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1

Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Søsted

2

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... hair dye you use, follow directions carefully. Pay attention to all “Caution” or “Warning” statements. What problems ... safely? • Follow the directions in the package. Pay attention to all “Caution” and “Warning” statements. • Do a ...

3

Percutaneous penetration of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalp penetration of 7 hair dyes (oxidative and direct) that occurs under conditions of hair dye usage was evaluated for both rhesus monkey and man using 14C labeled materials by quantifying their absorbtion via urine assays. Both species showed a remarkably similar pattern of dye penetration. The extent of scalp penetratoon is slightly higher for direct dyes but in neither

L. J. Wolfram; H. I. Maibach

1985-01-01

4

Super vasomol hair dye poisoning  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management.

Kumar, Praveen A. S.; Talari, Keerthi; Dutta, T. K.

2012-01-01

5

Paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1883, paraphenylene diamine (PPD) has traditionally been used for dyeing (dark color) hair in Europe [1-2] as a fresh\\u000a preparation mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) [3]. In Sudan PPD is used by women to color their hair and as a body dye when added to henna ( Lawasonia alba). Henna on it’s own need to be applied two or

Mohamed I. Hamdouk; Mohamed B. Abdelraheem; Ahbab A. Taha; Mohamed Benghanem; Marc E. Broe

6

Development of Hair Dye from Herbal Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The developments of hair dyes from herbal extracts are studied. Seven herbs, such as Jackfruit core, Sappan wood, Lac, Henna, Mangosteen, Amla and Turmeric were ex- tracted and used as pigment for hair dyes. The dyed hair conditions, which comprised concentrations of a developer (hydrogen peroxide), concentrations of crude herbal ex- tracts, and dyed hair treatment process were compared

Kongtun Janphuk Sumonthip; Suracherdkaiti Wichai

2009-01-01

7

Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes.  

PubMed

Hair dyes and their ingredients have moderate to low acute toxicity. Human poisoning accidents are rare and have only been reported following oral ingestion. Contact sensitisation to hair dyes has been a safety issue, mainly as a consequence of unprotected professional exposure. Although the use of hair dyes has dramatically increased in industrialised countries during the last decades, the prevalence of sensitisation to hair dyes in the general and professional populations has stabilised or declined. In vitro genotoxicity tests on hair dye ingredients frequently had positive results, although their correlation with in vivo carcinogenicity for the chemical class of oxidative hair dye ingredients (aromatic amines) is uncertain. Positive in vivo genotoxicity results on hair dyes are rare. Studies in man found no evidence of genotoxic effects of hair dyes or their ingredients. On the basis of mechanistic studies, some in vivo positive hair dye ingredients (p-aminophenol, Lawsone) have been shown to pose no or negligible risk to human health. Although a recent case-control epidemiology study suggested an association of hair dye use and bladder cancer, a number of other studies, including prospective investigations on large populations, found no or negative correlations for bladder or other cancers. Although in vivo topical carcinogenicity studies on hair dye ingredients or commercial formulations yielded no evidence for systemic toxicity or carcinogenicity, oral carcinogenicity studies on hair dye ingredients at oral doses up to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) suggested that some ingredients are carcinogenic in rodents. Human systemic exposure to various (14)C-labelled oxidative hair dyes under conditions of use was below 1.0% of the amount applied. Conservative risk assessments suggested no or negligible cancer risk, including for ingredients that were found to be positive in oral carcinogenicity studies. The results of reproductive toxicity studies and epidemiological investigations suggested that hair dyes and their ingredients pose no risk of adverse reproductive effects. In conclusion, the weight of evidence suggests that consumer or professional exposure to hair dyes poses no carcinogenic or other human health risks. PMID:15019177

Nohynek, Gerhard J; Fautz, Rolf; Benech-Kieffer, Florence; Toutain, Herve

2004-04-01

8

Identification of aminobiphenyl derivatives in commercial hair dyes.  

PubMed

A recent epidemiological study suggested that aromatic amines present in hair dyes may contribute to an increased risk of bladder cancer (Gago-Dominguez, et al. (2003) Carcinogenesis 24, 483-489). Moreover, a preliminary study linked frequent hair dye usage with elevated levels of DNA adducts of 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) in human epithelial breast cells (Gorlewska, et al. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res. 43, 1018-1019). Therefore, we sought to determine if 4-ABP, a recognized human urinary bladder carcinogen, is present in commercial hair dyes. 4-ABP was isolated from dyes by solvent extraction with hexane, followed by silica gel chromatography, either with or without chemical treatment of the extract with Zinc/HCl, and a final purification with a mixed cation exchange reversed-phase resin. The identity of 4-ABP was confirmed by both HPLC with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) and gas chromatography with negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) following chemical derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA). The levels of 4-ABP ranged from not detectable (<0.29 parts per billion (ppb)) up to 12.8 ppb. The noncarcinogenic isomer 2-aminobiphenyl (2-ABP) was also found at quantities up to 310 ppb. 4-ABP was detected in eight of the 11 hair dyes and found in black, red, and blonde hair dyes but not in brown hair dyes. 1,4-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a key constituent for color development of many permanent hair dyes. Some batches of chemical research grade PPD were contaminated with 4-ABP (up to 500 ppb) and 2-ABP (up to 70 parts per million) and may be a source of ABP contamination in hair dyes. These analytical data demonstrate that 4-ABP is present in some hair dyes. Studies on dermal absorption and bioavailability of 4-ABP from hair dyes are required to determine if this aromatic amine contributes to the increased risk of bladder cancer reported in frequent users of hair dyes. PMID:12971805

Turesky, Robert J; Freeman, James P; Holland, Ricky D; Nestorick, Daniel M; Miller, Dwight W; Ratnasinghe, D Luke; Kadlubar, Fred F

2003-09-01

9

Hair Dye Poisoning in a Paediatric Patient  

PubMed Central

Hair dye ingestion with suicidal intention has increased among rural Indian population and is associated with significant mortality. We report a teenager who presented with cervicofacial edema, respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, and myocarditis after ingesting the hair dye Super Vasmol 33. Early and supportive treatment can prevent morbidity and mortality.

Chandran, Jolly; Manners, Rimi; Agarwal, Indira; Ebenezer, Kala

2012-01-01

10

Hair dye poisoning in a paediatric patient.  

PubMed

Hair dye ingestion with suicidal intention has increased among rural Indian population and is associated with significant mortality. We report a teenager who presented with cervicofacial edema, respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, and myocarditis after ingesting the hair dye Super Vasmol 33. Early and supportive treatment can prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:22953145

Chandran, Jolly; Manners, Rimi; Agarwal, Indira; Ebenezer, Kala

2012-08-16

11

Dominant lethal mutagenicity study on hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dominant lethal mutagenicity study was performed in rats with the following chemicals that may be used to dye hair: 2?nitro?p?phenylenediamine, 4?nitro?o?phenylenediamine, m?phenylenediamine, o?phenylenediamine, p?phenylenediamine, p?toluenediamine, 2,4?diaminoanisole, 2,5?diaminoanlsole, 2?amino?4?nitrophenol, 2?amino?5?nitrophenol, and 4?amino?2?nitrophenol. The compounds were administered intraperitoneally three times weekly for 8 weeks to groups of 20 sexually mature Charles River CD male rats at a dose of 20 mg\\/kg.

C. Burnett; R. Loehr; J. Corbett

1977-01-01

12

Hair dye distribution in human hair by ToF-SIMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single hair sample preparation protocol modified from reported method was developed and used to prepare longitudinally sectioned hair for ToF-SIMS analysis. Preliminary results demonstrate that ToF-SIMS is capable of providing molecular distribution of fragment ions from intrinsic constituents as well as external chemicals like the hair dye ingredients used in this study. The observation of pPDA and H2PO4? penetrating

Bo-Jung Chen; Pei-Ling Lee; Wen-Yin Chen; Fu-Der Mai; Yong-Chien Ling

2006-01-01

13

[Ingredients of modern hair dyes].  

PubMed

70 substances currently used in colouring human hair are reviewed from chemical and structural perspectives. On the basis of structural simularities the question of relationships to known contact allergens, in particular p-phenylendiamine and benzochinones, is examined. Hereby it may be discerned that despite the relatively large number of new substances, the dangers of new potent allergens or cross-reactions with widely encountered existing agents are limited. PMID:3319473

Ippen, H

14

Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes.  

PubMed

Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus, up to 1.1% p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 0.04% toluene-2,5-diamine, 0.02% 3-aminophenol and 0.02% resorcinol were found in the hair dye formulation after the required colour was developed. The consumers are thus exposed to precursors and couplers of oxidative hair dyes, both during and after hair dyeing, when the hair is washed. Furthermore, the consumers are also expected to be exposed to intermediates of oxidative hair dyes. The allergenic potential of oxidative hair dyes as well as the intermediates of these remains unknown. PMID:16930234

Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil; Bossi, Rossana

2006-08-01

15

The debate on carcinogenicity of permanent hair dyes: new insights.  

PubMed

Oxidative (permanent) hair dyes contain one or several "primary intermediates" (e.g., p-phenylenediamines, p-aminophenols) and "couplers" (e.g., m-aminophenols, m-hydroxyphenols). In the presence of peroxide, the primary intermediate(s) and the coupler(s) undergo a chemical reaction to form colored oligomers. In the 1970s a number of aromatic amines used in oxidative hair dyes were identified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic in rodents after lifetime oral administration. In response, regulatory action was taken, and some hair dye ingredients were banned in the European Union. Although recent results suggest that the main "primary intermediate" of oxidative hair dyes, p-phenylenediamine, has a weak genotoxic potential in vitro, it was not mutagenic in a mixture with nonmutagenic couplers, if tested under conditions comparable to those of practical use. Under conditions of use of permanent hair dyes, between 0.1 and 0.5% of the applied p-phenylenediamine may be absorbed through the skin. Acetylation in the skin is a key metabolic step for the primary intermediates p-phenylenediamine and p-aminophenol. Because of the involvement of aromatic amines, the discussion on the carcinogenicity of hair dyes in humans has been focused on urothelial cancer. Numerous epidemiological studies have investigated the risk of bladder cancer associated with the profession as a hairdresser, as well as the risk to consumers of hair dyes. Although some earlier studies suggested an overrepresentation of bladder cancer in male hairdressers, the majority of modern studies do not show an increase in relevant bladder cancer risk for professional or personal use of oxidative hair dyes. Today, there seems to be no relevant bladder cancer risk from the use of oxidative hair dyes. Such a conclusion can be derived from new toxicokinetic and metabolism investigations and is in general accordance with current epidemiological data. Human urothelial cancers, chemically induced by aromatic amines, have typical latency times often longer than 20 years. Since earlier exposures could have an impact decades later, the possibility of bladder cancer in hairdressers having intensively worked with permanent hair dyes during earlier decades (prior to the 1980s) should be taken into account. PMID:17661215

Bolt, Hermann M; Golka, Klaus

2007-01-01

16

Hair dye distribution in human hair by ToF-SIMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single hair sample preparation protocol modified from reported method was developed and used to prepare longitudinally sectioned hair for ToF-SIMS analysis. Preliminary results demonstrate that ToF-SIMS is capable of providing molecular distribution of fragment ions from intrinsic constituents as well as external chemicals like the hair dye ingredients used in this study. The observation of pPDA and H 2PO 4- penetrating into the internal region of hair might initiate a renewed interest in exposure study.

Chen, Bo-Jung; Lee, Pei-Ling; Chen, Wen-Yin; Mai, Fu-Der; Ling, Yong-Chien

2006-07-01

17

Occupational Dermal Exposure to Permanent Hair Dyes Among Hairdressers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin exposure to permanent hair dye compounds was assessed in 33 hairdressers using a previously evaluated hand rinse method. Hand rinse samples were collected from each hand before the start of hair dyeing, after application of the dye and after cutting the newly-dyed hair. Sixteen of the hairdressers did not use gloves during dye application, and none used gloves while

MARIE-LOUISE LIND; ANDERS BOMAN; JAN SOLLENBERG; STINA JOHNSSON; GUNNEL HAGELTHORN; BIRGITTA MEDING

2005-01-01

18

Contact dermatitis to hair dye: an update.  

PubMed

Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer. PMID:22960813

Handa, Sanjeev; Mahajan, Rahul; De, Dipankar

19

HPLC Analysis of Oxidation Hair Dyes in Permanent Hair Colorants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation of several hair dyes (diamines, aminophenols, phenols, etc.), using mobile phases containing 1,8-diaminoctane as new amine modifier and sodium heptansulfonate, is described. The combined effect of the amine and of the alkylsulfonate enabled very good separation of all the dyes studied. The proposed chromatographic system was found to be selective, rugged and therefore suitable for

V. Andrisano; R. Gotti; A. M. Di Pietra; V. Cavrini

1994-01-01

20

Toxicity and human health risk of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dyes and their ingredients have moderate to low acute toxicity. Human poisoning accidents are rare and have only been reported following oral ingestion. Contact sensitisation to hair dyes has been a safety issue, mainly as a consequence of unprotected professional exposure. Although the use of hair dyes has dramatically increased in industrialised countries during the last decades, the prevalence

Gerhard J Nohynek; Rolf Fautz; Florence Benech-Kieffer; Herve Toutain

2004-01-01

21

The mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of hair dyes.  

PubMed

Synopsis A number of the constituents of semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes have been shown to be mutagenic in bacteria, to induce mutation, chromosome breakage, sister chromatid exchanges and malignant transformation in mammalian cells, to cause mutation in Drosophila, to induce mitotic recombination in yeast and to induce tumours in rodents. Some hair dye ingredients and commercial dyes have been shown to give rise, in the urine of treated rats, to metabolites which are also mutagenic in bacteria. The test systems used are briefly described and the data generated are reviewed. In addition, attempts to identify whether the hazards predicted from the laboratory studies present a risk to man either by epidemiological studies or monitoring of exposed populations are also discussed. PMID:19469974

Kirkland, D J

1983-04-01

22

Photochemical and thermal modifications of permanent hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the thermal and photochemical transformation of an oxidative hair dye is carried out in solution and on hair. The influence of irradiation wavelength, temperature, humidity and oxygen on the dye evolution is examined. Inhibition of the transformation by oxygen was noticed.In each dye aminoindamine and aminoindoaniline, two colourless transformation products are pointed out. In order to confirm

Laurence Motz-Schalck; Jacques Lemaire

2002-01-01

23

Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.  

PubMed

Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously. PMID:20557579

Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

2010-06-01

24

Percutaneous penetration\\/dermal absorption of hair dyes in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an in vitro technique to analyse percutaneous penetration and dermal absorption of hair dyes, topically applied to excised pig skin. Representative examples are given by the radio-labelled hair dyes p-phenylenediamine and bis-(5-amino-1-hydroxyphenyl)-methane. Both compounds were assessed under simulated use conditions and were analysed in representative formulations including the specific conditions for oxidation hair dyes. To be able

W Steiling; J Kreutz; H Hofer

2001-01-01

25

Severe Hair Loss of the Scalp due to a Hair Dye Containing Para phenylenediamine  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 41-year-old female showing severe hair loss approximately 90% after the use of a hair dye. These symptoms developed six days after the use of a hair dye containing PPD. A patch test showed a (++) reaction at 48?h to 1% PPD in petrolatum, whereas all metals and white petrolatum were negative. She was therefore diagnosed with contact dermatitis due to PPD, resulting in hair loss. The skin lesions gradually improved after starting treatment with the systemic corticosteroids. The possibility that allergic contact dermatitis from hair dyes may be responsible for telogen effluvium should always be considered in a patient with increased hair loss.

Ishida, Waka; Makino, Teruhiko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

2011-01-01

26

Effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hairs.  

PubMed

The effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in hair samples of MA addicts were studied. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples collected from male (n = 24, 24-51 yrs) and female abusers (n = 7, 17-46 yrs) were evaluated for MA and AM concentration's changes after repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples, no additional treatment hair sample group (NAT), were treated in vitro with liquid soap or three kinds of hair dyes which were black, brown and yellow color hair dye, respectively. Quantitation of AM and MA in hair samples was utilized GC-MS using selected ion monitoring. MA and AM concentrations in NAT were 10.41 ± 8.91 ng/mg (range 1.50-30.0 ng/mg) and 2.24 ± 2.75 ng/mg (range 0.41-12.90 ng/mg). And, their concentrations were decreased about 23.3 ± 4.5% (range 16.7-32.8%) in hair repeated washing group (WAS) and 32.6 ± 4.82 (22.2-41.9) in three kinds of a single hair dyeing groups in comparison to original concentrations of MA and AM in NAT. A statistically significant difference was found between NAT and WAS or three hair dyeing groups (p < 0.01), but not between WAS and three hair dyeing groups, and not between each hair dyeing groups with each three kinds of hair dyes (p > 0.05). PMID:20650577

Baeck, SeungKyung; Han, EunYoung; Chung, HeeSun; Pyo, MyoungYun

2010-07-21

27

Effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in hair samples of MA addicts were studied. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples collected from male (n=24, 24–51 yrs) and female abusers (n=7, 17–46 yrs) were evaluated for MA and AM concentration's changes after repeated hair washing and a single hair

SeungKyung Baeck; EunYoung Han; HeeSun Chung; MyoungYun Pyo

2011-01-01

28

Ranking of hair dye substances according to predicted sensitization potency: quantitative structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

Allergic contact dermatitis following the use of hair dyes is well known. Many chemicals are used in hair dyes and it is unlikely that all cases of hair dye allergy can be diagnosed by means of patch testing with p-phenylenediamine (PPD). The objectives of this study are to identify all hair dye substances registered in Europe and to provide their tonnage data. The sensitization potential of each substance was then estimated by using a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model and the substances were ranked according to their predicted potency. A cluster analysis was performed in order to help select a number of chemically diverse hair dye substances that could be used in subsequent clinical work. Various information sources, including the Inventory of Cosmetics Ingredients, new regulations on cosmetics, data on total use and ChemId (the Chemical Search Input website provided by the National Library of Medicine), were used in order to identify the names and structures of the hair dyes. A QSAR model, developed with the help of experimental local lymph node assay data and topological sub-structural molecular descriptors (TOPS-MODE), was used in order to predict the likely sensitization potential. Predictions for sensitization potential were made for the 229 substances that could be identified by means of a chemical structure, the majority of these hair dyes (75%) being predicted to be strong/moderate sensitizers. Only 22% were predicted to be weak sensitizers and 3% were predicted to be extremely weak or non-sensitizing. Eight of the most widely used hair dye substances were predicted to be strong/moderate sensitizers, including PPD - which is the most commonly used hair dye allergy marker in patch testing. A cluster analysis by using TOPS-MODE descriptors as inputs helped us group the hair dye substances according to their chemical similarity. This would facilitate the selection of potential substances for clinical patch testing. A patch-test series with potent, frequently used, substances representing various chemical clusters is suggested. This may prove useful in diagnosing PPD-negative patients with symptoms of hair dye allergy and would provide some clinical validation of the QSAR predictions. PMID:15606648

Søsted, H; Basketter, D A; Estrada, E; Johansen, J D; Patlewicz, G Y

29

Maternal hair dye use and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Studies have suggested an association between maternal hair dye use and elevated risk of childhood cancer, including neuroblastoma. We analyzed data from a large case–control study to investigate the relationship between maternal hair dye use around pregnancy and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring.

Erin E. McCall; Andrew F. Olshan; Julie L. Daniels

2005-01-01

30

The Function of Bandrowski' Base in Hair Dyeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis--Proposals for the structure of Bandrowski's Base (BB) are reviewed, and it is concluded that the structure originally proposed by Green is the correct one. The role of BB in dyeing of human hair was studied by examining hair dyed with p-phenylenediamine and hydrogen peroxide. Solvent extraction of dyed hair or decomposition by dilute alkali yielded mixtures which contained little

MOSES ALTMAN; MARTIN M. RIEGER

31

Evaluation of the toxicity and carcinogenicity of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronic toxicological and carcinogenic potential following skin painting in mice was evaluated for nine oxidative and three nonoxidative hair dyes. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were treated one time weekly for at least 20 mo with one dose level of each dye. The oxidative dyes were mixed 1:1 with 6% hydrogen peroxide before treatment and the three

C. Burnett; M. M. Jacobs; A. Seppala; P. Shubik

1980-01-01

32

Analysis of human chromosomes after repeated hair dyeing.  

PubMed

Ten volunteers (males and females) each had their hair dyed 13 times at intervals of 3-6 wk. Each volunteer used a single commercial preparation throughout the study. The preparations used contained a mixture of aminotoluenes, aminophenols and hydroxybenzenes and, in some cases, naphthol, as the active ingredients. Lymphocytes of the hair-dyed volunteers and of ten controls matched for age and sex were scored for chromosomal aberrations. The incidence of aberrations did not differ significantly between the controls and the hair-dyed volunteers at any of the nine sampling times (before the first exposure, after the first (sham) dyeing and then after each of the next three and the last four dyeing procedures). An increase in the aberration rate with time was observed both in the controls and in the hair-dyed subjects. The reason for this increase could not be determined. No clastogenic effect of repeated hair dyeing was established in this study. PMID:6686583

Hofer, H; Bornatowicz, N; Reindl, E

1983-12-01

33

Severe allergic hair dye reactions in 8 children.  

PubMed

Serious adverse skin reactions to permanent hair dyes and temporary black tattoos have been reported. As temporary tattoos have become fashionable among adolescents, the risk profile for p-phenylenediamine (PPD) sensitization of the population has changed simultaneously with an increasing use of hair dyes in this age group. This investigation reports PPD sensitization in children with regard to cause of sensitization, clinical presentation and consequences. Clinical history and patch test results for consecutive children below 16 years of age with suspected hair dye allergic reactions and positive patch tests to PPD were collected over 2 years in 2 Danish dermatology clinics. 8 children aged 12-15 years were collected, and they all reacted to several hair dye ingredients. 5 of the patients were hospitalized, 1 in the intensive care unit. 6 of the patients gave a history of prior reaction to temporary black tattoos. These children showed simultaneous positive patch reactions to N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine and local anaesthetics, while such reaction patterns were not seen in children with hair dye reactions only. The clinical consequences of these reactions are unknown. A re-evaluation of the risk assessment/risk management for hair dyes is required. PMID:16487280

Sosted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

2006-02-01

34

Percutaneous penetration/dermal absorption of hair dyes in vitro.  

PubMed

This paper presents an in vitro technique to analyse percutaneous penetration and dermal absorption of hair dyes, topically applied to excised pig skin. Representative examples are given by the radio-labelled hair dyes p-phenylenediamine and bis-(5-amino-1-hydroxyphenyl)-methane. Both compounds were assessed under simulated use conditions and were analysed in representative formulations including the specific conditions for oxidation hair dyes. To be able to differentiate between topically adsorbed and systemically available amounts, the bioavailability of the hair dyes is defined as the amount penetrated and/or remaining in the exposed skin after removing the stratum corneum. Less than 1% of the assessed topically applied dyes was found to be bioavailable in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, typically added to oxidation hair dyes prior to applications. Compared with published results and unpublished in-house in vivo data, the level of confidence was high. Owing to in-house experience over about 5 years in using excised pig skin for measurements of percutaneous penetration and dermal absorption of hair dyes, the technique was found to be successful and appropriate to reduce the number of test animals normally used for toxicological assessments. The essentials of this technique are actually recommended by the SCCNFP (The Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non Food Products intended for Consumers) for the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients, particularly for hair dyes. The corresponding OECD guideline as well as the guidance document has been drafted and is currently in discussion on the level of the national coordinators. PMID:11566592

Steiling, W; Kreutz, J; Hofer, H

35

Genotoxicity studies on professional hair colorists exposed to oxidation hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytogenic repercussions of occupational exposure to oxidation hair dyes were assessed by using three assays in professional hair colorists. The assays were sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in circulating lymphocytes to evaluate the interchange of DNA replication products at apparently homologous chromosomal loci, single cell gel electrophoretic (SCGE) assay to detect the presence of DNA strand breaks\\/alkali-labile damage, and the

S ?arda?; N Aygün; A. E Karakaya

1997-01-01

36

Hair dyes are mutagenic: identification of a variety of mutagenic ingredients.  

PubMed

We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for dectecting carcinogens as mutagens. We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for detecting carcinogens as mutagens. We show here that 89% (150/169) of commercial oxidative-type (hydrogen peroxide) hair dye formulations are mutagenic in this test. Of the 18 components of these hair dyes, nine show various degrees of mutagenicity:2,4-diaminoanisole, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminoanisole, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, m-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, and 2,5-diaminotoluene. Three hair dye components (p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminotuluene, and 2,5-diaminoanisole) become strongly mutagenic after oxidation by H2O2: the mutagenic product of p-phenylenediamine is identified as the known trimer, Bandrowski's base. 2,4-Diaminotoluene, a hair dye component until recently, is also shown to be mutagenic: this compound has been shown to be a carcinogen in rats and is used in large amounts in the polyurethane foam industry. About 20,000,000 people (mostly women) dye their hair in the U.S. and the hazard could be considerable if these chemicals are actually mutagenic and carcinogenic in humans. PMID:1094469

Ames, B N; Kammen, H O; Yamasaki, E

1975-06-01

37

Hair dyes are mutagenic: identification of a variety of mutagenic ingredients.  

PubMed Central

We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for dectecting carcinogens as mutagens. We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for detecting carcinogens as mutagens. We show here that 89% (150/169) of commercial oxidative-type (hydrogen peroxide) hair dye formulations are mutagenic in this test. Of the 18 components of these hair dyes, nine show various degrees of mutagenicity:2,4-diaminoanisole, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminoanisole, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, m-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, and 2,5-diaminotoluene. Three hair dye components (p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminotuluene, and 2,5-diaminoanisole) become strongly mutagenic after oxidation by H2O2: the mutagenic product of p-phenylenediamine is identified as the known trimer, Bandrowski's base. 2,4-Diaminotoluene, a hair dye component until recently, is also shown to be mutagenic: this compound has been shown to be a carcinogen in rats and is used in large amounts in the polyurethane foam industry. About 20,000,000 people (mostly women) dye their hair in the U.S. and the hazard could be considerable if these chemicals are actually mutagenic and carcinogenic in humans. Images

Ames, B N; Kammen, H O; Yamasaki, E

1975-01-01

38

Preparation and evaluation of semi-permanent hair dyes liposome.  

PubMed

This study used phospholipids from fresh egg yolks to prepare liposome-encapsulated semi-permanent hair dyes in different pH buffer solutions and evaluated the functions and colour fastness to washing of the dyes. The extraction ratio of egg yolk phospholipids was 5%, and the purity was 91.8%. Empty liposome solutions were then prepared using high-speed homogenizer with particle size 219-848?nm. After being stored at 4 °C for 28 days, the average particle size of the liposome-encapsulated dye formulas increased from 1.36-1.92?µm to 1.99-2.38?µm. The ?E colour difference values of the five hair extension sets dyed with the control group and hair dyes on the market were of the range 6.56-13.39 after eight times of washing, whereas the ?E values of the four hair extension sets dyed with the liposome-encapsulated dyes were of the range 3.56-5.21 after eight times of washing. The liposome-encapsulated dye at pH 3 showed the best result. PMID:21425943

Chen, Lichou; Chen, Chonyu

2011-01-01

39

Examination of the potential mutagenicity of hair dye constituents using the micronucleus test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 12 compounds which are constitutents of hair dyes or chemically related aromatic amines, aminophenols, their nitroderivatives and aromatic hydroxyderivatives were examined for evidence of mutagenic potential by means of the micronucleus test. None of the compounds tested caused an increase in the incidence of micronucleated erythrocytes after oral dosing.

D. J. N. Hossack; J. C. Richardson

1977-01-01

40

21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). 70.25 Section 70.25 Food and Drugs FOOD...Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes). (a) General labeling requirements....

2009-04-01

41

21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD...Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers...

2009-04-01

42

21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD...Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers...

2010-04-01

43

21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20 Section 70.20 Food and Drugs FOOD...20 Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). Straight colors shall be packaged in containers...

2013-04-01

44

Mutagenicity of four hair dyes in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The hair dye constituents p-phenylenediamine, 2,4-diaminoanisole sulfate, 2,4-diaminotoluene and 4-nitro-0-phenylenediamine were tested for mutagenicity in Drosophila melanogaster. The compounds were given orally to adult males. The induction of sex-linked recessive lethal mutation was used as a measure of mutagenicity. All four of the dyes tested were mutagenic with a peak mutagenic activity in metabolically active germ cells (spermatids and spermatocytes). PMID:406556

Blijleven, W G

1977-04-01

45

Fading modelling of a hair oxidation dye: aminoindamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminoindamine and aminoindoaniline transformation on hair, faster under vacuum than in the presence of oxygen, produces two colourless photoproducts in each case. To facilitate and accelerate the study, modelling of this transformation in solution and on film is carried out. Degassed aqueous solution containing amino acids and poly(vinyl alcohol) films seem to be the good systems to study dyes transformation

Laurence Motz-Schalck; Jacques Lemaire

2002-01-01

46

Allergy to 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol and 4-amino-3-nitrophenol in a hair dye.  

PubMed

Contact allergy to 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol in a hair dye is described for the first time. p-Phenylenediamine is the most common screening allergen when allergic contact dermatitis is suspected, but sometimes the allergen is not sufficient for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis to hair dyes. A 50-year-old woman developed a severe scalp dermatitis and developed vesicular hand eczema for the first time in her life. Patch testing was performed with the European Standard Series. The patch testing was supplemented with a local series of cosmetic allergens and the hairdresser's series. At the initial patch testing, there was a + reaction to nickel and a +? to PPD at days 3 and 7. Further, she reacted with a +? to her own hair collected at day 3 after the hair dying which elicited the dermatitis reaction. Open exposure to the product, which had initiated the dermatitis, was negative both before and after the allergic reaction to the product. None of the screening chemicals in the hairdresser's series gave a definite positive reaction. Only by patch testing with the individual hair dye product ingredients, the patient's reactions were explained. The patient gave a positive patch test to 4-amino-3-nitrophenol and 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol at days 3-4 reading. PMID:15932582

Søsted, Heidi; Menné, Torkil

2005-06-01

47

Lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, iron, and calcium in human hair as a function of gender, age, smoking, and hair dyeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair samples were collected randomly from 110 subjects (55 male and 55 female) ranging in age from (<15–60) years. Each subject was asked to complete a personal questionnaire describing his\\/her sex, age, general health, smoking, use of hair dyes, occupational area, and living habits. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Ca in human hair samples were evaluated using

Adnan Massadeh; Abdul-Wahab El-Rjoob; Hala Smadi

2011-01-01

48

21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.25 Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair...

2010-04-01

49

Regular use of hair dyes and risk of lymphoma in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results Ever use of hair dyes was associated with a non-significant 20% increased risk of lymphoma (OR = 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.7) with a slightly higher risk observed for those using permanent hair dyes (OR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-1.9). No association was observed with duration of use or lifetime doses of hair dyes. Among all lymphomas categories, only chronic

Yolanda Benavente; Natividad Garcia; Eva Domingo-Domenech; Tomás Alvaro; Yawei Zhang; Silvia de Sanjose

50

Association between Personal Use of Hair Dyes and Lymphoid Neoplasms in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dyes have been evaluated as possibly being mutagenic and carcinogenic in animals. Studies of the association between human cancer risk and use of hair dyes have yielded inconsistent results. The authors evaluated the risk of lymphoid malignancies associated with personal use of hair dyes. The analysis included 2,302 incident cases of lymphoid neoplasms and 2,417 hospital- or population-based controls

Silvia de Sanjose; Yolanda Benavente; Alexandra Nieters; Lenka Foretova; Marc Maynadie; Pier Luigi Cocco; Anthony Staines; Martine Vornanen; Paolo Boffetta; Nikolaus Becker; Tomas Alvaro; Paul Brennan

51

Disulfide dyes, composition comprising them and method of dyeing hair  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Formula (I) wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently from each other are a residue of an organic dye: Y.sub.1 and Y.sub.2 each independently from each other are unsubstituted or substituted, straightchain or branched, interrupted or uninterrupted --C.sub.1-C.sub.10alkylene-; --C.sub.5-C.sub.10cycloalkylene-; C.sub.5-C.sub.10arylene; or --C.sub.5-C.sub.10arylene-(C.sub.1-C.sub.10alkylene)-; Z.sub.1 and Z.sub.2 independently from each other are Formula (II) are each independently from each other hydrogen; or unsubstituted or substituted, straight-chain or branched, mono-cyclic or polycyclic, interrupted or uninterrupted C.sub.1-C.sub.14alkyl; C.sub.2-C.sub.14alkenyl; C.sub.6-C.sub.10aryl; C.sub.6-C.sub.10aryl-C.sub.1-C.sub.10alkyl; or C.sub.5-C.sub.10alkyl(C.sub.5-C.sub.10aryl); r, q and n independently from each other are 0 or 1, if n is 0, Z.sub.3 is hydrogen; and if n is 1, Z.sub.3 is --S--: with the proviso that the method does not comprise treating the fiber with an enzyme of the type of a protein disulfidisomerase (EC 5.3.4.1). Further, the present invention relates to novel disulfid compounds, compositions thereof, especially comprising other dyes, and to processes for their preparation.

Eliu; Victor Paul (Lorrach, DE); Frohling; Beate (Steinen, DE); Kauffmann; Dominique (Illzach, FR)

2009-01-13

52

Personal use of hair dyes and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We compared, updated, and expanded the analyses of two previous meta-analyses of personal hair dye exposure and bladder cancer,\\u000a and briefly discussed the biological plausibility of a systemic hazard to human health from exposure to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a key chemical in hair dyes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The meta-analysis included 11 case–control studies and one cohort study. We evaluated heterogeneity across studies and conducted

Michael A. Kelsh; Dominik D. Alexander; Renee M. Kalmes; Patricia A. Buffler

2008-01-01

53

Dyeing behaviours of amino heterocyclic compounds as blue oxidative hair dye precursors applied to keratin fibres.  

PubMed

Several novel heterocyclic compounds based on 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 2,3-dihydroindole have been investigated for their application of colour keratin fibres as blue oxidative dye precursors, especially to human hair. The colourants we studied contained anyone of these dyes (concentration range from 0.005% to 6%), and some common oxidative hair dyes, such as p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine sulphate. Experiments were carried out on the method of mixing hair colourants with H(2)O(2) gel at the ratio of 1 : 1, accompanied by pH = 8?11. It is demonstrated that 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives could be considered as an excellent candidate for blue dyes, and N-methyl-7-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is the most outstanding one among this kind of compounds. They own significant advantages of colour purity, stability and fastness. On the other hand, 2,3-dihydroindoles show the similar colours but not stable and brilliant enough. PMID:21265865

Li, D; Huang, Y; Su, J

2011-01-25

54

Paraphenylene Diamine Hair Dye Poisoning: An Uncommon Cause of Rhabdomyolysis.  

PubMed

Paraphenylene daimine (PPD) is a kind of aromatic amine that is widely used in several industrial products. Women also use PPD added to henna (Lawasonia alba) as a hair dye. Though rare in Western countries, PPD poisoning is quite common in East Africa, India and Middle Eastern countries because it is a traditional product at these countries. Different pathologies were described as caused by PPD ingestion including angioedema of head and neck, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. The authors report a case of systemic poisoning with PPD that lead to angioedema resulting in tracheostomy and rhabdomyolysis. PMID:23723080

Elevli, Murat; Civilibal, Mahmut; Ersoy, Ozlem; Demirkol, Demet; Gedik, Ahmet Hakan

2013-05-31

55

Mutagenicity of a New Hair Dye Ingredient: 4-Ethoxy-m-phenylenediamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ingredient recently introduced in hair dyes, 4-ethoxy-m-phenylenediamine, is mutagenic in histidine-requiring strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Its mutagenic activity is similar to that of the hair dye ingredient it apparently replaced, 4-methoxy-m-phenylenediamine.

Michael J. Prival; Valerie D. Mitchell; Yolanda P. Gomez

1980-01-01

56

Allergic contact dermatitis from hair dye and development of lichen simplex chronicus.  

PubMed

Those who dye their hair frequently manifest allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dye. PPD is known to be the most frequent sensitizer in hair dye, but there has been no documentation of this sensitizer having a role in chronic dermatologic conditions. Our department experienced a case of a 62-year-old woman with lichen simplex chronicus (LSC), who complained of aggravation after hair dyeing and made such an association. We conducted a prospective and retrospective study to further evaluate the clinical associations between the two. In our prospective study, patch testing was performed in selected patients who regularly carried out hair dyeing and also had clinical manifestations of LSC. Also a retrospective examination was conducted in cases where patch testing had been performed with PPD in the past for suspected ACD and further selected cases with concurrent LSC and/or other neurodermatitis. 11 and 14 patients in our prospective and retrospective study, respectively, presented with both LSC and positive findings to PPD. 5 (45.5%) and 4 (28.6%) patients in our prospective and retrospective study showed clinical relevance from clinical improvement after stopping use and rechallenge. We report several cases of patients diagnosed as having LSC and/or prurigo nodularis who showed clinical improvement after discontinuing the use of hair dye. The suggestion can therefore be made that hair dye could be a possible aetiologic agent causing LSC in those using hair dyes. PMID:15291824

Chey, Won Young; Kim, Kyung Lok; Yoo, Tae-Yeon; Lee, Ai-Young

2004-07-01

57

A Method for Assessing Occupational Dermal Exposure to Permanent Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairdressers have an increased risk of developing occupational skin diseases due to exposure to skin irritants and sensitizers. In the present work a method of assessing dermal exposure to permanent hair dyes was developed. The sampling performance characteristics of hand wash sampling with bag rinsing were studied for five hair dye compounds. The effect of residence time, sample load and

MARIE-LOUISE LIND; ANDERS BOMAN; JOUNI SURAKKA; JAN SOLLENBERG; BIRGITTA MEDING

2004-01-01

58

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740...tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal...ingredient that can penetrate your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals....

2010-04-01

59

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740...tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal...ingredient that can penetrate your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals....

2009-04-01

60

21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

2013-04-01

61

In-vitro and in-vivo study of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present experimental results on in vitro and in vivo investigation of dye diffusion into the human skin and hair follicles. It was shown that dyeing as a method of enhancement of the absorption coefficient of hair follicle tissue components can be used for selective photodestruction of hair follicle and surrounding tissues. Strength and depth of hair follicle dyeing inside the skin were determined for various dyes.

Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Sinichkin, Yuri P.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Lakodina, Nina A.; Perpelitzina, Olga A.; Altshuler, Gregory B.; Tuchin, Valery V.

2000-11-01

62

Diffusion of permanent liquid dye molecules in human hair investigated by positron lifetime spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion behavior of a commercial permanent liquid hair dye in human hair has been investigated using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and gravimetric sorption method. The positron technique makes it possible to non-invasively characterize the angstrom sized free volume holes in hair, which are supposed to be express pathways for diffusion of small molecules. The o-Ps lifetime parameters ?3

M. N. Chandrashekara; C. Ranganathaiah

2009-01-01

63

Personal Hair Dye Use and Cancer: A Systematic Literature Review and Evaluation of Exposure Assessment in Studies Published Since 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dyes are widely used, and permanent hair dye is the most commonly used type of product. Permanent hair dye colors are formed by an oxidative process involving arylamines, giving rise to concerns about the potential adverse health effects of long-term exposure, especially cancer. A 1993 International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC) review concluded that evidence was inadequate to evaluate

Dana E. Rollison; Kathy J. Helzlsouer; Susan M. Pinney

2006-01-01

64

Use of hair dyes by patients with breast cancer: a case-control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent finding that many permanent and semipermanent hair dyes are strongly mutagenic in a laboratory test, together with the fact that single female hair-dressers had higher than expected death rates from breast-cancer in 1959-63, prompted a study into the use of hair dyes by patients with breast cancer and by matched controls. There was no difference between the patients

L J Kinlen; R Harris; A Garrod; K Rodriguez

1977-01-01

65

A review of biomonitoring studies measuring genotoxicity in humans exposed to hair dyes.  

PubMed

Hair dye ingredients frequently produce positive results in short-term in vitro genotoxicity tests, although results from in vivo assays are typically negative, especially for ingredients in use today. The use of hair dyes is quite widespread resulting in the exposure both for persons working in hairdressing salons and for individuals who have their hair dyed. This provides the opportunity to add to the data from standard in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests by investigating whether or not genotoxic responses are detected in such exposed individuals. A number of biomonitoring studies of humans exposed to hair dyes have been conducted using either cytogenetic alterations or DNA damage as measures of genotoxicity, or urine mutagenicity as a measure of exposure to genotoxic compounds. In this paper, each study is critically reviewed and interpreted. Overall, there is no consistent evidence of genotoxicity in humans exposed to hair dyes occupationally or through individual use. PMID:19892773

Preston, R Julian; Skare, Julie A; Aardema, Marilyn J

2009-11-05

66

Permanent hair dye-incorporated hyaluronic acid nanoparticles.  

PubMed

We prepared p-phenylenediamine (PDA)-incorporated nanoparticles using hyaluronic acid (HA). PDA-incorporated HA nanoparticles have spherical shapes and sizes were less than 300?nm. The results of FT-IR spectra indicated that PDA-incorporated HA nanoparticles were formed by ion-complex formation between amine group of PDA and carboxyl group of HA. Furthermore, powder-X-ray diffractogram (XRD) measurement showed that intrinsic crystalline peak of PDA disappeared by formation of nanoparticle with HA at XRD measurement. These results indicated that PDA-incorporated HA nanoparticles were formed by ion-complex formation. At drug release study, the higher PDA contents induced faster release rate from nanoparticles. PDA-incorporated nanoparticles showed reduced intrinsic toxicity against HaCaT human keratinocyte cells at MTT assay and apoptosis assay. We suggest that PDA-incorporated HA nanoparticles are promising candidates for novel permanent hair dye. PMID:23088321

Lee, Hye-Young; Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Da-Hye; Choi, Ki-Choon

2012-10-22

67

Hair dye use and risk of bladder cancer in the New England bladder cancer study.  

PubMed

Aromatic amine components in hair dyes and polymorphisms in genes that encode enzymes responsible for hair dye metabolism may be related to bladder cancer risk. We evaluated the association between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk and effect modification by N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1), NAT2, glutathione S-transferase Mu-1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase theta-1 (GSTT1) genotypes in a population-based case-control study of 1193 incident cases and 1418 controls from Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire enrolled between 2001 and 2004. Individuals were interviewed in person using a computer-assisted personal interview to assess hair dye use and information on potential confounders and effect modifiers. No overall association between age at first use, year of first use, type of product, color, duration or number of applications of hair dyes and bladder cancer among women or men was apparent, but increased risks were observed in certain subgroups. Women who used permanent dyes and had a college degree, a marker of socioeconomic status, had an increased risk of bladder cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-8.9]. Among these women, we found an increased risk of bladder cancer among exclusive users of permanent hair dyes who had NAT2 slow acetylation phenotype (OR = 7.3, 95% CI: 1.6-32.6) compared to never users of dye with NAT2 rapid/intermediate acetylation phenotype. Although we found no relation between hair dye use and bladder cancer risk in women overall, we detected evidence of associations and gene-environment interaction with permanent hair dye use; however, this was limited to educated women. These results need confirmation with larger numbers, requiring pooling data from multiple studies. PMID:21678399

Koutros, Stella; Silverman, Debra T; Baris, Dalsu; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Morton, Lindsay M; Colt, Joanne S; Hein, David W; Moore, Lee E; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Cherala, Sai; Schned, Alan; Doll, Mark A; Rothman, Nathaniel; Karagas, Margaret R

2011-08-12

68

Hair Dyes are Mutagenic: Identification of a Variety of Mutagenic Ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously described a sensitive bacterial test for detecting carcinogens as mutagens. We show here that 89% (150\\/169) of commercial oxidative-type (hydrogen peroxide) hair dye formulations are mutagenic in this test. Of the 18 components of these hair dyes, nine show various degrees of mutagenicity: 2,4-diaminoanisole, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, 2,5-diaminoanisole, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, m-phenylenediamine, o-phenylenediamine, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, and 2,5-diaminotoluene. Three hair dye components

Bruce N. Ames; H. O. Kammen; Edith Yamasaki

1975-01-01

69

Hair ignition by dye laser for port-wine stain: risk factors evaluated.  

PubMed

Flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser is the preferred treatment for port-wine stain. Vascular hemoglobin and epidermal melanin are competing sites for dye laser absorption and damage. The case presented illustrates the potential hazard of ignition induced by dye laser treatment on the face of a patient receiving inhalation anesthesia. A 6-year-old girl with almost black hair was treated for a port-wine stain covering most of the right half of her face. She was treated with dye laser under general anesthesia administered by mask. A laser pulse close to the upper part of the eyebrow induced a blaze and the eyebrow was instantly destroyed by the fire. Regrowth of the eyebrow was complete after a few months. Hair specimens of various colors were exposed experimentally to dye laser irradiation in room and oxygen-saturated atmospheres. Risk factors of ignition are high laser dosage, a high oxygen level, repeated pulses and dark colored hair. PMID:11357290

Molin, L; Hallgren, S

1999-04-01

70

Hair dye use and occupational exposure to organic solvents as risk factors for myelodysplastic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the relationships of personal hair dye use and environmental factors to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), we conducted a case-control study in Japan. A total of 111 MDS cases and 830 controls randomly selected from the residents in the same prefecture of cases using telephone directories responded to a health questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for ever having used hair

Chisato Nagata; Hiroyuki Shimizu; Kunitake Hirashima; Eizo Kakishita; Kingo Fujimura; Yoshiyuki Niho; Masamitsu Karasawa; Shigeru Oguma; Yataro Yoshida; Hideaki Mizoguchi

1999-01-01

71

Personal hair dyes use and risk of glioma: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: Use of hair dyes for glioma risk has been investigated in numerous epidemiological studies, but the evidence is inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to estimate the association between hair dyes use and glioma risk. Methods: We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases without any limitations, covering all papers published by the end of March 8, 2013. Cohort and case-control studies reporting relative risk estimates (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) (or data to calculate them) on this issue were included. Random effects models were used to calculate the pooled RRs and corresponding 95% CIs. Results: Four case-control and two cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis. The summary RRs and 95 % CIs for ever users of any hair dyes were 1.132 (0.887-1.446) for all studies, 1.291 (0.938-1.777) for case-control studies, and 0.903 (0.774-1.054) for cohort studies. In the subgroup analysis by geographic regions and sex, the similar results were detected. No significant associations were also observed among the studies which reported data involving permanent hair dye use and duration of any hair dye use. Conclusion: In summary, the results of our study demonstrated that hair dyes use is not associated with risk of glioma.

Shao, Chuan; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Hui, Guo-Zhen; Wang, Zhong

2013-01-01

72

Deaths from hematopoietic and other cancers in relation to permanent hair dye use in a large prospective study (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess in a large prospective study whether women who used permanent hair dye, especially dark dye for many years, experienced increased death rates from hematopoietic and other cancers that have been associated with hair dye use in some previous reports.

Sean F. Altekruse; S. Jane Henley; Michael J. Thun

1999-01-01

73

The bioavailability of cationic azo hair dyes: application of a new in vitro method.  

PubMed

An in vitro technique for the prediction of percutaneous penetration/dermal absorption is recommended by the European SCCNFP (The Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for consumers) for the safety evaluation of particular ingredients. In 2002, this in vitro method became officially accepted at the OECD level and will be published as OECD Guideline 428. Examples are given for its routine application, demonstrating the bioavailability of cationic azo hair dyes out of an aqueous solution compared to data from a realistic standard hair dye formulation. Data from two direct hair dyes, BASIC BROWN 17 and BASIC YELLOW 57, demonstrate the results of applying this new in vitro technique without radiolabelled material. Direct hair dyes are frequently used in semi-permanent cosmetic hair colourations without the additional need for hydrogen peroxide. In the light of the in-house experience over about 5 years in using excised pig skin for measurements of the percutaneous penetration and dermal absorption of hair dyes, the technique was found to be successful and appropriate for reducing the number of test animals normally used for toxicological assessments. PMID:23581160

Steiling, Winfried

2004-06-01

74

Rapid identification of phenylenediamine isomers in henna hair dye products by gas chromatography?mass spectrometry (GC?MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a gas chromatography?mass spectrometry (GC?MS) procedure for identification and quantitation of phenylenediamine isomers in eleven commercial and traditional henna hair dyes. Our results indicate that p?phenylenediamine (p?PD), the least toxic diamine isomer, is most commonly present in the hair dyes selected for this study. While relatively low levels of p?PD are observed in most commercial hair dyes,

Peter Krahn; Huda Hassan; Thomas Mahier; Afrozul Haq

1999-01-01

75

Personal use of hair dye and cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Chinese women.  

PubMed

Although widely studied over the past 40 years, personal use of hair dye generally has not been associated with overall cancer risk. The association between hair dye use and risk of bladder and hematopoietic cancers has been less conclusive. Most hair dye studies have been case-control studies conducted in Caucasian populations. We examined the relationship between personal hair dye use and cancer risk in a prospective cohort of 70,366 Chinese women. After an average of 7 years of follow up, 2437 women were newly diagnosed with cancer by 31 December 2005. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cancer risk associated with hair dye use, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Compared with women who reported no hair dye use, ever users had an overall cancer risk of 0.89 (95% CI 0.82, 0.97). No significant association was observed for several common cancers, including cancers of the breast (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.78, 1.09), lung (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.62, 1.09), stomach (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.66, 1.21), and colorectum (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.84, 1.28). We also found no significant association with most other cancers, including bladder cancer (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.56, 2.35) and hematopoietic cancers overall (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.59, 1.35) or their subtypes, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and leukemia. We generally found no evidence of an association between personal use of hair dye and cancer risk, although our study is limited by small numbers for certain cancer types. PMID:19385970

Mendelsohn, Julie Bloch; Li, Qi-Zhai; Ji, Bu-Tian; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Yu, Kai; Rothman, Nathaniel; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Chow, Wong-Ho

2009-03-09

76

An historical review of the use of dye precursors in the formulation of commercial oxidation hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changing palette of precursor used in commercial oxidation hair dyes over the period 1900 to 1997 is reviewed. Reasons for changes in the palette are discussed in the light of regulatory and patent activity together with comment on the changes in the paradigm for patentability of combinations of known ingredients in known generic combination. ©

John F Corbett

1999-01-01

77

Analysis of hair by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

as sulfate-containing surfactants. A primary reaction in the weathering of human hair involves degradation of disulfide sulfur, and ultraviolet radiation is a principal cause of this degradation. This reaction occurs primarily at or near the hair surface and appears to involve degradation of cystine residues via the C-S fission mechanism. Chemical bleaching of disulfide in hair by alkaline hydrogen peroxide

C. R. ROBBINS; M. K. BAHL

78

Simultaneous determination of p-phenylenediamines and aminophenols in hair dye products: interlaboratory study.  

PubMed

An isocratic HPLC method routinely used in the National Laboratory for Food and Drug Analysis of Taiwan was validated for the simultaneous determination of six aminophenols and phenylenediamines in commercial hair dyes. After extraction of the commercial hair dye product, the dye intermediates were determined by HPLC. Recoveries from the extraction were between 91.6 and 96.5%. The method was then evaluated in an interlaboratory collaborative study according to AOAC guidelines. Five laboratories in Taiwan participated in the study that analyzed the test product, which was preanalyzed by two laboratories to ensure acceptable homogeneity. The RSD(r) and RSD(R) values of the measurements obtained for the dye intermediates in the product were < or = 3.75 and < or = 5.95%, respectively. The method demonstrated acceptable reproducibility, as evidenced by HorRat values of 0.82- 0.97. The applicability of the method to the determination of oxidative hair dye components was further demonstrated in analyses of two different products. The method is thus proposed to be used by manufacturers and laboratories to evaluate the quality of commercial hair dyes containing the six aminophenols and phenylenediamines. PMID:21563702

Yeh, Yu-Chun; Wu, Hui-Jung; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Chin; Chen, Yu-Pen; Tzou, Mei-Chyun; Tsai, Jui-Chen

79

Dermatitis Caused by Hair Dye (Quinone Produced by the Action of Aqueous Hydrogen Peroxide on p-Phenylenediamine Hydrochloride), by Juan De Azúa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first issue of Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas, Juan de Azúa published a magnificent article on contact dermatitis caused by hair dyes, which reflects his profound knowledge of allergy and how the skin responds to chemical stimuli. It gives a brilliant description of irritative and allergic dermatitis, although without naming the allergic form explicitly. Of note is how he is concerned

L. Conde

2009-01-01

80

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section 864.1850 Food...HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

2009-04-01

81

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section 864.1850 Food...HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

2010-04-01

82

Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: An appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP) guideline for testing of hair dyes for genotoxic\\/mutagenic\\/carcinogenic potential has been reviewed. The battery of six in vitro tests recommended therein differs substantially from the batteries of two or three in vitro tests recommended in other guidelines. Our evaluation of the chemical types used in hair dyes and comparison with

D. J. Kirkland; L. Henderson; D. Marzin; L. Müller; J. M. Parry; G. Speit; D. J. Tweats; G. M. Williams

2005-01-01

83

Consumer available permanent hair dye products cause major allergic immune activation in an animal model.  

PubMed

Background p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and related substances are ingredients of more than two-thirds of oxidative (permanent) hair dyes currently used. Although PPD is a potent skin sensitizer in predictive assays, the extent to which permanent hair dyes sensitize humans has been questioned due to the in-use conditions, e.g. the presence of couplers in the hair dye gel and rapid oxidation using a developer. Objectives To study the skin sensitizing potential of permanent hair dyes in mice. Methods Two different permanent hair dye products containing PPD were studied in CBA mice using a modified version of the local lymph node assay. The colour gel and developer (oxidant) were tested separately and in combination. Response was measured by ear swelling and cytokine production in ear tissue and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immune cellular response in the draining lymph nodes was analysed by flow cytometry. Results Application of the colour gel both alone and mixed with the developer induced skin production of interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6 as well as systemic IL-6 release. Both treatments induced B- and T-cell infiltration as well as T-cell proliferation within the draining lymph nodes. Treatment with the mixture induced at least 20% more skin inflammation, cytokine production and CD4+ T-cell activation compared with the colour gel alone. Conclusions Consumer available PPD-containing permanent hair dyes can be potent and rapid immune activators. Mixing the colour gel and developer (oxidant) increased the induction of skin inflammation compared with application of the colour gel alone. PMID:19785606

Bonefeld, C M; Larsen, J M; Dabelsteen, S; Geisler, C; White, I R; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

2009-07-20

84

Pre-testing in hair dye users: an assessment of the Colourstart system.  

PubMed

To avoid adverse reactions to allergenic ingredients, manufacturers recommend "sensitivity testing" prior to use of hair dyes. However, there is no standardised method and the recommendation is often not followed. We assessed the ability of a standardised test system from one manufacturer (Colourstart, a small skin surface water-slide transfer containing p-phenylenediamine (PPD)) for its ability to elicit a reaction in those with a previously diagnosed contact allergy to PPD, the main hair dye allergen. Thirty volunteers with diagnosed PPD allergy (10 each of 3+, 2+ and 1+) were assessed with the Colourstart system according to the manufacturer's instructions. Responses were recorded after 48h exposure. Colourstart identified 100% of those with a 3+ reaction to the diagnostic patch test, 80% of the 2+ reactors and just 10% of the 1+ reactors. Thus, Colourstart successfully identified those individuals with the greatest sensitivity to PPD, who might therefore be at risk of a severe reaction if they dyed their hair. It also identified 83% of those who reported a severe/very severe history of hair dye adverse reaction. However, its proper use and interpretation are necessary if those consumers most at risk are to have the information necessary to avoid serious adverse reactions to hair dyes. PMID:19251577

Basketter, David A; English, John

2009-02-27

85

Hair dye use is not associated with risk for bladder cancer: Evidence from a case-control study in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased bladder cancer risk has been suggested among users of hair dyes. We evaluated this association among females in a hospital-based case-control study in Spain (152 female incident cases, 166 female controls). The effect of hair dye use was also evaluated among potentially susceptible subgroups defined by NAT1, NAT2, CYP1A2, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes. Use of any hair

Manolis Kogevinas; Francisco Fernandez; Montserrat Garcia-Closas; Adonina Tardon; Reina Garcia-Closas; Consol Serra; Alfredo Carrato; Gemma Castano-Vinyals; Meredith Yeager; Stephen J. Chanock; Josep Lloreta; Nathaniel Rothman; Francisco X. Real; Mustafa Dosemeci; Nuria Malats; Debra Silverman

2006-01-01

86

Hair cosmetics.  

PubMed

The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products. PMID:23974582

Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

87

Chemical Hair Relaxers Have Adverse Effects a Myth or Reality  

PubMed Central

Context: Hair plays an important role in one's personality and builds confidence. Now-a-days, chemical hair relaxers are used very commonly in the society. We document the adverse effects reported by the sample that have used any one of the professional chemical hair relaxers. Aim: To study the adverse effects reported by the sample who underwent repeated chemical hair relaxing. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire based study done on a sample taken from a medical college and hospital campus in Mangalore. Materials and Methods: The sample was restricted to females and to those who underwent it more than once. A questionnaire was given to a sample of 90, which matched our criteria. Statistical Analysis: SPSS software 17. Results: Adverse effects reported by the sample after undergoing the procedure were found to be a high 95.56%, out of which the following are the common adverse effects reported; frizzy hair in 67%, dandruff in 61%, hair loss in 47%, thinning and weakening of hair in 40%, greying of hair 22%, and split ends in only 17%. Conclusions: Very few studies have been conducted on the adverse effects of hair straightening products in India. From our study, it can be stated that most of the samples had adverse effects, which was as high as 95.56%. Hence from the details elicited from this study, we can conclude that, usage of chemical hair relaxers does cause adverse effects and is “not a myth.” Thus, it is necessary to make available a less harmful chemical hair relaxer to the society.

Shetty, Vinma H; Shetty, Narendra J; Nair, Dhanya Gopinath

2013-01-01

88

Final report on the safety assessment of amino nitrophenols as used in hair dyes.  

PubMed

2-Amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 4-amino-2-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol, and 4-hydroxypropylamino-3-nitrophenol are substituted aromatic compounds used as semipermanent (nonoxidative) hair colorants and as toners in permanent (oxidative) hair dye products. All ingredients in this group except 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, and 4-amino-2-nitrophenol have reported uses in cosmetics at use concentrations from 2% to 9%. The available toxicity studies for these amino nitrophenol hair dyes did not suggest safety concerns except for the potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of 4-amino-2-nitrophenol. 2-Amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol, and 4-hydroxypropylamino-3-nitrophenol are safe as hair dye ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment, but the data are insufficient to make a safety determination for 4-amino-2-nitrophenol. PMID:20086194

Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

89

Nanoscale characterization of human hair and hair conditioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber. Hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners, along with damaging processes such as chemical dyeing and permanent wave treatments, affect the maintenance and grooming process and are important to study because they alter many hair properties. Nanoscale characterization of the cellular structure, mechanical properties, and morphological, frictional, and adhesive properties (tribological properties)

Bharat Bhushan

2008-01-01

90

Investigations on the effect of repeated hair dyeing on sister chromatid exchanges.  

PubMed

The numbers of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were determined in the lymphocytes of ten volunteers (males and females) whose hair was dyed 13 times at intervals of 3-5 wk. Each volunteer used throughout the study a single commercial preparation containing a mixture of aminotoluenes, aminophenols and hydroxybenzenes, and in some cases naphthol, as the active ingredients. The findings were compared with those in a control group matched for age and sex. SCE were determined in blood samples taken before the first exposure, after a sham dyeing and after the first three and the last three actual dyeing procedures. Volunteers were carefully screened for disease, for use of medicines and for radiation exposure. Consumption of alcohol was the same in both groups, but there were more smokers in the treated group. No evidence was found of any effect of repeated hair dyeing on the frequency of SCE. In both the controls and in the hair-dyed subjects a slight decrease in SCE was detected during the course of the experiment; this was independent of sex as well as of the dyeing procedure. PMID:6686584

Turanitz, K; Kovac, R; Tuschl, H; Pavlicek, E

1983-12-01

91

Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Amino Nitrophenols as Used in Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-Amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 4-amino-2-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol, and 4-hydroxypropylamino-3-nitrophenol are substituted aromatic compounds used as semipermanent (nonoxidative) hair colorants and as toners in permanent (oxidative) hair dye products. All ingredients in this group except 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, and 4-amino-2-nitrophenol have reported uses in cosmetics at use concentrations from 2% to 9%. The available toxicity studies for these amino nitrophenol

Christina L. Burnett; Wilma F. Bergfeld; Donald V. Belsito; Curtis D. Klaassen; James G. Marks; Ronald C. Shank; Thomas J. Slaga; Paul W. Snyder; F. Alan Andersen

2009-01-01

92

Hair Dyes and Risk of Glioma Among Nebraska Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of brain cancer is not well understood. We conducted a population-based case–control study among 112 white women in Nebraska who were newly diagnosed with glioma between July 1988 and June 1993, and 215 controls, to identify risk factors for this disease. A 1.7-fold increased risk of glioma was observed for women who ever used hair coloring products (95%

Ellen F. Heineman; Mary H. Ward; Rodney D. McComb; Dennis D. Weisenburger; Shelia Hoar Zahm

2005-01-01

93

Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

2013-05-01

94

Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin.  

PubMed

The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm(-1) to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm(-1) were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm(-1), from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair. PMID:23537511

Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

2013-02-21

95

Analysis of basic hair dyes by HPLC with on-line post-column photochemical derivatisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed phase liquid chromatographic method is proposed for the analysis of basic hair dyes (raw materials and colourant formulations). The performance of the method was enhanced by introducing post-column on-line photochemical derivatisation in combination with a Diode Array Detector. On-line photoderivatisation provided an effective way of selectively transforming the analytes to compounds with different spectral properties. For each analyte

V. Andrisano; R. Gotti; A. M. DiPietra; V. Cavrini

1994-01-01

96

Separation and determination of basic dyes formulated in hair care products by capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capillary electrophoretic (CE) method for analyzing five basic dyes (Basic Red 76, Basic Brown 16, Basic Yellow 57, Basic Brown 17 and Basic Blue 99) sold under the trade name Arianor, which are commonly used in hair care products, has been established. A buffer of 100mM acetic acid–ammonium acetate (50:50) containing 90% (v\\/v) methanol was employed in a fused-silica

Yoshinori Masukawa

2006-01-01

97

Neutrophilic and eosinophilic dermatitis caused by contact allergic reaction to paraphenylenediamine in hair dye.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes can cause systemic as well as cutaneous allergic reactions such as neutrophilic and eosinophilic dermatitis. The symptoms are often severe. The acute lesion is normally histologically indistinguishable from any eczematous reaction with marked spongiosis. OBSERVATIONS We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis caused by the use of hair dye containing PPD that developed in a patient who had been using the same hair dye for many years. Her symptoms included scalp dermatitis and widespread skin lesions as well as lymphadenopathy and quite possibly dyspnea resembling asthma. What is most remarkable about this case is the histopathologic finding of neutrophilic cellulitis and a marked neutrophilic infiltrate with variable spongiosis. This unique finding was confirmed by histologic analysis of a patch test lesion specimen. CONCLUSION It is always important to consider contact allergic dermatitis as a cause of dermatitis because of the variable presentation of the disease, including unique histologic findings that do not fit the conventional picture, as in the present case. PMID:23165836

Lönngren, Vincent; Young, Ewa; Simanaitis, Mecius; Svedman, Cecilia

2012-11-01

98

[Simultaneous determination of 11 aminophenols in hair dyes by high performance liquid chromatography].  

PubMed

An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 aminophenols in direct and oxidized hair dyes by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The samples were extracted with methanol using sodium bisulfite for anti-oxidation. The purification was carried out with the high speed frozen centrifugation. The separation was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB C18 column with the mobile phases of acetonitrile and an ion pair system of sodium heptanesulfonate and phosphate under a gradient elution. The analytes were detected at three different wavelengths of 230, 270 and 400 nm. In the concentration range of 0.05 - 500 mg/L, the correlation coefficients for the 11 aminophenols were not less than 0.9992. The limits of quantification including 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl) amino-3-nitrophenol were 5 mg/kg. Other aminophenols including 4-aminophenol, 4-methyl aminophenol, 3-aminophenol, 2-aminophenol, 5-amino-o-cresol, 4-amino-3-methylphenol, 5-(2-hydroxyethyl) amino-o-cresol and 2-amino-4-nitrophenol were 20 mg/kg. The recoveries of the aminophenols spiked at different levels ranged from 88.5% to 109. 5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) within the range of 2.2% - 8.3%. The commercially available hair dye samples were analyzed for the aminophenols and the results showed that the method was suitable for the determination of the 11 aminophenols in direct and oxidized hair dyes. PMID:23285966

Zhu, Weixia; Wang, Caijuan; Yang, Jizhou; Wei, Wei; Sun, Zhuanlian; Zhang, Shusheng

2012-09-01

99

Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

2010-09-01

100

Final report on the safety assessment of 3-methylamino-4-nitrophenoxyethanol as used in hair dyes.  

PubMed

3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol is a semipermanent (direct) hair colorant used in 21 hair dyes and colors at use concentrations up to 0.15%. When applied to human skin in vitro, 0.42% of the applied 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol was recovered in the receptor fluid. In an acute toxicity study using rats, 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol at 1000 mg/kg resulted in hypoactivity, piloerection, dyspnea, and lateral recumbency in animals that later died. The surviving rats exhibited none of these signs. No abnormalities were found at necropsy. Subchronic toxicity tests using rats fed 25, 100, or 400 mg/kg day(-1)3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol for up to 93 days resulted in yellow urine and tails with all three dose levels and yellow fur occurred in the two high-dose groups. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for 3-Methyl-amino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol was 100 mg/kg day(- 1). Two percent 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol was a slight ocular irritant but not a dermal irritant using rabbits and it was not a sensitizer using the murine local lymph node Assay. There were no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects observed in doses up to 750 mg/kg day(-1) in rats; the NOAEL was defined as 100 mg/kg. 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol was not genotoxic in in vitro assays including multiple strains of Salmonela typhimurium and Escherichia coli, Chinese Hamster ovary cells, and human lymphocyte cultures. No carcinogenicity studies were available, nor were any clinical tests reported. As reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, there are gaps in the data available for of 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol. In particular, there is an absence of data from chronic animal studies. The Expert Panel considered that the low percutaneous absorption and that the available developmental toxicity data and the subchronic toxicity data, both of which resulted in relatively high NOAEL values, alleviate concern about the absence of chronic exposure data. In addition, several studies demonstrated that 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol is not genotoxic. Direct hair dyes, of which 3-Methylamino-4-Nitro-phenoxyethanol is one, although not the focus in all investigations, appear to have little evidence of an association with adverse events as reported in hair dye epidemiology studies. The lack of phototoxicity data was not considered to be a concern because this is a direct hair dye ingredient, which has little skin contact and residual color is attached to hair, not normally to skin. No human skin sensitization or irritation data were available. However, hair dyes containing 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol, as coal tar hair dye products, are exempt from the principal adulteration provision and from the color additive provisions in sections 601 and 706 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, when the label bears a caution statement and patch test instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation. The Expert Panel expects that following this procedure will prospectively identify individuals who would have an irritation/sensitization reaction and allow them to avoid significant exposures and concluded that 3-Methylamino-4-Nitrophenoxyethanol is safe as a cosmetic ingredient in the practices of use and use concentrations described in this safety report. PMID:18830863

Becker, Lillian C

2008-01-01

101

Hair as a monitor of toxic chemicals exposure  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of using hair analysis as a monitor of exposure to hydrazines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. Two female Hartley guinea pigs injected with 0.6 milligrams (mg) of Aroclor-1254 had analyzable concentrations of the PCB in their hair. Analysis was made using glass capillary gas chromatography with an electron-capture detector. The levels ranged from 10 picograms/milligram (pg/mg) of Aroclor-1254 in washed hair to 100pg/mg in unwashed hair. Female Fischer-344 rats injected intraperitoneally with 60mg/kg unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH), 10mg/kg monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and/or 10mg/kg hydrazine did not have detectable amounts of these chemicals in their hair at 14, 30 or 42 days after injection. The hair samples did take up the hydrazines when suspended above solutions of the test compounds. The authors concluded that analyzing the PCB content of hair may be useful in providing a history of on-the-job PCB exposure.

Jones, P.F.; Adams, S.; Baumgartner, W.A.

1982-08-31

102

Validation of an analytical procedure for the determination of oxidative hair dyes in cosmetic formulations.  

PubMed

A high range and variety of cosmetic formulations that contain oxidative hair dyes and matrix-forming compounds have been industrially developed over recent years and are now available on the international market. Member states of the European Union are responsible for conducting analyses of cosmetic products as deemed necessary by law and European regulation enforcement. Therefore, inspection authorities as well as the cosmetics trade and industry need validated analytical methods for the identification, characterization, and/or quality control of specific active ingredients or formulations with the aim of implementing the European Union Cosmetic Directives (76/768/ECC, 95/17/EC). In this frame, we validated a candidate reference method that enables the identification and quantification of hair dye-forming compounds. This method consists of a separation by RP-HPLC coupled with a DAD after a liquid-liquid extraction procedure for separating matrix components from the dye-forming compounds. The validation of the method includes common criteria such as the repeatability of the analysis and the establishment of figures of merit, as well as statistical evaluations and quality assurance in order to follow the recommendations of the Eurachem guide for analytical measurements. PMID:11917255

Vincent, Ursula; Bordin, Guy; Rodriguez, Adela R

103

Determination of aromatic amines in hair dye and henna samples by ion-pair extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been proposed for the determination of carcinogenic and toxic aromatic amines in hair dye, henna and dyed hair samples. The method includes ion-pair extraction of aromatic amines from aqueous samples with bis-2-ethylhexylphosphate (BEHPA) released after solving the samples in acidic solution followed by sonication, derivatisation of compounds with isobutyl chloroformate (IBCF) and their GC-MS analysis in both electron impact (EI) and positive and negative ion chemical ionisation (PNICI) mode as their isobutyloxycarbonyl (isoBOC) derivatives. The obtained recoveries of aromatic amines ranged from 92.2 to 98.4% and the precision of this method, as indicated by the relative standard deviations (RSDs) was within the range of 0.7-4.2%. The detection limits obtained from calculations by using GC-MS results based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)=3 were within the range from 0.02 to 0.20 ng/g. In the present study, the commercially available 54 permanent hair dye, 35 modified or natural henna and 15 dyed hair samples were analysed for the aromatic amines by the proposed method and the method was shown to be suitable to determine the aromatic amine ingredients and metabolites of these commercial products. PMID:18280687

Akyüz, Mehmet; Ata, Sevket

2007-12-15

104

Determination of phenylenediamine isomers in hair dyes by coal cinders micro-column extraction and MEKC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using beta-cyclodextrins (?-CDs) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium\\u000a hexafluorophosphates (ionic liquids) as additives was successfully developed for determination of para-, meta-, and ortho-phenylenediamines isomers (p-P, m-P, and o-P) in hair dyes. To improve the sensitivity of the MEKC-UV, a simple and cheap\\u000a flow injection (FI) technique using a micro-column packed with coal cinders (the by-products from

Yiwei Wu; Feng Jiang; Lin Chen; Jing Zheng; Zhenli Deng; Qing Tao; Jing Zhang; Lijuan Han; Xiaoshu Wei; Aimin Yu; Haili Zhang

2011-01-01

105

Internal exposure of hairdressers to permanent hair dyes: a biomonitoring study using urinary aromatic diamines as biomarkers of exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To determine whether the occupational exposure of hairdressers to permanent hair dyes can be quantified by the use of biological\\u000a monitoring of urinary aromatic diamines as one of the main constituents and to compare these levels to those recently determined\\u000a in persons after personal application of hair dyes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fifty-two hairdressers (40 female and 12 male) from 16 hairdresser salons in

M. GubeK; K. Heinrich; P. Dewes; P. Brand; T. Kraus; T. Schettgen

2011-01-01

106

Metabolite screening of aromatic amine hair dyes using in vitro hepatic models.  

PubMed

Aromatic amines and heterocyclic amines are widely used ingredients in permanent hair dyes. However, little has been published on their potential for oxidation via hepatic cytochrome P450s. Therefore, the authors screened nine such compounds for their potential to undergo oxidative metabolism in human liver microsomes. Toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA), p-aminophenol, m-aminophenol, p-methylaminophenol, N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-phenylenediamine, and 1-hydroxyethyl-4,5-diaminopyrazole showed no evidence of oxidative metabolism. Oxidized metabolites of 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene (AHT), 2-methyl-5- hydroxyethylaminophenol (MHEAP), and phenyl methyl pyrazolone (PMP) were detected, but there was no evidence of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent covalent binding to microsomal protein, suggesting that these are not reactive metabolites. Metabolism of AHT, MHEAP, PMP, and TDA was further studied in human hepatocytes. All these compounds underwent conjugation, but no oxidative metabolites were found. The results suggest that none of the hair dye ingredients tested showed evidence of hepatic metabolism to potentially biologically reactive oxidized metabolites. PMID:19845432

Skare, J A; Hewitt, N J; Doyle, E; Powrie, R; Elcombe, C

2009-11-01

107

Determination of nitroanilines in hair dye using polymer monolith microextraction coupled with HPLC.  

PubMed

In this study, a novel method for the determination of nitroanilines in hair dye samples has been developed based on poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith microextraction (PMME) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Four nitroanilines, p-nitroaniline (PNAL), m-nitroaniline (MNAL), o-nitroaniline (ONAL), and 2,4-dinitroaniline (DNAL), are studied as representatives. To obtain optimum extraction efficiency, several experimental parameters including sample flow rate, sample volume, sample pH, and eluent flow rate have been investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the linear regression coefficients of the standard curves are greater than 0.9990. The limits of detection for p-nitroaniline, m-nitroaniline, o-nitroaniline, and 2,4-dinitroaniline are 0.012, 0.008, 0.018, and 0.005 ?g/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday relative standard deviations are less than 3.1 and 5.4%, respectively. The proposed method is simple, rapid, sensitive, and competent when used for the determination of nitroanilines in hair dye samples and the accuracy is assessed through recovery experiments. PMID:21284083

Xiao, Pengfei; Bao, Changli; Jia, Qiong; Su, Riyan; Zhou, Weihong; Jia, Jianbo

2011-01-31

108

Simultaneous determination of 13 components in oxidative hair dyes by high-performance chromatography using an ion-pair reagent.  

PubMed

A reliable high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 13 dye intermediates, including benzenediamines, aminophenols, benzenediols, naphthalenediol, and diaminopyridine, in oxidative hair dyes. Samples were extracted with 50% ethanol by adding sodium dithionite to prevent oxidation. The influences of buffer type, buffer pH, ion-pair reagent, and elution gradient were studied. A C18 column with aqueous compatibility and acetonitrile-citric acid mobile phase system (pH 2.6) with sodium 1-octanesulfonate as ion-pair reagent were selected for the separation of target compounds. Detection was performed by a diode array detector, (DAD) and two different wavelengths (280 and 331 nm) were used for quantification. Results showed that 13 dye intermediates got good separation within 25 min. The detection limits of these compounds were in the range of 0.2-2 mg/l. The calibration curves were linear within 2-500 mg/l with 0.999 as a typical correlation coefficient. The recoveries of target compounds in hair dyes ranged from 81.7% to 102.0% with four addition levels. The method described was validated by five different laboratories and successfully applied to the analysis of commercial oxidative hair dyes. PMID:23089354

Lai, Ying; Wang, Honghui; Dong, Qingmu; Chen, Hexiu; Lin, Rui; Cai, Yanping

109

Genetic Variations in Xenobiotic Metabolic Pathway Genes, Personal Hair Dye Use, and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

From 1996 to 2000, the authors conducted a population-based case-control study among Connecticut women to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in xenobiotic metabolic pathway genes modifies the relation between hair dye use and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. No effect modifications were found for women who started using hair dyes in 1980 or afterward. For women who started using hair dye before 1980 as compared with never users, a statistically significantly increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma was found for carriers of CYP2C9 Ex3-52C>T TT/CT genotypes (odds ratio (OR)?=?2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 6.1), CYP2E1 -332T>A AT/AA genotypes (OR?=?2.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.4), a homozygous or heterozygous 3-base-pair deletion in intron 6 of GSTM3 (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1), GSTP1 Ex5-24A>G AA genotypes (OR?=?1.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.9), or NAT2 genotypes conferring intermediate/rapid acetylator status (OR?=?1.6, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.7). The observed associations were mainly seen for follicular lymphoma. In contrast, no significantly increased risk was observed for starting hair dye use before 1980 (relative to never use) among women who were homozygous wild-type for the CYP2C9, CYP2E1, or GSTM3 polymorphisms, women carrying 1 or 2 copies of the variant GSTP1 allele, or women who were slow NAT2 acetylators. A possible role of genetic variation in xenobiotic metabolism in the carcinogenicity of hair dye use needs to be confirmed in larger studies.

Zhang, Yawei; Hughes, Kathryn J.; Zahm, Shelia Hoar; Holford, Theodore R.; Dai, Li; Bai, Yana; Han, Xuesong; Qin, Qin; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zhu, Yong; Leaderer, Brian; Zheng, Tongzhang

2009-01-01

110

Azo dye decolorization assisted by chemical and biogenic sulfide.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of chemical and biogenic sulfide in decolorizing three sulfonated azo dyes and the robustness of a sulfate-reducing process for simultaneous decolorization and sulfate removal were evaluated. The results demonstrated that decolorization of azo dyes assisted by chemical sulfide and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) was effective. In the absence of AQDS, biogenic sulfide was more efficient than chemical sulfide for decolorizing the azo dyes. The performance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in attached-growth sequencing batch reactors suggested the absence of competition between the studied azo dyes and the sulfate-reducing process for the reducing equivalents. Additionally, the presence of chemical reduction by-products had an almost negligible effect on the sulfate removal rate, which was nearly constant (94%) after azo dye injection. PMID:23500427

Prato-Garcia, Dorian; Cervantes, Francisco J; Buitrón, Germán

2013-02-20

111

Determination of phenylenediamine isomers in hair dyes by coal cinders micro-column extraction and MEKC.  

PubMed

A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using beta-cyclodextrins (?-CDs) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphates (ionic liquids) as additives was successfully developed for determination of para-, meta-, and ortho-phenylenediamines isomers (p-P, m-P, and o-P) in hair dyes. To improve the sensitivity of the MEKC-UV, a simple and cheap flow injection (FI) technique using a micro-column packed with coal cinders (the by-products from combustion in a boiler) as solid-phase extractant was also investigated. In the presence of 20 mmol L(-1) phosphates at pH 5.5, addition of 12 mmol L(-1) ionic liquids and 8 mmol L(-1) ?-CDs greatly improved the separation efficiency. The three analytes could be quantitatively adsorbed by coal cinders, and desorbed readily with 0.15 mL of 0.01 mol L(-1) NaOH. Under the optimum conditions, an enrichment factor (EF) of 33.3 was obtained, and determination limits of p-P, m-P, and o-P were 1.97?×?10(-7), 0.99?×?10(-7), and 0.61?×?10(-7) mol L(-1), respectively. The adsorption capacities of the coal cinders micro-column for p-P, m-P, and o-P were all 1.20 mg g(-1). The presented procedure was successfully applied to the determination of p-P, m-P, and o-P in hair dyes with satisfactory results. PMID:21475944

Wu, Yiwei; Jiang, Feng; Chen, Lin; Zheng, Jing; Deng, Zhenli; Tao, Qing; Zhang, Jing; Han, Lijuan; Wei, Xiaoshu; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Haili

2011-04-08

112

Nanotribological Characterization of Human Hair and Skin Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber. Maintaining the health, feel, shine, color, softness, and overall aesthetics of the hair is highly desired. Hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners, along with damaging processes such as chemical dyeing and permanent wave treatments, affect the maintenance and grooming process and are important to study because they alter many hair properties.

Bharat Bhushan; Carmen LaTorre

113

Chemical hair relaxation and adverse outcomes among Negroid women in South West Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The use of chemical hair relaxers has found widesp read use in African Negroid women because of the desire to straighten their cur ly hair. The hair texture in Negroids is essentially coily and the process of straightening makes easier to comb and style. This beautification process, however, is not without its own hazards to the users. We document

Olayinka A Olasode

2009-01-01

114

21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains...hematology. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). These devices are exempt from the premarket...

2013-04-01

115

Dust Explosibility of Chemicals, Drugs, Dyes, and Pesticides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dust explosion data obtained in laboratory tests by the Bureau of Mines are presented for 73 chemical compounds and mixtures, 29 drugs, 27 dyes, and 46 pesticides. Information is given on ignition temperatures of cloud and layer, minimum igniting energy, ...

H. G. Dorsett J. Nagy

1968-01-01

116

Determination of 2,5toluylenediamine (2,5-TDA) and aromatic amines in urine after personal application of hair dyes: kinetics and doses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The personal use of hair dye products is currently under discussion due to the potentially increased risk of bladder cancer\\u000a among long-time users described in epidemiological literature. In order to investigate the dermal absorption of aromatic diamines\\u000a as well as aromatic amines possibly present as contaminants in hair dye formulations, we conducted a biomonitoring study under\\u000a real-life conditions and calculated

Thomas Schettgen; K. Heinrich; T. Kraus; Monika Gube

2011-01-01

117

Human systemic exposure to a [ 14C]- para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the absorption of a commercial [14C]-PPD-containing oxidative dark-shade hair dye in human volunteers as well as in vitro using human or pig ear skin. The hair of eight male volunteers was cut to a standard length, dyed, washed, dried, clipped and collected. Hair, washing water, materials used in the study and a 24-h scalp wash were collected for

Frédérique Hueber-Becker; Gerhard J. Nohynek; Wim J. A. Meuling; Florence Benech-Kieffer; Hervé Toutain

2004-01-01

118

Dermal carcinogenicity study by mouse?skin painting with 2,4?toluenediamine alone or in representative hair dye formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chronic toxicity of 2,4?toluenediamine (2,4?TDA) alone or in combination with a hair dye complex (2,5?toluenediamine, p?phenylenedlamine, and resorcinol) was studied in Swiss?Webster mice of both sexes by a skin?painting technique. The predominant neoplasms seen in these mice were primary pulmonary adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Skin neoplasms were seen in most groups of mice, including untreated control mice. Statistical analysis of

Albert L. Giles Jr; Choong W. Chung; Choudari Kommineni

1976-01-01

119

Simultaneous determination of phenylenediamine isomers and dihydroxybenzene isomers in hair dyes by capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with amperometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous determination of three isomers of phenylenediamines (o, m, and p-phenylenediamine) and two isomers of dihydroxybenzenes (catechol and resorcinol) in hair dyes was performed by capillary\\u000a zone electrophoresis coupled with amperometric detection (CZE–AD). The effects of working electrode potential, pH and concentration\\u000a of running buffer, separation voltage, and injection time on CZE–AD were investigated. Under the optimum conditions the

Shuqing Dong; Langzhu Chi; Shan Zhang; Pingang He; Qingjiang Wang; Yuzhi Fang

2008-01-01

120

Influence of dyes, salts and auxiliary chemicals on the nanofiltration of reactive dye baths: experimental observations and model verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dyes, salts and auxiliary chemicals in reactive dye baths on the separation performance of nanofiltration membranes. A reactive dye bath was simulated for this purpose with auxiliary chemicals. A DS5-type nanofiltration membrane was used in the experimental runs. Performance of the nanofiltration membrane was evaluated by measuring permeate flux,

Ismail Koyuncu

2003-01-01

121

Quantitative detection of chemical compounds in human hair with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy  

PubMed Central

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is used to determine the distribution and concentration of selected compounds in intact human hair. By generating images based on ratiometric CARS contrast, quantitative concentration maps of both water and externally applied d-glycine are produced in the cortex of human hair fibers. Both water and d-glycine are found to homogeneously distribute throughout the cortical regions of the hair. The ability to selectively detect molecular agents in hair fibers is of direct relevance to understanding the chemical and physical mechanisms that underlie the performance of hair-care products.

Zimmerley, Maxwell; Lin, Chia-Yu; Oertel, David C.; Marsh, Jennifer M.; Ward, Jimmie L.; Potma, Eric Olaf

2010-01-01

122

Quantitative detection of chemical compounds in human hair with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is used to determine the distribution and concentration of selected compounds in intact human hair. By generating images based on ratiometric CARS contrast, quantitative concentration maps of both water and externally applied d-glycine are produced in the cortex of human hair fibers. Both water and d-glycine are found to homogeneously distribute throughout the cortical regions of the hair. The ability to selectively detect molecular agents in hair fibers is of direct relevance to understanding the chemical and physical mechanisms that underlie the performance of hair-care products.

Zimmerley, Maxwell; Lin, Chia-Yu; Oertel, David C.; Marsh, Jennifer M.; Ward, Jimmie L.; Potma, Eric Olaf

2009-07-01

123

Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: an appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes.  

PubMed

The European Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP) guideline for testing of hair dyes for genotoxic/mutagenic/carcinogenic potential has been reviewed. The battery of six in vitro tests recommended therein differs substantially from the batteries of two or three in vitro tests recommended in other guidelines. Our evaluation of the chemical types used in hair dyes and comparison with other guidelines for testing a wide range of chemical substances, lead to the conclusion that potential genotoxic activity may effectively be determined by the application of a limited number of well-validated test systems that are capable of detecting induced gene mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal changes. We conclude that highly effective screening for genotoxicity of hair dyes can be achieved by the use of three assays, namely the bacterial gene mutation assay, the mammalian cell gene mutation assay (mouse lymphoma tk assay preferred) and the in vitro micronucleus assay. These need to be combined with metabolic activation systems optimised for the individual chemical types. Recent published evidence [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggests that our recommended three tests will detect all known genotoxic carcinogens, and that increasing the number of in vitro assays further would merely reduce specificity (increase false positives). Of course there may be occasions when standard tests need to be modified to take account of special situations such as a specific pathway of biotransformation, but this should be considered as part of routine testing. It is clear that individual dyes and any other novel ingredients should be tested in this three-test battery. However, new products are formed on the scalp by reaction between the chemicals present in hair-dye formulations. Ideally, these should also be tested for genotoxicity, but at present such experiences are very limited. There is also the possibility that one component could mask the genotoxicity of another (e.g. by being more toxic), and so it is not practical at this time to recommend routine testing of complete hair-dye formulations as well. The most sensible approach would be to establish whether any reaction products within the hair-dye formulation penetrate the skin under normal conditions of use and test only those that penetrate at toxicologically relevant levels in the three-test in vitro battery. Recently published data [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggest the three-test battery will produce a significant number of false as well as real positives. Whilst we are aware of the desire to reduce animal experiments, determining the relevance of positive results in any of the three recommended in vitro assays will most likely have to be determined by use of in vivo assays. The bone marrow micronucleus test using routes of administration such as oral or intraperitoneal may be used where the objective is extended hazard identification. If negative results are obtained in this test, then a second in vivo test should be conducted. This could be an in vivo UDS in rat liver or a Comet assay in a relevant tissue. However, for hazard characterisation, tests using topical application with measurement of genotoxicity in the skin would be more appropriate. Such specific site-of-contact in vivo tests would minimise animal toxicity burden and invasiveness, and, especially for hair dyes, be more relevant to human routes of exposure, but there are not sufficient scientific data available to allow recommendations to be made. The generation of such data is encouraged. PMID:16326131

Kirkland, D J; Henderson, L; Marzin, D; Müller, L; Parry, J M; Speit, G; Tweats, D J; Williams, G M

2005-12-02

124

9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for... Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for... Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives,...

2010-01-01

125

9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for... Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for... Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives,...

2009-01-01

126

Ancient Egyptian hair gel: new insight into ancient Egyptian mummification procedures through chemical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial mummification in ancient Egypt involved the application of chemicals to the body mostly for the purpose of preservation; others were applied for ritual aspects. Unguents were used also in everyday toilette. Here we report a type of material which was applied specifically to the hair, a fatty material used as a ‘hair gel’. Personal appearance was important to the

N. C. McCreesh; A. P. Gize; A. R. David

2011-01-01

127

Urinary acetylated metabolites and N-acetyltransferase-2 genotype in human subjects treated with a para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dye  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the organism of mammals, important detoxification pathways of arylamines are catalysed by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). A recent case-control epidemiology study suggested that human NAT2 slow acetylators exposed to oxidative hair dyes may be at greater risk to develop bladder cancer. We therefore profiled urinary [14C]-metabolites and NAT2 genotype in eight human subjects following treatment with a dark-shade oxidative hair

Gerhard J. Nohynek; Julie A. Skare; Wim J. A. Meuling; David W. Hein; Albert Th. H. J. de Bie; Herve Toutain

2004-01-01

128

Determination of aromatic amines in hair dye and henna samples by ion-pair extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method has been proposed for the determination of carcinogenic and toxic aromatic amines in hair dye, henna and dyed hair samples. The method includes ion-pair extraction of aromatic amines from aqueous samples with bis-2-ethylhexylphosphate (BEHPA) released after solving the samples in acidic solution followed by sonication, derivatisation of compounds with isobutyl chloroformate (IBCF) and their

Mehmet Akyüz; ?evket Ata

2008-01-01

129

Structural, Nanomechanical and Nanotribological Characterization of Human Hair Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber. Healthy, soft hair with good feel, shine, color and overall aesthetics is generally highly desirable. It is important to study hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners as well as damaging processes such as chemical dyeing and permanent wave treatments because they affect the maintenance and grooming process and therefore alter many

Bharat Bhushan; Carmen Latorre; Guohua Wei

2007-01-01

130

Hair as a monitor of toxic chemicals exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of using hair analysis as a monitor of exposure to hydrazines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. Two female Hartley guinea pigs injected with 0.6 milligrams (mg) of Aroclor-1254 had analyzable concentrations of the PCB in their hair. Analysis was made using glass capillary gas chromatography with an electron-capture detector. The levels ranged from 10 picograms\\/milligram (pg\\/mg) of

P. F. Jones; S. Adams; W. A. Baumgartner

1982-01-01

131

Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

King, Angela G.

2007-01-01

132

Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

King, Angela G.

2007-01-01

133

Exploring decolorization and halotolerance characteristics by indigenous acclimatized bacteria: Chemical structure of azo dyes and dose–response assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To consider the feasibility of dye bioremediation in salty wastewater, this first-attempt study explored dye decolorization and halotolerance characteristics of indigenous acclimatized bacteria. We tended to consider the aspects in chemical structure of azo dye and toxicity assessment to investigate salt-bearing dye wastewater treatment. Meanwhile, the relationship between the chemical structure and biodegradability of the azo dye was disclosed. The

Bor-Yann Chen; Chung-Chuan Hsueh; Wen-Ming Chen; Wei-De Li

2011-01-01

134

Chemical cystitis due to crystal violet dye: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Crystal violet was commonly used for the treatment of oral and vaginal candidiasis or for sterilization during operations up to the 1960s. Because crystal violet is potentially toxic to mucosal membranes, it has been replaced with other disinfectants, and crystal violet is rarely used. We report a case of chemical cystitis due to intravesical instillation of crystal violet dye. Case presentation Crystal violet dye was instilled into the bladder of a 47-year-old Japanese woman to confirm the presence of a vesicovaginal fistula. Our patient developed symptoms of gross hematuria, frequent urination and lower abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed thickening of her whole bladder wall with spotted high-density lesions. Cystoscopy demonstrated desquamated epithelial cells and a hemorrhagic bladder wall. We treated our patient conservatively with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids. During follow-up, magnetic resonance images showed that the detrusor muscle of her bladder was normal. Our patient’s symptoms gradually improved and she completely recovered within six months. Conclusion Considering the severe side effect of crystal violet, it would be better not to use this dye to examine conditions such as a vesicovaginal fistula. Magnetic resonance imaging may help to evaluate the level of damage in the bladder wall of patients with chemical cystitis.

2013-01-01

135

Human systemic exposure to a [14C]-para-phenylenediamine-containing oxidative hair dye and correlation with in vitro percutaneous absorption in human or pig skin.  

PubMed

We investigated the absorption of a commercial [14C]-PPD-containing oxidative dark-shade hair dye in human volunteers as well as in vitro using human or pig ear skin. The hair of eight male volunteers was cut to a standard length, dyed, washed, dried, clipped and collected. Hair, washing water, materials used in the study and a 24-h scalp wash were collected for determination of radioactivity. Blood, urine and faeces were analysed up to 120 h after hair dyeing. An identical [14C]-PPD-containing hair dye formulation was applied in vitro for 0.5 h to human and pig ear skin, and radioactivity was determined in skin compartments after 24 h. In humans, the recovery rate was 95.7+/-1.5% of the applied radioactivity. Washing water, cut hair, gloves, paper towels, caps or scalp wash contained a total of 95.16+/-1.46% of the applied [14C]. Absorbed radioactivity amounted to 0.50+/-0.24% in the urine and 0.04+/-0.04% in the faeces, corresponding to a mean of 7.0+/-3.4 mg [14C]-PPD-equivalents absorbed. Within 24 h after application, most of the radioactivity was eliminated. The Cmax of [14C]-PPD-equivalents in the plasma was 0.087 microgeq/ml, the Tmax was approximately 2 h, and the mean the AUC(0-12h) was 0.67 microgeq h/ml. In vitro tests in human or pig skin found total absorbed amounts of 2.4+/-1.6% (10.6+/-6.7 microgeq/cm2) or 3.4+/-1.7% (14.6+/-6.9 microgeq/cm2), respectively. Percentage-based in vitro results were considerably higher than corresponding in vivo data, whereas, in units of microg/cm2, they corresponded to a total absorbed amount of 7.40 or 10.22 mgeq for human or pig skin, respectively. All results suggested that hair dyeing with oxidative hair dyes produces minimal systemic exposure that is unlikely to pose a risk to human health. PMID:15207372

Hueber-Becker, Frédérique; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Meuling, Wim J A; Benech-Kieffer, Florence; Toutain, Hervé

2004-08-01

136

[Determination of seven aromatic amines in hair dyes by capillary electrophoresis coupled with field-amplified sample stacking].  

PubMed

A method for the determination of 4,4'-methylenedianiline, aniline, o-anisidine, 3, 4-dimethylaniline, p-anisidine, 3-aminophenol, 1-naphthylamine in hair dyes was established by capillary electrophoresis coupled with field-amplified sample stacking. The optimum running buffer was an aqueous solution containing 0.15 mol/L NaH2PO4 and 0.015 mol/L trolamine (pH 2.3), and the baseline separation was achieved within 6.5 min. The effects of phosphoric acid and acetonitrile concentration in the sample matrix, the length of the preinjection water plug, and the sample injection voltage and time on the stacking efficiency were investigated. The optimum stacking conditions for the real samples included a water plug of 3.45 kPa (0.5 psi) x 6 s, the addition of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile and 0.6 x 10(-3) mol/L phosphoric acid to the sample solution and a sample injection of 10 kV x 10 s. The seven analytes all showed good linearities (R2 > 0.996) within 3 - 1 000 microg/L, with the detection limits in the range of 0.26 - 2.75 microg/L. The method was shown to provide over 1 - 3 magnitudes of sensitivity enhancement. 3-Aminophenol was found in two black hair dyes, and the amounts were 7.32 mg/g and 1.34 mg/g, individually. The recoveries ranged from 74% - 108%. The proposed approach may find widespread applications for the determination of trace aromatic amines and other cationic analytes in various sample matrixes. PMID:22393703

Lu, Yuchao; Wang, Haiyan; Song, Pingping; Liu, Shuhui

2011-11-01

137

Hair as a Monitor of Toxic Chemicals Exposure,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibility of using hair analysis as a monitor of exposure to hydrazines and polychlorinated-biphenyls (1336363) (PCBs) was investigated. Two female Hartley-guinea-pigs injected with 0.6 milligrams (mg) of Aroclor-1254 (11097691) had analyzable conce...

P. F. Jones S. Adams W. A. Baumgartner

1982-01-01

138

Effect of chemical modification on dye adsorption capacity of peanut hull  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the roles played by three major functional groups (amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups) in the biomass of peanut hull in adsorption of six dyes were investigated. These functional groups in peanut hull were chemically modified individually to determine their contribution to the adsorption of ionic dyes. The dyes used were methylene blue (MB), brilliant cresyl blue (BCB),

Renmin Gong; Yingzhi Sun; Jian Chen; Huijun Liu; Chao Yang

2005-01-01

139

Adsorption of anionic dyes in acid solutions using chemically cross-linked chitosan beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

One kind of adsorbents with high adsorption capacity of anionic dyes was prepared using ionically and chemically cross-linked chitosan beads. A batch system was applied to study the adsorption of four reactive dyes (RB2, RR2, RY2, RY86), three acid dyes (AO12, AR14, AO7) and one direct dye (DR81) from aqueous solutions by the cross-linked chitosan beads. The adsorption capacities had

Ming-Shen Chiou; Pang-Yen Ho; Hsing-Ya Li

2004-01-01

140

Drugs in prehistory: chemical analysis of ancient human hair.  

PubMed

Concern about drug abuse in modern populations has led to the development of specific methods for identification of cocaine, opiates and cannabis in human hair. Drug use in prehistory can provide indirect evidence of interpopulational contact and social stratification. This paper reports drug evaluation in nineteen ancient hair samples from archaeological sites in northern Chile. Each sample was tested for the presence of traces of cocaine, opiates and cannabis, in order to establish a standard methodology for studies of drug use among prehistoric groups. Although results are negative, this absence of evidence could be due to two main causes: (1) the individuals evaluated did not use any drugs, which does not mean that other members of their cultural group did, or (2) the wide range of known drugs studied did not consider some group specific drugs, derived from local or imported plants, thus meaning that a greater drug range must be tested. In any case, our study confirms that drug testing in prehistoric samples is viable. However, in order to determine what kind of substances were used in prehistoric times new patterns that incorporate all drugs which are not part of the western pharmacopeia must be created. Finally, a methodology for the study of drug use among prehistoric groups using ancient hair samples is described. PMID:10737464

Báez, H; Castro, M M; Benavente, M A; Kintz, P; Cirimele, V; Camargo, C; Thomas, C

2000-02-28

141

Human percutaneous absorption of a direct hair dye comparing in vitro and in vivo results: Implications for safety assessment and animal testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although in vitro skin absorption studies often detect small residues of applied test material in the epidermis\\/dermis, it is uncertain whether the residue is within the living skin. We studied the dermal absorption of a hair dye hydroxyanthraquinone–aminopropyl methyl morpholinium methosulphate (HAM) in human skin in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, skin (back and scalp) received 0.5% HAM in

J. Lademann; H. Richter; U. Jacobi; A. Patzelt; F. Hueber-Becker; C. Ribaud; F. Benech-Kieffer; E. K. Dufour; W. Sterry; H. Schaefer; J. Leclaire; H. Toutain; G. J. Nohynek

2008-01-01

142

Characterization and Chemical Modification of Isolated Allergens from Horse Hair and Dandruff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three previously isolated major allergens of horse hair and dandruff, antigens No. 6, 9 and 11 (Ag 6, 9 and 11) have been further characterized and chemically modified. Carbohydrate analyses revealed that Ag 9 and 11 contained 12 and 17 hexoses, amino sugars, sialic acids as well as low amounts of unidentified sugar molecules. The carbohydrate part of the glycoproteins

Henning Løwenstein

1978-01-01

143

Depilatory effects of certain chemicals during the first hair growth cycle in sucking mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The chemicals were administered, subcutaneously, orally or topically. Generally, the depilation produced in the mice by mimosine or cyclophosphamide differed from that produced by the steroid analogues tested. In the first 2 cases almost completely naked mice were commonly seen, while in the steroid-treated groups the complete inhibition of all hair fibres was rare. This is discussed in relation

B. A. Panaretto; D. A. Tunks; S. Munro

1978-01-01

144

Comparison of disperse and reactive dye removals by chemical coagulation and Fenton oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of wastewater from the dyeing and textile processes is highly variable depending on the dyestuff type and typically has high COD and color. This study examined the decolorization of some of the most commonly used disperse and reactive dyestuffs by combination of chemical coagulation and Fenton oxidation. In addition, performances between Fe3+ coagulation and Fenton oxidation of dye

Tak-Hyun Kim; Jeongmok Yang; Sangyong Kim

2004-01-01

145

Identification of live hair cells in rat cochlear sections in culture with FM1-43 fluorescent dye.  

PubMed

Cochlear hair cells are presumed to live in culture for many days, yet they are difficult to identify in cultured tissues. We stained hair cells in cochlear sections with FM1-43 and cultured them in collagen matrix. Three rows of outer hair cells and a single row of inner ones were distinguished by staining with FM1-43. Fixation of the sections with paraformaldehyde caused loss of the FM1-43 fluorescence, indicating that FM1-43 stained only live hair cells. In sections cultured for 48 h, almost all hair cells were still positive with FM1-43. Culture with gentamycin caused loss of FM1-43-positive cells. In serum-free, long-term cultures (15 days) performed without antibiotics or neurotrophins, the row alignment of FM1-43-positive hair cells was still maintained. Membranous labyrinth-like vacuoles enveloping hair cells were formed in the collagen matrix. Accordingly, FM1-43 is an efficient marker for identifying live hair cells in cultured tissues. Moreover, cochlear hair cells are revealed to live for weeks in serum-free culture without exogenous neurotrophins. PMID:14729254

Fukuda, Jun; Ishimine, Hisako; Tokunaga, Motohide

2004-01-23

146

Deciphering azo dye decolorization characteristics by indigenous Proteus hauseri: Chemical structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study selected indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44 as a model bacterium to explore how chemical structure affected dye decolorization characteristics in comparison with other biodecolorizers. No matter what naturally-existing decolorizer strain was used (e.g., Pseudomonas luteola, Aeromonas hydrophila and P. hauseri), chemical structures of azo dyes (e.g., molecular isomers or the presence of different functional groups) apparently affected the performance

Bor-Yann Chen; Meng-Meng Zhang; Chang-Tang Chang; Yongtao Ding; Wen-Ming Chen; Chung-Chuan Hsueh

2011-01-01

147

Effect of white African mineral hair dye on the activities of phosphatases and malondialdehyde level in selected tissues of albino rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of white African mineral dye Yombofita (YF) on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the skin, liver, kidney and serum of albino rats was investigated. The chemical analysis of the dye was first carried out using solubility test, pH determination and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental analysis. Six different concentrations (0.05,

G. B Adebayo; T. O Sunmonu; F. A Adekola; G. A Olatunji

2005-01-01

148

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.  

PubMed

A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits. PMID:11590742

Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

2001-04-01

149

Chemical modification of cotton fabrics for improving utilization of reactive dyes.  

PubMed

The cotton fabric was chemically modified with the acrylamide through Michael addition reaction and Hoffman degradation reaction. And the optimum chemical modification conditions were determined. The molecular structure of the modified cotton fabric was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The structures of both the raw and modified cotton fabrics were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. The raw and modified cotton fabrics were dyed using commercial reactive dyes with vinyl-sulfone groups. The results showed that the total dye utilization of modified cotton fabrics in the salt-free dyeing was higher than that of raw cotton fabrics in the conventional dyeing. And the color fastness properties and tear strength of modified fabrics were both satisfactory. PMID:23044144

Fang, Long; Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Deshuai

2012-08-22

150

Application of fungal moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and chemical coagulation for dyeing wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined process consisting of Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBRs) with Polyurethane-Dyeing Sludge Carbonaceous Material\\u000a (PU-DSCM) foam and chemical coagulation was investigated for dyeing wastewater treatment. The pilot-scale MBBR system was\\u000a composed of two aerobic MBBRs in series. Each reactor was filled with 20% (v\\/v) of Polyurethane-Dye Sludge Carbonaceous Material\\u000a foam (PU-DSCM foam) inoculated with a white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, for

Hye Ok Park; Sanghwa Oh; Rabindra Bade; Won Sik Shin

2011-01-01

151

Hair dye poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... Arsenic Bismuth Denatured alcohol Lead (see lead poisoning ) Mercury Pyrogallol Silver Note: This list may not include ... product is swallowed. Continued exposure to lead or mercury can lead to permanent brain and nervous system ( ...

152

Highly Efficient Dye Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Simple Chemical Modification of Wood Sawdust  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the efficiency of oxidized wood meal for removal of methylene blue (MB) as a typical basic dye from aqueous waste streams. The adsorption process was performed using sawdust treated with KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, and H2O2 oxidants. Among the tested chemical oxidants, KMnO4 was found to be more effective for modification of sawdust for dye uptake. Based on the

Reza Ansari; Mahnaz Saghanejhad Tehrani; Ali Mohammad-Khah

2012-01-01

153

Removal of Acid Dyes from Aqueous Solutions using Chemically Activated Carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile dyes (Acid Yellow 17 and Acid Orange 7) were removed from its aqueous solution in batch and continuous packed bed adsorption systems by using thermally activated Euphorbia macroclada carbon with respect to contact time, initial dye concentration, and temperature. The activated carbon was prepared using a cheap plant-based material called Euphorbia macroclada, which was chemically modified with K2CO3. Lagergren-first-order

Özgül Gerçel; H. Ferdi Gerçel

2009-01-01

154

The impact of corona modified fibres’ chemical changes on wool dyeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main contribution of the present work was to study the impact of Corona-treated wool fabrics’ induced surface properties on dye-bath exhaustion, in order to optimize different dyeing systems. Firstly, the differing chemical aspects of a woven wool fabric's surface were determined using two dissimilar analytical skills (XPS and polyelectrolyte titration). With the intention to establish the ability of low-temperature

Darinka Fakin; Alenka Ojstršek; Sonja ?elan Benkovi?

2009-01-01

155

Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals. Analysis of human fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals are detailed in this book which surveys and evaluates methods and procedures to identify and quantitative chemical constituents in human tissues and body fluids, including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath. The book details attempts to determine 1) the feasibility of correlating preferred methods with specific tissues or fluids

L. Sheldon; M. Umana; J. Bursey; W. Gutknecht; R. Handy; P. Hyldburg; L. Michael; A. Moseley; J. Raymer; D. Smith

1986-01-01

156

Hair straightener poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows chemicals used to straighten hair. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an ...

157

TiO2-assisted photo-catalysis degradation process of dye chemicals.  

PubMed

The photo-catalytic degradation pathway and degradation products of methylene blue, rhodamine B, methyl orange, and malachite green in aqueous TiO2 suspension irradiated by high pressure mercury lamp by means of UV-visible absorption spectra and ion chromatography were investigated. The photo-catalysis degradation of dye solutions with charges was greatly effected by pH value owing to the electrostatic model. The photo-degradation rate of dyes anion increased with the decrease of pH value, in contrast, the photo-degradation rate of dyes cation increased with the increase of pH value. And the absorption peaks diminished with a blue shift. After illuminated for 30 minutes, a part of dye chemicals were completely mineralized and transferred into inorganic species including chloride ion, ammonium ion, nitrate ion, sulfate ion. And the addition of 100 mmol/L H2O2 promoted the formation of inorganic species. In this study, the quantity of ammonium ion was much more than that of nitrate ion. That indicated the formation of nitrate is from ammonium. The purification rate of COD in four kinds of dye solution was 71.7%-88.7%. The decrease of COD of dyes solution implies the feasibility of the environmental application of photo-catalyzed process. PMID:11590721

Li, F B; Gu, G B; Huang, G F; Gu, Y L; Wan, H F

2001-01-01

158

Stevens-Johnson Syndrome triggered by chemical hair relaxer: a case report  

PubMed Central

This case report describes a 41-year-old Afro-Caribbean lady presenting with a constellation of pyrexia, conjunctivitis, arthralgia, sterile dysuria, apthous ulceration, labial crusting and widespread erythema multiforme. A diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome was made. She had taken no medications recently (the most common precipitant of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome) and a full screen for the common and atypical bacterial and viral triggers was negative. The identified trigger was the use of a chemical hair relaxant treatment a few days previously. With supportive measures and a course of oral prednisolone, the patient quickly improved and made a full recovery. This case highlights the importance of considering occupational and recreational precipitants of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.

Booker, Matthew J

2009-01-01

159

Development of Highly Sensitive Compact Raman Scanner for Mass Screening of Chemical Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Raman analysis of various chemicals, it is often required to do mass screening of dyes and their derivatives. In most cases, it is impractical to screen each dye one by one on a commercial Raman system, which is catered to screen one analyte at a time. In this context, we proposed the design of simple, cost effective and compact `Raman Scanner' developed using commercial laser, detector and optical components. The high throughput screening capability of the system is demonstrated by acquiring the SERS spectra of various molecules adsorbed on to gold colloid in a 96 well plate.

Dinish, U. S.; Fu, Chit Yaw; Olivo, Malini

2010-08-01

160

Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from textile dyeing  

SciTech Connect

Facilities engaged in textile dyeing may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist textile dyers in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

Not Available

1988-02-01

161

Bioremoval of textile dyes with different chemical structures by Aspergillus versicolor in molasses medium.  

PubMed

Bioremoval of 17 dyes with different chemical structures by Aspergillus versicolor was detected in this study. Maxilon Red GRL (MR-GRL), Everdirect Fast Black VSF (EFB-VSF) and Brillant Blue R (BB-R) were removed better by fungal mycelia. Optimum pH values were found as 6 for all three dyes. In further experiments in the highest dye concentrations tested in this study, 58.3, 100 and 49% removal yields and 14.8, 12.6, 9.0 q(m) values were found for MR-GRL, EFB-VSF and BB-R, respectively. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction after seven days of incubation period and role of laccase activity of Aspergillus sp. were also investigated. COD reduction and laccase activities were 55.6% and 2.93 U/mL for MR-GRL, 90.7% and 3.0 U/mL for EFB-VSF and 69.0% and 1.79 U/mL for BB-R, respectively. According to these results A. versicolor deserves notable attention for removal of these dyes in wastewater effluents. PMID:22949249

Ta?tan, Burcu Ertit; Karatay, Sevgi Ertu?rul; Dönmez, Gönül

2012-01-01

162

Hair loss  

MedlinePLUS

... notice hair coming out in handfuls while you shampoo, comb, or run your hands through your hair. ... your hair? How often? How often do you shampoo your hair? What kind of shampoo, hair spray, ...

163

Adsorption behavior of reactive dye in aqueous solution on chemical cross-linked chitosan beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

A batch system was applied to study the adsorption of reactive dye (reactive red 189) from aqueous solutions by cross-linked chitosan beads. The ionic cross-linking reagent sodium tripolyphosphate was used to obtain more rigid chitosan beads. To stabilize chitosan in acid solutions, chemical cross-linking reagent epichlorohydrin (ECH), glutaraldehyde and ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether was used and ECH shows a higher

M. S Chiou; H. Y Li

2003-01-01

164

Biological and Physical-Chemical Treatment of Textile Dyeing Wastewater for Color and COD Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological treatment, ozonation and chemical precipitation were studied at bench scale to investigate color and COD removal efficiencies in three dye waste effluents of cotton, synthetic and woven fabric processing. The aerobic biodegradability of ozonated and unozonated samples was investigated in fill-and-draw activated sludge systems. An ozone dosage of 0.8 g\\/L was applied for 30 minutes in a semi-batch reactor

Tuba Turan-Ertas

2001-01-01

165

Exogenous Factors in Hair Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and beauty of human hair have immeasurable psychological importance. Hair structure and its cycle are influenced by intentionally or nonintentionally delivered factors such as grooming, heat styling, chemical agents and climatic exposure. All of these factors are capable of causing loss of hair color and luster, harshness, stiffness, weakness, brittleness and flyaway, transient loss of hair or scarring

Liran Horev

2004-01-01

166

Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy.  

PubMed

Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery. PMID:23165762

Franzen, Lutz; Mathes, Christiane; Hansen, Steffi; Windbergs, Maike

2013-06-01

167

Correlating titania morphology and chemical composition with dye-sensitized solar cell performance.  

PubMed

We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO(2) as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural morphology of films of these nanostructured materials has been directly characterized using SEM and indirectly probed using dye desorption. Furthermore, the surfaces of these nanomaterials were studied using TEM in order to visualize their structure, prior to their application within DSSCs. Surface areas of the materials have been quantitatively analyzed by collecting BET adsorption and dye desorption data. Additional investigation using open circuit voltage decay measurements reveals the efficiency of electron conduction through each TiO(2) material. Moreover, the utilization of various chemically distinctive titanate materials within the DSSCs has also been investigated, demonstrating the deficiencies of using these particular chemical compositions within traditional DSSCs. PMID:21508451

Santulli, Alexander C; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Tiano, Amanda L; DeRosa, Donald; Wong, Stanislaus S

2011-04-20

168

Correlating titania morphology and chemical composition with dye-sensitized solar cell performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO2 as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural morphology of films of these nanostructured materials has been directly characterized using SEM and indirectly probed using dye desorption. Furthermore, the surfaces of these nanomaterials were studied using TEM in order to visualize their structure, prior to their application within DSSCs. Surface areas of the materials have been quantitatively analyzed by collecting BET adsorption and dye desorption data. Additional investigation using open circuit voltage decay measurements reveals the efficiency of electron conduction through each TiO2 material. Moreover, the utilization of various chemically distinctive titanate materials within the DSSCs has also been investigated, demonstrating the deficiencies of using these particular chemical compositions within traditional DSSCs.

Santulli, Alexander C.; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Tiano, Amanda L.; DeRosa, Donald; Wong, Stanislaus S.

2011-06-01

169

On-Line Diffusion Profile of a Lipophilic Model Dye in Different Depths of a Hair Follicle in Human Scalp Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In skin and hair research, drug targeting to the hair follicle is of great interest in the treatment of skin diseases. The aim of this study is to visualize on-line the diffusion processes of a model fluorophore into the hair follicle at different depths using fresh human scalp skin and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Up to a depth of 500

Ylva Y. Grams; Lynne Whitehead; Gerda Lamers; Nico Sturmann; Joke A. Bouwstra

2005-01-01

170

Effect of ionic liquid on the determination of aromatic amines as contaminants in hair dyes by liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection.  

PubMed

The room temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluorometanesulfonyl)imide BMIm[NTf?] was used as a novel medium for improvement of separation and quantization of 16 aromatic amines typically present as contaminants in consumer products and detected by HPLC coupled to an electrochemical detector. The aromatic amines, namely 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, 4-chloroaniline, 2-methoxy-5-methyl-aniline, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 2,4-diaminotoluidine, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 4,4'-oxydianiline, aniline, 3,3'-ichlorobenzidine, benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, o-dianisidine, o-anisidine, o-toluidine, 4,4'-methylene-bis-2-chloroaniline and 2-naphthylamine are oxidized in methanol/BMIm[NTf?] at a potential around +0.68V to +0.93V vs. Ag/AgCl at a glassy carbon electrode, which is the base for their determination by HPLC/ED. Using the optimized conditions of methanol/BMIm[NTf?] 70:30 (v/v) as mobile phase, flow-rate of 0.8 mL·min?¹, column CLC-ODS, Eap = +1.0 V and T = 40 °C analytical curves were constructed for each of the tested amines. Good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1.09 mg·L?¹ to 217 mg·L?¹, with excellent correlation coefficients. The limits of detection reached 0.021 mg·L?¹ to 0.246 mg·L?¹ and good relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 3) were obtained from the measurements. Satisfactory recovery for each aromatic amine was achieved, ranging from 95 to 103%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine six aromatic amines present as contaminants in commercial hair dye samples. PMID:22751261

Lizier, Thiago Mescoloto; Boldrin Zanoni, Maria Valnice

2012-07-02

171

The testing of several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R azo dye removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several biological and chemical coupled treatments for Cibacron Red FN-R reactive azo dye degradation have been evaluated. Initially, a two-stage anaerobic–aerobic biotreatment has been assessed for different dye concentrations (250, 1250 and 3135mgl?1). 92–97% decolourisation was attained during the anaerobic digestion operating in batch mode. However, no dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal neither biogas production was observed during the process,

Julia García-Montaño; Xavier Domènech; José A. García-Hortal; Francesc Torrades; José Peral

2008-01-01

172

The Impact of Nitrogen Plasma Treatment upon the Physical-Chemical and Dyeing Properties of Wool Fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of wool fabric with low-temperature plasma (LTP) as an eco-friendly process was tested. The impact of plasma-treatment parameters on the surface morphology, physical-chemical, and dyeing properties of wool using anionic dyes were investigated. The LTP-treatment resulted in a dramatic improvement in fabric hydrophilicity and wettability, the removal of fiber surface material, and creation of new active sites along with

M. M. El-Zawahry; N. A. Ibrahim; M. A. Eid

2006-01-01

173

[Structural lesions of human hair caused by permanents].  

PubMed

A study is carried out on the alterations produced in the cuticle of women's hair treated regularly for a period of more than 12 years with hair - lighteners, hair - dyes and perms. Assays have also been carried out "in vitro" on the effect of the perms on locks of hair. The scanning electron microscope has been used for observation of the samples. PMID:398918

Cot-Ventós, J; Vives-Rego, J; Fontarnau, R

1978-01-01

174

MRI of human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Hair care for humans is a major world industry with specialised tools, chemicals and techniques. Studying the effect of hair\\u000a care products has become a considerable field of research, and besides mechanical and optical testing numerous advanced analytical\\u000a techniques have been employed in this area. In the present work, another means of studying the properties of hair is added\\u000a by

Eveline Mattle; Markus Weiger; Daniel Schmidig; Peter Boesiger; Michael Fey

2009-01-01

175

Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals. Analysis of human fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals are detailed in this book which surveys and evaluates methods and procedures to identify and quantitative chemical constituents in human tissues and body fluids, including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath. The book details attempts to determine 1) the feasibility of correlating preferred methods with specific tissues or fluids and/or with readily identifiable chemical characteristics, and 2) which biological matrices serve as the best indicators of past or present exposure to chemical constituents of concern. The methods studied have been evaluated of their ease and rapidly, as well as cost, accuracy and precision. Target compounds studied were those inorganic and organic chemicals basically of current or previous concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Information provided for the methods evaluated includes sections regarding various types of instrumentation and sample preparation. Sections on method/analyte correlation suggest physical or chemical properties which might be used to predict the applicability of a given analytical method to the analysis of that chemical in a specific biological matrix.

Sheldon, L.; Umana, M.; Bursey, J.; Gutknecht, W.; Handy, R.; Hyldburg, P.; Michael, L.; Moseley, A.; Raymer, J.; Smith, D.

1986-01-01

176

Purification and characterization of a novel laccase from Coprinus cinereus and decolorization of different chemically dyes.  

PubMed

Laccase is a blue copper oxidase with multiple copper ions and widely distributed in higher plant and fungi. To date, numerous fungal laccases have been reported by many researchers. In present work, a new laccase gene, named CcLCC5I, from Coprinus cinereus was synthesized chemically according to the yeast bias codon and integrated into Pichia pastoris GS115 genome by electroporation. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the recombinant laccase has a molecular mass of approximately 56.8 kDa. Its biochemical properties was carried out using substrate 2-2(')-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS). It was showed that the optimum pH and temperature of the laccase is 3.0 and 55 °C, respectively. Except for copper ions, most metal ions inhibited the laccase activity at a high concentration about 10 mM. Sodium sulfite can also highly inhibit laccase activity whereas EDTA had no inhibitory effect on the laccase activity. The CcLCC5I have high ability to decolor not only azo but also aryl methane dyes. The recombinant laccase decolored 44.6 % orange G, 54.8 % Crystal Violet, and 87.2 % Malachite green at about 2.6 h. The novel laccase may be a good candidate for breeding engineering strains used in the treatment of industrial effluent containing azo and aryl methane dyes. PMID:23073779

Lin, Yaqiu; Zhang, Zhen; Tian, Yongsheng; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Zhisheng; Peng, Rihe; Yao, Quanhong

2012-10-17

177

Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... person's hair may look greasy. Time for a shampoo! Continue Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow! You have more ... When you wash your hair, use a gentle shampoo and warm water. Lather up using your fingertips, ...

178

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... type of hair loss, affecting both men and women. In men, hair often begins to recede from the ... of prostate cancer. Finasteride should be avoided by women of childbearing age. Surgery In the most common type of permanent hair loss, ...

179

Structural, Nanomechanical and Nanotribological Characterization of Human Hair Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber. Healthy, soft hair with good feel, shine, color and overall aesthetics is generally highly desirable. It is important to study hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners as well as damaging processes such as chemical dyeing and permanent wave treatments because they affect the maintenance and grooming process and therefore alter many hair properties. Nanoscale characterization of the cellular structure, the mechanical properties, as well as the morphological, frictional and adhesive properties (tribological properties) of hair is essential if we wish to evaluate and develop better cosmetic products, and crucial to advancing the understanding of biological and cosmetic science. The atomic/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM) and nanoindenter have recently become important tools for studying the micro/nanoscale properties of human hair. In this chapter, we present a comprehensive review of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of various hair and skin as a function of ethnicity, damage, conditioning treatment, and various environments. Various cellular structures of human hair and fine sublamellar structures of the cuticle are identified and studied. Nanomechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, creep and scratch resistance are discussed. Nanotribological properties such as roughness, friction, and adhesion are presented, as well as investigations of conditioner distribution, thickness and binding interactions.

Bhushan, Bharat; Latorre, Carmen; Wei, Guohua

180

Photoaggravation of Hair Aging  

PubMed Central

Photoaggravation of hair aging includes various chemical and physical changes in fiber properties which lead to an increase in fiber porosity, loss of mechanical strength and an increase in surface roughness. These changes come from lipid oxidation, disulfide bond cleavage, tryptophan degradation and cysteic acid formation. Hair exposed to sunlight is claimed to be more brittle, stiffer and drier than before irradiation and exhibits a reduced water-absorption capacity. Hair pigments function to provide photochemical protection to hair proteins. Hair pigments accomplish this protection by absorbing and filtering the impinging radiation and subsequently dissipating this energy as heat. However, in the process of protecting the hair proteins from light, the pigments are degraded or bleached. Dark hair is more resistant to photodegradation than light hair, because of the higher photostability of eumelanin compared to pheomelanin. Integral lipids of hair fibers are degraded by ultraviolet light, as well as by visible light, helping to explain the weakening of the cell membrane complex exposed to light radiation.

Lee, Won-Soo

2009-01-01

181

Hair transplantation.  

PubMed

Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation. PMID:23409484

Avram, Marc R

2012-12-01

182

Hair Loss (Alopecia)  

MedlinePLUS

... Z Diseases and treatments E - H Hair loss Hair loss Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE-shah) Hereditary hair loss. Millions ... our skin, hair, and nails. Learn more about hair loss: Hair loss: Signs and symptoms Hair loss: Who ...

183

Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes by bacteria, actinomycetes, yeasts, and fungi are discussed in detail. The disadvantages of physical and chemical treatment processes of dye wastewater are also discussed. Biological treatment processes have many advantages over the chemical and physical treatment processes such as possibility of degradation of dye molecules to carbon dioxide and water and formation of less sludge in

Wamik Azmi; Rajesh Kumar Sani; Uttam Chand Banerjee

1998-01-01

184

The Properties of Wool Fabric Prepared for Dyeing by Using Chemically Assisted Wet-setting Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of permanent set imparted and the stability of the fabric to subsequent dyeing are increased by the use of reducing agents in setting operations prior to dyeing. However, their use has been criticized for damaging wool fibres. Work reported in this paper indicates that the effect of the setting agent on the final properties of the fabric is

A. G. De Boos; G. Mazzuchetti; R. Demichelis; P. G. Minazio

2000-01-01

185

Screening for forensically relevant benzodiazepines in human hair by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is presented for the detection in human hair of forensically relevant benzodiazepines, i.e. nordiazepam, oxazepem, bromazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, flunitrazepam, alprazolam and triazolam. The method involves decontamination of hair with methylene chloride, pulverization in a ball mill, incubation of 50 mg powdered hair in Soerensen buffer (pH 7.6) in the presence of prazepam-d5 used as internal standard, liquid-liquid extraction

V. Cirimele; P. Kintz; B. Ludes

1997-01-01

186

Phenylazoindole dyes--part I: the syntheses, characterizations, crystal structures, quantum chemical calculations and antimicrobial properties.  

PubMed

In this study, the synthesis of four new phenylazo indole dyes (dye 1-4) were carried out by diazotization of 4-aminoacetophenone and coupling with various 2- and 1,2-disubstituted indole derivatives. The dyes were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, HRMS and X-ray single crystal diffraction methods. Azo-hydrazone tautomeric bahavior of the dyes in different solvents (DMSO, methanol, acetic acid and chloroform) was investigated by using (1)H NMR and UV-vis results. The experimental results were compared with the corresponding calculated values. The results of experimental data and theoretical calculations showed that the azo tautomer is more stable than hydrazone tautomer. In addition to this, the antimicrobial activity of the dyes was also evaluated. PMID:23735210

Sefero?lu, Zeynel; Yalç?n, Ergin; Babür, Banu; Sefero?lu, Nurgül; Hökelek, Tuncer; Y?lmaz, Ebru; ?ahin, Ertan

2013-05-14

187

Phenylazoindole dyes - Part I: The syntheses, characterizations, crystal structures, quantum chemical calculations and antimicrobial properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the synthesis of four new phenylazo indole dyes (dye 1-4) were carried out by diazotization of 4-aminoacetophenone and coupling with various 2- and 1,2-disubstituted indole derivatives. The dyes were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, HRMS and X-ray single crystal diffraction methods. Azo-hydrazone tautomeric bahavior of the dyes in different solvents (DMSO, methanol, acetic acid and chloroform) was investigated by using 1H NMR and UV-vis results. The experimental results were compared with the corresponding calculated values. The results of experimental data and theoretical calculations showed that the azo tautomer is more stable than hydrazone tautomer. In addition to this, the antimicrobial activity of the dyes was also evaluated.

Sefero?lu, Zeynel; Yalç?n, Ergin; Babür, Banu; Sefero?lu, Nurgül; Hökelek, Tuncer; Y?lmaz, Ebru; ?ahin, Ertan

2013-09-01

188

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. In some cases, treating the underlying cause will ...

189

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

2006-11-24

190

The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)|

Sequin-Frey, Margareta

1981-01-01

191

Chemical Modifications on Human Hair Studied by Means of Contact Angle Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wetting properties of a solid surface can change as a consequence of chemical treatment. There is a relationship between the molecular structure of a surface and the macroscopic properties of this surface such as wetting and adhesion. Information on the surface energy of a solid was obtained by calculating polar and dispersion force contributions by means of contact angle determination.

Ricardo Molina; Francesc Comelles; Maria Rosa Juliá; Pilar Erra

2001-01-01

192

Purification and characterization of an extracellular laccase from the edible mushroom Lentinula edodes, and decolorization of chemically different dyes.  

PubMed

A laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Lentinula edodes. The enzyme was purified to a homogeneous preparation using hydrophobic, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatographies. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the purified laccase, Lcc 1, to be a monomeric protein of 72.2 kDa. The enzyme had an isoelectric point of around pH 3.0. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was around 4.0, and it was most active at 40 degrees C and stable up to 35 degrees C. The enzyme contained 23.8% carbohydrate and some copper atoms. The enzyme oxidized 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, p-phenylendiamine, pyrogallol, guaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, catechol, and ferulic acid, but not veratryl alcohol, tyrosine, and beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) alanine. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of Lcc 1 showed close homology to the N-terminal sequences determined for laccases from Phlebia radiata, Trametes villosa, and Trametes versicolor, but only low similarity was observed to a previously reported laccase from L. edodes. Lcc 1 was effective in the decolorization of chemically different dyes - Remazole Brilliant Blue R, Bromophenol Blue, methyl red, and Naphtol Blue Black - without any mediators, but the decolorization of two dyes - red poly(vinylamine)sulfonate-anthrapyridone dye and Reactive Orange 16 - did require some redox mediators. PMID:12436315

Nagai, M; Sato, T; Watanabe, H; Saito, K; Kawata, M; Enei, H

2002-10-02

193

Forensic discrimination of dyed hair color: II. Multivariate statistical analysis.  

PubMed

This research is intended to assess the ability of UV-visible microspectrophotometry to successfully discriminate the color of dyed hair. Fifty-five red hair dyes were analyzed and evaluated using multivariate statistical techniques including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA). The spectra were grouped into three classes, which were visually consistent with different shades of red. A two-dimensional PCA observations plot was constructed, describing 78.6% of the overall variance. The wavelength regions associated with the absorbance of hair and dye were highly correlated. Principal components were selected to represent 95% of the overall variance for analysis with DA. A classification accuracy of 89% was observed for the comprehensive dye set, while external validation using 20 of the dyes resulted in a prediction accuracy of 75%. Significant color loss from successive washing of hair samples was estimated to occur within 3 weeks of dye application. PMID:20854362

Barrett, Julie A; Siegel, Jay A; Goodpaster, John V

2010-09-20

194

Effect Of Reagent (Dye) Addition In Wet Chemical Method Of Sulfur Dioxide Determination In Ambient Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

For measurement of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air, the United States Environment Protection Agency (US EPA) had recommended the PRA dye-based colorimetric method as a reference technique. The method has been developed and applied in many countries for a longtime; however information regarding the sensitivity of the method with respect to sampling and analysis conditions is not available. Collaborative

S. K. GOYAL; Nehru Marg

2006-01-01

195

Hair today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable levels of a heteroplasmic point mutation in individual hair roots Bendall, K.E. et al. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 61, 1303–1308Characterization of melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor variant alleles in twins with red hair Box, N.F. et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. 6, 1891–1897

M Jobling

1998-01-01

196

Development and validation of a gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair and its application to forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor and direct metabolite of ethanol. EtG is incorporated into the growing hair allowing retrospective investigation of chronic alcohol abuse. In this study, we report the development and the validation of a method using gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC–NCI-MS\\/MS) for the quantification of EtG in hair. EtG was extracted from about 30mg

Hicham Kharbouche; Frank Sporkert; Stéphanie Troxler; Marc Augsburger; Patrice Mangin; Christian Staub

2009-01-01

197

Hair removal.  

PubMed

Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New treatment procedures are evolving. Consumer-based treatments with portable home devices are rapidly evolving, and presently include low-level diode lasers and IPL devices. PMID:21865803

Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

2011-08-16

198

Correlating titania morphology and chemical composition with dye-sensitized solar cell performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the use of various morphologies, including nanoparticles, nanowires, and sea-urchins of TiO2 as the semiconducting material used as components of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Analysis of the solar cells under AM 1.5 solar irradiation reveals the superior performance of hydrothermally derived nanoparticles, by comparison with two readily available commercial nanoparticle materials, within the DSSC architecture. The sub-structural

Alexander C. Santulli; Christopher Koenigsmann; Amanda L. Tiano; Donald DeRosa; Stanislaus S. Wong

2011-01-01

199

Simple-reversible fiber-optic chemical sensors using solvatochromic dyes  

SciTech Connect

There are many environmental and process-control sensor applications where speed and reversibility are more important than selectivity. These might include, monitoring the fate and transport of contaminants in laboratory columns and microcosms, measuring hydrocarbons in waste treatment streams, mapping the extent of a plume of a known contaminant, or monitoring solvent concentrations (e.g., acetone, dichloromethane, etc.) in a manufacturing process stream. In each case, there is prior knowledge of the type of contaminant and interferences, and in many cases the target molecule is at a relatively high concentration. For such applications, the sensor should be fast and reversible to allow real-time tracking of rapidly changing concentrations; however, it does not need to be very selective and might even respond to a wide variety of compounds. We are exploring new types of sensors for these applications. The sensors are based on reversible color changes that occur when solvatochromic (SV) dyes experience polarity changes. The optical sensors are made by immobilizing the SV dye in a polymer film that is coated on the end of a clad optical fiber or on the sides (i.e., evanescent region) of an unclad optical fiber. For the sensors described here interaction of a fluorescent SV dye with analyte vapors changes the amount of light absorbed by the dye and thus the fluorescence intensity that is measured with the optical fiber. Initial experiments have focused on the fuel-related contaminants (e.g., xylene, benzene), and commercial solvents (e.g., acetone, dichloromethane -- DCM). This paper will focus on the xylene and DCM results.

Angel, S.M.; Anderson, B.L.; Langry, K.

1992-01-01

200

Treatment of Textile Dye Wastewaters using Ferrous Sulphate in a Chemical Coagulation\\/Flocculation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coagulation\\/flocculation treatment using FeSO4.7H2O as a coagulant is evaluated in this work for the removal of organic compounds and color from synthetic effluents simulating the cotton, acrylic and polyester dyeing wastewaters. The coagulant dose, temperature, pH, stirring speed and stirring time that maximized the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and color for each effluent are determined for the

Carmen S. D. Rodrigues; Luis M. Madeira; Rui A. R. Boaventura

2012-01-01

201

Hair cosmetics.  

PubMed

Porosity, elasticity, and texture influence the hair's ability to be changed. The types of color--temporary, gradual, natural, semipermanent, and permanent--depend upon the size of the "coloring" molecule to determine whether they penetrate the cortex (permanent) or precipitate on the cuticle. Different types of hair--thick or coarse, fine or thin--have varying affinity for different products and coloring/waving methods. Damaged hair is treated differently from hair with healthy, less porous shafts. Because so many people have color-treated hair today, dermatologists should be aware of all the latest changes and improvements, in order to assist patients with damaged or congenitally deformed hair. Acid-based permanents are becoming the most commonly used. Daily care with shampooing and conditioning has attained its most sophisticated level with the use of anionic and cationic surfactants in all hair-care products. It is also important for the dermatologist to be aware of what help is available for his or her patients. Cosmetic companies are eager to help any patient with severe problems with texture, dullness, over-fine or congenitally defective hair. The physician should send the patient with a severe problem directly to the nearest company headquarters or major city office to have a hair analysis, and receive suggestions from the experts of that company. For patients with moderate to mild problems, the dermatologist should be able to recommend three or four good salons in the local area with which he or she is familiar. Our main goal as physicians is to take care of the entire patient and to enable him or her to have a good self-image. PMID:3608250

O'Donoghue, M N

1987-07-01

202

Comparison of the effects of some reactive chemicals on the proteins of whole hair, cuticle and cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

treatments and by alkali relaxing to the greatest extent of all. The radioactive tagging experiments showed that virgin hair contains an appreciable number of free sulfhydryl groups and that the treatmen. ts, except for bleaching, increase the number of such groups. The data suggest that sulfhydryl groups were about equally distributed between cuticle and cortex protein after thioglycolate reduction and

JOSEPH CHAO; A. EDWARD NEWSOM; IRENE M. WAINWRIGHT; ROGER A. MATHEWS

203

An Acute Mercuric Mercury Poisoning: Chemical Speciation of Hair Mercury Shows a Peak of Inorganic Mercury Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

A woman ingested a dose of sublimate (approximately 0.9 g) in an attempted suicide. She survived and recovered in response to a combination of therapies including chelate (BAL) therapy, plasma exchange, haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.Serum inorganic mercury concentration, urinary inorganic mercury excretion and hair inorganic and organic mercury and selenium concentrations, along the length from the scalp to the distal

T. Suzuki; T. Hongo; N. Matsuo; H. Imai; M. Nakazawa; T. Abe; Y. Yamamura; M. Yoshida; H. Aoyama

1992-01-01

204

Hair diseases.  

PubMed

A few common causes of hair loss account for the vast majority of cases. A well-directed history and simple physical examination is often sufficient to make a diagnosis. Laboratory testing is often unnecessary. A scalp biopsy can be useful, but only if processed and interpreted correctly. Androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, senescent alopecia, telogen effluvium, traction alopecia, trichotillomania, and cosmetic hair damage are common causes of non-scarring alopecia. Discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, and central, centrifugal scarring alopecia are the most common forms of scarring hair loss. PMID:9769798

Sperling, L C; Mezebish, D S

1998-09-01

205

Hair collection  

Treesearch

Noninvasive survey methods for North American carnivores. ... Description: The identification of species from hair samples is probably as old as ... but did not receive much scientific attention until efficient and relatively inexpensive methods for ...

206

Irritant contact dermatitis complicated by deep-seated staphylococcal infection caused by a hair relaxer.  

PubMed Central

Chemical hair relaxers are used by many women to straighten their hair. We describe a case of a deep soft tissue staphylococcal abscess that complicated an irritant contact dermatitis from a hair relaxer treatment.

Kaur, Birinder J.; Singh, Harmeet; Lin-Greenberg, Alan

2002-01-01

207

Irritant contact dermatitis complicated by deep-seated staphylococcal infection caused by a hair relaxer.  

PubMed

Chemical hair relaxers are used by many women to straighten their hair. We describe a case of a deep soft tissue staphylococcal abscess that complicated an irritant contact dermatitis from a hair relaxer treatment. PMID:11853045

Kaur, Birinder J; Singh, Harmeet; Lin-Greenberg, Alan

2002-02-01

208

Hair breakage index: an alternative tool for damage assessment of human hair.  

PubMed

Improper hair care, mechanical abrasion, sun damage and chemical treatment changes the physical and morphological characteristics of hair. Several methods involving microscopic techniques, protein loss and assessment of tensile properties of the hair are generally used to evaluate the extent of damage caused. These are also used to determine the protective effect of hair care products. In the present investigation, the hair breakage index (HBI) was used as an alternative tool to determine the change in the properties of hair on weathering. HBI is a measure of the diameter of hair in a given cross sectional area of a marked region of hair on the scalp. The hair diameter changes as we progress towards the tip of the hair due to breakage. The ratio of the diameter of hair bundle in the distal region to the diameter of hair bundle in the proximal region from the scalp is used as an indicator of hair breakage. Higher HBI value is an indicator of hair damage.A study was conducted for duration of 16 weeks to assess the effect of weathering due to grooming practices on HBI values. The HBI and break stress for a group of 30 subjects were measured at baseline and at the end of 16 weeks (NU). Since Coconut oil (CNO) is known to have a positive benefit on tensile properties of hair, another matched group of 30 subjects who oiled their hair daily with CNO was used as a positive control (CNO). The HBI and break stress for this group were also measured at the baseline and after 16 weeks. It was observed that the HBI significantly increased in the NU group versus the CNO user group. The break stress also significantly decreased in the NU group suggesting its correlation with the HBI data. This study demonstrates the usefulness of HBI as a simple and effective tool for determining hair damage and its protection by different hair care products. PMID:21635848

Mhaskar, Sudhakar; Kalghatgi, Bhargavi; Chavan, Madhavi; Rout, Suryamani; Gode, Vaishali

209

Development and validation of a gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair and its application to forensic toxicology.  

PubMed

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor and direct metabolite of ethanol. EtG is incorporated into the growing hair allowing retrospective investigation of chronic alcohol abuse. In this study, we report the development and the validation of a method using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS/MS) for the quantification of EtG in hair. EtG was extracted from about 30 mg of hair by aqueous incubation and purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using mixed mode extraction cartridges followed by derivation with perfluoropentanoic anhydride (PFPA). The analysis was performed in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode using the transitions m/z 347-->163 (for the quantification) and m/z 347-->119 (for the identification) for EtG, and m/z 352-->163 for EtG-d(5) used as internal standard. For validation, we prepared quality controls (QC) using hair samples taken post mortem from 2 subjects with a known history of alcoholism. These samples were confirmed by a proficiency test with 7 participating laboratories. The assay linearity of EtG was confirmed over the range from 8.4 to 259.4 pg/mg hair, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) above 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated with 3.0 pg/mg. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the method was fixed at 8.4 pg/mg. Repeatability and intermediate precision (relative standard deviation, RSD%), tested at 4 QC levels, were less than 13.2%. The analytical method was applied to several hair samples obtained from autopsy cases with a history of alcoholism and/or lesions caused by alcohol. EtG concentrations in hair ranged from 60 to 820 pg/mg hair. PMID:19109074

Kharbouche, Hicham; Sporkert, Frank; Troxler, Stéphanie; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice; Staub, Christian

2008-12-06

210

Alignment control and softness creation in hair with glycylglycine.  

PubMed

Thick and coarse hair, as typically found among the Japanese population, frequently lacks softness that consumers are acutely aware of. Such poor feeling is accentuated by daily grooming, weathering, and chemical treatments, in particular, which can cause changes in the hair shape and the creation of frizzy or irregularly shaped hair. Existing technologies to improve the soft feel of hair, though effective, usually concentrate on the surface of the fiber and often leave the hair feeling either overconditioned or sometimes even sticky from product buildup. Hair softness is said to be governed by a number of factors, but primarily hair diameter and surface condition. In this study, we have also identified hair alignment as playing a critical role in hair softness. In addition, by studying how Japanese women perceive hair softness when touching their hair, we have identified that the strain on the hair fiber associated with these manipulations is far smaller than previously considered. With these factors in mind, we have studied the mechanisms behind a new softening technology containing glycylglycine (GG). It has been found that treatment with GG can give a tangible feeling of hair softness by dramatically improving alignment in unruly hair and by lowering the modulus of the fiber. Moreover, using the atomic force microscope, it has been revealed that the properties of the cell membrane complex of the hair cortex may be modified after GG treatment; the role of this additive in modifying the internal properties of the hair to create softness will thus be discussed. PMID:23449128

Breakspear, Steven; Fukuhara, Masaki; Itou, Takashi; Hirano, Yuji; Nojiri, Masayoshi; Kiyomine, Akira; Inoue, Shigeto

211

Prevention of hair surface aging.  

PubMed

The hydrophobic character of the surface of human hair is particularly attributed to the lipid components of the epicuticle and to a layer of covalently bound fatty acids. This outer f-layer mainly consists of 18-methyl eicosanoic acid (18-MEA), which is covalently bound to the underlying protein matrix, forming the epicuticle as composite surface structure. Daily weathering and chemical treatments, specifically oxidative bleaching, decrease the hydrophobicity of the outer hair surface drastically.Multiple daily stress, simulated by an automatic test device including shampooing, blow drying and sun light exposure, changed the lipid composition of hair significantly. A marked loss of 18-MEA was observed. Decreasing contact angles are the direct consequence. A new method to determine the "pseudo-static" contact angle on hair was developed. The results correlate with the corresponding data obtained by dynamic contact angle measurements according to Wilhelmy. Besides that, the resorption time of water droplets by the hair surface provides additional information about the intactness of the outer f-layer.Specific proteolipids, which are lipid-modified keratins, are able to reconstruct the surface layer of damaged hair by creating renewed surface hydrophobicity and extending the water resorption time by the hair surface. PMID:21635851

Wiesche, Erik Schulze Zur; Körner, Andrea; Schäfer, Karola; Wortmann, Franz-Josef

212

Adsorption of phenol and dye from aqueous solution using chemically modified date pits activated carbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of phenol and methylene blue (MB) on modified activated carbons has been investigated. The activated carbon was prepared from date pits by physical activation (CO2 as activating agent). Oxidation in the liquid phase with nitric acid and thermal treatment under flowing nitrogen were carried out in order to produce samples with different surface chemical properties but with no

Meriem Belhachemi; Zohra Belala; Driss Lahcene; Fatima Addoun

2009-01-01

213

Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes and chemical treatment methods for COD and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a comparison of various advanced oxidation processes (O3, O3\\/UV, H2O2\\/UV, O3\\/H2O2\\/UV, Fe2+\\/H2O2) and chemical treatment methods using Al2(SO4)3·18H2O, FeCl3 and FeSO4 for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent is undertaken. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) showed a superior performance compared to conventional chemical treatment, which maximum achievable color

N. Azbar; T. Yonar; K. Kestioglu

2004-01-01

214

Filtration techniques used by the textile industry for recovery of dyes, chemicals and energy  

SciTech Connect

The continued increase in the cost of chemicals energy and water makes their recovery more important today than it was 20 years ago when ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration were first introduced to the textile industry. While the filtration techniques have only been used at a few installations, these plants have been able to save enough to pay for the recovery process in one to two years. One key to having a successful recovery operation is to have good automatic control of the process. This can drastically improve the economics of the textile process as well as minimizing the cost of the recovery system. The recovery of PVA, indigo, caustic and preparation chemicals will be presented.

Porter, J.J.

1995-09-01

215

ELECTROCHEMICAL DEGRADATION OF AZO DYES ON BDD: EFFECT OF CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON THE COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the extent of mineralization in the electrochemical degradation of a series of azo dyes, and to obtain an idea about the effects of the number of azo bonds, number of benzenic or naphthalenic rings and hydrophilic groups and hydrodynamics of the system on the combustion efficiencies, ?C, of the dyes. Tests were

Viviana Santos; António Morão; Maria José Pacheco; Lurdes Ciríaco; Ana Lopes

216

Laser dye toxicity, hazards and recommended controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser dyes are complex fluorescent organic compounds which, when in solution with organic solvents, form a lasing medium. The wavelength of a dye laser's output beam can vary with different dyes, concentrations, and solvents, giving it a tunable feature capable of emitting ultraviolet, visible, or infrared radiation. Toxicity information on the approximately 100 commercially available laser dyes is very scarce. Limited animal experimentation has been performed with only a few dyes. This paper summarizes what is known about laser dye toxicity, and offers recommendations for controlling dye hazards. The laser dyes investigated were categorized according to their central chemical structures. Prepared laser dye solutions usually contain very small quantities of dye--typical dye concentrations are 10(+2) to 10(+5) molar. For this reason, the solvent in which the dye is dissolved plays an important role when defining potential hazards. Practically all the solvents used are flammable and toxic by inhalation and skin absorption, and therefore must be controlled properly.

Mosovsky, J. A.

217

Chemistry of hair colorant processesScience as an aid to formulation and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry of color formation in permanent hair colorants is discussed with particular reference to the in-fiber production of blue, red, and yellow dyes and to the effect of pH on the relative rates of formation of these dyes. The formulation of semipermanent (direct) colorants requires consideration of molecular size, wash fastness, light fastness, and color of the dyes used.

JOHN F. CORBETT

218

The persistence of human scalp hair on clothing fabrics.  

PubMed

This study reports the persistence behaviour of human scalp hairs under a number of different circumstances. The effects of artificial dyeing of hairs, the presence or absence of roots and different types of fabrics on the persistence of hair on a variety of garments were investigated. The garments were made from cotton, polycotton, cotton/acrylic, polyester and wool. The results indicated that neither artificial dyes nor the presence or absence of roots had statistically significant effects on the persistence of hair. In contrast, the type of fabric had a major impact and it was found that, generally, hairs persist longer on rougher fabrics. The rate of loss of hairs from non-woollen fabrics during normal wear was found to follow an exponential decay curve. In contrast, the rate of loss from the woollen garments was quite linear, indicating a constant, even loss, and thus suggests that a different process is involved in the persistence of hairs on woollen garments from that on non-woollen garments. The speed at which hair was lost from fabrics decreased in the order polyester, cotton/acrylic, polycotton, cotton, smooth wool, rough wool, so that wool gives the best chance of recovering samples of hair. Due to the uniqueness of each case, it is advised that caution be used when making any interpretations and before drawing any conclusions. PMID:14642716

Dachs, J; McNaught, I J; Robertson, J

2003-12-17

219

The nail and hair in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the

C Ralph Daniel; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Antonella Tosti

2004-01-01

220

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows or splashes this substance on their skin or in their eyes. This ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.

221

Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)  

MedlinePLUS

... The medical term for severe hair pulling is trichotillomania. People with trichotillomania pull hair on various parts of their bodies, ... clips, a hat, wig or scarf. People with trichotillomania are not able stop pulling their hair. As ...

222

Research paper Lateral line hair cell maturation is a determinant of aminoglycoside susceptibility in zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental differences in hair cell susceptibility to aminoglycoside-induced cell death has been observed in multiple species. Increased sensitivity to aminoglycosides has been temporally correlated with the onset of mechanotransduction-dependent activity. We have used in vivo fluorescent vital dye markers to further investigate the determinants of aminoglycoside induced hair cell death in the lateral line of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Labeling hair

Felipe Santos; Glen MacDonald; Edwin W. Rubel; David W. Raible

223

True porosity measurement of hair: a new way to study hair damage mechanisms.  

PubMed

This study employs a novel method, gas sorption (1), to quantify the porosity characteristics of hair by determining total pore volume, adsorption pore-size distribution, and the surface area of damaged hair. Damage mechanisms were studied by comparing the different pore volume and surface area resulting from two different types of damage: chemical and UV. Hair color measurement and tensile strength, both reflecting the changes in hair cortex, were also employed in this study. The results suggest that hair damage caused by oxidative bleach and UV oxidation follows different pathways. Chemical damage (oxidative bleach) nearly triples the hair surface area in the first minute of bleaching due to the increase in the number of pores, followed by a sudden drop after 10 min of bleaching from smaller pores breaking down into larger ones. In contrast, UV damage shows an immediate loss in surface area in the first 200 hr of exposure and a gradual increase as exposure time continues. PMID:18818850

Hessefort, Yin; Holland, Brian T; Cloud, Richard W

224

Nanotribological effects of hair care products and environment on human hair using atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tribological properties are useful in the study of human hair and other biological materials. Major sources of investigation for conditioner treated hair includes localization of conditioner, mechanisms related to changes in surface roughness, friction, and adhesion on the nanoscale due to conditioner agents, and how the products change the microstructure of the cuticle. The paper presents nanotribological studies investigating surface roughness, friction, and adhesion using atomic force/friction force microscopy (AFM/FFM). Test samples include virgin and chemically damaged hair, both with and without commercial conditioner treatment, as well as chemically damaged hair with experimental conditioner treatments. Friction force mapping provides insight into the localized change in friction caused by the application of hair care materials. Adhesive force maps to study adhesion on the cuticle surface provide information about localization and distribution of conditioner as well. A discussion is presented on these properties of hair as a function of relative humidity, temperature, durability, and conditioning treatments.

Latorre, Carmen; Bhushan, Bharat

2005-07-01

225

Formation of nanostructure on hair surface: its characteristic optical properties and application to hair care products.  

PubMed

Uneven structures on hair fiber surface, such as lift up of cuticle or build up of hair spray ingredients, generally cause a diffuse reflection which results in a dull and unhealthy appearance. However, in the case of finer structure than wavelength of visible light, the optical properties change significantly. An application of the phenomenon to hair care products is reported in this paper. Formation of the fine structure on hair surface was achieved by only a shampoo and rinse-off conditioner system including amino-silicone. Chroma enhancement of hair and light introduction into hair fibers were observed simultaneously with formation of the fine structure on the hair surface. The light introduction phenomenon is understood in terms of "Effective Medium Approximation" (EMA). The simulation study based on EMA indicates that a very low refractive index surface is expected to be realized, which well explains the optical experimental results. When the shampoo and conditioner system developed to form the structure on fiber surface was applied to dyed hair, enhancement and long-lasting of vivid appearance was confirmed in spite of dye elution. PMID:17728928

Watanabe, Shunsuke; Sato, Hirayuki; Shibuichi, Satoshi; Okamoto, Masayuki; Inoue, Shigeto; Satoh, Naoki

226

40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section...Substances § 721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical...identified generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN...

2010-07-01

227

40 CFR 721.9717 - Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. 721.9717 Section...Substances § 721.9717 Azo monochloro triazine reactive dye. (a) Chemical...identified generically as an azo monochloro triazine reactive dye (PMN...

2009-07-01

228

[Frizzy hair pathology].  

PubMed

Frizzy hair syndrome is frequent. It is due to sideways growth and tight coiling of the hair fiber. It is often secondary to unsuitable grooming practices causing ingrown hair (pili incarnati) followed by infection and\\or damage. The fragility of frizzy hair promotes alopecia due to chronic traction, use of hair relaxers, and perming. Treatment of complications is difficult so awareness of precautionary measures is important. PMID:22235613

Morand, Jean-Jacques

2011-10-01

229

Comparison of Trifluoroacetyl Monostyryl and Distyryl Dyes: Effects of Chromophore Elongation on the Spectral Properties and Chemical Reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The trifluoroacetyl distyryl derivative 1-[4-(2-{4-[2-(4-dibutylaminophenyl)-vinyl]-phenyl}-vinyl)-phenyl]-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone was compared with the related monostyryl derivative 1-{4-[2-(4-dibutylaminophenyl)-vinyl]-phenyl}-2,2,2-trifluoroethanone with respect to spectral properties and sensitivity to amines. Both trifluoroacetyl derivatives had their absorbance maximum at around 445 nm. The fluorescence of the distyryl dye, however, was observed at significantly longer wavelengths than that of the monostyryl dye, indicating the effect of structural extension of the chromophore

Gerhard J. Mohr; Ulrich-W. Grummt

2006-01-01

230

PIXE elemental analysis of South American mummy hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair samples were obtained from ten mummies of the archaic and formative cultures of the north coast of Chile. Each sample was divided into two portions. One portion was washed in acetone and then water and the second portion remained unwashed. All samples were then prepared by an acid digestion procedure and analyzed by PIXE. The washed and unwashed samples were compared to determine what elements were present in the material on the hair surface. Concentrations of the elements Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, and Pb are reported. Comparison was made to previously published elemental analyses of mummy hair and modem hair. One sample, which had a reddish hue, was found to contain unusually large quantities of Fe and As. Since the unwashed sample had much higher concentrations of these elements than the washed sample, it is believed that the reddish color originated in a mineral dye applied to the hair.

Rees, L. B.; Du, A. Y.; Mangelson, N. F.; Matheny, R. T.

1996-04-01

231

Solitary Hair Cells Are Distributed Throughout the Extramacular Epithelium in the Bullfrog's Saccule  

Microsoft Academic Search

lium that has not been considered capable of giving rise to hair cells. The frog inner ear contains eight sensory organs that provide sensitivities to auditory, vestibular, and ian, sacculus, vital dye ground-borne vibrational stimuli. The saccule in bull- frogs is responsible for detecting ground- and air- borne vibrations and is used for studies of hair cell INTRODUCTION physiology, development,

JONATHAN E. GALE; J ASON R. MEYERS; JEFFREY T. C ORWIN

232

On pathways for small molecules into and out of human hair fibers.  

PubMed

This paper represents an experimental approach of histology of the human hair fiber in dyeing and diffusion phenomena and its contribution to the interpretation of hair analysis results for drug abuse. Rhodamine B was applied to human hair fibers from either aqueous solution or methanol/ethanol solvent. The experiments were performed on natural hair of different ethnic groups as well as on extensively bleached hair strands. The microscopical study of the pathway of diffusion of rhodamine B into the hair fibers indicated that the reagent had entered the unmodified fibers at the scale edges between the cuticle cells. At the beginning of the diffusion process intercellular diffusion was the preferred route predominantly along the nonkeratinous regions of the cell membrane complex (CMC) and intermacrofibrillar cement. Penetration into the high sulfur regions of the fiber occurred as dyeing in aqueous solution proceeded and resulted in evenly stained cross sections. The dye distribution pattern observed in natural hair exposed to nonaqueous solution showed that rhodamine B did not penetrate the cortex cells as easy as from aqueous solution and selectively stained nonkeratinous regions only. The determination of the amount of dye taken up by the fibers by spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated that samples diffusion generally increased by time and temperature. It also depended on the morphology of the hair sample. The penetration of rhodamine B from aqueous solution was much greater than from methanol/ethanol solvent. PMID:8934709

Pötsch, L; Moeller, M R

1996-01-01

233

A sensitive fluorescence technique using dansyl chloride to assess hair damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and sensitive procedure amenable to visual or spectrofluorometric quantitation has been developed to detect certain types of hair damage. We have found that hair treated with the fluorescent dye 1-dimeth- ylamino-naphthalene-5-sulfonyl chloride (dansyl chloride) acquires fluorescence under ultraviolet light. The fluorescence intensity is a function of the amount of dansyl chloride binding to the hair and can be

SUKHVINDER S. SANDHU; CLARENCE R. ROBBINS

1989-01-01

234

Wet chemical synthesis of ZnO thin films and sensitization to light with N3 dye for solar cell application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple wet chemical synthesis of ZnO thin films has been carried out at room temperature (27 °C) from an aqueous alkaline bath followed by annealing in air at 100 °C on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates. The deposited film showed an optical band gap of 3.28 eV with a thickness of about 40 µm with a hexagonal crystal structure. A flower-like surface morphology consisting of petals was observed. These petals are made up of a fibrous network with interconnected nanoparticles leading to a high surface area. This obliged us to use this structure for dye-sensitized solar cells with lower fabrication process cost than conventional high temperature sintered methods which are commonly used for ZnO and TiO2. It would be advantageous to use a flexible plastic substrate instead of routine glass in future. ZnO showed a current conversion efficiency (?) of 0.34% with chemically adsorbed N3 dye at standard AM 1.5 condition with illumination of light intensity 100 mW cm-2.

Baviskar, P. K.; Tan, Weiwei; Zhang, Jingbo; Sankapal, B. R.

2009-06-01

235

Improved visible light photocatalytic activity of titania loaded with silver on discoloration of a heterocyclic aromatic chemical dye solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photocatalytic activity of silver deposited Degussa P25 titanium dioxide (Ag-DP25) in the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) was investigated. The as-prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), infrared spectra and surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) techniques. The obtained results show that the silver dopant could effectively inhibit the recombination of the photoinduced electron and holes, improving the absorption capability for visible light of photocatalyst and leading to increased surface OH group density. The degradation experiment reveals that the catalytic property of Ag-DP25 in the degradation of MB dye is more efficient than that of commercially available Degussa P25 TiO2 (DP25) samples under visible-light irradiation. Besides, degradation kinetics of MB dye can, be well described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation and shows pseudo-first order law.

Zhang, Dongfang

2012-04-01

236

Sensitizing effect of bio-based chemicals from urban wastes on the photodegradation of azo-dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To promote bio-based products for the industry, six bio-organic substances (cHALi) isolated from yard trimmings (green) and food (humid) urban residues aged under aerobic digestion for 0–60 days were investigated for their potential to perform as sensitizers for azo-dyes photodegradation. Ethylorange (EO) was used as probe molecule at 5mgL?1 starting concentration and irradiated in a closed Pyrex® cell with a

Alessandra Bianco Prevot; Debora Fabbri; Edmondo Pramauro; Claudio Baiocchi; Claudio Medana; Enzo Montoneri; Vittorio Boffa

2010-01-01

237

Dyeing KDP  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the growth and spectroscopy of well-defined mixed crystals of KH2PO4 (KDP) containing both natural and synthetic organic dyes in the {010} and {101} growth sectors. Our summary reevaluates historical dye inclusions, reveals others discovered in a directed screening, and ultimately describes dyes rationally synthesized for the recognition of KDP surfaces. Absorption and emission spectroscopies with polarized light are

J. Anand Subramony; Sei-Hum Jang; Bart Kahr

1997-01-01

238

Approach towards developing a novel procedure to selectively quantify topically applied substances in the hair follicles of the model tissue porcine ear skin.  

PubMed

Hair follicles represent reservoirs for localized drug therapy and transport pathways for systemic drug delivery. This study describes an approach towards developing a novel procedure for quantifying topically applied substances located in the hair follicles of porcine ear skin, a model for human in vivo skin, using a fluorescent dye. Approximately 5% of the topically applied dye was recovered from the hair follicles, which is in accordance with a previous study. PMID:23489479

Knorr, Fanny; Patzelt, Alexa; Richter, Heike; Schanzer, Sabine; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

2013-03-12

239

Hair follicle (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... in a cavity in the skin called a follicle. Over time the follicle can shrink causing the hair to become shorter ... in men who are balding the very small follicle ceases to grow any hair. The cause of ...

240

Forensic Science: Hair Identification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

Keller, Elhannan L.

1980-01-01

241

What Causes Hair Loss?  

MedlinePLUS

... stop the inflammation that destroys the hair follicles. Disease Underlying medical condition . A warning sign for about 30 diseases, hair ... stopped or reversed with treatment for the underlying disease. Two common underlying medical conditions that can cause hair loss are thyroid disease ...

242

Common Hair Loss Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, close attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a

KARYN SPRINGER; MATTHEW BROWN; DANIEL L. STULBERG

2003-01-01

243

Microspectral investigation of hair of one girl during six years by laser emission analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple chemical elements of clinical and nutritional interest were measured in the hair of a girl - cerebral palsy patient. Sixteen samples of hair were cut and investigated to determine time and nutrition trends by using laser and arc emission spectroscopy.

Surmenko, Elena L.; Sokolova, Tatiana N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

2001-10-01

244

Chemical characterization and toxicologic evaluation of airborne mixtures. Tumorigenicity studies of Diesel Fuel-2, Red Smoke Dye and Violet Smoke Dyes in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Tumorigenesis Bioassay System  

SciTech Connect

The tumorigenicities of Diesel Fuel-2, Red Smoke Dye and Violet Smoke Dye were tested in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Bioassay System. The Diesel Fuel-2 gave a signigificant tumor response when tested as a tumor promoter but negative results when tested as a complete carcinogen. There were no tumor responses to either the Red or Violet Smoke Dyes when tested as a complete carcinogens. Although a few tumors occurred in the Red and Violet Smoke Dye tumor initiation studies, the response was not significantly different from that of the controls. 29 refs., 10 tabs.

Slaga, T.J.; Triplett, L.L.; Fry, R.J.M.

1985-09-01

245

A NINHYDRIN HISTOCHEMICAL TEST SPECIFIC FOR HAIR KERATIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction of ninhvdrin with a-amino groups of amino acids and proteins results in deamination of the amino acid or protein to form a nitrogen-containing blue dye complex. This molecule is small and highly diffusible, a property which was utilized in the develop- ment of a ninhvdrin histochemical test specific for hair keratin. Using a silicone rubber cement. which is

ELIZABETH J. HOLMES

1968-01-01

246

Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but

J.-Y. Tinevez; P. Martin; F. Jülicher

2009-01-01

247

Introduction—Human Hair, Skin, and Hair Care Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This book presents the biophysics of human hair and hair treatment. It deals with the structure of hair, the nanomechanical\\u000a characterization, nanotribological characterization, the conditioner thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair\\u000a surface, and surface potential studies. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

Bharat Bhushan

248

Dyes as tracers for vadose zone hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dyes are important tracers to investigate subsurface water movement. For more than a century, dye tracers have provided clues about the hydrological cycle as well as flow and transport processes in the subsurface. Groundwater contamination often originates in the vadose zone. Agrochemicals applied to the soil surface, toxic compounds accidentally spilled by human activities, and contaminants released from waste repositories leach through the vadose zone and can ultimately pollute groundwater resources. Dyes are an important tool to assess flow pathways of such contaminants. This review compiles information on dyes used as hydrological tracers, with particular emphasis on vadose zone hydrology. We summarize briefly different human-applied tracers, including nondye tracers. We then provide a historical sketch of the use of dyes as tracers and describe newer developments in visualization and quantification of tracer experiments. Relevant chemical properties of dyes used as tracers are discussed and illustrated with dye intermediates and selected dye tracers. The types of dyes used as tracers in subsurface hydrology are summarized, and recommendations are made regarding the use of dye tracers. The review concludes with a toxicological assessment of dyes used as hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as tracers for water movement in the subsurface. All of these compounds, however, are to some degree retarded by the subsurface medium. Nevertheless, dyes are useful tracers to visualize flow pathways.

Flury, Markus; Wai, Nu Nu

2003-03-01

249

Hair alteration in black patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

Four black men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) demonstrated profound alterations in hair patterns two to three years after their first symptoms appeared. The hair became longer, lighter, softer, and silky, and it was occasionally discolored. One patient was thought to be of Indian extraction. These changes may not be as apparent in nonblack persons. Possible explanations are a retrogression of hair pattern to an earlier stage of growth, a phenomenon reminiscent of, but not similar to, malnutrition trichosis, or a combination of both. Closer attention should be paid to the hair of AIDS patients. Histologic and chemical analysis may be appropriate. PMID:3608581

Leonidas, J R

1987-06-01

250

Imaging electrical resonance in hair cells  

PubMed Central

The mechanosensory hair cells of many auditory receptor organs are tuned by an electrical resonance that increases their responses to stimulation over a narrow band of frequencies. The small oscillations of membrane potential characteristic of this phenomenon have previously been detectable only through intracellular electrode measurements, which are laborious and preclude analysis at the level of an entire sensory organ. We used a voltage-sensitive dye to image hair-cell electrical resonance in an intact preparation of the bullfrog's sacculus, a receptor organ sensitive to low-frequency seismic and auditory stimuli. Imaging revealed distinct populations of hair cells whose resonant response varied with the frequency of transepithelial electrical stimulation. Most of the hair cells in the saccular epithelium in vitro were electrically tuned to stimulation at 25–50 Hz. The frequency dependence of the fluorescence signal was sensitive to pharmacological blockade of large-conductance Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels and to enzymatic digestion. At an elevated concentration of Ca2+, we observed transient fluorescence signals that probably represented action potentials. The stroboscopic imaging and analysis techniques described here present a general approach for studying subthreshold oscillations in electrically excitable cells.

Fisher, Jonathan A. N.; Kowalik, Lukasz; Hudspeth, A. J.

2011-01-01

251

Imaging electrical resonance in hair cells.  

PubMed

The mechanosensory hair cells of many auditory receptor organs are tuned by an electrical resonance that increases their responses to stimulation over a narrow band of frequencies. The small oscillations of membrane potential characteristic of this phenomenon have previously been detectable only through intracellular electrode measurements, which are laborious and preclude analysis at the level of an entire sensory organ. We used a voltage-sensitive dye to image hair-cell electrical resonance in an intact preparation of the bullfrog's sacculus, a receptor organ sensitive to low-frequency seismic and auditory stimuli. Imaging revealed distinct populations of hair cells whose resonant response varied with the frequency of transepithelial electrical stimulation. Most of the hair cells in the saccular epithelium in vitro were electrically tuned to stimulation at 25-50 Hz. The frequency dependence of the fluorescence signal was sensitive to pharmacological blockade of large-conductance Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels and to enzymatic digestion. At an elevated concentration of Ca(2+), we observed transient fluorescence signals that probably represented action potentials. The stroboscopic imaging and analysis techniques described here present a general approach for studying subthreshold oscillations in electrically excitable cells. PMID:21220326

Fisher, Jonathan A N; Kowalik, Lukasz; Hudspeth, A J

2011-01-10

252

Female hair restoration.  

PubMed

Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

Unger, Robin H

2013-08-01

253

‘Plica neuropathica’: Matting of Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor degrees of irreversible tangling of scalp hair are commonly observed by hairdressers or individuals with long hair. However, severe irreversible matting of scalp hair is extremely rare [1]. A patient recently seen by us is presented.

Rashmi Sarkar; Sukhjot Kaur; G. P. Thami; A. J. Kanwar

2000-01-01

254

How to Stop Damaging Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... healthy hair Stop hair damage Styling without damage Hair loss vs. hair shedding Hair loss in new moms Removing gum without cutting hair ... if you are concerned about thinning hair or hair loss. Most causes can be stopped or treated. The ...

255

Tryptophan fluorescence in hair-examination of contributing factors.  

PubMed

Various types of hair, including white (unpigmented), Piedmont (yellow-colored), blonde, brown, curly black of African origin, straight black of Chinese origin, and chemically processed (bleached) hair, were studied by using fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence measurements were obtained by using a single- or double-grating fluorescence spectrophotometer and a bifurcated fiber optics accessory to measure the spectra directly from the surface of the hair. The results have shown that all types of hair share similar fluorescence characteristics, as recorded by excitation at 290 nm, 320 nm, 350 nm, and 380 nm, with emissions that could be ascribed to chromophores such as tryptophan (Trp), N-formylkynurenine, kynurenine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine. The relative intensities of fluorophore emissions were found to be dependent on factors such as melanin content and the history of UV light or thermal exposure. Trp fluorescence was also found to be dependent upon the state of the hair matrix. Softening of hair keratin by chemical reduction (breakage) of disulfide bonds or by hydration, leads to a 50%-100% increase in Trp emission intensity. Conversely, stiffening of the hair matrix by re-oxidation of reduced hair with hydrogen peroxide, or drying of wet hair, produces a decrease in fluorescence intensity. The results were interpreted by invoking the behavior of certain enzymes, which demonstrate Trp quenching by neighboring disulfide bonds or by hydrogen bonding with alanine residues, or with certain side-chain amino acids. PMID:21839032

Jachowicz, Janusz; McMullen, Roger L

256

Biological Sampling and Analysis in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2007 Puget Sound Biota Study  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating spatial and temporal trends in contaminant residues in Puget Sound fish and macroinvertebrates are the objectives of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP). In a cooperative effort between the ENVironmental inVESTment group (ENVVEST) and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, additional biota samples were collected during the 2007 PSAMP biota survey and analyzed for chemical residues and stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N). Approximately three specimens of each species collected from Sinclair Inlet, Georgia Basin, and reference locations in Puget Sound were selected for whole body chemical analysis. The muscle tissue of specimens selected for chemical analyses were also analyzed for ?13C and ?15N to provide information on relative trophic level and food sources. This data report summarizes the chemical residues for the 2007 PSAMP fish and macro-invertebrate samples. In addition, six Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) samples were necropsied to evaluate chemical residue of various parts of the fish (digestive tract, liver, embryo, muscle tissue), as well as, a weight proportional whole body composite (WBWC). Whole organisms were homogenized and analyzed for silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, mercury, 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB homologues, percent moisture, percent lipids, ?13C, and ?15N.

Brandenberger, Jill M.; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

2008-10-09

257

Long Hair Shampoo Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to a long hair shampoo basin for use at barber shops and beauty salons. More specifically, the present invention is directed to shampoo basins which are adapted for shampooing longer hair than is accommodated by present basin...

K. Schulken

2005-01-01

258

A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is a very complex visual pattern whose rep- resentation is rarely studied in the vision literature despite its important role in human recognition. In this paper, we propose a generative model for hair representation and hair sketching, which is far more compact than the physically based models in graphics. We decompose a color hair im- age into three

Hong Chen; Song Chun Zhu

2005-01-01

259

Hair bleaching and skin burning  

PubMed Central

Summary Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation.

Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.

2012-01-01

260

Fullerene nanomaterials potentiate hair growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss is a common symptom resulting from a wide range of disease processes and can lead to stress in affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fullerene nanomaterials on hair growth. We used shaved mice as well as SKH-1 “bald” mice to determine if fullerene-based compounds could affect hair growth and hair follicle

Zhiguo Zhou; Robert Lenk; Anthony Dellinger; Darren MacFarland; Krishan Kumar; Stephen R. Wilson; Christopher L. Kepley

2009-01-01

261

Photocatalytic Degradation of Textile Dye and Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of commercial azo dye (Remazol Red 133) in the presence of titanium dioxide\\u000a (TiO2) suspensions as photocatalyst was investigated. The effect of various operational parameters, such as pH of dye solution\\u000a and catalyst concentration on the photocatalytic degradation process, was examined. The mineralization of dye was also evaluated\\u000a by measuring the chemical oxygen demand

Dilek Gümü?; Feryal Akbal

2011-01-01

262

Exposure to hair-coloring products and the risk of multiple myeloma.  

PubMed Central

An interview study of persons diagnosed with multiple myeloma between 1977 and 1981 and suitable control subjects was conducted to test the hypothesis that exposure to hair dyes increases the risk of multiple myeloma. Among women, there was little evidence that prior regular use of hair dyes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70, 1.4) or prior employment as a hairdresser (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.43, 2.7) increased risk; however, the former comparison was limited by the lack of detailed information concerning the exposure. Among men, there was a modest association of regular use of hair dyes (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.75, 2.9) with myeloma, but this was based on a small number of exposed persons.

Herrinton, L J; Weiss, N S; Koepsell, T D; Daling, J R; Taylor, J W; Lyon, J L; Swanson, G M; Greenberg, R S

1994-01-01

263

Hair and scalp dermatoscopy.  

PubMed

Dermatoscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye. Trichoscopy (scalp dermatoscopy and videodermatoscopy) is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of hair and scalp disorders. However, it is not widely used in the management of hair disorders. This review provides updated information from the literature and our experience on the dermoscopic features of the most common hair and scalp disorders. This will enable dermatologists to make fast diagnoses of tinea capitis and alopecia areata, distinguish early androgenetic alopecia from telogen effluvium, and differentiate scarring from nonscarring alopecia. PMID:22405573

Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

2012-03-08

264

From pirazoloquinolines to annulated analogues of azafluoranthene and azulene dyes: UV-VIS spectroscopy and quantum chemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper reports the measured optical absorption and fluorescence spectra of 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-6]quinoline (CPDPPQ), as well as 1,3-diphenyl-3H-indeno[1,2,3-de]pyrazolo[3,4-6]quinoline (DPIPQ) and 6-phenyl-6H-5,6,7-triazadibenzo[f,h]naphtho[3,2,1-cd]azulene (PTNA) representing cyclizated five-or seven-membered regioizomeric products of CPDPPQ, respectively. The spectra has been recorded in solvents of different polarity and compared with the results of quantum chemical calculations performed within the semiempirical method PM3. Cyclization of CPDPPQ into DPIPQ or

S. Calus; K. S. Danel; T. Uchacz; D. Calus; A. V. Kityk

2009-01-01

265

Painting With Natural Dyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

1999-07-01

266

Common Hair Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... bacterial infection of hair follicles (folliculitis), infestation of head lice (pediculosis capitis), and fungal infection of scalp ringworm ( ... below to see additional images and learn more. Head Lice (Pediculosis Capitis) Head lice (pediculosis capitis) is a ...

267

Common hair loss disorders.  

PubMed

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause. PMID:12887115

Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

2003-07-01

268

Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line.  

PubMed

Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analog of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line. PMID:23467357

Thomas, Andrew J; Hailey, Dale W; Stawicki, Tamara M; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W; Simon, Julian A; Ou, Henry C

2013-03-01

269

Structural characterization of hair fiber by optical coherence tomography (OCT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we use the optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique to produce in vitro transversal section images of human hair. It was possible to identify in the A-scan protocol its principal structures: cuticle, cortex and medulla. The mean diameter of medulla was 29 +/- 7 ?m and hair diameter was 122 +/- 16 ?m in our samples of standard Afro-ethnic hair. We also compared the OCT signal before and after chemical treatment with 18% w/w ammonium thioglycolate solution. After chemical treatment, it was not possible to identify the main structures of hair fiber, due the index matching promoted by deleterious action of chemical agent. A tridimensional image was built starting from 601 cross-sectional images (slices). Each slice was taken in steps of 6.0 ?m at 8 frames per second, and the whole 3D image was built in 60 seconds.

Freitas, Anderson Zanardi; Robes Velasco, Maria Valeria; Paulo Raele, Marcus; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Vieira, Nilson Dias, Jr.; Baby, Andre Rolim

2008-12-01

270

ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

271

Short Anagen Hair Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Short anagen syndrome (SAS) is a condition in which hair does not grow long. It usually perceived by parents in children around 2-4 years of age. It is a benign disease of the hair cycle. The condition is relevant from the standpoint of differential diagnosis with loose anagen syndrome. We report a case of SAS in a Hispanic 3-year-old girl.

Herskovitz, Ingrid; de Sousa, Isabel Cristina Valente Duarte; Simon, Jessica; Tosti, Antonella

2013-01-01

272

Hair Motion Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hair motion simulation in computer graphics has been an attraction for many researchers. The application we have developed\\u000a has been inspired by the related previous work as well as our own efforts in finding useful algrithms to handle this problem.\\u000a The work we present uses a set of representations, including hair strands, clusters and strips, that are derived from the

Yusuf Sahillioglu; Bülent Özgüç

2004-01-01

273

Photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell low temperature growth of ZnO nanorods using chemical bath deposition.  

PubMed

Nanostructured ZnO photoelectrodes were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates that were spin-coated with a sol-gel based ZnO seed layer via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at varying times of 1, 2, 4, and 8 h. Then, TiO2 nanoparticulate electrodes were prepared on ZnO nanorods using the doctor blade technique. The uniformly grown ZnO nanorod layer had a length of approximately 710 nm on the FTO glass substrate with wurtzite structures which was confirmed through X-ray diffraction patterns. The length and diameter of the ZnO nanorods increased with an increase in the deposition time. The DSSCs fabricated with TiO2 nanoparticulate/grown ZnO nanorods and grown for 8 h showed the maximum efficiency (5.51%) with a short circuit current density (J(sc)) of 12.21 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.70 at 100 mW/cm2 light intensity. PMID:22849148

Lee, Jeong-Gwan; Choi, Young-Cheol; Lee, Do-Kyung; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Jae Hong

2012-04-01

274

Dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

Moses, E.I.

1992-12-01

275

Assessment upon azo dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation by Proteus hauseri  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation of indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44 for dye-bearing wastewater treatment. Chemical structures of azo dyes apparently affected the performance of dye biodecolorization. Additions of diazo dye C.I. reactive blue 160 (RBu160) stimulated simultaneous dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation of ZMd44 in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, high-level additions of RBu160 repressed

Bor-Yann Chen; Meng-Meng Zhang; Chang-Tang Chang; Yongtao Ding; Kae-Long Lin; Chyow-San Chiou; Chung-Chuan Hsueh; Huizhong Xu

2010-01-01

276

40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721.4594 Section 721...Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a substituted azo metal complex dye (PMN P-94-499) is...

2013-07-01

277

40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917 Section...Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject...

2010-07-01

278

40 CFR 721.5917 - Phenyl azo dye (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Phenyl azo dye (generic). 721.5917 Section...Substances § 721.5917 Phenyl azo dye (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a phenyl azo dye (PMN P-02-17) is subject...

2009-07-01

279

Removal of dyes and industrial dye wastes by magnesium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium chloride, as compared to alum and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) is a less commonly used coagulant in the field of wastewater treatment, with a cost in between alum and PAC. It has been used in this study as a coagulant to investigate the effectiveness in the chemical precipitation method for the removal of colouring matters. The colour concentration of dye

Boon Hai Tan; Tjoon Tow Teng; A. K. Mohd Omar

2000-01-01

280

Usefulness of alkaline hydrogen peroxide oxidation to analyze eumelanin and pheomelanin in various tissue samples: application to chemical analysis of human hair melanins.  

PubMed

Eumelanin and pheomelanin in tissue samples can be specifically measured as the markers pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and 4-amino-3-hydroxyphenylalanine after acidic permanganate oxidation and hydroiodic acid hydrolysis, respectively. Those degradation methods, although widely applied, are not easily performed in most laboratories. To overcome this difficulty, we developed alkaline H(2)O(2) oxidation in 1 M K(2)CO(3) that produces, in addition to the eumelanin marker PTCA, thiazole-2,4,5-tricarboxylic acid (TTCA) and thiazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid (TDCA) as markers for pheomelanin and pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA) as a marker for 5,6-dihydroxyindole-derived eumelanin. Those four degradation products can be easily separated by HPLC and analyzed with ultraviolet detection. The alkaline H(2)O(2) oxidation method is simple, reproducible and applicable to all pigmented tissues. Its application to characterize eumelanin and pheomelanin in human hair shows that PTCA and TTCA serve as specific markers for eumelanin and pheomelanin, respectively, although some caution is needed regarding the artificial production of TTCA from eumelanic tissue proteins. PMID:21535429

Ito, Shosuke; Nakanishi, Yukiko; Valenzuela, Robert K; Brilliant, Murray H; Kolbe, Ludger; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

2011-05-17

281

Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

SciTech Connect

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, M.L.

2000-07-25

282

Method of dye removal for the textile industry  

DOEpatents

The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01

283

Biological Wastewater Treatment of Azo Dyes,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constit...

G. M. Shaul C. R. Dempsey K. A. Dostal

1988-01-01

284

The biology of hair diversity.  

PubMed

Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

2013-03-06

285

Are picro-dye reactions for collagens quantitative?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of picro-dye reactions demonstrated wide variations in the binding of different dyes. Picro-Sirius Red F3BA was recommended because it colors all collagens intensely and is suitable for polarization microscopy. Recent publications on quantitative uses of this stain were surprising. To obtain further information on the chemical mechanisms of dye binding by proteins, 94 sulfonated azo dyes were tested

H. Puchtler; S. N. Meloan; F. S. Waldrop

1988-01-01

286

A mass spring model for hair simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to simulate the full hair geometry, consisting of approximately one hundred thousand hairs on a typical human head. This will require scalable methods that can simulate every hair as opposed to only a few guide hairs. Novel to this approach is that the individual hair\\/hair interactions can be modeled with physical parameters (friction, static attraction, etc.) at

Andrew Selle; Michael Lentine; Ronald Fedkiw

2008-01-01

287

A mass spring model for hair simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to simulate the full hair geometry, consisting of ap- proximately one hundred thousand hairs on a typical human head. This will require scalable methods that can simulate every hair as opposed to only a few guide hairs. Novel to this approach is that the individual hair\\/hair interactions can be modeled with physical parameters (friction, static attraction, etc.)

Andrew Selle; Michael Lentine; Ronald Fedkiw

2008-01-01

288

40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

2013-07-01

289

Hair analyses: worthless for vitamins, limited for minerals  

SciTech Connect

Despite many major and minor problems with interpretation of analytical data, chemical analyses of human hair have some potential value. Extensive research will be necessary to define this value, including correlation of hair concentrations of specific elements with those in other tissues and metabolic pools and definition of normal physiological concentration ranges. Many factors that may compromise the correct interpretation of analytical data require detailed evaluation for each specific element. Meanwhile, hair analyses are of some value in the comparison of different populations and, for example, in public health community surveys of environmental exposure to heavy metals. On an individual basis, their established usefulness is much more restricted and the limitations are especially notable for evaluation of mineral nutritional status. There is a wide gulf between the limited and mainly tentative scientific justification for their use on an individual basis and the current exploitation of multielement chemical analyses of human hair.

Hambridge, K.M.

1982-11-01

290

Hair Loss in New Moms  

MedlinePLUS

... shedding after having a baby. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ... the rest does not exist. 2. Try a new hairstyle. Some haircuts make hair look fuller. An ...

291

Outer hair cells as potential targets of inflammatory mediators.  

PubMed

Inner ear sequelae with temporary or permanent sensorineural hearing loss can result from inflammatory processes in the middle ear. Loss of outer hair cells in the base of the cochlea has been noted in otitis media, but it is not known how this damage occurs. Evidence supports the permeability of the round window membrane to substances mediating inflammation in the middle ear, and the presence of white blood cells has been reported in the perilymph. In the present study, the potential cytotoxic effects of two representative inflammatory mediators, endotoxin and free radicals, have been evaluated by use of short-term culture of isolated outer hair cells from the guinea pig cochlea model. Incubation with endotoxins from two gram-negative pathogens increased the rate of hair cell death fourfold to sixfold. Free radicals (generated by exposure of cells to UV light or by excitation of intracellular fluorescent dyes) produced morphologic damage to hair cells within 60 seconds. These latter effects were delayed by addition of free-radical scavengers. It is concluded that inflammatory mediators are cytotoxic to hair cells and therefore are potentially ototoxic if permeating the round window membrane. PMID:2112361

Huang, M; Dulon, D; Schacht, J

1990-06-01

292

European hair and eye color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair and eye color is unusually diverse in northern and eastern Europe. The many alleles involved (at least seven for hair color) and their independent origin over a short span of evolutionary time indicate some kind of selection. Sexual selection is particularly indicated because it is known to favor color traits and color polymorphisms. In addition, hair and eye

Peter Frost

2006-01-01

293

Hair colour in clinical diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

N recent years a vast amount of research has been devoted to the physiology and pathology of hair growth, partly because of the great economic importance of the hair of the sheep and partly because the hair follicle is a compact, complex and accessible organ for the study of many fundamental biological processes. The melanocyte, too, has attracted a great

Arthur Rook

1969-01-01

294

Enzymatic biobleaching of two recalcitrant paper dyes with horseradish and soybean peroxidase.  

PubMed

A stilbene dye (Direct Yellow 11) and a methine dye, Basazol 46L, recalcitrant to common chemical bleaches, were treated with horseradish and soybean peroxidases. Both enzymes were effective at chromophore removal. When compared to laccase in combination with a mediator (ABTS), soybean peroxidase was more effective at oxidative dye removal, especially for the methine dye. PMID:16086255

Knutson, Kristina; Kirzan, Sylva; Ragauskas, Arthur

2005-06-01

295

Enzymatic Biobleaching of Two Recalcitrant Paper Dyes with Horseradish and Soybean Peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stilbene dye (Direct Yellow 11) and a methine dye, Basazol 46L, recalcitrant to common chemical \\u000ableaches, were treated with horseradish and soybean peroxidases. Both enzymes were effective at chromophore \\u000aremoval. When compared to laccase in combination with a mediator (ABTS), soybean peroxidase was more \\u000aeffective at oxidative dye removal, especially for the methine dye.

Kristina Knutson; Sylva Kirzan; Arthur Ragauskas

2005-01-01

296

Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.  

PubMed

Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Ma?gorzata

2013-10-01

297

Predicting azo dye toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature regrading azo dye carcinogenicity was examined to establish, if possible, guidelines to predict the human health risks of new azo dyes. Three different mechanisms for azo dye carcinogenicity were identified, all involving metabolic activation to reactive electrophilic intermediates that covalently bind DNA. In the order of decreasing number of published references, these mechanisms are 1. Azo dyes that are

Mark A. Brown; Stephen C. De Vito

1993-01-01

298

A Simple Method for Purification of Vestibular Hair Cells and Non-Sensory Cells, and Application for Proteomic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of <3% at the protein level and <1% at the peptide level. Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses.

Herget, Meike; Scheibinger, Mirko; Guo, Zhaohua; Jan, Taha A.; Adams, Christopher M.; Cheng, Alan G.; Heller, Stefan

2013-01-01

299

Grey hair: clinical investigation into changes in hair fibres with loss of pigmentation in a photoprotected population.  

PubMed

Loss of pigmentation in hair fibres is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes with ageing and has been a topic of increasing interest in the study of follicle biology. The onset of greying brings cosmetic complaints that grey fibres are wild or difficult to manage. Of course, these perceptions may be the consequence of visual obviousness rather than underlying physical or chemical differences. Although several studies have compared pigmented and unpigmented fibres, few have tried to control genetic and ethnic difference as well as extrinsic factors such as photoexposure and chemical treatment. We have recruited subjects with salt-and-pepper hair from a population of Old Order Mennonites who, for cultural reasons, are not only prohibited from chemically treating their hair but also limit their exposure to sunlight. Hair samples were examined for elemental composition, surface energy, Young's modulus, break stress, bending modulus, shear modulus and water sorption/desorption isotherm. The parameters were evaluated statistically for global differences, individual differences and typical individual differences. Consistent with previous published literature, few global differences were found between pigmented and unpigmented hair across the population. We do find that many individual subjects had differences between pigmented and unpigmented fibres. These differences tend to be more pronounced in bulk than in surface properties. The small differences in mechanical properties and moisture uptake and loss lend support to the perception by consumers that grey hair is wilder, drier and less manageable. PMID:21338374

Kaplan, P D; Polefka, T; Grove, G; Daly, S; Jumbelic, L; Harper, D; Nori, M; Evans, T; Ramaprasad, R; Bianchini, R

2011-02-21

300

Root hair sweet growth  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil. Growing root hairs require intensive cell-wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip or polarized growth. We have recently shown that cell wall glycoproteins such as extensins (EXTs) are essential components of the cell wall during polarized growth. Proline hydroxylation, an early posttranslational modification of cell wall EXTs that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), defines the subsequent O-glycosylation sites in EXTs. Biochemical inhibition or genetic disruption of specific P4Hs resulted in the blockage of polarized growth in root hairs. Our results demonstrate that correct hydroxylation and also further O-glycosylation on EXTs are essential for cell-wall self-assembly and, hence, root hair elongation. The changes that O-glycosylated cell-wall proteins like EXTs undergo during cell growth represent a starting point to unravel the entire biochemical pathway involved in plant development.

Velasquez, Silvia M; Iusem, Norberto D

2011-01-01

301

Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium. PMID:21448562

Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

2011-03-30

302

Biodegradation of bioaccessible textile azo dyes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

Azo dyes are important chemical pollutants of industrial origin. Textile azo dyes with bioaccessible groups for lignin degrading fungi, such as 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol) and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (syringol), were synthesised using different aminobenzoic and aminosulphonic acids as diazo components. The inocula of the best biodegradation assays were obtained from a pre-growth medium (PAM), containing one of the synthesised dyes. The results of the dye biodegradation assays were evaluated every 7 days, by the decrease of the absorbance at the maximum wavelength of the dye, by the decrease of the sucrose concentration in the culture medium and by the increase of the biomass during the 28 days of assay. It was observed that the extent of dye biodegradation depended on the sucrose concentration, on the degraded dye structure and, on the dye present in the PAM medium. PMID:11500201

Martins, M A; Ferreira, I C; Santos, I M; Queiroz, M J; Lima, N

2001-08-23

303

A History of the Chemical Innovations in Silver-Halide Materials for Color PhotographyIII. Dye Tranfer Process — Instant Color Photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A historical review of the technological developments of instant color photographic process, is presented with emphasis on the innovation processes at the following main turning points: 1) the creation of instant photography by E. H. Land in 1948 (one step processing by transfer of image-forming materials), 2) the advent of instant color photography based on dye developer, by Polaroid Corp., in 1963 (departing from dye-forming development, forming a direct positive preformed-dye image with a negative emulsion, but constraining the sensitive-material designs), 3) the introduction of a color instant product containing redox dye releaser with improved auto-positive emulsion, by Eastman Kodak Co., in 1976 (producing much improved color image quality, freed from the design constraints), and 4) the realization of absolute one-step photography by the integral film- unit system, by Polaroid in 1972. And the patent litigation (1976-86) raised by Polaroid against Kodak allegedly infringing on the integral film-unit patents caused the vast impacts on the industry.

Oishi, Yasushi

304

Molecular encapsulation of fluorescent dyes affords efficient narrow-band dye laser operation in water.  

PubMed

A water-based narrow-band high-efficiency dye laser was designed by means of a supramolecular host-guest chemical approach. The lasing characteristics of rhodamine B and sulforhodamine B (Kiton Red S) dyes in aqueous solution with the macrocyclic host cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) as additive were investigated in a narrow-band dye laser setup. Significant improvements in both photostability and thermo-optical properties of the aqueous CB7-complexed dye systems were observed as compared to the uncomplexed dyes in ethanol solution. The tuning curves for the new dye-CB7-water systems were constructed by measuring the laser output at different wavelengths, which showed similar peak efficiencies and red-shifted gains compared to the ethanolic solutions of the dyes, while dye laser operation revealed comparable pump threshold energies and slope efficiencies. The combined results render the dye-CB7-water system an attractive active medium for high-repetition rate dye laser operation. PMID:20839271

Mohanty, Jyotirmayee; Jagtap, Krishna; Ray, Alok K; Nau, Werner M; Pal, Haridas

2010-10-25

305

Organic components in hair-ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for the analysis of complex samples due to its outstanding mass resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (? 1 ppm), simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds. The characteristics of the FTICR-MS hair-ice spectra with as many as ten or more peaks at each nominal mass are discussed together with highly resolved spectra from water and soil samples different sources, respectively. Complete manual formula assignment for structure elucidation would be extremely time consuming, therefore, we used an automated post processing based on SciLab for exploitation of the data with the aim of an unambiguous assignment of as many peaks as possible. Once the formulae had been assigned, the obtained mass lists were first checked randomly and afterwards transformed into Excel format for further post-processing and description. Most important is the van Krevelen diagram, usually two-dimensional as atomic ratio H/C versus atomic ratio O/C, widely used to classify samples regarding polarity and aromaticity. By comparison with two references (Hockaday 2007, Sleighter 2007), which arranged various biopolymer substance classes in such Van Krevelen plots, lignin could be detected as the main hair-ice component.

Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

2013-04-01

306

FEATHER AND HAIR MEALS FOR RUMINANTS. IV. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL TREATMENTS OF FEATHERS AND PROCESSING TIME ON DIGESTIBILITY 1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Chicken feathers were treated with various concentrations of NaOH or H3PO4 and then steam processed in a laboratory autoclave. In vitro pepsin digestibility (IVPD) of laboratory hydrolyzed feather meal (FM) increased (P<.05) as processing time and as NaOH (P<.O05) or H3PO4 (P<.05) concentration increased. There was an interaction (P<.05) between chemical treatment and processing time. Crude protein (CP) levels

R. J. Steiner; R. O. Kellems; D. C. Church

307

Unnecessary Chemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)|

Johnson, Anita

1978-01-01

308

Unnecessary Chemicals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

Johnson, Anita

1978-01-01

309

Adsorption–desorption characteristics and pollution behavior of reactive X-3B red dye in four Chinese typical soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Organic dyes have been turned into an important emerging type of chemical pollutants with the development of rural textiles,\\u000a synthetic dye, printing, and dyeing industries and the continuous release from washing fabrics and clothes in recent decades.\\u000a In order to assess ecological risk of reactive X-3B red dye as a typical dye, the adsorptive and desorptive traits of the\\u000a dye

Qixing Zhou; Meie Wang

2010-01-01

310

Hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on basic aspects and recent studies of hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs and is discussed with 164 references. Firstly, biology of hair and sampling of hair specimens have been commented for the sake of correct interpretation of the results from hair analysis. Then the usual washing methods of hair samples and the extraction methods for

Yuji Nakahara

1999-01-01

311

Effects of artificial hair-waving on hair mercury values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An artificial hair-waving which is popular among Japanese women and the use of thiol-containing solutions for reforming hair-wavings was tested for its effects on hair mercury values. The first step of the procedures, shampooing and drying, entailed slightly organic mercury concentrations; the second step, applying the cosmetic containing thiols, reduced organic mercury concentrations to less than half of the

Reiko Yamamoto; Tsuguyoshi Suzuki

1978-01-01

312

Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1677 women aged 16-40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income >$30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns. PMID:23394967

DeMaria, Andrea L; Berenson, Abbey B

2013-02-07

313

Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1,677 women aged 16 to 40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income > $30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns.

DeMaria, Andrea L.; Berenson, Abbey B.

2013-01-01

314

Rotating black hole hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is conical with respect to a local co-rotating frame, not with respect to the static frame at infinity.

Gregory, Ruth; Kubiz?ák, David; Wills, Danielle

2013-06-01

315

Biology and genetics of hair.  

PubMed

The mammalian hair follicle (HF) is a complex structure composed of several distinct cell layers. The HF is an ectodermal appendage that resides in the skin, and unlike other tissues and organs, it possesses the remarkable ability to self-renew and undergoes a hair cycle that persists in adult life. Stem cells in the bulge region of the HF, as well as dermal papilla cells, play key roles in the regulation of successive hair cycles. Recent advances in molecular genetics have enabled the identification of many genes and pathways that are involved in HF morphogenesis and cycling. Furthermore, mutations in some of these genes are associated with hereditary hair diseases in humans. Identification of causative genes for hair diseases has provided a better understanding of the crucial roles of these genes in HF morphogenesis, development, and hair growth in humans. PMID:20590427

Shimomura, Yutaka; Christiano, Angela M

2010-01-01

316

Merocyanine dyes: synthesis, structure, properties and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key approaches to the synthesis of merocyanine dyes are summarised. The dependence of the dye properties on their chemical structure, the solvent nature and the aggregation type is analysed. The main methods of studying the electronic structure of merocyanines are considered. Attention is focused on polyene-polymethine electron transitions. The applications of merocyanines in modern research, including the design of new materials and technologies (non-linear optics, photovoltaics, holography, etc.) are presented.

Kulinich, A. V.; Ishchenko, Aleksandr A.

2009-02-01

317

Cultural preferences for hair colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare colour preference between Japanese and British people who have a different culture, we examined hair colour preference by questionnaire1-4), visual assessment5,6) and SD method7). We found several key differences between two countries. They were 'beauty' and 'fashion'. British students want hair colour beautiful, in contrast Japanese students want hair colour fashionable. From the factor analysis, we

Y. Kato; T. L. V. Cheung; S. Kitaguchi; S. Westland; H. Yasunaga; T. Sato

318

Photodamage determination of human hair.  

PubMed

Sunlight on human hair causes photo-degradation. This results in bleaching due to melanin oxidation through free radicals, and induces keratin impairment. Protein degradation, tryptophan degradation, lipidic peroxidation and electron paramagnetic resonance can be used to evaluate proteic and lipidic photodecomposition and free radical formation in hair fibres subjected to antioxidant action and different UV intensities. All these methodologies have been optimised to determine protein, lipid and melanin degradation in hair subjected to different UV intensities. PMID:22119660

Fernández, Estibalitz; Barba, Clara; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Parra, José Luis; Coderch, Luisa

2011-11-07

319

Chlorine disinfection of dye wastewater: implications for a commercial azo dye mixture.  

PubMed

Azo dyes, the most widely used family of synthetic dyes, are often employed as colorants in areas such as textiles, plastics, foods/drugs/cosmetics, and electronics. Following their use in industrial applications, azo dyes have been found in effluents and various receiving waters. Chemical treatment of effluents containing azo dyes includes disinfection using chlorine, which can generate compounds of varying eco/genotoxicity. Among the widely known commercial azo dyes for synthetic fibers is C.I. Disperse Red 1. While this dye is known to exist as a complex mixture, reports of eco/genotoxicity involve the purified form. Bearing in mind the potential for adverse synergistic effects arising from exposures to chemical mixtures, the aim of the present study was to characterize the components of commercial Disperse Red 1 and its chlorine-mediated decoloration products and to evaluate their ecotoxicity and mutagenicity. In conducting the present study, Disperse Red 1 was treated with chlorine gas, and the solution obtained was analyzed with the aid of LC-ESI-MS/MS to identify the components present, and then evaluated for ecotoxicity and mutagenicity, using Daphnia similis and Salmonella/microsome assays, respectively. The results of this study indicated that chlorination of Disperse Red 1 produced four chlorinated aromatic compounds as the main products and that the degradation products were more ecotoxic than the parent dye. These results suggest that a disinfection process using chlorine should be avoided for effluents containing hydrophobic azo dyes such commercial Disperse Red 1. PMID:23178834

Vacchi, Francine Inforçato; Albuquerque, Anjaina Fernandes; Vendemiatti, Josiane Aparecida; Morales, Daniel Alexandre; Ormond, Alexandra B; Freeman, Harold S; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Umbuzeiro, Gisela

2012-11-22

320

NIR Dyes for Bioimaging Applications  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances Fluorescent dyes based on small organic molecules that function in the near infra red (NIR) region are of great current interest in chemical biology. They allow for imaging with minimal autofluorescence from biological samples, reduced light scattering and high tissue penetration. Herein, examples of ongoing NIR fluorophore design strategies as well as their properties and anticipated applications relevant to the bioimaging are presented.

Escobedo, Jorge O.; Rusin, Oleksandr; Lim, Soojin

2009-01-01

321

Hair Loss: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome  

MedlinePLUS

... reduction: Bald scalp is surgically removed and hair-bearing scalp is brought closer together to reduce balding. ... also can be performed solely to stretch hair-bearing areas, which reduces balding. Scalp flaps: A hair- ...

322

Researchers Report Progress with Growing Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... 2014) Monday, October 21, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cloning Hair Loss MONDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- There's ... they're getting closer to the goal of cloning hair cells and coaxing them to grow hair ...

323

Tips for Removing Gum without Cutting Hair  

MedlinePLUS

For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care Tips for healthy ... series Home Dermatology A to Z Health and beauty Hair care Removing gum without cutting hair Tips ...

324

Hair Cell Regeneration and Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... loss occurs when either hair cells or auditory nerve cells are destroyed. Scientists believed that hair cells in ... scientists found that newly formed hair cells and nerve cells successfully reestablish connections in an organized way, although ...

325

Microencapsulated Fluorescent Dye Penetrant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microencapsulated fluorescent dye pentrant materials were evaluated for feasibility as a technique to detect cracks on metal surfaces when applied as a free flowing dry powder. Various flourescent dye solutions in addition to a commercial penetrant (Zyglo...

S. Allinikov

1979-01-01

326

Natural dyes versus lysochrome dyes in cheiloscopy: A comparative evaluation  

PubMed Central

Cheiloscopy is the study of lip prints. Lip prints are genotypically determined and are unique, and stable. At the site of crime, lip prints can be either visible or latent. To develop lip prints for study purpose various chemicals such as lysochrome dyes, fluorescent dyes, etc. are available which are very expensive. Vermilion (Sindoor used by married Indian women) and indigo dye (fabric whitener) are readily available, naturally derived, and cost-effective reagents available in India. Objective: To compare the efficacy of sudan black, vermilion, and indigo in developing visible and latent lip prints made on bone china cup, satin fabric, and cotton fabric. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 Volunteers 15 lip prints were made on bone China cup 15 lip prints on Satin fabric and 15 on Cotton fabric. Sudan black, vermilion and indigo were applied on visible and latent lip prints and graded as good (+,+), fair (+), and poor (-) and statistically evaluated. Results: The vermilion and indigo dye gives comparable results to that of sudan black for developing visible and latent lip prints.

Singh, Narendra Nath; Brave, V R; Khanna, Shally

2010-01-01

327

Hair Shaft Abnormalities – Clues to Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks

Peter H. Itin; Susanna K. Fistarol

2005-01-01

328

Optofluidic dye lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optofluidic dye lasers are microfabricated liquid dye lasers enabled by the microfluidics technology. The integration of dye\\u000a lasers with microfluidics not only facilitates the implementation of complete “lab-on-a-chip” systems, but also allows the\\u000a dynamical control of the laser properties which is not achievable with solid-state optical components. We review the recent\\u000a demonstrations of on-chip liquid dye lasers and some of

Zhenyu Li; Demetri Psaltis

2008-01-01

329

Water-Soluble Polymers in Hair Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline hair relaxers used to straighten excessively curly hair, usually African-American hair, often cause considerable\\u000a hair damage. One of the effects of straightening the hair with relaxers is a loss in tensile strength due mainly to breakage\\u000a of disulfide and hydrogen bonds. This loss in tensile strength leaves the hair more susceptible to breakage and cuticle erosion\\u000a from subsequent grooming.

Ali N. Syed; Wagdi W. Habib; Anna M. Kuhajda

330

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Building on work done in Phase I of this study (See AD-748 863), research on near-infrared dye lasers continued along several lines. Eighteen more Kodak organic dyes were screened for laser action using a linear flash lamp for excitation. Six dyes lased b...

B. E. Plourde J. P. Webb

1973-01-01

331

Potential Health Hazards of Organic Pigments and Dyes Used in the Manufacture of Paints and Surface Coatings. Appendix I: Scientific Basis for the Proposed Regulation of Dyes Derived from the Chemical Substances Benzidine, 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine, and 3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scientific bases for regulating dyes derived from benzidine (92875), 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (119937), and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine (119904) are presented. Studies of these compounds have demonstrated that benzidine type dyes undergo nearly complete cle...

C. L. Jenkins

1978-01-01

332

Removal of Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution by ozone for water reuse in textile dyeing processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of textile dye Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution by ozone until total decolorization using a semi-batch bubbling reactor was studied. This compound was selected because of its extended industrial application for cotton dyeing. Decomposition of that textile dye was observed by adding some chemical auxiliaries commonly used in textile dyeing processes such as sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate

P. Colindres; H. Yee-Madeira; E. Reguera

2010-01-01

333

Scalp micropigmentation: a useful treatment for hair loss.  

PubMed

Scalp micropigmentation (SMP) is a highly sophisticated medical tattoo process for balding or thinning hair. SMP looks amazingly simple, but this novel technique must be customized for each patient because the skin in each patient differs with regard to how the scalp reacts as it holds on to the tattoo dye. There are many variables involved with performing SMP that makes this process more of an art form than a science. SMP is a very labor-intensive process that could require multiple sessions and up to 20 hours of procedural time to satisfy the patient. This review discusses applications and technical considerations of the SMP process. PMID:24017991

Rassman, William R; Pak, Jae P; Kim, Jino

2013-08-01

334

Contact allergy to hair colouring products. The cosmetovigilance experience of 4 companies (2003-2006).  

PubMed

The post-marketing undesirable events to hair colouring products in the European Union notified to the cosmetovigilance departments of four major cosmetic companies were analysed (2003-2006). The objective was to determine whether there was any time effect (trend to increase or decrease), country effect (significant difference between the countries included in the analysis) or product type effect (direct or oxidation), as well as to identify risk factors. Alleged undesirable events (UEvs, all notifications prior to causality assessment), were compared to the respective undesirable effects (UEfs, reasonably attributable to product use). A detailed analysis was performed on notifications with manifestations compatible with allergic contact dermatitis. No time effect of UEvs and UEfs was shown, for all hair-dye associated notifications and for allergic contact dermatitis, for all hair colouring products together and by product type. The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis to direct hair colouring products was lower for all four companies compared to oxidative hair dyes. The reporting rates of UEfs were statistically higher in the UK for one of four companies. Past history of black henna tattoos appeared as a major risk factor for seriousness of allergic contact reactions. PMID:19797040

Krasteva, Maya; Bons, Brigitte; Tozer, Sarah; Rich, Kim; Hoting, Edo; Hollenberg, Detlef; Fuchs, Anne; Fautz, Rolf

2009-10-02

335

Directing hair motion on Tangled  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of-the-art simulation techniques can produce compelling and natural hair motion. In creating Disney's feature film Tangled, physically plausible motion was important but just one foundational component. The story contains an unprecedented amount of interaction of the hair with the characters, as well as a high level of art-direction. Through 2D \\

Maryann Simmons; Kelly Ward; Hidetaka Yosumi; Hubert Leo; Xinmin Zhao

2011-01-01

336

"Dissection" of a Hair Dryer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-01-01

337

Hair Loss Measurement Tool Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hair loss from cancer chemotherapy has received considerable attention in recent years in the field of cancer care because of the emotional and social distress it can cause patients. Many investigators have attempted to decrease hair loss by means of scal...

B. S. Mueggenborg

1983-01-01

338

Human Hair: An Educational Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Briefly describes some of the more recent developments in the use of human hairs for such instructional purposes as observing barr bodies and chromosomes, and for culturing to produce cells of both epithelial and fibroblastic morphology. Three main hair categories are also described. (JN)|

Wells, John

1983-01-01

339

Ultrasound for wool dyeing and finishing.  

PubMed

The effects of ultrasound at 35-39 kHz on several wool dyeing and finishing processes have been investigated as a way of reducing environmental impact. Ultrasound improved the effectiveness of cleaning scoured wool in water and to a lesser extent in water-nonionic surfactant. Scanning electron microscopy did not indicate any surface damage. Fluorescence microscopy revealed increased levels of sulphydryl groups on the wool surface suggesting ultrasound caused the removal of thioester-bound lipids. Ultrasound pre-treatment increased the effectiveness of subsequent oxidative-reductive bleaching, but had no effect on the uptake of acid levelling and acid milling dyes. The pre-treatment retarded the uptake of reactive dye, possibly by increasing the crystallinity of the fibre or removing surface bound lipids. Ultrasound did not improve dyeing under conditions that are currently used in industry, but did show potential to reduce the chemical and energy requirements of dyeing wool with reactive and acid milling dyes, but not acid levelling dyes. PMID:20675174

McNeil, S J; McCall, R A

2010-07-15

340

Electrochemical characteristics and dyeing properties of selected 9,10-anthraquinones as mediators for the indirect cathodic reduction of dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substituted 9,10-anthraquinones were characterised using cyclic voltammetry for their potential to serve as mediators for the indirect cathodic reduction of dispersed sulphur dyes, vat dyes and indigo. Besides characterisation of the electrochemical behaviour, the compounds were assessed in model dyeing experiments for chemical stability and staining of cotton fabric. 1,2-, 1,4- and 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinones exhibited negative mid-point potential ((Ep)d + (Ep)a)\\/2 of ?713

Thomas Bechtold; Christa Fitz-Binder; Aurora Turcanu

2010-01-01

341

PA01.05. Formulation & Evaluation of herbomineral natural hair colorant  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Irrespective of age, Graying of hairs (pallitya) has become a crucial problem in the present era. The varied reasons like genetic factor, environmental factor, life style, faulty food habits etc. are causative factors. To overcome the problem of Pallitya many synthetic dyes are used by the community. But these dyes are having chief disadvantage of producing hypersensitivity in some individuals. The efficacy of different formulations was assessed, on the white hairs procured from Barber's Shop. After that sensitivity was tested on human being. Purpose to formulate the herbomineral natural hair Colorant, to find out the efficacy of the different groups as a natural hair colorant, to Asses the sensitivity. Method: In the present study the combination of herbomineral colorant was formulated. For that Madayantika / Heena & Mandur bhasma were common drugs in the formulation & addition of kashtaushadhi from Keshranjana Gana i.e. Aamrashthi Phala Majja, Bibhitak Phala Twak, Bhrungaraj & Neelika in different proportions was done. Group 1 Heena + Mandur bhasma + Aamrasthi Phala Majjja Group 2 Heena + Mandur bhasma + Bibhitak phala Twaka Group 3 Heena + Mandur bhasma + Bhrungaraj Group 4 Heena + Mandur bhasma + Neelika The efficacy of different formulations was assessed, on the white hairs procured from Barber's Shop. After that sensitivity was tested on human being by applying the guase piece applied with the above formulations at under arm region. Result: Out of 4 groups, combination of Madayntika, Mandura bhasma & Neelika is found suitable hair colorant & non-sensitive to human being. Conclusion: Out of 4 groups, combination of Madayntika, Mandura bhasma & Neelika is found suitable hair colorant & non-sensitive to human being.

Wanjari, Anita S.; Bhutada, S.; Jadhao, Sanjivani; Desa, Priti

2012-01-01

342

16 CFR 301.19 - Pointing, dyeing, bleaching or otherwise artificially coloring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (c) The term bleaching means the process for producing a lighter shade of a fur, or removing off-color spots and stains by a bleaching agent. (d) The term dyeing (which includes the processes known in the trade of tipping the hair or...

2013-01-01

343

Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence of BODIPY dyes.  

PubMed

BODIPY (boron dipyrromethene) dyes are unique materials with spectroscopic and electrochemical properties comparable to those of aromatic hydrocarbons. Electrochemical studies are useful in understanding the redox properties of these materials and finding structure-stability relations for the radical ions; along with spectroscopy, these studies help researchers design novel compounds with desired properties. This Account represents our attempt at a full description of the electrochemical and electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) properties of the BODIPY dyes. When the dyes are completely substituted with alkyl or other groups, the radical ions of BODIPY dyes are highly stable. But if they include unsubstituted positions, the radical ions can undergo dimerization or other reactions. BODIPY dyes also show unusually large separations, ~1.0 V, between the first and second cyclic voltammetric (CV) waves for both oxidation and reduction half-reactions. Alkyl-substituted BODIPY dyes show good photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiencies, and radical ion electron transfer annihilation in these molecules produces electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL), the intensity of which depends on the structure of the dye. The large separation between waves and the presence of strong ECL signals are both important in the design of stable ECL-based materials. The ECL spectra provide a fast method of monitoring the electrochemical formation of dimers and aggregates from the monomers. BODIPY dyes are particularly good systems for studying stepwise electron transfer in their chemically synthesized oligomers and polymers because of the small separation between the first oxidation and first reduction waves, generally about 2.0-2.4 V, and their relative ease of reduction compared with many other aromatic compounds. The larger separation between consecutive waves for oxidation compared with reduction is noticeable for all BODIPY dimers and trimers. We also observe a more difficult addition or extraction of a third electron compared with the second for the trimers, signaling the importance of electrostatic interactions. In general, BODIPY dyes combine interesting electrochemical and spectroscopic properties that suggest useful analytical applications. PMID:22515199

Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B; Bard, Allen J

2012-04-19

344

Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

2009-12-01

345

The Ethnic Differences of the Damage of Hair and Integral Hair Lipid after Ultra Violet Radiation  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic factors account for the majority of differences in skin color and hair morphology across human populations. Although many studies have been conducted to examine differences in skin color across populations, few studies have examined differences in hair morphology. Objective To investigate changing of integral hair lipids after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in three human ethnic groups. Methods We studied the UV irradiation induced hair damage in hairs of three human populations. UV irradiation had been performed with self-manufactured phototherapy system. Damaged hair samples were prepared at 12 and 48 hours after UVA (20 J/sec) and UVB (8 J/sec) irradiation. We evaluated the changes of hair lipid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), lipid TEM and HP-TLC. After UV irradiation, hair surface damage was shown. Results African hair showed more severe damage on hair surface than others. The lipid compositions across human populations were similar, but Asian hair had more integral hair lipids than other groups as a whole. Especially, free fatty acid contents were higher than other lipids. After UV irradiation, lipid contents were decreased. These patterns were shown in all human populations. Asian hair has more integral hair lipid than European or African hair. After UV irradiation, European and African hair samples exhibited more damage because they have less integral hair lipids. However, Asian hair samples have less damage. Conclusion We conclude that integral hair lipid may protect the hair against the UV light.

Ji, Jae Hong; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Jin, Xin-Hai

2013-01-01

346

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or where long hair could result in increased likelihood of work...The Warden shall make available to an inmate hair care services which comply with applicable...

2009-07-01

347

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or where long hair could result in increased likelihood of work...The Warden shall make available to an inmate hair care services which comply with applicable...

2010-07-01

348

Simulating Rapunzel's hair in Disney's Tangled  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair simulation is known to be a complex problem in animation. In Tangled we have the extreme task of simulating 70 feet of hair for the film's main character, Rapunzel. The excessive hair length in addition to the loose style and intricate structure of the hair present many unique challenges in simulation. Moreover, the specific art direction of the film

Kelly Ward; Maryann Simmons; Andy Milne; Hidetaka Yosumi; Xinmin Zhao

2010-01-01

349

STR genotyping of exogenous hair shaft DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most hairs found at crime scenes yield low quality and\\/or low quantities of nuclear DNA. This DNA is further depleted when stringent hair cleaning procedures are applied in the laboratory, suggesting that detectable DNA exists exogenously. The phenomenon of exogenous hair DNA is the subject of this study. DNA was extracted from washed and unwashed hairs and the resulting Profiler™

Kate S. Robertson; Dennis McNevin; James Robertson

2007-01-01

350

Decolorization rate of dyes using lignin peroxidases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basidiomycetous fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium excretes extracellular lignin peroxidases (LiP) which were used in decolorization experiments with different commercial dyes. Very similar patterns in the kinetic curves of decolorization for dyes of different chemical classes and structures were observed. Decolorization is nonspecific, i.e., not dependent on the chromophoric system, slightly dependent on the auxochromic group, and not dependent on the

Helena Podgornik; Irena Grgi?; Anton Perdih

1999-01-01

351

Radiation induced degradation of dyes—An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic dyes are a major part of our life. Products ranging from clothes to leather accessories to furniture all depend on extensive use of organic dyes. An unfortunate side effect of extensive use of these chemicals is that huge amounts of these potentially carcinogenic compounds enter our water supplies. Various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including the use of high-energy radiation

M. A. Rauf; S. Salman Ashraf

2009-01-01

352

Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.  

PubMed

This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from chest hair were higher. EtG in armpit hair was lower and in leg hair higher than in scalp hair. It is concluded that the combined use of FAEE and EtG essentially increases the accuracy of interpretation since both markers complement each other by a different sensitivity to sources of error. PMID:22036309

Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

2011-10-27

353

A hair material simulation approach in virtual reality and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairs are important components to human. So, to create virtual human we must create hair material models and simulate hair's motion so that it is similar to real hairs. Alternatively, hairs are complicated objects, because each human has about from 200.000 to 400.000 stands of hairs, so simulating is very complex. Furthermore, it is difficult to simulate hairs according to

N. V. Huan; P. V. Binh; D. N. Toan

2009-01-01

354

Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Background Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. Objective This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. Methods A total of 44 female subjects were randomly treated with either APHG-1001 or placebo twice daily for 24 weeks. Using the phototrichogram analysis, a count of newly developed gray hair was estimated. Investigator assessment and subject self-assessment were also performed in order to evaluate the efficacy of the compound. Results The mean number of newly developed gray hair at 24 weeks was 6.3/cm2 in the APHG-1001 group and 11.4/cm2 in the placebo group; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). However, the investigator assessment and subject self-assessment did not show any significant change in the gross appearance of hair grayness by the end of the study. No severe adverse events in either group were observed. Moreover, the incidence of adverse events did not differ between the groups. Conclusion This clinical trial revealed that APHG-1001, which contains an extract of P. lobata, could prevent the development of new gray hair without any remarkable adverse effects. Thus, it can be considered as a viable treatment option for the prevention of gray hair.

Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na

2013-01-01

355

Body Hair Transplantation in Vitiligo  

PubMed Central

Hair transplantation has been used to repigment a stable vitiligo patch. Body hair transplant was done for a 28-year-old male with stable vitiligo with scarring. Peri-folllicular repigmentation was noted at 4 weeks and complete repigmentation of vitiligo patch was achieved at 12 weeks. No recurrence was noted at the end of 3-month follow-up with a good colour match with surrounding skin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report highlighting the effectiveness of body hair transplantation by FUE in focal vitiligo patch with leukotrichia.

Chouhan, Kavish; Kumar, Amrendra; Kanwar, Amrinder J

2013-01-01

356

Detection of thiopental and pentobarbital in head and pubic hair in a case of drug-facilitated sexual assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quali-quantitative determination of two barbiturates, thiopental and its metabolite pentobarbital, in head and pubic hair samples of a woman who had been sexually assaulted during hospitalisation, is reported. Hair was analysed by means of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-multiple mass spectrometry (GC–MS-MS), in chemical ionisation conditions. Thiopental and pentobarbital were found in three proximal head hair segments (sample

Giampietro Frison; Donata Favretto; Luciano Tedeschi; Santo Davide Ferrara

2003-01-01

357

Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations.  

PubMed

Human hair has been classified into 3 major groups, as determined by ethnic origin. In these populations, significant structural and biochemical variations of the hair follicle and shaft are seen, as well as unique hair grooming practices. These structural variations of the hair are closely linked to the common disorders of the hair and scalp, such as acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, seborrheic dermatitis, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, dissecting cellulitis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. PMID:23652889

Rodney, Ife J; Onwudiwe, Oge C; Callender, Valerie D; Halder, Rebat M

2013-04-01

358

Visuo-Haptic Interface for Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we focus on adaptive visuo-haptic simulation of hair using force feedback haptic devices, and propose an easy-to-use interactive hair modelling interface. The underlying idea is to explore ways of integrating visual hair simulation and haptic into one multirate-multilayer-multithread application allowing for intuitive interactive hair modeling. The user is allowed to interact with the simulated hair on a

Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann; Melanie Montagnol; Ugo Bonanni; Rajeev Gupta

2007-01-01

359

Hair morphology and systematics of Physalis ( Solanaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair morphology was exammed on developing seedlings and mature plants of ten species from five of seven series inPhysalis. The taxonomic importance of hair development and the distribution of hair types then was evaluated with respect to other comparative data. Two classes of hair types were observed, as found in earlier investigations ofSolanum andRhododendron. The first hair class comprises a

Almut Seithe; Janet R. Sullivan

1990-01-01

360

Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing  

PubMed Central

Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish?

Draelos, Zoe D

2010-01-01

361

Assessment upon azo dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation by Proteus hauseri.  

PubMed

This study explored dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation of indigenous Proteus hauseri ZMd44 for dye-bearing wastewater treatment. Chemical structures of azo dyes apparently affected the performance of dye biodecolorization. Additions of diazo dye C.I. reactive blue 160 (RBu160) stimulated simultaneous dye decolorization and bioelectricity generation of ZMd44 in single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, high-level additions of RBu160 repressed capabilities of power production in MFC due to competition of electrons used for reductive decolorization. Decolorized intermediates of RBu160-phenyl methadiamine and 5-sulfoanthranilic acid as electron shuttles might mediate electron transport for current generation in MFC. PMID:20156682

Chen, Bor-Yann; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Chang, Chang-Tang; Ding, Yongtao; Lin, Kae-Long; Chiou, Chyow-San; Hsueh, Chung-Chuan; Xu, Huizhong

2010-02-13

362

Differential pH restoration after ammonia-elicited vacuolar alkalisation in rice and maize root hairs as measured by fluorescence ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Changes of vacuolar pH in hair cells of young rice (Oryza sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) roots were measured after ammonia application at various levels of external pH. After loading the pH-sensitive, fluorescent\\u000a dye Oregon green 488 carboxylic acid 6-isomer into the vacuoles of root hairs, ratiometric pH data of high statistical significance\\u000a were obtained from root

Glen H. Wilson; Franz Grolig; Harald Kosegarten

1998-01-01

363

Effect of activated carbon fiber anode structure and electrolysis conditions on electrochemical degradation of dye wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alizarin red S (ARS) in simulated dye wastewater was electrochemically oxidized using an activated carbon fiber (ACF) felt as an anode. The influence of electrolytic conditions and anode structure on the dye degradation was investigated. The results indicated that initial pH, current density and supporting electrolyte type all played an important role in the dye degradation. The chemical oxygen

Fenyun Yi; Shuixia Chen; Chan’e Yuan

2008-01-01

364

Degradation of commercial azo dyes in water using ozonation and UV enhanced ozonation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical oxidation of eight non-biodegradable azo dyes by ozonation and photooxidation process was studied in a pilot scale photochemical (UV\\/ozone) reactor. In experiments with ozone bubbling, the degradation of eight azo dyes was found to occur in the absence of UV light. The degradation rate of azo dyes was observed to be first order with respected to both azo

Hung-Yee Shu; Ching-Rong Huang

1995-01-01

365

Diolistics: incorporating fluorescent dyes into biological samples using a gene gun  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hand-held gene gun provides a rapid and efficient method of incorporating fluorescent dyes into cells, a technique that is becoming known as diolistics. Trans- porting fluorescent dyes into cells has, in the past, used predominantly injection or chemical methods. The use of the gene gun, combined with the new generation of fluorescent dyes, circumvents some of the problems of

John A. O’Brien; Sarah C. R. Lummis

2007-01-01

366

Degradation of Azo Dyes by Trametes villosa Laccase over Long Periods of Oxidative Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical structure of dyes is comprised of a conjugated system of double bonds and aromatic rings. The major classes of dyes have antroquinoid, indigoid, and azo aromatic struc- tures. All of these structures allow strong -* transitions in the UV-visible (UV-Vis) area, with high extinction coefficients that allow us to consider these structures dye chromophores. Of all of these

Andrea Zille; Barbara Gornacka; Astrid Rehorek; Artur Cavaco-Paulo

2005-01-01

367

40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section 721.980...Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and...identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN P-95-633) is...

2009-07-01

368

40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section 721.980...Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and...identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN P-95-633) is...

2010-07-01

369

Supramolecular guest-host systems: combining high dye doping level with low aggregation tendency  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that the aggregation tendency of dye molecules in a host polymer can be significantly reduced by exploiting non-covalent interactions between the host polymer and guest dye molecules. Such interactions occur spontaneously with no need for chemical synthesis, and could thus be utilized to combine the ease of processing of traditional guest-host systems with the high dye concentrations achievable

Arri Priimagi; Stefano Cattaneo; Robin H. A. Ras; Sami Valkama; Olli Ikkala; Martti Kauranen

2006-01-01

370

ESTIMATION OF IONIZATION CONSTANTS OF AZO DYES AND RELATED AROMATIC AMINES: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ionization constants for 214 dye molecules were calculated from molecular structures using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry). hese models used fundamental chemical structure theory to predict chemical reactivities ...

371

Decolorization of textile indigo dye by ligninolytic fungi.  

PubMed

The indigo dye is extensively used by textile industries and is considered a recalcitrant substance, which causes environmental concern. Chemical products used on textile processing, which affect the environment through effluents, can be voluminous, colored and varied. Vat textile dyes, like indigo, are often used and dye mainly cellulosic fibers of cotton. Decolorization of this dye in liquid medium was tested with ligninolytic basidiomycete fungi from Brazil. Decolorization started in a few hours and after 4 days the removal of dye by Phellinus gilvus culture was in 100%, by Pleurotus sajor-caju 94%, by Pycnoporus sanguineus 91% and by Phanerochaete chrysosporium 75%. No color decrease was observed in a sterile control. Thin layer chromatography of fungi culture extracts revealed only one unknown metabolite of Rf=0.60, as a result of dye degradation. PMID:11500207

Balan, D S; Monteiro, R T

2001-08-23

372

Effect of some process parameters in enzymatic dyeing of wool.  

PubMed

This article reports on the dyeing of wool using an enzymatic system comprising laccase; dye precursor, 2,5-diaminobenzenesulfonic acid; and dye modifiers, catechol and resorcinol. Enzymatic dyeing was performed as a batchwise process at the temperature and pH of maximum enzyme activity. The effects of the process variables reaction time, enzyme, and modifier concentration on fabric color were studied, according to an appropriate experimental design. Different hues and depths of shades could be achieved by varying the concentration of the modifiers and the time of laccase treatment. The duration of the enzymatic reaction appeared to be the most important factor in the dyeing process. Thus, the dyeing process, performed at low temperature and mild pH, was advantageous in terms of reduced enzyme and chemical dosage. PMID:14566065

Tzanov, Tzanko; Silva, Carla Joana; Zille, Andrea; Oliveira, Jovita; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

2003-10-01

373

Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)  

MedlinePLUS

... windy weather. People with trichotillomania may wear wigs, style their hair to disguise bald patches or wear ... not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not ...

374

A comparative study on the concentrations of 11-nor-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in head and pubic hair.  

PubMed

In this study, the concentrations of 11-nor-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in pubic, axillary and beard hair were measured and the correlation between the concentrations of THCCOOH in head and pubic hair from same cannabis users were evaluated. The papers on body hair analysis for THCCOOH were rarely found although police officers submit body hair as a complimentary specimen to forensic laboratories in case cannabis users had no hair. Head, pubic, axillary, and beard hair were collected. All hair samples were cut into 0.5mm segments and decontaminated with methanol, digested with 1 mL of 1M NaOH at 85 °C for 30 min and extracted in 2 mL of n-hexane:ethyl acetate (9:1) two times after adding 1 mL of 0.1N sodium acetate buffer (pH = 4.5) and 200 ?L of acetic acid followed by derivatization with 50 ?L of PFPA and 25 ?L of PFPOH for 30 min at 70 °C. The extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry operating in negative chemical ionization mode (GC/MS/MS-NCI). We determined the concentrations of THCCOOH in both pubic and head hair. The concentrations of THCCOOH in pubic hair were higher than those in head hair. We also evaluated the concentrations of THCCOOH in body hair (pubic, axillary and beard hair) and head hair according to the positive/negative urine test results. There was no statistically significant difference in the concentrations of THCCOOH in head and body hair according to urine results. PMID:21802874

Han, Eunyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sangki; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

2011-07-29

375

Functional Development of Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic hair cells in chicks and mammals have functional transduction channels and voltage-gated outwardly rectifying potassium (K+) channels, fast inwardly rectifying channels, and voltage-gated sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca2+) channels. Together these channels may participate in spiking by the immature hair cells, which may drive rhythmic or bursting activity of neurons at higher levels of the auditory pathway. The electrical

Ruth Anne Eatock; Karen M. Hurley

2003-01-01

376

Testing human hair for cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To validate information on cannabis use, we investigated human hair and pubic hair for cannabinoids (THC and THC-COOH) by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Samples (100 mg approximately) were decontaminated with methylene chloride, then pulverized and dissolved in 1 ml 1 N NaOH for 10 min at 95 °C in the presence of 200 ng of deuterated standards. After cooling, samples were

V. Cirimele; P. Kintz; P. Mangin

1995-01-01

377

Toward rational design of organic dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs): an application to the TA-St-CA dye.  

PubMed

A computer aided rational design has been performed on TA-St-CA dye sensitizer in order to improve the desirable properties for new organic dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A number of electron-donating (ED) and electron-withdrawing (EW) units based on Dewar's rules are substituted into the ?-conjugated oligo-phenylenevinylene bridge of the reference TA-St-CA dye. The effects of these alternations on the molecular structures and the electron absorption spectra are calculated using time-dependant density functional theory (TDDFT). It is found that chemical modifications using electron donating (ED) substitutions exhibit advantages over the electron withdrawing (EW) substitutes to reduce the HOMO-LUMO energy gap as well as the electron distribution of the frontier orbitals of the new dyes. Dewar's rule is a useful guideline for rational design of new dye sensitizers with desired HOMO-LUMO gap. The impact on the optical spectra of new dyes are, however, less significant. PMID:23353583

Mohammadi, Narges; Mahon, Peter J; Wang, Feng

2012-12-27

378

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human hair from the college environment: comparison with indoor dust.  

PubMed

Eight Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) were determined to examine the hair burden at low concentrations, and the relationship between PBDE concentrations in human hair and indoor dust from a college environment (Shanghai University campus). Chemical analyses showed that the total concentrations of PBDEs in hair ranged from 4.04 to 99 ng/g dw, and were found to be fourfold higher in females than in males (p < 0.05). The total PBDEs concentrations in indoor dust samples ranged from 170 to 1,360 ng/g dw. Significantly positive correlations were observed between human hair and indoor dust for BDE 47 (r = 0.44, p = 0.048) and BDE 99 (r = 0.68, p = 0.025). However, no significant association was noted between other PBDE congeners in human hair and indoor dust in the present study. PMID:23873288

Tang, Liang; Lei, Bo; Xu, Gang; Ma, Jing; Lei, Jian-Qiu; Jin, Shi-Qi; Hu, Gu-Yu; Wu, Ming-Hong

2013-07-20

379

Decolourization of synthetic dyes by a newly isolated strain of Serratia marcescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel dye-decolourizing strain of the bacterium Serratia marcescens efficiently decolourized two chemically different dyes Ranocid Fast Blue (RFB) and Procion Brilliant Blue-H-GR (PBB-HGR) belonging respectively to the azo and anthraquinone groups. Extracellular laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity were detected during dye decolourization. The involvement of MnP activity was found in the decolourization of both dyes. More than 90%

Pradeep Verma; Datta Madamwar

2003-01-01

380

Decolorization and degradation of H-acid and other dyes using ferrous–hydrogen peroxide system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, advanced oxidation process utilizing Fenton’s reaction was investigated for the decolorization and degradation of two commercial dyes viz., Red M5B, Blue MR and H-acid, a dye intermediate used in chemical industries for the synthesis of direct, reactive and azo dyes. Effect of Fe2+, H2O2, pH, and contact time on the degradation of the dyes was studied. Maximum

K Swaminathan; S Sandhya; A Carmalin Sophia; K Pachhade; Y. V Subrahmanyam

2003-01-01

381

Sequence analysis of the canine mitochondrial DNA control region from shed hair samples in criminal investigations.  

PubMed

In recent years, evidence from domestic dogs has increasingly been analyzed by forensic DNA testing. Especially, canine hairs have proved most suitable and practical due to the high rate of hair transfer occurring between dogs and humans. Starting with the description of a contamination-free sample handling procedure, we give a detailed workflow for sequencing hypervariable segments (HVS) of the mtDNA control region from canine evidence. After the hair material is lysed and the DNA extracted by Phenol/Chloroform, the amplification and sequencing strategy comprises the HVS I and II of the canine control region and is optimized for DNA of medium-to-low quality and quantity. The sequencing procedure is based on the Sanger Big-dye deoxy-terminator method and the separation of the sequencing reaction products is performed on a conventional multicolor fluorescence detection capillary electrophoresis platform. Finally, software-aided base calling and sequence interpretation are addressed exemplarily. PMID:22139671

Berger, C; Berger, B; Parson, W

2012-01-01

382

BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT OF AZO DYES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion...

383

Photochemical reaction of a dye precursor 4-chloro-1,2-phenylenediamine and its associated mutagenic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

4-Chloro-1,2-phenylenediamine (4-Cl-o-PDA) is an aromatic diamine used as a precursor for manufacture of hair dyes and dyes of other purposes. 4-Cl-o-PDA has been found to be photomutagenic in bacteria when concurrently exposed to simulated sunlight irradiation. Irradiation of 4-Cl-o-PDA by either outdoor sunlight or indoor lamp, one main photoproduct appeared and it was found to be 2,3-diamino-7-chlorophenazine, a dimerized product

Shuguang Wang; Charity Mosley; Gernerique Stewart; Hongtao Yu

2008-01-01

384

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Near infrared laser action has been demonstrated for 9 Kodak organic dyes, using a linear flash lamp for excitation. The spectral region covered by these 9 dyes extends from 850 nm to at least 960 nm, with no tuning attempted so far. Output is in the kilo...

B. E. Plourde J. P. Webb

1972-01-01

385

Oxazine laser dyes  

DOEpatents

New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

1992-01-01

386

Fluorescent Dyes for Luminescent Solar Concentrators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dyes were developed, for application in luminescent solar concentrators. Most suitable are perylen dyes and perylimid dyes, boron complexes of naphtholactam dyes and polycarbocyclic dyes. These compounds cover the whole color range from yellow to blue. In...

R. Iden G. Seybold A. Stange H. Eilingsfeld

1984-01-01

387

6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-02-21

388

Decolorization of reactive dyes by immobilized laccase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immobilization of laccase by Trametes versicolor on silica chemically modified with imidazol groups, amberlite IRA-400, glass–ceramic chemically modified with carbodiimide\\/glutaraldehyde and by aminoprolyltriethoxysilane\\/glutaraldehyde and montmorillonite modified by aminoprolyltriethoxysilane\\/glutaraldehyde were afforded. These supports were used in the decolorization of textile reactive dyes (Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Remazol Black B, Reactive Orange 122 and Reactive Red 251). One of the most efficient

Patricio Peralta-Zamora; Cláudia M. Pereira; Elaine R. L. Tiburtius; Sandra G. Moraes; Maria A. Rosa; Rosana C. Minussi; Nelson Durán

2003-01-01

389

Systematic Prediction of Dyes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Data-mining via Molecular Charge-Transfer Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graph theoretical algorithms and classification tests are combined with data-mining tools to present successful predictions of high-performance dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The construction of molecular charge-transfer algorithms is described, featuring recursive depth-first, back-tracking, graph traversal algorithms with classification test formalisms. These algorithms are employed to search through a representative set of organic chemical space (120,000 chemical molecules) to

Jacqueline M. Cole

2011-01-01

390

TEXTILE DYES AND DYEING EQUIPMENT: CLASSIFICATION, PROPERTIES, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of available information on textile dyeing equipment, dyeing procedures, and dye chemistry, to serve as background data for estimating the properties and evaluating the associated risks of new commercial dyestuffs. It reports properties of dyes...

391

Systematic Prediction of Dyes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Data-mining via Molecular Charge-Transfer Algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graph theoretical algorithms and classification tests are combined with data-mining tools to present successful predictions of high-performance dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The construction of molecular charge-transfer algorithms is described, featuring recursive depth-first, back-tracking, graph traversal algorithms with classification test formalisms. These algorithms are employed to search through a representative set of organic chemical space (120,000 chemical molecules) to identify compounds that have the required structural attributes to act as high-performance dyes for DSCs. The first results of these predictions are validated by comparison of the predicted structural motifs to existing well-known dyes that are currently in use for DSC device application. Three chemical motifs are shown to form the chemical back-bone of three popular dyes, thereby validating the predictions. Further work is described which includes the DSC fabrication and testing of the new classes of unknown dye; this pertains to the ultimate goal of systematic design of new dyes for DSC device application.

Cole, Jacqueline M.

2011-09-01

392

Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.  

PubMed

Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. PMID:23301816

Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

2013-01-24

393

Dye system for dye laser applications  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a dye of the DCM family, (2-methyl-6-(2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl)-4H-pyran-4-ylidene)-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

Hammond, P.R.

1991-05-21

394

Dye system for dye laser applications  

DOEpatents

A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01

395

Active Hair Bundle Motion Linked to Fast Transducer Adaptation in Auditory Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

During transduction in auditory hair cells, hair bundle deflection opens mechanotransducer channels that subsequently reclose or adapt to maintained stimuli, a major component of the adap- tation occurring on a submillisecond time scale. Using a photo- diode imaging technique, we measured hair bundle motion in voltage-clamped turtle hair cells to search for a mechanical correlate of fast adaptation. Excitatory force

A. J. Ricci; A. C. Crawford; R. Fettiplace

2000-01-01

396

Analysis of pubic hair as an alternative specimen to scalp hair: A contamination issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pubic hair is often analyzed as an alternative to scalp hair to prove previous drug use. However, urine is a potential source of external contamination. In the present study, the concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AP) in both scalp and pubic hair from illegal MA users were compared. Furthermore, in order to investigate the external contamination of pubic hair

Sooyeun Lee; Eunyoung Han; Hwakyung Choi; Heesun Chung; Kyu Hyuck Chung

2011-01-01

397

Complex hair cycle domain patterns and regenerative hair waves in living rodents  

PubMed Central

Single hair follicles go through regeneration and involution cycles. In a population, hair follicles may affect each other during anagen re-entry, thus forming propagating regenerative hair waves. We review these regenerative hair waves and complex hair cycle domains which were recently reported in transgenic mice. Two non-invasive methods to track the propagating hair wave in large populations of hair follicles in vivo are described. We also reviewed early accounts of "hair growth patterns" from classical literature. We decipher the "behavior rules" that dictate how dynamic hair waves lead to complex hair cycle domains. In general, a single domain expands when a regenerative hair wave reaches a responsive region and boundaries form when the wave reaches a non-responsive region. As mice age, multiple hair cycle domains form, each with own regeneration rhythm. Domain patterns can be reset by physiological events such as pregnancy and lactation. Longitudinal sections across domains show arrays of follicles in a continuum of hair cycle stages. Hair cycle domains are different from regional specificity domains. Regenerative hair waves are different from the developmental wave of newly forming hair follicles. The study provides novel insights into the dynamic states of adult skin and physiological regulation of organ regeneration.

Plikus, Maksim V.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

2009-01-01

398

Cultivation of Functionally Intact Hair Follicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to the cultivation of hair follicles, and more particularly to a process for cultivating functionally intact hair follicles. One of the major challenges of cell biology is the elucidation of factors which regulate cellular d...

S. H. Yuspa P. Steinert D. R. Roop

1987-01-01

399

Regenerated hair cells can originate from supporting cell progeny: Evidence from phototoxicity and laser ablation experiments in the lateral line system  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms that lead to the production of sensory hair cells during regeneration have been investigated by using 2 different procedures to ablate preexisting hair cells in individual neuromast sensory epithelia of the lateral line in the tails of salamanders, then monitoring the responses of surviving cells. In one series of experiments, fluorescent excitation was used to cause the phototoxic death of hair cells that selectively take up the pyridinium dye DASPEI. In the other experiments, the ultraviolet output of a pulsed neodymium-YAG laser was focused to a microbeam through a quartz objective lens in epi-illumination mode and used to selectively kill individual unlabeled hair cells while the cells were simultaneously imaged by transmitted light DIC microscopy. Through observation of the treated neuromasts in vivo, these experiments demonstrated that mature sensory epithelia that have been completely depleted of hair cells can still generate new hair cells. Preexisting hair cells are not necessary for regeneration. Immediately after the ablations the only resident cells in the sensory epithelia were supporting cells. These cells were observed to divide at rates that were increased over control values, and eventually those cell divisions gave rise to progeny that differentiated as hair cells, replacing those that had been killed. Macrophages were active in these epithelia, and their phagocytic activity had a significant influence on the standing population of cells. The first new hair cells appeared 3-5 d after the treatments, and additional hair cells usually appeared every 1-2 d for at least 2 weeks. We conclude that the fate of the progeny produced by supporting cell divisions is plastic to a degree, in that these progeny can differentiate either as supporting cells or as hair cells in epithelia where hair cells are missing or depleted.

Balak, K.J.; Corwin, J.T.; Jones, J.E. (Univ. of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville (USA))

1990-08-01

400

Radioimmunological determination of cocaine in human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure for the determination of cocaine in human hair was described. After washing hair samples were crushed in 0.1m HCl and incubated overnight at 45°C. The acid extracts were neutralized with 1m NaOH. Phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) was added to the extracts. The cocaine concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Detection in hair was achieved in all hair samples

S. Balabanova; H. Brunner; R. Nowak

1987-01-01

401

A study on the concentrations of 11-nor-? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in hair root and whole hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the patterns of cannabis users (n=412) according to their sex, age, and the results of urinalysis and hair analysis, and classified the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair into three categories to examine the levels of cannabis use. We also compared the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair root, hair without the hair root and whole hair

Eunyoung Han; Hwakyung Choi; Sangki Lee; Heesun Chung; Joon Myong Song

2011-01-01

402

Testing human hair for flunitrazepam and 7-amino-flunitrazepam by GC\\/MS-NCI  

Microsoft Academic Search

To validate information on flunitrazepam use, we investigated human hair for flunitrazepam and its major metabolite 7-amino-flunitrazepam by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionization mode of detection. Samples were twice decontaminated with methylene chloride, pulverized in a ball mill and 50 mg of powdered hair were incubated in Soerensen buffer (pH 7.6) in the presence of

Vincent Cirimele; Pascal Kintz; Christian Staub; Patrice Mangin

1997-01-01

403

Time course of cocaine in rabbit hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate interpretation of analytical results from hair testing for drugs of abuse continues to be a complex and difficult problem since many questions still remain unanswered. In this paper an animal model was developed to ascertain the time course for the appearance and disappearance of cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) in hair. Female Fauve Bourgogne red-haired rabbits (n

C. Jurado; C. Rodriguez-Vicente; M. Menéndez; M. Repetto

1997-01-01

404

Minoxidil: mechanisms of action on hair growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have known for over 30 years that minoxidil stimulates hair growth, yet our understanding of its mechanism of action on the hair follicle is very limited. In animal studies, topical minoxidil shortens telogen, causing premature entry of resting hair follicles into anagen, and it probably has a similar action in humans. Minoxidil may also cause prolongation of anagen

A. G. Messenger; J. Rundegren

2004-01-01

405

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2013-07-01

406

Pathogenesis in Trichorrhexis Invaginata (Bamboo Hair)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of formation of trichorrhexis invaginata, which is one of the characteristic hair anomalies seen in Nether ton's syndrome, was studied using plucked hairs obtained from 3 patients with the typical clinical features. The biopsy specimens used to examine the hair root were obtained from the scalp of one of the patients and the eyebrow area of the other.

Masaaki Ito; Kaoru Ito; Ken Hashimoto

1984-01-01

407

Variations of scalp, pubic and axillary hair.  

PubMed

Hair examinations and comparisons conducted by forensic scientists often provide investigative and associative information. Apart from its length and its natural color, hair displays a morphologic diversity both macroscopically and microscopically. Pseudogenization of hair keratin gene inactivation highlights dramatic differences and is thought to be one of the strongest reasons for localization of hair in human. Therefore, humans have several different types of hair that can be classified depending on their body position and form. Size, angle of penetrance through the skin, embryological time of first appearance, and structural variations in the hair follicles are all taken into account when classifying hair types. However, the classification of differential types of hair quantitative traits in human is yet to be undertaken. An attempt has been made in the present study to understand the variation by using the histomorphological and quantitative variables of 540 hair strands (180 each scalp, axillary and pubic hair) of 18 adult Bengalee Hindu caste females. Apart from variation in histomorphological variables, quantitative variables regarding shaft and medulla diameter demonstrated variation in terms of being significantly higher (p < 0.05) in pubic hair compared to that of axillary and scalp hair. Therefore, the present study envisaged that variability in histomorphological and quantitative traits in different areas of human could be one of the important criteria for personal identification in forensic research. PMID:22338799

Mistry, Sanchita; Chatterjee, Madhumati; Ghosh, Jyoti Ratan; Chakrabarti, Nirmal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Arup Ratan

2012-01-01

408

Live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs.  

PubMed

Root hairs are tubular extensions from the root surface that expand by tip growth. This highly focused type of cell expansion, combined with position of root hairs on the surface of the root, makes them ideal cells for microscopic observation. This chapter describes the method that is routinely used in our laboratory for live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs. PMID:24132430

Ketelaar, Tijs

2014-01-01

409

Simulation-Based Cartoon Hair Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new hybrid technique for cartoon hair animation, one that allows the animators to create attractive and controllable hair animations without having to draw everything by hand except a sparse set of key frames. We demonstrate how to give a cel animation character accentuated hair motion. The novelty of this approach is that we neither simply interpolate

Eiji Sugisaki; Yizhou Yu; Ken Anjyo; Shigeo Morishima

2005-01-01

410

``Dissection'' of a Hair Dryer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can ``dissect'' a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can discover how engineers solve problems such as how to vary between low and high heat and fan speed by simply moving the position of a single switch. Principles of alternating versus direct current, series and parallel circuits, electrical safety, voltage dividing, ac rectification, power, and measurement of resistance and continuity all come in to play.

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-12-01

411

Discovery and structural elucidation of the illegal azo dye Basic Red 46 in sumac spice.  

PubMed

An unknown red dye was discovered in a sumac spice sample during routine analysis for Sudan dyes. LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS did not reveal the identity of the red substance. Nevertheless, using LC-high-resolution MS and isotope ratio comparisons the structure was identified as Basic Red 46. The identity of the dye was further confirmed by comparison with a commercial hair-staining product and two textile dye formulations containing Basic Red 46. Analogous to the Sudan dyes, Basic Red 46 is an azo dye. However, some of the sample clean-up methodology utilised for the analysis of Sudan dyes in food prevents its successful detection. In contrast to the Sudan dyes, Basic Red 46 is a cation. Its cationic properties make it bind strongly to gel permeation columns and silica solid-phase extraction cartridges and prevent elution with standard eluents. This is the first report of Basic Red 46 in food. The structure elucidation of this compound as well as the disadvantages of analytical methods focusing on a narrow group of targeted analytes are discussed. PMID:22455543

Ruf, J; Walter, P; Kandler, H; Kaufmann, A

2012-03-29

412

40 CFR 425.10 - Applicability; description of the hair pulp, chrome tan, retan-wet finishing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY ...or in addition to other unhairing and tanning operation, processes raw or cured cattle...chemically dissolving the hide hair, chrome tanning, and retan-wet...

2010-07-01

413

Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is difficult if not impossible to determine when mankind first systematically applied color to a textile substrate. The first colored fabrics were probably nonwoven felts painted in imitation of animal skins. The first dyeings were probably actually little more than stains from the juice of berries. Ancient Greek writers described painted fabrics worn by the tribes of Asia Minor. But just where did the ancient craft have its origins? Was there one original birthplace or were there a number of simultaneous beginnings around the world?

Freeman, H. S.; Mock, G. N.

414

Interaction of cyanine dyes with nucleic acids. XXV. Influence of affinity-modifying groups in the structure of benzothiazol-4-[2,6-dimethylpyridinium] dyes on the spectral properties of the dyes in the presence of nucleic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel monomethine pyridinium cyanine dyes of similar structure and containing ‘affinity-modifying’ groups of different chemical nature were studied by spectral-luminescent methods as possible fluorescent probes for the nucleic acids detection. It was shown that the nature of the functional groups in the dye linker influences the fluorescent properties of the dye–nucleic acids complexes. Incorporation of a hydroxyl group into the

S. M Yarmoluk; V. B Kovalska; D. V Kryvorotenko; A. O Balanda; T. Yu Ogul'chansky

2001-01-01

415

Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection  

PubMed Central

Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection.

Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

2012-01-01

416

Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection.  

PubMed

Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection. PMID:22171023

Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

2011-12-14

417

Partially purified bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) peroxidase catalyzed decolorization of textile and other industrially important dyes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic action of partially purified bitter gourd peroxidase for the degradation/decolorization of complex aromatic structures. Twenty-one dyes, with a wide spectrum of chemical groups, currently being used by the textile and other important industries have been selected for the study. Here, for the first time we have shown peroxidases from Momordica charantia (300 EU/gm of vegetable) to be highly effective in decolorizing industrially important dyes. Dye solutions, containing 50-200 mg dye/l, were used for the treatment with bitter gourd peroxidase (specific activity of 99.0 EU/mg protein). M. charantia peroxidases were able to decolorize most of the textile dyes by forming insoluble precipitate. When the textile dyes were treated with increasing concentration of enzyme, it was observed that greater fraction of the color was removed but four out of eight reactive dyes were recalcitrant to decolorization by bitter gourd peroxidase. Step-wise addition of enzyme to the decolorizing reaction mixture at the interval of 1h further enhanced the dye decolorization. The rate of decolorization was enhanced when the dyes were incubated with fixed quantity of enzyme for increasing times. Decolorization of non-textile dyes resulted in the degradation and removal of dyes from the solution without any precipitate formation. Decolorization rate was drastically increased when the textile and other industrially important non-textile dyes were treated with bitter gourd peroxidase in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Complex mixtures of dyes were prepared by taking three to four reactive textile and non-textile dyes in equal proportions. Each mixture was decolorized by more than 80% when treated with the enzyme in presence of 1.0 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Our data suggest that the peroxidase/mediator system is an effective biocatalyst for the treatment of effluents containing recalcitrant dyes from textile, dye manufacturing, dyeing and printing industries. PMID:16051087

Akhtar, Suhail; Ali Khan, Amjad; Husain, Qayyum

2005-02-25

418

Modulation of hair cell efferents  

PubMed Central

Outer hair cells (OHCs) amplify the sound-evoked motion of the basilar membrane to enhance acoustic sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents inhibit OHCs to reduce the sound-evoked response of cochlear afferent neurons. OHC inhibition occurs through the activation of postsynaptic ?9?10 nicotinic receptors tightly coupled to calcium-dependent SK2 channels that hyperpolarize the hair cell. MOC neurons are cholinergic but a number of other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been proposed to participate in efferent transmission, with emerging evidence for both pre- and postsynaptic effects. Cochlear inhibition in vivo is maximized by repetitive activation of the efferents, reflecting facilitation and summation of transmitter release onto outer hair cells. This review summarizes recent studies on cellular and molecular mechanisms of cholinergic inhibition and the regulation of those molecular components, in particular the involvement of intracellular calcium. Facilitation at the efferent synapse is compared in a variety of animals, as well as other possible mechanisms of modulation of ACh release. These results suggest that short-term plasticity contributes to effective cholinergic inhibition of hair cells.

Wersinger, Eric; Fuchs, Paul Albert

2011-01-01

419

Estimation of Ionization Constants of Azo Dyes and Related Aromatic Amines: Environmental Implication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ionization constants for 214 dye molecules were calculated from molecular structures using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry). These models used fundamental chemical structure theory to pred...

S. H. Hilal L. A. Carreira G. L. Baughman S. W. Karickhoff C. M. Melton

1994-01-01

420

Managing hair loss in midlife women.  

PubMed

Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. PMID:23182767

Mirmirani, Paradi

2012-11-24

421

Mammalian hairs in Early Cretaceous amber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two mammalian hairs have been found in association with an empty puparium in a ˜100-million-year-old amber (Early Cretaceous) from France. Although hair is known to be an ancestral, ubiquitous feature in the crown Mammalia, the structure of Mesozoic hair has never been described. In contrast to fur and hair of some Jurassic and Cretaceous mammals preserved as carbonized filaments, the exceptional preservation of the fossils described here allows for the study of the cuticular structure. Results show the oldest direct evidence of hair with a modern scale pattern. This discovery implies that the morphology of hair cuticula may have remained unchanged throughout most of mammalian evolution. The association of these hairs with a possible fly puparium provides paleoecological information and indicates peculiar taphonomic conditions.

Vullo, Romain; Girard, Vincent; Azar, Dany; Néraudeau, Didier

2010-07-01

422

Hair cell replacement in adult mouse utricles after targeted ablation of hair cells with diphtheria toxin.  

PubMed

We developed a transgenic mouse to permit conditional and selective ablation of hair cells in the adult mouse utricle by inserting the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) gene into the Pou4f3 gene, which encodes a hair cell-specific transcription factor. In adult wild-type mice, administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) caused no significant hair cell loss. In adult Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice, DT treatment reduced hair cell numbers to 6% of normal by 14 days post-DT. Remaining hair cells were located primarily in the lateral extrastriola. Over time, hair cell numbers increased in these regions, reaching 17% of untreated Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice by 60 days post-DT. Replacement hair cells were morphologically distinct, with multiple cytoplasmic processes, and displayed evidence for active mechanotransduction channels and synapses characteristic of type II hair cells. Three lines of evidence suggest replacement hair cells were derived via direct (nonmitotic) transdifferentiation of supporting cells: new hair cells did not incorporate BrdU, supporting cells upregulated the pro-hair cell gene Atoh1, and supporting cell numbers decreased over time. This study introduces a new method for efficient conditional hair cell ablation in adult mouse utricles and demonstrates that hair cells are spontaneously regenerated in vivo in regions where there may be ongoing hair cell turnover. PMID:23100430

Golub, Justin S; Tong, Ling; Ngyuen, Tot B; Hume, Cliff R; Palmiter, Richard D; Rubel, Edwin W; Stone, Jennifer S

2012-10-24

423

Selenium determination in mother and child’s hair by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the selenium determination in a mother and her child’s hair using palladium as a chemical modifier was optimized. The sample was digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and diluted to 5 ml. To achieve complete mineralization the samples were ashed at 1200°C in the presence of palladium as a chemical modifier. The optimun atomization temperature was

P. Bermejo Barrera; M. J. Lorenzo Alonso; A. Bermejo Barrera; J. A. Cocho de Juan; J. M Fraga Bermúdez

2000-01-01

424

Electrocoagulation of reactive textile dyes and textile wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electro-coagulation of a blue reactive dye (Drimarene K2LR CDG Blue) solution has been optimised by experimental design and surface response analysis in terms of colour removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD) decrease. The optimal conditions (pH, current density, reaction time) have then been applied to other reactive dyes solutions as well as synthetic and real textile wastewater samples. The biodegradability

A. Alinsafi; M. Khemis; M. N. Ponsa; J. P. Leclerc; A. Yaacoubi; A. Benhammou; A. Nejmeddine

2005-01-01

425

Significance of elemental analysis of hair as a means of detecting environmental pollution  

SciTech Connect

The correlation of metal concentrations in hair with those in the critical organs was investigated by tracer studies using V Cr, STHg, XVSe, ZCd, and WVZn in mice. The accumulation of these elements in organs of the mouse (including hair) during acute contamination was confirmed. Chronic studies to observe stable zinc and cadmium concentrations in various organs of the mouse at different ages manifested clear differences between zinc and cadmium accumulation patterns. The tracer study data on metal concentrations in 11 organs and those obtained by chemical analysis were compared. In the case of zinc, the correlation between the two is high, irrespective of the age of the mice; for cadmium no correlation was present in young mice but a correlation was seen in mice at ages of 19 weeks or more. Thus, the age-dependent variation of metals in organs is another factor that has been considered. Values for concentrations of several metals in critical organs and hair were compiled from the literature and compared. These studies led to the following conclusions: Hair is a reasonable indicator of mercury and chromium contamination, as these elements are readily deposited into hair and stay a comparatively long time. The time-dependent shifts of zinc and selenium in hair reflected their kinetics in the whole body, though their concentrations in hair were not higher than those in other organs. Hair was found to be a poor indicator of cadmium contamination, as the concentration of cadmium in hair was not parallel to that in the critical organs of the same mouse.

Matsubara, J.; Machida, K.

1985-12-01

426

Hair-based sensors for micro-autonomous systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We seek to harness microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies to build biomimetic devices for low-power, high-performance, robust sensors and actuators on micro-autonomous robot platforms. Hair is used abundantly in nature for a variety of functions including balance and inertial sensing, flow sensing and aerodynamic (air foil) control, tactile and touch sensing, insulation and temperature control, particle filtering, and gas/chemical sensing. Biological hairs, which are typically characterized by large surface/volume ratios and mechanical amplification of movement, can be distributed in large numbers over large areas providing unprecedented sensitivity, redundancy, and stability (robustness). Local neural transduction allows for space- and power-efficient signal processing. Moreover by varying the hair structure and transduction mechanism, the basic hair form can be used for a wide diversity of functions. In this paper, by exploiting a novel wafer-level, bubble-free liquid encapsulation technology, we make arrays of micro-hydraulic cells capable of electrostatic actuation and hydraulic amplification, which enables high force/high deflection actuation and extremely sensitive detection (sensing) at low power. By attachment of cilia (hair) to the micro-hydraulic cell, air flow sensors with excellent sensitivity (< few cm/s) and dynamic range (> 10 m/s) have been built. A second-generation design has significantly reduced the sensor response time while maintaining sensitivity of about 2 cm/s and dynamic range of more than 15 m/s. These sensors can be used for dynamic flight control of flying robots or for situational awareness in surveillance applications. The core biomimetic technologies developed are applicable to a broad range of sensors and actuators.

Sadeghi, Mahdi M.; Peterson, Rebecca L.; Najafi, Khalil

2012-05-01

427

Dye Removal from Textile Dye Wastewater Using Recycled Alum Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of dyes from textile dying wastewater by recycled alum sludge (RAS) generated by the coagulation process itself was studied and optimized. One hydrophobic and one hydrophilic dye were used as probes to examine the performance of this process. It was found that RAS is a good way of removing hydrophobic dye in wastewater, while simultaneously reducing the fresh

W Chu

2001-01-01

428

Laser dye technology  

SciTech Connect

The author has worked with laser dyes for a number of years. A first interest was in the Navy blue-green program where a flashlamp pumped dye laser was used as an underwater communication and detection device. It made use of the optical window of sea-water--blue for deep ocean, green for coastal water. A major activity however has been with the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim here has been enriching isotopes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The tunability of the dye laser is utilized to selectively excite one isotope in uranium vapor, and this isotope is collected electrostatically as shown in Figure 1. The interests in the AVLIS program have been in the near ultra-violet, violet, red and deep-red.

Hammond, P R

1999-09-01

429

Studies on the use of power ultrasound in leather dyeing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uses of power ultrasound for acceleration\\/performing the chemical as well as physical processes are gaining importance. In conventional leather processing, the diffusion of chemicals through the pores of the skin\\/hide is achieved by the mechanical agitation caused by the paddle or drumming action. In this work, the use of power ultrasound in the dyeing of leather has been studied with

Venkatasubramanian Sivakumar; Paruchuri Gangadhar Rao

2003-01-01

430

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs  

SciTech Connect

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

2011-12-31

431

Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.  

PubMed

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

2011-06-29

432

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs  

PubMed Central

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

2011-01-01

433

Metals in female scalp hair globally and its impact on perceived hair health.  

PubMed

Globally, billions of individuals wash their hair in water, which acts as an exogenous metal source. Many studies which measure the metal levels found on human hair specifically aim to remove exogenous materials prior to analysis. Although this is needed when using hair analysis to probe the impact of the local environment on endogenous metal levels, it is not relevant for understanding exactly what is on hair as a result of contact with its daily environment. Understanding these levels are important, as the presence of redox active metals, such as copper and iron, can impact fibre health, either as a result of UV irradiation, or during the hair colouring process. A global hair sampling study of over 300 individuals from nine countries has been performed, and the combined endogenous and exogenous metals analysed. The levels measured vary widely, even within the narrow geography of each hair sampling location. The levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and iron were not correlated, and within each location, there are expected to be individuals with high metal levels. Levels increased from hair root to tip for calcium, magnesium and copper, attributed to hair contact with the environment showing the impact of exogenous metals in the overall levels on hair. Levels of redox metals were comparable between individuals who coloured or did not colour their hair, although water hardness ions were statistically significantly higher for hair colouring individuals. Individuals who perceived their hair health as poor had higher metal levels on their hair. Controlling metals on hair, either by preventing their binding during environmental contact, or through controlling their ability to cause hair damage, should lead to improved consumer perceived hair health. PMID:23305149

Godfrey, Simon; Staite, William; Bowtell, Philip; Marsh, Jennifer

2013-01-24

434

EEMCO Guidance for the Assessment of Hair Shedding and Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the hair follicle anatomy and the dynamics of hair cycling is substantial. Recognizing the anagen, catagen and telogen phases as well as teloptosis and the hair eclipse phenomenon clearly characterizes the typical hair chronobiology. Physiological modulators include hormones, neuromediators, miscellaneous biomolecules, seasons, micro-inflammation and ageing. For individuals who present with the complaint of increased hair shedding or alopecia,

G. E. Piérard; C. Piérard-Franchimont; R. Marks; P. Elsner

2004-01-01

435

Two-state approach to stochastic hair bundle dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair cells perform the mechanoelectrical transduction of sound signals in the auditory and vestibular systems of vertebrates. The part of the hair cell essential for this transduction is the so-called hair bundle. In vitro experiments on hair cells from the sacculus of the American bullfrog have shown that the hair bundle comprises active elements capable of producing periodic deflections like

Diana Clausznitzer; Benjamin Lindner; Frank Jülicher; Pascal Martin

2008-01-01

436

Contact dermatitis from textile dyes.  

PubMed

6 female patients with allergic contact dermatitis from textile dyes are described. Lesions were confined to areas in direct contact with the offending garment, mainly where friction and/or pressure occurred. Patch tests were positive to 2 or more disperse dyes. Thin-layer chromatography was carried out on the dyes extracted from fabrics of 3 patients, for the identification of textile dyes. PMID:7924308

Lisboa, C; Barros, M A; Azenha, A

1994-07-01

437

Decoloration and degradation of some textile dyes by gamma irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The textile industry has long been one of the largest water users and polluters. Wastewater released by textile industries contains toxic refractory dye stuff at high concentration. Most of the dyes in the textile industry are non-degradable, therefore, effective treatment of dye waste effluent has not been achieved by ordinary processes. Ionizing radiation has been considered a promising process for the treatment of textile dye waste effluents. In this study, the possibility of using gamma rays to degrade or decolorize reactive dyes in water was investigated. Two different reactive dyes (Reactive Blue 15 and Reactive Black 5) in aqueous solutions were irradiated at doses of 0.1-15kGy, at 2.87 and 0.14kGy/h dose rates. The change of absorption spectra, pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and the degree of decoloration (percent reduction in optical density) were examined in the presence of air and H2O2. The absorption bands at 664, 640, 340, 260nm and 596, 392, 312nm for RB15 and RB5 decreased rapidly with increasing irradiation dose. The degree of decoloration of each dye solution with irradiation dose appeared to be 100 percent for the lower concentration (50ppm) dye solutions. The complete decoloration was observed after 1 and 15kGy doses for RB5 and RB15, respectively. pH of RB5 and RB15 solutions was decreased from 6.15 and 6.98 to 3.40 and 3.68 with the irradiation dose. The COD reduction for all the dye solutions was approximately 76-80% at 1 and 15kGy for RB5 and RB15. The COD reduction and the change of pH for all the dye solutions were examined similar to each other.

?olpan, Dilek; Güven, Olgun

2002-11-01

438

Magnetic actuation of hair cells  

PubMed Central

The bullfrog sacculus contains mechanically sensitive hair cells whose stereociliary bundles oscillate spontaneously when decoupled from the overlying membrane. Steady-state offsets on the resting position of a hair bundle can suppress or modulate this native motility. To probe the dynamics of spontaneous oscillation in the proximity of the critical point, we describe here a method for mechanical actuation that avoids loading the bundles or contributing to the viscous drag. Magnetite beads were attached to the tips of the stereocilia, and a magnetic probe was used to impose deflections. This technique allowed us to observe the transition from multi-mode to single-mode state in freely oscillating bundles, as well as the crossover from the oscillatory to the quiescent state.

Rowland, David; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Cheon, Jinwoo; Bozovic, Dolores

2011-01-01

439

Quo vadis, hair cell regeneration?  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss is a global health problem with profound socioeconomic impact. We contend that acquired hearing loss is mainly a modern disorder caused by man-made noise and modern drugs, among other causes. These factors, combined with increasing lifespan, have exposed a deficit in cochlear self-regeneration that was irrelevant for most of mammalian evolution. Nevertheless, the mammalian cochlea has evolved from phylogenetically older structures, which do have the capacity for self-repair. Moreover, nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate auditory hair cells that restore sensory function. We will offer a critical perspective on recent advances in stem cell biology, gene therapy, cell cycle regulation and pharmacotherapeutics to define and validate regenerative medical interventions for mammalian hair cell loss. Although these advances are promising, we are only beginning to fully appreciate the complexity of the many challenges that lie ahead.

Brigande, John V; Heller, Stefan

2010-01-01

440

Optical Properties of Nano-Spherical Gold Doped Dye Solution Hybrid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold nanoparticles with average diameter of 16 nm which are coated with Cetrimonium Bromide (CTAB) by chemical method are dissolved in dye solution at different concentrations. The absorption spectra of the dye mixture appeared almost unchanged at low concentrations of gold nanoparticles (around 1×1014 cm-3) despite its fluorescence intensity increased many-fold. Energy transfer from gold nanoparticles to dye molecules occurs through surface plasmon resonance(SPR). The fluorescence of rhodamine 610 (Rh610) dye molecules co-adsorbed within 16 nm gold nanoparticles assemblies can be useful for enhancing gain in lasing emission. An increase in laser efficiency by a factor of one and half times stronger compared to the single Rh610 dye suggest the potential of using the mixture of rhodamine dye with gold nanoparticles as laser medium in the configuration of quenching distributed feedback dye laser.

Hoa, D. Q.; Lien, N. T. H.; Ha, C. V.; Nhung, T. H.; Long, P.

2011-03-01

441

Analysis of hair samples using microscopical and molecular techniques to ascertain claims of rare animal species  

PubMed Central

Background: An unidentified animal species named the Jenglot and claimed to be a rare living animal species was recently found in the deep jungle of Irian Jaya, Indonesia; brought to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia by a businessman; and exhibited in a local museum. The owner of the Jenglot carcasses had made a request to perform DNA analysis on the Jenglot to ascertain its species. Methods: Because the muscle appeared very dry and recovery of DNA was extremely difficult, we therefore used the animals’ hair for further analysis. Hair samples were collected from three different Jenglots that were different in colour and physical appearance. The samples were labelled as A, B, C and D, respectively. Results: Microscopic characteristics indicated that all four hair samples were of human origin, with a medullary index less than 1/3 and pigment distribution towards the periphery. The scale pattern on the hair samples was of the imbricate type, adding certainty to the hypothesis of human origin. A dried root sheath was found in samples B and C, which was contrary to expectations since the sample collection method left a few cm of hair on the body of the Jenglots. Sample D had black dye granules over the cuticular surface. Sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment I (HVS-I) region showed polymorphisms at positions 16140, 16182C, 16183C, 16189, 16217 and 16274 and heteroplasmy at positions 16112, 16232 and 16251, a human-specific mtDNA haplotype that was consistent across all the samples. Conclusions: Based on these findings, it was concluded that it is unlikely that the samples of Jenglot hair originated from an animal species.

Zafarina, Zainuddin; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu

2009-01-01

442

Hair breakage during combing. III. The effects of bleaching and conditioning on short and long segment breakage by wet and dry combing of tresses.  

PubMed

A recent publication (1), provided evidence for two types of hair breakage during combing, short segment breakage (approximately less than 1.27 cm) and longer segment breakage. We have confirmed these results and refined the separation distance between short and long segment breakage at about 2.54 cm. Furthermore, chemical bleaching increased both short and long segment breakage while a commercial hair conditioner decreased both types of breakage. Whether the hair is chemically bleached or conditioned, for dry combing, short segment breakage increases with increasing comb strokes, that is, short segment breakage increases as combing damages the ends of the hair, however, long segment breakage does not increase with increasing comb strokes. Wet combing provided a decrease in short segment breakage and an increase in long segment breaks, but no increase in breakage with increasing comb strokes. Mechanical combing of tresses shows similar results qualitatively, however the variance was too large and adjustments need to be made to provide for a larger number of broken hairs to bring the mechanical and hand combing results in line. For dry combing, as the comb descends through the hair, hairs above it are made parallel and those beneath are either made parallel or knot by, hairs looping around other hairs or hairs looping around comb teeth and other hairs several cm between the comb and the hair tips. As the comb advances through the looped/knotted hairs long breaks occur or as the comb descends near the tips wrapped ends can result. End wrapping by inertia & possibly static charge produces short segment breaks which are more severe if the hair is cut at 90 degrees versus a tapered cut. For wet combing, clumping of hairs by a capillary action produces fewer short segment breaks, by reducing end wrapping: however, crossed hair interactions occur & because of higher friction more severe snags arise higher up in the tress, and lower hair breaking load due to plasticization by water, producing a larger number of long segment breaks. The very best practical way to evaluate hair strength is by counting the actual number of short and long segment breaks and by considering both wet and dry combing. PMID:17728947

Robbins, Clarence; Kamath, Yash

443

Calcium in Root Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The growth of cells as diverse as fungal hyphae, pollen tubes, algal rhizoids, and root hairs is characterized by a highly\\u000a localized control of cell expansion confined to the growing tip. The cellular regulators that have been shown to maintain\\u000a this spatial localization of growth range from monomeric G-proteins and the actin cytoskeleton to protein kinases and phospholipid-modulating\\u000a enzymes. A

T. Bibikova; S. Gilroy

444

Analytical pitfalls in hair testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on possible pitfalls in hair testing procedures. Knowledge of such pitfalls is useful when developing\\u000a and validating methods, since it can be used to avoid wrong results as well as wrong interpretations of correct results. In\\u000a recent years, remarkable advances in sensitive and specific analytical techniques have enabled the analysis of drugs in alternative\\u000a biological specimens such

Frank Musshoff; Burkhard Madea

2007-01-01

445

Genetics of structural hair disorders.  

PubMed

The identification of causative genes carries the promise of new and innovative therapeutic strategies for both inherited and acquired hair disorders. Moreover, the delineation of the relationships between similar phenotypes, resulting from mutations affecting seemingly distinct regulatory pathways, paves the way to improved diagnosis and treatment. Finally, understanding the biological processes governing HF development and maintenance may have implications for more general disease processes in the skin, such as inflammation and cancer. PMID:23154628

Harel, Sivan; Christiano, Angela M

2012-11-15

446

Mitochondrial profiling of dog hairs.  

PubMed

In order to make greater use of dog hairs as forensic evidence, we have developed a robust method for duplex amplification of adjacent 306 and 332bp amplicons within the 5' hypervariable region (5' HVR) of the canine mitochondrial control region. In support of this, a 595bp region covering 35 polymorphic sites has been sequenced from the blood of 105 UK dogs. In total, 30 different haplotypes were observed, 13 only once whilst the commonest was seen 14 times; the overall exclusion capacity is 0.929. One animal was heteroplasmic in blood for a single base deletion and showed phenotypes ranging from near complete deletion to a predominance of the base among a sample of 12 hairs. In contrast, no evidence of heteroplasmy was seen in single hairs from 20 dogs which were not visibly heteroplasmic in blood. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons with other published databases highlighted instances of possible recurrent mutation which may be relevant when interpreting single base differences between samples. PMID:12787657

Wetton, Jon H; Higgs, Jenny E; Spriggs, Adrian C; Roney, Chris A; Tsang, Carol S F; Foster, Aiden P

2003-05-01

447

The Challenge of Hair Cell Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Sensory hair cells of the inner ear are responsible for translating auditory or vestibular stimuli into electrical energy that can be perceived by the nervous system. Although hair cells are exquisitely mechanically sensitive, they can be easily damaged by excessive stimulation, by ototoxic drugs and by the effects of aging. In mammals, auditory hair cells are never replaced, such that cumulative damage to the ear causes progressive and permanent deafness. In contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of replacing lost hair cells, which has led to efforts to understand the molecular and cellular basis of regenerative responses in different vertebrate species. In this review, we describe recent progress in understanding the limits to hair cell regeneration in mammals and discuss the obstacles that currently exist for therapeutic approaches to hair cell replacement.

Groves, Andrew K.

2013-01-01

448

Hair growth and rejuvenation: an overview.  

PubMed

Hair has psychological and sociological importance throughout the ages in framing the personality and general appearance of an individual. Significant progress is being made on discovering an effective and safe drug for hair growth. Angiogenesis, androgen antagonism, vasodilation, potassium channel opening and 5-alpha reductase inhibition are the major non-surgical therapeutic strategies of hair growth promotion. In spite of a flood of drugs claiming to be useful as hair growth promoters, more rational strategies, which can target the problem areas or stages of the hair growth cycle effectively, are still awaited. This article highlights the developments in hair rejuvenation strategies and reviews the potential of herbal drugs as safer and effective alternatives. PMID:20536276

Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, Mohan Singh Maniyari

2010-06-10

449

Active Hair-Bundle Motility of the Hair Cells of Vestibular and Auditory Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair bundle is the mechanosensitive organelle that protrudes from the hair cell’s apical surface. Sound in hearing organs, head acceleration in vestibular organs and water flow in the lateral line of fish and amphibians ultimately evoke hair-bundle deflections, to which the hair cell responds by generating an electrical signal. Mechanical-to-electrical transduction, a process that is fast enough to enable

Pascal Martin

450

The Actions of Calcium on Hair Bundle Mechanics in Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound stimuli excite cochlear hair cells by vibration of each hair bundle, which opens mechanotransducer (MT) channels. We have measured hair-bundle mechanics in isolated rat cochleas by stimulation with flexible glass fibers and simultaneous recording of the MT current. Both inner and outer hair-cell bundles exhibited force-displacement relationships with a nonlinearity that reflects a time-dependent reduction in stiffness. The nonlinearity

Maryline Beurg; Jong-Hoon Nam; Andrew Crawford; Robert Fettiplacey

2008-01-01

451

Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

2005-07-01

452

Effect of Castration on Hair Re-growth in Pomeranians with Hair Cycle Arrest (Alopecia X)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair cycle arrest (alopecia X) is characterized by progressive hair loss in plush-coated canines, such as Pomeranians. It is a poorly understood condition thought to be caused by hormonal imbalances and has also been referred to as castration-responsive dermatosis and pseudo- Cushing's syndrome. This study evaluated the effect of castration on hair re-growth in Pomera- nians with hair cycle arrest.

Hui-Pi Huang; Yu-Hsin Lien; Pen-Heng Chang

2009-01-01

453

Tye Dye Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, make a colorful "tye dye" animal like a butterfly using markers, water, and a coffee filter. Use this activity to explore how liquids behave and how molecules in the marker ink spread when covered with water. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-02-25

454

Infrared Dye Laser Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of a flash lamp pumped, near infrared dye laser operating at a moderate repetition rate was shown. The laser produced output pulses of 17 kw peak power at a rate of 4 pulses per minute. The flow system that is essential for multiflash oper...

1973-01-01

455

Improved Lasing Dyes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application concerns a dye comprising a 7-amino coumarin compound having a trifluoromethyl group in the 4-position which is dissolved in a liquid solvent for use as a lasing material. The compound may take the form of 7-diethylamino-4-trifluoro...

E. J. Schimitschek

1974-01-01

456

Cardiac Dye Injector Synchronizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In radiographic diagnosis of heart disease, it is necessary to synchronize accurately the injection of radio-opaque dye into the circulation with the diastolic portion of the cardiac cycle. Because of the high-energy electrostatic and electromagnetic fields associated with radiographic apparatus, it was decided to make a photosensitive transducer to be clamped on the ear lobe to give an electric signal

L. David Pengelly

1961-01-01

457

Alzheimer's Dye Test?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) scientists have developed a new dye that could offer noninvasive early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, a discovery that could aid in monitoring the progression of the disease and in studying the efficacy of new treatments to stop it. The work is published in Angewandte Chemie. Today, doctors can only…

Science Teacher, 2005

2005-01-01

458

Dye for dye-sensitized solar cell and dye-sensitized solar cell including the same  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A dye for a dye-sensitized solar cell according to embodiments of the present invention includes a compound having a silane group. The dye according to embodiments of the present invention may be used in a light absorption layer to improve photovoltaic efficiency and increase open-circuit voltage.

2011-08-02

459

PFT1, a transcriptional Mediator complex subunit, controls root hair differentiation through reactive oxygen species (ROS) distribution in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Root hair morphogenesis is driven by an amalgam of interacting processes controlled by complex signaling events. Redox processes and transcriptional control are critical for root hair development. However, the molecular mechanisms that integrate redox state and transcription are largely unknown. To elucidate a possible role of transcriptional Mediators in root hair formation, we analyzed the Arabidopsis root hair phenotype of T-DNA insertion lines that harbor homozygous mutations in genes encoding Mediator subunits. Genetic evidence indicates that the Mediator subunits PFT1/MED25 and MED8 are critical for root hair differentiation, but act via separate mechanisms. Transcriptional profiling of pft1 roots revealed that PFT1 activates a subset of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-producing class III peroxidases. pft1 mutants showed perturbed H(2)O(2) and superoxide (O(2)(·-)) distribution, suggesting that PFT1 is essential to maintain redox homeostasis in the root. Chemical treatments rescued the pft1 mutant phenotype, indicating that correct reactive oxygen species (ROS) distribution is an essential prerequisite for root hair differentiation. In addition, PFT1 positively regulates cell wall remodeling genes that are essential for root hair formation. Our results demonstrate that PFT1 maintains ROS distribution which, in turn, controls root hair differentiation. Thus, our findings reveal a novel mechanism in which the Mediator controls ROS homeostasis by regulating the transcriptional machinery. PMID:23106228

Sundaravelpandian, Kalaipandian; Chandrika, Nulu Naga Prafulla; Schmidt, Wolfgang

2012-10-26

460

Unifying the Various Incarnations of Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dazzling sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the vertebrate ear rely on mechanical amplification of the hair cells’ responsiveness to small stimuli. As revealed by spontaneous oscillations and forms of mechanical excitability in response to force steps, the hair bundle that adorns each hair cell is both a mechanosensory antenna and a force generator that might participate in the amplificatory

Jean-Yves Tinevez; Frank Jülicher; Pascal Martin

2007-01-01

461

Eps8 Regulates Hair Bundle Length and Functional Maturation of Mammalian Auditory Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated

Valeria Zampini; Lukas Rüttiger; Stuart L. Johnson; Christoph Franz; David N. Furness; Jörg Waldhaus; Hao Xiong; Carole M. Hackney; Matthew C. Holley; Nina Offenhauser; Pier Paolo Di Fiore; Marlies Knipper; Sergio Masetto; Walter Marcotti

2011-01-01

462

The hair follicle as a dynamic miniorgan.  

PubMed

Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal-mesodermal interactions. After birth, mature and actively growing hair follicles eventually become anchored in the subcutis, and periodically regenerate by spontaneously undergoing repetitive cycles of growth (anagen), apoptosis-driven regression (catagen), and relative quiescence (telogen). Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on mouse mutants with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation. These mice have allowed novel insights into important general molecular and cellular processes beyond skin and hair biology, ranging from organ induction, morphogenesis and regeneration, to pigment and stem cell biology, cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. In this review, we present basic concepts of hair follicle biology and summarize important recent advances in the field. PMID:19211055

Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

2009-02-10

463

Simplified nonlinear outer hair cell models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a consistent second-order expansion of nonlinear constitutive theories for outer hair cells. For a particular theory, we will test the validity of such a model for small variations in voltage and strain about the resting state of outer hair cells. An analysis of the various terms in the simplified nonlinear model and their relevance to outer hair cell mechanics are presented. Results show that the second-order expansion is adequate for modeling outer hair cell mechanics in a global model of the cochlea. Model predictions agree with the notion that voltage nonlinearities are the dominant ones at low sound levels in vivo. .

Deo, Niranjan; Grosh, Karl

2005-04-01

464

Improved Biolistic Transfection of Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C) and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2) to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells.

Gillespie, Peter G.

2012-01-01

465

Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.  

PubMed

Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C) and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 2) to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells. PMID:23049715

Zhao, Hongyu; Avenarius, Matthew R; Gillespie, Peter G

2012-10-01

466

Return of function after hair cell regeneration.  

PubMed

The ultimate goal of hair cell regeneration is to restore functional hearing. Because birds begin perceiving and producing song early in life, they provide a propitious model for studying not only whether regeneration of lost hair cells can return auditory sensitivity but also whether this regenerated periphery can restore complex auditory perception and production. They are the only animal where hair cell regeneration occurs naturally after hair cell loss and where the ability to correctly perceive and produce complex acoustic signals is critical to procreation and survival. The purpose of this review article is to survey the most recent literature on behavioral measures of auditory functional return in adult birds after hair cell regeneration. The first portion of the review summarizes the effect of ototoxic drug induced hair cell loss and regeneration on hearing loss and recovery for pure tones. The second portion reviews studies of complex, species-specific vocalization discrimination and recognition after hair cell regeneration. Finally, we discuss the relevance of temporary hearing loss and recovery through hair cell regeneration on complex call and song production. Hearing sensitivity is restored, except for the highest frequencies, after hair cell regeneration in birds, but there are enduring changes to complex