more than 20% of the overall hair were much more likely to dye their hair (p<0.001). Hair dyeing did not correlate with either alopecia or scalp disease. Conclusion Our survey has found that the prevalence of hair dyeing is higher among Korean women than men. People in their fifties and sixties and people with more than 20% extent of grayness were more likely to dye their hair than otherwise. Hair dyeing was not associated with any increase in the prevalence of scalp diseases.

Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Choi, Jae Woo; Lee, Jong Hee; Cho, Soyun

2013-01-01

8

Phototoxicity of phenylenediamine hair dye chemicals in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and human skin keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Phenylenediamines (PD) are dye precursors used to manufacture hair dyes. The three PDs, 1,2-,1,3-, and 1,4-PD and three chlorinated PDs, 4-chloro-1,2-PD, 4-chloro-1,3-PD, and 4,5-dichloro-1,2-PD were studied for their mutagenic effect in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102, cytotoxicity in human skin keratinocyte cells, and for DNA cleavage. The results show that all six compounds are not toxic/mutagenic in TA 102 bacteria or skin cells, and do not cause DNA cleavage in PhiX 174 phage DNA. If the same tests are carried out by exposing them to light irradiation concurrently, all three chlorinated PDs cause mutation in TA 102 bacteria and single strand cleavage in PhiX174 phage DNA. This indicates that chlorination of the PDs makes these compounds more photochemically active and produces reactive species that cause DNA damage and mutation. For the photocytotoxicity test in skin cells, it appears there is no such structure-activity relationship. Two chlorinated PDs and two non-chlorinated PDs are cytotoxic at a fairly high concentration (1000microM) upon exposure to light irradiation. PMID:18940226

Mosley-Foreman, Charity; Choi, Jaehwa; Wang, Shuguang; Yu, Hongtao

2008-12-01

9

Phototoxicity of Phenylenediamine Hair Dye Chemicals in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and Human Skin Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Phenylenediamines (PD) are dye precursors used to manufacture hair dyes. The three PDs, 1,2-, 1,3-, and 1,4-PD and three chlorinated PDs, 4-chloro-1,2-PD, 4-chloro-1,3- PD, and 4,5-dichloro-1,2-PD were studied for their mutagenic effect in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102, cytotoxicity in human skin keratinocyte cells, and for DNA cleavage. The results show that all six compounds are not toxic/mutagenic in TA 102 bacteria or skin cells, and do not cause DNA cleavage in ?X 174 phage DNA. If the same tests are carried out by exposing them to light irradiation concurrently, all three chlorinated PDs cause mutation in TA 102 bacteria and single strand cleavage in ?X 174 phage DNA. This indicates that chlorination of the PDs makes these compounds more photochemically active and produces reactive species that cause DNA damage and mutation. For the photocytotoxicity test in skin cells, it appears there is no such structure-activity relationship. Two chlorinated PDs and two non-chlorinated PDs are cytotoxic at a fairly high concentration (1000 µM) upon exposure to light irradiation.

Yu, Hongtao; Mosley-Foreman; Choi, Jaehwa; Wang, Shuguang

2008-01-01

10

Dominant lethal mutagenicity study on hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dominant lethal mutagenicity study was performed in rats with the following chemicals that may be used to dye hair: 2?nitro?p?phenylenediamine, 4?nitro?o?phenylenediamine, m?phenylenediamine, o?phenylenediamine, p?phenylenediamine, p?toluenediamine, 2,4?diaminoanisole, 2,5?diaminoanlsole, 2?amino?4?nitrophenol, 2?amino?5?nitrophenol, and 4?amino?2?nitrophenol. The compounds were administered intraperitoneally three times weekly for 8 weeks to groups of 20 sexually mature Charles River CD male rats at a dose of 20 mg\\/kg.

C. Burnett; R. Loehr; J. Corbett

1977-01-01

11

Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes.  

PubMed

Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus, up to 1.1% p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 0.04% toluene-2,5-diamine, 0.02% 3-aminophenol and 0.02% resorcinol were found in the hair dye formulation after the required colour was developed. The consumers are thus exposed to precursors and couplers of oxidative hair dyes, both during and after hair dyeing, when the hair is washed. Furthermore, the consumers are also expected to be exposed to intermediates of oxidative hair dyes. The allergenic potential of oxidative hair dyes as well as the intermediates of these remains unknown. PMID:16930234

Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil; Bossi, Rossana

2006-08-01

12

Hair dye distribution in human hair by ToF-SIMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single hair sample preparation protocol modified from reported method was developed and used to prepare longitudinally sectioned hair for ToF-SIMS analysis. Preliminary results demonstrate that ToF-SIMS is capable of providing molecular distribution of fragment ions from intrinsic constituents as well as external chemicals like the hair dye ingredients used in this study. The observation of pPDA and H 2PO 4- penetrating into the internal region of hair might initiate a renewed interest in exposure study.

Chen, Bo-Jung; Lee, Pei-Ling; Chen, Wen-Yin; Mai, Fu-Der; Ling, Yong-Chien

2006-07-01

13

The challenge of testing chemicals for potential carcinogenicity using multiple short-term assays: An analysis of a proposed test battery for hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports of the association of hair dyes usage with increased bladder cancer risk in women with the slow NAT-2 acetylator phenotype have resulted both in attempts to identify the putative carcinogen as well as in devising batteries of tests that could be used to screen for such putative carcinogens in hair dye formulations, their intermediates and final products.Analytical studies

Herbert S. Rosenkranz; Suzanne L. Cunningham; Robert Mermelstein; Albert R. Cunningham

2007-01-01

14

Contact dermatitis to hair dye: an update.  

PubMed

Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer. PMID:22960813

Handa, Sanjeev; Mahajan, Rahul; De, Dipankar

2012-01-01

15

Occupational Dermal Exposure to Permanent Hair Dyes Among Hairdressers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin exposure to permanent hair dye compounds was assessed in 33 hairdressers using a previously evaluated hand rinse method. Hand rinse samples were collected from each hand before the start of hair dyeing, after application of the dye and after cutting the newly-dyed hair. Sixteen of the hairdressers did not use gloves during dye application, and none used gloves while

MARIE-LOUISE LIND; ANDERS BOMAN; JAN SOLLENBERG; STINA JOHNSSON; GUNNEL HAGELTHORN; BIRGITTA MEDING

2005-01-01

16

HPLC Analysis of Oxidation Hair Dyes in Permanent Hair Colorants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation of several hair dyes (diamines, aminophenols, phenols, etc.), using mobile phases containing 1,8-diaminoctane as new amine modifier and sodium heptansulfonate, is described. The combined effect of the amine and of the alkylsulfonate enabled very good separation of all the dyes studied. The proposed chromatographic system was found to be selective, rugged and therefore suitable for

V. Andrisano; R. Gotti; A. M. Di Pietra; V. Cavrini

1994-01-01

17

Erythema Multiforme Following Application of Hair Dye  

PubMed Central

Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute mucocutaneous hypersensitivity reaction with varying degrees of blistering and ulceration. Common causes of EM are herpes simplex virus infection, mycoplasma infection, drug hypersensitivity, vaccination and drug–virus interaction. EM induced by contact dermatitis is rare. Paraphenylene diamine, a common ingredient in many hair dyes, is well known to produce allergic contact dermatitis. We report a 35-year-old lady presenting with EM following severe contact dermatitis to hair dye. So far as we know, this is the first report from India describing EM following contact dermatitis.

Koley, Sankha; Sarkar, Jyotirindranath; Choudhary, Sanjiv; Dhara, Suparna; Choudhury, Manoj

2012-01-01

18

Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dyes and their ingredients have moderate to low acute toxicity. Human poisoning accidents are rare and have only been reported following oral ingestion. Contact sensitisation to hair dyes has been a safety issue, mainly as a consequence of unprotected professional exposure. Although the use of hair dyes has dramatically increased in industrialised countries during the last decades, the prevalence

Gerhard J Nohynek; Rolf Fautz; Florence Benech-Kieffer; Herve Toutain

2004-01-01

19

Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.  

PubMed

Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously. PMID:20557579

Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

2010-06-01

20

Percutaneous penetration\\/dermal absorption of hair dyes in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an in vitro technique to analyse percutaneous penetration and dermal absorption of hair dyes, topically applied to excised pig skin. Representative examples are given by the radio-labelled hair dyes p-phenylenediamine and bis-(5-amino-1-hydroxyphenyl)-methane. Both compounds were assessed under simulated use conditions and were analysed in representative formulations including the specific conditions for oxidation hair dyes. To be able

W Steiling; J Kreutz; H Hofer

2001-01-01

21

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740...Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. ...any labeling accompanying a coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient...

2009-04-01

22

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740...Statements § 740.18 Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. ...any labeling accompanying a coal tar hair dye containing any ingredient...

2010-04-01

23

Hair dye poisoning: An unusual encounter.  

PubMed

A 19-year-old female patient presented with alleged history of hair dye "Super Vasmol 33" intake. She presented with cervicofacial edema with upper airway obstruction. Although patient was being managed for airway obstruction, she developed cardiac arrest. Cardiac resuscitation could not be started at that point of time because managing airway was the priority in a patient who in hypoxic cardiac arrest. As soon as the airway was secured by emergency tracheostomy, cardiac resuscitation was initiated and the patient was successfully revived. PMID:24987242

Garg, Sunil Kumar; Tiwari, Rajjan; Ahlawat, Alok

2014-06-01

24

Hair dye poisoning: An unusual encounter  

PubMed Central

A 19-year-old female patient presented with alleged history of hair dye “Super Vasmol 33” intake. She presented with cervicofacial edema with upper airway obstruction. Although patient was being managed for airway obstruction, she developed cardiac arrest. Cardiac resuscitation could not be started at that point of time because managing airway was the priority in a patient who in hypoxic cardiac arrest. As soon as the airway was secured by emergency tracheostomy, cardiac resuscitation was initiated and the patient was successfully revived.

Garg, Sunil Kumar; Tiwari, Rajjan; Ahlawat, Alok

2014-01-01

25

Severe facial swelling in a pregnant woman after using hair dye.  

PubMed

A 33-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman (26 weeks' gestation) presented to the emergency department. She had a 2-day history of severe itching of the scalp and steadily worsening swelling of the face over the previous 12 h, which had extended to the neck. She had no difficulty breathing. The itching and swelling had developed 3 days after she had used hair dye. The patient had no history of allergic responses to hair dye or black henna tattoos. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction was made. Permanent hair dyes are the most frequently used professional hair dyes and are most commonly based on paraphenylenediamine (PPD) or related chemicals. PPD is known to be one of the most potent allergens which cause allergic contact dermatitis. After treatment with intravenous antihistamines and steroids, the facial swelling reduced and the patient had completely recovered by the following day. PMID:24686800

van Genderen, Michel E; Carels, Ginette; Lonnee, Edward R; Dees, Adriaan

2014-01-01

26

Evaluation of the toxicity and carcinogenicity of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronic toxicological and carcinogenic potential following skin painting in mice was evaluated for nine oxidative and three nonoxidative hair dyes. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were treated one time weekly for at least 20 mo with one dose level of each dye. The oxidative dyes were mixed 1:1 with 6% hydrogen peroxide before treatment and the three

C. Burnett; M. M. Jacobs; A. Seppala; P. Shubik

1980-01-01

27

Thermal analysis of hair treated with oxidative hair dye under influence of conditioners agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research aimed the effect on Caucasian hair tresses treated with oxidative hair dye, either incorporated or not with\\u000a conditioners agents, analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The formulations\\u000a of hair dyes were emulsions oil-in-water with light blond color containing or not the conditioners agents: silanetriol and\\u000a panthenol; PEG-12 dimethicone; hydrolyzed silk, hydrolyzed milk protein, and

Robson Miranda da GamaTatiana; Tatiana Santana Balogh; Simone França; Tânia Cristina Sá Dias; Valcinir Bedin; André Rolim Baby; Jivaldo do Rosário Matos; Maria Valéria Robles Velasco

28

The challenge of testing chemicals for potential carcinogenicity using multiple short-term assays: an analysis of a proposed test battery for hair dyes.  

PubMed

Recent reports of the association of hair dyes usage with increased bladder cancer risk in women with the slow NAT-2 acetylator phenotype have resulted both in attempts to identify the putative carcinogen as well as in devising batteries of tests that could be used to screen for such putative carcinogens in hair dye formulations, their intermediates and final products. Analytical studies have reported the presence of traces ( approximately 0.5 ppm) of the carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl in some hair dye preparations. In parallel, SCCNFP (Scientific Committee on Cosmetic and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers) has suggested the deployment of a battery of six in vitro assays followed by an in vivo assay. The practicality of deploying and interpreting such a battery is analyzed herein as it is expected to result in 64 and 128 possible test results and SCCNFP does not provide detailed guidance of how the test results are to be interpreted. In this study we have applied a previously described Bayesian approach which takes advantage of the known predictive performances of individual assays, to analyze the possible outcomes of the 6-7 test batteries. While the SCCNFP battery is clearly risk-averse, it is shown that performing all of the assays is not always necessary and moreover it does not necessarily improve predictive performance. Finally, based upon the reported mutagenicity of 4-aminobiphenyl, it is doubtful that this "impurity" would be detected by the test battery. PMID:17625954

Rosenkranz, Herbert S; Cunningham, Suzanne L; Mermelstein, Robert; Cunningham, Albert R

2007-09-01

29

Determination of dye intermediates in oxidative hair dyes by fused-silica capillary gas chromatography.  

PubMed

A fused-silica capillary gas chromatographic method is described for the determination of dye intermediates in oxidative hair dyes. An appropriate amount of hair dye sample is dissolved in 10 ml of methanol containing 0.25 g of ammonium thioglycolate and an appropriate amount of 2-amino-4-methylphenol as an internal standard. This solution is directly injected into a gas chromatograph. A fused-silica capillary column with cross-linked methyl silicone OV-1 or SE-54 as a liquid phase yields excellent resolution of dye intermediates. Some factors affecting the quantitation of dye intermediates are discussed. The proposed method gave good recoveries and reproducibilities, and permits simultaneous determination of various types of dye intermediates without any pretreatment. The use of a nitrogen-phosphorus detector allows the selective detection of nitrogen-containing dye intermediates. This simple and versatile method is applicable for the determination of dye intermediates in commercial hair dyes. PMID:3782349

Tokuda, H; Kimura, Y; Takano, S

1986-10-01

30

Aberration corrected STEM to study an ancient hair dyeing formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-based chemistry was initiated in ancient Egypt for cosmetic preparation more than 4000 years ago. Here, we study a hair-dyeing recipe using lead salts described in text since Greco-Roman times. We report direct evidence about the shape and distribution of PbS nanocrystals that form within the hair during blackening.

Patriarche, G.; Van Elslande, E.; Castaing, J.; Walter, P.

2014-05-01

31

The incorporation of dyes into hair as a model for drug binding.  

PubMed

The binding of charged substances from external aqueous media to hair has been investigated through the use of fluorescence microscopy. Eleven hair samples, reflecting various ethnic groups and cosmetic treatments, were tested. Rhodamine 6G, a cationic dye representative of drugs such as cocaine and opiates, showed incorporation throughout the hair of all samples except one. In contrast, fluorescein, an anionic dye representative of drugs such as THC carboxylic acid, was not readily incorporated. The incorporation of rhodamine 6G was faster for chemically 'straightened' and bleached African-American female hair than for untreated hair. Incorporation of rhodamine 6G followed a pH dependence, but an ionic strength dependence could not be established. These studies support three postulates: (1) electrostatic interactions explain the preferential binding of cationic drugs of abuse to hair; (2) the hair matrix, or the non-helical portion of hair, is accessible to external solutions and thus subject to contamination; and (3) cosmetic treatments may alter the helical portion of hair thereby increasing its accessibility to external contamination. PMID:10689564

DeLauder, S F; Kidwell, D A

2000-01-10

32

Percutaneous Absorption of Hair Dyes: Correlation with Partition Coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A homologous series of hair dyes was selected for percutaneous absorption studies with excised human skin. The permeability constants obtained for the dyes were compared with octanol\\/water and skin membrane\\/ water partition coefficients. The compounds examined were: p-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, 2-ni- tro-p-phenylenediamine, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 4- chloro-m-phenylenediamine, and 4-amino-2-nitro- phenol. Skin absorption of the dyes was observed when they were applied in an

Robert L. Bronaugh; Elaine R. Congdon

1984-01-01

33

Genotoxicity studies on professional hair colorists exposed to oxidation hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytogenic repercussions of occupational exposure to oxidation hair dyes were assessed by using three assays in professional hair colorists. The assays were sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in circulating lymphocytes to evaluate the interchange of DNA replication products at apparently homologous chromosomal loci, single cell gel electrophoretic (SCGE) assay to detect the presence of DNA strand breaks\\/alkali-labile damage, and the

S ?arda?; N Aygün; A. E Karakaya

1997-01-01

34

Hair dyes are mutagenic: identification of a variety of mutagenic ingredients.  

PubMed Central

We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for dectecting carcinogens as mutagens. We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for detecting carcinogens as mutagens. We show here that 89% (150/169) of commercial oxidative-type (hydrogen peroxide) hair dye formulations are mutagenic in this test. Of the 18 components of these hair dyes, nine show various degrees of mutagenicity:2,4-diaminoanisole, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminoanisole, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, m-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, and 2,5-diaminotoluene. Three hair dye components (p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminotuluene, and 2,5-diaminoanisole) become strongly mutagenic after oxidation by H2O2: the mutagenic product of p-phenylenediamine is identified as the known trimer, Bandrowski's base. 2,4-Diaminotoluene, a hair dye component until recently, is also shown to be mutagenic: this compound has been shown to be a carcinogen in rats and is used in large amounts in the polyurethane foam industry. About 20,000,000 people (mostly women) dye their hair in the U.S. and the hazard could be considerable if these chemicals are actually mutagenic and carcinogenic in humans. Images

Ames, B N; Kammen, H O; Yamasaki, E

1975-01-01

35

Examination of the potential mutagenicity of hair dye constituents using the micronucleus test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 12 compounds which are constitutents of hair dyes or chemically related aromatic amines, aminophenols, their nitroderivatives and aromatic hydroxyderivatives were examined for evidence of mutagenic potential by means of the micronucleus test. None of the compounds tested caused an increase in the incidence of micronucleated erythrocytes after oral dosing.

D. J. N. Hossack; J. C. Richardson

1977-01-01

36

21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD...Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements....

2009-04-01

37

21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD...Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements....

2010-04-01

38

21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD...Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers...

2010-04-01

39

21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD...Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers...

2009-04-01

40

Teratology and percutaneous toxicity studies on hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve hair dye formulations were tested for systemic toxicity by topical application twice weekly for 13 wk to groups of 12 New Zealand white rabbits and for teratologic effects following applications to groups of 20 pregnant Charles River CD rats on days I, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 of gestation. The three semipermanent formulations were applied as is,

C. Burnett; E. I. Goldenthal; S. B. Harris; F. X. Wazeter; J. Strausburg; R. Kapp; R. Voelker

1976-01-01

41

Natural dyeing of wool and hair with indigo carmine (C.I. Natural Blue 2), a renewable resource based blue dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigo carmine can be used as a source of blue dye for wool and hair dyeing. The option to use indigo carmine in combination with other natural dyes in a one-bath procedure as a hybrid dyeing concept is of interest both for natural dyeing and for coloration of hair. The present study shows that indigo carmine dyeing on wool exhibits

Sunsanee Komboonchoo; Thomas Bechtold

2009-01-01

42

Regular use of hair dyes and risk of lymphoma in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results Ever use of hair dyes was associated with a non-significant 20% increased risk of lymphoma (OR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.7) with a slightly higher risk observed for those using permanent hair dyes (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-1.9). No association was observed with duration of use or lifetime doses of hair dyes. Among all lymphomas categories, only chronic

Yolanda Benavente; Natividad Garcia; Eva Domingo-Domenech; Tomás Alvaro; Yawei Zhang; Silvia de Sanjose

43

Paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning: an uncommon cause of rhabdomyolysis.  

PubMed

Paraphenylene daimine (PPD) is a kind of aromatic amine that is widely used in several industrial products. Women also use PPD added to henna (Lawasonia alba) as a hair dye. Though rare in Western countries, PPD poisoning is quite common in East Africa, India and Middle Eastern countries because it is a traditional product at these countries. Different pathologies were described as caused by PPD ingestion including angioedema of head and neck, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. The authors report a case of systemic poisoning with PPD that lead to angioedema resulting in tracheostomy and rhabdomyolysis. PMID:23723080

Elevli, Murat; Civilibal, Mahmut; Ersoy, Ozlem; Demirkol, Demet; Gedik, Ahmet Hakan

2014-07-01

44

Right Bundle Branch Block: An Uncommon Cardiotoxic Manifestation of Hair Dye Poisoning-A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning has been rising in incidence in the recent years. Apart from the commoner manifestations of upper airway edema, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, cardiac toxicity, convulsions and sudden cardiac death are relatively rare complications. We discuss a case of hair dye poisoning manifesting as oropharyngeal edema along with cardiac complication. The patient survived.

Balasubramanian, Deepak; Subramanian, Saravanan; Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Shanmugam, Kani

2014-01-01

45

A Method for Assessing Occupational Dermal Exposure to Permanent Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairdressers have an increased risk of developing occupational skin diseases due to exposure to skin irritants and sensitizers. In the present work a method of assessing dermal exposure to permanent hair dyes was developed. The sampling performance characteristics of hand wash sampling with bag rinsing were studied for five hair dye compounds. The effect of residence time, sample load and

MARIE-LOUISE LIND; ANDERS BOMAN; JOUNI SURAKKA; JAN SOLLENBERG; BIRGITTA MEDING

2004-01-01

46

Right bundle branch block: an uncommon cardiotoxic manifestation of hair dye poisoning-a case report.  

PubMed

Hair dye poisoning has been rising in incidence in the recent years. Apart from the commoner manifestations of upper airway edema, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, cardiac toxicity, convulsions and sudden cardiac death are relatively rare complications. We discuss a case of hair dye poisoning manifesting as oropharyngeal edema along with cardiac complication. The patient survived. PMID:24596762

Balasubramanian, Deepak; Subramanian, Saravanan; Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Shanmugam, Kani

2014-01-01

47

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740...tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal...ingredient that can penetrate your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals....

2013-04-01

48

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

...2014-04-01 false Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS...740.18 Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The...

2014-04-01

49

Allergic contact dermatitis from hair dye and development of lichen simplex chronicus.  

PubMed

Those who dye their hair frequently manifest allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dye. PPD is known to be the most frequent sensitizer in hair dye, but there has been no documentation of this sensitizer having a role in chronic dermatologic conditions. Our department experienced a case of a 62-year-old woman with lichen simplex chronicus (LSC), who complained of aggravation after hair dyeing and made such an association. We conducted a prospective and retrospective study to further evaluate the clinical associations between the two. In our prospective study, patch testing was performed in selected patients who regularly carried out hair dyeing and also had clinical manifestations of LSC. Also a retrospective examination was conducted in cases where patch testing had been performed with PPD in the past for suspected ACD and further selected cases with concurrent LSC and/or other neurodermatitis. 11 and 14 patients in our prospective and retrospective study, respectively, presented with both LSC and positive findings to PPD. 5 (45.5%) and 4 (28.6%) patients in our prospective and retrospective study showed clinical relevance from clinical improvement after stopping use and rechallenge. We report several cases of patients diagnosed as having LSC and/or prurigo nodularis who showed clinical improvement after discontinuing the use of hair dye. The suggestion can therefore be made that hair dye could be a possible aetiologic agent causing LSC in those using hair dyes. PMID:15291824

Chey, Won Young; Kim, Kyung Lok; Yoo, Tae-Yeon; Lee, Ai-Young

2004-07-01

50

In-vitro and in-vivo study of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental results on in vitro and in vivo investigation of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles. It was shown that dyeing as a method of enhancement of the absorption coefficient of hair follicle tissue components can be used for selective photodestruction of hair follicle and surrounding tissues. Strength and depth of hair follicle dyeing inside the skin were determined for various dyes.

Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Sinichkin, Yurii P.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Lakodina, Nina A.; Perpelitzina, Olga A.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Tuchin, Valery V.

2000-11-01

51

Is There a True Concern Regarding the Use of Hair Dye and Malignancy Development?  

PubMed Central

Many advances in the cosmetic industry have increased our ability to enhance youth and beauty. Hair-coloring products are one such innovation. Over the past several decades, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to understanding the possible long-term side effects associated with hair-dye use, specifically looking at cancer risk. This paper describes the hair-coloring process, highlights the potentially carcinogenic ingredients in various hair-dying products, and reviews the epidemiological evidence relating personal hair-dye use to the risk of developing several types of malignancies.

Saitta, Peter; Cook, Christopher E.; Messina, Jane L.; Brancaccio, Ronald; Wu, Benedict C.; Grekin, Steven K.; Holland, Jean

2013-01-01

52

Personal Hair Dye Use and Cancer: A Systematic Literature Review and Evaluation of Exposure Assessment in Studies Published Since 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dyes are widely used, and permanent hair dye is the most commonly used type of product. Permanent hair dye colors are formed by an oxidative process involving arylamines, giving rise to concerns about the potential adverse health effects of long-term exposure, especially cancer. A 1993 International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC) review concluded that evidence was inadequate to evaluate

Dana E. Rollison; Kathy J. Helzlsouer; Susan M. Pinney

2006-01-01

53

Use of hair dyes by patients with breast cancer: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent finding that many permanent and semipermanent hair dyes are strongly mutagenic in a laboratory test, together with the fact that single female hair-dressers had higher than expected death rates from breast-cancer in 1959-63, prompted a study into the use of hair dyes by patients with breast cancer and by matched controls. There was no difference between the patients

L J Kinlen; R Harris; A Garrod; K Rodriguez

1977-01-01

54

Personal Use of Hair Dye and the Risk of Certain Subtypes of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Personal use of hair dye has been inconsistently linked to risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), perhaps because of small samples or a lack of detailed information on personal hair-dye use in previous studies. This study included 4,461 NHL cases and 5,799 controls from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium 1988–2003. Increased risk of NHL (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 1.4) associated with hair-dye use was observed among women who began using hair dye before 1980. Analyses by NHL subtype showed increased risk for follicular lymphoma (FL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) but not for other NHL subtypes. The increased risks of FL (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) and CLL/SLL (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.0) were mainly observed among women who started using hair dyes before 1980. For women who began using hair dye in 1980 or afterward, increased FL risk was limited to users of dark-colored dyes (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.0). These results indicate that personal hair-dye use may play a role in risks of FL and CLL/SLL in women who started use before 1980 and that increased risk of FL among women who started use during or after 1980 cannot be excluded.

Zhang, Yawei; De Sanjose, Silvia; Bracci, Paige M.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Wang, Rong; Brennan, Paul; Hartge, Patricia; Boffetta, Paolo; Becker, Nikolaus; Maynadie, Marc; Foretova, Lenka; Cocco, Pierluigi; Staines, Anthony; Holford, Theodore; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Nieters, Alexandra; Benavente, Yolanda; Bernstein, Leslie; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Zheng, Tongzhang

2014-01-01

55

Peripheral neuropathy after hair dye exposure: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a case of length-dependent sensory axonal polyneuropathy due to lead exposure from a cosmetic product. Serial follow-ups showed a direct relationship between the lead level, clinical symptoms, and the polyneuropathy. Our patient had a relatively short-term exposure to lead after misusing a hair dye on his beard. Nerve conduction studies showed a predominantly axonal sensory neuropathy that correlated with lead blood levels and reached 3 times the upper limit of normal. The patient had an unexpected sensory predominant neuropathy. He had a full recovery after stopping the lead-containing product. Blood lead levels were noted to be below previously reported toxic levels. No other systemic signs of lead toxicity were noted. This could be related to the mucosal route of absorption inducing a reversible injury at lower than previously reported lead levels and after a shorter duration of exposure. PMID:24872215

Deeb, Wissam; Cachia, David; Quinn, Colin; Salameh, Johnny

2014-06-01

56

Trends in Use of Hair Dye: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the following study was to assess the knowledge, practice, perception and adverse reactions among hair dye users. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients, their attenders and staff of SDUMC. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire (28) pertaining to use of hair dyes and reactions to them was administered randomly. Statistical Analysis: The demographic data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, quantitative data expressed as percentages. Results: A total of 263 volunteers responded of which 52.5% and 47.5% were females and males respectively with mean age of 32.40 ± 6.01 years. The participants started using hair dye at an age of 27 (±3.63) years. Synthetic dyes were used by 91%. Frequency of use in a year was 2-5 times in 51%. Instruction of the package insert was followed by 63.5%. Skin test was never performed in 34% prior to their use. Nearly 96% expressed hair dyeing was unsafe during pregnancy, lactation and in children. Adverse reactions were reported by 42%, with headache (63%) and itching (38%) being the most common. Conclusion: Hair dyeing was started at very early age. Majority used semi-permanent dyes even though they perceived natural dyes were safe. They continued dyeing despite adverse reactions, which indicates cosmetic importance.

Patel, Dharmistha; Narayana, Sarala; Krishnaswamy, Bhuvana

2013-01-01

57

Personal hair dye use and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Despite considerable research, the issue of hair dyes and bladder cancer is still open to discussion. In January 2013, we searched in PubMed/EMBASE to identify observational studies investigating the association between personal use of hair dyes and bladder cancer incidence/mortality. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models. Fifteen case-control and two cohort studies were available for meta-analysis (8504 cases/deaths, 14,102 controls, and 617,937 persons at risk). Compared with no use, the pooled RR of bladder cancer for personal use of any type of hair dyes was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.82-1.05), with moderate heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 34.1%, P = .07). Similar RRs were found for females (RR = 0.95) and males (RR = 0.81). Based on seven studies, the pooled RR for personal use of permanent hair dyes was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.77-1.09). Compared with no use, no association was observed for the highest categories of duration of use and lifetime frequency of use of both any type of dyes and permanent dyes. The pooled RR from four studies reporting results for use of dark-colored dyes was 1.29 (95% CI, 0.98-1.71). This meta-analysis allows to definitively exclude any appreciable excess risk of bladder cancer among personal hair dye users. PMID:24342029

Turati, Federica; Pelucchi, Claudio; Galeone, Carlotta; Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo

2014-02-01

58

Hair dye use and occupational exposure to organic solvents as risk factors for myelodysplastic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationships of personal hair dye use and environmental factors to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), we conducted a case-control study in Japan. A total of 111 MDS cases and 830 controls randomly selected from the residents in the same prefecture of cases using telephone directories responded to a health questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for ever having used hair

Chisato Nagata; Hiroyuki Shimizu; Kunitake Hirashima; Eizo Kakishita; Kingo Fujimura; Yoshiyuki Niho; Masamitsu Karasawa; Shigeru Oguma; Yataro Yoshida; Hideaki Mizoguchi

1999-01-01

59

Deaths from hematopoietic and other cancers in relation to permanent hair dye use in a large prospective study (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess in a large prospective study whether women who used permanent hair dye, especially dark dye for many years, experienced increased death rates from hematopoietic and other cancers that have been associated with hair dye use in some previous reports.

Sean F. Altekruse; S. Jane Henley; Michael J. Thun

1999-01-01

60

Detection of carcinogenic chromium in synthetic hair dyes using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A laser induced breakdown spectroscopic (LIBS) system, consisting of a pulsed 266 nm laser radiation, in conjunction with a high-resolution spectrograph, a gated intensified charge coupled device camera, and a built-in delay generator were used to develop a sensitive detector to quantify the concentration of toxic substances such as chromium in synthetic hair dyes available on the local market. The strong atomic transition line of chromium (Cr I) at 427.5 nm wavelength was used as a fingerprint wavelength to calibrate the detection system and also to quantify the levels of chromium in the hair dye samples. The limit of detection achieved by our LIBS detection system for chromium was 1.2 ppm, which enabled us to detect chromium concentration in the range of 5-11 ppm in the commercial hair dyes available on the local market. The concentrations of chromium in the hair dyes measured using our system were validated using a standard analytical technique such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), and acceptable agreement (nearly 8%) was found between the results obtained by the two methods (LIBS and ICPMS). This study is highly significant for human health, specifically for people using synthetic hair dyes for changing the color of their hair. PMID:24663421

Gondal, M A; Maganda, Y W; Dastageer, M A; Al Adel, F F; Naqvi, A A; Qahtan, T F

2014-03-10

61

Chemical Stabilization of Laser Dyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output. Modes of degradation of coumarin dye lasers under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions were determined...

T. H. Koch

1984-01-01

62

Hair dyes and temporary tattoos are a real hazard for adolescents?  

PubMed

Temporary tattoos, especially those that contain black dyes, have become rampant among teenagers in recent years. Most of these tattoos, in addition to hair dyes include paraphenylenediamine (PPD). PPD is a well-known skin sensitizer, which causes allergic contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis skin lesions from PPD are mostly seen as erythema multiforme-like eruption, a bullous contact dermatitis or as an exudative erythema. Herein, we report on our finding on a 15 year-old adolescent female who had been unaware of being previously sensitized to PPD from a black henna tattoo, and angioedema-like reaction which occurred after her first exposure to hair dye. PMID:24702872

Haluk Akar, H; Adatepe, S; Tahan, F; Solmaz, I

2014-01-01

63

Vital dyes in ophthalmology: a chemical perspective.  

PubMed

Abstract Vital dyes have advanced diagnosis and surgical technique in various specialties, including oncology, gastroenterology and ophthalmology. Intra-operative and diagnostic dyes are finding uses in all areas of ophthalmology, including cornea, cataract, retina, glaucoma, orbit and conjunctiva. We provide a summary of current knowledge of the chemical concepts of vital dyes in ophthalmology. We review the properties of dyes, techniques of application, indications and complications in ocular surgery. Vital dyes represent an expanding area of research, and novel dyes deserve further investigation. PMID:24400745

Badaro, Emmerson; Novais, Eduardo Amorim; Penha, Fernando Marcondes; Maia, Mauricio; Farah, Michel Eid; Rodrigues, Eduardo Buchele

2014-07-01

64

Chemical stabilization of laser dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. The roles of singlet oxygen and excitation intensity on dye degradation were explored. Singlet oxygen is formed but its reactions with the dye do not appear to be a major cause of dye laser output deterioration. High light intensity results in dye sensitized, solvent oligomerization to yield materials which interfere with dye stimulated emission. 1, 4-Diazabicyclo2,2,2octane (DABCO)inhibits this oligomerization.

Koch, Tad H.

1987-05-01

65

An historical review of the use of dye precursors in the formulation of commercial oxidation hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changing palette of precursor used in commercial oxidation hair dyes over the period 1900 to 1997 is reviewed. Reasons for changes in the palette are discussed in the light of regulatory and patent activity together with comment on the changes in the paradigm for patentability of combinations of known ingredients in known generic combination. ©

John F Corbett

1999-01-01

66

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for...purposes are mixtures of synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in...

2010-04-01

67

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and chemical solution stains for...purposes are mixtures of synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in...

2009-04-01

68

Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: An appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP) guideline for testing of hair dyes for genotoxic\\/mutagenic\\/carcinogenic potential has been reviewed. The battery of six in vitro tests recommended therein differs substantially from the batteries of two or three in vitro tests recommended in other guidelines. Our evaluation of the chemical types used in hair dyes and comparison with

D. J. Kirkland; L. Henderson; D. Marzin; L. Müller; J. M. Parry; G. Speit; D. J. Tweats; G. M. Williams

2005-01-01

69

Permeation of hair dye ingredients, p-phenylenediamine and aminophenol isomers, through protective gloves.  

PubMed

Skin irritation and contact allergies are skin disorders common to hairdressers. The predominant oxidative hair dye components, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and aminophenol isomers, can cause contact dermatitis. Use of protective gloves can prevent dermal contact with skin irritants. This study investigates the permeation behaviors of p-aminophenol (PAP), m-aminophenol (MAP), o-aminophenol (OAP) and PPD in single and mixed challenge solutions with disposable natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves, disposable polyvinylchloride (PVC) gloves and neoprene (NP) gloves. The challenge solutions were 4% PPD (w/v), 3% OAP (w/v), 2% PAP (w/v) and 2% MAP (w/v) in ethanol or 12% hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cocktail solutions of the four chemicals were also tested. An American Society for Testing and Materials type permeation cell, ethanol liquid collection and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection of samples taken from the collection medium every 10 min facilitated determination of breakthrough times (BTs), cumulative permeated masses and steady-state permeation rates (SSPRs). Experiments were 4 h long for the NRL and PVC gloves and 8 h for NP gloves. No chemicals tested broke through the NP gloves when exposed for 8 h. In the ethanol solution, PPD and OAP started breaking through the PVC gloves at 40 min. The SSPRs of PVC gloves were higher than those for NRL gloves in all challenge conditions for both single chemicals and mixtures. No tested chemicals in hydrogen peroxide solutions permeated the gloves during the 4-h tests. The chemical composition of the challenge solution was a main effecter of BTs and SSPRs for the NRL glove. For disposable PVC gloves, the main factors of BTs were molecular size [molar volume (MV)] and polarity (logK(ow)), and the primary factors of SSPRs were concentration, MV and logK(ow). In conclusion, disposable NRL gloves and disposable PVC gloves should not be used repeatedly for handling the hair dye products. Hydrogen peroxide did not accelerate chemical breakthrough. The compositions of the challenge solutions and physical and chemical properties (MV and logK(ow)) affected permeation behaviors for different gloves. PMID:19279162

Lee, Hsiao-Shu; Lin, Yu-Wen

2009-04-01

70

Hair dye use is not associated with risk for bladder cancer: Evidence from a case-control study in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased bladder cancer risk has been suggested among users of hair dyes. We evaluated this association among females in a hospital-based case-control study in Spain (152 female incident cases, 166 female controls). The effect of hair dye use was also evaluated among potentially susceptible subgroups defined by NAT1, NAT2, CYP1A2, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes. Use of any hair

Manolis Kogevinas; Francisco Fernandez; Montserrat Garcia-Closas; Adonina Tardon; Reina Garcia-Closas; Consol Serra; Alfredo Carrato; Gemma Castano-Vinyals; Meredith Yeager; Stephen J. Chanock; Josep Lloreta; Nathaniel Rothman; Francisco X. Real; Mustafa Dosemeci; Nuria Malats; Debra Silverman

2006-01-01

71

Determination of Degraded Dyes and Auxiliary Chemicals in Effluents from Textile Dyeing Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selected dyes and auxiliary chemicals used in dyeing processes were tested in a laboratory environment simulating that to which dyehouse effluents would be subjected in a conventional activated sludge waste treatment process. Dyes and auxiliary chemicals ...

R. K. Flege

1970-01-01

72

Hair cosmetics.  

PubMed

The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products. PMID:23974582

Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

2013-01-01

73

Chemical Hair Relaxers Have Adverse Effects a Myth or Reality  

PubMed Central

Context: Hair plays an important role in one's personality and builds confidence. Now-a-days, chemical hair relaxers are used very commonly in the society. We document the adverse effects reported by the sample that have used any one of the professional chemical hair relaxers. Aim: To study the adverse effects reported by the sample who underwent repeated chemical hair relaxing. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire based study done on a sample taken from a medical college and hospital campus in Mangalore. Materials and Methods: The sample was restricted to females and to those who underwent it more than once. A questionnaire was given to a sample of 90, which matched our criteria. Statistical Analysis: SPSS software 17. Results: Adverse effects reported by the sample after undergoing the procedure were found to be a high 95.56%, out of which the following are the common adverse effects reported; frizzy hair in 67%, dandruff in 61%, hair loss in 47%, thinning and weakening of hair in 40%, greying of hair 22%, and split ends in only 17%. Conclusions: Very few studies have been conducted on the adverse effects of hair straightening products in India. From our study, it can be stated that most of the samples had adverse effects, which was as high as 95.56%. Hence from the details elicited from this study, we can conclude that, usage of chemical hair relaxers does cause adverse effects and is “not a myth.” Thus, it is necessary to make available a less harmful chemical hair relaxer to the society.

Shetty, Vinma H; Shetty, Narendra J; Nair, Dhanya Gopinath

2013-01-01

74

P2X antagonists inhibit styryl dye entry into hair cells  

PubMed Central

The styryl pyridinium dyes, FM1-43 and AM1-43, are fluorescent molecules that can permeate the mechanotransduction channels of hair cells, the sensory receptors of the inner ear. When these dyes are applied to hair cells, they enter the cytoplasm rapidly, resulting in a readily detectable increase in intracellular fluorescence that is often used as a molecular indication of mechanotransduction channel function. However, such dyes can also permeate the ATP receptor, P2X2. Therefore, we explored the contribution of P2X receptors to the loading of hair cells with AM1-43. The chick inner ear was found to express P2X receptors and to release ATP, similar to the inner ear of mammals, allowing for the endogenous stimulation of P2X receptors. The involvement of these receptors was evaluated pharmacologically, by exposing the sensory epithelium of the chick inner ear to 5 ?M AM1-43 under different experimental conditions and measuring the fluorescence in hair cells after fixation of the tissue. Pre-exposure of the tissue to 5 mM EGTA for 15 minutes, which should eliminate most of the gating “tip links” of the mechanotransduction channels, deceased fluorescence by only 44%. In contrast, P2X receptor antagonists (PPADS, suramin, TNP-ATP, and d-tubocurarine) had greater effects on dye loading. PPADS, suramin, and TNP-ATP all decreased intracellular AM1-43 fluorescence in hair cells by at least 69% when applied at a concentration of 100 ?M. The difference between d-tubocurarine-treated and control fluorescence was statistically insignificant when d-tubocurarine was applied at a concentration that blocks the mechanotransduction channel (200 ?M). At a concentration that also blocks P2X2 receptors (2 mM), d-tubocurarine decreased dye loading by 72%. From these experiments, it appears that AM1-43 can enter hair cells through endogenously activated P2X receptors. Thus, the contribution of P2X receptors to dye entry must be considered when using styryl pyridinium dyes to detect hair cell mechanotransduction channel activity in the absence of explicit mechanical stimulation of stereocilia.

Crumling, Mark A.; Tong, Mingjie; Aschenbach, Krista L.; Liu, Li Qian; Pipitone, Christine M.; Duncan, R. Keith

2009-01-01

75

Knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dyes among females visiting a teaching hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Use of hair dye is extremely common worldwide. However, our literature search failed to find studies concerning the knowledge and attitudes of the public with regard to hair dyes. We sought to explore the knowledge and practices of, and attitudes towards, the use of hair dye among females. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional survey conducted on females who attended various outpatient clinics at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a tertiary referral hospital open to the general public. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire about the use of hair dyes was distributed randomly among females attending the outpatient clinics at a university hospital in 2008. RESULTS: The response rate was 87.2%, with completion of 567 of the 650 distributed questionnaires. The mean (SD) age of respondents was 32.0 (10.2) years. Among respondents, 82.6% (464/562) had at some point dyed their hair. Furthermore, 69.3% (334/482) had dyed their hair in the past 12 months. The mean (SD) age of the participants when they first dyed their hair was 22.2 (7.1) years (range, 7-50). Of the participants, 76.8% (354/461) used permanent dyes, and about the same percentage of participants believed such dyes were the safest hair dye type. However, 52.4% (278/531) of the participants believed that hair dyes are harmful, and 36% (191/531) believed that hair dyes could cause cancer. Younger females tend to dye their hair less frequently (P<.001), whereas those with less education tend to dye their hair more frequently (P=.013). CONCLUSION: Use of hair dye is very common among females. Because the practice starts at a very young age, we conclude that hair dyes are overused and misused. The public should be informed about the risks associated with excessive hair dye use.

AlGhamdi, Khalid M.; Moussa, Noura A.

2011-01-01

76

Nanoscale characterization of human hair and hair conditioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber. Hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners, along with damaging processes such as chemical dyeing and permanent wave treatments, affect the maintenance and grooming process and are important to study because they alter many hair properties. Nanoscale characterization of the cellular structure, mechanical properties, and morphological, frictional, and adhesive properties (tribological properties)

Bharat Bhushan

2008-01-01

77

Chemical Carcinogenesis: Azo Dyes, Aryl Amines, and Related Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This agent-oriented Cancergram deals with carcinogenicity of fluorene derivatives, azo compounds, naphthylamines, nitroguinoline oxides, and other related specific substances (including hair dyes). The scope includes carcinogenicity and modification of ca...

1982-01-01

78

Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin.  

PubMed

The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm(-1) to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm(-1) were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm(-1), from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair. PMID:23537511

Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

2013-05-15

79

Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

2013-05-01

80

Silicones used in permanent and semi-permanent hair dyes to reduce the fading and color change process of dyed hair occurred by wash-out or UV radiation.  

PubMed

Different kinds of silicones were incorporated directly into permanent and semi-permanent hair dyes. To ensure that the silicone was deposited to the hair fibers Si deposition was measured. Hair treated with a silicone free control or the silicone modified hair dyes was tested for color and lightness change (fading) by washing the treated tresses several times and measuring the color change. In a second experiment, hair treated with permanent hair dye was treated with UV radiation to show if silicones can reduce the color change initiated by UV light. The influence of the silicones to dry combing forces of permanent dyed hair untreated and treated with UV was also investigated. The tests showed that dimethiconol/dimethicone mixtures can reduce the washout of hair colorant clearly and silicone resins like trimethylsiloxysilcate or propylphenylsilsesquioxane are able to decrease the color change occurred by UV radiation in dyed hair. PMID:15645088

Schlosser, Arndt

2004-01-01

81

Analysis of basic hair dyes by HPLC with on-line post-column photochemical derivatisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed phase liquid chromatographic method is proposed for the analysis of basic hair dyes (raw materials and colourant formulations). The performance of the method was enhanced by introducing post-column on-line photochemical derivatisation in combination with a Diode Array Detector. On-line photoderivatisation provided an effective way of selectively transforming the analytes to compounds with different spectral properties. For each analyte

V. Andrisano; R. Gotti; A. M. DiPietra; V. Cavrini

1994-01-01

82

N-acetylation of three aromatic amine hair dye precursor molecules eliminates their genotoxic potential.  

PubMed

N-acetylation has been described as a detoxification reaction for aromatic amines; however, there is only limited data available showing that this metabolic conversion step changes their genotoxicity potential. To extend this database, three aromatic amines, all widely used as precursors in oxidative hair dye formulations, were chosen for this study: p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 2,5-diaminotoluene (DAT) and 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene (AHT). Aiming at a deeper mechanistic understanding of the interplay between activation and detoxification for this chemical class, we compared the genotoxicity profiles of the parent compounds with those of their N-acetylated metabolites. While PPD, DAT and AHT all show genotoxic potential in vitro, their N-acetylated metabolites completely lack genotoxic potential as shown in the Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, micronucleus test with cultured human lymphocytes (AHT), chromosome aberration assay with V79 cells (DAT) and Comet assay performed with V79 cells. For the bifunctional aromatic amines studied (PPD and DAT), monoacetylation was sufficient to completely abolish their genotoxic potential. Detoxification through N-acetylation was further confirmed by comparing PPD, DAT and AHT in the Comet assay using standard V79 cells (N-acetyltransferase (NAT) deficient) and two NAT-proficient cell lines,V79NAT1*4 and HaCaT (human keratinocytes). Here we observed a clear shift of dose-response curves towards decreased genotoxicity of the parent aromatic amines in the NAT-proficient cells. These findings suggest that genotoxic effects will only be found at concentrations where the N-acetylation (detoxifying) capacity of the cells is overwhelmed, indicating that a 'first-pass' effect in skin could be taken into account for risk assessment of these topically applied aromatic amines. The findings also indicate that the use of liver S-9 preparations, which generally underestimate Phase II reactions, contributes to the generation of irrelevant positive results in standard genotoxicity tests for this chemical class. PMID:24275315

Zeller, Andreas; Pfuhler, Stefan

2014-01-01

83

Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

2010-09-01

84

FM dye photo-oxidation as a tool for monitoring membrane recycling in inner hair cells.  

PubMed

Styryl (FM) dyes have been used for more than two decades to investigate exo- and endocytosis in conventional synapses. However, they are difficult to use in the inner hair cells of the auditory pathway (IHCs), as FM dyes appear to penetrate through mechanotransducer channels into the cytosol of IHCs, masking endocytotic uptake. To solve this problem we applied to IHCs the FM dye photo-oxidation technique, which renders the dyes into electron microscopy markers. Photo-oxidation allowed the unambiguous identification of labeled organelles, despite the presence of FM dye in the cytosol. This enabled us to describe the morphologies of several organelles that take up membrane in IHCs, both at rest and during stimulation. At rest, endosome-like organelles were detected in the region of the cuticular plate. Larger tubulo-cisternal organelles dominated the top and nuclear regions. Finally, the basal region, where the IHC active zones are located, contained few labeled organelles. Stimulation increased significantly membrane trafficking in the basal region, inducing the appearance of labeled vesicles and cistern-like organelles. The latter were replaced by small, synaptic-like vesicles during recovery after stimulation. In contrast, no changes in membrane trafficking were induced by stimulation in the cuticular plate region or in the top and nuclear regions. We conclude that synaptic vesicle recycling takes place mostly in the basal region of the IHCs. Other organelles participate in abundant constitutive membrane trafficking throughout the rest of the IHC volume. PMID:24505482

Kamin, Dirk; Revelo, Natalia H; Rizzoli, Silvio O

2014-01-01

85

Determination of phenylenediamine isomers in hair dyes by coal cinders micro-column extraction and MEKC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using beta-cyclodextrins (?-CDs) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium\\u000a hexafluorophosphates (ionic liquids) as additives was successfully developed for determination of para-, meta-, and ortho-phenylenediamines isomers (p-P, m-P, and o-P) in hair dyes. To improve the sensitivity of the MEKC-UV, a simple and cheap\\u000a flow injection (FI) technique using a micro-column packed with coal cinders (the by-products from

Yiwei Wu; Feng Jiang; Lin Chen; Jing Zheng; Zhenli Deng; Qing Tao; Jing Zhang; Lijuan Han; Xiaoshu Wei; Aimin Yu; Haili Zhang

2011-01-01

86

Metabolite screening of aromatic amine hair dyes using in vitro hepatic models.  

PubMed

Aromatic amines and heterocyclic amines are widely used ingredients in permanent hair dyes. However, little has been published on their potential for oxidation via hepatic cytochrome P450s. Therefore, the authors screened nine such compounds for their potential to undergo oxidative metabolism in human liver microsomes. Toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA), p-aminophenol, m-aminophenol, p-methylaminophenol, N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-phenylenediamine, and 1-hydroxyethyl-4,5-diaminopyrazole showed no evidence of oxidative metabolism. Oxidized metabolites of 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene (AHT), 2-methyl-5- hydroxyethylaminophenol (MHEAP), and phenyl methyl pyrazolone (PMP) were detected, but there was no evidence of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent covalent binding to microsomal protein, suggesting that these are not reactive metabolites. Metabolism of AHT, MHEAP, PMP, and TDA was further studied in human hepatocytes. All these compounds underwent conjugation, but no oxidative metabolites were found. The results suggest that none of the hair dye ingredients tested showed evidence of hepatic metabolism to potentially biologically reactive oxidized metabolites. PMID:19845432

Skare, J A; Hewitt, N J; Doyle, E; Powrie, R; Elcombe, C

2009-11-01

87

Hair Care  

MedlinePLUS

... may prescribe something stronger. If you want to dye your hair: If possible, you might consider having a professional ... rash, don't use the dye on your hair. Wear gloves when you apply dye. Talk with your doctor if your skin or ...

88

Determination of phenylenediamine isomers in hair dyes by coal cinders micro-column extraction and MEKC.  

PubMed

A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using beta-cyclodextrins (?-CDs) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphates (ionic liquids) as additives was successfully developed for determination of para-, meta-, and ortho-phenylenediamines isomers (p-P, m-P, and o-P) in hair dyes. To improve the sensitivity of the MEKC-UV, a simple and cheap flow injection (FI) technique using a micro-column packed with coal cinders (the by-products from combustion in a boiler) as solid-phase extractant was also investigated. In the presence of 20 mmol L(-1) phosphates at pH 5.5, addition of 12 mmol L(-1) ionic liquids and 8 mmol L(-1) ?-CDs greatly improved the separation efficiency. The three analytes could be quantitatively adsorbed by coal cinders, and desorbed readily with 0.15 mL of 0.01 mol L(-1) NaOH. Under the optimum conditions, an enrichment factor (EF) of 33.3 was obtained, and determination limits of p-P, m-P, and o-P were 1.97?×?10(-7), 0.99?×?10(-7), and 0.61?×?10(-7) mol L(-1), respectively. The adsorption capacities of the coal cinders micro-column for p-P, m-P, and o-P were all 1.20 mg g(-1). The presented procedure was successfully applied to the determination of p-P, m-P, and o-P in hair dyes with satisfactory results. PMID:21475944

Wu, Yiwei; Jiang, Feng; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Jing; Deng, Zhenli; Tao, Qing; Zhang, Jing; Han, Lijuan; Wei, Xiaoshu; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Haili

2011-06-01

89

Chemical hair relaxation and adverse outcomes among Negroid women in South West Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The use of chemical hair relaxers has found widesp read use in African Negroid women because of the desire to straighten their cur ly hair. The hair texture in Negroids is essentially coily and the process of straightening makes easier to comb and style. This beautification process, however, is not without its own hazards to the users. We document

Olayinka A Olasode

2009-01-01

90

Determination of 2,5toluylenediamine (2,5-TDA) and aromatic amines in urine after personal application of hair dyes: kinetics and doses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The personal use of hair dye products is currently under discussion due to the potentially increased risk of bladder cancer\\u000a among long-time users described in epidemiological literature. In order to investigate the dermal absorption of aromatic diamines\\u000a as well as aromatic amines possibly present as contaminants in hair dye formulations, we conducted a biomonitoring study under\\u000a real-life conditions and calculated

Thomas Schettgen; K. Heinrich; T. Kraus; Monika Gube

2011-01-01

91

Human systemic exposure to a [ 14C]- para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the absorption of a commercial [14C]-PPD-containing oxidative dark-shade hair dye in human volunteers as well as in vitro using human or pig ear skin. The hair of eight male volunteers was cut to a standard length, dyed, washed, dried, clipped and collected. Hair, washing water, materials used in the study and a 24-h scalp wash were collected for

Frédérique Hueber-Becker; Gerhard J. Nohynek; Wim J. A. Meuling; Florence Benech-Kieffer; Hervé Toutain

2004-01-01

92

Dermal carcinogenicity study by mouse?skin painting with 2,4?toluenediamine alone or in representative hair dye formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronic toxicity of 2,4?toluenediamine (2,4?TDA) alone or in combination with a hair dye complex (2,5?toluenediamine, p?phenylenedlamine, and resorcinol) was studied in Swiss?Webster mice of both sexes by a skin?painting technique. The predominant neoplasms seen in these mice were primary pulmonary adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Skin neoplasms were seen in most groups of mice, including untreated control mice. Statistical analysis of

Albert L. Giles Jr; Choong W. Chung; Choudari Kommineni

1976-01-01

93

Quantitative detection of chemical compounds in human hair with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is used to determine the distribution and concentration of selected compounds in intact human hair. By generating images based on ratiometric CARS contrast, quantitative concentration maps of both water and externally applied d-glycine are produced in the cortex of human hair fibers. Both water and d-glycine are found to homogeneously distribute throughout the cortical regions of the hair. The ability to selectively detect molecular agents in hair fibers is of direct relevance to understanding the chemical and physical mechanisms that underlie the performance of hair-care products.

Zimmerley, Maxwell; Lin, Chia-Yu; Oertel, David C.; Marsh, Jennifer M.; Ward, Jimmie L.; Potma, Eric Olaf

2009-07-01

94

Quantitative detection of chemical compounds in human hair with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy  

PubMed Central

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is used to determine the distribution and concentration of selected compounds in intact human hair. By generating images based on ratiometric CARS contrast, quantitative concentration maps of both water and externally applied d-glycine are produced in the cortex of human hair fibers. Both water and d-glycine are found to homogeneously distribute throughout the cortical regions of the hair. The ability to selectively detect molecular agents in hair fibers is of direct relevance to understanding the chemical and physical mechanisms that underlie the performance of hair-care products.

Zimmerley, Maxwell; Lin, Chia-Yu; Oertel, David C.; Marsh, Jennifer M.; Ward, Jimmie L.; Potma, Eric Olaf

2010-01-01

95

Chemical Hair Treatments and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome among Black Women in Central North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies suggest that toxic chemicals in hair products may be absorbed through the scalp in sufficient amounts to increase the risks of adverse health effects in women or their infants. This case-control study of 525 Black women from three counties in North Carolina who had delivered a singleton, liveborn infant examined whether exposure to chemicals used in hair straightening

Cheryl Blackmore-Prince; Sioban D. Hatlow; Paul Gargiullo; Michelle A. Lee; David A. Savitz

96

Controlled release of dyes from chemically polymerised conducting polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydroxytriarylmethane family of dyes (sub-category sulfonphthaleins, e.g. phenol red) has shown sufficient chemical stability to remain unchanged when exposed to the oxidative environment required for chemical polymerisation of inherently conducting polymers (ICPs). This oxidative stability allows these dyes to be incorporated as counter-ions in polypyrrole or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), and then later released when the ICP is reduced, either by change

B. Winther-Jensen; N. B. Clark

2008-01-01

97

Changing Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... and long hours in the chair at the hair salon. Some people dye their hair a different color, get a bunch of braids, ... breathing. Also be careful if you decide to dye your hair a crazy color, like blue. Some dyes are ...

98

Hair dye use, genetic variation in N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2), and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Several previous studies have found non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk to be associated with hair dye use, particularly use of permanent, dark colors and use before 1980, when hair dye formulations changed. Methods We examined NHL risk in relation to reported hair dye use among 1,321 cases and 1,057 controls from a US population-based multicenter study. DNA was extracted from blood or buccal cells to identify genetic variation in N acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2), which encode enzymes that metabolize aromatic amine compounds found in hair dyes. Results Among women, 509 cases and 413 controls reported hair dye use (odds ratio [OR]=1.2,95% confidence interval [CI]=0.9,1.6). Risk estimates were higher for use before 1980 than for use in 1980 or later, particularly for use of permanent, intense tone (black, dark brown, dark blonde) products (<1980: OR=1.6,95%CI 0.9,2.7; ?1980: OR=0.6,95%CI 0.4,1.1). Risk estimates were increased for women who used permanent, intense tone products before 1980 if they had the rapid/intermediate NAT2 phenotype (OR=3.3, 95%CI 1.3,8.6) or the NAT1*10 allele (OR=2.5,95%CI 0.9,7.6), but not if they were slow NAT2 acetylators (OR=1.5,95%CI 0.6,3.6) or had no copies of the NAT1*10 allele (OR=1.5,95%CI 0.7,3.3). NHL risk was not increased among women who began hair dye use after 1980 or among men. Conclusion Our results support previous research demonstrating elevated NHL risk among women who used dark color or intense tone permanent hair dyes before 1980. We present the first evidence suggesting that this risk may differ by genetic variation in NAT1 and NAT2.

Morton, Lindsay M.; Bernstein, Leslie; Wang, Sophia S.; Hein, David W.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Colt, Joanne S.; Davis, Scott; Cerhan, James R.; Severson, Richard K.; Welch, Robert; Hartge, Patricia; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

2007-01-01

99

Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: an appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes.  

PubMed

The European Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP) guideline for testing of hair dyes for genotoxic/mutagenic/carcinogenic potential has been reviewed. The battery of six in vitro tests recommended therein differs substantially from the batteries of two or three in vitro tests recommended in other guidelines. Our evaluation of the chemical types used in hair dyes and comparison with other guidelines for testing a wide range of chemical substances, lead to the conclusion that potential genotoxic activity may effectively be determined by the application of a limited number of well-validated test systems that are capable of detecting induced gene mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal changes. We conclude that highly effective screening for genotoxicity of hair dyes can be achieved by the use of three assays, namely the bacterial gene mutation assay, the mammalian cell gene mutation assay (mouse lymphoma tk assay preferred) and the in vitro micronucleus assay. These need to be combined with metabolic activation systems optimised for the individual chemical types. Recent published evidence [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggests that our recommended three tests will detect all known genotoxic carcinogens, and that increasing the number of in vitro assays further would merely reduce specificity (increase false positives). Of course there may be occasions when standard tests need to be modified to take account of special situations such as a specific pathway of biotransformation, but this should be considered as part of routine testing. It is clear that individual dyes and any other novel ingredients should be tested in this three-test battery. However, new products are formed on the scalp by reaction between the chemicals present in hair-dye formulations. Ideally, these should also be tested for genotoxicity, but at present such experiences are very limited. There is also the possibility that one component could mask the genotoxicity of another (e.g. by being more toxic), and so it is not practical at this time to recommend routine testing of complete hair-dye formulations as well. The most sensible approach would be to establish whether any reaction products within the hair-dye formulation penetrate the skin under normal conditions of use and test only those that penetrate at toxicologically relevant levels in the three-test in vitro battery. Recently published data [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggest the three-test battery will produce a significant number of false as well as real positives. Whilst we are aware of the desire to reduce animal experiments, determining the relevance of positive results in any of the three recommended in vitro assays will most likely have to be determined by use of in vivo assays. The bone marrow micronucleus test using routes of administration such as oral or intraperitoneal may be used where the objective is extended hazard identification. If negative results are obtained in this test, then a second in vivo test should be conducted. This could be an in vivo UDS in rat liver or a Comet assay in a relevant tissue. However, for hazard characterisation, tests using topical application with measurement of genotoxicity in the skin would be more appropriate. Such specific site-of-contact in vivo tests would minimise animal toxicity burden and invasiveness, and, especially for hair dyes, be more relevant to human routes of exposure, but there are not sufficient scientific data available to allow recommendations to be made. The generation of such data is encouraged. PMID:16326131

Kirkland, D J; Henderson, L; Marzin, D; Müller, L; Parry, J M; Speit, G; Tweats, D J; Williams, G M

2005-12-30

100

Urinary acetylated metabolites and N-acetyltransferase-2 genotype in human subjects treated with a para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the organism of mammals, important detoxification pathways of arylamines are catalysed by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). A recent case-control epidemiology study suggested that human NAT2 slow acetylators exposed to oxidative hair dyes may be at greater risk to develop bladder cancer. We therefore profiled urinary [14C]-metabolites and NAT2 genotype in eight human subjects following treatment with a dark-shade oxidative hair

Gerhard J. Nohynek; Julie A. Skare; Wim J. A. Meuling; David W. Hein; Albert Th. H. J. de Bie; Herve Toutain

2004-01-01

101

Diversity of human hair pigmentation as studied by chemical analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin.  

PubMed

Hair colour is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes in humans, ranging from black, brown, blond to red. This diversity arises mostly from the quantity and ratio of the black-dark brown eumelanin and the reddish-brown pheomelanin. To study the chemical basis underlying the diversity of hair colour, we have developed several chemical methods to quantify those two pigments. Alkaline H(2) O(2) oxidation affords pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) as a eumelanin marker and thiazole-2,4,5-tricarboxylic acid (TTCA) as a pheomelanin marker. Pheomelanin can also be analysed as 4-amino-3-hydroxyphenylalanine (4-AHP) after hydroiodic acid hydrolysis. Using those methods, we evaluated the contents of eumelanin and pheomelanin (the 'chemical' phenotype) in human hairs of black, dark brown, brown, light brown, blond and red colour (the 'visual' phenotype). Eumelanin contents decrease in that order, with a trace but constant level of pheomelanin, except for red hair which contains about equal levels of pheomelanin and eumelanin. Thus, the chemical phenotype correlates well with the visual phenotype. The genotype of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), a gene regulating the red hair phenotype, is predictive of hair melanin expressed as the log value of eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio, with a dosage effect evident. Hair melanin contents were also analysed in patients with various hypopigmentary disorders including Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, Menkes disease, proopiomelanocortin deficiency, cystinosis, malnutrition and trace metal deficiency. The chemical phenotype helped evaluate the precise effects of each disease on pigmentation. In studies of human hair, the chemical phenotype will find more and more application as an objective measure of pigmentation. PMID:22077870

Ito, S; Wakamatsu, K

2011-12-01

102

The Chemical Forms of Mercury in Human Hair: A Study using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Human hair is frequently used as a bio-indicator of mercury exposure. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to examine the chemical forms of mercury in human hair samples taken from individuals with high fish consumption and concomitant exposure to methylmercury. The mercury is found to be predominantly methylmercury cysteine or closely related species, comprising approximately 80% of the total mercury with the remainder an inorganic thiolate-coordinated mercuric species. No appreciable role was found for selenium in coordinating mercury in hair.

George, Graham N.; Singh, Satya P.; Myers, Gary J.; Watson, Gene E.; Pickering, Ingrid J.

2013-01-01

103

Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

King, Angela G.

2007-01-01

104

Basic Red 51, a permitted semi-permanent hair dye, is cytotoxic to human skin cells: Studies in monolayer and 3D skin model using human keratinocytes (HaCaT).  

PubMed

The use of hair dyes is closely associated with the increase of cancer, inflammation and other skin disorders. The recognition that human skin is not an impermeable barrier indicates that there is the possibility of human systemic exposure. The carcinogenic potential of hair dye ingredients has attracted the attention of toxicologists for many decades, mainly due to the fact that some ingredients belong to the large chemical family of aromatic amines. Herein, we investigated the cytotoxicity of Basic Red 51 (BR51) in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). BR51 is a temporary hair dye that belongs to the azo group (NN); the cleavage of this bond may result in the release of toxic aromatic amines. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) in HaCaT cells is 13?g/mL. BR51 induced a significant decrease on expression of p21 in a dose dependent manner. p53 was not affected, whereas BR51 decreased procaspase 8 and cleaved procaspase 9. These results proved that caspase 3 is fully involved in BR51-induced apoptosis. The dye was also able to stop this cell cycle on G2 in sub-toxic doses. Moreover, we reconstructed a 3D artificial epidermis using HaCaT cells; using this model, we observed that BR51 induced cell injury and cells were undergoing apoptosis, considering the fragmented nuclei. Subsequently, BR51 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to an increase on the levels of 8-oxo-dG. In conclusion, we provide strong evidence that consumer and/or professional exposure to BR51 poses risk to human health. PMID:24657526

Zanoni, Thalita B; Tiago, Manoela; Faião-Flores, Fernanda; de Moraes Barros, Silvia B; Bast, Aalt; Hageman, Geja; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

2014-06-01

105

Human percutaneous absorption of a direct hair dye comparing in vitro and in vivo results: Implications for safety assessment and animal testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although in vitro skin absorption studies often detect small residues of applied test material in the epidermis\\/dermis, it is uncertain whether the residue is within the living skin. We studied the dermal absorption of a hair dye hydroxyanthraquinone–aminopropyl methyl morpholinium methosulphate (HAM) in human skin in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, skin (back and scalp) received 0.5% HAM in

J. Lademann; H. Richter; U. Jacobi; A. Patzelt; F. Hueber-Becker; C. Ribaud; F. Benech-Kieffer; E. K. Dufour; W. Sterry; H. Schaefer; J. Leclaire; H. Toutain; G. J. Nohynek

2008-01-01

106

Electron spectroscopy and microscopy applied to chemical and structural analysis of hair.  

PubMed

The application of surface specific x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) will be shown to be an effective means for the elucidation of hair fiber surface chemistry and structure. Example studies of bleaching and fiber conditioning treatments are discussed. The bleached fiber surface is found to become more hydrophilic due to the loss of the naturally occurring hydrocarbon overlayer and oxidation of surface functional groups as a result of bleaching. Comparison between generic bleaching regimens illustrates the importance of increased pH and the presence of surfactant for effective treatment. Adsorption of conditioning diester quat and dimethicone molecules reintroduces a hydrophobic like surface layer on the hair fiber. Spectroscopic data indicated a segregated adsorption structure of the chemically different conditioning molecules. Electron microscope images of the conditioned hair shows a smooth uniform surface. PMID:15744444

Beard, B C; Johnson, A; Cambria, F M; Trinh, P N

2005-01-01

107

Taking Care of Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... chemicals or other styling products, see a doctor. Hair Loss (Alopecia) It's normal for everyone to lose some hair. ... out and are replaced with new ones. With hair loss, though, hair thins at a rate that can' ...

108

A Comparative Study of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Melanins Isolated from Human Black and Red Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the physical and chemical properties of the melanins isolated from human black and red hair were compared. Some of these properties were also compared with those of synthetic dopa melanin. Five samples each of black and red hair were used for isolating melanin by extraction with 2.5 M NaOH, and purification by repeated precipitation with HCl and redissolution

I. Aravindakshan Menon; Surujdeen Persad; Herbert F. Haberman; C. Joseph Kurian

1983-01-01

109

Chemical hair treatments and adverse pregnancy outcome among Black women in central North Carolina.  

PubMed

Several studies suggest that toxic chemicals in hair products may be absorbed through the scalp in sufficient amounts to increase the risks of adverse health effects in women or their infants. This case-control study of 525 Black women from three counties in North Carolina who had delivered a singleton, liveborn infant examined whether exposure to chemicals used in hair straightening and curling increased the odds that the infant was preterm or low birth weight. Cases consisted of 188 preterm and 156 low birth weight births (for 123 women, their infant was both low birth weight and preterm). Controls were 304 women who delivered term and normal birth weight infants. Women who used a chemical hair straightener at any time during pregnancy or within 3 months prior to conception had an adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-1.1) for preterm birth and 0.6 (95% CI 0.4-1.1) for low birth weight. Exposure to chemical curl products was also not associated with preterm delivery (adjusted OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-1.8) or low birth weight (adjusted OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.5-1.9). Despite this failure to find an association, continued search for risk factors to which Black women are uniquely exposed is warranted. PMID:10206620

Blackmore-Prince, C; Harlow, S D; Gargiullo, P; Lee, M A; Savitz, D A

1999-04-15

110

Distribution and chemical speciation of arsenic in ancient human hair using synchrotron radiation.  

PubMed

Pre-Columbian populations that inhabited the Tarapacá mid river valley in the Atacama Desert in Chile during the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period (AD 500-1450) show patterns of chronic poisoning due to exposure to geogenic arsenic. Exposure of these people to arsenic was assessed using synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy measurements on ancient human hair. These combined techniques of high sensitivity and specificity enabled the discrimination between endogenous and exogenous processes that has been an analytical challenge for archeological studies and criminal investigations in which hair is used as a proxy of premortem metabolism. The high concentration of arsenic mainly in the form of inorganic As(III) and As(V) detected in the hair suggests chronic arsenicism through ingestion of As-polluted water rather than external contamination by the deposition of heavy metals due to metallophilic soil microbes or diffusion of arsenic from the soil. A decrease in arsenic concentration from the proximal to the distal end of the hair shaft analyzed may indicate a change in the diet due to mobility, though chemical or microbiologically induced processes during burial cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:24320096

Kakoulli, Ioanna; Prikhodko, Sergey V; Fischer, Christian; Cilluffo, Marianne; Uribe, Mauricio; Bechtel, Hans A; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A

2014-01-01

111

Comparison of disperse and reactive dye removals by chemical coagulation and Fenton oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of wastewater from the dyeing and textile processes is highly variable depending on the dyestuff type and typically has high COD and color. This study examined the decolorization of some of the most commonly used disperse and reactive dyestuffs by combination of chemical coagulation and Fenton oxidation. In addition, performances between Fe3+ coagulation and Fenton oxidation of dye

Tak-Hyun Kim; Jeongmok Yang; Sangyong Kim

2004-01-01

112

Simultaneous determination of dihydroxybenzenes, aminophenols and phenylenediamines in hair dyes by high-performance liquid chromatography on hypercross-linked polystyrene.  

PubMed

The retention of polar organic molecules such as dihydroxybenzenes, aminophenols and phenylenediamines on a 250 x 4.6 mm id column packed with 5 microns hypercross-linked polystyrene Chromalite 5HGN (Purolite) was studied. The influence of separation parameters such as concentration of acetonitrile, buffer (citrate, phosphate) concentration, ionic strength and pH of the eluent on their retention was investigated. Under optimum conditions [acetonitrile-0.3 mol l-1 ammonium phosphate, pH 5.15 (30:70 v/v)], eight substances generally used as dye intermediates in hair colouring compositions could be separated within 20 min. An HPLC method with spectrophotometric detection is proposed for the simultaneous determination of pyrocatechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, o-, m- and p-aminophenols and p-phenylenediamine in commercial haircolour products. The detection limits of these compounds are in the range 0.05-0.16 microgram ml-1. The suitability of the method is demonstrated by the analysis of three different permanent hair dyes. PMID:10984920

Penner, N A; Nesterenko, P N

2000-07-01

113

Female Pattern Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... desired professional counseling might be of help. Perms, dyes and other cosmetic options can be used to give a fuller appearance to hair. Contrary to common wisdom, shampooing doesn't increase ...

114

Hair dye poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

115

Concentrations and chemical species of arsenic in human urine and hair  

SciTech Connect

Because marine products are rich in arsenic, the concentration of arsenic in the human urine varies greatly with the state of ingestion of marine products. It has been revealed that inorganic arsenic is methylated in the human body to form MAA (methylarsonic acid) and DMAA (dimethylarsinic acid). It appears therefore that the arsenic present in the human urine is a mixture of the arsenic originating from marine products and the arsenic metabolized in vivo. Recent studies have shown that inorganic arsenic and methylarsenic compounds are quite different in toxicity and effect on the living body due to their difference in chemical species. Finding the chemical species of arsenic in the urine and hair of normal subjects will therefore provide valuable basal data for the biological monitoring of arsenic exposure and for toxicological studies of arsenic.

Yamato, Naohisa (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))

1988-05-01

116

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Media resources Stats and facts Conditions Hair loss Hair loss Hair loss in women Hair loss is a common ... dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis of hair loss To properly diagnose the cause of hair ...

117

Protection of oxidative hair color fading from shampoo washing by hydrophobically modified cationic polymers.  

PubMed

The fading of oxidative color in hair as a result of daily shampoo washing activities has become a common problem and a source of frequent complaints by consumers. The fading occurs primarily through hair dye solubility in water. One aspect of the current study investigates the physical and chemical factors that influence hair color fading during the washing process. This is accomplished by testing hair dye dissolution in water from dyed hair samples with variation of surfactant type, pH, and hair type. Furthermore, a new approach to preventing color fading is developed aiming to provide an effective barrier function for hair dye from dissolving into water. The preliminary investigation of a series of polymers with various functional groups indicates that polymers with hydrophobically modified and cationic functionalities are most effective in preventing hair dye dissolution in water. It is also evident that a synergistic effect of the polymer's hydrophobic moieties and cationic charges are important on hair color protection during shampoo washing processes. A primary example of a polymer within this category is a cationic terpolymer of vinylpyrrolidone, dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide, and methacryloylaminopropyl lauryldimonium chloride (INCI: Polyquaternium-55). The color protection benefit of this polymer is evaluated using newly developed methodologies for evaluating hair color changes, such as hair color fading tests through multiple shampoo washes with mannequin heads and hair tresses, both derived from human hair, colorimetry, and quantitative digital image analysis. In addition, new infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques are used to detect the hair dye deposition behavior inside hair fibers both with and without the color protection treatment. Both visual and instrumental measurement results indicate that Polyquaternium-55 provides a high level of color protection when formulated in a hair color protection regimen with up to 50% color protection. This regimen significantly outperforms commercial products that were tested containing a color protection claim. The proposed mechanism for the anti-fading action of hydrophobically modified polymers includes a cationic charge-reinforced hydrophobic barrier. This model is supported by evaluating the color fastness effect of several different polymer chemistries and by measuring hair surface hydrophobicity changes. PMID:19450422

Zhou, Y; Foltis, L; Moore, D J; Rigoletto, R

2009-01-01

118

Protective effect of conditioning agents on Afro-ethnic hair chemically treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsion.  

PubMed

Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, products are formulated as emulsions with high pH value (9.0-12.0), which, after applied on hair, cause considerable damage, making it dry and fragile. This research work evaluated the protective effect of lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone, cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer, jojoba oil, and aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol, as conditioning agents, on Afro-ethnic hair locks treated with thioglycolate-based straightening emulsions by protein loss, combability, and traction to rupture. Standard Afro-ethnic hair locks were prepared following a protocol for straightening emulsion application. Considering the assays performed, the addition of conditioning agents to the straightening emulsion with ammonium thioglycolate benefited the hair fiber, thus diminishing protein loss, protecting the hair thread, and improving resistance to breakage. Jojoba oil and lauryl PEG/PPG-18/18 methicone were the conditioning agents that presented the best results. Straightening emulsions with ammonium thioglycolate containing aqua (and) cystine bis-PG propyl silanetriol and cyclopentasiloxane (and) PEG-12 dimethicone cross-polymer were the ones that provided higher breakage resistance of the thread. PMID:18482015

Dias, Tania Cristina de Sá; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

2008-06-01

119

Application of fungal moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and chemical coagulation for dyeing wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined process consisting of Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBRs) with Polyurethane-Dyeing Sludge Carbonaceous Material\\u000a (PU-DSCM) foam and chemical coagulation was investigated for dyeing wastewater treatment. The pilot-scale MBBR system was\\u000a composed of two aerobic MBBRs in series. Each reactor was filled with 20% (v\\/v) of Polyurethane-Dye Sludge Carbonaceous Material\\u000a foam (PU-DSCM foam) inoculated with a white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, for

Hye Ok Park; Sanghwa Oh; Rabindra Bade; Won Sik Shin

2011-01-01

120

Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

2005-06-01

121

Human percutaneous absorption of a direct hair dye comparing in vitro and in vivo results: implications for safety assessment and animal testing.  

PubMed

Although in vitro skin absorption studies often detect small residues of applied test material in the epidermis/dermis, it is uncertain whether the residue is within the living skin. We studied the dermal absorption of a hair dye hydroxyanthraquinone-aminopropyl methyl morpholinium methosulphate (HAM) in human skin in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, skin (back and scalp) received 0.5% HAM in a commercial formulation at 20microg/cm2 After 0.5 or 48h, skin was tape stripped, followed by cyanoacrylate biopsies (CAB). Sebum from scalp sites was collected for 48h. In vitro, skin was treated with 20mg/cm2 dye for 0.5h, penetration determined after 24h. In vivo, at 0.5h, total recovery (back) was 0.67microg/cm2 (tape strips+CAB). Fluorescence microscopy showed HAM in the hair follicle openings (HFO). At 0.5h, scalp tape strips contained 1.80microg/cm2, HFO 0.82microg/cm2. At 48h, HFO contained 0.21microg/cm2, sebum 0.80microg/cm2. In vivo, skin residues were in the non-living skin and eliminated via desquamation and sebum secretion. In vitro, the SC contained 1.50microg/cm2, epidermis/dermis 0.86microg/cm2, receptor fluid<0.04microg/cm2, a total of 0.90microg/cm2 was considered to be bioavailable. In vitro epidermis/dermis residues were nearly identical to those located in non-living skin in vivo. In conclusion, in vitro percutaneous penetration studies may produce seemingly bioavailable material , which raises the need for a Threshold of Skin Absorption (TSA) addressing a negligible dermal absorption in order to avoid unnecessary in vivo toxicity studies on substances that produce no significant human systemic exposure. PMID:18417263

Lademann, J; Richter, H; Jacobi, U; Patzelt, A; Hueber-Becker, F; Ribaud, C; Benech-Kieffer, F; Dufour, E K; Sterry, W; Schaefer, H; Leclaire, J; Toutain, H; Nohynek, G J

2008-06-01

122

Microscopic hair changes associated with hair coloring, hair waving and hair ironing in Iranian women.  

PubMed

Although, of no vital value, hair plays a significant role in expressing any person's psychosocial status. Many cosmetic and styling methods are available for hair. This study aimed to examine the microscopic changes in women with hair coloring, hair waving, or hair ironing in comparison with normal controls. In a cross-sectional study, 154 Iranian women were recruited and categorized in 4 groups: controls (n = 35) who had not dyed, waved or ironed their hair within the last 6 months; dyed-hair group (n = 49) who had dyed their hair using standard chemical hair colors at least three times within the last 6 months; waved-hair group (n = 35) who had frizzled their hair within the last 6 months and ironed-hair group (n = 35) who had ironed their hair at least 3 times a weak using a temperature more than 30 degrees C within the last 6 months. Hair samples of all four groups were examined microscopically, and the results were compared with the controls. The rate of abnormal findings was 17.1% in the controls, 53.1% in the dyed-hair group, 45.7% in the waved-hair group, and 54.3% in the ironed-hair group. Abnormal findings were significantly more frequent in the last three groups comparing with the controls (p < 0.05). Trichorrhexis was 17.1, 34.7, 40 and 11.4%; kinking was 0, 2, 2.9 and 25.7%; pseudo pili-annulati was 0, 6.1, 0 and 17.1%; trichonodosis was 0, 6.1, 0 and 0%; tracheoschises was 0, 2, 2.9 and 0% and trichoptilosis was 0, 2, 0 and 0% in the mentioned groups, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, hair coloring, waving and ironing all can induce abnormalities in the hair in comparison with the hairs of nonusers. PMID:24506020

Talghini, Shahla; Ranjkesh, Mohammadreza

2013-10-15

123

Application of an Enzymatic Method for Identifying Hair Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was investigating the use of an enzymatic method for identifying various treat- ments, such as permanent waving, hair dyeing and bleachin gu se do nh air from hair samples .M orphologically only negligible difference was observed between untreated hair and hair permed in vitro .H owever, after protease treat- ment, the degradation of permed hair

Chikara Yamauchi; Wataru Okazakib

2007-01-01

124

Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.  

PubMed

Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24817050

Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

2014-06-01

125

CHEMICAL- AND SEDIMENT-MEDIATED REDUCTION OF THE AZO DYE DISPERSE BLUE 79  

EPA Science Inventory

Disperse Blue 79, a large volume disperse azo dye, and 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline (BDNA), an important intermediate in the preparation of Disperse Blue 79, were readily reduced chemically and in three anoxic sediment-water systems studied; half-lives were on the order of minutes ...

126

Exogenous Factors in Hair Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and beauty of human hair have immeasurable psychological importance. Hair structure and its cycle are influenced by intentionally or nonintentionally delivered factors such as grooming, heat styling, chemical agents and climatic exposure. All of these factors are capable of causing loss of hair color and luster, harshness, stiffness, weakness, brittleness and flyaway, transient loss of hair or scarring

Liran Horev

2004-01-01

127

Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy.  

PubMed

Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery. PMID:23165762

Franzen, Lutz; Mathes, Christiane; Hansen, Steffi; Windbergs, Maike

2013-06-01

128

Competitive adsorption of dye metanil yellow and RB15 in acid solutions on chemically cross-linked chitosan beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

One kind of adsorbent with a high adsorption capacity for anionic dyes was prepared using ionically and chemically cross-linked chitosan beads. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption behavior of one acid dye (MY, metanil yellow) and one reactive dye (RB15, reactive blue 15) in aqueous solutions by the cross-linked chitosan beads. The adsorption capacities was 3.56mmolg?1 (1334mgg?1)

Ming-Shen Chiou; Guo-Syong Chuang

2006-01-01

129

Hair Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... This is because higher hormone levels prevent normal hair loss. During pregnancy: Your hair tends to stay in ... hair. After delivery: The resting phase shortens. Normal hair loss that was delayed by pregnancy tends to take ...

130

Dry hair  

MedlinePLUS

Hair - dry ... Dry hair is hair that does not have enough moisture and oil to maintain its normal sheen and texture. ... blow-drying Dry air (environmental dryness) Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition (for example, kwashiorkor disease ) Underactive parathyroid ( ...

131

Oily hair  

MedlinePLUS

Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

132

Anthraquinone Dye Toxicological Profiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Consumer Product Safety Commission conducted a review of anthraquinone dyes having consumer application for which toxicity data was available. Both natural and synthetic anthraquinones have been employed as colorants in food, drugs, cosmetics, hair dy...

1981-01-01

133

[Structural lesions of human hair caused by permanents].  

PubMed

A study is carried out on the alterations produced in the cuticle of women's hair treated regularly for a period of more than 12 years with hair - lighteners, hair - dyes and perms. Assays have also been carried out "in vitro" on the effect of the perms on locks of hair. The scanning electron microscope has been used for observation of the samples. PMID:398918

Cot-Ventós, J; Vives-Rego, J; Fontarnau, R

1978-01-01

134

Correlating Titania Morphology and Chemical Composition with Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Performance  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO{sub 2} as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural morphology of films of these nanostructured materials has been directly characterized using SEM and indirectly probed using dye desorption. Furthermore, the surfaces of these nanomaterials were studied using TEM in order to visualize their structure, prior to their application within DSSCs. Surface areas of the materials have been quantitatively analyzed by collecting BET adsorption and dye desorption data. Additional investigation using open circuit voltage decay measurements reveals the efficiency of electron conduction through each TiO{sub 2} material. Moreover, the utilization of various chemically distinctive titanate materials within the DSSCs has also been investigated, demonstrating the deficiencies of using these particular chemical compositions within traditional DSSCs.

Santulli, A.C.; Wong, S.; Koenigsmann, C.; Tiano, A.L., DeRosa, D.

2011-04-20

135

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Hair Loss Overview What is the normal cycle of hair growth and loss? The normal cycle of hair growth lasts for 2 to ... some people may experience excessive (more than normal) hair loss. Hair loss of this type can affect men, ...

136

Effect of different human hair bleaching conditions on the hair coloration with hair boosting shampoo as colorant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, detailed simulation of human hair bleaching was conducted. The materials and chemical used as well as the hair\\u000a bleaching procedures were described. After bleaching, the colour change of the hair was evaluated in accordance with CIE Lab\\u000a system and the hair bleaching results was analysed. Following the hair bleaching process, hair coloration was employed with\\u000a the use

C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; K. W. Lau; Y. L. Chow

2009-01-01

137

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... the underlying problem, if necessary. Continue What Causes Hair Loss? Here are some of the things that can ... to a dietitian or other nutrition expert. Catastrophic Hair Loss Hair loss can be the first outward sign ...

138

Hair transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... hair transplant have male or female pattern baldness . Hair loss is on the front or top of the ... follicles to move. In some cases, patients with hair loss from lupus , injuries, or other medical problems are ...

139

Supramolecular host-guest interactions of oxazine-1 dye with ?- and ?-cyclodextrins: a photophysical and quantum chemical study.  

PubMed

Supramolecular host-guest interactions of oxazine-1 dye with ?- and ?-cyclodextrins (?CD and ?CD, respectively) have been investigated in neutral aqueous solution (pH ? 7) at ambient temperature (?25 °C) following absorption, fluorescence, and circular dichroism measurements. The dye forms inclusion complexes with both CDs, causing significant changes in its photophysical properties. Whereas fluorescence titration data for lower dye concentrations fit well with 1:1 stoichiometric complexes, the time-resolved fluorescence results indicate formation of a small extent of 1:2 (dye-host) complexes as well, especially at higher CD concentrations. The moderate range of the binding constant values for the present systems indicates the weaker hydrophobic interaction as responsible for the inclusion complex formation in these systems. It has also been observed that ?CD facilitates dimerization of the dye, prominently indicated at the higher dye concentrations. On the contrary, ?CD always assists deaggregation of the dye, even at very high dye concentrations. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy results qualitatively support the inclusion complex formation in the present systems. Results from quantum chemical calculations also nicely corroborate with the inferences drawn from photophysical studies. Observed results demonstrate that the size compatibility of the guest and the host cavity mainly determines the host-guest interaction in the present systems, much similar to the substrate-catalyst binding in many biological systems. PMID:22998344

Shaikh, Mhejabeen; Mohanty, Jyotirmayee; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Bhasikuttan, Achikanath C; Pal, Haridas

2012-10-18

140

Fungal laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, and chemical mediators: combined actions for the decolorization of different classes of textile dyes.  

PubMed

Dyes belonging to the mono-, di-, tri- and poly-azo as well as anthraquinonic and mono-azo Cr-complexed classes, chosen among the most utilized in textile applications, were employed for a comparative enzymatic decolorization study using the extracellular crude culture extracts from the white rot fungus Funalia (Trametes) trogii grown on different culture media and activators able to trigger different levels of expression of oxidizing enzymes: laccase and cellobiose dehydrogenase. Laccase containing extracts were capable to decolorize some dyes from all the different classes analyzed, whereas the recalcitrant dyes were subjected to the combined action of laccase and the chemical mediator HBT, or laccase plus cellobiose dehydrogenase. Correlations among the decolorization degree of the various dyes and their electronic and structural diversities were rationalized and discussed. The utilization of cellobiose dehydrogenase in support to the activity of laccase for the decolorization of azo textile dyes resulted in substantial increases in decolorization for all the refractory dyes proving to be a valid alternative to more expensive and less environmentally friendly chemical treatments of textile dyes wastes. PMID:18281211

Ciullini, Ilaria; Tilli, Silvia; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

2008-10-01

141

Relationship of chemical structures of textile dyes on the pre-adaptation medium and the potentialities of their biodegradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dye derivatives of azobenzene constitute the largest group of dyes used in the textile industry and possess recalcitrant chemical groups, such as those of azo and sulphonic acid. Some microorganisms are able to degrade these aromatic compounds. In the present work, decolourisation of culture media containing azo dyes by the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was achieved under nitrogen-limited conditions.

M. Adosinda M. Martins; M. João Queiroz; Armando J. D. Silvestre; Nelson Lima

2002-01-01

142

Hair Treatments and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Reproduced by permission. Selected References: Blackmore-Prince C, et al 1999. Chemical hair treatments and adverse pregnancy ... Am J Epidemiol 149:712-716. Burnett C, et al. 1976. Teratology and percutaneous toxicity studies on ...

143

Chemical stabilization of laser dyes. Final report, 1 July 1981-1 October 1984  

SciTech Connect

Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output. Modes of degradation of coumarin dye lasers under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions were determined and methods of stabilization of dye lasers were established.

Koch, T.H.

1984-11-01

144

Chemical stabilization of laser dyes. Final report, 1 December 1984-28 February 1987  

SciTech Connect

Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products that absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. The roles of singlet oxygen and excitation intensity on dye degradation were explored. Singlet oxygen is formed but its reactions with the dye do not appear to be a major cause of dye laser output deterioration. High light intensity results in dye-sensitized, solvent oligomerization to yield materials that interfere with dye-stimulated emission. 1, 4-Diazabicyclo2,2,2octane (DABCO)inhibits this oligomerization.

Koch, T.H.

1987-05-07

145

Hair Loss (Alopecia)  

MedlinePLUS

... Z Diseases and treatments E - H Hair loss Hair loss Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE-shah) Hereditary hair loss: Millions ... our skin, hair, and nails. Learn more about hair loss: Hair loss: Signs and symptoms Hair loss: Who ...

146

Comparative analysis of hair melanins by chemical and electron spin resonance methods.  

PubMed

Eighteen hair samples from Karakul newborn lambs with various colors were estimated for eumelanin and pheomelanin contents (Ce and Cp, respectively) by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Correlation coefficients between the values estimated by the ESR and HPLC methods were 0.96, 0.93, and 0.99 for Ce, Cp, and Ce/Cp, respectively. The high correlation coefficients show that both methods fit well for estimation of relative values of these parameters. The absolute values of Ce and Ce/Cp coincide rather well when Ce is high, but considerable discrepancies appear when Ce is low. The reasons for these discrepancies are discussed. The HPLC method appears to be more sensitive for detection of low concentrations of pheomelanin, while the ESR method fits well for mass selection purposes. PMID:1656423

Vsevolodov, E B; Ito, S; Wakamatsu, K; Kuchina, I I; Latypov, I F

1991-02-01

147

Effect of chemical treatment on the acute toxicity of two commercial textile dye carriers.  

PubMed

In the present experimental study, the effect of chemical treatment (coagulation-flocculation) on the acute toxicity exerted by two commercial dye carriers (called Carrier A and B herein) often used in the textile industry was investigated. Two different test organisms were selected to elucidate the situations in activated sludge treatment systems (activated sludge microorganisms) as well as in receiving water bodies (ultimate marine discharge). According to the results of a comprehensive analysis covering COD removal efficiencies, sludge settling characteristics and operating costs involved in coagulation-flocculation, the optimum treatment conditions were defined as follows; application of 750 mg/L ferrous sulphate at a pH of 9.0 for Carrier A; and application of 550 mg/L ferrous sulphate at a pH of 9.0 for Carrier B. The acute toxicities of both dye carriers towards marine microalgea Phaeodactylum tricornutum could be reduced significantly after being subjected to coagulation-flocculation. Fair toxicity removals (towards heterotrophic mixed bacterial culture accommodated in activated sludge treatment) were obtained with coagulation-flocculation for both of the carriers under investigation. PMID:17564392

Arsian-Alaton, I; Iskender, G; Ozerkan, B; Germirli Babuna, F; Okay, O

2007-01-01

148

The Content of Selected Chemical Elements in the Hair of Young Men of the Bantu Language Group from Tanzania Versus Environmental and Social Conditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research works that would determine the content of chemical elements in black population organisms on the basis of hair analysis\\u000a are not numerous. There are no studies referring to black populations living in indigenous environment, like the Mafinga region,\\u000a Iringa District in Tanzania examined by us. The aim of the study performed was to analyse the content of chemical elements

Ewa R?bacz; Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka; Dariusz Chlubek

2010-01-01

149

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

2006-11-24

150

Chemical Characterization of Hair Melanins in Various Coat-Color Mutants of Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian melanins exist in two chemically distinct forms: the brown to black eumelanins and the yellow to reddish pheomelanins. Melanogenesis is influenced by a number of genes, the levels of whose products determine the quantity and quality of the melanins produced. To examine the effects of various coat-color genes on the chemical properties of melanins synthesized in the follicular melanocytes

Hiroyuki Ozeki; Shosuke Ito; Kazumasa Wakamatsu; Tomohisa Hirobe

1995-01-01

151

The content of selected chemical elements in the hair of young men of the Bantu language group from Tanzania versus environmental and social conditioning.  

PubMed

Research works that would determine the content of chemical elements in black population organisms on the basis of hair analysis are not numerous. There are no studies referring to black populations living in indigenous environment, like the Mafinga region, Iringa District in Tanzania examined by us. The aim of the study performed was to analyse the content of chemical elements Fe, Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu in easily available biological media like hair. The material was collected in October 2005 and March 2006 during anthropological examination, which came from young males (n?=?91), students of a secondary school. Large Ca concentration range was found for the total number of subjects (680.20 to 2,089.70?µg/g d.m.). Mean Fe content in hair for the total number of subjects was 11.19?±?3.70?µg/g d.m., while that of Mg 6.84?±?2.02?µg/g d.m. Mean Zn concentration for the total number of subjects was 91.06?±?39.22?µg/g d.m., being significantly higher in younger group than in older one (p?=?0.039). Mean Cu concentration in hair for the total number of subjects was 7.50?±?2.90?µg/g d.m Body mass index (BMI?=?kg/m²) was calculated for the subjects showing that out of 91 men participating in the study 15.4% was characterised by mediocre nutrition. No statistically significant correlations were found between BMI and the analysed chemical elements. The analysis of the content of trace elements in the hair of the examined young males showed deficiencies in Zn, Cu, Fe and significantly in Mg. PMID:20041314

R?bacz, Ewa; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Chlubek, Dariusz

2010-12-01

152

Inaccurate chemical structures of dyes and fluorochromes found in the literature can be problematic for teaching and research.  

PubMed

Abstract Representations of the chemical structures of dyes and fluorochromes often are used to illustrate staining mechanisms and histochemical reactions. Unfortunately, inaccurate chemical structures sometimes are used, which results in problems for teaching and research in histochemistry. We comment here on published examples of inadequate chemical drawing and modeling. In particular, omission of hydrogen atoms can lead to misleading hydrogen-bonding interactions, and inaccurate drawing and modeling procedures result in a variety of implausible molecular structures. The examples and arguments given here are easily intelligible for non-chemists and could be used as part of a training approach to help avoid publication of misleading or puzzling dye structures and molecular models for illustrating biological staining and histochemical studies. PMID:20500122

Stockert, J C; Abasolo, M I

2011-02-01

153

Determination of alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants in hair conditioners and fabric softeners by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with electron-impact and chemical ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial hair conditioners and fabric softeners were analyzed for the content of alkyltrimethylammonium compounds (ATMACs) by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) with electron impact (EI) and low-pressure positive-ion chemical ionization (PICI) modes. The method involves mixed diluted samples (adjust pH to 10.0) with potassium iodide to enhance the extraction of iodide–ATMA+ ion pairs by direct liquid–liquid extraction. The iodide–ATMA+ pairs

Pei-Chuan Tsai; Wang-Hsien Ding

2004-01-01

154

Control of the spectral characteristics of organic dye molecules adsorbed in porous glass by preliminary chemical modification of the pore surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electron spectra of organic dye molecules adsorbed in silicate porous glass were modified by preliminary chemical hydrophobization\\u000a of the pore surface. A comparative study was made of the absorption spectra of various laser dyes introduced in modified and\\u000a initial unmodified porous glasses.

V. N. Beger; A. Yu. Fadeev; G. V. Lisichkin

1999-01-01

155

Root Hairs  

PubMed Central

Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology.

Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

2014-01-01

156

Hair Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hirsutism is represented by excessive growth of the coarse hairs in women, distributed in a male-like pattern. Hypertrichosis\\u000a is represented by excessive growth of coarser and longer hair than is normal for the age, sex and race of the person. The\\u000a hair growth cycle has three phases: anagen, catagen and telogen. The anagen phase is the growth phase, the catagen

Lucian Fodor; Yehuda Ullmann; Monica Elman

157

Phenylazoindole dyes - Part I: The syntheses, characterizations, crystal structures, quantum chemical calculations and antimicrobial properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the synthesis of four new phenylazo indole dyes (dye 1-4) were carried out by diazotization of 4-aminoacetophenone and coupling with various 2- and 1,2-disubstituted indole derivatives. The dyes were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, HRMS and X-ray single crystal diffraction methods. Azo-hydrazone tautomeric bahavior of the dyes in different solvents (DMSO, methanol, acetic acid and chloroform) was investigated by using 1H NMR and UV-vis results. The experimental results were compared with the corresponding calculated values. The results of experimental data and theoretical calculations showed that the azo tautomer is more stable than hydrazone tautomer. In addition to this, the antimicrobial activity of the dyes was also evaluated.

Sefero?lu, Zeynel; Yalç?n, Ergin; Babür, Banu; Sefero?lu, Nurgül; Hökelek, Tuncer; Y?lmaz, Ebru; ?ahin, Ertan

2013-09-01

158

Fluorescein dye intercalated layered double hydroxides for chemically stabilized photoluminescent indicators on inorganic surfaces.  

PubMed

A new photoactive thin film of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocrystals containing fluorescein dyes (LDH-F) has been developed by self-assembly of the LDH nanocrystals and well-controlled intercalation of the dyes in organic media. XRD results and absorption spectra confirmed the highly oriented interlayer arrangement of the dianionic form of the fluorescein dyes in the LDH interlayers, in which the dye molecules were electrostatically immobilized between the positively charged LDH layers with a monolayer packing structure. An intensity weighted average PL lifetime was estimated to be 1.45 ns and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy revealed that the individual LDH nanocrystals on the LDH-F film had largely similar lifetimes, which were ascribed to the uniform loading of fluorescein dyes onto the LDH matrix without photoluminescence quenching. PMID:24759944

Lee, Jong Hyeon; Jung, Duk-Young; Kim, Eunchul; Ahn, Tae Kyu

2014-06-14

159

Determination of hydroxylated metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human hair by gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study describes the determination of mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs), metabolites of PAHs, in human hair. Twelve selected OH-PAHs from two to four rings, generally determined in urine analysis, were investigated as markers of human exposure to PAHs. Following hydrolysis of hair specimens of 50–300mg with 1M NaOH, OH-PAHs were extracted using dichloromethane and submitted to an optimized derivatization

Claude Schummer; Brice M. R. Appenzeller; Maurice Millet; Robert Wennig

2009-01-01

160

Biomedical applications and chemical nature of three dyes first synthesized by Raphael Meldola: isamine blue, Meldola's blue and naphthol green B.  

PubMed

Brief accounts are given of the chemical nature, and past and current biomedical applications of three dyes first synthesized by Raphael Meldola: isamine blue, Meldola's blue and naphthol green B. PMID:22149360

Hope-Roberts, M; Horobin, R W

2012-05-01

161

A History of the Chemical Innovations in Silver-Halide Materials for Color Photography(10) IV. Color Print Making by Silver Dye Bleach and Imbibition Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior to the advent of the color photography based on dye-forming development, two color printing processes had been developed: 1) silver dye bleach (commercially introduced as Gasparcolor and then Cibachrome) and 2) imbibtion (introduced as Technicolor). While both processes utilized the available preformed dyes, the former could be said to be a chemical process because it consisted in a single and simple chemical bath of dye destruction, and on the other hand the latter to be a physical process in that the images were formed in multiple mechanical stages of old treatments. Although both processes presented marvelous performances at their earliest phases in the 1930s, they failed to expand their technological frameworks and eventually were surpassed by the dye-forming printing process.

Oishi, Yasushi

162

Ultrasound Shear Wave Propagation in Caucasian Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aspect of hair depends on the spatial organization of the hair shafts and on their chemical, physical and structural integrity. Some genetic disorders and exogenous influences may affect it. Aims: In vivo objective assessments are welcome in order to compare the consequences of hair damage and to assess the kinetics of the changes occurring in time after damaging

C. Piérard-Franchimont; V. Goffin; E. Uhoda; G. E. Piérard

2002-01-01

163

The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

Sequin-Frey, Margareta

1981-01-01

164

Development and validation of a gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair and its application to forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor and direct metabolite of ethanol. EtG is incorporated into the growing hair allowing retrospective investigation of chronic alcohol abuse. In this study, we report the development and the validation of a method using gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC–NCI-MS\\/MS) for the quantification of EtG in hair. EtG was extracted from about 30mg

Hicham Kharbouche; Frank Sporkert; Stéphanie Troxler; Marc Augsburger; Patrice Mangin; Christian Staub

2009-01-01

165

Alteration of the zinc anc copper concentration of hair.  

PubMed

A washing and analytical procedure for the analysis of the zinc and copper concentrations of hair samples is described. The treatment of samples with nonionic detergent + EDTA wash removed the most adsorbed zinc anc copper from hair and was the washing procedure chosen for routine analyses. Beauty treatments had a variable effect on hair zinc and copper concentrations; the most drastic procedures were cold waving and bleaching; conditioner, hair spray, tint, and a permanent dye had a less drastic or no effect. Increasing distance of the hair from the scalp was associated with a regular increase in copper concentration and also increases in zinc concentration for most subjects. PMID:629219

McKenzie, J M

1978-03-01

166

Purification and characterization of an extracellular laccase from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes, and decolorization of chemically different dyes.  

PubMed

A laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Lentinula edodes. The enzyme was purified to a homogeneous preparation using hydrophobic, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatographies. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the purified laccase, Lcc 1, to be a monomeric protein of 72.2 kDa. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of around pH 3.0. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was around 4.0, and it was most active at 40 degrees C and stable up to 35 degrees C. The enzyme contained 23.8% carbohydrate and some copper atoms. The enzyme oxidized 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, p-phenylendiamine, pyrogallol, guaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, catechol, and ferulic acid, but not veratryl alcohol, tyrosine, and beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) alanine. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc 1 showed close homology to the N-terminal sequences determined for laccases from Phlebia radiata, Trametes villosa, and Trametes versicolor, but only low similarity was observed to a previously reported laccase from L. edodes. Lcc 1 was effective in the decolorization of chemically different dyes - Remazole Brilliant Blue R, Bromophenol Blue, methyl red, and Naphtol Blue Black - without any mediators, but the decolorization of two dyes - red poly(vinylamine)sulfonate-anthrapyridone dye and Reactive Orange 16 - did require some redox mediators. PMID:12436315

Nagai, M; Sato, T; Watanabe, H; Saito, K; Kawata, M; Enei, H

2002-11-01

167

Chemical Analysis of the Dyes Used in Navy Green and Yellow Colored Smokes .  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The organic dyes used in Navy green and yellow colored smokes can contain up to 23% unknown/undefined impurities. These impurities may be hazardous by themselves, or may form hazardous products after combustion. In some cases, they may also affect the bur...

A. Chin

1986-01-01

168

A New Sorbent Chemically Cross-linked Highly Swollen Copolymeric Hydrogels for Dye Uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water uptake and the sorption properties of polyelectrolyte hydrogels made by the polymerization of acrylamide (AAm) with maleic acid (MA) were investigated as a function of composition to find materials with swelling and dye sorption properties. Highly swollen acrylamide\\/maleic acid (AAm\\/MA) hydrogels were prepared by free radical solution polymerization in aqueous solutions of AAm with MA as comonomer and two

Ömer Bar?? Üzüm; Erdener Karada?

2006-01-01

169

Study of a natural dye solubilisation in o\\/w microemulsions and its dyeing behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacture of synthetic dyes involves many non eco-friendly chemical procedures. For this reason, the application of natural dyes in textile dyeing is being explored worldwide. The dye exhaustion, fixation and levelness of dyeing depends on several factors such as the properties of fibres, the molecular structure of dyes, and the medium of the dyebath. The solubilisation of insoluble natural

Roshan Paul; Conxita Solans; Pilar Erra

2005-01-01

170

18-MEA and hair appearance.  

PubMed

The effects of the removal of 18-MEA on the dynamic contact angle (advancing contact angle and receding contact angle) and friction force (friction force microscopy (FFM)) were examined in the present study. Chemically untreated hair tresses formed more finely ordered bundles, with the fibers aligned more parallel to each other, in the wet state, and lying flat and aligned parallel to each other in the dry state. Hair tresses in which 18-MEA had been removed by potassium t-butoxide treatment formed coarser tangled bundles and were aligned in a disorderly manner in the wet state, causing the hair to become entangled and disorderly in the dry state. This was because the 18-MEA-removed hair fibers adhered to each other and were not easy to realign in the wet state. The distorted part of the bundle dried faster and the tress shape was eventually fixed in the entangled shape. One role of 18-MEA is to allow hair fibers to lie flat and parallel with respect to each other in the wet state by providing relatively high receding contact angles and low surface friction. Hair alignment in the dry state is directly affected by hair alignment in the wet environment, particularly in the case of damaged hair. PMID:20447366

Tanamachi, Hiroto; Tokunaga, Shinichi; Tanji, Noriyuki; Oguri, Masashi; Inoue, Shigeto

2010-01-01

171

Irritant contact dermatitis complicated by deep-seated staphylococcal infection caused by a hair relaxer.  

PubMed Central

Chemical hair relaxers are used by many women to straighten their hair. We describe a case of a deep soft tissue staphylococcal abscess that complicated an irritant contact dermatitis from a hair relaxer treatment.

Kaur, Birinder J.; Singh, Harmeet; Lin-Greenberg, Alan

2002-01-01

172

Topical liposome delivery of molecules to hair follicles in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair cycle consisting of growing and resting phases, is subject to widespread disease such as androgenic alopecia or loss of pigment which are in need of effective, targeted therapeutics. In order to develop a hair-follicle delivery system we demonstrate here that phosphatidylcholine liposomes entrapping either the fluorescent dye calcein or the pigment melanin can deliver these molecules into the

Lingna Li; Robert M. Hoffman

1997-01-01

173

Do You Have Hair Loss or Hair Shedding?  

MedlinePLUS

... Hair loss vs. hair shedding Do you have hair loss or hair shedding? If you’ve been noticing ... than normal, you may worry that you have hair loss. You could actually just be shedding more hairs ...

174

Chemical transfection of dye-conjugated microRNA precursors for microRNA functional analysis of M2 macrophages.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding ribonucleic acids known to affect gene expression at the translational level and there is mounting evidence that miRNAs play a role in the function of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). To aid the functional analyses of miRNAs in an in-vitro model of TAMs known as M2 macrophages, a transfection method to introduce artificial miRNA constructs or miRNA molecules into primary human monocytes is needed. Unlike differentiated macrophages or dendritic cells, undifferentiated primary human monocytes have been known to show resistance to lentiviral transduction. To circumvent this challenge, other techniques such as electroporation and chemical transfection have been used in other applications to deliver small gene constructs into human monocytes. To date, no studies have compared these two methods objectively to evaluate their suitability in the miRNA functional analysis of M2 macrophages. Of the methods tested, the electroporation of miRNA-construct containing plasmids and the chemical transfection of miRNA precursor molecules are the most efficient approaches. The use of a silencer siRNA labeling kit (Ambion) to conjugate Cy 3 fluorescence dyes to the precursor molecules allowed the isolation of successfully transfected cells with fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The chemical transfection of these dye-conjugated miRNA precursors yield an efficiency of 37.5 ± 0.6% and a cell viability of 74 ± 1%. RNA purified from the isolated cells demonstrated good quality, and was fit for subsequent mRNA expression qPCR analysis. While electroporation of plasmids containing miRNA constructs yield transfection efficiencies comparable to chemical transfection of miRNA precursors, these electroporated primary monocytes seemed to have lost their potential for differentiation. Among the most common methods of transfection, the chemical transfection of dye-conjugated miRNA precursors was determined to be the best-suited approach for the functional analysis of M2 macrophages. PMID:22213010

Ng, Yee Seng; Roca, Hernan; Fuller, David; Sud, Sudha; Pienta, Kenneth J

2012-05-01

175

In situ labeling of DNA reveals interindividual variation in nuclear DNA breakdown in hair and may be useful to predict success of forensic genotyping of hair.  

PubMed

Hair fibers are formed by keratinocytes of the hair follicle in a process that involves the breakdown of the nucleus including DNA. Accordingly, DNA can be isolated with high yield from the hair bulb which contains living keratinocytes, whereas it is difficult to prepare from the distal portions of hair fibers and from shed hair. Nevertheless, forensic investigations are successful in a fraction of shed hair samples found at crime scenes. Here, we report that interindividual differences in the completeness of DNA removal from hair corneocytes are major determinants of DNA content and success rates of forensic investigations of hair. Distal hair samples were permeabilized with ammonia and incubated with the DNA-specific dye Hoechst 33258 to label DNA in situ. Residual nuclear DNA was visualized under the fluorescence microscope. Hair from some donors did not contain any stainable nuclei, whereas hair of other donors contained a variable number of DNA-positive nuclear remnants. The number of DNA-containing nuclear remnants per millimeter of hair correlated with the amount of DNA that could be extracted and amplified by quantitative PCR. When individual hairs were investigated, only hairs in which DNA could be labeled in situ gave positive results in short tandem repeat typing. This study reveals that the completeness of DNA degradation during cornification of the hair is a polymorphic trait. Furthermore, our results suggest that in situ labeling of DNA in hair may be useful for predicting the probability of success of forensic analysis of nuclear DNA in shed hair. PMID:21475959

Szabo, Sandra; Jaeger, Karin; Fischer, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Parson, Walther; Eckhart, Leopold

2012-01-01

176

Swelling equilibria and dye adsorption studies of chemically crosslinked superabsorbent acrylamide\\/maleic acid hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superswelling acrylamide (AAm)\\/maleic acid (MA) hydrogels were prepared by free radical polymerization in aqueous solution of AAm with MA as comonomer with some multifunctional crosslinkers such as trimethylolpropane triacrylate and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate. AAm\\/MA hydrogels were used in experiments on swelling and adsorption of a water-soluble monovalent cationic dye such as Basic Blue 17 (Toluidin Blue). As a result of dynamic

Erdener Karada?; Ömer Bar?? Üzüm; Dursun Saraydin

2002-01-01

177

Room-temperature chemical integration of ZnO nanoarchitectures on plastic substrates for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ZnO nanoarchitectured anodes composed of the ZnO nanocactus array and the top ZnO particle layer are chemically integrated on ITO-PET substrates using a facile room-temperature chemical bath deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the absence of high-temperature post-treatment and mechanical compression, a notable efficiency of 5.24% is simply achieved in the flexible ZnO DSSC.ZnO nanoarchitectured anodes composed of the ZnO nanocactus array and the top ZnO particle layer are chemically integrated on ITO-PET substrates using a facile room-temperature chemical bath deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the absence of high-temperature post-treatment and mechanical compression, a notable efficiency of 5.24% is simply achieved in the flexible ZnO DSSC. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images of ZnO NP seed layer, XRD pattern of ZnO TP film, photographs of the flexible ZnO NC-TP anode and the corresponding DSSC, influences of array length on density of primary NW array as well as Jsc and efficiency of the ZnO NC DSSCs, photovoltaic performances of flexible D149-sensitized ZnO NC-TP DSSCs fabricated using 10 ?m thick ZnO NC arrays and ZnO TP films with various thicknesses, J-V curve of ZnO NC-TP-g DSSC, transmittance spectra of ITO-PET and ITO-glass substrates, and bending test results of the unsealed ZnO NC-TP DSSC cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05267b

Chang, Geng-Jia; Lin, Shou-Yen; Wu, Jih-Jen

2014-01-01

178

A novel study on carpet-dye-induced dermatitis and other changes in Rattus norvegicus.  

PubMed

It is known that humidity enhances the growth of mites in carpets, mattresses and other household items. The association between exposure to house dust and diseases such as asthma, chronic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis has been shown in many individuals. Large quantities of carpet dyes are used in carpet industry located in Eastern Uttar Pradesh India. Nearly 90% of the carpets are manufactured in Eastern Uttar Pradesh and remaining 10% is produced in Kashmir and other places of India. Therefore, this area is important in huge dyeing and washing industry in which nearly 760 metric tons of dyes and dye supporting chemicals as well as washing chemicals are used per year. Present study has been conducted to see the adverse health effects of carpet dye black T supra which is being greatly used in carpet industry. In the present study, Gram mixed with 20 mg kg(-1) of b.wt. day(-1) sub-lethal dose of Black T Supra carpet dye was fed to Rattus norvegicus for three months and the symptoms of dermatitis in the form of hair fall in patches on surface of body started from fifth week onward. The area of patches of hair fall increased between 6-12th weeks. In controls, such effect was not observed. In addition, a little increase in body weight, cataract in eyes and desperate walking in experimental animals were observed after fifth week of feeding Black T Supra dye. In some cases, the correlation between exposure to carpet dye black T supra and symptoms is obvious. PMID:24175422

Kumar, Ashok; Sriwastwa, V M S; Lata, S; Tiwari, R K

2012-08-15

179

Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine,

Won-Soo Lee

2011-01-01

180

Alignment control and softness creation in hair with glycylglycine.  

PubMed

Thick and coarse hair, as typically found among the Japanese population, frequently lacks softness that consumers are acutely aware of. Such poor feeling is accentuated by daily grooming, weathering, and chemical treatments, in particular, which can cause changes in the hair shape and the creation of frizzy or irregularly shaped hair. Existing technologies to improve the soft feel of hair, though effective, usually concentrate on the surface of the fiber and often leave the hair feeling either overconditioned or sometimes even sticky from product buildup. Hair softness is said to be governed by a number of factors, but primarily hair diameter and surface condition. In this study, we have also identified hair alignment as playing a critical role in hair softness. In addition, by studying how Japanese women perceive hair softness when touching their hair, we have identified that the strain on the hair fiber associated with these manipulations is far smaller than previously considered. With these factors in mind, we have studied the mechanisms behind a new softening technology containing glycylglycine (GG). It has been found that treatment with GG can give a tangible feeling of hair softness by dramatically improving alignment in unruly hair and by lowering the modulus of the fiber. Moreover, using the atomic force microscope, it has been revealed that the properties of the cell membrane complex of the hair cortex may be modified after GG treatment; the role of this additive in modifying the internal properties of the hair to create softness will thus be discussed. PMID:23449128

Breakspear, Steven; Fukuhara, Masaki; Itou, Takashi; Hirano, Yuji; Nojiri, Masayoshi; Kiyomine, Akira; Inoue, Shigeto

2013-01-01

181

UV-vis spectroscopy and semiempirical quantum chemical studies on methyl derivatives of annulated analogues of azafluoranthene and azulene dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paper reports the measured optical absorption and fluorescence spectra of 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-7-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-1 H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline (MCPDPPQ), as well as 6-methyl-1,3-diphenyl-3 H-indeno[1,2,3- de]pyrazolo[3,4- b]quinoline (MDPIPQ) and 9-methyl-6-phenyl-6 H-5,6,7-triazadibenzo[ f,h]naphtho[3,2,1- cd]azulene (MPTNA) representing cyclized five- or seven-membered regioisomeric products of MCPDPPQ, respectively. The spectra has been recorded in solvents of different polarity and compared with the results of quantum chemical calculations performed by means of the semiempirical method PM3 in combination with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Cyclization of MCPDPPQ into MDPIPQ or MPTNA is accompanied by a significant red shift of the first optical absorption and fluorescence bands. While the solvent polarity rises all the dyes exhibit the blue shift of the first absorption band and the red shift of the fluorescence band. These trends have been reproduced within the semiempirical calculations in combination with the Lippert-Mataga dielectric polarization model and explained by specific orientations of the dipole moments in the ground and excited states. All dyes may be considered as candidates for the luminescent or electroluminescent applications. Depending on solvent polarity they emit light in the green-yellow range of the visible spectra.

Danel, K. S.; G?siorski, P.; Matusiewicz, M.; Ca?us, S.; Uchacz, T.; Kityk, A. V.

2010-09-01

182

Photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye using Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin film prepared by chemical method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made by researchers for the removal of various dyes using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2; however, removal of `hazardous Ponceau S dye' using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 has been not studied yet. In the present work, environmental application of Nano structured Ni doped TiO2 has been studied. Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by the chemical method on a glass substrate. The prepared thin film was characterized by XRD, SEM, and EDX. The crystal size calculated from XRD is about 26.2 nm. The SEM analysis reveals nano spherical morphology of average particle size about 92 nm. The optical analysis was carried by using UV-visible spectroscopy. The band gap estimated from absorbance spectra for thin film was around 3.5 eV, making suitable Ni-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye. In photocatalytic application different parameters like dye concentration, contact time, pH, UV light and sunlight were optimized for the removal of Ponceau S dye, respectively. The change in chemical oxygen demand after photo catalytic treatment was also studied.

Marathe, Sunil D.; Shrivastava, Vinod S.

2014-05-01

183

A review of hair care products for black individuals.  

PubMed

Physicians should be prepared to provide professional guidance to black individuals with both chemically treated and natural (ie, nonchemically treated) hair. Patients may seek advice from physicians if they decide to discontinue use of chemical relaxers or if they have sustained damage such as chemical burns, breakage, or hair loss from the misuse of various hair care products. Properly advising this patient population requires a basic understanding of hair morphology in black individuals as well as the unique characteristics of this hair type and the products used to address its needs. Although some products may promote healing properties, misusing or overusing them may cause adverse effects. This article will provide clinicians with a basic understanding of chemically treated and natural hair in black individuals. We also discuss hair care products that are ideal for this patient population and the potential adverse effects based on their chemical formulations. PMID:24999639

Crawford, Karla; Hernandez, Claudia

2014-06-01

184

What Causes Hair Loss?  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Hereditary thinning or baldness . Also called androgenetic alopecia , this is the most common cause of hair ... hair loss due to hereditary thinning or baldness. Alopecia areata . This autoimmune disease causes hair loss on ...

185

Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

186

Laser Hair Removal  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Hair Removal, Laser A A A AFTER: Two laser hair removal treatments were performed. This picture is 7 months post ... laser or Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) technology, suitable hairs can be superheated and permanently removed. The target ...

187

Photoageing of Hair Fiber and Photoprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination by transmission electron microscopy of hair exposed to sunlight has revealed important damage. Findings indicate an alteration of various cell components. Damage occurs in the cuticle and leads to its loss. Separation of macro-fibrils and destruction of melanin pigments result in cortex damage. Some of the chemical and physical changes which occur in hair exposed to sunlight were studied:

Damarys Braida; Claude Dubief; Gérard Lang

1994-01-01

188

The nail and hair in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the

C Ralph Daniel; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Antonella Tosti

2004-01-01

189

Age-Related Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... hereditary hair loss include: Surgical Procedures for Hair Restoration Hair transplantation – Skin on the scalp that has ... placed where hair is needed. Medication for Hair Restoration Finasteride – Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug ...

190

Measurements of hair volume by laser stereometry.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional laser stereometer was constructed utilizing an x-y two-dimensional translational stage and a laser device, which provides distance information in the z-direction. The distance data is obtained by triangulation of the reflecting red laser beam from the surface of the measured object, in this case hair. Since hair fiber assemblies do not have a continuous solid surface, each z-dimension reading is obtained as an average of measurements obtained from multiple reflections corresponding to fibers at various depths below the outermost hair surface. We demonstrate the utility of this technique to perform the analysis of either an entire hair tress or relatively short sections of tresses prepared from straight, curly, and frizzy hair and subjected to cosmetic treatments such as washing, conditioning, dyeing, etc. An interpretation is provided for the three-dimensional images of hair assemblies as well as for the calculated volume of space occupied by a hair tress. In addition, we investigated various strategies for testing the volume retention of styling polymers. PMID:19450418

McMullen, Roger; Zisa, Franco; Jachowicz, Janusz

2009-01-01

191

Dyeing Wool with Fungi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.23 of PDF), learners dye wool with fungi. Learners discover that natural chemicals in fungi can dye wool different colors. Note: Natural dyeing normally requires a color fixative such as alum. This is not necessary if you use an aluminum, tin, or copper pot as the metal in the pot will take part in the dyeing reaction. However, if you use a non-stick saucepan you should add a few copper coins to the mix. Safety note: Always wash your hands after touching fungi! Adult supervision recommended.

Assinder, Sue; Rutter, Gordon

2002-01-01

192

Formation of nanostructure on hair surface: its characteristic optical properties and application to hair care products.  

PubMed

Uneven structures on hair fiber surface, such as lift up of cuticle or build up of hair spray ingredients, generally cause a diffuse reflection which results in a dull and unhealthy appearance. However, in the case of finer structure than wavelength of visible light, the optical properties change significantly. An application of the phenomenon to hair care products is reported in this paper. Formation of the fine structure on hair surface was achieved by only a shampoo and rinse-off conditioner system including amino-silicone. Chroma enhancement of hair and light introduction into hair fibers were observed simultaneously with formation of the fine structure on the hair surface. The light introduction phenomenon is understood in terms of "Effective Medium Approximation" (EMA). The simulation study based on EMA indicates that a very low refractive index surface is expected to be realized, which well explains the optical experimental results. When the shampoo and conditioner system developed to form the structure on fiber surface was applied to dyed hair, enhancement and long-lasting of vivid appearance was confirmed in spite of dye elution. PMID:17728928

Watanabe, Shunsuke; Sato, Hirayuki; Shibuichi, Satoshi; Okamoto, Masayuki; Inoue, Shigeto; Satoh, Naoki

2007-01-01

193

Topical liposome delivery of molecules to hair follicles in mice.  

PubMed

The hair cycle consisting of growing and resting phases, is subject to widespread disease such as androgenic alopecia or loss of pigment which are in need of effective, targeted therapeutics. In order to develop a hair-follicle delivery system we demonstrate here that phosphatidylcholine liposomes entrapping either the fluorescent dye calcein or the pigment melanin can deliver these molecules into the hair follicle and hair shafts of mice when applied topically. Liposomal delivery of these molecules is time dependent. Negligible amounts of delivered molecules enter the dermis, epidermis or blood stream thereby demonstrating the enrichment of follicle delivery. Naked calcein and melanin are trapped in the stratum corneum and are unable to enter the follicle. The potential of the hair-follicle liposome delivery system for therapeutic use for hair disease is discussed. PMID:9039973

Li, L; Hoffman, R M

1997-02-01

194

Fifteen Drugs, Dyes, and Other Chemicals Newly Listed as Known or Likely Human Carcinogens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Toxicology Program, part of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEH), has provided this information on both commercial and non-commercial chemicals. The newly listed compounds are included in the 8th Report on Carcinogens Summary, the text of which is available on the NIEH homepage.

1998-01-01

195

Filtration techniques used by the textile industry for recovery of dyes, chemicals and energy  

SciTech Connect

The continued increase in the cost of chemicals energy and water makes their recovery more important today than it was 20 years ago when ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration were first introduced to the textile industry. While the filtration techniques have only been used at a few installations, these plants have been able to save enough to pay for the recovery process in one to two years. One key to having a successful recovery operation is to have good automatic control of the process. This can drastically improve the economics of the textile process as well as minimizing the cost of the recovery system. The recovery of PVA, indigo, caustic and preparation chemicals will be presented.

Porter, J.J.

1995-09-01

196

Studies on photo-electro-chemical catalytic degradation of acid scarlet 3R dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of photo-electro-chemical catalytic reactor was designed. Cathode and anode of the new reactor were made of high-purity\\u000a graphite and titanium dioxide electrode respectively. A saturated calomel electrode (SCE) was used as the reference electrode.\\u000a Under the condition of ultraviolet radiation and anodic bias-voltage, acid scarlet 3R was degraded by the process of photoelectrocatalysis\\u000a with titanium dioxide electrode

Mingyu Li; Lin Xiong; Yunyun Chen; Na Zhang; Yuanming Zhang; Hua Yin

2005-01-01

197

Mutations in Gasdermin 3 Cause Aberrant Differentiation of the Hair Follicle and Sebaceous Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defolliculated (Dfl) is a spontaneous mouse mutant with a hair-loss phenotype that includes altered sebaceous gland differentiation, short hair shafts, aberrant catagen stage of the hair cycle, and eventual loss of the hair follicle. Recently a similar mutant, finnegan (Fgn), with an identical phenotype was discovered during a phenotypic screen for mutations induced by chemical mutagenesis. The gene underlying the

Declan P. Lunny; Erica Weed; Patrick M. Nolan; Andreas Marquardt; Martin Augustin; Rebecca M. Porter

2005-01-01

198

ELECTROCHEMICAL DEGRADATION OF AZO DYES ON BDD: EFFECT OF CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON THE COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the extent of mineralization in the electrochemical degradation of a series of azo dyes, and to obtain an idea about the effects of the number of azo bonds, number of benzenic or naphthalenic rings and hydrophilic groups and hydrodynamics of the system on the combustion efficiencies, ?C, of the dyes. Tests were

Viviana Santos; António Morão; Maria José Pacheco; Lurdes Ciríaco; Ana Lopes

199

A hybrid bis(amino-styryl) substituted Bodipy dye and its conjugate diacid: synthesis, structure, spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations.  

PubMed

A new type of fluorescent pH indicator has been developed whereby two dissimilar amino-styryl units are attached to a boron dipyrromethene (Bodipy) dye. The photophysical properties of this hybrid dye, and its simpler counterparts bearing only a single amino-styryl residue, depend on the polarity of the surrounding medium. Of the two terminal amines, DFT (B3LYP/6-31G**) calculations and spectroscopic measurements support the notion that julolidine is oxidised and protonated under milder conditions than is N,N-dimethylaniline. For the hybrid dye, similar DFT calculations carried out for the mono-protonated analogues indicate that the julolidine residue is the stronger base while the resultant conjugate acid is the weaker one. Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic titrations show that protonation of the hybrid dye occurs in two well-resolved steps, whereby addition of the first proton introduces a thermodynamic barrier for entry of the second. In the hybrid dye, the pKA values for the respective conjugate acids differ markedly from those derived for the mono-amino-styryl dyes and display negative co-operativity. Effectively, this means that electronic interactions running along the molecular backbone make it more difficult, relative to the individual dyes, to protonate both amino sites. As such, this dye operates as a probe over an unusually wide pH range. PMID:24691184

Nano, Adela; Retailleau, Pascal; Hagon, Jerry P; Harriman, Anthony; Ziessel, Raymond

2014-06-01

200

Quantitation of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, methylecgonine, and norcocaine in human hair by positive ion chemical ionization (PICI) gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A total of 30 human head-hair samples were analyzed for cocaine (COC), cocaethylene (CE), benzoylecgonine (BE), methylecgonine (EME), and norcocaine (NCOC) using a sensitive positive ion chemical ionization gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) method. All 30 hair samples had been previously submitted to the laboratory and had confirmed positive for cocaine. Hair samples (20 mg each) were cut into small segments (2-5 mm) and incubated overnight at 45 degrees C in 0.1 N HCl after the addition of 50 microL of an internal standard mix of COC-d3 (1.0 ng/mg), BE-d3 (0.5 ng/mg), EME-d3 (0.25 ng/mg), and NCOC-d3 (0.25 ng/mg). The samples were then extracted with Clean Screen extraction columns from United Chemical Technologies, Inc. The final extract was evaporated to dryness and derivatized with 50 microL of 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and 50 microL of trifluoroacetic anhydride at 90 degrees C for 15 min. The derivatized samples were allowed to cool to room temperature, evaporated to dryness, and then reconstituted in 50 microL of ethyl acetate. Parent set masses (unbolded ions) and product ions were m/z 304 and m/z 182 and 82 (COC), m/z 307 and m/z 185 and 85 (COC-d3), m/z 318 and m/z 196 and 82 (CE), m/z 440 and m/z 318 and 105 (BE), m/z 443 and m/z 321 and 105 (BE-d3), m/z 296 and m/z 182, and 82 (EME), m/z 299 and m/z 185 and 85 (EME-d3), m/z 403 and m/z 386 and 105 (NCOC), m/z 406 and m/z 389 and 105 (NCOC-d3). Quantitation was accomplished by calculating the area ratio of the higher mass product ion (underlined ions) of analyte to the respective internal standard based on multilevel calibrations from 0.01 to 10.0 ng/mg. The GC-MS-MS method had a limit of detection of 0.01 ng/mg and a limit of quantitation of 0.05 ng/mg for all five analytes. COC, BE, and EME were detected in all 30 samples, and CE and NCOC were found in 19 and 29 samples, respectively. The average relative percentages of each metabolite normalized to the cocaine concentrations were 12.8%, 15.4%, 1.8%, and 2.5% for BE, CE, EME, and NCOC, respectively. PMID:11043651

Bourland, J A; Hayes, E F; Kelly, R C; Sweeney, S A; Hatab, M M

2000-10-01

201

Pillaring chemically exfoliated graphene oxide with carbon nanotubes for photocatalytic degradation of dyes under visible light irradiation.  

PubMed

Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) platelets were pillared with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method with acetonitrile as the carbon source and nickel nanoparticles as the catalyst, aimed to prepare graphene-based materials with a high surface area and a good electrical conductivity. Characterization data showed that the composite materials with RGO layers pillared by CNTs formed a robust three-dimensional (3D) porous structure of specific surfaces as high as 352 m(2)/g. The amount and length of the CNT pillars connecting the RGO layers were controlled by changing the amount of the nickel metal catalyst and the time of CVD. The CNT-pillared RGO composite materials exhibited an excellent visible light photocatalytic performance in degrading dye Rhodamine B because of the unique porous structure and the exceptional electron transfer property of graphene. Such CNT-RGO composites represent a new family of innovative carbon materials for visible-light-activated photocatalysis. PMID:21028785

Zhang, Li Li; Xiong, Zhigang; Zhao, X S

2010-11-23

202

The characteristics of chemical and heat stability properties of chromium–vanadium–aluminum co-doped zinc oxide films for dye-sensitized solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transparent conducting oxide thin films are used as front contact material for dye-sensitized solar cells. This study investigated the effects of chromium (Cr) and vanadium (V) contents on the chemical and heat stability properties of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films using pulsed direct current magnetic sputtering on Corning 1737F glass substrates. The experimental results show that Cr and V

Y. C. Lin; C. H. Chang; C. H. Shen; P. W. Wang; Y. C. Lee

2010-01-01

203

Pronounced infracuticular endocytosis in mammalian outer hair cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocytosis in cochlear hair cells was investigated by staining with the vital fluorescent dye FM 1-43, that partitions reversibly into membranes and is trapped in vesicles during endocytosis. The temporal development and spatial distribution of FM 1-43 induced fluorescence was investigated using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. FM 1-43 rapidly and intensely stained cochlear hair cells, leaving the supporting cells unstained. For

Jens Meyer; Andreas F. Mack; Anthony W. Gummer

2001-01-01

204

New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.  

PubMed

Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

2014-05-01

205

Influence of thermal hair straightening on ethyl glucuronide content in hair.  

PubMed

Hair analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has become a valuable marker for the detection of moderate and chronic alcohol consumption. It has been shown that bleaching and perming may decrease EtG content in hair. So far, no studies exist about the influence of thermal hair straightening on EtG content in hair. Forty-one positive EtG hair samples were treated in vitro with a hair straightener at 200°C. Duration of treatment of 1 min was chosen for this study. After washing, pulverization, incubation in ultrasonic bath, solid-phase extraction, and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, EtG was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry - negative ion chemical ionization (GC-MS-NICI). The EtG contents in straightened hair strands were then compared with those in the corresponding untreated strands. In 20 of 41 hair samples, a decrease of EtG content was found ranging from 0.7% to 79.3% (average 20%) whereas in 21 cases an increase was shown ranging from 2.0% to 50.9% (average 15%). The variation of the results seems to depend on hair colour. The decrease may be explained by thermic in vitro destruction of EtG. The increase may be explained by denaturation of the hair matrix by thermal treatment possibly causing a better extraction of EtG during incubation in ultrasonic bath. This in vitro study indicates that thermal hair straightening has an impact on the EtG content in hair. This has to be considered for a correct interpretation of EtG results in hair. However, these results should be confirmed by in vivo studies. PMID:24817051

Ettlinger, Jana; Kirchen, Luc; Yegles, Michel

2014-06-01

206

Hair Loss in New Moms  

MedlinePLUS

... Hair loss in new moms Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... shedding after having a baby. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

207

Ethyl glucuronide: Unusual distribution between head hair and pubic hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor metabolite of ethanol that can be detected in hair. In some specific situations, head hair can be missing, and therefore, alternative anatomical locations of hair are of interest. In this study, paired hair specimens (head hair and pubic hair) from eight social drinkers were analyzed for EtG. Each sample was decontaminated by two dichloromethane

Pascal Kintz; Marion Villain; Emilie Vallet; Mathieu Etter; Guillaume Salquebre; Vincent Cirimele

2008-01-01

208

40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a...substance identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine dye (PMN...

2009-07-01

209

40 CFR 721.988 - Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). 721...Chemical Substances § 721.988 Pyrazolone azomethine dye (generic). (a...substance identified generically as a pyrazolone azomethine dye (PMN...

2010-07-01

210

PIXE elemental analysis of South American mummy hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair samples were obtained from ten mummies of the archaic and formative cultures of the north coast of Chile. Each sample was divided into two portions. One portion was washed in acetone and then water and the second portion remained unwashed. All samples were then prepared by an acid digestion procedure and analyzed by PIXE. The washed and unwashed samples were compared to determine what elements were present in the material on the hair surface. Concentrations of the elements Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, and Pb are reported. Comparison was made to previously published elemental analyses of mummy hair and modern hair. One sample, which had a reddish hue, was found to contain unusually large quantities of Fe and As. Since the unwashed sample had much higher concentrations of these elements than the washed sample, it is believed that the reddish color originated in a mineral dye applied to the hair.

Du, A. Y.; Mangelson, N. F.; Rees, L. B.; Matheny, R. T.

211

A study of the effectiveness of post-treatment after hair straightening process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to minimise the hair damage due to hair straightening process, post-treatment is recommended to protect the damaged\\u000a hair from further depreciation and breakage. However, few reported quantitatively about the effectiveness of post-treatment\\u000a after hair straightening process. Therefore, the aim of this paper will investigate the effectiveness of post-treatment methods\\u000a for chemically straightened hairs. The effectiveness will be evaluated

C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; S. Y. Cheng; P. Y. Lau

2010-01-01

212

Quantitative analysis of l-alpha-acetylmethadol, l-alpha-acetyl-N-normethadol, and l-alpha-acetyl-N,N-dinormethadol in human hair by positive ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sensitive and specific method was developed for the quantitative analysis of l-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM), l-alpha-acetyl-N-normethadol (norLAAM), and l-alpha-acetyl-N,N-dinormethadol (dinorLAAM) in hair. In the development of this method, it was determined that sample pretreatment methods performed by the laboratory greatly affect the measured concentrations of drug and metabolite in hair. Deuterated internal standards were added to 20-mg hair samples and the samples digested overnight in a buffered solution of Protease Type VIII enzyme. Digests were extracted by modification of a liquid-liquid extraction procedure developed previously in our laboratory for the analysis of plasma and tissues. Derivatized extracts were analyzed on a Finnigan MAT 4500 mass spectrometer in positive ion chemical ionization mode using methane and ammonia reagent gases, helium carrier gas, and a DB-5MS (30 m, 0.25-micron film thickness) capillary column. The assay was linear to 50 ng/mg hair (r = 0.99) for all three compounds with a limit of quantitation experimentally determined to be 0.5 ng/mg for LAAM and 0.3 ng/mg for norLAAM and dinorLAAM. Intra-assay precision ranged from 1.0 to 10.5% for the three analytes at concentrations of 0.5, 5.0, and 25.0 ng/mg of hair. Interassay precision ranged from 4.7 to 12.9%. The performance of the method was also evaluated for its utility in detecting and quantitating LAAM, norLAAM, and dinorLAAM in hair from rats (n = 6) that had been administered 3 mg/kg LAAM intraperitoneally once daily for five days. LAAM, norLAAM and dinorLAAM were detectable in pigmented hair at concentrations of 1.27 ng/mg (+/-0.04), 1.28 ng/mg (+/-0.014), and 2.89 ng/mg (+/-0.014), respectively. Five laboratory wash solvents were then evaluated for their effect on the measured concentration of LAAM and metabolites in the rat hair. Phosphate buffer and 1% SDS washes substantially reduced the measured LAAM, norLAAM, and dinorLAAM concentrations by at least 30%, which suggests that drug incorporated into hair is removed (extracted) during the laboratory wash procedures. Wash procedures using methanol, methylene chloride, or water reduced the measured concentrations by no more than 20%. Because measured concentrations of LAAM, norLAAM, and dinorLAAM in hair appear to depend on the specific wash procedures used by a laboratory, quantitative data must be interpreted cautiously based on the sample pretreatment conditions. PMID:9323520

Wilkins, D G; Valdez, A S; Krueger, G G; Rollins, D E

1997-10-01

213

Help! It's Hair Loss!  

MedlinePLUS

... are in the resting phase. Continue What Causes Hair Loss? Men, especially older men, are the ones who ... loss, you might need more tests. Coping With Hair Loss In some cases, it can take a while ...

214

Inhibition of hair growth  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of inhibiting hair growth in a mammal includes applying, to an area of skin from which reduced hair growth is desired, a dermatologically acceptable composition containing a non-steroidal suppressor of angiogenesis.

2000-07-25

215

Common Hair Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... have the inherited tendency to "common baldness." Male pattern baldness is the most common cause of hair ... top of the head. Women may develop female pattern baldness in which the hair becomes thin over ...

216

Permanent waving and straightening of hair.  

PubMed

A significant number of consumers use products to curl or straighten their hair. These products function by chemically breaking and reforming keratin disulfide bonds. The most popular waving products contain salts of thioglycolic acid to break the bonds and hydrogen peroxide to reform them. Straighteners generally rely on high alkalinity to break the bonds and reform them with acid. Problems with permanent waving are usually due to overtreatment or undertreatment of the hair rather than allergy or irritation. Straighteners can be irritating because of their high alkalinity and can seriously damage hair if used excessively. PMID:3608576

Wickett, R R

1987-06-01

217

Laser Hair Removal  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatments should be performed by or under the direct supervision of a dermatologist or other physician who has appropriate training and expertise. In general, three or more treatments are required to achieve permanent hair growth reduction. Darker hair responds best to laser hair ...

218

Resistance of human hair cuticle after a shaking process in wet conditions: comparison between Chinese and Caucasian hair.  

PubMed

Synopsis Hair cuticle is the first protection shield of hair against external aggressions such as daily combing or brushing that induce friction, mechanical stress leading to ageing process. The identification of alterations of the hair surface induced by shaking process of various hair fibres, such as virgin and chemically treated Chinese and Caucasian hair, sheds some light on some specific features, e.g. Chinese cuticle is torn out in smaller particles than Caucasian, which seems to be related to geometrical rather than ethnic reasons. The present work also shows that two geometrical parameters of human hair, the inter-scale distance and the scale angle are directly linked to fibre dimensions, regardless of ethnic origin. Representative of hair with an average larger cross-sectional area, Chinese hair shows a slightly smaller inter-scale distance as well as a higher scale angle. On the other hand, Chinese hair cuticle seems to be more sensitive to chemical treatment than Caucasian hair, at least for straightening treatment taken here as an example. Such an approach can be of interest in designing cosmetic products more suited to specific needs of human hair. PMID:20491991

Galliano, A; Saint Olive Baque, C; Marty, G; Nedelec, B; Gauchet, L; Littaye, P; Gu, W; Huguet, E; Querleux, B; Silberzan, I; Kravtchenko, S; Kempf, J Y

2010-05-10

219

TEXTILE DYEING WASTEWATERS: CHARACTERIZATION AND TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an examination of the biological, chemical, and physical treatability of wastewaters from selected typical dye baths. Twenty systems providing a broad cross section of dye classes, fibers, and application techniques, were examined. Wastes, produced usi...

220

Approach towards developing a novel procedure to selectively quantify topically applied substances in the hair follicles of the model tissue porcine ear skin.  

PubMed

Hair follicles represent reservoirs for localized drug therapy and transport pathways for systemic drug delivery. This study describes an approach towards developing a novel procedure for quantifying topically applied substances located in the hair follicles of porcine ear skin, a model for human in vivo skin, using a fluorescent dye. Approximately 5% of the topically applied dye was recovered from the hair follicles, which is in accordance with a previous study. PMID:23489479

Knorr, Fanny; Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Schanzer, Sabine; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

2013-06-01

221

Microspectral investigation of hair of one girl during six years by laser emission analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple chemical elements of clinical and nutritional interest were measured in the hair of a girl - cerebral palsy patient. Sixteen samples of hair were cut and investigated to determine time and nutrition trends by using laser and arc emission spectroscopy.

Surmenko, Elena L.; Sokolova, Tatiana N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

2001-10-01

222

Relaxing/straightening of Afro-ethnic hair: historical overview.  

PubMed

Afro-ethnic hair, when compared with naturally straight hair, presents some important variations such as differences in diameter in many points of the thread, ellipsoidal threads, and low trend of hydrating the scalp thus turning the hair drier, because the natural sebum distribution is irregular along the thread. This kind of hair may be straightened through both chemical and thermal methods. Straightening is a chemical process by which excessively curly hair is straightened in an irreversible way. Generally, the products used are formulated in a cosmetic emulsion with high pH. In this review, we present the historical development of hair straightening or relaxing through the evolution of the product categories. PMID:17348987

de Sá Dias, Tania Cristina; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Robles Velasco, Maria Valéria

2007-03-01

223

Pele's hairs and tears: Natural probe of volcanic plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed petrographic study of Pele's hairs and tears sampled from Masaya volcano (Nicaragua). This study provides new observations of these little-known pyroclastic objects using both secondary electron images (SEI) and back scattering electron images (BSEI). Our work shows that Pele's tears can be associated with Pele's hairs after their formation: tears can be trapped on the walls and/or in the cavities of Pele's hairs. Moreover, chemical investigations of the Pele's hairs and tears highlight the presence of a chemical zonation. The edge of these tears and hairs show a siliceous enrichment, allowing us to quantify the interaction time of the silicate glass with acid gases in the volcanic plume. This study confirms the syneruptive and post eruptive volatile exsolution from Pele's hairs and tears.

Moune, Séverine; Faure, François; Gauthier, Pierre-J.; Sims, Kenneth W. W.

2007-08-01

224

Calcium Spiking in Plant Root Hairs Responding to Rhizobium Nodulation Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizobium lipochitooligosaccharide signal molecules stimulate multiple responses in legume host plants, including changes in host gene expression, cell growth, and mitoses leading to root nodule development. The basis for signal transduction in the plant is not known. We examined cytoplasmic free calcium in host root hairs using calcium-sensitive reporter dyes. Image analysis of injected dyes revealed localized periodic spikes in

David W Ehrhardt; Rebecca Wais; Sharon R Long

1996-01-01

225

Hair loss in infancy.  

PubMed

Hair diseases represent a significant portion of cases seen by pediatric dermatologists although hair has always been a secondary aspect in pediatricians and dermatologists training, on the erroneous basis that there is not much information extractable from it. Dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders with simple diagnostic techniques. The hair is easily accessible to examination but, paradoxically, this approach is often disregarded by non-dermatologist. This paper has been written on the purpose of trying to serve in the diagnostic process of daily practice, and trying to help, for example, to distinguish between certain acquired and some genetically determined hair diseases. We will focus on all the data that can be obtained from our patients' hair and try to help on using the messages given by hair for each patient. Quite often it is extremely hard to distinguish between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. We will specially focus in the most common physiological changes that may mislead to an incorrect diagnosis. Specific treatment for those hair diseases that do have one, and basic general approach to improve the cosmetic appearance of hair, will be also be discussed for those hair disturbances that do not have a specific treatment. PMID:24566566

Moreno-Romero, J A; Grimalt, R

2014-02-01

226

Premature graying of hair.  

PubMed

Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined. PMID:23974581

Pandhi, Deepika; Khanna, Deepshikha

2013-01-01

227

Fungal laccase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, and chemical mediators: Combined actions for the decolorization of different classes of textile dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dyes belonging to the mono-, di-, tri- and poly-azo as well as anthraquinonic and mono-azo Cr-complexed classes, chosen among the most utilized in textile applications, were employed for a comparative enzymatic decolorization study using the extracellular crude culture extracts from the white rot fungus Funalia (Trametes) trogii grown on different culture media and activators able to trigger different levels of

Ilaria Ciullini; Silvia Tilli; Andrea Scozzafava; Fabrizio Briganti

2008-01-01

228

Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.  

PubMed

Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. PMID:24680003

Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

2014-04-01

229

Quirks of dye nomenclature. 1. Evans blue.  

PubMed

The history, origin, identity, chemistry and use of Evans blue dye are described along with the first application to staining by Herbert McLean Evans in 1914. In the 1930s, the dye was marketed under the name, Evans blue dye, which was profoundly more acceptable than the ponderous chemical name. PMID:23957706

Cooksey, C J

2014-02-01

230

PBXL Fluorescent Dyes for Ultrasensitive Direct Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

PBXL™ dyes are a group of phycobilisome-based fluors that provide high sensitivity in direct fluorescent detection formats. Phycobilisomes are proteinaceous, supramolecular complexes that are photosynthetic antennae complexes in red algae and cyanobacteria. For the PBXL dyes, the phycobilisome has been chemically cross-linked in such a way that it remains water soluble and stable. Stabilized phycobilisomes (PBXL dyes) have high complex

Steven J. Zoha; Shakuntala Ramnarain; John P. Morseman; Mark W. Moss; F. C. Thomas Allnutt; Yu-Hui Rogers; Bronwen Harvey

1999-01-01

231

Reactive Fluorescent Dyes For Urethane Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molecules of fluorescent dyes chemically bound in urethane conformal-coating materials to enable nondestructive detection of flaws in coats through inspection under ultraviolet light, according to proposal. Dye-bonding technique prevents outgassing of dyes, making coating materials suitable for use where flaw-free coats must be assured in instrumentation or other applications in which contamination by outgassing must be minimized.

Willis, Paul B.; Cuddihy, Edward F.

1991-01-01

232

Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

Maugh, Thomas H., II

1978-01-01

233

[Acute, toxic, reversible hair loss through drain and sanitary cleansing vapors containing sodiumhypochloride and sodiumhydroxide].  

PubMed

Exposition to drain and sanitary cleansing vapors containing sodiumhypochloride and sodiumhydroxide provoked acute, reversible toxic alopecia. Trichograms of this depilatory type of alopecia showed that signs of hair dystrophy and loss of the hair sheath. Histological examination of skin and hair showed changes in hair structures and discrete lymphocytic infiltration. The prerequisite for this effect was the improper use of cleansing agents and the relative conditions during use which led to the intense exposition of the scalp to sodiumhypochloride vapor. A possible chemical reaction between cleansing agent and dirt may have been responsible, just as the condition of the scalp and hair e.g. increased transpiration, hydration may have led the way to hair loss. Acute hair loss occurred in the scalp and beard region following the use of cleansing agents; additional genital hair loss arose after sodiumhydroxide use. This condition persisted for 4 weeks. Body and scalp hair was completely restored after 1 year. PMID:7157798

Stüttgen, G; Haas, N; Mittelbach, F; Zesch, A

1982-10-01

234

How to diagnose hair loss.  

PubMed

This review presents a systematic approach to the diagnosis of hair loss. An accurate diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, laboratory tests, and scalp biopsy. Whether the hair loss is a cicatricial or noncicatricial alopecia guides one's history taking. After assessing the patient's global appearance, the hair and scalp are evaluated, aided by a hair pull, hair tug, Hair Card, and hair mount. Scalp biopsies can confirm a diagnosis and are essential in all cases of cicatricial alopecia. In all patients with hair loss a complete blood count, ferritin, thyroid stimulating hormone, and vitamin D 25OH should be ordered. PMID:23159173

Jackson, Adrianna J; Price, Vera H

2013-01-01

235

Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.  

PubMed

Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles <200 nm being internalized by keratinocytes and dendritic cells at sites of barrier disruption (e.g., hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications. PMID:24387677

Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

2014-02-01

236

Dynamic tuning of hair bundle mechanoreceptors in a sea anemone during predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea anemone Haliplanella luciae (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) detects chemical and mechanical stimuli from prey. Hair bundle mechanoreceptors on the tentacles participate in regulating discharge of microbasic \\u0009p-mastigophore nematocysts. Properly stimulated hair bundles sensitize the anemone to discharge nematocysts into objects that contact the tentacles. The hair bundle mechanoreceptors are composed of stereocilia derived from a multicellular complex. This complex consists

Glen M. Watson; Patricia Mire

2004-01-01

237

Influence of functionalized silicones on hair fiber-fiber interactions and on the relationship with the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly.  

PubMed

It is well established that silicones alter hair surface properties and that silicones have a significant impact on the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly, such as visual appearance, combing performance and manageability of the hair. In order to fine-tune the chemistry of functionlized silicones for specific consumer benefits and hair types, we investigated the influence of silicones on hair fiber-fiber interactions and their correlation to hair volume. The incline plane fiber loop method, implemented with a high-precision motorized rotary stage, was used to quantify the fiber-fiber interactions. Low load static friction was studied as a function of polymer molecular weight, dose and chemical architecture. This information was related to the macroscopic behavior of hair assembly, using virgin curly hair in high humidity. PMID:19450425

Dussaud, Anne; Fieschi-Corso, Lara

2009-01-01

238

Functional assembly of mammalian cochlear hair cells  

PubMed Central

Hair cells in the mammalian inner ear convert sound into electrical signals that are relayed to the nervous system by the chemical neurotransmitter glutamate. Electrical information encoding sound is then passed through the central nervous system to the higher auditory centres in the brain, where it is used to construct a temporally and spatially accurate representation of the auditory landscape. To achieve this, hair cells must encode fundamental properties of sound stimuli at extremely high rates, not only during mechano-electrical transduction, which occurs in the hair bundles at the cell apex, but also during electrochemical transduction at the specialized ribbon synapses at the cell base. How is the development of such a sophisticated cell regulated? More specifically, to what extent does physiological activity contribute to the progression of the intrinsic genetic programmes that drive cell differentiation? Hair cell differentiation takes about 3 weeks in most rodents, from terminal mitosis during embryonic development to the onset of hearing around 2 weeks after birth. Until recent years, most of the molecules involved in hair cell development and function were unknown, which was mainly due to difficulties in working with the mammalian cochlea and the very small number of hair cells, about 16,000 in humans, present in the auditory organ. Recent advances in the ability to record from the acutely isolated cochlea maintained in near-physiological conditions, combined with the use of genetically modified mouse models, has allowed the identification of several proteins and molecular mechanisms that are crucial for the maturation and function of hair cells. In this article, I highlight recent findings from my laboratory that have furthered our understanding of how developing hair cells acquire the remarkable sensitivity of adult auditory sensory receptors.

Marcotti, Walter

2012-01-01

239

Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata) Information for adults A A A This image displays a close-up of the scalp with a round area of non-scarring hair loss typical of alopecia areata. Overview Alopecia areata is ...

240

Adhesive Guard Hair Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long hairs of fur pelts known as guard hairs are removed to reveal soft underfur by contacting the pelt with a substrate coated with adhesive and then pulling the substrate away from the pelt. Recoverable or nonrecoverable adhesive systems may be used.

H. E. Hull

1976-01-01

241

Hair Follicle Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop on Hair Follicle Stem Cells brought together investigators who have used a variety of approaches to try to understand the biology of follicular epithelial stem cells, and the role that these cells play in regulating the hair cycle. One of the main concepts to emerge from this workshop is that follicular epithelial stem cells are multipotent, capable of

Robert M. Lavker; Tung-Tien Sun; Hideo Oshima; Yann Barrandon; Masashi Akiyama; Corinne Ferraris; Genevieve Chevalier; Bertrand Favier; Colin A. B. Jahoda; Danielle Dhouailly; Andrei A. Panteleyev; Angela M. Christiano

2003-01-01

242

Hair follicle stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of the hair follicle as a stem cell paradigm is due in part to the complex interplay between epithelial, dermal and other cell types, each with interesting differentiation potential and prospective therapeutic applications. This review focuses on research into the environmental niche, gene expression profiles and plasticity of hair follicle stem cell populations, where many recent advances

James M. Waters; Gavin D. Richardson; Colin A. B. Jahoda

2007-01-01

243

Long Hair Shampoo Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to a long hair shampoo basin for use at barber shops and beauty salons. More specifically, the present invention is directed to shampoo basins which are adapted for shampooing longer hair than is accommodated by present basin...

K. Schulken

2005-01-01

244

Removing Hair Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... the jurisdiction of FDA's Office of Cosmetics and Colors in the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. The practice of professional hair ... popular belief, shaving does not change the texture, color, or growth rate of hair. ... Safety Commission. back to top This article appears on ...

245

Dye lasers  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dye laser. It consists of a composite composition of an inorganic oxide glass monolith with a microporous structure containing an incorporated solution comprising a solvent component and a lasable dye component. Wherein the glass monolith has sealed outer surfaces.

Kuder, J.E.; McGinnis, J.L.; Goldberg, H.A.; Hart, T.R.; Che, T.M.

1989-10-31

246

Can a topical scalp treatment reduce hair bulb extraction?  

PubMed

Generally speaking, when people talk about "hair breakage" they are typically referring to the idea that as they comb or brush their hair, the fibers are elongating and snapping at some weak point in the fiber length. It is well established that as people chemically treat their hair, the keratin proteins are degraded further and the hair become more brittle and susceptible to breakage. For the consumer, hair breakage is registered as hair fibers noted in their comb or brush, and in the drain that they see after a cosmetic treatment. However, a fundamental question that needs to be asked is whether or not the hairs that are seen in the drain are really the result of hair breakage (i.e., a fiber snapping) or are they the result of hairs that are actually being extracted from the scalp by their root bulbs. If the bulk of the hair fibers are actually extracted by the bulb, than it seems somewhat superfluous to try and improve hair strength by improving the exterior of the fiber. The fiber is dead and topical treatments can only smooth, and possibly moisten already established fiber structure and integrity. This paper will attempt to address hair strength by looking at the scalp and follicle as the target for treatment, showing that topical application of a product containing a blend of well-known skin active ingredients can demonstrate potential reductions in hair extractions. An in vivo testing protocol in which 15 voluntary participants with at least 12" hair length were professionally shampooed, and then treated, half-head, with a commercial conditioner, or the same conditioner that contained 5% of a mixture of yeast peptides, fruit acids and green tea polyphenols every day for five days will be discussed. At the beginning and end of the treatment period, the number of hairs that either broke along the fiber, or extracted by the bulb were gathered, separated and counted for both the treated and untreated side of the head. The results of this one-week study demonstrate that the number of hairs that actually break pales in comparison to the number of hairs that are extracted complete with intact root bulb from the follicle. PMID:17728937

Gruber, James V; Bouldin, Lisa; Lou, Kevin

2007-01-01

247

Hair analysis for drugs of abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a debate in the literature on chemical drug analysis concerning the contribution of biophysical attributes associated with specimens and specimen donors to assay outcome. In recent years this debate has focused on hair analysis, but has in the past also been raised in urinalysis interpretation. In this article we examine several aspects of that controversy. First, we

Raymond C Kelly; Tom Mieczkowski; Stacy A Sweeney; James A Bourland

2000-01-01

248

Acidity control of plasma-chemical oxidation: applications to dye removal, urban waste abatement and microbial inactivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric discharges burning in humid air at atmospheric pressure over aqueous solutions induce acid effects in the liquid phase resulting from the formation of nitric acid and peroxynitrous acid as transient precursor. These acid effects affect the degradation mechanisms of organic wastes and the relevant kinetic rates; therefore they thus must be controlled (e.g. using buffers). Nitrogen reactive species such as peroxynitrous acid or its salt are directly concerned with both acid effects as precursor to nitric acid, and strong oxidizing properties E°(ONO2H/NO2) = 2.02 V/SHE. Illustrating examples are given in the case of an organic dye (Alizarin S) removal and the gliding discharge treatment of urban wastewaters. Additional arguments are presented to explain the biocidal effect of humid air discharges.

Brisset, Jean-Louis; Benstaali, Baghdad; Moussa, David; Fanmoe, Jean; Njoyim-Tamungang, Estella

2011-06-01

249

Hair and scalp dermatoscopy.  

PubMed

Dermatoscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye. Trichoscopy (scalp dermatoscopy and videodermatoscopy) is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of hair and scalp disorders. However, it is not widely used in the management of hair disorders. This review provides updated information from the literature and our experience on the dermoscopic features of the most common hair and scalp disorders. This will enable dermatologists to make fast diagnoses of tinea capitis and alopecia areata, distinguish early androgenetic alopecia from telogen effluvium, and differentiate scarring from nonscarring alopecia. PMID:22405573

Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

2012-11-01

250

Microscopic high-resolution digital volumetric imaging of human hair fibers.  

PubMed

Methods for examining cationic polymer deposition on hair are well known and polymers such as Polyquaternium-10 have enjoyed a significant commercial impact on shampoos and body washes as unique conditioning materials. It was recently reported that hair can be examined using a new microscopic called Digital Volumetric Imaging or DVI (10). By employing fluorescent dyes, deposition of cationic oligosaccharides onto damaged blond hair fibers was discussed. Because hair auto-fluorescences, the microscope allows for examination of hair fibers directly including viewing of the cuticle, cortex and melanin within the cortex and careful imaging even distinguishes the medulla of the hair fiber. In this paper, examination of six virgin hair types including: 1) Afro-American, 2) Asian, 3) European brown, 4) red, 5) blond and 6) gray was conducted looking for differences that each hair type brings to the visualizing technique. Digital manipulation of the fluorescent data allows for examination of interior hair fiber structures as well as the development of animated movies of three dimensional hair fiber structures. PMID:15645100

Gruber, J V; Kerschman, R

2004-01-01

251

Laser dye toxicity, hazards, and recommended controls  

SciTech Connect

Laser dyes are complex fluorescent organic compounds which, when in solution with organic solvents, form a lasing medium. The wavelength of a dye laser's output beam can vary with different dyes, concentrations, and solvents, giving it a tunable feature capable of emitting ultraviolet, visible, or infrared radiation. Toxicity information on the approximately 100 commercially available laser dyes is very scarce. Limited animal experimentation has been performed with only a few dyes. This paper summarizes what is known about laser dye toxicity, and offers recommendations for controlling dye hazards. The laser dyes investigated have been categorized according to their central chemical structures. These include the xanthenes (rhodamines and fluoresceins), polymethines (cyanines and carbocyanines), coumarins, and stilbenes. A few other miscellaneous dyes that do not fall into one of these categories have also been investigated. Prepared laser dye solutions usually contain very small quantities of dye--typical dye concentrations are 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup -5/ molar. For this reason, the solvent in which the dye is dissolved plays an important role when defining potential hazards. Practically all the solvents used are flammable and toxic by inhalation and skin absorption, and therefore must be controlled properly.

Mosovsky, J.A.

1983-05-06

252

Decolorization of Synthetic Dyes by Aspergillus flavus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem of paramount importance that has attracted the attention of environmental biologists is the discharge of highly colored effluents into the environment by various industries, which use a wide range of synthetic dyes. The existing chemical methods for dye degradation are not only expensive but also contributes to secondary pollution due to high dose of the chemicals used. Hence

P. Lalitha; N. Nageswara Rao Reddy; K. Arunalakshmi

2011-01-01

253

Loose Anagen Hair Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Loose anagen syndrome (LAS) is a benign, self-limiting condition where anagen hairs are easily and painlessly extracted. It is mainly reported in childhood; however, it may variably present in adulthood as well. The presence of anagen hair devoid of its sheath and with ‘floppy sock appearance’ is a characteristic feature of loose anagen hair (LAH) on trichogram. LAH can be seen in normal population and in alopecia areata. The percentage of LAH in LAS is more than 50%. The histopathological findings show clefting between the layers of hair and are very useful in differentiating LAS from alopecia areata. Here, a review on the diagnostic criteria and practical guidelines are discussed so as to enable the trichologist in managing this benign, self-limiting condition and differentiating it from the other causes of non-scarring alopecias.

Dhurat, Rachita P; Deshpande, Deepal J

2010-01-01

254

Hair Restoration (Cosmetic Procedures)  

MedlinePLUS

... MS, Dover JS, Arndt KA, editors. Atlas of Cosmetic Surgery . United States of America, W. B. Saunders Company; ... of Dermatology Dermatologists have invented or refined several cosmetic procedures. Hair replacement and transplant surgery was pioneered by an American dermatologist.

255

Exposure to hair-coloring products and the risk of multiple myeloma.  

PubMed Central

An interview study of persons diagnosed with multiple myeloma between 1977 and 1981 and suitable control subjects was conducted to test the hypothesis that exposure to hair dyes increases the risk of multiple myeloma. Among women, there was little evidence that prior regular use of hair dyes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70, 1.4) or prior employment as a hairdresser (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.43, 2.7) increased risk; however, the former comparison was limited by the lack of detailed information concerning the exposure. Among men, there was a modest association of regular use of hair dyes (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.75, 2.9) with myeloma, but this was based on a small number of exposed persons.

Herrinton, L J; Weiss, N S; Koepsell, T D; Daling, J R; Taylor, J W; Lyon, J L; Swanson, G M; Greenberg, R S

1994-01-01

256

Hair analysis for nicotine and cotinine: evaluation of extraction procedures, hair treatments, and development of reference material.  

PubMed

Analysis of nicotine and cotinine in human hair can provide information on nicotine intake and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke over a long period of time. Nonetheless, to better assess the usefulness of hair analysis to determine smoking habits or exposures, all procedures have to be standardized. Various solvents were tested as washing solvents to eliminate external contamination from nicotine. Dichloromethane was found effective when used for two washes prior to the extraction. Basic and acid digestion of hair followed by solid phase extraction with Extrelut-3 glass column using dichloromethane:isopropyl alcohol (9:1) as eluting mixture both gave good recoveries of nicotine and cotinine, when compared with extractions reported in the literature. The extraction method was free from substances, which could interfere in the chromatographic analysis. Furthermore, the addition of methanolic HCl to the eluting mixture prevented the loss of nicotine during the evaporation step before chromatography. Chromatography was performed using a reversed-phase column and a U.V. detection at 254 nm. Furthermore, hair treatments (dyes, permanent wave, hydrogen peroxide) caused a major decrease in the nicotine content in hair, and a smaller effect on cotinine levels. However, the effect of various treatments was not reproducible. Several attempts to produce reference materials were carried out. Nicotine and cotinine standard solutions at different concentrations were added to blank hair soaked in dimethylsulfoxide, methanol and water. PMID:9042730

Pichini, S; Altieri, I; Pellegrini, M; Pacifici, R; Zuccaro, P

1997-01-17

257

Loose anagen hair syndrome in black-haired Indian children.  

PubMed

Loose anagen hair syndrome (LAHS) is an uncommonly reported autosomal dominant hair disorder with incomplete penetrance that primarily affects children but is occasionally seen in adults. LAHS is characterized by the ability to easily and painlessly extract unsheathed anagen hairs from the scalp with gentle traction. The hair is sparse and does not grow long. Usually the hairs are not fragile and do not have areas of breakage. Initially it was considered a rare, sporadic condition found predominantly in young white girls with blonde hair. Because autosomal dominant inheritance has been reported, it was suspected that the condition might be equally common in boys but was probably underdiagnosed. PMID:23937400

Dey, Vivek; Thawani, Manasi

2013-01-01

258

Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anti-cancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analogue of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line.

Thomas, Andrew J.; Hailey, Dale W.; Stawicki, Tamara M.; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.; Simon, Julian A.; Ou, Henry C.

2013-01-01

259

Structural characterization of hair fiber by optical coherence tomography (OCT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we use the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique to produce in vitro transversal section images of human hair. It was possible to identify in the A-scan protocol its principal structures: cuticle, cortex and medulla. The mean diameter of medulla was 29 +/- 7 ?m and hair diameter was 122 +/- 16 ?m in our samples of standard Afro-ethnic hair. We also compared the OCT signal before and after chemical treatment with 18% w/w ammonium thioglycolate solution. After chemical treatment, it was not possible to identify the main structures of hair fiber, due the index matching promoted by deleterious action of chemical agent. A tridimensional image was built starting from 601 cross-sectional images (slices). Each slice was taken in steps of 6.0 ?m at 8 frames per second, and the whole 3D image was built in 60 seconds.

Freitas, Anderson Zanardi; Robes Velasco, Maria Valeria; Paulo Raele, Marcus; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Vieira, Nilson Dias, Jr.; Baby, Andre Rolim

2008-12-01

260

Biological Sampling and Analysis in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2007 Puget Sound Biota Study  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating spatial and temporal trends in contaminant residues in Puget Sound fish and macroinvertebrates are the objectives of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP). In a cooperative effort between the ENVironmental inVESTment group (ENVVEST) and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, additional biota samples were collected during the 2007 PSAMP biota survey and analyzed for chemical residues and stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N). Approximately three specimens of each species collected from Sinclair Inlet, Georgia Basin, and reference locations in Puget Sound were selected for whole body chemical analysis. The muscle tissue of specimens selected for chemical analyses were also analyzed for ?13C and ?15N to provide information on relative trophic level and food sources. This data report summarizes the chemical residues for the 2007 PSAMP fish and macro-invertebrate samples. In addition, six Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) samples were necropsied to evaluate chemical residue of various parts of the fish (digestive tract, liver, embryo, muscle tissue), as well as, a weight proportional whole body composite (WBWC). Whole organisms were homogenized and analyzed for silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, mercury, 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB homologues, percent moisture, percent lipids, ?13C, and ?15N.

Brandenberger, Jill M.; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

2008-10-09

261

Dyeing properties of natural dyes extracted from eucalyptus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A natural dye was extracted from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and was used to dye cotton by direct dyeing method at different dyeing conditions. Then, the fastness properties of dyeing with different dyeing techniques were compared.

S. Ali; N. Nisar; T. Hussain

2007-01-01

262

Discovery and structural elucidation of the illegal azo dye Basic Red 46 in sumac spice  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unknown red dye was discovered in a sumac spice sample during routine analysis for Sudan dyes. LC-DAD and LC-MS\\/MS did not reveal the identity of the red substance. Nevertheless, using LC-high-resolution MS and isotope ratio comparisons the structure was identified as Basic Red 46. The identity of the dye was further confirmed by comparison with a commercial hair-staining product

J. Ruf; P. Walter; H. Kandler; A. Kaufmann

2012-01-01

263

Usefulness of alkaline hydrogen peroxide oxidation to analyze eumelanin and pheomelanin in various tissue samples: application to chemical analysis of human hair melanins.  

PubMed

Eumelanin and pheomelanin in tissue samples can be specifically measured as the markers pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and 4-amino-3-hydroxyphenylalanine after acidic permanganate oxidation and hydroiodic acid hydrolysis, respectively. Those degradation methods, although widely applied, are not easily performed in most laboratories. To overcome this difficulty, we developed alkaline H(2)O(2) oxidation in 1 M K(2)CO(3) that produces, in addition to the eumelanin marker PTCA, thiazole-2,4,5-tricarboxylic acid (TTCA) and thiazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid (TDCA) as markers for pheomelanin and pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA) as a marker for 5,6-dihydroxyindole-derived eumelanin. Those four degradation products can be easily separated by HPLC and analyzed with ultraviolet detection. The alkaline H(2)O(2) oxidation method is simple, reproducible and applicable to all pigmented tissues. Its application to characterize eumelanin and pheomelanin in human hair shows that PTCA and TTCA serve as specific markers for eumelanin and pheomelanin, respectively, although some caution is needed regarding the artificial production of TTCA from eumelanic tissue proteins. PMID:21535429

Ito, Shosuke; Nakanishi, Yukiko; Valenzuela, Robert K; Brilliant, Murray H; Kolbe, Ludger; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

2011-08-01

264

Photoepilation of Unwanted Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Laser and IPL treatments for hair removal depend on the presence of melanin in the hair shaft. The ideal patient for laser\\u000a hair removal has light skin with black, coarse hair. There is substantial evidence for laser and photoepilation with a total\\u000a of 43 identified controlled trials in the beginning of 2009. Laser treatment and photoepilation are superior to conventional

Annesofie Faurschou; Merete Haedersdal

265

Management of hair loss diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of hair loss diseases is sometimes difficult because of insufficient efficacy and limited options. However, recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology and development of new remedies have improved the treatment of refractory hair loss conditions. In this article, an update on the management of hair loss diseases is provided, especially focusing on recently reported therapeutic approaches for

Manabu Ohyama

2010-01-01

266

The Growth of Human Hair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

Jones, Helen J.

1984-01-01

267

Hair Loss: Approach and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss is a very common and distressing problem faced by family physicians, in day to day practice. With a good history and physical examination most of the common causes of hair loss can be diagnosed. Androgenic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in males and Telogen Effluvium in females. Other causes include Alopecia areata. Scarring alopecia needs

Sandeep Rai; Madhur Rai; Shiv Kumar

268

EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETICS OF DISPERSE DYE ADSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARED FROM RATTAN SAWDUST BY CHEMICAL ACTIVATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid-phase adsorption of C.I. Disperse Orange 30 (DO30) onto activated carbon prepared from rattan sawdust by chemical activation with H3PO4. The rattan sawdust was carbonized at 500oC, 2h and impregnated ratio weight with H3PO4 at 1:4.5. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, initial DO30 concentration and pH were investigated at temperature 30±1oC. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and

A. A. AHMAD; B. H. HAMEED; A. L. AHMAD

2008-01-01

269

Biology of Human Hair: Know Your Hair to Control It  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Abstract  Hair can be engineered at different levels—its structure and surface—through modification of its constituent molecules, in\\u000a particular proteins, but also the hair follicle (HF) can be genetically altered, in particular with the advent of siRNA-based\\u000a applications. General aspects of hair biology are reviewed, as well as the most recent contributions to understanding hair\\u000a pigmentation and the regulation of hair development.

Rita Araújo; Margarida Fernandes; Artur Cavaco-Paulo; Andreia Gomes

270

Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis.  

PubMed

Although increasing interest is being observed in hair analysis for the biomonitoring of human exposure to pesticides, some limitations still have to be addressed for optimum use of this matrix in that specific context. One main possible issue concerns the need to differentiate chemicals biologically incorporated into hair from those externally deposited on hair surface from contaminated air or dust. The present study focuses on the development of a washing procedure for the decontamination of hair before analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes. For this purpose, three different procedures of artificial contamination (with silica, cellulose, and aqueous solution) were used to simulate pesticides deposition on hair surface. Several washing solvents (four organic: acetone, dichloromethane, methanol, acetonitrile; and four aqueous: water, phosphate buffer, shampoo, sodium dodecylsulfate) were evaluated for their capacity to remove artificially deposited pesticides from hair surface. The most effective washing solvents were sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol for aqueous and organic solvents, respectively. Moreover, after a first washing with sodium dodecylsulfate or methanol, the majority of externally deposited pesticides was removed and a steady-state was reached since significantly lower amounts were removed by additional second and third washings. Finally, the effectiveness of a decontamination procedure comprising washing with sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol was successively demonstrated. In parallel, it was determined that the final procedure did not affect the chemicals biologically incorporated, as hair strands naturally containing pesticides were used. Such a procedure appears to remove in one-shot the fraction of chemicals located on hair surface and does not require repeated washing steps. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24817049

Duca, Radu-Corneliu; Hardy, Emilie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Appenzeller, Brice M R

2014-06-01

271

Study of hair shine and hair surface smoothness.  

PubMed

A new hair visual appearance measurement system called SAMBA from Bossa Nova Technologies (Venice, CA) has been employed to measure effects of cosmetic treatments on hair shine and surface smoothness of different types of hair samples. Experimental procedures for evaluations of shine value and surface cuticle angle of hair samples treated with rinse-off products (shampoo or/and conditioner) have been successfully established and applied. We demonstrated that hair spray and conditioner formulas containing PPG-3 benzyl ether myristate (PBEM) (1) showed great performance on shine enhancement for hairs with light and medium colors. Instrumental measurement of shine values was also conducted to compare different commercial shampoo and conditioner products. This study showed reliable utility of SAMBA system and demonstrated the shine enhancement of PBEM in hair care. PMID:19450419

Gao, Timothy; Pereira, Abel; Zhu, Sam

2009-01-01

272

Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation  

PubMed Central

Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia.

Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

2012-01-01

273

Investigating hair properties relevant for hair 'handle'. Part I: hair diameter, bending and frictional properties.  

PubMed

The expert working group 'Hair Care Products' of the DGK currently conducts a wide study to contribute to the understanding of how single hair fibre and hair collective properties contribute towards hair 'handle' and 'feel'. During the first stage of this study four hair types were selected from a large group of individual European hair braids, according to either similar or widely different panel ratings for handle. Against the background of the panel test and the state of the literature the working group readily identified the bending properties of single fibres interacting in the tress as a fibre collective and fibre friction as being of central relevance for hair 'handle' and 'feel'. Fibre diameters of the hair types were determined by Optical Fibre Diameter Analyzer and by weighing. From these data mean ellipticity and bending stiffness distributions were calculated. Single fibre friction was determined by the capstan method in the root, middle and tip regions. Significant differences were determined between the hair types in diameters, ellipticity, bending stiffness and friction. The results lead to conclude that 'handle' is perceived as inferior when the hair is thick and bending stiffness thus high. For such hair differences in handle rating are related to differences in friction, namely in the tip region. For thin and thus 'soft' hair fibre friction seems to play only a minor role. PMID:18492202

Wortmann, F-J; Schwan-Jonczyk, A

2006-02-01

274

Laboratory measurements of selected optical, physical, chemical, and remote-sensing properties of five water mixtures containing Calvert clay and a nonfluorescing dye  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 6.1 ppm to 24.3 ppm and sizes ranged between 1.5 micrometers and 10 micrometers with the most frequently occurring size less than 2 micrometers. Iron concentration was less than 1 percent of the total suspended solids. Nonfluorescing dye concentrations of the two mixtures were 20 ppm and 40 ppm. Attenuation coefficient for the five mixtures ranged from 4.8/m to 21.3/m. Variations in volume scattering function with phase angle were typical. Variations in attenuation and absorption coefficient with wavelength were similar for the mixtures without the dye. Attenuation coefficient of the mixtures with the dye increased for wavelengths less than 600 nm due to the dye's strong absorption peak near 500 nm. Reflectance increased as the concentration of Calvert clay increased and peaked near 600 nm. The nonfluorescent dye decreased the magnitude of the peak, but had practically no effect on the variation for wavelengths greater than 640 nm. At wavelengths less than 600 nm, the spectral variations of the mixtures with the dye were significantly different from those mixtures without the dye.

Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Poole, L. R.; Witte, W. G., Jr.

1981-01-01

275

Confocal microscopy of hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confocal microscopy is an excellent method for studying the localization of fluorescent stains. Used in this way, superior 3D images can be obtained from multiple optical sections with very shallow depth of field. The main advantage of this technique is that the sample is not damaged. We have taken serial confocal sections of hair and via specific image enhancement routines

J. M. Lagarde; P. Peyre; D. Redoules; D. Black; M. Briot; Y. Gall

1994-01-01

276

Hair loss and contraceptives.  

PubMed

In a review of the relationship of hair loss to oral contraceptive (OC) use, several studies are examined. The effect of pregnancy on hair loss has been substantiated. After the 3rd month of pregnancy the proportion of follicles in active growth rises. Increased shedding follows childbirth due to the delayed physiological passage of some follicles into the resting phase, blood loss, and sometimes anticoagulants. In contraceptive studies it can be shown that in 1/2 of the patients there was a temporary increase in the proportion of resting during early treatment but that pretreatment status was regained in 6 months. In 11 patients in this study who showed high pretreatment levels of resting follicles, the proportion of actively growing follicles actually increased with OCs. The incidence of diffuse alopecia in women between 1952 and 1971 has remained unchanged although OC use has increased. This suggests the effect of OCs on alopecia is insignificant. There may be a causal relationship between stopping estrogen and hair loss. However, it may be possible that genetically suseptible women might be affected by OCs. In patients where hair loss is accompanied by seborrhea or where there is hirsuitism it is suggested that the pill be discontinued. PMID:4736624

1973-06-01

277

The Hair Colour Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class activity is designed to introduce young learners to the concept of tree diagrams. This class activity requires learners to organize data about the individual student's physical characteristics(gender, hair and eye color) utilizing connecting cubes. The activity includes a follow up activity, questions, tips on getting started, a teacher resource page, and a printable version of the problem.

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

278

Root hair sweet growth  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil. Growing root hairs require intensive cell-wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip or polarized growth. We have recently shown that cell wall glycoproteins such as extensins (EXTs) are essential components of the cell wall during polarized growth. Proline hydroxylation, an early posttranslational modification of cell wall EXTs that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), defines the subsequent O-glycosylation sites in EXTs. Biochemical inhibition or genetic disruption of specific P4Hs resulted in the blockage of polarized growth in root hairs. Our results demonstrate that correct hydroxylation and also further O-glycosylation on EXTs are essential for cell-wall self-assembly and, hence, root hair elongation. The changes that O-glycosylated cell-wall proteins like EXTs undergo during cell growth represent a starting point to unravel the entire biochemical pathway involved in plant development.

Velasquez, Silvia M; Iusem, Norberto D

2011-01-01

279

Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair  

PubMed Central

The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation.

Trueb, Ralph M

2006-01-01

280

Painting With Natural Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

1999-07-01

281

Dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic physical and chemical principles behind the dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cell (DSC: also known as the Gratzel cell after its inventor) are outlined in order to clarify the differences and similarities between the DSC and conventional semiconductor solar cells. The roles of the components of the DSC (wide bandgap oxide, sensitizer dye, redox electrolyte or hole conductor, counter electrode)

Laurence M. Peter

2007-01-01

282

Photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell low temperature growth of ZnO nanorods using chemical bath deposition.  

PubMed

Nanostructured ZnO photoelectrodes were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates that were spin-coated with a sol-gel based ZnO seed layer via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at varying times of 1, 2, 4, and 8 h. Then, TiO2 nanoparticulate electrodes were prepared on ZnO nanorods using the doctor blade technique. The uniformly grown ZnO nanorod layer had a length of approximately 710 nm on the FTO glass substrate with wurtzite structures which was confirmed through X-ray diffraction patterns. The length and diameter of the ZnO nanorods increased with an increase in the deposition time. The DSSCs fabricated with TiO2 nanoparticulate/grown ZnO nanorods and grown for 8 h showed the maximum efficiency (5.51%) with a short circuit current density (J(sc)) of 12.21 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.70 at 100 mW/cm2 light intensity. PMID:22849148

Lee, Jeong-Gwan; Choi, Young-Cheol; Lee, Do-Kyung; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Jae Hong

2012-04-01

283

Dyeing fabrics with metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

Kalivas, Georgia

2002-06-01

284

A simple method for purification of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells, and application for proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of <3% at the protein level and <1% at the peptide level. Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses. PMID:23750277

Herget, Meike; Scheibinger, Mirko; Guo, Zhaohua; Jan, Taha A; Adams, Christopher M; Cheng, Alan G; Heller, Stefan

2013-01-01

285

A Simple Method for Purification of Vestibular Hair Cells and Non-Sensory Cells, and Application for Proteomic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of <3% at the protein level and <1% at the peptide level. Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses.

Herget, Meike; Scheibinger, Mirko; Guo, Zhaohua; Jan, Taha A.; Adams, Christopher M.; Cheng, Alan G.; Heller, Stefan

2013-01-01

286

[Hair cycle dynamics: the case of the human hair follicle].  

PubMed

The existence of a growth and regeneration cycle makes the hair follicle a true paradigm of tissue homeostasis. Analysis of about 9000 cycles led us to propose a stochastic model of human hair dynamics. The existence of hair cycles implies that stem cells must be cyclically activated and hair melanin unit has to be renewed. Using different markers, we were able to identify two distinct epithelial stem cell reservoirs, located in the upper and lower thirds of the anagen hair follicle outer root sheath. These two reservoirs fuse during the regression phase and individualize again in the new forming anagen hair follicle. Using a set of antibodies specific of melanocyte lineage and melanogenesis, pigmentation unit turnover was followed throughout the entire hair cycle. In the terminal anagen hair, active melanocytes were localized on top of the dermal papilla, while amelanotic melanocytes were identified in the upper third of the outer root sheath (ORS). Those amelanotic melanocytes located in upper ORS probably represented a melanocyte reservoir for successive hair generation, since at the induction of anagen phase, some melanocytes were committed to cell division and melanogenesis was turned on, but only in the nascent hair bulb, close to the dermal papilla. PMID:12868268

Bernard, Bruno A

2003-01-01

287

Dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

288

Consumer allergy to oxidative hair coloring products: epidemiologic data in the literature.  

PubMed

Oxidative hair dyes have repeatedly come to the attention of the dermatologic community owing to concerns about contact dermatitis. A review of the scientific literature provides insight into the prevalence of p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-sensitized individuals and on the prevalence of hair dye dermatitis in various types of patient and nonpatient populations mainly from Europe and from the United States and Asia. Most of the results are obtained through patch testing with PPD. PPD is one of the main oxidation colorants; however, patch-test prevalence of PPD is not equivalent to prevalence of hair dye allergy. An analysis shows no clear increase in the frequency of positive patch-test reactions to PPD in eczema patients and in the general population. All the parameters through which the frequency of hair dye dermatitis resulting from exposure to PPD is evaluated have been stable in Europe, with a few exceptions that are discussed in the review. There is a statistically significant decrease (p < .0001) in the prevalence of positive patch-test reactions to PPD in North America (1970 to 2002). Data from studies in Asia are difficult to interpret. Pooled prevalence rates of positive patch-test reactions to PPD were calculated for the three continents. PMID:19470299

Krasteva, Maya; Bons, Brigitte; Ryan, Cindy; Gerberick, G Frank

2009-01-01

289

40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721.4594 Section 721...Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a substituted azo metal complex dye (PMN P-94-499) is...

2013-07-01

290

Stabilisation of a heptamethine cyanine dye by rotaxane encapsulation.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of a cyanine dye rotaxane shows that the cyclodextrin is tightly threaded round the polymethine bridge of the dye; encapsulation dramatically increases the kinetic chemical stability of the radicals formed on oxidation and reduction of the dye, making it possible to observe the rotaxane radical dication by ESR and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. PMID:18566717

Yau, C M Simon; Pascu, Sofia I; Odom, Susan A; Warren, John E; Klotz, Eric J F; Frampton, Michael J; Williams, Charlotte C; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Kuimova, Marina K; Phillips, David; Barlow, Stephen; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Marder, Seth R; Millar, Val; Anderson, Harry L

2008-07-01

291

Direct grafting of long-lived luminescent indicator dyes to GaN light-emitting diodes for chemical microsensor development.  

PubMed

Two new methods for covalent functionalization of GaN based on plasma activation of its surface are presented. Both of them allow attachment of sulfonated luminescent ruthenium(II) indicator dyes to the p- and n-type semiconductor as well as to the surface of nonencapsulated chips of GaN light-emitting diodes (blue LEDs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the functionalized semiconductor confirms the formation of covalent bonds between the GaN surface and the dye. Confocal fluorescence microscopy with single-photon-timing (SPT) detection has been used for characterization of the functionalized surfaces and LED chips. While the ruthenium complex attached to p-GaN under an oxygen-free atmosphere gives significantly long mean emission lifetimes for the indicator dye (ca. 2000 ns), the n-GaN-functionalized surfaces display surprisingly low values (600 ns), suggesting the occurrence of a quenching process. A photoinduced electron injection from the dye to the semiconductor conduction band, followed by a fast back electron transfer, is proposed to be responsible for the excited ruthenium dye deactivation. This process invalidates the use of the n-GaN/dye system for sensing applications. However, for p-GaN/dye materials, the luminescence decay accelerates in the presence of O(2). The moderate sensitivity is attributed to the fact that only a monolayer of indicator dye is anchored to the semiconductor surface but serves as a demonstrator device. Moreover, the luminescence decays of the functionalized LED chip measured with excitation of either an external (laser) source or the underlying LED emission (from p-GaN/InGaN quantum wells) yield the same mean luminescence lifetime. These results pave the way for using advanced LEDs to develop integrateable optochemical microsensors for gas analysis. PMID:21942444

López-Gejo, Juan; Navarro-Tobar, Álvaro; Arranz, Antonio; Palacio, Carlos; Muñoz, Elías; Orellana, Guillermo

2011-10-01

292

Organic components in hair-ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for the analysis of complex samples due to its outstanding mass resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (? 1 ppm), simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds. The characteristics of the FTICR-MS hair-ice spectra with as many as ten or more peaks at each nominal mass are discussed together with highly resolved spectra from water and soil samples different sources, respectively. Complete manual formula assignment for structure elucidation would be extremely time consuming, therefore, we used an automated post processing based on SciLab for exploitation of the data with the aim of an unambiguous assignment of as many peaks as possible. Once the formulae had been assigned, the obtained mass lists were first checked randomly and afterwards transformed into Excel format for further post-processing and description. Most important is the van Krevelen diagram, usually two-dimensional as atomic ratio H/C versus atomic ratio O/C, widely used to classify samples regarding polarity and aromaticity. By comparison with two references (Hockaday 2007, Sleighter 2007), which arranged various biopolymer substance classes in such Van Krevelen plots, lignin could be detected as the main hair-ice component.

Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

2013-04-01

293

Dynamic tuning of hair bundle mechanoreceptors in a sea anemone during predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea anemone Haliplanella luciae (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) detects chemical and mechanical stimuli from prey. Hair bundle mechanoreceptors on the tentacles participate\\u000a in regulating discharge of microbasic p-mastigophore nematocysts. Properly stimulated hair bundles sensitize the anemone to\\u000a discharge nematocysts into objects that contact the tentacles. The hair bundle mechanoreceptors are composed of stereocilia\\u000a derived from a multicellular complex. This complex consists

Glen M. Watson; Patricia Mire

294

Isolation and characterization of a stem cell side-population from mouse hair follicles.  

PubMed

The mouse skin is composed of at least three differentiating epithelial compartments: the epidermis, the hair follicle, and the associated glands such as the sebaceous glands. Proliferation of these epithelial cells takes place in the keratinocytes' layer or basal cell layer; in the periphery of the sebaceous gland (the basal layer of the gland) and in specific cell compartments around the hair follicle. In mouse skin, an epithelial stem cell population is thought to localize to the bulge region of the hair follicle, a segment that does not undergo regression during the hair cycle. In addition, several other putative stem cells and/or progenitors have been identified in different regions of the hair follicle. Using the Hoeschst exclusion technique, originally described in the hematopoietic system, it has been possible to isolate a mouse keratinocyte cell population with characteristics of stem cells (side-population, SP). One of the main features of these SP is their ability to efflux antimitotic drugs as well as some specific dyes. This characteristic allows for SP cells to be isolated based upon their capacity to efflux the dye Hoechst 33342, through a mechanism driven by a membrane transporter, the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP1/ABCG2). In this chapter, we described the isolation of SP stem cells from adult mouse hair follicles utilizing the Hoeschst exclusion technique by flow cytometry analysis. PMID:24497321

de Marval, Paula L Miliani; Kim, Sun Hye; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

2014-01-01

295

Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but display non-monotonic movements in response to abrupt force steps. Extracellular calcium changes or static biases to the bundle's position at rest could affect the kinetics of bundle motion and evoke transitions between the different classes of motility. The calcium-dependent location of a bundle's operating point within its nonlinear force-displacement relation controlled the type of movements observed. A unified theoretical description, in which mechanical activity stems from myosin-based adaptation and electro-mechanical feedback by Ca2+, could account for the fast and slow manifestations of active hair-bundle motility.

Tinevez, J.-Y.; Martin, P.; Jülicher, F.

2009-02-01

296

Hair cell regeneration: Look to the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Less than 2 decades ago it was discovered that birds can regenerate hair cells in the auditory and vestibular parts of the inner ear after the native hair cells are destroyed by exposure to excessive noise or by mechanical trauma of aminoglycoside antibiotics. This discovery issued in a new era of hearing research-it suggested that some day it may be possible to actually restore hearing in people with congenital or acquired hearing loss due to the degeneration of sensory cells or supporting cells in the inner ear. Fifteen years is a very short time in the history of science. Consider the fact that we have actively sought chemical treatments to prevent or cure cancers for well over a half century and the ``war on Cancer,'' resulted in enormous public and private support. Progress has been great, and some forms of cancer can be treated with great success, but the overall 5-year survival rates have only risen from about 50% to 63%. Progress will continue and many more forms of cancer will be cured and prevented during the next half century. Similarly, during the first 15 years of hair cell regeneration research enormous progress has been made, and we now know that postnatal mammalian ears have the capacity to produce new hair cells. We are indeed a long way from restoring hearing through hair cell regeneration, but the future is pretty clear. I will review the progress of this field with an eye toward the future and what it means for treatments of today. In particular, I will address the potential cost versus benefits of bilateral implantation when applied to babies and young children.

Rubel, Edwin W.

2005-04-01

297

Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

298

Review of hair follicle dermal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair follicle stem cells in the epithelial bulge are responsible for the continual regeneration of the hair follicle during cycling. The bulge cells reside in a niche composed of dermal cells. The dermal compartment of the hair follicle consists of the dermal papilla and dermal sheath. Interactions between hair follicle epithelial and dermal cells are necessary for hair follicle morphogenesis

Chao-Chun Yang; George Cotsarelis

2010-01-01

299

Automatic Hair Detection in the Wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting the hair region in uncontrolled, real life conditions images. Our method is based on a simple statistical hair shape model representing the upper hair part. We detect this region by minimizing an energy which uses active shape and active contour. The upper hair region then allows us to learn the hair appearance parameters

P. Julian; Christophe Dehais; François Lauze; Vincent Charvillat; Adrien Bartoli; Ariel Choukroun

2010-01-01

300

Hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on basic aspects and recent studies of hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs and is discussed with 164 references. Firstly, biology of hair and sampling of hair specimens have been commented for the sake of correct interpretation of the results from hair analysis. Then the usual washing methods of hair samples and the extraction methods for

Yuji Nakahara

1999-01-01

301

Tryptophan in human hair: correlation with pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of tryptophan content in human hair of various colours was evaluated, in order to study the accumulation of this amino acid, precursor of serotonin, melatonin and niacin, in hair and the influence on hair pigmentation. Pigmentation is an important factor in determining drug incorporation into hair. Results from 1211 samples of hair from healthy subjects (577 men and

Antonella Bertazzo; Monica Biasiolo; Carlo V. L. Costa; Edda Cardin de Stefani; Graziella Allegri

2000-01-01

302

Synthesis and Characterization of Quinoline-based Dye Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quinoline-based dye has been synthesized as a use of chemosensor for metal ions. The chemical structures and characteristics were determined by H-NMR, EA, Computational calculation and cyclic voltammetry. The detection properties of this dye chemosensor were examined and determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The prepared dye showed clear detection properties for Cu and Zn. However, the sensing property between dye and

Byung-Soon Kim; Su-Ho Kim; Young-Sung Kim; Sung-Hoon Kim; Young-A Son

2009-01-01

303

Biological Wastewater Treatment of Azo Dyes,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constit...

G. M. Shaul C. R. Dempsey K. A. Dostal

1988-01-01

304

Hair Styling Appliances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

1984-01-01

305

Female Pattern Hair Loss  

PubMed Central

Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

2013-01-01

306

Rotating black hole hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is conical with respect to a local co-rotating frame, not with respect to the static frame at infinity.

Gregory, Ruth; Kubiz?ák, David; Wills, Danielle

2013-06-01

307

Just Dyeing to Find Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a multidisciplinary unit on natural dyes designed to take advantage of the natural curiosity of middle school students. Discusses history of dyes, natural dyes, preparation of dyes, and the dyeing process. (JRH)

Monhardt, Becky Meyer

1996-01-01

308

Cytoskeleton and Root Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Root hairs are long tubular outgrowths of root epidermis cell that form to increase the root surface in order to assist in\\u000a the uptake of water and nutrients from soil. Root hair development consists of two distinct processes: root hair initiation\\u000a and tip growth. During both events, the dynamic organization of the cytoskeleton translates local signaling events into a\\u000a focused

Eunsook Park; Andreas Nebenführ

309

Evolution of Sensory Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ears of all vertebrate species use sensory hair cells (Fig. 3.1) to convert mechanical energy to electrical signals compatible with the nervous system. However, although the basic structure\\u000a of hair cells is ubiquitous among the vertebrates and hair cells are also found in the lateral line of fishes and aquatic\\u000a amphibians, a growing body of literature has demonstrated considerable

Allison Coffin; Matthew Kelley; Geoffrey A. Manley; Arthur N. Popper

310

Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1,677 women aged 16 to 40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income > $30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns.

DeMaria, Andrea L.; Berenson, Abbey B.

2013-01-01

311

Historic dyes and how to identify them.  

PubMed

The origin, production, and means of confirming the authenticity of some historic dyes are described. The underlying chemistry is revealed. The evolution of analytical techniques from early times, when the main criterion for a good textile dye was fitness for use, to more modern chromatographic techniques, where the emphasis is on chemical identity, is illustrated. Recent developments have led to smaller sample size requirements, greater speed of analysis and have led to a more detailed knowledge of the chemical components of historic dyes. PMID:19384747

Cooksey, C

2009-08-01

312

Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)  

MedlinePLUS

... National Institutes of Health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) It may help to join a support group ... gov/chemo-side-effects Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia) What should I do after my hair ...

313

Aging changes in hair and nails  

MedlinePLUS

... earlier in Caucasians and later in Asians. Nutritional supplements, vitamins, and other products will not stop or decrease the rate of graying. Hair thickness change. Hair is made of many protein strands. A single hair has a normal life ...

314

Enzymatic biobleaching of two recalcitrant paper dyes with horseradish and soybean peroxidase.  

PubMed

A stilbene dye (Direct Yellow 11) and a methine dye, Basazol 46L, recalcitrant to common chemical bleaches, were treated with horseradish and soybean peroxidases. Both enzymes were effective at chromophore removal. When compared to laccase in combination with a mediator (ABTS), soybean peroxidase was more effective at oxidative dye removal, especially for the methine dye. PMID:16086255

Knutson, Kristina; Kirzan, Sylva; Ragauskas, Arthur

2005-06-01

315

Hair Shaft Abnormalities – Clues to Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks

Peter H. Itin; Susanna K. Fistarol

2005-01-01

316

Water-Soluble Polymers in Hair Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline hair relaxers used to straighten excessively curly hair, usually African-American hair, often cause considerable\\u000a hair damage. One of the effects of straightening the hair with relaxers is a loss in tensile strength due mainly to breakage\\u000a of disulfide and hydrogen bonds. This loss in tensile strength leaves the hair more susceptible to breakage and cuticle erosion\\u000a from subsequent grooming.

Ali N. Syed; Wagdi W. Habib; Anna M. Kuhajda

317

Supporting cells eliminate dying sensory hair cells to maintain epithelial integrity in the avian inner ear  

PubMed Central

Epithelial homeostasis is essential for sensory transduction in the auditory and vestibular organs of the inner ear, but how it is maintained during trauma is poorly understood. To examine potential repair mechanisms, we expressed ?-actin-EGFP in the chick inner ear and used live-cell imaging to study how sensory epithelia responded during aminoglycoside-induced hair cell trauma. We found that glial-like supporting cells used two independent mechanisms to rapidly eliminate dying hair cells. Supporting cells assembled an actin cable at the luminal surface that extended around the peri-cuticular junction and constricted to excise the stereocilia bundle and cuticular plate from the hair cell soma. Hair bundle excision could occur within 3 minutes of actin-cable formation. Following bundle excision, typically after a delay of up to 2–3 hours, supporting cells engulfed and phagocytosed the remaining bundle-less hair cell. Dual-channel recordings with ?-actin-EGFP and vital dyes revealed phagocytosis was concurrent with loss of hair cell integrity. We conclude that supporting cells repaired the epithelial barrier before hair cell plasmalemmal integrity was lost and that supporting cell activity was closely linked to hair cell death. Treatment with the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 did not prevent bundle excision but prolonged phagocytic engulfment and resulted in hair cell corpses accumulating within the epithelium. Our data show that supporting cells not only maintain epithelial integrity during trauma but suggest they may also be an integral part of the hair cell death process itself.

Bird, Jonathan E.; Daudet, Nicolas; Warchol, Mark E.; Gale, Jonathan E.

2010-01-01

318

Failure of intercellular adhesion in hair fibers with regard to hair condition and strain conditions.  

PubMed

Although adhesion failure in hair fibers can occur inside cells, it occurs more frequently in the cell membrane complex (CMC), often involving the rupture of interlayer bonds. Therefore, a model of the CMC is presented, based on prior research in which we propose interconnecting bonds between the layers to assist in our interpretation of hair-fracturing mechanisms for cuticle chipping, deep transverse cuticle cracks, cracks during heat drying, scale lifting by surfactants, and catastrophic failure. Failure in the wet state generally involves hydrophilic layers, e.g., the contact zone of the CMC or the endocuticle or bonding to these hydrophilic layers, whereas failure in the dry state generally involves bonding between hydrophobic layers, e.g., beta-delta failure. Chemical damage by perms, bleaches, and sunlight, by breaking specific chemical bonds, influences the sites of initial failure and increases the number of routes for crack propagation, leading to more complex fracture patterns. PMID:15386026

Robbins, Clarence; Weigmann, Hans-Dietrich; Ruetsch, Sigrid; Kamath, Yash

2004-01-01

319

Best Rx Options for Hair Loss in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... different approach to re-grow hair. Stress-induced Hair Loss Women can lose a noticeable amount of hair ... and hair re-grows on its own. Hereditary Hair Loss Many women are surprised to learn that like ...

320

Hair loss in women.  

PubMed

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a progestogen. Antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate, always accompanied by tricyclic contraceptives, are the best choice of antiandrogens to use in patients with FPHL. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists such as leuprolide acetate suppress pituitary and gonadal function through a reduction in luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Subsequently, ovarian steroid levels also will be reduced, especially in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. When polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, metformin must be considered as treatment. Hyperprolactinemic SAHA and alopecia of pituitary hyperandrogenism should be treated with bromocriptine or cabergoline. Postmenopausal alopecia, with previous high levels of androgens or with prostatic-specific antigen greater than 0.04 ng/mL, improves with finasteride or dutasteride. Although we do not know the reason, postmenopausal alopecia in normoandrogenic women also improves with finasteride or dutasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg per day. Dermatocosmetic concealment with a hairpiece, hair prosthesis as extensions, or partial hairpieces can be useful. Lastly, weight loss undoubtedly improves hair loss in hyperandrogenic women. PMID:19341939

Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

2009-03-01

321

Predicting azo dye toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature regrading azo dye carcinogenicity was examined to establish, if possible, guidelines to predict the human health risks of new azo dyes. Three different mechanisms for azo dye carcinogenicity were identified, all involving metabolic activation to reactive electrophilic intermediates that covalently bind DNA. In the order of decreasing number of published references, these mechanisms are 1. Azo dyes that are

Mark A. Brown; Stephen C. De Vito

1993-01-01

322

A History of the Chemical Innovations in Silver-Halide Materials for Color PhotographyIII. Dye Tranfer Process — Instant Color Photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A historical review of the technological developments of instant color photographic process, is presented with emphasis on the innovation processes at the following main turning points: 1) the creation of instant photography by E. H. Land in 1948 (one step processing by transfer of image-forming materials), 2) the advent of instant color photography based on dye developer, by Polaroid Corp., in 1963 (departing from dye-forming development, forming a direct positive preformed-dye image with a negative emulsion, but constraining the sensitive-material designs), 3) the introduction of a color instant product containing redox dye releaser with improved auto-positive emulsion, by Eastman Kodak Co., in 1976 (producing much improved color image quality, freed from the design constraints), and 4) the realization of absolute one-step photography by the integral film- unit system, by Polaroid in 1972. And the patent litigation (1976-86) raised by Polaroid against Kodak allegedly infringing on the integral film-unit patents caused the vast impacts on the industry.

Oishi, Yasushi

323

Hair Loss Measurement Tool Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hair loss from cancer chemotherapy has received considerable attention in recent years in the field of cancer care because of the emotional and social distress it can cause patients. Many investigators have attempted to decrease hair loss by means of scal...

B. S. Mueggenborg

1983-01-01

324

Human Hair: An Educational Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describes some of the more recent developments in the use of human hairs for such instructional purposes as observing barr bodies and chromosomes, and for culturing to produce cells of both epithelial and fibroblastic morphology. Three main hair categories are also described. (JN)

Wells, John

1983-01-01

325

"Dissection" of a Hair Dryer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-01-01

326

Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of hair.  

PubMed

An enzymatic hair extraction method is proposed for drug analysis. Pronase digestion of various aliquots of hair from a cocaine abuser was preceded by a 2-h incubation with a dithiothreitol solution. The extraction solution was tested to identify possible interferences in the radioimmunoassay and was compared with other hydrolysis methods to assess the results of extraction. PMID:8138218

Offidani, C; Strano Rossi, S; Chiarotti, M

1993-12-01

327

Spectrophotometric Methods for Quantifying Pigmentation in Human Hair—Influence of MC1R Genotype and Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eumelanin (brown ? black melanin) and pheomelanin (red ? yellow melanin) in human hair can be quantified using chemical methods or approximated using spectrophotometric methods. Chemical methods consume greater resources, making them less attractive for epidemiological studies. This investigation sought to identify the spectrophotometric measures that best explain the light-dark continuum of hair color and the measure that is best

Sri N. Shekar; David L. Duffy; Tony Frudakis; Grant W. Montgomery; Michael R. James; Richard A. Sturm; Nicholas G. Martin

2008-01-01

328

Effect of sun protection agent on preventing hair colour fading and hair damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effect of sun protection agent on different hair samples including, (i) unbleached hair sample, (ii) bleached\\u000a hair sample and (iii) bleached hair sample with subsequent hair coloration, were studied. This paper was aimed at evaluating\\u000a the effectiveness of sun protection agent on the different hair conditions. The hair samples were divided into two sets; one\\u000a was

C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; Y. L. Chow

2010-01-01

329

Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to "Untangle" Hair Disorders  

PubMed Central

Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair.

Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

2011-01-01

330

Hair cell tufts and afferent innervation of the bullfrog crista ampullaris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Within the bullfrog semicircular canal crista, hair cell tuft types were defined and mapped with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. Dye-filled planar afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.6-4.9 microns, highly branched arbors, and contacted 11-24 hair cells. Dye-filled isthmus afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.8-7.9 microns, with either small or large field arbors contacting 4-9 or 25-31 hair cells. The estimated mean number of contacts per innervated hair cell was 2.2 for planar and 1.3 for isthmus afferent neurons. Data on evoked afferent responses were available only for isthmus units that were observed to respond to our microrotational stimuli. Of 21 such afferent neurons, eight were successfully dye-filled. Within this sample, high-gain units had large field arbors and lower-gain units had small field arbors. The sensitivity of each afferent neuron was analyzed in terms of noise equivalent input (NEI), the stimulus amplitude for which the afferent response amplitude is just equivalent to the rms deviation of the instantaneous spike rate. NEI for isthmus units varied from 0.63 to 8.2 deg/s; the mean was 3.2 deg/s.

Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

1990-01-01

331

Unnecessary Chemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

Johnson, Anita

1978-01-01

332

Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.  

PubMed

Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P > 0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P > 0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months. PMID:25036348

Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

2014-01-01

333

Scalp micropigmentation: a useful treatment for hair loss.  

PubMed

Scalp micropigmentation (SMP) is a highly sophisticated medical tattoo process for balding or thinning hair. SMP looks amazingly simple, but this novel technique must be customized for each patient because the skin in each patient differs with regard to how the scalp reacts as it holds on to the tattoo dye. There are many variables involved with performing SMP that makes this process more of an art form than a science. SMP is a very labor-intensive process that could require multiple sessions and up to 20 hours of procedural time to satisfy the patient. This review discusses applications and technical considerations of the SMP process. PMID:24017991

Rassman, William R; Pak, Jae P; Kim, Jino

2013-08-01

334

Application of two-dimensional gas chromatography with electron capture chemical ionization mass spectrometry to the detection of 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in hair.  

PubMed

The proposed federal regulations for the detection in hair of 11-nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), a metabolite of marijuana, require a confirmatory detection level of 0.05 pg/mg. At present, the only way to achieve this on a routine basis has been with the use gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) technology. Tandem MS is an expensive approach and dissuades laboratories from attempting to enter the hair-testing market. A procedure for the determination of THC-COOH in hair using two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-GC-MS) is described for the first time. The method makes use of several small improvements in the extraction, GC, and MS procedures to allow the required sensitivity to be achieved. The results of this approach demonstrate detection of THC-COOH in hair at a concentration level of 0.05 pg/mg with both a target quantitation ion and a unique confirming qualifier ion, using a single-quadrupole mass selective detector. These two ions and the enhanced separation of the GC-GC provide a high degree of confidence in the determinations. The method has been successfully applied to the detection of THC-COOH in hair specimens from known marijuana users, and it reaches the levels currently proposed in the Federal Register. PMID:16803651

Moore, Christine; Rana, Sumandeep; Coulter, Cynthia; Feyerherm, Fred; Prest, Harry

2006-04-01

335

Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system

Jolanta Polak; Anna Jarosz-Wilko?azka

2010-01-01

336

Biosorption of Remazol Black B dye (Azo dye) by the growing Aspergillus flavus.  

PubMed

In the present study, an attempt was made for the removal of Remazol Black B dye (azo dye) by using Aspergillus Flavus during its growth. Biosorption of the azo dye by growing fungi was investigated in batch reactors as a function of initial concentration of dye (25-1000 mg/L), inoculum concentration (5-20%), and pH (2.5-6.5). The total biomass concentration decreased from 6.3 g/L to 1.44 g/L by increasing the dye concentration from 0 to 1000 mg/L. The dye uptake increased from 4.37 to 233 mg/g of dried biomass by increasing initial concentration of dye from 25 to 1000 mg/L. The nearly complete removal of dye was found at initial concentration upto 250 mg/L and at pH 4.5 which was used as working pH value for removal of dye in all the batch studies. The removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was found to be 90% at 100 mg/L initial concentration of dye. The experiments were also performed with wastewater from textile industry with an aim to examine the potential of fungal biomass for the removal of dyes from wastewater under actual field conditions. The maximum dye removal was obtained at 30° C temperature (87%) in presence of 1 % glucose concentration (89%) and 10 % inoculum concentration (91%) after 96 hours from textile wastewater. The surface of the biosorbent before and after the sorption of the dye was examined by FTIR and SEM analysis. PMID:20635293

Ranjusha, V P; Pundir, Reena; Kumar, Kapil; Dastidar, M G; Sreekrishnan, T R

2010-08-01

337

Conformational differences in protein disulfide linkages between normal hair and hair from subjects with trichothiodystrophy: a quantitative analysis by Raman microspectroscopy.  

PubMed

Raman spectra of normal hair shafts and hair shafts from patients exhibiting trichothiodystrophy (TTD) were obtained using line focus laser illumination. Because hair from TTD patients has a significant decrease in the content of the sulfur-containing amino acids in comparison to normal hair, the 550-500 cm(-1) disulfide stretching mode region of the Raman spectrum was examined in detail. A quantitative spectral analysis demonstrates significant increases in the two energetically less favored gauche-gauche-trans (g-g-t) and trans-gauche-trans (t-g-t) forms. These observations suggest that the increased amounts of these less stable disulfide conformers are contributing factors to or associated with the hair brittleness observed for this congenital disorder. Structure-spectra correlations for the three dominant disulfide conformers are confirmed by quantum chemical calculations using modern density functional theory (DFT). PMID:16557500

Schlücker, S; Liang, C; Strehle, K R; DiGiovanna, J J; Kraemer, K H; Levin, I W

2006-08-15

338

The Ethnic Differences of the Damage of Hair and Integral Hair Lipid after Ultra Violet Radiation  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic factors account for the majority of differences in skin color and hair morphology across human populations. Although many studies have been conducted to examine differences in skin color across populations, few studies have examined differences in hair morphology. Objective To investigate changing of integral hair lipids after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in three human ethnic groups. Methods We studied the UV irradiation induced hair damage in hairs of three human populations. UV irradiation had been performed with self-manufactured phototherapy system. Damaged hair samples were prepared at 12 and 48 hours after UVA (20 J/sec) and UVB (8 J/sec) irradiation. We evaluated the changes of hair lipid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), lipid TEM and HP-TLC. After UV irradiation, hair surface damage was shown. Results African hair showed more severe damage on hair surface than others. The lipid compositions across human populations were similar, but Asian hair had more integral hair lipids than other groups as a whole. Especially, free fatty acid contents were higher than other lipids. After UV irradiation, lipid contents were decreased. These patterns were shown in all human populations. Asian hair has more integral hair lipid than European or African hair. After UV irradiation, European and African hair samples exhibited more damage because they have less integral hair lipids. However, Asian hair samples have less damage. Conclusion We conclude that integral hair lipid may protect the hair against the UV light.

Ji, Jae Hong; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Jin, Xin-Hai

2013-01-01

339

Hair as Race: Why “Good Hair” May Be Bad for Black Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically examining the relationship between race, Black female beauty, and hair texture, this qualitative study used narratives from 38 Black females between the ages of 19 and 81, to determine messages that communicate hair valuations to Black females, definitions of good and bad hair, and motivations for desiring good hair. A legacy of slavery, hair valuations reflect racially motivated beauty

Cynthia L. Robinson

2011-01-01

340

Evaluation of human hair sources for the in vitro hair perforation test.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro hair perforation test for dermatophytes was evaluated with hair from males and females aged 6 months to 67 years, including hair of various natural colors and hair which had been bleached, tinted, curled, sprayed, or subjected to various combinations of these treatments. In contrast to published recommendations, the source of hair had no effect on this diagnostic procedure.

Salkin, I F; Hollick, G E; Hurd, N J; Kemna, M E

1985-01-01

341

Hair cycle and hair pigmentation: dynamic interactions and changes associated with aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tight coupling of hair follicle melanogenesis to the hair growth cycle dramatically distinguishes follicular melanogenesis from the continuous melanogenesis of the epidermis. Cyclic re-construction of an intact hair follicle pigmentary unit occurs optimally in all scalp hair follicles during only the first 10 hair cycles, i.e. by approximately 40 years of age. Thereafter there appears to be a genetically

Dominique Van Neste; Desmond J Tobin

2004-01-01

342

40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

2012-07-01

343

Capturing hair assemblies fiber by fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair models for computer graphics consist of many curves representing individual hair fibers. In current practice these curves are generated by ad hoc random processes, and in close-up views their arrangement appears plainly different from real hair. To begin improving this situation, this paper presents a new method for measuring the detailed arrangement of fibers in a hair assembly. Many

Wenzel Jakob; Jonathan T. Moon; Steve Marschner

2009-01-01

344

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Hair Follicle Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical conditions causing hair loss, such as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, and scarring alopecia, can be psychologically devastating to individuals and are the target of a multimillion dollar pharmaceutical industry. The importance of the hair follicle in skin biology, however, does not rest solely with its ability to produce hair. Hair follicles are self-renewing and contain reservoirs of multipotent stem

Sarah E. Millar

2002-01-01

345

Efficient DNA extraction from hair shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairs are common biological samples in crime scene investigation. However, most of this evidence is comprised of hair fragments without the root. As the major part of DNA is located in the root, hair shafts are usually problematic samples in forensic analysis. For these reasons, hair DNA typing is directed at mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is present in high copy

M. Almeida; E. Betancor; R. Fregel; N. M. Suárez; J. Pestano

346

STR genotyping of exogenous hair shaft DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most hairs found at crime scenes yield low quality and\\/or low quantities of nuclear DNA. This DNA is further depleted when stringent hair cleaning procedures are applied in the laboratory, suggesting that detectable DNA exists exogenously. The phenomenon of exogenous hair DNA is the subject of this study. DNA was extracted from washed and unwashed hairs and the resulting Profiler™

Kate S. Robertson; Dennis McNevin; James Robertson

2007-01-01

347

The removal of reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using chemically modified mesoporous silica in the presence of anionic surfactant—The temperature dependence and a thermodynamic multivariate analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three-parameter Sips adsorption model was successfully employed to modeled equilibrium adsorption data of a yellow and a red dye onto a mesoporous aminopropyl-silica, in the presence of the surfactant sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) from 25 to 55°C. The results were evaluated in relation to the previously reported surface tension measurements. The presence of curvatures of the van?t Hoff plots suggested

Antonio R. Cestari; Eunice F. S. Vieira; Gláucia S. Vieira; Luiz P. da Costa; Andréa M. G. Tavares; Watson Loh; Claudio Airoldi

2009-01-01

348

[Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome. Case report and biophysical study of hair shaft parameters].  

PubMed

In 1956 Klingmüller first described the trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS), which was named by Giedion ten years later. The syndrome includes a combination of typical hair, facial and bone abnormalities with variable expression allowing the further distinction of three subtypes. In a 37-year old patient with TRPS type I who reportedly had reduced hair growth length, clinically fine and brittle hair were found. Scanning electron microscopy revealed widely spaced cuticular scales. Quantitative measurement of the biomechanical properties of the hair showed a significant increase in the viscous parameter. This could be a result of decreased disulfide bridges and increased halogen bonds in the keratin matrix of the hair. In dermatological practice patients with TRPS often present because of hair abnormalities. Because of premature arthrosis due to skeletal abnormalities, occupational counseling is advised.Congenital heart problems, kidney abnormalities and endocrinological problems are rare, but should be sought in the symptomatic individual. Apart from mild hair care and avoidance of additional physical or chemical injuries due to hair cosmetic procedures,there is no treatment for the hair defects. PMID:11220240

Schacht, V; Borelli, S; Tsambaos, D; Spycher, M A; Trüeb, R M

2001-01-01

349

Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

2009-12-01

350

PA01.05. Formulation & Evaluation of herbomineral natural hair colorant  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Irrespective of age, Graying of hairs (pallitya) has become a crucial problem in the present era. The varied reasons like genetic factor, environmental factor, life style, faulty food habits etc. are causative factors. To overcome the problem of Pallitya many synthetic dyes are used by the community. But these dyes are having chief disadvantage of producing hypersensitivity in some individuals. The efficacy of different formulations was assessed, on the white hairs procured from Barber's Shop. After that sensitivity was tested on human being. Purpose to formulate the herbomineral natural hair Colorant, to find out the efficacy of the different groups as a natural hair colorant, to Asses the sensitivity. Method: In the present study the combination of herbomineral colorant was formulated. For that Madayantika / Heena & Mandur bhasma were common drugs in the formulation & addition of kashtaushadhi from Keshranjana Gana i.e. Aamrashthi Phala Majja, Bibhitak Phala Twak, Bhrungaraj & Neelika in different proportions was done. Group 1 Heena + Mandur bhasma + Aamrasthi Phala Majjja Group 2 Heena + Mandur bhasma + Bibhitak phala Twaka Group 3 Heena + Mandur bhasma + Bhrungaraj Group 4 Heena + Mandur bhasma + Neelika The efficacy of different formulations was assessed, on the white hairs procured from Barber's Shop. After that sensitivity was tested on human being by applying the guase piece applied with the above formulations at under arm region. Result: Out of 4 groups, combination of Madayntika, Mandura bhasma & Neelika is found suitable hair colorant & non-sensitive to human being. Conclusion: Out of 4 groups, combination of Madayntika, Mandura bhasma & Neelika is found suitable hair colorant & non-sensitive to human being.

Wanjari, Anita S.; Bhutada, S.; Jadhao, Sanjivani; Desa, Priti

2012-01-01

351

Age-dependent changes in eumelanin composition in hairs of various ethnic origins.  

PubMed

Hair pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes of humans. From a chemical point of view, however, data remain scarce regarding human hair pigmentation characteristics. To determine melanin content and composition in human eumelanic hair from individuals of different ethnic origins and at different ages, we collected hair from 56 subjects with eumelanic hair from each group of African-American, East Asian, and Caucasian origin. The 56 subjects consist of 14, seven each of males and females, each from four age classes of younger than 11, between 12 and 19, between 20 and 45, and older than 46. We analysed hair colour scale, total melanin value, and contents of pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA). We measured age-dependent increases in the relative quantity of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs in the three ethnic groups. Regarding melanin composition, we observed an increase in the PDCA/PTCA ratio with age in African-American and Caucasian hairs until approaching the quite constant level of the ratio in East Asian hairs in the elderly individuals. Our results evidence differences in the content and composition of eumelanin in human hair among African-American, Caucasian and East Asian individuals. Furthermore, we show evidence of age-dependent changes in the quantity and quality of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs. In particular, the age-dependent modification of the PDCA/PTCA ratio, a marker for 5,6-dihydroxyindole units in eumelanin, suggests a chronological evolution of hair follicle melanocyte phenotype (e.g. decrease in dopachrome tautomerase expression). PMID:22017184

Commo, S; Wakamatsu, K; Lozano, I; Panhard, S; Loussouarn, G; Bernard, B A; Ito, S

2012-02-01

352

[Sex differences in hair color].  

PubMed

The hair-colours of an unselected Vienese sample (8399 male, 8176 female) of all ages and ascertained by the author himself have been analysed with regard to their sexual distribution. The comparisons of the age-groups necessary because of the individual age-changes of the hair-colour did not reveal any significant sexual dimorphism. Only during the periods of intensified growth the girls show a slight tendency to darker hair than the boys at the same age because of their faster development. PMID:921225

Reuer, E

1977-08-01

353

Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths < 400 nm) and emit photons in the long-wavelength ultraviolet, visible, and, when dissolved in some solvents, near-infrared regions. In addition, these dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields, solvent-polarity- dependent fluorescence behavior, susceptibility to quenching by certain chemical species, and/or two-photon fluorescence, none of them has the combination of all of these attributes. Because the present dyes do have all of these attributes, they have potential utility as molecular probes in a variety of applications. Examples include (1) monitoring curing and deterioration of polymers; (2) monitoring protein expression; (3) high-throughput screening of drugs; (4) monitoring such chemical species as glucose, amines, amino acids, and metal ions; and (5) photodynamic therapy of cancers and other diseases.

Meador, Michael

2005-01-01

354

Hair shaft elongation, follicle growth, and spontaneous regression in long-term, gelatin sponge-supported histoculture of human scalp skin.  

PubMed Central

In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms of human hair growth control and to test hair growth-modulatory drugs, appropriate in vitro models are required. Here, we report the long-term growth, shaft elongation, and spontaneous regression of human hair follicles in histoculture of intact scalp skin. Human scalp skin with abundant hair follicles in various stages of the hair growth cycle was grown for up to 40 days in a gelatin sponge-supported histoculture system at the air/liquid interface. Isolated follicles placed in the gelatin-sponge matrix also supported hair shaft elongation, with the hair follicle cells remaining proliferative and viable for very long periods. Hair shaft elongation occurred mainly during the first 10 days of histoculture of both intact skin and isolated follicles. However, hair follicles were viable and follicle keratinocytes continued to incorporate [3H]thymidine for up to several weeks after shaft elongation had ceased as shown by fluorescent-dye double staining, measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and by histological autoradiography of [3H]thymidine incorporation, respectively. Hair follicles could continue their cycle in histoculture; for example, apparent spontaneous catagen induction was observed both histologically and by the actual regression of the hair follicle. In addition, vellus follicles were shown to be viable at day 40 after initiation of culture. In the histocultured human scalp we demonstrated the association of mast cells with anagen follicles and macrophages with catagen follicles, suggesting a role of these cells in the hair cycle. This histoculture technique should serve as a powerful tool for future hair research in the human system as well as a screening assay for compounds that can perturb the hair cycle. Images

Li, L.; Margolis, L. B.; Paus, R.; Hoffman, R. M.

1992-01-01

355

Childhood Hair Product Use and Earlier Age at Menarche in a Racially Diverse Study Population: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Previous studies suggest that hair products containing endocrine disrupting chemicals could alter puberty. We evaluated the association between childhood hair product use and age at menarche in a racially diverse study population. Methods We recruited 300 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York City metropolitan area who were between 18 and 77 years of age. Data were collected retrospectively on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, perm, and other types of hair products used prior to age 13. Recalled age at menarche ranged from 8 to 19 years. We used multivariable binomial regression to evaluate the association between hair product use and age at menarche (< 12 versus >=12), adjusting for potential confounders. Results African-Americans were more likely to use hair products and reached menarche earlier than other racial/ethnic groups. Women reporting childhood hair oil use had a risk ratio of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.9) for earlier menarche, adjusting for race/ethnicity and year of birth. Hair perm users had an increased risk for earlier menarche (adjusted risk ratio: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). Other types of hair products assessed in this study were not associated with earlier menarche. Conclusions Childhood hair oil and perm use were associated with earlier menarche. If replicated, these results suggest that hair product use may be important to measure in evaluating earlier age at menarche.

James-Todd, Tamarra; Terry, Mary Beth; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Deierlein, Andrea; Senie, Ruby

2013-01-01

356

Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing  

PubMed Central

Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish?

Draelos, Zoe D

2010-01-01

357

Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations.  

PubMed

Human hair has been classified into 3 major groups, as determined by ethnic origin. In these populations, significant structural and biochemical variations of the hair follicle and shaft are seen, as well as unique hair grooming practices. These structural variations of the hair are closely linked to the common disorders of the hair and scalp, such as acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, seborrheic dermatitis, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, dissecting cellulitis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. PMID:23652889

Rodney, Ife J; Onwudiwe, Oge C; Callender, Valerie D; Halder, Rebat M

2013-04-01

358

Hair anatomy in Plantago subg. Psyllium ( Plantaginaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hairs of seven representatives ofPlantago L. subg.Psyllium were studied. Three types of headless hairs and three types of headed hairs were observed. Clavate hairs and hairs with several-celled stalk and unicellular head are characteristic of subg.Psyllium and provide evidence for the distinctness of this taxon. Based on our studies it can be assumed thatRahn's idea of enlarging subg.Psyllium by

Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec; Jacek ?wi?tos?awski

1993-01-01

359

Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

Haines, Richard F.

1992-01-01

360

Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.  

PubMed

This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from chest hair were higher. EtG in armpit hair was lower and in leg hair higher than in scalp hair. It is concluded that the combined use of FAEE and EtG essentially increases the accuracy of interpretation since both markers complement each other by a different sensitivity to sources of error. PMID:22036309

Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

2012-05-10

361

Racial\\/Ethnic Differences in Hormonally-Active Hair Product Use: A Plausible Risk Factor for Health Disparities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are associated with several health outcomes have been found in hair\\u000a products. We evaluated the proportion, frequency, duration, and content of hair products in a racially\\/ethnically diverse\\u000a population. We recruited n = 301 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York metropolitan\\u000a area. We collected data on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, root stimulator,

Tamarra James-Todd; Ruby Senie; Mary Beth Terry

362

Detection of thiopental and pentobarbital in head and pubic hair in a case of drug-facilitated sexual assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quali-quantitative determination of two barbiturates, thiopental and its metabolite pentobarbital, in head and pubic hair samples of a woman who had been sexually assaulted during hospitalisation, is reported. Hair was analysed by means of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-multiple mass spectrometry (GC–MS-MS), in chemical ionisation conditions. Thiopental and pentobarbital were found in three proximal head hair segments (sample

Giampietro Frison; Donata Favretto; Luciano Tedeschi; Santo Davide Ferrara

2003-01-01

363

[Adverse drug reactions on hair].  

PubMed

Adverse drug reactions on the hair are common side effects. The spectrum of loss of hair reaches from diffuse telogen effluvium up to circumscribed or diffuse alopecia on the scalp, sometimes also including other body areas. Other side effects observed are the stimulation of hair growth with hypertrichosis and induction or worsening of hirsutism, as well as changes of the structure or color of the hair. In most cases--other than those treated with cytostatics, androgens, or hormonal contraceptives with some androgenic effect--it is rather difficult to determine the time of onset and primary cause, since the diffuse types often start subclinically, and other factors may play an additional part. As a rule, adverse drug reactions are reversible provided the causative drug is avoided. PMID:2087842

Gollnick, H; Blume, U; Orfanos, C E

1990-12-01

364

Microencapsulated Fluorescent Dye Penetrant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microencapsulated fluorescent dye pentrant materials were evaluated for feasibility as a technique to detect cracks on metal surfaces when applied as a free flowing dry powder. Various flourescent dye solutions in addition to a commercial penetrant (Zyglo...

S. Allinikov

1979-01-01

365

Fluorescent dye binding peptides  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention is directed to novel polypeptides, termed fluorettes, that bind with high avidity to fluorophore dyes. The peptides find use in a variety of methods and approaches involving fluorophore dyes.

2004-06-08

366

Human scalp hair as evidence of individual dosage history of haloperidol: a possible linkage of haloperidol excretion into hair with hair pigment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a method for determining haloperidol concentration in human scalp hair and discuss a possible linkage of haloperidol excretion into hair with the hair pigment melanin. First, an animal study was conducted to support the idea that hair contains amounts of haloperidol corresponding to the doses given and pigmented hair contains much more drug than does unpigmented hair. The

T. Uematsu; R. Sato; O. Fujimori; M. Nakashima

1990-01-01

367

Optofluidic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optofluidic dye lasers are microfabricated liquid dye lasers enabled by the microfluidics technology. The integration of dye\\u000a lasers with microfluidics not only facilitates the implementation of complete “lab-on-a-chip” systems, but also allows the\\u000a dynamical control of the laser properties which is not achievable with solid-state optical components. We review the recent\\u000a demonstrations of on-chip liquid dye lasers and some of

Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis

2008-01-01

368

Transfer characteristics of the hair cell's afferent synapse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sense of hearing depends on fast, finely graded neurotransmission at the ribbon synapses connecting hair cells to afferent nerve fibers. The processing that occurs at this first chemical synapse in the auditory pathway determines the quality and extent of the information conveyed to the central nervous system. Knowledge of the synapse's input-output function is therefore essential for understanding how auditory stimuli are encoded. To investigate the transfer function at the hair cell's synapse, we developed a preparation of the bullfrog's amphibian papilla. In the portion of this receptor organ representing stimuli of 400-800 Hz, each afferent nerve fiber forms several synaptic terminals onto one to three hair cells. By performing simultaneous voltage-clamp recordings from presynaptic hair cells and postsynaptic afferent fibers, we established that the rate of evoked vesicle release, as determined from the average postsynaptic current, depends linearly on the amplitude of the presynaptic Ca2+ current. This result implies that, for receptor potentials in the physiological range, the hair cell's synapse transmits information with high fidelity. auditory system | exocytosis | glutamate | ribbon synapse | synaptic vesicle

Keen, Erica C.; Hudspeth, A. J.

2006-04-01

369

Differential pH restoration after ammonia-elicited vacuolar alkalisation in rice and maize root hairs as measured by fluorescence ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Changes of vacuolar pH in hair cells of young rice (Oryza sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) roots were measured after ammonia application at various levels of external pH. After loading the pH-sensitive, fluorescent\\u000a dye Oregon green 488 carboxylic acid 6-isomer into the vacuoles of root hairs, ratiometric pH data of high statistical significance\\u000a were obtained from root

Glen H. Wilson; Franz Grolig; Harald Kosegarten

1998-01-01

370

Modulating hair follicle size with Wnt10b/DKK1 during hair regeneration.  

PubMed

Hair follicles have characteristic sizes corresponding to their cycle-specific stage. However, how the anagen hair follicle specifies its size remains elusive. Here, we showed that in response to prolonged ectopic Wnt10b-mediated ?-catenin activation, regenerating anagen hair follicles grew larger in size. In particular, the hair bulb, dermal papilla and hair shaft became enlarged, while the formation of different hair types (Guard, Awl, Auchene and Zigzag) was unaffected. Interestingly, we found that the effect of exogenous WNT10b was mainly on Zigzag and less on the other kinds of hairs. We observed dramatically enhanced proliferation within the matrix, DP and hair shaft of the enlarged AdWnt10b-treated hair follicles compared with those of normal hair follicles at P98. Furthermore, expression of CD34, a specific hair stem cell marker, was increased in its number to the bulge region after AdWnt10b treatment. Ectopic expression of CD34 throughout the ORS region was also observed. Many CD34-positive hair stem cells were actively proliferating in AdWnt10b-induced hair follicles. Importantly, subsequent co-treatment with the Wnt inhibitor, DKK1, reduced hair follicle enlargement and decreased proliferation and ectopic localization of hair stem cells. Moreover, injection of DKK1 during early anagen significantly reduced the width of prospective hairs. Together, these findings strongly suggest that Wnt10b/DKK1 can modulate hair follicle size during hair regeneration. PMID:24750467

Lei, Mingxing; Guo, Haiying; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Yang, Tian; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua; Yang, Li

2014-06-01

371

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Building on work done in Phase I of this study (See AD-748 863), research on near-infrared dye lasers continued along several lines. Eighteen more Kodak organic dyes were screened for laser action using a linear flash lamp for excitation. Six dyes lased b...

B. E. Plourde J. P. Webb

1973-01-01

372

Advanced chemical oxidation of reactive dyes in simulated dyehouse effluents by ferrioxalate-Fenton\\/UVA and TiO 2\\/UVA processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective degradation of various mono- and bifunctional aminochlorotriazine reactive dyes in simulated dyehouse wastewater was achieved by the application of ferrioxalate-photo-Fenton [Fe(C2O4)33?\\/H2O2\\/UV-A; 300 nm>?>400 nm] and titanium dioxide-mediated heterogeneous photocatalytic (TiO2\\/UV-A) treatment processes. These so-called advanced oxidation processes were studied in a novel batch photoreactor that was irradiated by a solar simulating installation. Decolorization by the ferrioxalate-photo-Fenton oxidation process was

?dil Arslan; I?il Akmehmet Balcio?lu; Detlef W. Bahnemann

2000-01-01

373

Potential Health Hazards of Organic Pigments and Dyes Used in the Manufacture of Paints and Surface Coatings. Appendix I: Scientific Basis for the Proposed Regulation of Dyes Derived from the Chemical Substances Benzidine, 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine, and 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scientific bases for regulating dyes derived from benzidine (92875), 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (119937), and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine (119904) are presented. Studies of these compounds have demonstrated that benzidine type dyes undergo nearly complete cle...

C. L. Jenkins

1978-01-01

374

A comparative study on the concentrations of 11-nor-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in head and pubic hair.  

PubMed

In this study, the concentrations of 11-nor-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in pubic, axillary and beard hair were measured and the correlation between the concentrations of THCCOOH in head and pubic hair from same cannabis users were evaluated. The papers on body hair analysis for THCCOOH were rarely found although police officers submit body hair as a complimentary specimen to forensic laboratories in case cannabis users had no hair. Head, pubic, axillary, and beard hair were collected. All hair samples were cut into 0.5mm segments and decontaminated with methanol, digested with 1 mL of 1M NaOH at 85 °C for 30 min and extracted in 2 mL of n-hexane:ethyl acetate (9:1) two times after adding 1 mL of 0.1N sodium acetate buffer (pH = 4.5) and 200 ?L of acetic acid followed by derivatization with 50 ?L of PFPA and 25 ?L of PFPOH for 30 min at 70 °C. The extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry operating in negative chemical ionization mode (GC/MS/MS-NCI). We determined the concentrations of THCCOOH in both pubic and head hair. The concentrations of THCCOOH in pubic hair were higher than those in head hair. We also evaluated the concentrations of THCCOOH in body hair (pubic, axillary and beard hair) and head hair according to the positive/negative urine test results. There was no statistically significant difference in the concentrations of THCCOOH in head and body hair according to urine results. PMID:21802874

Han, Eunyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sangki; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

2011-10-10

375

Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. PMID:23121872

Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wo?owiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

2012-11-01

376

Inner ear hair cell-like cells from human embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

In mammals, the permanence of many forms of hearing loss is the result of the inner ear's inability to replace lost sensory hair cells. Here, we apply a differentiation strategy to guide human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into cells of the otic lineage using chemically defined attached-substrate conditions. The generation of human otic progenitor cells was dependent on fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, and protracted culture led to the upregulation of markers indicative of differentiated inner ear sensory epithelia. Using a transgenic ESC reporter line based on a murine Atoh1 enhancer, we show that differentiated hair cell-like cells express multiple hair cell markers simultaneously. Hair cell-like cells displayed protrusions reminiscent of stereociliary bundles, but failed to fully mature into cells with typical hair cell cytoarchitecture. We conclude that optimized defined conditions can be used in vitro to attain otic progenitor specification and sensory cell differentiation. PMID:24512547

Ronaghi, Mohammad; Nasr, Marjan; Ealy, Megan; Durruthy-Durruthy, Robert; Waldhaus, Joerg; Diaz, Giovanni H; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Oshima, Kazuo; Heller, Stefan

2014-06-01

377

6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-01-01

378

Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. PMID:24457001

Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

2014-07-01

379

Cartilage Hair Hypoplasia: First report from Iran.  

PubMed

Cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH), is a rare cause of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia and short stature. Other featuresincluded hair abnormality, immunodeficiency, anemia, gastrointestinal disorders (Hirschsprung disease,celiac, …) and increased risk of cancer. The disease is an autosomal recessive disorder and previously has notbeen reported in Iran. We report a 9-year-old boy diagnosed as cartilage hair hypoplasia, with severe short stature,metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, hair hypoplasia, Hirschsprung disease, hypothyroidism, vesicouretral refluxand renal stone. Renal stone and hypothyroidism have been reported in cartilage hair hypoplasia with lower frequencies.This is the first report of cartilage hair hypoplasia in Iran. PMID:24791127

Shiasi Arani, Kobra

2013-08-01

380

Compositions and methods for improving the appearance of aging hair  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A hair care composition and method of using the composition is provided that can increase the appearance of thicker and/or fuller hair and/or delay the appearance of gray hair to provide healthy and younger looking hair.

2014-07-22

381

Laser ablation of dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High density 50 ?s pulses of the UV dyes PPF, POPOP and BBO and of two dyes in the visible region, Xanthen N92 and Fluorol 7GA were generated by laser ablation. Dye powders were pressed with 7800 kp/cm 2 in round pellets which were ablated by exposure to KrF excimer laser radiation (248 nm) at a fluence of 100 mJ/cm 2. The ablation cloud was optically activated with a XeCl excimer laser. Its fluorescence spectrum was measured and was identified as a dye vapour fluorescence spectrum by comparison to conventional dye solution and dye vapour spectra. The dye cloud is not deflected in an electric field (10 6 V/m). By changing the delay time between the ablation laser and the focused activation laser, the velocity distribution of the ablated dye was measured. Its maximum is at 600 m/s for PPF. Knowing the thickness of the ablated dye layer per shot (300 Å) and the size of the ablation cloud (pictures of a video camera), one can estimate the maximum density of the dye in the gas pulse to be 10 -5 mol/ l in the range of concentration of lasing dyes. However, no lasing was observed up to now.

Späth, M.; Stuke, M.

1992-01-01

382

Acute copper exposure induces oxidative stress and cell death in lateral line hair cells of zebrafish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous physical and chemical agents can destroy mechanosensory hair cells in the inner ear of vertebrates, a process that is irreversible in mammals. Few experimental systems allow the observation of hair cell death mechanisms in vivo, in the intact animal, one of these being the lateral line system in the zebrafish. In this work we characterize the behavior of dying

Francisco A Olivari; Pedro P Hernández; Miguel L Allende

2008-01-01

383

Labeling hair cells and afferent neurons in the posterior lateral-line system of zebrafish.  

PubMed

The lateral line is a mechanosensory system that comprises a set of discrete sense organs called neuromasts, which are arranged in reproducible patterns on the surface of fish and amphibians. The posterior component of the system, the posterior lateral line, comprises the neuromasts on the body and tail. Each neuromast has a core of mechanosensory hair cells, each of which is depolarized by water motion in one direction and hyperpolarized by motion in the other direction, thereby enabling fish to extract information from the movements of water around their body. Neuromasts are innervated by a few afferent neurons (usually two, but sometimes more), which have their cell bodies clustered in cranial ganglia and project their central axons to the hindbrain, where they extend longitudinally along all rhombomeres. Hair cells are readily labeled by small cationic styryl pyridinium dyes such as DiASP. Afferent fibers are also progressively labeled with this dye, presumably by trans-synaptic uptake. Adjusting the dye concentration and incubation time can lead to the labeling of the entire afferent system, thereby providing a fast and easy method for visualizing the central projection in the hindbrain of live fish. The simplicity of the method makes it potentially useful for screens based on forward or reverse genetic approaches. Here we present protocols for labeling hair cells in live zebrafish and for labeling afferent neurons in zebrafish embryos. PMID:24298034

Schuster, Kevin; Ghysen, Alain

2013-12-01

384

Hair loss in elderly women.  

PubMed

Hair loss in elderly women has been becoming a major topic in the daily practice of dermatology. Aging of hair follicles seems to affect hair growth and pigmentation, the molecular mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Further senile changes in physiology and immunity may influence the onset and course of hair diseases. Some preexisting diseases such as androgenetic alopecia usually worsen after menopause, while others, like discoid lupus erythematosus, may attenuate. Hormone surveying, especially with regard to internal androgen-producing tumors, is indicated in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia of sudden exacerbation or with unusual manifestation or other virilizing signs. The prevalence of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis appears to be much lower in postmenopausal ages as compared to earlier onset. Acute or chronic telogen effluvium is not uncommonly superimposed on androgenetic alopecia. Trichotillomania shows a marked female predominance in the senile age group with a higher rate of psychopathology. Worldwide, tinea capitis has been increasingly observed in postmenopausal women. Frontal fibrosing alopecia, giant cell arteritis and erosive pustular dermatosis involve mainly elder women leading to scarring alopecia. Alopecia induced by tumor metastasis to the scalp must be considered in women with underlying neoplasms, especially breast cancer. Overall, hair loss in postmenopausal women is often multifactorial and warrants a close inspection. PMID:20172841

Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Todorova, Antonia; Al Khuzaei, Safaa; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Ring, Johannes

2010-01-01

385

Antimicrobial and Dyeing Properties of Reactive Dyes with Thiazolidinon-4-one Nucleus  

PubMed Central

Four imines, the condensation products of 2,4-dioxo-4-phenylbutanal with four primary amines, were condensed with mercapto acetic acid to obtain thiazolidinon-4-ones which on subsequent condensation with vanillin and isatin separately yielded eight thiazolidin-4-one derivatives. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental analysis, molecular weight determination, IR and 1H and 13C NMR spectral measurements. Antibacterial and antifungal properties were studied in vitro against two bacteria and two fungi. The dyeing potential of synthesized reactive dyes was investigated with regard to silk, wool, cotton, and polyester fabrics under hot and cold dyeing conditions.

Reda, Gebremedihin; Gashaw, Tsegaye; Babu, Neelaiah; Upadhyay, Raj Kumar

2014-01-01

386

Anagen Hairs May Fail to Replace Telogen Hairs in arly Androgenic Female Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Male baldness develops because of an increased duration of the lag phase. Objective and Methods: To assess if this occurs also in balding women we studied 2 women with Ludwig type I–II patterned baldness for 2 years with monthly phototrichograms. Hairs were identified as thick anagen hairs, thin anagen hairs and telogen hairs. Results and Conclusions: Most of the

M. Guarrera; A. Rebora

1996-01-01

387

Complex hair cycle domain patterns and regenerative hair waves in living rodents  

PubMed Central

Single hair follicles go through regeneration and involution cycles. In a population, hair follicles may affect each other during anagen re-entry, thus forming propagating regenerative hair waves. We review these regenerative hair waves and complex hair cycle domains which were recently reported in transgenic mice. Two non-invasive methods to track the propagating hair wave in large populations of hair follicles in vivo are described. We also reviewed early accounts of "hair growth patterns" from classical literature. We decipher the "behavior rules" that dictate how dynamic hair waves lead to complex hair cycle domains. In general, a single domain expands when a regenerative hair wave reaches a responsive region and boundaries form when the wave reaches a non-responsive region. As mice age, multiple hair cycle domains form, each with own regeneration rhythm. Domain patterns can be reset by physiological events such as pregnancy and lactation. Longitudinal sections across domains show arrays of follicles in a continuum of hair cycle stages. Hair cycle domains are different from regional specificity domains. Regenerative hair waves are different from the developmental wave of newly forming hair follicles. The study provides novel insights into the dynamic states of adult skin and physiological regulation of organ regeneration.

Plikus, Maksim V.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

2009-01-01

388

A Comprehensive Guide for the Accurate Classification of Murine Hair Follicles in Distinct Hair Cycle Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous strains of mice with defined mutations display pronounced abnormalities of hair follicle cycling, even in the absence of overt alterations of the skin and hair phenotype; however, in order to recognize even subtle, hair cycle-related abnormalities, it is critically important to be able to determine accurately and classify the major stages of the normal murine hair cycle. In this

Sven Müller-Röver; Bori Handjiski; Carina van der Veen; Stefan Eichmüller; Kerstin Foitzik; Ian A. McKay; Kurt S. Stenn; Ralf Paus

2001-01-01

389

Penetration of Trichophyton terrestre in human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systematic human hair degradation by Trichophyton terrestre was examined by electron and light microscopy. The cuticular and hair shaft regions were readily decomposed by the wild type or parent strain selected for phenotype studies after exposure to spaceflight parameters.

Yuan C. Hsu; Paul A. Volz

1975-01-01

390

Tips for Removing Gum without Cutting Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... Stop hair damage Nail care Every stage of life For ... stuck in your child’s hair. Simply follow these steps from dermatologists: Find a jar of creamy style peanut butter or vegetable oil, such as olive ...

391

Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)  

MedlinePLUS

... who has experience with performing laser hair removal. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the only hair removal method that permanently ... using slow strokes. Rinse your skin with warm water after you are done shaving and then pat ...

392

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...551.4 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean....

2009-07-01

393

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...551.4 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean....

2010-07-01

394

Biological waste-water treatment of azo dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion of these PMN submissions and specific azo dyes have recently been added to the priority list for considerations in the development

G. M. Shaul; C. R. Dempsey; K. A. Dostal

1988-01-01

395

Treatment of wastewater from dye manufacturing industry by coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical coagulation was used to remove the compounds present in wastewater from dye manufacturing industry. The character of wastewater was determined. Most compounds found in the wastewater are phenol derivatives, aniline derivatives, organic acid and benzene derivatives, output from dye manufacturing. Various polyferric chloride coagulants were investigated. Results showed that high extent of Fe(III) hydrolysis was not always suited for

YUAN Yu-li; WEN Yue-zhong; LI Xiao-ying; LUO Si-zhen

396

Module Based Complexity Formation: Periodic Patterning in Feathers and Hairs  

PubMed Central

Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism's lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specified number, size, and spacing. We explore how a field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical-chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators / inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (micro-environment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macro-environment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by Cellular Automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to “organ metamorphosis”, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential evolutionary novel steps using this module based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells.

Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

2012-01-01

397

Hair analysis for drugs of abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliable analytical method for total morphine in hair was established by GC\\/MS-SIM. The calibration curve for morphine in hair showed linear over 0.5–100 ng\\/mg hair. Though the limit of detection was 0.1 ng\\/mg hair with an S\\/N >3 of the base ion(m\\/z 429) for morphine, the limit of confirmation by detection of three major ions was 0.5 ng\\/mg. The

Yuji Nakahara; Kazunori Takahashi; Mochihiko Shimamine; Atsushi Saitoh

1992-01-01

398

``Dissection'' of a Hair Dryer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can ``dissect'' a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can discover how engineers solve problems such as how to vary between low and high heat and fan speed by simply moving the position of a single switch. Principles of alternating versus direct current, series and parallel circuits, electrical safety, voltage dividing, ac rectification, power, and measurement of resistance and continuity all come in to play.

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-12-01

399

Hair follicle stem cells: Walking the maze  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of epithelial stem cells (eSCs) in the bulge region of the outer root sheath of hair follicles in mice and man has encouraged research into utilizing the hair follicle as a therapeutic source of stem cells (SCs) for regenerative medicine, and has called attention to the hair follicle as a highly instructive model system for SC biology. Under

Stephan Tiede; Jennifer E. Kloepper; Enikö Bodò; Sanjay Tiwari; Charli Kruse; Ralf Paus

2007-01-01

400

Gene Delivery to the Hair Follicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin and appendages such as hair follicles are attractive candidates for gene therapy targets because they are easily accessible and can be removed and genetically manipulated in culture. Hair follicles are of special interest because our understanding of hair follicle biology and pathophysiology has progressed significantly in recent years, and we now have a much better understanding of how genes,

Manabu Ohyama; Jonathan C. Vogel

2003-01-01

401

Does lnterleukin-1 Induce Hair Loss?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines play an important role in both physiology and pathophysiology of human skin, and the possibility that they coordinate the cyclical hair growth cannot be excluded. Several clinical and experimental data point towards interleukin-1 which might be a crucial inducer of hair loss in various hair diseases. An aberrant expression of interleukin-1? was detected in affected areas of the scalp

R. Hoffmann; R. Happle

1995-01-01

402

Hair through the female life cycle.  

PubMed

At a population level female scalp hair growth shows features of regression with chronological ageing, although there is wide interindividual variation in timing and degree. The subjective assessment of hair loss is classically determined by hair density but it is apparent that other factors contribute to the clinical picture. Changes can occur in hair cycling, hair density, hair diameter and pigmentation, and possibly in structural qualities of the hair fibre. These changes are most pronounced in female pattern hair loss. Although conventionally considered as the female counterpart of male androgenetic alopecia the evidence that female pattern hair loss is androgen dependent is less clear cut than in men and it probably has a multifactorial basis. The emerging evidence implicating environmental factors is of particular interest as, unlike genes, such factors may be amenable to intervention. The clinical signs in women complaining of hair loss may be variable. In evaluating the patient complaining of hair loss, while true pathology must always be considered, the clinician needs to be aware of how age affects hair growth. These changes form the focus of this article. PMID:22171678

Messenger, A G

2011-12-01

403

Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal...

R. A. Baird

2003-01-01

404

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2013-07-01

405

Regenerated hair cells can originate from supporting cell progeny: Evidence from phototoxicity and laser ablation experiments in the lateral line system  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms that lead to the production of sensory hair cells during regeneration have been investigated by using 2 different procedures to ablate preexisting hair cells in individual neuromast sensory epithelia of the lateral line in the tails of salamanders, then monitoring the responses of surviving cells. In one series of experiments, fluorescent excitation was used to cause the phototoxic death of hair cells that selectively take up the pyridinium dye DASPEI. In the other experiments, the ultraviolet output of a pulsed neodymium-YAG laser was focused to a microbeam through a quartz objective lens in epi-illumination mode and used to selectively kill individual unlabeled hair cells while the cells were simultaneously imaged by transmitted light DIC microscopy. Through observation of the treated neuromasts in vivo, these experiments demonstrated that mature sensory epithelia that have been completely depleted of hair cells can still generate new hair cells. Preexisting hair cells are not necessary for regeneration. Immediately after the ablations the only resident cells in the sensory epithelia were supporting cells. These cells were observed to divide at rates that were increased over control values, and eventually those cell divisions gave rise to progeny that differentiated as hair cells, replacing those that had been killed. Macrophages were active in these epithelia, and their phagocytic activity had a significant influence on the standing population of cells. The first new hair cells appeared 3-5 d after the treatments, and additional hair cells usually appeared every 1-2 d for at least 2 weeks. We conclude that the fate of the progeny produced by supporting cell divisions is plastic to a degree, in that these progeny can differentiate either as supporting cells or as hair cells in epithelia where hair cells are missing or depleted.

Balak, K.J.; Corwin, J.T.; Jones, J.E. (Univ. of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville (USA))

1990-08-01

406

Studies of human hair by friction force microscopy with the hair-model-probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employed a cantilever modified with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as a “hair-model-probe” for friction force microscopy (FFM) to measure friction acting between hair and hair-like surfaces. The “hair-model-probe” was prepared by forming a SAM of octadecanethiol on a gold-coated cantilever. We investigated frictional properties of human hair at both root and tip, and the dependency on applied load, influence

Megumi Sadaie; Naoki Nishikawa; Satomi Ohnishi; Kaoru Tamada; Kiyoshi Yase; Masahiko Hara

2006-01-01

407

Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer  

PubMed Central

Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20?), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47?), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61?), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95?). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95? conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally.

Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

2011-01-01

408

The contribution of biotic and abiotic processes during azo dye reduction in anaerobic sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azo dye reduction results from a combination of biotic and abiotic processes during the anaerobic treatment of dye containing effluents. Biotic processes are due to enzymatic reactions whereas the chemical reaction is due to sulfide. In this research, the relative impact of the different azo dye reduction mechanisms was determined by investigating the reduction of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and

Frank P van der Zee; Iemke A. E Bisschops; Valérie G Blanchard; Renske H. M Bouwman; Gatze Lettinga; Jim A Field

2003-01-01

409

Degradation of Azo Dyes by Trametes villosa Laccase over Long Periods of Oxidative Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical structure of dyes is comprised of a conjugated system of double bonds and aromatic rings. The major classes of dyes have antroquinoid, indigoid, and azo aromatic struc- tures. All of these structures allow strong -* transitions in the UV-visible (UV-Vis) area, with high extinction coefficients that allow us to consider these structures dye chromophores. Of all of these

Andrea Zille; Barbara Gornacka; Astrid Rehorek; Artur Cavaco-Paulo

2005-01-01

410

Detection and Determination of Aromatic Amines as Products of Reductive Splitting from Selected Azo Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current environment-friendly regulations concerning textile products ban the marketing of textiles dyed with azo dyes capable of reductively splitting carcinogenic aromatic amines. The study analyzes seven azo dyes whose chemical structure determines various quantities of splitting aromatic amines, such as benzidine. For tests, seven commercially available azo dyes with aromatic amines in their structure were selected. These included two

A. Pielesz; I. Baranowska; A. Rybak; A. W?ochowicz

2002-01-01

411

Good Hair Care May Head off Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... and develop a reddish hue. To protect your hair from discoloration dermatologists recommend using a leave-in conditioner that contains zinc oxide and wearing a wide-brimmed hat. A hat provides the added benefit of protecting your face and scalp from the ...

412

No-hair theorems and black holes with hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical steps leading to the uniqueness theorem for the Kerr-Newman metric are examined in the light of the new black hole solutions with Yang-Mills and scalar hair. Various methods - including scaling techniques, arguments based on energy conditions, conformal transformations and divergence identities - are reviewed, and their range of application to selfgravitating scalar and non-Abelian gauge fields is

Markus Heusler

1996-01-01

413

The influence of ethanol containing cosmetics on ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair.  

PubMed

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), non-volatile, direct metabolites of ethanol have been shown to be suitable markers for the evaluation of social and chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Previous investigations have shown that the regular use of hair-care products with high alcohol content lead to an increase of FAEE concentration and consequently gave false-positive results for the determination of FAEE in hair. In this study we investigated the influence of a long-term hair treatment with EtOH containing lotion, on the EtG concentrations in hair. In this study 7 volunteer subjects (classified as either rare, social or heavy drinkers) treated the right side of their scalp every day during a one or two month period with a commercial hair tonic (Seborin), which contains 44.0% ethanol (vol%). Collection of hair specimens from both sides of the scalp was done one day before hair treatment, one week and one month after treatment (for 5 subjects also after two months of treatment). A hair segment of 3 centimeters (cm) was cut and then washed with water and acetone, and then pulverized. EtG was quantified by GC/MS after pulverization and 2h of ultrasonication in water, extraction by solid phase extraction using Oasis MAX columns and derivatization with HFBA. Measurements were done in negative chemical ionization mode using EtG-D5 as internal standard. Comparison of EtG concentration in the treated and in the non-treated hair specimens did not show any increase at the different dates of collection for the 7 subjects. In conclusion, these results show that there is no indication for an increase of EtG after use of ethanol containing hair cosmetics. PMID:22051770

Martins Ferreira, Liliane; Binz, Tina; Yegles, Michel

2012-05-10

414

Promotive effect of topical ketoconazole, minoxidil, and minoxidil with tretinoin on hair growth in male mice.  

PubMed

Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is a vasodilatory medication used primarily as antihypertensive drug. It was discovered to have the side effect of hair growth and reversing baldness. Tretinoin is commonly used topically for acne treatment and in the treatment of photoaging. It is used by some as hair loss treatment. Objective. To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on hair growth in a mouse model. Materials and Methods. Coat hairs on the dorsal skin of seven weeks old male mice were gently clipped and then stained by using commercial dye. These mice were divided into four groups each of five treated with topical application of ethanol 95%, Ketoconazole solution 2%, Minoxidil solution 5%, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin solution 0.1%, respectively. The drugs were applied once daily for three weeks, the clipped area was photographed, and the ratio of regrown coat area was calculated. Results. The results demonstrated that Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin had a significant stimulatory effect on hair growth compared with the control group and Minoxidil was the most effective drug among them. PMID:24734193

Aldhalimi, Muhsin A; Hadi, Najah R; Ghafil, Fadaa A

2014-01-01

415

Promotive Effect of Topical Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on Hair Growth in Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is a vasodilatory medication used primarily as antihypertensive drug. It was discovered to have the side effect of hair growth and reversing baldness. Tretinoin is commonly used topically for acne treatment and in the treatment of photoaging. It is used by some as hair loss treatment. Objective. To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on hair growth in a mouse model. Materials and Methods. Coat hairs on the dorsal skin of seven weeks old male mice were gently clipped and then stained by using commercial dye. These mice were divided into four groups each of five treated with topical application of ethanol 95%, Ketoconazole solution 2%, Minoxidil solution 5%, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin solution 0.1%, respectively. The drugs were applied once daily for three weeks, the clipped area was photographed, and the ratio of regrown coat area was calculated. Results. The results demonstrated that Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin had a significant stimulatory effect on hair growth compared with the control group and Minoxidil was the most effective drug among them.

Aldhalimi, Muhsin A.; Hadi, Najah R.; Ghafil, Fadaa A.

2014-01-01

416

ESTIMATION OF IONIZATION CONSTANTS OF AZO DYES AND RELATED AROMATIC AMINES: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ionization constants for 214 dye molecules were calculated from molecular structures using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry). hese models used fundamental chemical structure theory to predict chemical reactivities ...

417

Peruvian natural dye plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of natural dyes to color textiles and other objects has a long history in Andean South America, but has for the most\\u000a part become a lost technology with the introduction of synthetic dyes. A literature and field survey to recover information\\u000a about the traditional use of dye plants in Peru, from pre-Hispanic to recent times, was accompanied by

Kay K. Antúnez de Mayolo

1989-01-01

418

Ultrasonic assisted dyeing. IV. Dyeing of cationised cotton with lac natural dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dyeing of cationised cotton fabrics with lac natural dye has been studied using both conventional and ultrasonic techniques. The effects of dye bath pH, salt concentration, ultrasonic power, dyeing time and temperature were studied and the resulting shades obtained by dyeing with ultrasonic and conventional techniques were compared. Colour strength values obtained were found to be higher with ultrasonic

M. M. Kamel; Reda M. El-Shishtawy; B. M. Youssef; H. Mashaly

2007-01-01

419

Determination of farm workers' exposure to pesticides by hair analysis.  

PubMed

In the present work, a highly sensitive method based on solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography tandem (triple quadrupole) mass spectrometry was used to test hair samples for 50 pesticides including 39 molecules from different chemical families currently used in agriculture and 11 organochlorines. The population investigated was composed of 18 farm workers who provided hair samples repeatedly collected during the entire treatment period (from March to November 2009). Among the 62 hair samples that were collected, 33 different target molecules were detected. The most frequently detected agricultural pesticides were Diflufenican and Pyrimethanil, two herbicides which were detected in 13 subjects. The concentration in volunteers' hair matched with agricultural activity and the highest concentration was observed for Cyprodinil (1161pg/mg), an anilinopyrimidine used as a fungicide. For organochlorines, p,p'-DDE and ?-HCH were the most frequently detected molecules as they were present in at least one of the hair samples provided by each of the 18 volunteers. The highest concentrations detected for these chemicals reached 21.0pg/mg for p,p'-DDE and 23.5pg/mg for ?-HCH, but the highest concentration of organochlorine was observed for ?-endosulfan (105pg/mg). The results suggest that farm workers have a weak, though constant exposure to organochlorine pesticides, especially to p,p'-DDE and ?-HCH, while exposure to currently used pesticides is strongly associated with occupation. Observations also suggest that spraying work would not necessarily be the only source of exposure to agricultural pesticides and that worker not directly involved in spraying can also be submitted to significant level of exposure. PMID:22154536

Schummer, Claude; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Briand, Olivier; Millet, Maurice; Appenzeller, Brice M R

2012-04-25

420

Defects in Chemically Synthesized and Thermally Processed ZnO Nanorods: Implications for Active Layer Properties in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.  

PubMed

We have carried out the effect of post annealing temperatures on the performance of solution-grown ZnO rods as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Keeping our basic objective of exploring the effect of native defects on the performance of DSSC, we have synthesized ZnO rods having length in the range of 2-5 ?m by a modified sonication-induced precipitation technique. We performed extensive characterization on the samples annealed at various temperatures and confirmed that annealing at 300 °C results in ZnO rods with minimum native defects that have been identified as doubly ionized oxygen vacancies. The electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the samples, on the other hand, confirmed the presence of shallow donors in the low temperature annealed samples. We also carried out electrochemical impedance measurements to understand the transport properties at different interfaces in the solar cell assembly. We could conclude that solution-processed ZnO rods annealed at 300 °C are better suited for fabricating DSSC with improved efficiency (1.57%), current density (5.11 mA/cm(2)), and fill factor (45.29%). On the basis of our results, we were able to establish a close connection between the defects in the metal oxide electron transporting nano system and the DSSC performance. PMID:24684654

Das, Partha Pratim; Agarkar, Shruti A; Mukhopadhyay, Soumita; Manju, Unnikrishnan; Ogale, Satishchandra B; Devi, P Sujatha

2014-04-21

421

Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5?-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to minimize hair fibre breakage, improve hair volume or conceal visible bald scalp. PMID:22171680

Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

2011-12-01

422

The lead in Beethoven's hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past several years a number of inadequately substantiated reports appeared in the popular media, asserting that lead (Pb) found in Beethoven's hair indicated that he was a victim of Pb poisoning and suggesting that lead played a role in his deafness and illnesses. This article reviews critically a recent report of the longitudinal distribution of Pb along individual

Josef Eisinger

2008-01-01

423

Fibre Forms in Animal Hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNDER the above title Mr. H. J. Woods1 proposes three alternatives to the `weathering' hypothesis tentatively advanced by me2 to account for supernormal curvature in the apical region of certain guard hairs. Of the opposing evidence, it will suffice to point out that, in the light of a previous communication by Woods3, the fibres should, if his views are correct,

R. O. Hall

1935-01-01

424

Nonsurgical therapy for hair loss.  

PubMed

This article is an update of the currently available options for medical therapies to treat androgenetic alopecia in men and women. Emerging novel therapeutic modalities with potential for treating these patients are discussed. Because androgenetic alopecia is progressive in nature, stabilization of the process using medical therapy is an important adjunct to any surgical hair-restoration plan. PMID:24017975

Nusbaum, Aron G; Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard P

2013-08-01

425

Science Shorts: Tangling With Hair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You're probably familiar with the fairy tale of Rapunzel and how her prince climbed her golden locks to her tower. In this month's activity, your students will be surprised to find that--though not suitable as a ladder--hair is a lot stronger than they might think.

Adams, Barbara

2006-03-01

426

Triboelectricity in wool and hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

When wool fibres (or hairs) are rubbed together, the sign of the tribo-electric charges produced depends upon the sense of the rubbing. This effect is due to the cuticle cells of the fibre, which are piezo- and pyro-electric. Pyro-electricity is absent or weak in the cortical cells.

A J P Martin

1941-01-01

427

Mitochondrial profiling of dog hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make greater use of dog hairs as forensic evidence, we have developed a robust method for duplex amplification of adjacent 306 and 332bp amplicons within the 5? hypervariable region (5? HVR) of the canine mitochondrial control region. In support of this, a 595bp region covering 35 polymorphic sites has been sequenced from the blood of 105 UK

Jon H. Wetton; Jenny E. Higgs; Adrian C. Spriggs; Chris A. Roney; Carol S. F. Tsang; Aiden P. Foster

2003-01-01

428

Decolorization and degradation of acid dyes mediated by salt fractionated turnip (Brassica rapa) peroxidases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxidases from turnip roots (524?U?g of vegetable) were highly effective in decolorizing acid dyes having wide spectrum chemical groups. Dye solutions, containing 40–170?mg?dye?L, were treated by turnip peroxidases (TP) (specific activity of 122.0?U?mg proteins). These enzymes were able to decolorize most of the acid dyes in the presence of 2.0?mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBT). Increasing concentration of enzyme and time in the

Yasha Kulshrestha; Qayyum Husain

2007-01-01

429

Managing hair loss in midlife women.  

PubMed

Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. PMID:23182767

Mirmirani, Paradi

2013-02-01

430

Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women  

PubMed Central

Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine; Pierard, Gerald E.

2013-01-01

431

Co-composting of hair waste from the tanning industry with de-inking and municipal wastewater sludges.  

PubMed

Production of waste hair in the leather manufacturing industry is increasing every year due to the adoption of hair-save unhairing techniques, leaving the tanners with the problem of coping with yet another solid by-product. Numerous potential strategies for hair utilisation have been proposed. However, the use of hair waste as agricultural fertiliser is one of its most promising applications due to the high nitrogen content of hair. Agricultural value of hair can be increased by composting. This paper deals with the composting of hair from the unhairing of bovine hide. Results indicated that hair cannot be either composted on its own or co-composted with de-inking sludge, a chemical complementary co-substrate. However, good results were obtained when co-composted with raw sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant at hair:raw sludge weight ratios 1:1, 1:2 and, 1:4 in lab scale and pilot plant scale composters. In all cases, a more stable product was achieved at the end of the process. Composting in the pilot plant composter was effectively monitored using Static Respiration Indices determined at process temperature at sampling (SRI(T)) and at 37 degrees C (SRI(37)). Notably, SRI(T) values were more sensitive to changes in the biological activity. In contrast, Respiratory Quotient (RQ) values were not adequate to follow the development of the process. PMID:16821102

Barrena, Raquel; Pagans, Estel la; Artola, Adriana; Vázquez, Felícitas; Sánchez, Antoni

2007-06-01

432

BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT OF AZO DYES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion...

433

Reductive Decouloristation of Dyes by Thermophilic Anaerobic Granular Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour removal achieved under anaerobic conditions is also called reductive decolourisation, which is composed of a biological part, i.e. the reducing equivalents are biologically generated, anda chemical part, i.e. the formed electrons reduce<\\/span>chemically the dyes. The overall objective of this research was to explore different strategies to increase the reduction of dyes in bioreactors by using thermophilic anaerobic

A. Bezerra Dos Santos

2005-01-01

434

Regulation of root hair initiation and expansin gene expression in Arabidopsis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expression of two Arabidopsis expansin genes (AtEXP7 and AtEXP18) is tightly linked to root hair initiation; thus, the regulation of these genes was studied to elucidate how developmental, hormonal, and environmental factors orchestrate root hair formation. Exogenous ethylene and auxin, as well as separation of the root from the medium, stimulated root hair formation and the expression of these expansin genes. The effects of exogenous auxin and root separation on root hair formation required the ethylene signaling pathway. By contrast, blocking the endogenous ethylene pathway, either by genetic mutations or by a chemical inhibitor, did not affect normal root hair formation and expansin gene expression. These results indicate that the normal developmental pathway for root hair formation (i.e., not induced by external stimuli) is independent of the ethylene pathway. Promoter analyses of the expansin genes show that the same promoter elements that determine cell specificity also determine inducibility by ethylene, auxin, and root separation. Our study suggests that two distinctive signaling pathways, one developmental and the other environmental/hormonal, converge to modulate the initiation of the root hair and the expression of its specific expansin gene set.

Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

2002-01-01

435

Oxazine laser dyes  

DOEpatents

New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

1992-01-01

436

[Berlin dye laser].  

PubMed

The conditions for an optimal ophthalmic coagulating system are derived from the absorption spectra of xanthophyll, melanin and hemoglobin. Coagulation is effected by a dye laser with two dyes. The continuously tunable range of 570 nm to 680 nm opens up new horizons in photocoagulation of the retina. PMID:6543236

Wollensak, J; Seiler, T

1984-12-01

437

Tie-Dye Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In their travels to the indigo dye pits of northern Nigeria, the authors were struck by the beauty, history, and chemistry of indigo dyeing. They returned from Nigeria eager to develop a laboratory exercise that would expose students to the science of ind

Cessna, Gretchen; Cessna, Stephen

2001-03-01

438

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Near infrared laser action has been demonstrated for 9 Kodak organic dyes, using a linear flash lamp for excitation. The spectral region covered by these 9 dyes extends from 850 nm to at least 960 nm, with no tuning attempted so far. Output is in the kilo...

B. E. Plourde J. P. Webb

1972-01-01

439

Removal of an anionic dye by adsorption/precipitation processes using alkaline white mud.  

PubMed

Alkaline white mud (AWM) has been investigated as a low-cost material for removal of an anionic dye, acid blue 80. The effects of contact time, initial pH of dye solution, AWM dosage, and the presence of inorganic anion sulphate or phosphate ion on removal of the dye were evaluated. The results show that AWM could be used as an effective material for removal of acid blue 80 in a pre or main process, particularly at high dye concentration (>300 mgL(-1)), reaching maximum removal efficiency of 95%. At low dye concentration, surface adsorption is mainly responsible for the dye removal, while chemical precipitation of the dye anions with soluble Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) may play a dominant role for the dye removal at high concentration, producing much less sludge than conventional adsorption method. Solution pH has only a limited effect on the dye removal due to high alkalinity and large pH buffer capacity of AWM suspension and thereby pH is not a limiting factor in pursuing high dye removal. The presence of SO(4)(2-) could reduce the dye removal by AWM only when SO(4)(2-) concentration is beyond 0.7 mmolL(-1). The dye removal may be significantly suppressed by the presence of phosphate with increasing concentration, and the reduction in the dye removal is much larger at high dye concentrations than at low ones. PMID:17532132

Zhu, Mao-Xu; Lee, Li; Wang, Hai-Hua; Wang, Zheng

2007-11-19

440

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, T.C.

1993-03-30

441

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

1993-01-01

442

Copper Phthalocyanine Dye Immobilized on Magnetite Particles: An Efficient Adsorbent for Rapid Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds from Water Solutions and Suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetite particles bearing covalently immobilized copper phthalocyanine dye (“blue magnetite”) were prepared and used for the isolation and\\/or removal of polycyclic dyes from water solutions and suspensions. Binding of these polycyclic dyes occurs by a chemical, equilibrated, and saturatable mechanism, following the Langmuir adsorption model. Nonspecific adsorption of dyes having nonplanar molecular structure was low. The values of maximum adsorption

Ivo Šafa?ík; Mirka Šafa?íková

1997-01-01

443

Studies on the use of power ultrasound in leather dyeing.  

PubMed

Uses of power ultrasound for acceleration/performing the chemical as well as physical processes are gaining importance. In conventional leather processing, the diffusion of chemicals through the pores of the skin/hide is achieved by the mechanical agitation caused by the paddle or drumming action. In this work, the use of power ultrasound in the dyeing of leather has been studied with the aim to improve the exhaustion of dye for a given processing time, to reduce the dyeing time and to improve the quality of dyed leather. The effect of power ultrasound in the dyeing of full chrome cow crust leather in a stationary condition is compared with dyeing in the absence of ultrasound as a control experiment both in a stationary as well as conventional drumming condition. An ultrasonic cleaner (150 W and 33 kHz) was used for the experiments. Actual power dissipated into the system was calculated from the calorimetric measurement. Experiments were carried out with variation in type of dye, amount of dye offer, temperature and time. The results show that there is a significant improvement in the percentage exhaustion of dye due to the presence of ultrasound, when compared to dyeing in absence of ultrasound. Experiments on equilibrium dye uptake carried out with or without ultrasound suggest that ultrasound help to improve the kinetics of leather dyeing. The results indicate that leathers dyed in presence of ultrasound have higher colour values, better dye penetration and fastness properties compared to control leathers. The physical testing results show that strength properties of the dyed leathers are not affected due to the application of ultrasound under the given process conditions. Apparent diffusion coefficient during the initial stage of dyeing process, both in presence and in absence of ultrasound was calculated. The values show that ultrasound helps in improving the apparent diffusion coefficient more for the difficult dyeing conditions such as in the case of metal-complex dyes having bigger aggregate size compared to less difficult dyeing conditions. PMID:12551768

Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar

2003-03-01

444

A novel method for visualizing hair lipids at the cell membrane complex: argon sputter etching/scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Hair lipids localized at the cell membrane complex (CMC) play a part in chemical diffusion, cell cohesion, and mechanical strength. There is no method currently available to visualize hair lipids at the CMC. We found that scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of a transversely polished hair plane followed by argon sputter etching (ASE) provides a specific characteristic image consisting of circular patterns (CP) and stitch patterns (SP) at the cortex. Both the CP and the SP are formed as convex structures and are associated with melanin granules and the CMC, respectively. While the convex formation of the CP is not affected by any treatments tested, that of the SP disappeared following treatment of hair fibers with organic solvents and reappeared following incubation of the solvent-treated hair fibers with melting lipids, which suggests that the hair lipids are responsible for the convex SP. Other treatments, such as chemical fixation, thin sectioning, and pre-/post-incubation of the hair plane, reduce or abolish the convex formation of the SP. These findings suggest that the following pathway leads to the convex formation of SP during ASE: (a) joule heat is generated on the surface by violent collisions of argon ions, (b) melting CMC lipids ooze out from the inside to the surface, and (c) CMC lipids that have oozed out are chemically changed, leading to the final convex formation of the SP. With ASE-SEM, visualization of hair lipids as convex structures of SP should enable us to characterize the fine structure and localization of hair lipids and to clarify the roles and functions of the CMC of human hair. PMID:16258696

Masukawa, Yoshinori; Shimogaki, Hiromi; Manago, Kenji; Imokawa, Genji

2005-01-01

445

TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

446

Study of hair surface energy and conditioning.  

PubMed

A new test method has been developed to determine surface energy of hair fibers through measurements of contact angles at two hair/liquid interfaces. By measuring changes in surface energy of the same hair fiber before and after a cosmetic treatment, effects of active ingredients and the performance of tested formulations can be evaluated.The establishment of the method is based on Fowkes theory (1,2) described with two components, a dispersive and a non-dispersive component. The non-polar liquid used in this study was diiodomethane, and the polar liquid was benzyl alcohol. A Kruss 100 Tensiometer was used to measure contact angles of hair fibers. Virgin dark brown and regular bleached hairs were treated with selected conditioner formulations. Reductions in combing forces of hair tresses before and after respective treatments were correlated with decreases in average surface energy of hair fibers obtained from the corresponding tresses.Experimental results indicate that the average surface energy of hair fibers treated with conditioners decreases and the hydrophobicity of the hair surface increases, the results correlate well with the reduction in combing forces after respective treatments. This research work provides a new methodology to evaluate/screen conditioning performance of hair care ingredients and formulations for development of better products. PMID:21635842

Gao, Timothy; He, Yingxia; Landa, Peter; Tien, Jung-Mei

2011-01-01

447

Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts  

PubMed Central

Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.

Dinh, Quan Q; Sinclair, Rodney

2007-01-01

448

Pathogenesis in trichorrhexis invaginata (bamboo hair).  

PubMed

The mechanism of formation of trichorrhexis invaginata, which is one of the characteristic hair anomalies seen in Netherton's syndrome, was studied using plucked hairs obtained from 3 patients with the typical clinical features. The biopsy specimens used to examine the hair root were obtained from the scalp of one of the patients and the eyebrow area of the other. The scanning electron microscopic observation of plucked hairs showed trichorrhexis invaginata, tortion nodule, pili torti, and trichorrhexis nodosa. The light microscopic sections of nodules of plucked hairs revealed invaginated hair cuticle into the cortex. Transmission electron microscopy revealed cleavages and electron-dense depositions in the cortex of plucked hair nodules; such changes were not seen in newly formed nodules in follicles in biopsy specimens. In the keratogenous zone, a zigzag pattern of cortical fibers and invaginations of hair cuticle cells into the cortex were observed. Histochemical staining for -SH groups and S-S linkages using N-(7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-3-coumarinyl)maleimide (DACM) was performed on frozen sections of plucked hairs from patients and normal controls. Keratinized cortical cells of patients possessed more -SH groups than the controls and a strong fluorescence for -SH was sometimes seen in the cortex of nodules. It is concluded that the invagination of affected hairs is caused by softness of the cortex in the keratogenous zone, which may result from an incomplete conversion from -SH to S-S in proteins in cortical fibers. PMID:6547464

Ito, M; Ito, K; Hashimoto, K

1984-07-01

449

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs  

SciTech Connect

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

2011-12-31

450

Metals in female scalp hair globally and its impact on perceived hair health.  

PubMed

Globally, billions of individuals wash their hair in water, which acts as an exogenous metal source. Many studies which measure the metal levels found on human hair specifically aim to remove exogenous materials prior to analysis. Although this is needed when using hair analysis to probe the impact of the local environment on endogenous metal levels, it is not relevant for understanding exactly what is on hair as a result of contact with its daily environment. Understanding these levels are important, as the presence of redox active metals, such as copper and iron, can impact fibre health, either as a result of UV irradiation, or during the hair colouring process. A global hair sampling study of over 300 individuals from nine countries has been performed, and the combined endogenous and exogenous metals analysed. The levels measured vary widely, even within the narrow geography of each hair sampling location. The levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and iron were not correlated, and within each location, there are expected to be individuals with high metal levels. Levels increased from hair root to tip for calcium, magnesium and copper, attributed to hair contact with the environment showing the impact of exogenous metals in the overall levels on hair. Levels of redox metals were comparable between individuals who coloured or did not colour their hair, although water hardness ions were statistically significantly higher for hair colouring individuals. Individuals who perceived their hair health as poor had higher metal levels on their hair. Controlling metals on hair, either by preventing their binding during environmental contact, or through controlling their ability to cause hair damage, should lead to improved consumer perceived hair health. PMID:23305149

Godfrey, Simon; Staite, William; Bowtell, Philip; Marsh, Jennifer

2013-06-01

451

Implementation of a biotechnological process for vat dyeing with woad.  

PubMed

The traditional process for vat dyeing with woad (Isatis tinctoria L.) basically relies on microbial reduction of indigo to its soluble form, leucoindigo, through a complex fermentative process. In the 19th century, cultivation of woad went into decline and use of synthetic indigo dye and chemical reduction agents was established, with a consequent negative impact on the environment due to the release of polluting wastewaters by the synthetic dyeing industry. Recently, the ever-growing demand for environmentally friendly dyeing technologies has led to renewed interest in ecological textile traditions. In this context, this study aims at developing an environmentally friendly biotechnological process for vat dyeing with woad to replace use of polluting chemical reduction agents. Two simple broth media, containing yeast extract or corn steep liquor (CSL), were comparatively evaluated for their capacity to sustain the growth and reducing activity of the strain Clostridium isatidis DSM 15098(T). Subsequently, the dyeing capacity of the CSL medium added with 140 g L?¹ of woad powder, providing 2.4 g L?¹ of indigo dye, was evaluated after fermentation in laboratory bioreactors under anaerobic or microaerophilic conditions. In all fermentations, a sufficiently negative oxidation/reduction potential for reduction of indigo was reached as early as 24 h and maintained up to the end of the monitoring period. However, clearly faster indigo dye reduction was seen in the broth cultures fermented under strict anaerobiosis, thus suggesting the suitability of the N? flushing strategy for enhancement of bacterial-driven indigo reduction. PMID:22581408

Osimani, Andrea; Aquilanti, Lucia; Baldini, Gessica; Silvestri, Gloria; Butta, Alessandro; Clementi, Francesca

2012-09-01

452

Molecular mechanisms and potentials for differentiating inner ear stem cells into sensory hair cells.  

PubMed

In mammals, hair cells may be damaged or lost due to genetic mutation, infectious disease, chemical ototoxicity, noise and other factors, causing permanent sensorineural deafness. Regeneration of hair cells is a basic pre-requisite for recovery of hearing in deaf animals. The inner ear stem cells in the organ of Corti and vestibular utricle are the most ideal precursors for regeneration of inner ear hair cells. This review highlights some recent findings concerning the proliferation and differentiation of inner ear stem cells. The differentiation of inner ear stem cells into hair cells involves a series of signaling pathways and regulatory factors. This paper offers a comprehensive analysis of the related studies. PMID:24680894

Liu, Quanwen; Chen, Ping; Wang, Jinfu

2014-06-15

453

Using the Web as a Resource on Hair Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of hair (alopecia) is one of the most common symptoms of aging in men. The most common cause of hair loss in men is androgenic or androgenetic alopecia, often referred to as male-pattern baldness. Current treatments include two drugs, Rogaine and Propecia, which have been shown effective for hair regrowth and prevention of further hair loss; surgical hair transplantation;

Deborah G. Lovett

2002-01-01

454

Hair analysis by immunological methods from the beginning to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoassays for hair testing must satisfy three requirements: (1) They must have cross-reactivity with parent drug and lipophilic metabolites actually found in hair (2) they must not experience interference from the dissolved hair matrix and (3) they must be titered for cutoffs appropriate to the drug concentrations found in hair. Because the analytes found in hair after drug use are

Vina Spiehler

2000-01-01