Sample records for hair dye chemicals

  1. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers En Español Hair dye is used to ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

  2. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. PMID:24656996

  3. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Martinez A. Personal use of hair dyes and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association ... Buffler PA. Personal use of hair dyes and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Cancer Causes and Control 2008; ...

  4. Contact dermatitis to hair dye: an update.

    PubMed

    Handa, Sanjeev; Mahajan, Rahul; De, Dipankar

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to hair dyes has long been known as a significant risk factor for development of allergic contact dermatitis among the exposed population as these lead to severe eczema of face and upper trunk in the consumer and hand eczema in hair-dressers. Currently, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main ingredient used in permanent hair color products in the market and is the most important allergen. Prevalence of PPD sensitization is high in patients with contact dermatitis across all continents, with hair dye use being the commonest cause. In order to decrease the burden of disease, use of alternative natural dyeing agents among consumers and use of barrier neoprene gloves among hairdressers should be encouraged apart from stringent legislation to reduce the amount of PPD reaching the consumer. PMID:22960813

  5. Effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hairs.

    PubMed

    Baeck, SeungKyung; Han, EunYoung; Chung, HeeSun; Pyo, MyoungYun

    2011-03-20

    The effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in hair samples of MA addicts were studied. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples collected from male (n = 24, 24-51 yrs) and female abusers (n = 7, 17-46 yrs) were evaluated for MA and AM concentration's changes after repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples, no additional treatment hair sample group (NAT), were treated in vitro with liquid soap or three kinds of hair dyes which were black, brown and yellow color hair dye, respectively. Quantitation of AM and MA in hair samples was utilized GC-MS using selected ion monitoring. MA and AM concentrations in NAT were 10.41 ± 8.91 ng/mg (range 1.50-30.0 ng/mg) and 2.24 ± 2.75 ng/mg (range 0.41-12.90 ng/mg). And, their concentrations were decreased about 23.3 ± 4.5% (range 16.7-32.8%) in hair repeated washing group (WAS) and 32.6 ± 4.82 (22.2-41.9) in three kinds of a single hair dyeing groups in comparison to original concentrations of MA and AM in NAT. A statistically significant difference was found between NAT and WAS or three hair dyeing groups (p < 0.01), but not between WAS and three hair dyeing groups, and not between each hair dyeing groups with each three kinds of hair dyes (p > 0.05). PMID:20650577

  6. Hair dye poisoning: An unusual encounter

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sunil Kumar; Tiwari, Rajjan; Ahlawat, Alok

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year-old female patient presented with alleged history of hair dye “Super Vasmol 33” intake. She presented with cervicofacial edema with upper airway obstruction. Although patient was being managed for airway obstruction, she developed cardiac arrest. Cardiac resuscitation could not be started at that point of time because managing airway was the priority in a patient who in hypoxic cardiac arrest. As soon as the airway was secured by emergency tracheostomy, cardiac resuscitation was initiated and the patient was successfully revived. PMID:24987242

  7. Severe facial swelling in a pregnant woman after using hair dye.

    PubMed

    van Genderen, Michel E; Carels, Ginette; Lonnee, Edward R; Dees, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    A 33-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman (26 weeks' gestation) presented to the emergency department. She had a 2-day history of severe itching of the scalp and steadily worsening swelling of the face over the previous 12 h, which had extended to the neck. She had no difficulty breathing. The itching and swelling had developed 3 days after she had used hair dye. The patient had no history of allergic responses to hair dye or black henna tattoos. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction was made. Permanent hair dyes are the most frequently used professional hair dyes and are most commonly based on paraphenylenediamine (PPD) or related chemicals. PPD is known to be one of the most potent allergens which cause allergic contact dermatitis. After treatment with intravenous antihistamines and steroids, the facial swelling reduced and the patient had completely recovered by the following day. PMID:24686800

  8. Determination of dye intermediates in oxidative hair dyes by fused-silica capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, H; Kimura, Y; Takano, S

    1986-10-01

    A fused-silica capillary gas chromatographic method is described for the determination of dye intermediates in oxidative hair dyes. An appropriate amount of hair dye sample is dissolved in 10 ml of methanol containing 0.25 g of ammonium thioglycolate and an appropriate amount of 2-amino-4-methylphenol as an internal standard. This solution is directly injected into a gas chromatograph. A fused-silica capillary column with cross-linked methyl silicone OV-1 or SE-54 as a liquid phase yields excellent resolution of dye intermediates. Some factors affecting the quantitation of dye intermediates are discussed. The proposed method gave good recoveries and reproducibilities, and permits simultaneous determination of various types of dye intermediates without any pretreatment. The use of a nitrogen-phosphorus detector allows the selective detection of nitrogen-containing dye intermediates. This simple and versatile method is applicable for the determination of dye intermediates in commercial hair dyes. PMID:3782349

  9. Quantitative detection of chemical compounds in human hair with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

    E-print Network

    Potma, Eric Olaf

    Quantitative detection of chemical compounds in human hair with coherent anti-Stokes Raman to selectively detect molecular agents in hair fibers is of direct relevance to understanding the chemical properties, such as tensile strength.1 For hair-color products the penetration of the dye precursors

  10. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes)....

  11. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes)....

  12. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes)....

  13. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes)....

  14. 21 CFR 70.20 - Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes). 70.20...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.20 Packaging requirements for straight colors (other than hair dyes)....

  15. Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection in the Zebrafish Lateral Line Rubel,1,2 and David W. Raible1,4 Abstract In humans, most hearing loss results from death of hair cells of mechanosensory hair cells. We discuss chemical screens to identify compounds that induce hair cell loss

  16. Alternative method for checking toxicity of hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Tachon, P; Cotovio, J; Dossouy, K G; Prunieras, M

    1986-12-01

    Synopsis We have compared the in vitro and in vivo toxicities of 19 hair dyes. In vitro, the toxic effect was estimated in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79), using a cell growth inhibition test. For each compound, the concentration required to reduce 50% of the growth (CI(50)) was determined. In vivo, compounds were administered by i.p. route to groups of 10 Swiss mice per dose. The LD(50) values obtained were used to estimate the acute toxicity. The comparison of the results in vivo and in vitro showed that there is a good correlation between both ranking orders (correlation coefficient r= 0.90 with a first kind error P= 10(-4)). These results suggest that the use of cell culture tests is valuable as pre-screening systems to appreciate the toxicity level of hair dyes, in order to reduce the use of animals in safety evaluation. PMID:19457223

  17. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.25 Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair...

  18. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.25 Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair...

  19. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.25 Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair...

  20. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.25 Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair...

  1. 21 CFR 70.25 - Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair dyes...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Packaging and Labeling § 70.25 Labeling requirements for color additives (other than hair...

  2. Dyeing behaviours of amino heterocyclic compounds as blue oxidative hair dye precursors applied to keratin fibres.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Huang, Y; Su, J

    2011-04-01

    Several novel heterocyclic compounds based on 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 2,3-dihydroindole have been investigated for their application of colour keratin fibres as blue oxidative dye precursors, especially to human hair. The colourants we studied contained anyone of these dyes (concentration range from 0.005% to 6%), and some common oxidative hair dyes, such as p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine sulphate. Experiments were carried out on the method of mixing hair colourants with H(2)O(2) gel at the ratio of 1 : 1, accompanied by pH = 8?11. It is demonstrated that 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives could be considered as an excellent candidate for blue dyes, and N-methyl-7-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is the most outstanding one among this kind of compounds. They own significant advantages of colour purity, stability and fastness. On the other hand, 2,3-dihydroindoles show the similar colours but not stable and brilliant enough. PMID:21265865

  3. Paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning: an uncommon cause of rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Elevli, Murat; Civilibal, Mahmut; Ersoy, Ozlem; Demirkol, Demet; Gedik, Ahmet Hakan

    2014-07-01

    Paraphenylene daimine (PPD) is a kind of aromatic amine that is widely used in several industrial products. Women also use PPD added to henna (Lawasonia alba) as a hair dye. Though rare in Western countries, PPD poisoning is quite common in East Africa, India and Middle Eastern countries because it is a traditional product at these countries. Different pathologies were described as caused by PPD ingestion including angioedema of head and neck, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. The authors report a case of systemic poisoning with PPD that lead to angioedema resulting in tracheostomy and rhabdomyolysis. PMID:23723080

  4. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  5. Right Bundle Branch Block: An Uncommon Cardiotoxic Manifestation of Hair Dye Poisoning-A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Deepak; Subramanian, Saravanan; Thangaraju, Pugazhenthan; Shanmugam, Kani

    2014-01-01

    Hair dye poisoning has been rising in incidence in the recent years. Apart from the commoner manifestations of upper airway edema, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure, cardiac toxicity, convulsions and sudden cardiac death are relatively rare complications. We discuss a case of hair dye poisoning manifesting as oropharyngeal edema along with cardiac complication. The patient survived. PMID:24596762

  6. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  8. 21 CFR 740.18 - Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. 740.18 Section 740.18 Food... Coal tar hair dyes posing a risk of cancer. (a) The principal display panel...your skin and has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (b)...

  9. Proposal of an in silico profiler for categorisation of repeat dose toxicity data of hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Nelms, M D; Ates, G; Madden, J C; Vinken, M; Cronin, M T D; Rogiers, V; Enoch, S J

    2015-05-01

    This study outlines the analysis of 94 chemicals with repeat dose toxicity data taken from Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety opinions for commonly used hair dyes in the European Union. Structural similarity was applied to group these chemicals into categories. Subsequent mechanistic analysis suggested that toxicity to mitochondria is potentially a key driver of repeat dose toxicity for chemicals within each of the categories. The mechanistic hypothesis allowed for an in silico profiler consisting of four mechanism-based structural alerts to be proposed. These structural alerts related to a number of important chemical classes such as quinones, anthraquinones, substituted nitrobenzenes and aromatic azos. This in silico profiler is intended for grouping chemicals into mechanism-based categories within the adverse outcome pathway paradigm. PMID:24888375

  10. Peripheral neuropathy after hair dye exposure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Wissam; Cachia, David; Quinn, Colin; Salameh, Johnny

    2014-06-01

    We present a case of length-dependent sensory axonal polyneuropathy due to lead exposure from a cosmetic product. Serial follow-ups showed a direct relationship between the lead level, clinical symptoms, and the polyneuropathy. Our patient had a relatively short-term exposure to lead after misusing a hair dye on his beard. Nerve conduction studies showed a predominantly axonal sensory neuropathy that correlated with lead blood levels and reached 3 times the upper limit of normal. The patient had an unexpected sensory predominant neuropathy. He had a full recovery after stopping the lead-containing product. Blood lead levels were noted to be below previously reported toxic levels. No other systemic signs of lead toxicity were noted. This could be related to the mucosal route of absorption inducing a reversible injury at lower than previously reported lead levels and after a shorter duration of exposure. PMID:24872215

  11. Exposure of hairdressers to ortho- and meta-toluidine in hair dyes

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Gabriella M; Jönsson, Bo A G; Axmon, Anna; Lindh, Christian H; Lind, Marie-Louise; Gustavsson, Mats; Broberg, Karin; Boman, Anders; Meding, Birgitta; Lidén, Carola; Albin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinogenic aromatic amines derived from hair dyes have recently received new attention. One of these is ortho (o)-toluidine, which is classified as carcinogenic to humans. Objectives To clarify exposure of hairdressers to potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines, including o-toluidine. Methods We measured eight potentially carcinogenic aromatic amines in the blood of 295 hairdressers, 32 users of hair dyes and 60 controls. The study was restricted to female non-smokers. Lifestyle data were collected for all participants using self-administered questionnaires. Blood samples were taken for analysis of ortho-, meta (m)- and para (p)-toluidine; 2-, 3- and 4-ethylaniline, 2,3- and 3,4-dimethylaniline as haemoglobin adducts. The samples were analysed with gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results Generally, adduct concentrations were in the range of 0–200?pg/g haemoglobin. A comparison of the adduct concentrations found in hairdressers, consumers and controls showed no statistically significant differences. However, for hairdressers, o- and m-toluidine concentrations increased significantly with the weekly number of hair waving (p=0.020) and permanent hair dyeing treatments (p=0.026), respectively. o-Toluidine and m-Toluidine concentrations also tended (p=0.076 and 0.080, respectively) to increase with the frequency of light-colour permanent hair dye treatments. Conclusions Hairdressers who use light-colour permanent hair dyes, other permanent hair dyes and hair waving treatments seem to be exposed to o- and m-toluidine as indicated by associations with the number of treatments performed. Analyses of hair waving and hair dye products should be performed to identify the possible sources of exposure to o- and m-toluidine. PMID:24912758

  12. Rapid identification of phenylenediamine isomers in henna hair dye products by gas chromatography?mass spectrometry (GC?MS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Krahn; Huda Hassan; Thomas Mahier; Afrozul Haq

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a gas chromatography?mass spectrometry (GC?MS) procedure for identification and quantitation of phenylenediamine isomers in eleven commercial and traditional henna hair dyes. Our results indicate that p?phenylenediamine (p?PD), the least toxic diamine isomer, is most commonly present in the hair dyes selected for this study. While relatively low levels of p?PD are observed in most commercial hair dyes,

  13. In Situ Detection and Identification of Hair Dyes Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS).

    PubMed

    Kurouski, Dmitry; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    Hair is one of the most common types of physical evidence found at a crime scene. Forensic examination may suggest a connection between a suspect and a crime scene or victim, or it may demonstrate an absence of such associations. Therefore, forensic analysis of hair evidence is invaluable to criminal investigations. Current hair forensic examinations are primarily based on a subjective microscopic comparison of hair found at the crime scene with a sample of suspect's hair. Since this is often inconclusive, the development of alternative and more-accurate hair analysis techniques is critical. In this study, we utilized surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to demonstrate that artificial dyes can be directly detected on hair. This spectroscopic technique is capable of a confirmatory identification of analytes with single molecule resolution, requires minimal sample, and has the advantage of fluorescence quenching. Our study reveals that SERS can (1) identify whether hair was artificially dyed or not, (2) determine if a permanent or semipermanent colorants were used, and (3) distinguish the commercial brands that are utilized to dye hair. Such analysis is rapid, minimally destructive, and can be performed directly at the crime scene. This study provides a novel perspective of forensic investigations of hair evidence. PMID:25635868

  14. Hair dyes and temporary tattoos are a real hazard for adolescents?

    PubMed

    Haluk Akar, H; Adatepe, S; Tahan, F; Solmaz, I

    2014-01-01

    Temporary tattoos, especially those that contain black dyes, have become rampant among teenagers in recent years. Most of these tattoos, in addition to hair dyes include paraphenylenediamine (PPD). PPD is a well-known skin sensitizer, which causes allergic contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis skin lesions from PPD are mostly seen as erythema multiforme-like eruption, a bullous contact dermatitis or as an exudative erythema. Herein, we report on our finding on a 15 year-old adolescent female who had been unaware of being previously sensitized to PPD from a black henna tattoo, and angioedema-like reaction which occurred after her first exposure to hair dye. PMID:24702872

  15. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Acquaviva; E. D’Anna; M. L. De Giorgi; P. Baraldi

    2010-01-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours\\u000a and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest,\\u000a as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes,

  16. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section 864.1850 Food...HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

  17. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section 864.1850 Food...HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

  18. 21 CFR 864.1850 - Dye and chemical solution stains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Dye and chemical solution stains. 864.1850 Section 864.1850 Food...HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Biological Stains § 864.1850 Dye and chemical solution stains. (a) Identification. Dye and...

  19. Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: An appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Kirkland; L. Henderson; D. Marzin; L. Müller; J. M. Parry; G. Speit; D. J. Tweats; G. M. Williams

    2005-01-01

    The European Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP) guideline for testing of hair dyes for genotoxic\\/mutagenic\\/carcinogenic potential has been reviewed. The battery of six in vitro tests recommended therein differs substantially from the batteries of two or three in vitro tests recommended in other guidelines. Our evaluation of the chemical types used in hair dyes and comparison with

  20. Permeation of hair dye ingredients, p-phenylenediamine and aminophenol isomers, through protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiao-Shu; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2009-04-01

    Skin irritation and contact allergies are skin disorders common to hairdressers. The predominant oxidative hair dye components, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and aminophenol isomers, can cause contact dermatitis. Use of protective gloves can prevent dermal contact with skin irritants. This study investigates the permeation behaviors of p-aminophenol (PAP), m-aminophenol (MAP), o-aminophenol (OAP) and PPD in single and mixed challenge solutions with disposable natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves, disposable polyvinylchloride (PVC) gloves and neoprene (NP) gloves. The challenge solutions were 4% PPD (w/v), 3% OAP (w/v), 2% PAP (w/v) and 2% MAP (w/v) in ethanol or 12% hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cocktail solutions of the four chemicals were also tested. An American Society for Testing and Materials type permeation cell, ethanol liquid collection and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection of samples taken from the collection medium every 10 min facilitated determination of breakthrough times (BTs), cumulative permeated masses and steady-state permeation rates (SSPRs). Experiments were 4 h long for the NRL and PVC gloves and 8 h for NP gloves. No chemicals tested broke through the NP gloves when exposed for 8 h. In the ethanol solution, PPD and OAP started breaking through the PVC gloves at 40 min. The SSPRs of PVC gloves were higher than those for NRL gloves in all challenge conditions for both single chemicals and mixtures. No tested chemicals in hydrogen peroxide solutions permeated the gloves during the 4-h tests. The chemical composition of the challenge solution was a main effecter of BTs and SSPRs for the NRL glove. For disposable PVC gloves, the main factors of BTs were molecular size [molar volume (MV)] and polarity (logK(ow)), and the primary factors of SSPRs were concentration, MV and logK(ow). In conclusion, disposable NRL gloves and disposable PVC gloves should not be used repeatedly for handling the hair dye products. Hydrogen peroxide did not accelerate chemical breakthrough. The compositions of the challenge solutions and physical and chemical properties (MV and logK(ow)) affected permeation behaviors for different gloves. PMID:19279162

  1. Personal hair dye use and cancer: a systematic literature review and evaluation of exposure assessment in studies published since 1992.

    PubMed

    Rollison, Dana E; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Pinney, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Hair dyes are widely used, and permanent hair dye is the most commonly used type of product. Permanent hair dye colors are formed by an oxidative process involving arylamines, giving rise to concerns about the potential adverse health effects of long-term exposure, especially cancer. A 1993 International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC) review concluded that evidence was inadequate to evaluate the carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use. This systematic review synthesizes the results from studies of personal hair dye use and cancer published since 1993, taking into consideration the quality of exposure assessment. Thirty-one English-language articles published in January 1992-February 2005 that investigated the association between personal hair dye use and cancer were identified through the PubMed search engine. Quality of exposure assessment was rated between 1+ (lowest quality: assessed ever use of hair dyes) and 4+ (highest quality: assessed dye type [permanent/nonpermanent], dye color/shade, frequency and duration of use). Because of the heterogeneity of the exposure assessment across the studies, a formal meta-analysis was not conducted. Associations between personal hair dye use and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, acute leukemia, and bladder cancer were observed in at least one well-designed study with detailed exposure assessment (rated 3+ or 4+), but were not consistently observed across studies. Results for bladder cancer studies suggest that subsets of the population may be genetically susceptible to hair dye exposures, but these findings are based on small subgroups in one well-designed case-control study. Replication of these findings is needed to determine whether the reported associations are real or spurious. PMID:17492526

  2. Oxidative DNA damage induced by hair dye components ortho-phenylenediamines and the enhancement by superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mariko; Nishimura, Tomoko; Chen, Fang; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2006-09-01

    There is an association between occupational exposure to hair dyes and incidence of cancers. Permanent oxidant hair dyes are consisted of many chemical components including ortho-phenylenediamines. To clarify the mechanism of carcinogenesis by hair dyes, we examined DNA damage induced by mutagenic ortho-phenylenediamine (o-PD) and its derivatives, 4-chloro-ortho-phenylenediamine (Cl-PD) and 4-nitro-ortho-phenylenediamine (NO(2)-PD), using (32)P-labeled DNA fragments obtained from the human p16 and the p53 tumor suppressor gene. We also measured the content of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, in calf thymus DNA with an electrochemical detector coupled to a high performance liquid chromatograph. Carcinogenic o-PD and Cl-PD caused Cu(II)-mediated DNA damage, including 8-oxodG formation, and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) enhanced DNA damage. o-PD and Cl-PD caused piperidine-labile and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase-sensitive lesions at cytosine and guanine residues respectively in the 5'-ACG-3' sequence, complementary to codon 273, a well-known hotspot of the human p53 tumor suppressor gene. UV-vis spectroscopic studies showed that the spectral change of o-PD and Cl-PD required Cu(II), and addition of SOD enhanced it. This suggested that SOD enhanced the rate of Cu(II)-mediated autoxidation of o-PD and Cl-PD, leading to enhancement of DNA damage. On the other hand, mutagenic but non-carcinogenic NO(2)-PD induced no DNA damage. These results suggest that carcinogenicity of ortho-phenylenediamines is associated with ability to cause oxidative DNA damage rather than bacterial mutagenicity. PMID:16798066

  3. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  4. Physical and chemical investigations on natural dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, S.; D'Anna, E.; de Giorgi, M. L.; Della Patria, A.; Baraldi, P.

    2010-09-01

    Natural dyes have been used extensively in the past for many purposes, such us to colour fibers and to produce inks, watercolours and paints, but their use declined rapidly after the discovery of synthetic colours. Nowadays we witness a renewed interest, as natural dyes are neither toxic nor polluting. In this work, physical and chemical properties of four selected dyes, namely red (Madder), yellow (Weld and Turmeric) and blue (Woad) colours, produced by means of traditional techniques at the Museo dei Colori Naturali (Lamoli, Italy), have been investigated. The chromatic properties have been studied through the reflectance spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique for the characterisation of chromaticity. Reflection spectra both from powders and egg-yolk tempera models have been acquired to provide the typical features of the dyes in the UV-vis spectral range. Moreover, to assess the feasibility of laser cleaning procedures, tempera layers were investigated after irradiation with an excimer laser. Micro Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses have complemented the survey, returning compositional and morphological information as well. Efforts have been made to give scientific feedback to the production processes and to support the research activity in the restoration of the artworks where these dyes were employed.

  5. N-acetylation of three aromatic amine hair dye precursor molecules eliminates their genotoxic potential.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Andreas; Pfuhler, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    N-acetylation has been described as a detoxification reaction for aromatic amines; however, there is only limited data available showing that this metabolic conversion step changes their genotoxicity potential. To extend this database, three aromatic amines, all widely used as precursors in oxidative hair dye formulations, were chosen for this study: p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 2,5-diaminotoluene (DAT) and 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene (AHT). Aiming at a deeper mechanistic understanding of the interplay between activation and detoxification for this chemical class, we compared the genotoxicity profiles of the parent compounds with those of their N-acetylated metabolites. While PPD, DAT and AHT all show genotoxic potential in vitro, their N-acetylated metabolites completely lack genotoxic potential as shown in the Salmonella typhimurium reversion assay, micronucleus test with cultured human lymphocytes (AHT), chromosome aberration assay with V79 cells (DAT) and Comet assay performed with V79 cells. For the bifunctional aromatic amines studied (PPD and DAT), monoacetylation was sufficient to completely abolish their genotoxic potential. Detoxification through N-acetylation was further confirmed by comparing PPD, DAT and AHT in the Comet assay using standard V79 cells (N-acetyltransferase (NAT) deficient) and two NAT-proficient cell lines,V79NAT1*4 and HaCaT (human keratinocytes). Here we observed a clear shift of dose-response curves towards decreased genotoxicity of the parent aromatic amines in the NAT-proficient cells. These findings suggest that genotoxic effects will only be found at concentrations where the N-acetylation (detoxifying) capacity of the cells is overwhelmed, indicating that a 'first-pass' effect in skin could be taken into account for risk assessment of these topically applied aromatic amines. The findings also indicate that the use of liver S-9 preparations, which generally underestimate Phase II reactions, contributes to the generation of irrelevant positive results in standard genotoxicity tests for this chemical class. PMID:24275315

  6. Analysis of the Results from the Patch Test to Para-Phenylenediamine in the TRUE Test in Patients with a Hair Dye Contact Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Yong; Kim, Sang Seok

    2015-01-01

    Background Para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is the primary patch test screening agent for hair dye contact allergy (HDCA). However, no recent studies have been published that describe the results of reactions to patch tests using PPD and hair dyes in Korea. Objective To analyze the results of the patch tests to PPD using the thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous (TRUE) Test system in patients with HDCA and to investigate patients' awareness that hair dyes contains allergens, which cause the development of HDCA. Methods Eighty-four patients with suspected HDCA (32 men and 52 women) underwent patch testing using the TRUE Test system and their own hair dyes. The patients' demographic data, behavior associated with hair dyeing, and clinical manifestations of HDCA were examined retrospectively. Results Positive patch-test reactions to hair dyes occurred in 53.6% of patients who used hair dyes, and they were diagnosed with HDCA. Although there was a significant correlation between HDCA and PPD sensitization (p=0.001), only 40% of the patients with HDCA showed positive reactions to PPD. Of the 45 patients diagnosed with HDCA, only 7 (15.6%) were aware that their hair dyes contained allergens that caused HDCA. Conclusion This study's findings show that PPD is an effective HDCA marker. However, we propose that investigations on hair dye components other than PPD should be conducted to develop and validate additional predictive HDCA markers. PMID:25834356

  7. FM Dye Photo-Oxidation as a Tool for Monitoring Membrane Recycling in Inner Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoli, Silvio O.

    2014-01-01

    Styryl (FM) dyes have been used for more than two decades to investigate exo- and endocytosis in conventional synapses. However, they are difficult to use in the inner hair cells of the auditory pathway (IHCs), as FM dyes appear to penetrate through mechanotransducer channels into the cytosol of IHCs, masking endocytotic uptake. To solve this problem we applied to IHCs the FM dye photo-oxidation technique, which renders the dyes into electron microscopy markers. Photo-oxidation allowed the unambiguous identification of labeled organelles, despite the presence of FM dye in the cytosol. This enabled us to describe the morphologies of several organelles that take up membrane in IHCs, both at rest and during stimulation. At rest, endosome-like organelles were detected in the region of the cuticular plate. Larger tubulo-cisternal organelles dominated the top and nuclear regions. Finally, the basal region, where the IHC active zones are located, contained few labeled organelles. Stimulation increased significantly membrane trafficking in the basal region, inducing the appearance of labeled vesicles and cistern-like organelles. The latter were replaced by small, synaptic-like vesicles during recovery after stimulation. In contrast, no changes in membrane trafficking were induced by stimulation in the cuticular plate region or in the top and nuclear regions. We conclude that synaptic vesicle recycling takes place mostly in the basal region of the IHCs. Other organelles participate in abundant constitutive membrane trafficking throughout the rest of the IHC volume. PMID:24505482

  8. [Dermatitis Caused by Hair Dye (Quinone Produced by the Action of Aqueous Hydrogen Peroxide on p-Phenylenediamine Hydrochloride), by Juan de Azúa].

    PubMed

    Conde-Salazar Gómez, Luis

    2009-03-01

    In the first issue of Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas, Juan de Azúa published a magnificent article on contact dermatitis caused by hair dyes, which reflects his profound knowledge of allergy and how the skin responds to chemical stimuli. It gives a brilliant description of irritative and allergic dermatitis, although without naming the allergic form explicitly. Of note is how he is concerned about the composition of dyes>; so much so that he contacted the local laboratory to determine their chemical composition and how they work. It is a delight to study the case histories and treatments administered to these 15 patients. During the months of treatment, he reports trying different officinal formulas that, although unknown to most of today's dermatologists, nevertheless managed to cure the patients in the end. PMID:19445873

  9. Smoking, alcohol, occupation, and hair dye use in cancer of the lower urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Nomura, A; Kolonel, L N; Yoshizawa, C N

    1989-12-01

    This case-control study was based on 137 Caucasian and 124 Japanese cases of urinary tract cancer identified in Hawaii between 1977 and 1986. Each case was matched on sex, age, and race to two population-based controls. Heavy cigarette smokers (41 or more pack-years for men; 21 or more pack-years for women) had a significantly elevated risk compared with nonsmokers (odds ratio (OR) = 6.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-11.1 for the men; OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.3 for the women). When the men and women were combined, employment in high-risk industries (includes machinery, automotive, and textiles, among others) was significantly associated with cancer risk (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3). Alcohol intake and hair dye use showed weaker positive associations with risk that were not statistically significant. PMID:2589309

  10. Hair Dyes Resorcinol and Lawsone Reduce Production of Melanin in Melanoma Cells by Tyrosinase Activity Inhibition and Decreasing Tyrosinase and Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  11. Hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone reduce production of melanin in melanoma cells by tyrosinase activity inhibition and decreasing tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Shyan; Lin, Chih-Chien; Chen, Kuan-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Hair coloring products are one of the most important cosmetics for modern people; there are three major types of hair dyes, including the temporary, semi-permanent and permanent hair dyes. The selected hair dyes (such as ammonium persulfate, sodium persulfate, resorcinol and lawsone) are the important components for hair coloring products. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of these compounds on melanogenesis in B16-F10 melanoma cells. The results proved that hair dyes resorcinol and lawsone can reduce the production of melanin. The results also confirmed that resorcinol and lawsone inhibit mushroom and cellular tyrosinase activities in vitro. Resorcinol and lawsone can also downregulate the protein levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16-F10 cells. Thus, we suggest that frequent use of hair dyes may have the risk of reducing natural melanin production in hair follicles. Moreover, resorcinol and lawsone may also be used as hypopigmenting agents to food, agricultural and cosmetic industry in the future. PMID:25584612

  12. Chemical stabilization of the coumarin 1 dye laser

    SciTech Connect

    von Trebra, R.J.; Koch, T.H.

    1983-01-15

    The chemical stabilization of coumarin 1, 7-diethylamino-4-methylcoumarin, in a nitrogen laser pumped dye laser and coumarin 311, 7-dimethylamino-4-methylcoumarin, under cw conditions with sulfur-free radical chain transfer agents, are described. The mechanism for stabilization involves encounter of triplet coumarin and ground state coumarin with subsequent radical formation and radical disproportionation catalyzed by the chain transfer agents. The output of the coumarin 1 dye laser decreased 10% when the dye solution was stabilized with cysteine hydrochloride over a 12-h period. The output of the unstabilized dye laser decreased 50% during a similar period of operation.

  13. Topical liposome targeting of dyes, melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, R M

    1998-01-01

    For therapeutic and cosmetic modification of hair, we have developed a hair-follicle-selective macromolecule and small molecule targeting system with topical application of phosphatidylcholine-based liposomes. Liposome-entrapped melanins, proteins, genes, and small-molecules have been selectively targeted to the hair follicle and hair shafts of mice. Liposomal delivery of these molecules is time dependent. Negligible amounts of delivered molecules enter the dermis, epidermis, or bloodstream thereby demonstrating selective follicle delivery. Naked molecules are trapped in the stratum corneum and are unable to enter the follicle. The potential of the hair-follicle liposome delivery system for therapeutic use for hair disease as well as for cosmesis has been demonstrated in 3-dimensional histoculture of hair-growing skin and mouse in vivo models. Topical liposome selective delivery to hair follicles has demonstrated the ability to color hair with melanin, the delivery of the active lac-Z gene to hair matrix cells and delivery of proteins as well. Liposome-targeting of molecules to hair follicles has also been achieved in human scalp in histoculture. Liposomes thus have high potential in selective hair follicle targeting of large and small molecules, including genes, opening the field of gene therapy and other molecular therapy of the hair process to restore hair growth, physiologically restore or alter hair pigment, and to prevent or accelerate hair loss. PMID:9588863

  14. Clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of paraphenylene-diamine induced acute kidney injury following hair dye poisoning: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shigidi, Mazin; Mohammed, Osama; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Taha, Elshafie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In Africa and Asia hair dye is applied together with henna to decorate the hands and feet. Paraphenylene-diamine (PPD), a highly toxic constituent of hair dye can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods A cohort study was conducted during the period from April 2012 to March 2013 in Khartoum Teaching Hospital, Sudan. It targeted adults presenting acutely with an evident history and clinical features of hair dye poisoning, together with AKI as per the RIFLE criteria. Analysis of data was done using SPSS. Results 30 adults were included, their mean age was 25.6 ± 4.2 years, 93.3% were females. Exposure to PPD was suicidal in 86.7%. The mean duration to onset of renal symptoms was 34.8 ± 7.6 hours, maximum median serum creatinine was 8.6 ± 2.3 mg/dl, 86.7% had loss of kidney function as per the RIFLE classification and required dialysis. Initial renal recovery was seen after a mean duration of 9.8 ± 2.2 days. One patient died, 3.3%; all others, 96.7%, recovered normal kidney function. The amount of ingested PPD correlated significantly to the severity of symptoms, number of dialysis sessions required and time for renal recovery with P values < 0.05. Conclusion Hair dye poisoning was associated with prolonged hospital stay, requirement of dialysis and increased morbidity. The severity of symptoms directly correlates to the dose of PPD ingested, with the kidney damage being reversible in almost all survivors.

  15. Chemical abuse in the elderly: evidence from hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Cirimele, Vincent

    2008-04-01

    The use of a drug to modify a person's behavior for criminal gain is not a recent phenomenon. However, the recent increase in reports of drug-facilitated crimes (sexual assault, robbery) has caused some alarm in the general public. Drugs involved can be pharmaceuticals such as benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, lorazepam, clonazepam), hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem), sedatives (neuroleptics, some antihistamines), or anesthetics (GHB, ketamine); drugs of abuse such as cannabis, ecstasy, or LSD; or, more often, ethanol. Mistreatment of older people, whether it is abuse or neglect, can be classified as physical, psychologic, or financial/material. Several types of mistreatment may occur simultaneously. Very few data are available in the international literature. It seems that mental abuse and neglect are more frequent, but physical abuse such as beating, pushing, kicking, and possibly sexual abuse have also been reported. Drugs used to facilitate sexual assaults can be difficult to detect (active products at low dosages, chemical instability), can possess amnesic properties, and can be rapidly cleared from the body (short half-life). In these situations, blood, or even urine, can be inadequate. This is the reason why some laboratories have developed an original approach based on hair testing. Hair was suggested as a valuable specimen in situations in which, as a result of a delay in reporting the crime, natural processes have eliminated the drug from typical biologic specimens. Hair analysis may be a useful adjunct to conventional drug testing in sexual assault. It should not be considered as an alternative to blood and urine analyses, but as a complement. Mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry technologies appear to be required for analyses in drug-facilitated cases. The experience of the authors is presented in cases involving the elderly and chemical poisoning. PMID:18367982

  16. The effects of henna (hair dye) on the embryonic development of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Bangeppagari; Wei-bing, Peng; Ke-chun, Liu; Marigoudar, Shambanagouda R; Xi-qiang, Chen; Xi-min, Wang; Xue, Wang

    2014-09-01

    The powder of henna is extensively used as decorative skin paint for nail coloring and as a popular hair dye in Asian countries. Its human health risk is extensive, and it is frequently released as waste into the aquatic environment raising the concerns. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were employed to study the developmental effects of henna. Normal fertilized zebrafish embryos under standard water were selected for the control and test chambers. Three predetermined sublethal concentrations (100, 200, and 275 ?M) of henna in 24-well cell culture plates were tested on 1-h postfertilized embryo (pfe) for 96 h. Observation for rates of survival and mortality was recorded; digital camera was used to image morphological anomalies of embryos with a stereomicroscope; and functional abnormalities at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were performed. The hatching rates of embryos were reduced significantly when treated with 200 and 275 ?M or higher concentrations of henna. Slow blood circulation in the whole body was observed with a median effect on hatching exposed to 200 and 275 ?M of henna at 48-h pfe. At 72- and 96-h pfe, blood circulation was ceased in the whole body but still had a heartbeat. At 96-h pfe, pericardial sac edema, yolk sac edema, head deformation, spine crooked malformation, and tail malformation (bent tails or hook-like tails) were observed in the surviving larvae at 100 ?M. In summary, exposure to henna at 100, 200, and 275 ?M causes some altered morphological and physiological abnormalities including increased mortality, hatching delay, slow blood circulation, pericardial sac edema, yolk sac edema, abnormal body axes, twisted notochord, tail deformation, weak heartbeat, and growth retardation and was also detected in some treated embryos and groups having adverse effects on embryonic development of zebrafish provoking potential human developmental risk studies. PMID:24859694

  17. Lifetime, photostability, and chemical structure of IR heptamethine cyanine dyes absorbing beyond 1 ?m

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kopainsky; P. Qiu; W. Kaiser; B. Sens; K. H. Drexhage

    1982-01-01

    Optical absorption,S1 lifetime, and photostability are investigated for a series of heptamethine ir dyes and related to chemical structure. The high photostability of several dyes and the large range ofS1 lifetimes make these dyes very interesting for ir dye lasers and for ir mode-locked laser systems.

  18. Lifetime, photostability, and chemical structure of IR heptamethine cyanine dyes absorbing beyond 1 mum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kopainsky; P. Qiu; W. Kaiser; B. Sens; K. H. Drexhage

    1982-01-01

    Optical absorption, S 1 lifetime, and photostability are investigated for a series of heptamethine ir dyes and related to chemical structure. The high photostability of several dyes and the large range of S 1 lifetimes make these dyes very interesting for ir dye lasers and for ir mode-locked laser systems.

  19. [Green hair: clinical, chemical and epidemiologic study. Apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Blanc, D; Zultak, M; Rochefort, A; Faivre, B; Claudet, M H; Drobacheff, C

    1988-01-01

    A 36-year-old blond woman suddenly developed green tinted hair following exposure to swimming pool water. This was the first green discoloration she noticed, although she had been an active swimmer for several years. Clinical examination showed green tinting toward the distal ends of the most superficial strands of hair. The copper content of plucked green hair measured by atomic absorption was elevated to 3,900 ppm and the copper concentration in water from the swimming pool implicated was 9.94 ppm. Following renewal, the latter value decreased to 107 ppb. Hair examination under polarizing light was normal, and a scanning electronmicroscopic study of hair samples showed a total loss of cuticle with micropits scattered over the hair shaft surface mimicking a "dead tree trunk". Epidemiological investigations showed that the increased copper content of swimming pool water was due to added algaecides without adequate replacement of the water. Hair damage resulting from repeated waving and/or bleaching of the hair turns out to be an important factor in the deposition of copper by inducing an increase in keratin content of cysteic acid and related anionic sulfonate groups which participate in copper adsorption. On the ocassion of this case-report, epidemiological data published by others, together with the chemical and therapeutic aspects of green hair are reviewed. PMID:3202580

  20. Basic Red 51, a permitted semi-permanent hair dye, is cytotoxic to human skin cells: Studies in monolayer and 3D skin model using human keratinocytes (HaCaT).

    PubMed

    Zanoni, Thalita B; Tiago, Manoela; Faião-Flores, Fernanda; de Moraes Barros, Silvia B; Bast, Aalt; Hageman, Geja; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

    2014-06-01

    The use of hair dyes is closely associated with the increase of cancer, inflammation and other skin disorders. The recognition that human skin is not an impermeable barrier indicates that there is the possibility of human systemic exposure. The carcinogenic potential of hair dye ingredients has attracted the attention of toxicologists for many decades, mainly due to the fact that some ingredients belong to the large chemical family of aromatic amines. Herein, we investigated the cytotoxicity of Basic Red 51 (BR51) in immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). BR51 is a temporary hair dye that belongs to the azo group (NN); the cleavage of this bond may result in the release of toxic aromatic amines. The half maximal effective concentration (EC50) in HaCaT cells is 13?g/mL. BR51 induced a significant decrease on expression of p21 in a dose dependent manner. p53 was not affected, whereas BR51 decreased procaspase 8 and cleaved procaspase 9. These results proved that caspase 3 is fully involved in BR51-induced apoptosis. The dye was also able to stop this cell cycle on G2 in sub-toxic doses. Moreover, we reconstructed a 3D artificial epidermis using HaCaT cells; using this model, we observed that BR51 induced cell injury and cells were undergoing apoptosis, considering the fragmented nuclei. Subsequently, BR51 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to an increase on the levels of 8-oxo-dG. In conclusion, we provide strong evidence that consumer and/or professional exposure to BR51 poses risk to human health. PMID:24657526

  1. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  2. Fentanyl in hair. Chemical factors involved in accumulation and retention of fentanyl in hair after external exposure or in vivo deposition.

    PubMed

    Stout, P R; Claffey, D J; Ruth, J A

    1998-07-01

    The levels of fentanyl extractable from mouse hair after chronic systemic administration and the suitability of externally loaded hair samples for establishing control and comparison samples were determined. Additionally, the effects of chemical modification of specific polar functionalities within the hair protein matrix on the deposition and recovery of fentanyl in hair subjected to external loading were determined. BALB/c mice entering a second phase of synchronized hair growth were treated ip with fentanyl (0.02, 0.05, or 0.10 mg/kg) on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for 3 weeks. At that time, fentanyl concentrations in hair, as determined by GC/MS, were 0.025-0.050 ng/mg of hair. Hair samples exposed to fentanyl in phosphate buffer (ionized drug) showed no significant accumulation of drug into the hair, as determined by loss of fentanyl from the loading solution or by extraction of the hair. Hair samples exposed to nonionized fentanyl in methanolic solution (10, 50, and 100 ng/ml) showed significant accumulation of drug in the hair and significant removal of drug from the incubation solution. Fentanyl removal from solution plateaued after 24 hr, suggesting equilibration between fentanyl in solution and fentanyl in the hair. A mass balance between drug lost from the incubation solution and drug recovered from hair samples suggests that 94% of accumulated fentanyl is tightly bound to the hair matrix or resides in water-inaccessible compartments within the hair. These results suggest that fentanyl accumulation after in vivo administration differs, in the nature of storage, from fentanyl accumulation from external solutions and that external spiking of hair may not provide suitable control samples. Chemical modification of hair protein functionalities (reaction with diazomethane to esterify carboxylic acid groups or with acetic anhydride and pyridine to acetylate amine and hydroxyl functionalities) led to reproducible protein structure modification, as demonstrated by Fourier transform-IR and by pH titration. Hair from BALB/c mice was used. The accumulation of fentanyl was examined in hair samples exposed to fentanyl in methanol or methylene chloride solutions (10 ng/ml, 24 hr). Fentanyl was recovered from hair by 24-hr extraction in phosphate buffer, pH 6. Esterification of hair resulted in significantly less uptake of nonionized fentanyl from a methanolic solution and significantly lower recovery of drug from hair, relative to untreated hair, suggesting that carboxylic acid functionalities are necessary for the incorporation of drug. Acetylation of hair resulted in increased removal of fentanyl from methylene chloride solutions and increased recovery of fentanyl. This is consistent with the creation or expansion of a less polar compartment. Fentanyl uptake from a methanolic solution was also greater in acetylated hair. These results demonstrate that solution-accessible ionizable functionalities of hair play a significant role in the accumulation and retention of nonionized fentanyl from organic solutions. PMID:9660852

  3. Diversity of human hair pigmentation as studied by chemical analysis of eumelanin and pheomelanin.

    PubMed

    Ito, S; Wakamatsu, K

    2011-12-01

    Hair colour is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes in humans, ranging from black, brown, blond to red. This diversity arises mostly from the quantity and ratio of the black-dark brown eumelanin and the reddish-brown pheomelanin. To study the chemical basis underlying the diversity of hair colour, we have developed several chemical methods to quantify those two pigments. Alkaline H(2) O(2) oxidation affords pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) as a eumelanin marker and thiazole-2,4,5-tricarboxylic acid (TTCA) as a pheomelanin marker. Pheomelanin can also be analysed as 4-amino-3-hydroxyphenylalanine (4-AHP) after hydroiodic acid hydrolysis. Using those methods, we evaluated the contents of eumelanin and pheomelanin (the 'chemical' phenotype) in human hairs of black, dark brown, brown, light brown, blond and red colour (the 'visual' phenotype). Eumelanin contents decrease in that order, with a trace but constant level of pheomelanin, except for red hair which contains about equal levels of pheomelanin and eumelanin. Thus, the chemical phenotype correlates well with the visual phenotype. The genotype of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), a gene regulating the red hair phenotype, is predictive of hair melanin expressed as the log value of eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio, with a dosage effect evident. Hair melanin contents were also analysed in patients with various hypopigmentary disorders including Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, Menkes disease, proopiomelanocortin deficiency, cystinosis, malnutrition and trace metal deficiency. The chemical phenotype helped evaluate the precise effects of each disease on pigmentation. In studies of human hair, the chemical phenotype will find more and more application as an objective measure of pigmentation. PMID:22077870

  4. [Determination of seven aromatic amines in hair dyes by capillary electrophoresis coupled with field-amplified sample stacking].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuchao; Wang, Haiyan; Song, Pingping; Liu, Shuhui

    2011-11-01

    A method for the determination of 4,4'-methylenedianiline, aniline, o-anisidine, 3, 4-dimethylaniline, p-anisidine, 3-aminophenol, 1-naphthylamine in hair dyes was established by capillary electrophoresis coupled with field-amplified sample stacking. The optimum running buffer was an aqueous solution containing 0.15 mol/L NaH2PO4 and 0.015 mol/L trolamine (pH 2.3), and the baseline separation was achieved within 6.5 min. The effects of phosphoric acid and acetonitrile concentration in the sample matrix, the length of the preinjection water plug, and the sample injection voltage and time on the stacking efficiency were investigated. The optimum stacking conditions for the real samples included a water plug of 3.45 kPa (0.5 psi) x 6 s, the addition of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile and 0.6 x 10(-3) mol/L phosphoric acid to the sample solution and a sample injection of 10 kV x 10 s. The seven analytes all showed good linearities (R2 > 0.996) within 3 - 1 000 microg/L, with the detection limits in the range of 0.26 - 2.75 microg/L. The method was shown to provide over 1 - 3 magnitudes of sensitivity enhancement. 3-Aminophenol was found in two black hair dyes, and the amounts were 7.32 mg/g and 1.34 mg/g, individually. The recoveries ranged from 74% - 108%. The proposed approach may find widespread applications for the determination of trace aromatic amines and other cationic analytes in various sample matrixes. PMID:22393703

  5. The Chemical Forms of Mercury in Human Hair: A Study using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    George, Graham N.; Singh, Satya P.; Myers, Gary J.; Watson, Gene E.; Pickering, Ingrid J.

    2013-01-01

    Human hair is frequently used as a bio-indicator of mercury exposure. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to examine the chemical forms of mercury in human hair samples taken from individuals with high fish consumption and concomitant exposure to methylmercury. The mercury is found to be predominantly methylmercury cysteine or closely related species, comprising approximately 80% of the total mercury with the remainder an inorganic thiolate-coordinated mercuric species. No appreciable role was found for selenium in coordinating mercury in hair. PMID:20225071

  6. Hair analysis for nordiazepam and oxazepam by gas chromatography-negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Kintz; Vincent Cirimele; François Vayssette; Patrice Mangin

    1996-01-01

    A procedure is presented for the identification of nordiazepam and its metabolite, oxazepam, in human hair. The method involves decontamination of hair with dichloromethane, incubation in phosphate buffer (pH 7.6) in the presence of deuterated internal standards, liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide plus 1% trimethylchlorosilane and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using negative-ion chemical ionization with methane. Among thirty samples obtained from

  7. Influence of chemical straightening on the stability of drugs of abuse in hair.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, Jeanita S; Phinney, Karen W

    2015-01-01

    Chemical straightening, also known as a relaxer, is ubiquitously used among African American women to obtain straighter hair compared with their natural tresses. This study focused on the stability of drugs of abuse in hair after a single application of the relaxer. Commercially available 'Lye' or 'No-Lye' chemical straightening products (Silk Elements™) were applied in vitro to drug-fortified hair (standard reference materials (SRM) 2379 and 2380) and hairs clipped from established drug users. Target analytes (cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BZE), cocaethylene (CE), phencyclidine and tetrahydrocannabinol) were isolated using solid-phase extraction and then analyzed with isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selective ion monitoring. After either treatment, drug concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in both the SRM sample and the hair from authentic abusers. In the SRM groups, 6-67% of the original concentration remained after a single chemical treatment. Similarly, only 5-30% of the original concentration remained in authentic drug hairs that had formerly tested positive for COC, BZE and CE. PMID:25298521

  8. Human percutaneous absorption of a direct hair dye comparing in vitro and in vivo results: Implications for safety assessment and animal testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lademann; H. Richter; U. Jacobi; A. Patzelt; F. Hueber-Becker; C. Ribaud; F. Benech-Kieffer; E. K. Dufour; W. Sterry; H. Schaefer; J. Leclaire; H. Toutain; G. J. Nohynek

    2008-01-01

    Although in vitro skin absorption studies often detect small residues of applied test material in the epidermis\\/dermis, it is uncertain whether the residue is within the living skin. We studied the dermal absorption of a hair dye hydroxyanthraquinone–aminopropyl methyl morpholinium methosulphate (HAM) in human skin in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, skin (back and scalp) received 0.5% HAM in

  9. Determination of dye precursors in hair coloring products by liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Narita, Motoko; Murakami, Kazuo; Kauffmann, Jean-Michel

    2007-04-11

    The simultaneous determination of seven aminophenols, resorcinol and p-phenylenediamine in hair coloring products was performed by liquid chromatography (HPLC) with amperometric detection (ED). The aminophenols were separated on a ODS C18 reversed-phase column by isocratic elution with a mobile phase based on 0.1 M acetate buffer pH 4.5-methanol (90:10%, v/v) at a flow rate 0.8 mL min(-1). The limit of detection (S/N=3) for the aminophenols was in the 15-40 pg (injected mass) range at an applied potential of 0.950 V versus Ag/AgCl. Peak heights for the aminophenols and the two others compounds were found to be linearly related to the amount injected, from 0.3 to 300 ng (r>0.994-0.999). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D., n=10) for 1 ng injected was comprised in the range from 2.5 to 6.2%, depending on the aminophenol tested. The present method minimizes troublesome and time-consuming pretreatment procedures and it was applied to the determination of aminophenols, resorcinol and phenylenediamine in hair coloring formulations. PMID:17386826

  10. Evaluation of Chemical Fluorescent Dyes as a Protein Conjugation Partner for Live Cell Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Stasevich, Timothy J.; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Naohito; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    To optimize live cell fluorescence imaging, the choice of fluorescent substrate is a critical factor. Although genetically encoded fluorescent proteins have been used widely, chemical fluorescent dyes are still useful when conjugated to proteins or ligands. However, little information is available for the suitability of different fluorescent dyes for live imaging. We here systematically analyzed the property of a number of commercial fluorescent dyes when conjugated with antigen-binding (Fab) fragments directed against specific histone modifications, in particular, phosphorylated H3S28 (H3S28ph) and acetylated H3K9 (H3K9ac). These Fab fragments were conjugated with a fluorescent dye and loaded into living HeLa cells. H3S28ph-specific Fab fragments were expected to be enriched in condensed chromosomes, as H3S28 is phosphorylated during mitosis. However, the degree of Fab fragment enrichment on mitotic chromosomes varied depending on the conjugated dye. In general, green fluorescent dyes showed higher enrichment, compared to red and far-red fluorescent dyes, even when dye?protein conjugation ratios were similar. These differences are partly explained by an altered affinity of Fab fragment after dye-conjugation; some dyes have less effect on the affinity, while others can affect it more. Moreover, red and far-red fluorescent dyes tended to form aggregates in the cytoplasm. Similar results were observed when H3K9ac-specific Fab fragments were used, suggesting that the properties of each dye affect different Fab fragments similarly. According to our analysis, conjugation with green fluorescent dyes, like Alexa Fluor 488 and Dylight 488, has the least effect on Fab affinity and is the best for live cell imaging, although these dyes are less photostable than red fluorescent dyes. When multicolor imaging is required, we recommend the following dye combinations for optimal results: Alexa Fluor 488 (green), Cy3 (red), and Cy5 or CF640 (far-red). PMID:25184362

  11. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  12. Internal structure changes in bleached black human hair resulting from chemical treatments: A Raman spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzuhara, Akio

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate in detail the influence of chemical treatments (reduction, hydrolyzed eggwhite protein (HEWP) treatment, and oxidation) on damaged hair keratin fibers, the structure of cross-sections at various depths of excessively bleached (damaged) black human hair resulting from a permanent waving process was directly analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that L-cysteine (CYS) largely reacted with the gauche-gauche-gauche (GGG) conformation of disulfide (-SS-) groups (while CYS did not react with the trans-gauche-trans (TGT) conformation). In particular, not only the GGG content, but also the cysteic acid content existing throughout the cortex region of the excessively bleached human hair remarkably decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction. On the other hand, the GGG content of the excessively bleached black human hair increased, while the TGT content decreased by performing the oxidation process after reduction and then HEWP treatment processes. From these experiments, the authors concluded that some of the keratin associated protein (KAP), which has a rich -SS- content and cysteic acid content was eluted from the cortex region along with the disconnection of -SS- groups, thereby leading to the remarkable reduction in the reconnection of -SS- groups of the excessively bleached black human hair after the permanent waving process (the reduction and oxidation processes). Also, the authors concluded that the HEWP treatment process in the permanent waving process caused the reconstruction of the KAP, thereby contributing to the acceleration of the reconnection of -SS- groups during the oxidation process.

  13. A Comparative Study of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Melanins Isolated from Human Black and Red Hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Aravindakshan Menon; Surujdeen Persad; Herbert F. Haberman; C. Joseph Kurian

    1983-01-01

    Some of the physical and chemical properties of the melanins isolated from human black and red hair were compared. Some of these properties were also compared with those of synthetic dopa melanin. Five samples each of black and red hair were used for isolating melanin by extraction with 2.5 M NaOH, and purification by repeated precipitation with HCl and redissolution

  14. Permeability of hair dye compounds p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diaminesulfate and resorcinol through protective gloves in hairdressing.

    PubMed

    Lind, Marie-Louise; Johnsson, Stina; Meding, Birgitta; Boman, Anders

    2007-07-01

    Dermal exposure to skin irritants and contact allergens is frequent in hairdressing. Hair dyeing is popular today and involves exposure to highly potent contact allergens, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Use of protective gloves to prevent contact with skin-damaging substances is essential. The aim of the present study was to determine the resistance to permeation by PPD, toluene-2,5-diaminesulfate (TDS) and resorcinol (RES) through protective gloves used in hairdressing in Sweden. The permeation of PPD, TDS and RES through four types of protective gloves made of natural rubber latex (NRL), polyvinylchloride (PVC), nitrile rubber (NR) and polyethene (PE) was tested using the American Society for Testing and Materials (1-inch) test cell. Exposure solutions were 5% PPD (w/v), 0.75% TDS and 10% RES in borate buffer with 0.2 M ascorbic acid. The cumulative breakthrough, the so-called 'time-lag breakthrough' (Lag-BT), and permeation rate were determined for each substance and glove. For the NRL glove, the permeated amounts were below the analytical detection levels for all the tested substances. The NR glove was permeated only by RES, with a Lag-BT of 183 min. The PE glove was the thinnest glove and had a Lag-BT of 32 min for PPD; however, the steady-state permeation rate was only 0.031 nmol cm(-2) min(-1). The PVC glove gave the lowest protection against PPD and RES. TDS did not permeate any of the tested gloves. All the tested gloves were disposable, and all need to be changed often and disposed of after use. In conclusion, if properly used, all the tested gloves give considerable protection against permeation of PPD, TDS and RES. PMID:17595170

  15. Improving the electronic and optical properties of Carbz-PAHTDDT-based dyes through chemical modifications

    E-print Network

    Mohammadi, Narges

    2013-01-01

    To investigate geometric and electronic structure, a theoretical study is performed on the Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) organic dye sensitizer. This dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the time-dependent density functional theory is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths. In the present study, the chemical structure of the original Carbz-PAHTDDT dye on the {\\pi}-conjugated bridge is also rationally changed to produce new dyes aiming at enhancing the spectral response as a desirable property of organic dyes in DSSC application. The theoretical studies on the new dyes have shown a significant red-shifting and broadening of their absorption spectra.

  16. Distribution and chemical speciation of arsenic in ancient human hair using synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Kakoulli, Ioanna; Prikhodko, Sergey V; Fischer, Christian; Cilluffo, Marianne; Uribe, Mauricio; Bechtel, Hans A; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    Pre-Columbian populations that inhabited the Tarapacá mid river valley in the Atacama Desert in Chile during the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period (AD 500-1450) show patterns of chronic poisoning due to exposure to geogenic arsenic. Exposure of these people to arsenic was assessed using synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy measurements on ancient human hair. These combined techniques of high sensitivity and specificity enabled the discrimination between endogenous and exogenous processes that has been an analytical challenge for archeological studies and criminal investigations in which hair is used as a proxy of premortem metabolism. The high concentration of arsenic mainly in the form of inorganic As(III) and As(V) detected in the hair suggests chronic arsenicism through ingestion of As-polluted water rather than external contamination by the deposition of heavy metals due to metallophilic soil microbes or diffusion of arsenic from the soil. A decrease in arsenic concentration from the proximal to the distal end of the hair shaft analyzed may indicate a change in the diet due to mobility, though chemical or microbiologically induced processes during burial cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:24320096

  17. Effect of chitosan on dyeing of chemical fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Manyukova; V. V. Safonov

    2009-01-01

    Treatment with chitosan before dyeing significantly improves the properties of fabrics made of polyester and polyamide fibres:\\u000a it increases the intensity and fastness of the colors of the fabrics; the capillary and sorption properties of the fabrics\\u000a are improved due to swelling of the chitosan film on the fibre; the mechanism of dyeing textile materials is significantly\\u000a altered by not

  18. Chemical transformations of chlorophyll and its application in the design of a new generation of environmentally safe dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Boris D.; Rumyantseva, Svetlana V.; Moryganov, Andrey P.; Berezin, Mikhail B.

    2004-02-01

    Chemical transformations of chlorophyll and physicochemical properties of its derivatives are considered. These compounds can be used in the design of a new generation of chlorophyll- and porphyrin-based dyes environmentally more safe than currently used arene dyes and possessing renewable sources of raw materials. The first results on the use of chlorophyll derivatives for dyeing wool, acetate fibres and cotton are reported.

  19. Highly Efficient Dye Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Simple Chemical Modification of Wood Sawdust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Ansari; Mahnaz Saghanejhad Tehrani; Ali Mohammad-Khah

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficiency of oxidized wood meal for removal of methylene blue (MB) as a typical basic dye from aqueous waste streams. The adsorption process was performed using sawdust treated with KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, and H2O2 oxidants. Among the tested chemical oxidants, KMnO4 was found to be more effective for modification of sawdust for dye uptake. Based on the

  20. Research projects for 2014 Natural Products Chemistry / Sustainable Chemicals for the Future Prof. Chris Rayner Prof. Chris Rayner

    E-print Network

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    of natural dyes in areas such as coloration of hair and textiles. Before the advent of synthetic dyes, those used extensively in permanent hair coloration but are strong sensitizers and have other toxicity issuesResearch projects for 2014 ­ Natural Products Chemistry / Sustainable Chemicals for the Future Prof

  1. Identification of Genetic and Chemical Modulators of Zebrafish Mechanosensory Hair Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Brock; Linbo, Tor; Coffin, Allison B.; Knisely, Anna J.; Simon, Julian A.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Inner ear sensory hair cell death is observed in the majority of hearing and balance disorders, affecting the health of more than 600 million people worldwide. While normal aging is the single greatest contributor, exposure to environmental toxins and therapeutic drugs such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and antineoplastic agents are significant contributors. Genetic variation contributes markedly to differences in normal disease progression during aging and in susceptibility to ototoxic agents. Using the lateral line system of larval zebrafish, we developed an in vivo drug toxicity interaction screen to uncover genetic modulators of antibiotic-induced hair cell death and to identify compounds that confer protection. We have identified 5 mutations that modulate aminoglycoside susceptibility. Further characterization and identification of one protective mutant, sentinel (snl), revealed a novel conserved vertebrate gene. A similar screen identified a new class of drug-like small molecules, benzothiophene carboxamides, that prevent aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death in zebrafish and in mammals. Testing for interaction with the sentinel mutation suggests that the gene and compounds may operate in different pathways. The combination of chemical screening with traditional genetic approaches is a new strategy for identifying drugs and drug targets to attenuate hearing and balance disorders. PMID:18454195

  2. 2,6-Diaminopyridine-imprinted polymer and its potency to hair-dye assay using graphene/ionic liquid electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peini; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-02-15

    A new analytical approach for detecting diaminopyridine derivatives has been constructed using a molecular imprinting-electrochemical sensor. Opposed to the conventional strategy of employing diaminopyridine as the functional monomer and uracil derivatives as the target analyte, in the current study, the 2,6-Diaminopyridine-imprinted core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized with 2,6-Diaminopyridine as the template molecule and 6-aminouracil as the functional monomer. Graphene and ionic liquid which can assist 2,6-Diaminopyridine-imprinted core-shell nanoparticles in electrochemical reaction kinetics by increasing conductivity have been introduced to form one of the electrode modified layers. The proposed analytical method has been applied in 2,6-Diaminopyridine detection in hair-dyes and demonstrated appropriate sensitivity and selectivity, with a linear range of 0.0500-35.0 mg kg(-1) and a detection limit as low as 0.0275 mg kg(-1). PMID:25441409

  3. Protection of oxidative hair color fading from shampoo washing by hydrophobically modified cationic polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Foltis, L; Moore, D J; Rigoletto, R

    2009-01-01

    The fading of oxidative color in hair as a result of daily shampoo washing activities has become a common problem and a source of frequent complaints by consumers. The fading occurs primarily through hair dye solubility in water. One aspect of the current study investigates the physical and chemical factors that influence hair color fading during the washing process. This is accomplished by testing hair dye dissolution in water from dyed hair samples with variation of surfactant type, pH, and hair type. Furthermore, a new approach to preventing color fading is developed aiming to provide an effective barrier function for hair dye from dissolving into water. The preliminary investigation of a series of polymers with various functional groups indicates that polymers with hydrophobically modified and cationic functionalities are most effective in preventing hair dye dissolution in water. It is also evident that a synergistic effect of the polymer's hydrophobic moieties and cationic charges are important on hair color protection during shampoo washing processes. A primary example of a polymer within this category is a cationic terpolymer of vinylpyrrolidone, dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide, and methacryloylaminopropyl lauryldimonium chloride (INCI: Polyquaternium-55). The color protection benefit of this polymer is evaluated using newly developed methodologies for evaluating hair color changes, such as hair color fading tests through multiple shampoo washes with mannequin heads and hair tresses, both derived from human hair, colorimetry, and quantitative digital image analysis. In addition, new infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques are used to detect the hair dye deposition behavior inside hair fibers both with and without the color protection treatment. Both visual and instrumental measurement results indicate that Polyquaternium-55 provides a high level of color protection when formulated in a hair color protection regimen with up to 50% color protection. This regimen significantly outperforms commercial products that were tested containing a color protection claim. The proposed mechanism for the anti-fading action of hydrophobically modified polymers includes a cationic charge-reinforced hydrophobic barrier. This model is supported by evaluating the color fastness effect of several different polymer chemistries and by measuring hair surface hydrophobicity changes. PMID:19450422

  4. Photophysical and quantum chemical studies on the interactions of oxazine-1 dye with cucurbituril macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Mhejabeen; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Mohanty, Jyotirmayee; Bhasikuttan, Achikanath C; Pal, Haridas

    2015-02-19

    Supramolecular host-guest interaction of cationic oxazine-1 (OX1) dye with two cucurbit[n]uril (CBn) hosts, namely, CB7 and CB8, has been investigated using photophysical and quantum chemical studies. Both CB7 and CB8 display much stronger binding affinities for OX1 dye compared to conventional cyclodextrin (CD) hosts, which arises due to strong ion-dipole interaction in stabilizing the dye-host inclusion complexes in the present systems. From photophysical studies supported by (1)H NMR results and quantum chemical calculations, it is inferred that 1:1 inclusion complexes are mainly formed in the present systems, though a small percentage of 1:2 (dye·host2) complexes are also indicated from time-resolved (TR) fluorescence studies. Longer rotational relaxation times for dye-CBn systems compared to the free dye as estimated from TR anisotropy studies support the inclusion complex formation in the present systems. The binding constant value is estimated to be significantly higher for the OX1-CB7 system than the OX1-CB8 system, and these results are in accordance with compatible portal diameter of CB7 cavity compared to the much larger portal diameter of CB8 cavity relative to the width of the OX1 molecule. Accordingly, CB7 cavity renders a relatively stronger binding than the CB8 cavity for an axially incorporated OX1 dye into the host cavity. Results from the quantum chemical calculations are overall supportive to the inferences drawn from photophysical measurements. Observed results clearly suggest that the dimensions of the CBn cavities play an important role in determining the interaction strength and stoichiometry of the host-guest complexes formed and thus bring out significant changes in the photophysical properties of the bound dye. The host-assisted modulation in the photophysical properties of the dye, as observed in the present study, has a direct relevance to applications like aqueous dye lasers, sensors, fluorescence assays, and so on. PMID:25601388

  5. CHEMICAL- AND SEDIMENT-MEDIATED REDUCTION OF THE AZO DYE DISPERSE BLUE 79

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disperse Blue 79, a large volume disperse azo dye, and 2-bromo-4,6-dinitroaniline (BDNA), an important intermediate in the preparation of Disperse Blue 79, were readily reduced chemically and in three anoxic sediment-water systems studied; half-lives were on the order of minutes ...

  6. Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from textile dyeing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    Facilities engaged in textile dyeing may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist textile dyers in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

  7. Adsorption of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions using chemically modified straw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenxuan; Li, Haijiang; Kan, Xiaowei; Dong, Lei; Yan, Han; Jiang, Ziwen; Yang, Hu; Li, Aimin; Cheng, Rongshi

    2012-08-01

    The effective disposal of redundant straw is a significant work for environmental protection and full utilization of resource. In this work, the wheat straw has been modified by etherification to prepare a kind of quaternary ammonium straw adsorbents. The adsorption behaviors of the modified straw for methyl orange (MO) and acid green 25(AG25) were studied in both batch and column systems. The adsorption capacity of the straw for both dyes improved evidently after modification. The maximal MO and AG25 uptakes were more than 300 and 950 mg g(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and column studies all indicated that the adsorption behavior was a monolayer chemical adsorption with an ion-exchange process. In addition, after adsorption of anionic dyes, the used adsorbents were successfully applied to adsorb a cationic dye directly at suitable conditions in the secondary adsorption. This was due to the altered surface structures of the used adsorbents. PMID:22609712

  8. Pore filling of nanostructured electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells by initiated chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Siamak; Lau, Kenneth K S

    2011-02-01

    The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) operation depends on a liquid electrolyte. To achieve better performance, the liquid should be replaced with a solid or gel electrolyte, e.g., polymers. Here, we demonstrate initiated chemical vapor deposition as an effective liquid-free means for in situ polymerization and pore filling. We achieve complete pore filling of 12 ?m thick titania resulting in enhanced cell performance that is attributed to reduced charge recombination at the electrolyte-electrode interface. PMID:21171604

  9. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives, spices, or other articles in any official establishment shall be taken, without cost to the Program, for examination, as often as may be deemed necessary for the efficient conduct of the...

  10. 9 CFR 318.9 - Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, etc., to be taken for examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    Samples of products, water, dyes, chemicals, preservatives, spices, or other articles in any official establishment shall be taken, without cost to the Program, for examination, as often as may be deemed necessary for the efficient conduct of the...

  11. Application of ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for simultaneous determination of aminophenol isomers in human urine, hair dye, and water samples using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Alireza; Fazl-Karimi, Hamidreza; Barfi, Behruz; Rajabi, Maryam; Daneshfar, Ali

    2014-08-01

    Aminophenol isomers (2-, 3-, and 4-aminophenols) are typically classified as industrial pollutants with genotoxic and mutagenic effects due to their easy penetration through the skin and membranes of human, animals, and plants. In the present study, a simple and efficient ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction procedure coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector was developed for preconcentration and determination of these compounds in human fluid and environmental water samples. Effective parameters (such as type and volume of extraction solvent, pH and ionic strength of sample, and ultrasonication and centrifuging time) were investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions (including sample volume: 5 mL; extraction solvent: chloroform, 80 µL; pH: 6.5; without salt addition; ultrasonication: 3.5 min; and centrifuging time: 3 min, 5000 rpm min(-1)), the enrichment factors and limits of detection were ranged from 42 to 51 and 0.028 to 0.112 µg mL(-1), respectively. Once optimized, analytical performance of the method was studied in terms of linearity (0.085-157 µg mL(-1), r (2) > 0.998), accuracy (recovery = 88.6- 101.7%), and precision (repeatability: intraday precision < 3.98%, and interday precision < 5.12%). Finally, applicability of the method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of these compounds in human urine, hair dye, and real water samples. PMID:24275645

  12. Application of thiazole dyes to amyloid under conditions of direct cotton dyeing: Correlation of histochemical and chemical data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Puchtler; F. Sweat Waldropl; S. N. Meloan

    1983-01-01

    The fluorescent brightening agent Phorwhite (Blankophor) BBU imparts intense selective fluorescence to amyloid, but this modern reagent is no longer readily available on the biological dye market. Conventional Thioflavine S and T stains require differentiation and are not specific. To improve selectivity, direct and cationic thiazole dyes were substituted in the alkaline Congo Red and the Phorwhite BBU procedure. With

  13. Advanced chemical imaging and comparison of human and porcine hair follicles for drug delivery by confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, Lutz; Mathes, Christiane; Hansen, Steffi; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-06-01

    Hair follicles have recently gained a lot of interest for dermal drug delivery. They provide facilitated penetration into the skin and a high potential to serve as a drug depot. In this area of research, excised pig ear is a widely accepted in vitro model to evaluate penetration of drug delivery into hair follicles. However, a comparison of human and porcine follicles in terms of chemical composition has not been performed so far. In this study, we applied confocal Raman microscopy as a chemically selective imaging technique to compare human and porcine follicle composition and to visualize component distribution within follicle cross-sections. Based on the evaluation of human and porcine Raman spectra optical similarity for both species was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies, which are generally used to determine the extent of follicular penetration, were imaged by a novel complementary analytical approach combining confocal Raman microscopy and optical profilometry. This all-encompassing analysis allows investigation of intactness and component distribution of the excised hair bulb in three dimensions. Confocal Raman microscopy shows a high potential as a noninvasive and chemically selective technique for the analysis of trans-follicular drug delivery.

  14. Oily hair

    MedlinePLUS

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  15. Effect of ionic liquid on the determination of aromatic amines as contaminants in hair dyes by liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Lizier, Thiago Mescoloto; Boldrin Zanoni, Maria Valnice

    2012-01-01

    The room temperature ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluorometanesulfonyl)imide BMIm[NTf?] was used as a novel medium for improvement of separation and quantization of 16 aromatic amines typically present as contaminants in consumer products and detected by HPLC coupled to an electrochemical detector. The aromatic amines, namely 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, 4-chloroaniline, 2-methoxy-5-methyl-aniline, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine, 2,4-diaminotoluidine, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 4,4'-oxydianiline, aniline, 3,3'-ichlorobenzidine, benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl, o-dianisidine, o-anisidine, o-toluidine, 4,4'-methylene-bis-2-chloroaniline and 2-naphthylamine are oxidized in methanol/BMIm[NTf?] at a potential around +0.68V to +0.93V vs. Ag/AgCl at a glassy carbon electrode, which is the base for their determination by HPLC/ED. Using the optimized conditions of methanol/BMIm[NTf?] 70:30 (v/v) as mobile phase, flow-rate of 0.8 mL·min?¹, column CLC-ODS, Eap = +1.0 V and T = 40 °C analytical curves were constructed for each of the tested amines. Good linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 1.09 mg·L?¹ to 217 mg·L?¹, with excellent correlation coefficients. The limits of detection reached 0.021 mg·L?¹ to 0.246 mg·L?¹ and good relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 3) were obtained from the measurements. Satisfactory recovery for each aromatic amine was achieved, ranging from 95 to 103%. The developed method was successfully applied to determine six aromatic amines present as contaminants in commercial hair dye samples. PMID:22751261

  16. Relationship of chemical structures of textile dyes on the pre-adaptation medium and the potentialities of their biodegradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Adosinda M. Martins; M. João Queiroz; Armando J. D. Silvestre; Nelson Lima

    2002-01-01

    Azo dye derivatives of azobenzene constitute the largest group of dyes used in the textile industry and possess recalcitrant chemical groups, such as those of azo and sulphonic acid. Some microorganisms are able to degrade these aromatic compounds. In the present work, decolourisation of culture media containing azo dyes by the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was achieved under nitrogen-limited conditions.

  17. Chemical stabilization of laser dyes. Final report, 1 July 1981-1 October 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, T.H.

    1984-11-01

    Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output. Modes of degradation of coumarin dye lasers under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions were determined and methods of stabilization of dye lasers were established.

  18. Chemical stabilization of laser dyes. Final report, 1 December 1984-28 February 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, T.H.

    1987-05-07

    Coumarin laser dyes upon excitation degrade to produce products that absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. The roles of singlet oxygen and excitation intensity on dye degradation were explored. Singlet oxygen is formed but its reactions with the dye do not appear to be a major cause of dye laser output deterioration. High light intensity results in dye-sensitized, solvent oligomerization to yield materials that interfere with dye-stimulated emission. 1, 4-Diazabicyclo2,2,2octane (DABCO)inhibits this oligomerization.

  19. Novel chemically cross-linked solid state electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiong Yin; Weiwei Tan; Wangchun Xiang; Yuan Lin; Jingbo Zhang; Xurui Xiao; Xueping Li; Xiaowen Zhou; Shibi Fang

    2010-01-01

    Poly(vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (P(VP-co-MEOMA)) and ?,?-diiodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) (I[(EO)0.8-co-(PO)0.2]yI) were synthesized and used as chemically cross-linked precursors of the electrolyte for dye-sensitized solar cells. Meanwhile, ?-iodo poly(ethylene oxide-co-propylene oxide) methyl ether (CH3O[(EO)0.8-co-(PO)0.2]xI) was synthesized and added into the electrolyte as an internal plasticizer. Novel polymer electrolyte resulting from chemically cross-linked precursors was obtained by the quaterisation at

  20. Identification of Genetic and Chemical Modulators of Zebrafish Mechanosensory Hair Cell Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly N. Owens; Felipe Santos; Brock Roberts; Tor Linbo; Allison B. Coffin; Anna J. Knisely; Julian A. Simon; Edwin W. Rubel; David W. Raible

    2008-01-01

    Inner ear sensory hair cell death is observed in the majority of hearing and balance disorders, affecting the health of more than 600 million people worldwide. While normal aging is the single greatest contributor, exposure to environmental toxins and therapeutic drugs such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and antineoplastic agents are significant contributors. Genetic variation contributes markedly to differences in normal disease

  1. Identification of genetic and chemical modulators of zebrafish mechanosensory hair cell death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly N. Owens; Felipe Santos; Brock Roberts; Tor Linbo; Anna Jane Knisely; Allison B. Coffin; Julian A. Simon; Edwin W. Rubel; David W. Raible; James K. Chen

    2005-01-01

    Inner ear sensory hair cell death is observed in the majority of hearing and balance disorders, affecting the health of more than 600 million people worldwide. While normal aging is the single greatest contributor, exposure to environmental toxins and therapeutic drugs such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and antineoplastic agents are significant contributors. Genetic variation contributes markedly to differences in normal disease

  2. Purification and characterization of a novel laccase from Coprinus cinereus and decolorization of different chemically dyes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yaqiu; Zhang, Zhen; Tian, Yongsheng; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Zhisheng; Peng, Rihe; Yao, Quanhong

    2013-02-01

    Laccase is a blue copper oxidase with multiple copper ions and widely distributed in higher plant and fungi. To date, numerous fungal laccases have been reported by many researchers. In present work, a new laccase gene, named CcLCC5I, from Coprinus cinereus was synthesized chemically according to the yeast bias codon and integrated into Pichia pastoris GS115 genome by electroporation. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the recombinant laccase has a molecular mass of approximately 56.8 kDa. Its biochemical properties was carried out using substrate 2-2(')-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS). It was showed that the optimum pH and temperature of the laccase is 3.0 and 55 °C, respectively. Except for copper ions, most metal ions inhibited the laccase activity at a high concentration about 10 mM. Sodium sulfite can also highly inhibit laccase activity whereas EDTA had no inhibitory effect on the laccase activity. The CcLCC5I have high ability to decolor not only azo but also aryl methane dyes. The recombinant laccase decolored 44.6 % orange G, 54.8 % Crystal Violet, and 87.2 % Malachite green at about 2.6 h. The novel laccase may be a good candidate for breeding engineering strains used in the treatment of industrial effluent containing azo and aryl methane dyes. PMID:23073779

  3. Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ... may look greasy. Time for a shampoo! Continue Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow! You have more than 100, ...

  4. Chemical stabilization of laser dyes. Final report, 1 April 1987-31 March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, T.H.

    1990-04-10

    Irradiation of ethanol solutions of coumarin laser dye lasers produces products which absorb at the lasing wavelength. This results in attenuation of dye laser output through interference of stimulated emission. A major photoprocess which produces material which absorbs at the lasing wavelength is dye sensitized solvent oxidative oligomerization, producing aldehydic and ketonic products. A dye laser stabilization technique is removal of these carbonyl compounds as they are formed by reduction with a polymer bound borohydride reducing agent.

  5. Spectral studies of pH dye films for detection of toxic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Wieslaw; Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Golubkov, Sergei P.; Borsuk, Pavel S.

    1993-09-01

    The molecular absorption spectra of pH dyes, employed for ammonia sensing are investigated. Differences of absorption spectra of Bromothymol Blue and Bromocresol Purple dyes, dissolved in water and entrapped in Polymethylphenylsiloxane film are discussed. Correspondence of dye-films absorption bands shape to the Gauss distribution shape in the spectral region of light source emission band was determined.

  6. Application of a combined process of moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and chemical coagulation for dyeing wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Shin, W S; Kim, Y H; Han, Myung Ho; Choi, S J

    2006-01-01

    A combined process consisted of a Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) and chemical coagulation was investigated for textile wastewater treatment. The pilot scale MBBR system is composed of three MBBRs (anaerobic, aerobic-1 and aerobic-2 in series), each reactor was filled with 20% (v/v) of polyurethane-activated carbon (PU-AC) carrier for biological treatment followed by chemical coagulation with FeCl2. ln the MBBR process, 85% of COD and 70% of color (influent COD = 807.5 mg/L and color = 3,400 PtCo unit) were removed using relatively low MLSS concentration and short hydraulic retention time (HRT = 44 hr). The biologically treated dyeing wastewater was subjected to chemical coagulation. After coagulation with FeCl2, 95% of COD and 97% of color were removed overall. The combined process of MBBR and chemical coagulation has promising potential for dyeing wastewater treatment. PMID:17163056

  7. Room-temperature chemical integration of ZnO nanoarchitectures on plastic substrates for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Geng-Jia; Lin, Shou-Yen; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    ZnO nanoarchitectured anodes composed of the ZnO nanocactus array and the top ZnO particle layer are chemically integrated on ITO-PET substrates using a facile room-temperature chemical bath deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the absence of high-temperature post-treatment and mechanical compression, a notable efficiency of 5.24% is simply achieved in the flexible ZnO DSSC. PMID:24362771

  8. Structural, Nanomechanical and Nanotribological Characterization of Human Hair Using Atomic Force Microscopy and Nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Latorre, Carmen; Wei, Guohua

    Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber. Healthy, soft hair with good feel, shine, color and overall aesthetics is generally highly desirable. It is important to study hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners as well as damaging processes such as chemical dyeing and permanent wave treatments because they affect the maintenance and grooming process and therefore alter many hair properties. Nanoscale characterization of the cellular structure, the mechanical properties, as well as the morphological, frictional and adhesive properties (tribological properties) of hair is essential if we wish to evaluate and develop better cosmetic products, and crucial to advancing the understanding of biological and cosmetic science. The atomic/friction force microscope (AFM/FFM) and nanoindenter have recently become important tools for studying the micro/nanoscale properties of human hair. In this chapter, we present a comprehensive review of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of various hair and skin as a function of ethnicity, damage, conditioning treatment, and various environments. Various cellular structures of human hair and fine sublamellar structures of the cuticle are identified and studied. Nanomechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, creep and scratch resistance are discussed. Nanotribological properties such as roughness, friction, and adhesion are presented, as well as investigations of conditioner distribution, thickness and binding interactions.

  9. Understanding effects of chemical structure on azo dye decolorization characteristics by Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Chung-Chuan; Chen, Bor-Yann; Yen, Chia-Yi

    2009-08-15

    This novel comparative study tended to disclose how the molecular structures present in seven azo dyes including two types of azo dyes (i.e., naphthol type azo dyes--Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Blue 171 (RB 171), Reactive Green 19 (RG19), Reactive Red 198 (RR198), Reactive Red 141 (RR141), and non-naphthol type azo dyes--Direct Yellow 86 (DY86), Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84)) affected color removal capability of Aeromonas hydrophila. Generally speaking, the decolorization rate of naphthol type azo dye with hydroxyl group at ortho to azo bond was faster than that of non-naphthol type azo dye without hydroxyl group, except of RG19. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group in RR198, RB5 and RR141) would be easier to be decolorized than the azo dyes with the electron-releasing groups (e.g., -NH-triazine in RB171 and RG19). In addition, the azo dyes containing more electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) showed significantly faster rate of decolorization. The azo dyes with electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., sulfo group) at para and ortho to azo bond (e.g., RR198, RB5 and RR141) could be more preferred for color removal than those at meta (e.g., DY86 and RY84). The former azo dyes with para and ortho sulfo group provided more effective resonance effects to withdraw electrons from azo bond, causing azo dyes to be highly electrophilic for faster rates of reductive biodecolorization. However, since the ortho substituent caused steric hindrance near azo linkage(s), azo dyes with para substituent could be more favorable (e.g., SO(2)(CH(2))(2)SO(4)(-) in RR198 and RB5) than those with ortho substituent (e.g., sulfo group at RR141) for decolorization. Thus, the ranking of the position for the electron-withdrawing substituent in azo dyes to escalate decolorization was para>ortho>meta. This study suggested that both the positions of substituents on the aromatic ring and the electronic characteristics of substituents in azo dyes all significantly affected the performance of biodecolorization of A. hydrophila. PMID:19237244

  10. The Chemistry of Plant and Animal Dyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequin-Frey, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    Provides a brief history of natural dyes. Chemical formulas are provided for flavonoids, luteolin, genistein, brazilin, tannins, terpenes, naphthoquinone, anthraquinone, and dyes with an alkaloid structure. Also discusses chemical background of different dye processes. (CS)

  11. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The infection is easily treated with antifungal medicines. Finally, hair loss may occur as part of an ... to look for other causes of hair loss. Finally, blood tests or a biopsy (taking a small ...

  12. Hair Removal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eyebrows. Back Continue Getting Rid of Hair (continued) Electrolysis How It Works: Over a series of several ... Pros: Some people have permanent hair removal. Cons: Electrolysis takes big bucks and lots of time, so ...

  13. Hair Biology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

  14. Body Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... electrolysis, a professional uses an electric current to kill the hair root. Electrolysis can take many sessions ... removing pubic hair top In recent years, more girls and women have also begun removing all or ...

  15. Chemical Characterization of Hair Melanins in Various Coat-Color Mutants of Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Ozeki; Shosuke Ito; Kazumasa Wakamatsu; Tomohisa Hirobe

    1995-01-01

    Mammalian melanins exist in two chemically distinct forms: the brown to black eumelanins and the yellow to reddish pheomelanins. Melanogenesis is influenced by a number of genes, the levels of whose products determine the quantity and quality of the melanins produced. To examine the effects of various coat-color genes on the chemical properties of melanins synthesized in the follicular melanocytes

  16. HAIR NEOGENESIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sigfrid A. Muller

    1971-01-01

    The formation of new hairs is regularly seen as a spontaneous phenomenon in the velvet of deer antlers and in the Australian bandicoot. Nevertheless, skepticism persists as to its occurrence otherwise, despite a continuing accumulation of reports of hair neogenesis in many laboratory animals, sheep, and man. The objectors have cited the tremendous ability of the hair follicle to reorganize

  17. Hair Changes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Hair changes During pregnancy, you may notice that the hair on your head is thicker than usual. After ... find that you'll lose a lot of hair a few weeks or months after delivery. These ...

  18. Hair Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dryers and other products that use heat can dry out or break your hair. It’s a good idea to take a few days off from time to time. If you swim in a pool a lot: Protect your hair from chlorine by wearing a swim cap or rinsing out your hair right after swimming. ...

  19. Synthesis of dye-impregnated sol-gel glasses for fiber optic chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jack Y.; Tong, J.; Shahriari, Mahmoud R.; Sigel, George H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The polarity of the silica cage has been investigated by entrapping organic dyes in a silica gel. pH dyes of bromocresol purple and bromocresol green were selected for this study. The influence of pH on the polarity of the silica cage was determined by measuring the spectral shift of the dye. The pH dye- impregnated silica films show a red-shift in an acidic environment and a blue shift in basic environment, compared to those dissolved in water. This implies that the polarity of a silica cage varies after being treated by different pH solutions. The cage shows higher polarity in a basic solution than in an acidic solution.

  20. Postdischarge Long Life Reactive Intermediates Involved in the Plasma Chemical Degradation of an Azoic Dye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Moussa; Avaly Doubla; Georges Kamgang-Youbi; Jean-Louis Brisset

    2007-01-01

    The gliding electric discharge is a source of nonthermal plasma at atmospheric pressure efficient for pollutant abatement. It was used with a wet airflow to determine the kinetics of the postdischarge oxidation process of methyl orange dye in acidic solution (i.e., an oxidation reaction occurring after switching off the discharge). A strong postdischarge degradation of the dye giving N.N dimethyl-4-nitroaniline,

  1. Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found significant differences in the binding behavior of cationic polymers and surfactants (polyquaternium-55 and quaternium-26) on both hair types. PMID:24139434

  2. Concentrations and chemical species of arsenic in human urine and hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naohisa Yamato; Naohisa

    1988-01-01

    Because marine products are rich in arsenic, the concentration of arsenic in the human urine varies greatly with the state of ingestion of marine products. It has been reported that the analysis of foods for chemica! species of arsenic detects 4 chemical species: inorganic arsenic, methylarsonic acid (MAA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) and trimethylarsenic compound (TMA) (Yamauchi and Yamamura 1980). It

  3. Molecular modeling of 4-methylphthalonitrile for dye sensitized solar cells using quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Palanivel; Anbarasan, Ponnusamy Munusamy

    2011-01-01

    The geometries, electronic structures, polarizabilities, and hyperpolarizabilities of organic dye sensitizer 4-methylphthalonitrile was studied based on Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) using the hybrid functional B3LYP. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrum was investigated by time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT). Features of the electronic absorption spectrum in the visible and near-UV regions were assigned based on TD-DFT calculations. The absorption bands are assigned to ???* transitions. Calculated results suggest that three lowest energy excited states of 4-methylphthalonitrile are due to photo induced electron transfer processes. The interfacial electron transfer between semiconductor TiO? electrode and dye sensitizer 4-methylphthalonitrile is due to an electron injection process from excited dye to the semiconductor's conduction band. The role of cyanine and methyl group in 4-methylphthalonitrile in geometries, electronic structures, and spectral properties were analyzed. PMID:20361344

  4. Forensic discrimination of dyed hair color: II. Multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Julie A; Siegel, Jay A; Goodpaster, John V

    2011-01-01

    This research is intended to assess the ability of UV-visible microspectrophotometry to successfully discriminate the color of dyed hair. Fifty-five red hair dyes were analyzed and evaluated using multivariate statistical techniques including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA). The spectra were grouped into three classes, which were visually consistent with different shades of red. A two-dimensional PCA observations plot was constructed, describing 78.6% of the overall variance. The wavelength regions associated with the absorbance of hair and dye were highly correlated. Principal components were selected to represent 95% of the overall variance for analysis with DA. A classification accuracy of 89% was observed for the comprehensive dye set, while external validation using 20 of the dyes resulted in a prediction accuracy of 75%. Significant color loss from successive washing of hair samples was estimated to occur within 3 weeks of dye application. PMID:20854362

  5. A versatile chemical conversion synthesis of Cu2S nanotubes and the photovoltaic activities for dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Xuemin; Shen, Wenzhong; Hou, Zhaoyang; Ke, Sanmin; Xu, Chunlong; Jiang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    A versatile, low-temperature, and low-cost chemical conversion synthesis has been developed to prepare copper sulfide (Cu2S) nanotubes. The successful chemical conversion from ZnS nanotubes to Cu2S ones profits by the large difference in solubility between ZnS and Cu2S. The morphology, structure, and composition of the yielded products have been examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements. We have further successfully employed the obtained Cu2S nanotubes as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The light-to-electricity conversion results show that the Cu2S nanostructures exhibit high photovoltaic conversion efficiency due to the increased surface area and the good electrocatalytical activity of Cu2S. The present chemical route provides a simple way to synthesize Cu2S nanotubes with a high surface area for nanodevice applications. PMID:25246878

  6. A versatile chemical conversion synthesis of Cu2S nanotubes and the photovoltaic activities for dye-sensitized solar cell

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A versatile, low-temperature, and low-cost chemical conversion synthesis has been developed to prepare copper sulfide (Cu2S) nanotubes. The successful chemical conversion from ZnS nanotubes to Cu2S ones profits by the large difference in solubility between ZnS and Cu2S. The morphology, structure, and composition of the yielded products have been examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction measurements. We have further successfully employed the obtained Cu2S nanotubes as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells. The light-to-electricity conversion results show that the Cu2S nanostructures exhibit high photovoltaic conversion efficiency due to the increased surface area and the good electrocatalytical activity of Cu2S. The present chemical route provides a simple way to synthesize Cu2S nanotubes with a high surface area for nanodevice applications. PMID:25246878

  7. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  8. Human hair: A unique physicochemical composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leszek J. Wolfram

    2003-01-01

    All hair is ethnic. Categorizing diverse hair types into 3 major groups—African, Asian, and Caucasian—makes it easier to recognize characteristics specific to each hair type, such as curliness, color, and cross-sectional parameters. All hair, however, regardless of its ethnic origin, exhibits common characteristics of morphology, chemical makeup, and molecular structure. This article provides a brief review of the salient elements

  9. Room-temperature chemical integration of ZnO nanoarchitectures on plastic substrates for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Geng-Jia; Lin, Shou-Yen; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    ZnO nanoarchitectured anodes composed of the ZnO nanocactus array and the top ZnO particle layer are chemically integrated on ITO-PET substrates using a facile room-temperature chemical bath deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the absence of high-temperature post-treatment and mechanical compression, a notable efficiency of 5.24% is simply achieved in the flexible ZnO DSSC.ZnO nanoarchitectured anodes composed of the ZnO nanocactus array and the top ZnO particle layer are chemically integrated on ITO-PET substrates using a facile room-temperature chemical bath deposition method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In the absence of high-temperature post-treatment and mechanical compression, a notable efficiency of 5.24% is simply achieved in the flexible ZnO DSSC. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images of ZnO NP seed layer, XRD pattern of ZnO TP film, photographs of the flexible ZnO NC-TP anode and the corresponding DSSC, influences of array length on density of primary NW array as well as Jsc and efficiency of the ZnO NC DSSCs, photovoltaic performances of flexible D149-sensitized ZnO NC-TP DSSCs fabricated using 10 ?m thick ZnO NC arrays and ZnO TP films with various thicknesses, J-V curve of ZnO NC-TP-g DSSC, transmittance spectra of ITO-PET and ITO-glass substrates, and bending test results of the unsealed ZnO NC-TP DSSC cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05267b

  10. Hair removal.

    PubMed

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New treatment procedures are evolving. Consumer-based treatments with portable home devices are rapidly evolving, and presently include low-level diode lasers and IPL devices. PMID:21865803

  11. Exploring effects of chemical structure on azo dye decolorization characteristics by Pseudomonas luteola.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Chung-Chuan; Chen, Bor-Yann

    2008-06-15

    This follow-up study tended to provide a systematic comparison for how the variation of functional groups and molecular structures present in model azo dyes affects color removal capability of Pseudomonas luteola. As sulfo group at methyl orange (p-MO) or carboxyl group at 4-(4'-dimethylaminophenylazobenzoic acid) sodium salt (denoted p-MR) were both para to azo bond, the ranking of decolorization rate was p-MO>p-MR due to the stronger electron-withdrawing effect of the sulfo group. For isomers, when the functional groups (sulfo group at 2-(4'-dimethylamino-phenylazo) benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (o-MO) or carboxyl group at methyl red (o-MR)) were ortho to azo bond, the decolorization rate significantly decreased (e.g., p-MO>o-MO or p-MR>o-MR) likely due to steric hindrance near azo linkage(s). Similarly, for phenolic azo dyes the series of decolorization rate was 3-(4'-dimethylaminophenylazo) phenol (m-OH)>2-(4'-dimethylaminophenylazo) phenol (o-OH). Apparently, azo dyes with different properties of substituent on aromatic ring could affect the efficiency of biodecolorization of P. luteola. Moreover, the relative position (e.g., ortho, meta, para) of the substituent to azo bond could also influence the capability of biodecolorization of P. luteola. Regarding the electronic effect, azo dyes with stronger electron-withdrawing group (e.g., sulfo group) at specific positions (e.g., at para) could be more easily biodecolored than those with a carboxyl group. PMID:18068895

  12. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enough protein from non-meat sources. And some athletes are at higher risk for hair loss because ... tik) alopecia. This is sometimes called male- or female-pattern baldness. This condition is caused by a ...

  13. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... similar hair loss? Yes You may have classic MALE-PATTERN BALDNESS. Over-the-counter and prescription medicines are available to treat male-pattern baldness. See your doctor. He or she will determine ...

  14. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2010 Regional Mussel Watch (AMB02)

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2010-10-20

    The Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF) and Naval Base Kitsap-Bremerton (Shipyard) located in Bremerton, WA are committed to a culture of continuous process improvement for all aspects of Shipyard operations, including reducing the releases of hazardous materials and waste in discharges from the Shipyard. Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, a cooperative project among PSNS&IMF, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders (US Navy, EPA and Ecology 2002) has been helping to improve the environmental quality of the Sinclair and Dyes Inlet Watershed (ENVVEST 2006). An ambient monitoring program for sediment, water, and indigenous mussels began in 2009 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. This document presents the 2010 chemical residue data and stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) for the regional mussel watch stations located in Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. Indigenous bivalves were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead, and zinc. The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These chemical residue data provide the first year of the biota ambient monitoring.

  15. Identifying Rhodamine Dye Plume Sources in Near-Shore Oceanic Environments by Integration of Chemical and Visual Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Kang, Xiaodong; Li, Yunyi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Aiqun; Yu, Jiangchen; Li, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification) and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA) in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA) and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China), successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions. PMID:23507823

  16. Identifying rhodamine dye plume sources in near-shore oceanic environments by integration of chemical and visual sensors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Kang, Xiaodong; Li, Yunyi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Aiqun; Yu, Jiangchen; Li, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification) and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA) in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA) and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China), successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions. PMID:23507823

  17. Quantum chemical studies on excited state intermolecular proton transfer of oxazine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grofcsik, A.; Kubinyi, M.; Ruzsinszky, A.; Veszprémi, T.; Jones, W. J.

    2000-11-01

    The excited state lifetimes of oxazine dyes nile blue and oxazine 720 show a significant solvent dependence. As an aid to the interpretation of the decay in acidic environments the ground electronic states and the first singlet excited states of oxazine monocations and dications have been studied by methods of quantum chemistry. Ab initio calculations carried out on the lower members on this series show a significant increase of the electron densities of the ring nitrogen on excitation. The calculated electron energies also suggest that the second proton attaches to the ring nitrogen in the excited states, in contrast to the ground states where (in the case of oxazine 720) the second proton attaches to the terminal nitrogen. A kinetic scheme is proposed for the decay process in which in acidic environments the main deactivation path is the reaction of excited state monocations with protons, followed by internal conversion and subsequent deprotonation of the ground state dications.

  18. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead to serious problems. The medical term for severe hair pulling is trichotillomania. People with trichotillomania pull hair ...

  19. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... neutralization solution. Hair bleaching involves the use of hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners or hair relaxers involve a ... wearing protective gloves, taking frequent breaks, practicing safe storage of hair care products, and avoiding eating or ...

  20. Dyeing Wool with Fungi

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sue Assinder

    2002-01-01

    In this activity (p.23 of PDF), learners dye wool with fungi. Learners discover that natural chemicals in fungi can dye wool different colors. Note: Natural dyeing normally requires a color fixative such as alum. This is not necessary if you use an aluminum, tin, or copper pot as the metal in the pot will take part in the dyeing reaction. However, if you use a non-stick saucepan you should add a few copper coins to the mix. Safety note: Always wash your hands after touching fungi! Adult supervision recommended.

  1. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How to apply self tanner How to prevent athlete's foot How to prevent skin conditions in athletes How to shave How to treat sunburn Skin ... type of hair loss are: Male-pattern baldness. Female-pattern baldness. Androgenetic alopecia. Luckily, most causes of ...

  2. Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes and chemical treatment methods for COD and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Azbar; T. Yonar; K. Kestioglu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison of various advanced oxidation processes (O3, O3\\/UV, H2O2\\/UV, O3\\/H2O2\\/UV, Fe2+\\/H2O2) and chemical treatment methods using Al2(SO4)3·18H2O, FeCl3 and FeSO4 for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent is undertaken. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) showed a superior performance compared to conventional chemical treatment, which maximum achievable color

  3. Ambient Monitoring for Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2012 Regional Mussel Watch

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2012-09-01

    Under the Project ENVVEST Final Project Agreement, the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate Maintenance Facility (PSNS&IMF), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and local stakeholders have worked collaboratively to improve the environmental quality of Sinclair and Dyes Inlets. A regional mussel monitoring program began in 2010 to assess the status and trend of ecological resources, assess the effectiveness of cleanup and pollution control measures, and determine if discharges from all sources are protective of beneficial uses including aquatic life. The program collected indigenous mussels to represent a time-integrated measure of bioavailable metals and organic chemicals present in the water column. This document supplements the 2010 indigenous mussel data with 2012 data to provide two years of data on the chemical residue of mussels present in the inter-tidal regions of Sinclair Inlet, Dyes Inlet, Port Orchard Passage, Rich Passage, Agate Passage, Liberty Bay, and Keyport Lagoon. The 2012 data set added one station at PSNS&IMF and one market samples from Penn Cove. Indigenous mussels were collected from a small boat and/or from along the shoreline, measured, composited, and analyzed for percent lipids, percent moisture, stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and a suite of trace metals and organic contaminants. The trace metals included silver (Ag), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The organic contaminants included the list of NOAA Status and Trends 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners and suite of parent and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The average lengths between the 2010 and 2012 data were generally less than 30% relative percent difference (RPD). Generally, the metals concentrations were lower in 2012 than 2010 with some notable exceptions in Sinclair Inlet and Rich Passage where increases in Ag, Hg, Pb, Cu, and Zn exceeded an RPD of 50% between years. However, they did not exceed the bioaccumulation critical values or the critical body residues corresponding to the no observed effect dose (NOED) and the lowest observed effect dose (LOED) with one exception. The Cd concentrations exceeded the NOED and LOED for the Manchester Lab Pier and the Pike Place Market samples. For the PAHs and PCB, the 2012 data were generally lower than 2010 and some cases significantly lower for PAHs and none of the available invertebrate benchmarks were exceeded.

  4. Chemistry of hair colorant processesScience as an aid to formulation and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN F. CORBETT

    The chemistry of color formation in permanent hair colorants is discussed with particular reference to the in-fiber production of blue, red, and yellow dyes and to the effect of pH on the relative rates of formation of these dyes. The formulation of semipermanent (direct) colorants requires consideration of molecular size, wash fastness, light fastness, and color of the dyes used.

  5. Filtration techniques used by the textile industry for recovery of dyes, chemicals and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The continued increase in the cost of chemicals energy and water makes their recovery more important today than it was 20 years ago when ultrafiltration and hyperfiltration were first introduced to the textile industry. While the filtration techniques have only been used at a few installations, these plants have been able to save enough to pay for the recovery process in one to two years. One key to having a successful recovery operation is to have good automatic control of the process. This can drastically improve the economics of the textile process as well as minimizing the cost of the recovery system. The recovery of PVA, indigo, caustic and preparation chemicals will be presented.

  6. Chemical bath deposition of ZnO nanowire nanoparticle composite electrodes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Chen-Hao; Wu, Jih-Jen

    2007-12-01

    ZnO nanowire (NW)-layered basic zinc acetate (LBZA)/ZnO nanoparticle (NP) composite electrodes with different NP occupying extents have been synthesized using a simple wet-chemical route for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By employing mercurochrome as the sensitizer, superior efficiencies (?) of 1.27-2.37% are obtained using the ZnO NW-LBZA/ZnO NP composite electrodes composed of a 5.5 µm thick NW array with different NP occupying extents in comparison with the ZnO NW DSSC (? = 0.45%). It suggests that the ZnO NW-LBZA/ZnO NP composite films which possess a considerable enlarged surface area by NPs growth, without sacrificing electron transport efficiency of single-crystalline ZnO NWs at the same time, are promising photoanodes for use in DSSCs. In addition to the extent of NP occupation, the overall efficiency of the ZnO NW-LBZA/ZnO NP composite DSSC is also influenced by the thickness of the composite film as well as the LBZA fraction and the cracks within the composite. The fraction of LBZA affected by the NP growth period and post-annealing conditions is found to play a crucial role in electron transport through the composite anode. Up to now, a high efficiency DSSC of 3.2% is achieved using a mercurochrome-sensitized and 6.2 µm thick NW-NP composite film.

  7. Enhancing adsorption capacity of toxic malachite green dye through chemically modified breadnut peel: equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics and regeneration studies.

    PubMed

    Chieng, Hei Ing; Lim, Linda B L; Priyantha, Namal

    2015-01-01

    Breadnut skin, in both its unmodified (KS) and base-modified (BM-KS) forms, was investigated for its potential use as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of toxic dye, malachite green (MG). Characterization of the adsorbents was carried out using scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Batch adsorption experiments, carried out under optimized conditions, for the adsorption of MG were fitted using five isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Temkin and Sips) and six error functions to determine the best-fit model. The adsorption capacity was greatly enhanced when breadnut skin was chemically modified with NaOH, leading to an adsorption capacity of 353.0 mg g(-1), that was far superior to most reported adsorbents for the removal of MG. Thermodynamics studies indicated that the adsorption of MG was spontaneous on KS and BM-KS, and the reactions were endothermic and exothermic, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that both followed the pseudo-second order. Regeneration experiments on BM-KS indicated that its adsorption capacity was still maintained at>90% even after five cycles. It can be concluded that NaOH-modified breadfruit skin has great potential to be utilized in real-life application as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of MG in wastewater treatment. PMID:25409587

  8. Influence of the size-controlled TiO 2 nanotubes fabricated by low-temperature chemical synthesis on the dye-sensitized solar cell properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jang-Yul Kim; Tohru Sekino; Shun-Ichiro Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) with various sizes have been prepared by low-temperature chemical synthesis using commercial anatase TiO2 particles with different crystallite size in NaOH solution and used as a photoelectrode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC).\\u000a The relationship between the physicochemical properties of electrode materials and photovoltaic performance was investigated.\\u000a The electrodes made from modified TiO2 NTs showed

  9. Plasmonic enhancement of dye sensitized solar cells via a tailored size-distribution of chemically functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Andrei, Codrin; Lestini, Elena; Crosbie, Stephen; de Frein, Caoimhe; O'Reilly, Thomas; Zerulla, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    A substantial and stable increase of the current density Jsc of ruthenium (Ru) dye sensitized solar cells (DSC) of up to 16.18% and of the power efficiency of up to 25.5% is demonstrated in this article via plasmonic enhancement. The key aspect of this work is the use of a tailored bimodal size distribution of functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that have been chemically immobilized onto the mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer via short, stable dithiodibutyric acid linkers. The size distribution of the AuNPs is a result of theoretical calculations that aimed at the perfection of the absorption characteristics of the complete solar cell system over a wide range of wavelengths. The functionalization of the AuNPs serves to bind them at a close but defined distance to TiO2-particles and additionally to chemically protect them against potential corrosion by the electrolyte. Simulations of near field (enhanced absorption) and far field (scattering) contributions have been used to tailor a complex AuNPs bimodal size distribution that had subsequently demonstrated experimentally a close to optimum improvement of the absorbance over a wide wavelength range (500-675 nm) and therefore an impressive DSC efficiency enhancement. Finally, the modified DSCs are exhibiting pronounced longevity and stable performance as confirmed via long time measurements. In summary, the presented systems show increased performance compared to non plasmonic enhanced cells with otherwise identical composition, and are demonstrating a previously unpublished longevity for iodide electrolyte/AuNPs combinations. PMID:25354362

  10. Plasmonic Enhancement of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells via a Tailored Size-Distribution of Chemically Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Andrei, Codrin; Lestini, Elena; Crosbie, Stephen; de Frein, Caoimhe; O'Reilly, Thomas; Zerulla, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    A substantial and stable increase of the current density Jsc of ruthenium (Ru) dye sensitized solar cells (DSC) of up to 16.18% and of the power efficiency of up to 25.5% is demonstrated in this article via plasmonic enhancement. The key aspect of this work is the use of a tailored bimodal size distribution of functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that have been chemically immobilized onto the mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer via short, stable dithiodibutyric acid linkers. The size distribution of the AuNPs is a result of theoretical calculations that aimed at the perfection of the absorption characteristics of the complete solar cell system over a wide range of wavelengths. The functionalization of the AuNPs serves to bind them at a close but defined distance to TiO2-particles and additionally to chemically protect them against potential corrosion by the electrolyte. Simulations of near field (enhanced absorption) and far field (scattering) contributions have been used to tailor a complex AuNPs bimodal size distribution that had subsequently demonstrated experimentally a close to optimum improvement of the absorbance over a wide wavelength range (500–675 nm) and therefore an impressive DSC efficiency enhancement. Finally, the modified DSCs are exhibiting pronounced longevity and stable performance as confirmed via long time measurements. In summary, the presented systems show increased performance compared to non plasmonic enhanced cells with otherwise identical composition, and are demonstrating a previously unpublished longevity for iodide electrolyte/AuNPs combinations. PMID:25354362

  11. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more hairs than usual are in the resting phase and fall out more easily. As a result, you lose more hair than usual. You might notice more hair on your brush or a big clump of hair in the drain after you shower. A fever, stress, or surgery can cause this change in your hair. The good news is that ...

  12. Hair loss: is there a relationship with hair care practices in Nigeria?

    PubMed

    Nnoruka, Edith Nkechi; Nnoruka, Nkechi Edith

    2005-10-01

    BACKGROUND Hair loss occurs in all ethnic populations, but the etiology varies considerably from group to group. In black women, many forms of alopecia are associated with hair care practices. However, the causes of alopecias in African women have not been extensively investigated. OBJECTIVE This descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study was undertaken to document common complaints on initial presentation for hair loss, hair care practices and patterns of hair loss, and to determine if there is a relationship between hair loss and hair care practices. METHODS A total of 39 female patients seen over a 12 month period were enrolled in the study. Demographic information recorded included age, sex, marital status and occupation. Information regarding medical history included initial presenting complaints, duration of hair loss, site of hair loss, whether there was skin or systemic involvement, hair care practices and the duration of these practices. Examination of the scalp, a hair-pull test, documentation of the pattern of hair loss, relevant laboratory tests and biopsies were carried out. RESULTS All 39 patients were adults. Major complaints at initial presentation, apart from hair loss, included itchy scalp in 17 patients (43.6%), painful scalp in 11 patients (28.2%), hair breakage in seven patients (17.9%) and flaking scalp in four patients (10.3%). All the women relaxed their hair at some point in time. Chemical relaxants were consistently used by 22 patients (53.7%), eight patients (20.5%) alternated these with plaits/braids, and nine patients (23.1%) wore extensions. The use of local concoctions in hair care management was reported by three patients (7.7%). Scarred alopecias were observed in 20 patients (51.3%), while 19 (48.7%) had non-scarred alopecias. Those who reported prolonged and frequent use of chemical relaxants [mean duration (+/- standard deviation) 23.2+/-9.3 years] exhibited scarred alopecia more commonly than those who did not often use chemical relaxants (P<0.001). The application of local concoctions or pomades was also a regular practice amongst females with scarred alopecias. CONCLUSIONS Itchiness, pain, ready hair breakage and flaking scalp were common complaints at initial presentation. A range of alopecias were documented, and it was also observed that duration of hair care practice and hair styling were relevant to hair loss, particularly for women with central centifugal cicatricial alopecias (CCCAs), which resulted in scarring. PMID:16187950

  13. The nail and hair in forensic science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Ralph Daniel; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Antonella Tosti

    2004-01-01

    Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the

  14. Changing Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... straight when it's curly. Treatments That Can Damage Hair Are these treatments OK for kids? That's something ... woven, glued, or clipped into the hair. Damaged Hair? If you have used these or any other ...

  15. Topical liposome delivery of molecules to hair follicles in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Hoffman, R M

    1997-02-01

    The hair cycle consisting of growing and resting phases, is subject to widespread disease such as androgenic alopecia or loss of pigment which are in need of effective, targeted therapeutics. In order to develop a hair-follicle delivery system we demonstrate here that phosphatidylcholine liposomes entrapping either the fluorescent dye calcein or the pigment melanin can deliver these molecules into the hair follicle and hair shafts of mice when applied topically. Liposomal delivery of these molecules is time dependent. Negligible amounts of delivered molecules enter the dermis, epidermis or blood stream thereby demonstrating the enrichment of follicle delivery. Naked calcein and melanin are trapped in the stratum corneum and are unable to enter the follicle. The potential of the hair-follicle liposome delivery system for therapeutic use for hair disease is discussed. PMID:9039973

  16. Dye Painting!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Ann

    This resource provides practical instructions for applying color and design directly to fabric. Basic information about the dye painting process is given. The guide addresses the technical aspects of fabric dye and color use and offers suggestions for fabric manipulation and dye application in order to achieve various design effects. This…

  17. Hair follicle Formation of

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    Hair follicle Formation of new follicles Bud Healed skin Hair bulge Open wound Epidermis a b Dermis 1950s and help to explain the controversy. What is the origin of the cells that make up these new hair follicles? Are they derived from existing hair follicles located at the wound edge

  18. Removing Hair Safely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common methods of hair removal. back to top Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair follicles with heat. Sometimes it is ... a topical anesthetic product be used before a laser hair removal procedure, to minimize pain. In these ...

  19. Effect of hair color on luster.

    PubMed

    Keis, K; Ramaprasad, K R; Kamath, Y K

    2004-01-01

    The effect of color on instrumentally evaluated luster of hair dyed to different colors and depths of shades is studied. For natural hair colors, such as blond, brown, and black, the increase in luster with increasing color is associated with a decrease in diffusely scattered light as a result of light absorption by melanin granules. On dyed hair the interpretation of data from a goniophotometer (GP) is more complicated. Using the colors covering the extremes and middle of the visible spectrum, our results demonstrate how dye composition (single or multicomponent), concentration, and penetration depth into the fiber affect the absorptive and scattering processes within the hair fiber to impact luster. Finally, we make an attempt to study the effect of hair color on subjective evaluation of luster. An equation for perceived luster, taking into account the spectral sensitivity of the human eye is derived. Theoretical considerations show that the luster of hair of different colors is perceived differently by the human eye. PMID:15608993

  20. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

  1. Studies of factors affecting light scattering by individual human hair fibres.

    PubMed

    Bustard, H K; Smith, R W

    1990-06-01

    Synopsis An automated goniophotometer has been built to investigate the scattering of light by different types of singly mounted human hair fibres using white light and laser illumination. The effects that varying hair colour and treatment (gold coating, ultraviolet irradiation and dyeing) have on the specular reflectance and on the half-peak-height width (omega) have been studied. The polarization of light has been used to discriminate between light reflected from the front surface and light scattered internally by the hair. It has been found that the analysis of results from individual hair fibres has been useful in understanding the light scattering mechanisms which occur in human hair. PMID:19291027

  2. Aging of hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation. PMID:17166201

  3. Influence of thermal hair straightening on ethyl glucuronide content in hair.

    PubMed

    Ettlinger, Jana; Kirchen, Luc; Yegles, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Hair analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has become a valuable marker for the detection of moderate and chronic alcohol consumption. It has been shown that bleaching and perming may decrease EtG content in hair. So far, no studies exist about the influence of thermal hair straightening on EtG content in hair. Forty-one positive EtG hair samples were treated in vitro with a hair straightener at 200°C. Duration of treatment of 1 min was chosen for this study. After washing, pulverization, incubation in ultrasonic bath, solid-phase extraction, and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, EtG was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry - negative ion chemical ionization (GC-MS-NICI). The EtG contents in straightened hair strands were then compared with those in the corresponding untreated strands. In 20 of 41 hair samples, a decrease of EtG content was found ranging from 0.7% to 79.3% (average 20%) whereas in 21 cases an increase was shown ranging from 2.0% to 50.9% (average 15%). The variation of the results seems to depend on hair colour. The decrease may be explained by thermic in vitro destruction of EtG. The increase may be explained by denaturation of the hair matrix by thermal treatment possibly causing a better extraction of EtG during incubation in ultrasonic bath. This in vitro study indicates that thermal hair straightening has an impact on the EtG content in hair. This has to be considered for a correct interpretation of EtG results in hair. However, these results should be confirmed by in vivo studies. PMID:24817051

  4. Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its computational and algorithmic

    E-print Network

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    1 Abstract Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its the complex behavior of long human hair, taking into account the hair-to-hair interactions. For long hair, we propose the thin shell volume (TSV) model for enhancing hair realism by simulating complex hair-hair

  5. Algorithm of hair restoration surgery in children.

    PubMed

    Kolasiñski, Jerzy; Kolenda, Ma?gorzata

    2003-08-01

    Hair is an inseparable element of external appearance of every human being. Although various fashion trends come and go, the lack of hair is for many a major aesthetic and psychological problem. Even if men's balding can be accepted as a natural phenomenon, hair loss in children is considered to be a condition demanding correction. During an 18-year period, 8440 hair restoration operations were performed at the Hair Clinic Poznan, in Poznan, Poland. Most patients were men treated for androgenic alopecia. Among the patients were 57 children in whom hair loss resulted from hereditary factors, perinatal traumas, radiotherapy, and mechanical, thermal, and chemical damage. Methods of restoration were adjusted to type of hair loss, patient age, and ability to cooperate with the surgeon. In cases of single massive scars, skin flap correction was usually used. The flaps were prepared with the use of expanders. In cases of numerous scattered defects or considerable thinning of the scalp, the method of choice was hair transplantation. The "four-hand stick-and-place" technique developed by the authors enabled the surgeon to quickly and precisely carry out the procedure. Application of varied surgery techniques in scalp reconstruction procedures in children gave very good aesthetic results with a minimal complication rate. PMID:12900598

  6. Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Soo

    2011-12-01

    Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine, ceramide in decreasing order. Minor constituents of IHL are cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate and cholesterol oleate. Cuticle or cortical cell surface in hair are abundant in fatty acids unlike the keratinized area of epidermis or sebaceous gland, and about 30-40% of such fatty acids are composed of 18-methyl-eicosanoic acid which is known to be bound to proteins by ester or thioester bond. Various factors including moisture, solvent, oxidative damage during bleaching or permanent waving affect IHL. Photochemical changes also can occur in IHL as well as in hair protein and hair pigment. Lipid metabolism is thought to play an essential role in lipid envelope of hair, but also involvement in hair development and function. PMID:21906914

  7. Hair Loss in New Moms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hair loss in new moms Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... shedding after having a baby. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

  8. Bioengineering the Hair Follicle

    PubMed Central

    Parimoo, S; Zheng, Y; Barrows, T; Boucher, M; Washenik, K

    2007-01-01

    The hair follicle develops from the primitive embryonic epidermis as a result of complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. The full follicle, consisting of epithelial cylinders under control of a proximal lying mesenchymal papilla, grows in cycles giving rise to a new hair shaft during each cycle. The ability to cycle endows the follicle with regenerative properties. The evolution of hair follicle engineering began with the recognition in the early 1960's that hair follicles could be transplanted clinically into a foreign site and still grow a shaft typical of the donor site. Since that time, it has been found that the follicular papilla has hair follicle inducing properties and that the hair follicle houses within it epithelial stem cells that can respond to hair inductive signals. These findings have laid the foundation for isolating hair-forming cells, for expanding the cells in culture, and for forming new follicles in vivo. PMID:19279694

  9. Diagnosis of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Coupe, Robert L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Common causes of hair loss include androgenic hair loss, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium, and traction alopecia. The author discusses their distinguishing clinical features and those of less common alopecias. ImagesFigures 1-4 PMID:21221382

  10. Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata) Information for adults A A A This image displays a close-up of the scalp with a round area of non-scarring hair loss typical of alopecia areata. Overview Alopecia areata ...

  11. Calcium Spiking in Plant Root Hairs Responding to Rhizobium Nodulation Signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W Ehrhardt; Rebecca Wais; Sharon R Long

    1996-01-01

    Rhizobium lipochitooligosaccharide signal molecules stimulate multiple responses in legume host plants, including changes in host gene expression, cell growth, and mitoses leading to root nodule development. The basis for signal transduction in the plant is not known. We examined cytoplasmic free calcium in host root hairs using calcium-sensitive reporter dyes. Image analysis of injected dyes revealed localized periodic spikes in

  12. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Cancer.gov

    Some types of chemotherapy cause the hair on your head, and other parts of your body, to fall out. Radiation therapy can also cause hair loss on the part of the body radiation therapy. Hair loss is called alopecia. Talk with your health care team to learn if the cancer treatment you will be receiving causes hair loss. Your doctor or nurse will share strategies that have worked for others, including those listed below.

  13. TRPA1 is a candidate for the mechanosensitive transduction channel of vertebrate hair cells.

    PubMed

    Corey, David P; García-Añoveros, Jaime; Holt, Jeffrey R; Kwan, Kelvin Y; Lin, Shuh-Yow; Vollrath, Melissa A; Amalfitano, Andrea; Cheung, Eunice L-M; Derfler, Bruce H; Duggan, Anne; Géléoc, Gwénaëlle S G; Gray, Paul A; Hoffman, Matthew P; Rehm, Heidi L; Tamasauskas, Daniel; Zhang, Duan-Sun

    2004-12-01

    Mechanical deflection of the sensory hair bundles of receptor cells in the inner ear causes ion channels located at the tips of the bundle to open, thereby initiating the perception of sound. Although some protein constituents of the transduction apparatus are known, the mechanically gated transduction channels have not been identified in higher vertebrates. Here, we investigate TRP (transient receptor potential) ion channels as candidates and find one, TRPA1 (also known as ANKTM1), that meets criteria for the transduction channel. The appearance of TRPA1 messenger RNA expression in hair cell epithelia coincides developmentally with the onset of mechanosensitivity. Antibodies to TRPA1 label hair bundles, especially at their tips, and tip labelling disappears when the transduction apparatus is chemically disrupted. Inhibition of TRPA1 protein expression in zebrafish and mouse inner ears inhibits receptor cell function, as assessed with electrical recording and with accumulation of a channel-permeant fluorescent dye. TRPA1 is probably a component of the transduction channel itself. PMID:15483558

  14. A NINHYDRIN HISTOCHEMICAL TEST SPECIFIC FOR HAIR KERATIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELIZABETH J. HOLMES

    1968-01-01

    The reaction of ninhvdrin with a-amino groups of amino acids and proteins results in deamination of the amino acid or protein to form a nitrogen-containing blue dye complex. This molecule is small and highly diffusible, a property which was utilized in the develop- ment of a ninhvdrin histochemical test specific for hair keratin. Using a silicone rubber cement. which is

  15. Effects of size-controlled TiO2 nanopowders synthesized by chemical vapor condensation process on conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Byoung; Lee, Jai-Sung

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the microstructural effects of the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders such as particle size, specific surface area, pore size and pore distributions for the application of an anode material of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), size-controlled and well-dispersed TiO2 nanopowders were synthesized by chemical vapor condensation (CVC) process in the range of 800-1000 degreesC under a pressure of 50 mbar. The average particle size of synthesized TiO2 nanopowders was increased with increasing temperature from 13 nm for 800 degreesC, 15 nm for 900 degreesC and 26 nm. The specific surface area of synthesized nanoparticles were measured as 119.1 m2/g for 800 degreesC, 104.7 m2/g for 900 degreesC and 59.5 m2/g for 1000 degreesC, respectively. The conversion efficiency values (eta%) of DSSC with the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders at 800 degreesC, 900 degreesC, and 1000 degreesC were 2.59%, 5.96% and 3.66%, respectively. The highest conversion efficiency obtained in the 900 degreesC (5.96%) sample is thought to be attributable to homogeneous particle size and pore distributions, large specific surface area, and high transmittance in regions of dye absorption wavelength. PMID:23901483

  16. Dyes as tracers for vadose zone hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flury, Markus; Wai, Nu Nu

    2003-03-01

    Dyes are important tracers to investigate subsurface water movement. For more than a century, dye tracers have provided clues about the hydrological cycle as well as flow and transport processes in the subsurface. Groundwater contamination often originates in the vadose zone. Agrochemicals applied to the soil surface, toxic compounds accidentally spilled by human activities, and contaminants released from waste repositories leach through the vadose zone and can ultimately pollute groundwater resources. Dyes are an important tool to assess flow pathways of such contaminants. This review compiles information on dyes used as hydrological tracers, with particular emphasis on vadose zone hydrology. We summarize briefly different human-applied tracers, including nondye tracers. We then provide a historical sketch of the use of dyes as tracers and describe newer developments in visualization and quantification of tracer experiments. Relevant chemical properties of dyes used as tracers are discussed and illustrated with dye intermediates and selected dye tracers. The types of dyes used as tracers in subsurface hydrology are summarized, and recommendations are made regarding the use of dye tracers. The review concludes with a toxicological assessment of dyes used as hydrological tracers. Many different dyes have been proposed as tracers for water movement in the subsurface. All of these compounds, however, are to some degree retarded by the subsurface medium. Nevertheless, dyes are useful tracers to visualize flow pathways.

  17. ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL

    E-print Network

    Jülicher, Frank

    415 ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL J-Y. TINEVEZ , P. MARTIN Laboratoire The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair

  18. Batchwise dyeing of bamboo cellulose fabric with reactive dye using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Larik, Safdar Ali; Khatri, Awais; Ali, Shamshad; Kim, Seong Hun

    2015-05-01

    Bamboo is a regenerated cellulose fiber usually dyed with reactive dyes. This paper presents results of the batchwise dyeing of bamboo fabric with reactive dyes by ultrasonic (US) and conventional (CN) dyeing methods. The study was focused at comparing the two methods for dyeing results, chemicals, temperature and time, and effluent quality. Two widely used dyes, CI Reactive Black 5 (bis-sulphatoethylsulphone) and CI Reactive Red 147 (difluorochloropyrimidine) were used in the study. The US dyeing method produced around 5-6% higher color yield (K/S) in comparison to the CN dyeing method. A significant savings in terms of fixation temperature (10°C) and time (15 min), and amounts of salt (10 g/L) and alkali (0.5-1% on mass of fiber) was realized. Moreover, the dyeing effluent showed considerable reductions in the total dissolved solids content (minimum around 29%) and in the chemical oxygen demand (minimum around 13%) for the US dyebath in comparison to the CN dyebath. The analysis of colorfastness tests demonstrated similar results by US and CN dyeing methods. A microscopic examination on the field emission scanning electron microscope revealed that the US energy did not alter the surface morphology of the bamboo fibers. It was concluded that the US dyeing of bamboo fabric produces better dyeing results and is a more economical and environmentally sustainable method as compared to CN dyeing method. PMID:25575805

  19. Cosmetics and hair loss.

    PubMed

    Gummer, C L

    2002-07-01

    Cosmetic hair care products are often implicated by the user or the clinician in cases of hair loss. Yet, these products are used ad lib, in a wide variety of home conditions and on a wide variety of hair types, by millions of consumers every day with no adverse effects. Based on this extensive data set, the absence of literature reports, and a detailed understanding of the mode of action of cosmetic hair care products, we can conclude that they do not cause hair loss. Clinicians investigating cases of hair loss must fully appreciate the hair cycle, the length of time a single fibre may be present on the head, and its biological and cosmetic history in order to understand the causes of hair loss and make the correct diagnosis. With a better understanding of the cosmetic practices used by everyday consumers, the clinician will be in a strong position to help patients re-grow their hair and guide them through a high quality hair care regime. PMID:12190643

  20. Taking Care of Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or pulling them out without professional help can cause hair and scalp damage or even hair loss. Sometimes hair breakage and dry, brittle hair are signs of a medical problem, such as hypothyroidism or an eating disorder. If your hair is breaking even though you ...

  1. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. PMID:24680003

  2. [Forensic aspects of thermal changes in human head hair].

    PubMed

    Kijewski, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Under experimental conditions, head hairs of individuals of different age were exposed to defined increases of temperature up to 450 degrees C and examined by transmitted- and reflected-light microscopy with and without polarization. Preliminary tests had shown that the hair changes alone do not allow conclusions as to the temperature acting on the hair. Especially in the range of 200 to 300 degrees C, the temperature gradient during the heating process and the exposure time were additional influencing factors. Thick hair and hair with a high water content showed more pronounced thermal changes than thin hair. Elasticity and permeability of the cuticle and the cementing substance (cell membrane complex CMC) are also relevant factors. When heating head hairs lacking a medulla, a multiform pseudo-medulla formed under certain conditions. In the presence of thermally induced structural disturbances (e.g. by using hair straighteners), foreign substances can penetrate more easily into the hair shaft from outside. The possibility of such exogenous contamination has to be taken into consideration when performing chemical and toxicological analyses of hair. PMID:25004619

  3. The uptake of water hardness metals by human hair.

    PubMed

    Evans, A O; Marsh, J M; Wickett, R R

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the variables that influence the interaction between water hardness metals and human hair. Hair extracts various constituents from the tap water used during daily hygiene practices and chemical treatments. Calcium and magnesium metal ions are the most prevalent and give water "hardness." Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was employed to quantify the metal content of hair, which was studied as a function of the following variables: hair condition (oxidative damage), level of water hardness, and water pH. We have demonstrated that these variables impact water hardness metal uptake to varying extents, and the effects are driven primarily by the binding capacity (available anionic sites) of the hair. The condition of the hair, a key representation of the binding capacity, was most influential. Interestingly, water hardness levels had only a small effect on uptake; hair became saturated with notable amounts of water hardness metals even after repeated exposure to soft water. Water pH influenced metal uptake since side chains of hair proteins deprotonate with increasing alkalinity. These insights highlight the importance to the hair care industry of understanding the interaction between water hardness metals and hair. PMID:21982353

  4. Selective hair therapy: bringing science to the fiction.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Annika; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2014-02-01

    Investigations on carrier-based drug delivery systems for higher selectivity in hair therapy have clearly evolved from dye release and model studies to highly sophisticated approaches, many of which specifically tackle hair indications and the delivery of hair-relevant molecules. Here, we group recent hair disease-oriented work into efforts towards (i) improved delivery of conventional drugs, (ii) delivery of novel drug classes, for example biomolecules and (iii) targeted delivery on the cellular/molecular level. Considering the solid foundation of experimental work, it does not take a large step outside the current box of thinking to follow the idea of using large carriers (>500 nm, unlikely to penetrate as a whole) for follicular penetration, retention and protection of sensitive compounds. Yet, reports on particles <200 nm being internalized by keratinocytes and dendritic cells at sites of barrier disruption (e.g., hair follicles) combined with recent advances in nanodermatology add interesting new facets to the possibilities carrier technologies could offer, for example, unprecedented levels of selectivity. The authors provide thought-provoking ideas on how smart delivery technologies and advances in our molecular understanding of hair pathophysiology could result in a whole new era of hair therapeutics. As the field still largely remains in preclinical investigation, determined efforts towards production of medical grade material and truly translational work are needed to demonstrate surplus value of carrier systems for clinical applications. PMID:24387677

  5. Stepwise cosensitization through chemically bonding organic dye to CdS quantum-dot-sensitized TiO2 electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Seulgi; Fan, Sheng-Qiang; Choi, Hyunbong; Kim, Chulwoo; Cho, Nara; Song, Kihyung; Ko, Jaejung

    2010-12-01

    An organic dye (JK218) with thiol moiety as an anchoring group was synthesized and explored to assemble a cosensitized TiO2 electrode in combination with an inorganic CdS quantum-dot. Due to the selective adsorption of JK218 on the surface of CdS through thiol group, the developed cosensitized electrode demonstrates cascade architecture with CdS coating on TiO2 while JK218 functions as a covering on CdS. Most importantly, the energy levels of the TiO2-CdS-JK218 electrode were also found to be stepwise aligned, which accordingly makes electrons efficiently inject from JK218 to CdS under illumination and finally collect to TiO2. This constructed cosensitized electrode with an organic sensitizer (JK218) and an inorganic quantum-dot (CdS) being selectively bonded together is expected to be valuable for the interface design of next generation solar cells.

  6. Dynamic tuning of hair bundle mechanoreceptors in a sea anemone during predation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen M. Watson; Patricia Mire

    2004-01-01

    The sea anemone Haliplanella luciae (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) detects chemical and mechanical stimuli from prey. Hair bundle mechanoreceptors on the tentacles participate in regulating discharge of microbasic \\u0009p-mastigophore nematocysts. Properly stimulated hair bundles sensitize the anemone to discharge nematocysts into objects that contact the tentacles. The hair bundle mechanoreceptors are composed of stereocilia derived from a multicellular complex. This complex consists

  7. Biological Sampling and Analysis in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2007 Puget Sound Biota Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

    2008-10-09

    Evaluating spatial and temporal trends in contaminant residues in Puget Sound fish and macroinvertebrates are the objectives of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP). In a cooperative effort between the ENVironmental inVESTment group (ENVVEST) and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, additional biota samples were collected during the 2007 PSAMP biota survey and analyzed for chemical residues and stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N). Approximately three specimens of each species collected from Sinclair Inlet, Georgia Basin, and reference locations in Puget Sound were selected for whole body chemical analysis. The muscle tissue of specimens selected for chemical analyses were also analyzed for ?13C and ?15N to provide information on relative trophic level and food sources. This data report summarizes the chemical residues for the 2007 PSAMP fish and macro-invertebrate samples. In addition, six Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) samples were necropsied to evaluate chemical residue of various parts of the fish (digestive tract, liver, embryo, muscle tissue), as well as, a weight proportional whole body composite (WBWC). Whole organisms were homogenized and analyzed for silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, mercury, 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB homologues, percent moisture, percent lipids, ?13C, and ?15N.

  8. Reduction of colorants in nylon flock dyeing effluent.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qinguo; Hoskote, Sunil; Hou, Yuejun

    2004-08-01

    The batch dyeing of fiber materials such as staple fibers and flock is usually carried out by exhaustion methods. However, the dyeing of flock fibers, either nylon, PET or acetate, with acid or disperse dyes is not 100% efficient in terms of dye utilization. Therefore, the remaining dyes in the spent dye bath are generally not reused, and are usually discharged with minimum treatment, together with the dyeing chemicals into the sewage wastewater system causing environmental pollution. We found that the colorants and chemical auxiliaries in the fiber dyeing effluents can be reduced by: (1) optimizing the acid dyeing conditions such as salt addition and pH control; (2) reuse of the spent dye bath that remain after the original dyeing process. In the lab scale trials, we have successfully raised the acid dye exhaustion to over 90% by optimizing the dyeing conditions. The reuse of the spent acid dye bath also showed promising results with dye exhaustion ranging from 91 to 93% after four times of reuse. PMID:15225938

  9. Hair Cycle and Alopecia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monique Courtois; Geneviève Loussouarn; Colette Hourseau; Jean François Grollier

    1994-01-01

    Male pattern alopecia is the outcome of profound modifications in the duration, succession and frequency of hair cycles. These phenomena were studied by phototrichogram in 10 male subjects, with or without alopecia, over a period of 15 years. Almost 10,000 hair cycles were accounted for, yielding a detailed picture of the alopecia condition: (1) A decrease in the duration of

  10. Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Lavker; Tung-Tien Sun; Hideo Oshima; Yann Barrandon; Masashi Akiyama; Corinne Ferraris; Genevieve Chevalier; Bertrand Favier; Colin A. B. Jahoda; Danielle Dhouailly; Andrei A. Panteleyev; Angela M. Christiano

    2003-01-01

    The workshop on Hair Follicle Stem Cells brought together investigators who have used a variety of approaches to try to understand the biology of follicular epithelial stem cells, and the role that these cells play in regulating the hair cycle. One of the main concepts to emerge from this workshop is that follicular epithelial stem cells are multipotent, capable of

  11. Laser Hair Removal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skin and dark, coarse hair. With the latest technology, all skin types can be treated; however, more treatments may be required for patients with darker skin. Removing hairs that are white, gray, blond, or that are fine is a challenge. Expected Results Success is determined by multiple variables. ...

  12. Laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Omar A; Avram, Mathew M; Hanke, C William; Kilmer, Suzanne L; Anderson, R Rox

    2011-01-01

    The extended theory of selective photothermolysis enables the laser surgeon to target and destroy hair follicles, thereby leading to hair removal. Today, laser hair removal (LHR) is the most commonly requested cosmetic procedure in the world and is routinely performed by dermatologists, other physicians, and non-physician personnel with variable efficacy. The ideal candidate for LHR is fair skinned with dark terminal hair; however, LHR can today be successfully performed in all skin types. Knowledge of hair follicle anatomy and physiology, proper patient selection and preoperative preparation, principles of laser safety, familiarity with the various laser/light devices, and a thorough understanding of laser-tissue interactions are vital to optimizing treatment efficacy while minimizing complications and side effects. PMID:21276162

  13. Sensitive immunoassay detection of multiple environmental chemicals on protein microarrays using DNA/dye conjugate as a fluorescent label

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indirect competitive immunoassays were developed on protein microarrays for the sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple environmental chemicals in one sample. In this assay, a DNA/SYTOX Orange conjugate was employed as antibody labels to increase the fluorescence signal and sensitivity. Ep...

  14. Hair bleaching and skin burning

    PubMed Central

    Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation. PMID:23766754

  15. Can a topical scalp treatment reduce hair bulb extraction?

    PubMed

    Gruber, James V; Bouldin, Lisa; Lou, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Generally speaking, when people talk about "hair breakage" they are typically referring to the idea that as they comb or brush their hair, the fibers are elongating and snapping at some weak point in the fiber length. It is well established that as people chemically treat their hair, the keratin proteins are degraded further and the hair become more brittle and susceptible to breakage. For the consumer, hair breakage is registered as hair fibers noted in their comb or brush, and in the drain that they see after a cosmetic treatment. However, a fundamental question that needs to be asked is whether or not the hairs that are seen in the drain are really the result of hair breakage (i.e., a fiber snapping) or are they the result of hairs that are actually being extracted from the scalp by their root bulbs. If the bulk of the hair fibers are actually extracted by the bulb, than it seems somewhat superfluous to try and improve hair strength by improving the exterior of the fiber. The fiber is dead and topical treatments can only smooth, and possibly moisten already established fiber structure and integrity. This paper will attempt to address hair strength by looking at the scalp and follicle as the target for treatment, showing that topical application of a product containing a blend of well-known skin active ingredients can demonstrate potential reductions in hair extractions. An in vivo testing protocol in which 15 voluntary participants with at least 12" hair length were professionally shampooed, and then treated, half-head, with a commercial conditioner, or the same conditioner that contained 5% of a mixture of yeast peptides, fruit acids and green tea polyphenols every day for five days will be discussed. At the beginning and end of the treatment period, the number of hairs that either broke along the fiber, or extracted by the bulb were gathered, separated and counted for both the treated and untreated side of the head. The results of this one-week study demonstrate that the number of hairs that actually break pales in comparison to the number of hairs that are extracted complete with intact root bulb from the follicle. PMID:17728937

  16. Microscopic high-resolution digital volumetric imaging of human hair fibers.

    PubMed

    Gruber, J V; Kerschman, R

    2004-01-01

    Methods for examining cationic polymer deposition on hair are well known and polymers such as Polyquaternium-10 have enjoyed a significant commercial impact on shampoos and body washes as unique conditioning materials. It was recently reported that hair can be examined using a new microscopic called Digital Volumetric Imaging or DVI (10). By employing fluorescent dyes, deposition of cationic oligosaccharides onto damaged blond hair fibers was discussed. Because hair auto-fluorescences, the microscope allows for examination of hair fibers directly including viewing of the cuticle, cortex and melanin within the cortex and careful imaging even distinguishes the medulla of the hair fiber. In this paper, examination of six virgin hair types including: 1) Afro-American, 2) Asian, 3) European brown, 4) red, 5) blond and 6) gray was conducted looking for differences that each hair type brings to the visualizing technique. Digital manipulation of the fluorescent data allows for examination of interior hair fiber structures as well as the development of animated movies of three dimensional hair fiber structures. PMID:15645100

  17. Painting With Natural Dyes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Arrowtop (Heart Butte School)

    1999-07-01

    This activity is part of an integrated elementary unit called "Painted Tipis." The unit is best taught in the fall in conjunction with the September celebration "American Indian Heritage Week." It integrates lessons on literature through legends and myths, language (Blackfeet), and mathematics through structural components of the tipi. The activity introduces the students to the art of dyeing as used in ancestral tipi paintings. Historical cultural ties are an integral part of the Native American students learning and this unit provides those connections. The purpose of this lesson is to provide elementary students with the opportunity to explore, identify and locate area plants. The inquiry cooperative learning component of this lesson will be to determine the color (dye) producing possibilities of the plant. Students will also plan and carry out an experiment to produce the dyestuff of the plant as well as create possible mordants, which is a chemical or metallic compound that will "fasten" the color to the fabric.

  18. Dynamic Hair Capture Princeton University

    E-print Network

    Dynamic Hair Capture Linjie Luo Princeton University Sylvain Paris Adobe Systems Inc. Hao Li University Figure 1: Our system reconstructs a temporally coherent set of hair fibers for real-world dynamic hair. It accommodates a variety of hair types and styles, as well as nontrivial motion (top: input

  19. Photo yellowing of human hair.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

    2007-09-25

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content. PMID:17627835

  20. Aromatic amines: use in azo dye chemistry.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Harold S

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the chemical structures and properties of aromatic amines and their role in the development and utility of azo dyes. Approaches to the design of environmentally benign alternatives to genotoxic primary aromatic amines, as azo dye precursors, are included. PMID:23276915

  1. ORGANIC DYES AND PIGMENTS DATA BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research program was to compile a data base covering all the commercially significant dyes and pigments produced or imported in the United States. The Organic Dyes and Pigments Data Base (ODPDB) contains the following data elements: chemical-related data (co...

  2. EQUILIBRIUM AND KINETICS OF DISPERSE DYE ADSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON PREPARED FROM RATTAN SAWDUST BY CHEMICAL ACTIVATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. AHMAD; B. H. HAMEED; A. L. AHMAD

    2008-01-01

    The liquid-phase adsorption of C.I. Disperse Orange 30 (DO30) onto activated carbon prepared from rattan sawdust by chemical activation with H3PO4. The rattan sawdust was carbonized at 500oC, 2h and impregnated ratio weight with H3PO4 at 1:4.5. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, initial DO30 concentration and pH were investigated at temperature 30±1oC. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and

  3. Microtubules in root hairs.

    PubMed

    Traas, J A; Braat, P; Emons, A M; Meekes, H; Derksen, J

    1985-06-01

    The microtubules of root hairs of Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum, Equisetum hyemale, Limnobium stoloniferum, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Allium sativum and Urtica dioica were investigated using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Arrays of cortical microtubules were observed in all hairs. The microtubules in the hairs show net axial orientations, but in Allium and Urtica helical microtubule patterns are also present. Numerical parameters of microtubules in Raphanus, Equisetum and Limnobium were determined from dry-cleave preparations. The results are discussed with respect to cell wall deposition and cell morphogenesis. PMID:4066793

  4. Iron complexed afterchrome dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wojciech Czajkowski; Ma?gorzata Szymczyk

    1998-01-01

    The possibility of elimination of chromium in dye effluents during application of afterchrome dyes has been investigated. Eight commercially available azo mordant dyes were used in dyeing of wood fabric and aftertreated with iron (II) and iron (III) salts. Colour and lightfastness of received dyeings was compared with those obtained with the use of traditional chromium-aftertreated method. The structure of

  5. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  6. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721.4594 Section 721...Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a substituted azo metal complex dye (PMN P-94-499) is...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721.4594 Section 721...Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as a substituted azo metal complex dye (PMN P-94-499) is...

  8. Laboratory measurements of selected optical, physical, chemical, and remote-sensing properties of five water mixtures containing Calvert clay and a nonfluorescing dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Poole, L. R.; Witte, W. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 6.1 ppm to 24.3 ppm and sizes ranged between 1.5 micrometers and 10 micrometers with the most frequently occurring size less than 2 micrometers. Iron concentration was less than 1 percent of the total suspended solids. Nonfluorescing dye concentrations of the two mixtures were 20 ppm and 40 ppm. Attenuation coefficient for the five mixtures ranged from 4.8/m to 21.3/m. Variations in volume scattering function with phase angle were typical. Variations in attenuation and absorption coefficient with wavelength were similar for the mixtures without the dye. Attenuation coefficient of the mixtures with the dye increased for wavelengths less than 600 nm due to the dye's strong absorption peak near 500 nm. Reflectance increased as the concentration of Calvert clay increased and peaked near 600 nm. The nonfluorescent dye decreased the magnitude of the peak, but had practically no effect on the variation for wavelengths greater than 640 nm. At wavelengths less than 600 nm, the spectral variations of the mixtures with the dye were significantly different from those mixtures without the dye.

  9. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics

    PubMed Central

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; El-Zawahry, Manal M.; Abdelghaffar, Fatma; Ahmed, Nahed S. E.

    2014-01-01

    Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics. PMID:25258720

  10. Tips for Healthy Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... acne Acne treatment Media and retouching Our skin self-esteem Skin health Introduction Daily habits Hair care: Introduction ... truths Acne treatment Media and retouching Our skin self-esteem Skin health Skin: Introduction Skin: Skin types Skin: ...

  11. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.L.

    2000-07-25

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention uses an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  12. Method of dye removal for the textile industry

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The invention comprises a method of processing a waste stream containing dyes, such as a dye bath used in the textile industry. The invention comprises using an inorganic-based polymer, such as polyphosphazene, to separate dyes and/or other chemicals from the waste stream. Membranes comprising polyphosphazene have the chemical and thermal stability to survive the harsh, high temperature environment of dye waste streams, and have been shown to completely separate dyes from the waste stream. Several polyphosplhazene membranes having a variety of organic substituent have been shown effective in removing color from waste streams.

  13. Are picro-dye reactions for collagens quantitative?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Puchtler; S. N. Meloan; F. S. Waldrop

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of picro-dye reactions demonstrated wide variations in the binding of different dyes. Picro-Sirius Red F3BA was recommended because it colors all collagens intensely and is suitable for polarization microscopy. Recent publications on quantitative uses of this stain were surprising. To obtain further information on the chemical mechanisms of dye binding by proteins, 94 sulfonated azo dyes were tested

  14. Modeling and experiment of dye-sensitized solar cell with vertically aligned ZnO nanorods through chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuono, Ruri Agung; Risanti, Doty D.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model based on electron diffusion differential equation and Schottky barrier model was developed to determine the current-voltage characteristics of DSSC. To verify the model DSSC with ZnO nanorods photoelectrode which was chemically bath deposited onto the TCO was fabricated. According to modeling results, increasing of recombination current density J at these interfaces results in a decrease in Schottky barrier height ?b and therefore improves the photovoltage under the open-circuit condition. It is found that the open-circuit voltage remains constant when the TCO/ZnO Schottky barrier height was varied in the range of 0.45 - 0.6 eV. This theoretical model consistents with the experimental result in which the fabricated DSSCs can produce conversion efficiency in the range of 0.98 - 1.16%. The trend in photovoltage calculated in the theoretical model basically agrees with the experimental result, although the calculated photocurrent is somewhat over estimated compared to the experimental results. The model presents that the ideality factor for ZnO nanorods, which also contributes to the enhancement of photovoltage, increases in the range of 2.75 - 3.0 as the annealing temperature is increased in the experiment.

  15. Photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell low temperature growth of ZnO nanorods using chemical bath deposition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Gwan; Choi, Young-Cheol; Lee, Do-Kyung; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Jae Hong

    2012-04-01

    Nanostructured ZnO photoelectrodes were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates that were spin-coated with a sol-gel based ZnO seed layer via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at varying times of 1, 2, 4, and 8 h. Then, TiO2 nanoparticulate electrodes were prepared on ZnO nanorods using the doctor blade technique. The uniformly grown ZnO nanorod layer had a length of approximately 710 nm on the FTO glass substrate with wurtzite structures which was confirmed through X-ray diffraction patterns. The length and diameter of the ZnO nanorods increased with an increase in the deposition time. The DSSCs fabricated with TiO2 nanoparticulate/grown ZnO nanorods and grown for 8 h showed the maximum efficiency (5.51%) with a short circuit current density (J(sc)) of 12.21 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.70 at 100 mW/cm2 light intensity. PMID:22849148

  16. Hair melanin content and photodamage.

    PubMed

    Santos Nogueira, Ana Carolina; Joekes, Inés

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility of hair with different melanin content (virgin white, blond and dark-brown) to photodegradation, evaluating changes on hair color and mechanical properties. Light exposure was carried out with a mercury-vapor lamp for up to 1800h. It was observed that color changes are different for each hair type and dependent on the wavelength range. Breaking elongation and breaking strength were affected in all hair types, mainly by UVB radiation. Results show that the melanin type and content of each hair is not the only parameter related to hair damages caused by sun exposure. PMID:17728939

  17. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... much of this hormone, you may have unwanted hair growth. In most cases, the exact cause is ...

  18. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... healthy hair care Teaching your child healthy hair care habits Many common hair care practices can lead ... a conditioner. Teaching your child other healthy hair care habits Many things that we do to style ...

  19. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin , which is produced by hair follicles. These are ... grow hair. With aging, the follicle makes less melanin. Graying often begins in the 30s. Scalp hair ...

  20. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

  1. Hair today, gone tomorrow: the degradation and conservation of archaeological hair fibers

    E-print Network

    Sager, Rebecca M.

    2009-05-15

    . An added advantage found in the book was a short section on the use of silicone polymers in shampoos and conditioners. Although the silicone polymers used in the hair care products are different in polymer structure in comparison those used........................ 5 Methods of Conserving Archaeological Material from Underwater Sites ................................................................ 9 Archaeological Conservation Using Polymers .................. 10 Chemical and Physical...

  2. Evaluation of hair humidity resistance/moisturization from hair elasticity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Average water regain and hair elasticity (Young's modulus) of virgin dark brown and bleached hair fibers under different relative humidity (RH) were determined. It is observed that hair water regain increases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 40-85%; and the remaining percent of hair elasticity decreases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 50-80%. Therefore, measurements of average hair elasticity at 50% and 80% RH, respectively, under various equilibrium times before and after cosmetic treatments can be used to evaluate effects of cosmetic treatments on water adsorption behavior of hair-improvement in hair humidity resistance or enhancement in hair moisture uptake. A Hair Humidity Resistance Factor (H(2)RF) has been defined. If R(2)HF > 1, the product improves hair humidity resistance-anti-frizz; if R(2)HF < 1, the product enhances hair water adsorption; when R(2)HF approximately 1, the product has no significant effect on hair water adsorption behavior. This method was applied to evaluate anti-frizz performance of several shampoo formulations containing Polyquaternium-10, or Polyquaternium-70, or Polyquaternium-67, or Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride. It was found PQ-70 shampoo showed the highest H(2)RF value and the best anti-frizz performance among these tested shampoos. The results were consistent with those obtained from Image Analysis. PMID:17728940

  3. Dyes for Optical Recording

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaru Matsuoka

    1993-01-01

    Dyes for optical recording systems such as laser optical recording systems, laser printing systems, cycolor and related systems, xerography and so on are reviewed. Infrared absorbing (IR) dyes are newly designed for laser optical recording systems such as DRAW and erasable type recording systems. The chemistry of IR dyes developed the new fields in dye chemistry. Many of functionalities in

  4. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Visible) investigations, NMR chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA) parameters of 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine for dye sensitized solar cells using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladis Anitha, E.; Joseph Vedhagiri, S.; Parimala, K.

    2015-02-01

    The molecular structure, geometry optimization, vibrational frequencies of organic dye sensitizer 2,6-Diamino-4-chloropyrimidine (DACP) were studied based on Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrum was investigated by time dependent DFT (TD-DFT). Features of the electronic absorption spectrum in the UV-Visible regions were assigned based on TD-DFT calculation. The absorption bands are assigned to transitions. The interfacial electron transfer between semiconductor TiO2 electrode and dye sensitizer DACP is due to an electron injection process from excited dye to the semiconductor's conduction band. The observed and the calculated frequencies are found to be in good agreement. The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals (FMOS) have also been determined. The chemical shielding anisotropic (CSA) parameters are calculated from the NMR analysis, Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis.

  5. European hair and eye color

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Frost

    2006-01-01

    Human hair and eye color is unusually diverse in northern and eastern Europe. The many alleles involved (at least seven for hair color) and their independent origin over a short span of evolutionary time indicate some kind of selection. Sexual selection is particularly indicated because it is known to favor color traits and color polymorphisms. In addition, hair and eye

  6. First-principles study of Carbz-PAHTDDT dye sensitizer and two Carbz-derived dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Narges; Wang, Feng

    2014-03-01

    Two new carbazole-based organic dye sensitizers are designed and investigated in silico. These dyes are designed through chemical modifications of the ?-conjugated bridge of a reference organic sensitizer known as Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) dye. The aim of designing these dyes was to reduce the energy gap between their highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and to red-shift their absorption response compared to those of the reference S9 dye sensitizer. This reference dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. To investigate geometric and electronic structure, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were conducted on the new dyes as well as the reference dye. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the TD-DFT simulation is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths. The theoretical studies have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap and red-shifted absorption spectra for both of the new candidate dyes. In particular, the new S9-D1 dye is found to have significant reduced HOMO-LUMO energy gap, greater push-pull character and higher wavelengths of absorption when compared to the reference dye. Such findings suggest that the new dyes are promising and suitable for optoelectronic applications. PMID:24595721

  7. Consumer allergy to oxidative hair coloring products: epidemiologic data in the literature.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Maya; Bons, Brigitte; Ryan, Cindy; Gerberick, G Frank

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative hair dyes have repeatedly come to the attention of the dermatologic community owing to concerns about contact dermatitis. A review of the scientific literature provides insight into the prevalence of p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-sensitized individuals and on the prevalence of hair dye dermatitis in various types of patient and nonpatient populations mainly from Europe and from the United States and Asia. Most of the results are obtained through patch testing with PPD. PPD is one of the main oxidation colorants; however, patch-test prevalence of PPD is not equivalent to prevalence of hair dye allergy. An analysis shows no clear increase in the frequency of positive patch-test reactions to PPD in eczema patients and in the general population. All the parameters through which the frequency of hair dye dermatitis resulting from exposure to PPD is evaluated have been stable in Europe, with a few exceptions that are discussed in the review. There is a statistically significant decrease (p < .0001) in the prevalence of positive patch-test reactions to PPD in North America (1970 to 2002). Data from studies in Asia are difficult to interpret. Pooled prevalence rates of positive patch-test reactions to PPD were calculated for the three continents. PMID:19470299

  8. Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

  9. Microrefined microfollicular hair transplant: a new modification in hair transplant.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit

    2014-09-01

    : Hair transplant is the most common cosmetic surgery procedure in men; at our center, we perform nearly 40 transplants a month, with nearly 450 procedures in a year. Current techniques of hair transplant are well established and several authors have had remarkable results using the current techniques of microfollicular hair transplant. Orentreich described hair transplant, Shiell has reviewed current techniques in his paper, whereas Rose reviews the latest innovations in hair transplant including Neograft and robotic procedures. We present our modifications to the process based on our experience of more than 1000 cases in the last 3 years.Microrefined microfollicular hair transplant is a procedure with innovations at each step of the standard microfollicular hair transplant procedure to improve results.The steps of the procedure are as follows: PMID:24374401

  10. A simple method for purification of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells, and application for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Herget, Meike; Scheibinger, Mirko; Guo, Zhaohua; Jan, Taha A; Adams, Christopher M; Cheng, Alan G; Heller, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanosensitive hair cells and supporting cells comprise the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The paucity of both cell types has hampered molecular and cell biological studies, which often require large quantities of purified cells. Here, we report a strategy allowing the enrichment of relatively pure populations of vestibular hair cells and non-sensory cells including supporting cells. We utilized specific uptake of fluorescent styryl dyes for labeling of hair cells. Enzymatic isolation and flow cytometry was used to generate pure populations of sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells. We applied mass spectrometry to perform a qualitative high-resolution analysis of the proteomic makeup of both the hair cell and non-sensory cell populations. Our conservative analysis identified more than 600 proteins with a false discovery rate of <3% at the protein level and <1% at the peptide level. Analysis of proteins exclusively detected in either population revealed 64 proteins that were specific to hair cells and 103 proteins that were only detectable in non-sensory cells. Statistical analyses extended these groups by 53 proteins that are strongly upregulated in hair cells versus non-sensory cells and vice versa by 68 proteins. Our results demonstrate that enzymatic dissociation of styryl dye-labeled sensory hair cells and non-sensory cells is a valid method to generate pure enough cell populations for flow cytometry and subsequent molecular analyses. PMID:23750277

  11. Grey hair: clinical investigation into changes in hair fibres with loss of pigmentation in a photoprotected population.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, P D; Polefka, T; Grove, G; Daly, S; Jumbelic, L; Harper, D; Nori, M; Evans, T; Ramaprasad, R; Bianchini, R

    2011-04-01

    Loss of pigmentation in hair fibres is one of the most obvious phenotypic changes with ageing and has been a topic of increasing interest in the study of follicle biology. The onset of greying brings cosmetic complaints that grey fibres are wild or difficult to manage. Of course, these perceptions may be the consequence of visual obviousness rather than underlying physical or chemical differences. Although several studies have compared pigmented and unpigmented fibres, few have tried to control genetic and ethnic difference as well as extrinsic factors such as photoexposure and chemical treatment. We have recruited subjects with salt-and-pepper hair from a population of Old Order Mennonites who, for cultural reasons, are not only prohibited from chemically treating their hair but also limit their exposure to sunlight. Hair samples were examined for elemental composition, surface energy, Young's modulus, break stress, bending modulus, shear modulus and water sorption/desorption isotherm. The parameters were evaluated statistically for global differences, individual differences and typical individual differences. Consistent with previous published literature, few global differences were found between pigmented and unpigmented hair across the population. We do find that many individual subjects had differences between pigmented and unpigmented fibres. These differences tend to be more pronounced in bulk than in surface properties. The small differences in mechanical properties and moisture uptake and loss lend support to the perception by consumers that grey hair is wilder, drier and less manageable. PMID:21338374

  12. Common Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Walter P.

    1974-01-01

    Four of the commonest hair conditions seen by family practitioners are: seborrheic dermatitis, physiologic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and alopecia areata. This article summarizes the clinical findings in each of these disorders and suggests methods of treatment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:20469068

  13. The Hair Colour Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NRICH team

    2012-01-01

    This class activity is designed to introduce young learners to the concept of tree diagrams. This class activity requires learners to organize data about the individual student's physical characteristics(gender, hair and eye color) utilizing connecting cubes. The activity includes a follow up activity, questions, tips on getting started, a teacher resource page, and a printable version of the problem.

  14. Accumulation of explosives in hair--Part 3: Binding site study.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Kirschenbaum, Louis J; Marimiganti, Suvarna; Efremenko, Irena; Zach, Raya; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2012-05-01

    This study extends previous work on the sorption of explosives to the hair matrix. Specifically, we have studied the interaction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and triacetone triperoxide (TATP) as a function of chemical pretreatment with acetonitrile, neutral and alkaline hydrogen peroxide, methanolic KOH and potassium permanganate, and the morphological changes that accompany these treatments. While differences in vapor pressure can account for quantitative differences between TNT and TATP sorption, both are markedly affected by the chemical rinses. Examination of the hair surface shows different degrees of smoothening following rinsing, suggesting that the attachment to hair is largely a surface phenomenon involving the 18-methyleicosanoic acid lipid layer. Density functional theory calculations were employed to explore possible nucleation sites of TATP microcrystals on the hair. We conclude that some of the sites on melanin granular surfaces may support nucleation of TATP microcrystals. Moreover, the calculations support the experimental finding that dark hair adsorbs explosives better than light hair. PMID:22235760

  15. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  16. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance...substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  19. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    E-print Network

    Gia Dvali; Cesar Gomez

    2012-03-29

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  20. Dynamic tuning of hair bundle mechanoreceptors in a sea anemone during predation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen M. Watson; Patricia Mire

    The sea anemone Haliplanella luciae (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) detects chemical and mechanical stimuli from prey. Hair bundle mechanoreceptors on the tentacles participate\\u000a in regulating discharge of microbasic p-mastigophore nematocysts. Properly stimulated hair bundles sensitize the anemone to\\u000a discharge nematocysts into objects that contact the tentacles. The hair bundle mechanoreceptors are composed of stereocilia\\u000a derived from a multicellular complex. This complex consists

  1. Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Improved charge-transfer fluorescent dyes have been developed for use as molecular probes. These dyes are based on benzofuran nuclei with attached phenyl groups substituted with, variously, electron donors, electron acceptors, or combinations of donors and acceptors. Optionally, these dyes could be incorporated as parts of polymer backbones or as pendant groups or attached to certain surfaces via self-assembly-based methods. These dyes exhibit high fluorescence quantum yields -- ranging from 0.2 to 0.98, depending upon solvents and chemical structures. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes of the fluorescence emitted by these dyes vary with (and, hence, can be used as indicators of) the polarities of solvents in which they are dissolved: In solvents of increasing polarity, fluorescence spectra shift to longer wavelengths, fluorescence quantum yields decrease, and fluorescence lifetimes increase. The wavelengths, quantum yields, intensities, and lifetimes are also expected to be sensitive to viscosities and/or glass-transition temperatures. Some chemical species -- especially amines, amino acids, and metal ions -- quench the fluorescence of these dyes, with consequent reductions in intensities, quantum yields, and lifetimes. As a result, the dyes can be used to detect these species. Another useful characteristic of these dyes is a capability for both two-photon and one-photon absorption. Typically, these dyes absorb single photons in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum (wavelengths < 400 nm) and emit photons in the long-wavelength ultraviolet, visible, and, when dissolved in some solvents, near-infrared regions. In addition, these dyes can be excited by two-photon absorption at near-infrared wavelengths (600 to 800 nm) to produce fluorescence spectra identical to those obtained in response to excitation by single photons at half the corresponding wavelengths (300 to 400 nm). While many prior fluorescent dyes exhibit high quantum yields, solvent-polarity- dependent fluorescence behavior, susceptibility to quenching by certain chemical species, and/or two-photon fluorescence, none of them has the combination of all of these attributes. Because the present dyes do have all of these attributes, they have potential utility as molecular probes in a variety of applications. Examples include (1) monitoring curing and deterioration of polymers; (2) monitoring protein expression; (3) high-throughput screening of drugs; (4) monitoring such chemical species as glucose, amines, amino acids, and metal ions; and (5) photodynamic therapy of cancers and other diseases.

  2. Organic components in hair-ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for the analysis of complex samples due to its outstanding mass resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (? 1 ppm), simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds. The characteristics of the FTICR-MS hair-ice spectra with as many as ten or more peaks at each nominal mass are discussed together with highly resolved spectra from water and soil samples different sources, respectively. Complete manual formula assignment for structure elucidation would be extremely time consuming, therefore, we used an automated post processing based on SciLab for exploitation of the data with the aim of an unambiguous assignment of as many peaks as possible. Once the formulae had been assigned, the obtained mass lists were first checked randomly and afterwards transformed into Excel format for further post-processing and description. Most important is the van Krevelen diagram, usually two-dimensional as atomic ratio H/C versus atomic ratio O/C, widely used to classify samples regarding polarity and aromaticity. By comparison with two references (Hockaday 2007, Sleighter 2007), which arranged various biopolymer substance classes in such Van Krevelen plots, lignin could be detected as the main hair-ice component.

  3. Unnecessary Chemicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anita

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the health hazards resulting from chemical additions of many common products such as cough syrups, food dyes, and cosmetics. Steps being taken to protect consumers from these health hazards are included. (MDR)

  4. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  5. Bioremediation of dyes by fungi isolated from contaminated dye effluent sites for bio-usability.

    PubMed

    Rani, Babita; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Jagvijay; Bisht, Sandeep; Teotia, Priyanku; Sharma, Shivesh; Kela, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation and detoxification of dyes, Malachite green, Nigrosin and Basic fuchsin have been carried out using two fungal isolates Aspergillus niger, and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, isolated from dye effluent soil. Three methods were selected for biodegradation, viz. agar overlay and liquid media methods; stationary and shaking conditions at 25 °C. Aspergillus niger recorded maximum decolorization of the dye Basic fuchsin (81.85%) followed by Nigrosin (77.47%), Malachite green (72.77%) and dye mixture (33.08%) under shaking condition. Whereas, P. chrysosporium recorded decolorization to the maximum with the Nigrosin (90.15%) followed by Basic fuchsin (89.8%), Malachite green (83.25%) and mixture (78.4%). The selected fungal strains performed better under shaking conditions compared to stationary method; moreover the inoculation of fungus also brought the pH of the dye solutions to neutral from acidic. Seed germination bioassay study exhibited that when inoculated dye solutions were used, seed showed germination while uninoculated dyes inhibited germination even after four days of observation. Similarly, microbial growth was also inhibited by uninoculated dyes. The excellent performance of A. niger and P. chrysporium in the biodegradation of textile dyes of different chemical structures suggests and reinforces the potential of these fungi for environmental decontamination. PMID:25477943

  6. Hair cell regeneration: Look to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Edwin W.

    2005-04-01

    Less than 2 decades ago it was discovered that birds can regenerate hair cells in the auditory and vestibular parts of the inner ear after the native hair cells are destroyed by exposure to excessive noise or by mechanical trauma of aminoglycoside antibiotics. This discovery issued in a new era of hearing research-it suggested that some day it may be possible to actually restore hearing in people with congenital or acquired hearing loss due to the degeneration of sensory cells or supporting cells in the inner ear. Fifteen years is a very short time in the history of science. Consider the fact that we have actively sought chemical treatments to prevent or cure cancers for well over a half century and the ``war on Cancer,'' resulted in enormous public and private support. Progress has been great, and some forms of cancer can be treated with great success, but the overall 5-year survival rates have only risen from about 50% to 63%. Progress will continue and many more forms of cancer will be cured and prevented during the next half century. Similarly, during the first 15 years of hair cell regeneration research enormous progress has been made, and we now know that postnatal mammalian ears have the capacity to produce new hair cells. We are indeed a long way from restoring hearing through hair cell regeneration, but the future is pretty clear. I will review the progress of this field with an eye toward the future and what it means for treatments of today. In particular, I will address the potential cost versus benefits of bilateral implantation when applied to babies and young children.

  7. Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinevez, J.-Y.; Martin, P.; Jülicher, F.

    2009-02-01

    The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but display non-monotonic movements in response to abrupt force steps. Extracellular calcium changes or static biases to the bundle's position at rest could affect the kinetics of bundle motion and evoke transitions between the different classes of motility. The calcium-dependent location of a bundle's operating point within its nonlinear force-displacement relation controlled the type of movements observed. A unified theoretical description, in which mechanical activity stems from myosin-based adaptation and electro-mechanical feedback by Ca2+, could account for the fast and slow manifestations of active hair-bundle motility.

  8. Hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Nakahara

    1999-01-01

    This review focuses on basic aspects and recent studies of hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs and is discussed with 164 references. Firstly, biology of hair and sampling of hair specimens have been commented for the sake of correct interpretation of the results from hair analysis. Then the usual washing methods of hair samples and the extraction methods for

  9. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  10. Laser dye stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Fletcher

    1980-01-01

    Lasing characteristics and bleaching of four Eastman Kodak ir dyes have been examined in dimethyl sulfoxide. These ir dyes\\u000a are shown to improve in performance in the absence of oxygen. Their photochemical stability was found to be comparable to\\u000a the quinolone laser dyes when exposed to flashlamp excitation. Photodecomposition of the ir dyes under lasing conditions was\\u000a found to vary

  11. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  12. Removal of Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution by ozone for water reuse in textile dyeing processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Colindres; H. Yee-Madeira; E. Reguera

    2010-01-01

    The removal of textile dye Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution by ozone until total decolorization using a semi-batch bubbling reactor was studied. This compound was selected because of its extended industrial application for cotton dyeing. Decomposition of that textile dye was observed by adding some chemical auxiliaries commonly used in textile dyeing processes such as sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate

  13. Alternative Method for Creating Fine Hairs with Hair Removal Laser in Hair Transplantation for Hairline Correction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Jin Yong; Choe, Yun Seon; Han, Wonseok; An, Jee Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Foremost fine hairs in the frontal hairline region are critical in hair transplantation for hairline correction (HTHC) in women. However, there are few studies on a nonsurgical revisionary method for improving an unnatural foremost hairline with thick donor hairs resulting from a previous HTHC. Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of using a hair removal laser (HRL) system to create fine hairs in Asian women with thick donor hairs. Methods Through a retrospective chart review, the HRL parameters, hair diameter (measured with a micrometer before and after the procedures), subjective results after the procedures, adverse effects, and the number of procedures were investigated. The reduction rate of the hair diameter was calculated. Results Twenty-four women who received long-pulse Neodymium-Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet therapy after HTHC were included. The parameters were as follows: delivered laser energy, 35~36 J/cm2; pulse duration, 6 ms; and spot size, 10 mm. The mean number of laser sessions was 2.6. The mean hair diameter significantly decreased from 80.0±11.5 µm to 58.4±13.2 µm (p=0.00). The mean rate of hair diameter reduction was -25.7% (range, -44.6% to 5.7%). The number of laser sessions and the hair diameter after the procedures showed a negative correlation (r=-0.410, p=0.046). Most of the patients (87.5%) reported subjective improvement of their hairlines. Most complications were transient and mild. Conclusion HRL can be an alternative method for creating fine hairs and revising foremost hairline in Asian women with thick donor hairs. PMID:25673927

  14. Dye Like A Natural

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners stain fabrics--on purpose! Learners explore the art of natural dyeing by using dyes and substrates that are both derived from plant or animal sources as well as mordant solutions. Learners compare the color and effectiveness of different mordant/dye combinations on the different substrates.

  15. Solid state dye lasers with scattering feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costela, A.; Cerdán, L.; García-Moreno, I.

    2013-11-01

    Over the last decade, significant advances have been made toward the development of practical, tunable solid state dye lasers, which resulted in improved lasing efficiency with reduced dye photodegradation. To achieve this goal, a “chemical” approach was followed, where attention was focused onto the particular dye/host interaction and compatibility, specifically choosing already existing hosts for a given dye, synthesizing new dyes and/or matrices, or chemically modifying existing ones. Nevertheless, this approach was limited by a single fact learnt from the experience: there is no universal matrix which optimizes the efficiency and photostability of all dyes. This limitation could be overcome by following a “physical” approach, where the emission properties of the active medium are tailored by means of physical and structural modifications of the dye host. Following this approach, in this paper recent theoretical and experimental work is reviewed where it is demonstrated that following a simultaneous “physical” and “chemical” approach to tailor the emission properties of the host materials for solid state dye lasers, may lead, under specific circumstances, to the improvement of both the laser efficiency and photostability. In particular, it is demonstrated that optical scattering is not always detrimental either to conventional bulk lasers (laser rods or colloidal suspensions) or to integrated devices, but may give place, on the contrary, to dramatic improvements in the laser operation of organic (hybrid) laser rods, and to alternative ways of obtaining laser light from integrated devices based on the phenomenon of coherent random lasing, where feedback is provided by light scattering in an appropriate medium, without the need to manufacture complex periodic structures in the substrate. The processing and pumping flexibility of these materials, together with their low cost and capability of efficient emission across the whole visible spectrum makes them very attractive for the fabrication and development of coherent light sources suitable for integration in optoelectronic and disposable spectroscopic and sensing devices.

  16. Supporting cells eliminate dying sensory hair cells to maintain epithelial integrity in the avian inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Jonathan E.; Daudet, Nicolas; Warchol, Mark E.; Gale, Jonathan E.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial homeostasis is essential for sensory transduction in the auditory and vestibular organs of the inner ear, but how it is maintained during trauma is poorly understood. To examine potential repair mechanisms, we expressed ?-actin-EGFP in the chick inner ear and used live-cell imaging to study how sensory epithelia responded during aminoglycoside-induced hair cell trauma. We found that glial-like supporting cells used two independent mechanisms to rapidly eliminate dying hair cells. Supporting cells assembled an actin cable at the luminal surface that extended around the peri-cuticular junction and constricted to excise the stereocilia bundle and cuticular plate from the hair cell soma. Hair bundle excision could occur within 3 minutes of actin-cable formation. Following bundle excision, typically after a delay of up to 2–3 hours, supporting cells engulfed and phagocytosed the remaining bundle-less hair cell. Dual-channel recordings with ?-actin-EGFP and vital dyes revealed phagocytosis was concurrent with loss of hair cell integrity. We conclude that supporting cells repaired the epithelial barrier before hair cell plasmalemmal integrity was lost and that supporting cell activity was closely linked to hair cell death. Treatment with the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 did not prevent bundle excision but prolonged phagocytic engulfment and resulted in hair cell corpses accumulating within the epithelium. Our data show that supporting cells not only maintain epithelial integrity during trauma but suggest they may also be an integral part of the hair cell death process itself. PMID:20844149

  17. Forensic Science: Hair Sample Investigation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into how hairs from a crime scene are matched to suspects. Learners each take a single hair from their own head, then put it directly into the beam of a laser pointer. This projects the unique pattern of each hair onto a piece of paper to be traced, measured, identified and compared with the others. Learners can conclude this activity by setting up a mystery exercise with prepared samples of hair already in frames. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forensics.

  18. Structure and linear spectroscopic properties of near IR polymethine dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Webster; Lazaro A. Padilha; Honghua Hu; Olga V. Przhonska; David J. Hagan; Eric W. Van Stryland; Mikhail V. Bondar; Iryna G. Davydenko; Yuriy L. Slominsky; Alexei D. Kachkovski

    2008-01-01

    We performed a detailed experimental investigation and quantum-chemical analysis of a new series of near IR polymethine dyes with 5-butyl-7,8-dihydrobenzo[cd]furo[2,3-f]indolium terminal groups. We also synthesized and studied two neutral dyes, squaraine and tetraone, with the same terminal groups and performed a comparison of the spectroscopic properties of this set of “near IR” dyes (polymethine, squaraine, and tetraone) with an analogous

  19. Nonlinear amplification by active sensory hair bundles

    E-print Network

    Jülicher, Frank

    vulnerable mechanism. In the cochlea, sensory hair bundles transduce sound-induced vibrations into neural on a hair bundle from the sacculus of the bullfrog with real-time stochastic simulations of hair

  20. Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. PMID:24457001

  1. Hair cell tufts and afferent innervation of the bullfrog crista ampullaris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Steven F.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    1990-01-01

    Within the bullfrog semicircular canal crista, hair cell tuft types were defined and mapped with the aid of scanning electron microscopy. Dye-filled planar afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.6-4.9 microns, highly branched arbors, and contacted 11-24 hair cells. Dye-filled isthmus afferent axons had mean distal axonal diameters of 1.8-7.9 microns, with either small or large field arbors contacting 4-9 or 25-31 hair cells. The estimated mean number of contacts per innervated hair cell was 2.2 for planar and 1.3 for isthmus afferent neurons. Data on evoked afferent responses were available only for isthmus units that were observed to respond to our microrotational stimuli. Of 21 such afferent neurons, eight were successfully dye-filled. Within this sample, high-gain units had large field arbors and lower-gain units had small field arbors. The sensitivity of each afferent neuron was analyzed in terms of noise equivalent input (NEI), the stimulus amplitude for which the afferent response amplitude is just equivalent to the rms deviation of the instantaneous spike rate. NEI for isthmus units varied from 0.63 to 8.2 deg/s; the mean was 3.2 deg/s.

  2. Oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the low-temperature direct growth of graphitic nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we report an oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method for the direct growth of graphitic nanofibers (GNFs) on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate at a low temperature (550 °C). By adding moderate concentrations of oxygen in a gas mixture of argon, ethylene, and hydrogen during LPCVD, an extremely dense GNF forest can be obtained on a nickel-coated FTO glass substrate. Though this process, the graphitic nanofibers are grown homogenously on a large area of FTO glass. It was observed that oxygen-assisted LPCVD leads to the direct growth of high-quality GNFs as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In combination with an N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with a GNF counter electrode showed a power conversion efficiency of 5.51% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm?2) illumination, which approached that of the DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (5.44%). The results demonstrated that our directly grown GNFs could be promising candidates for counter electrodes to achieve high performance in DSSCs.

  3. Chemical reactions in TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes and their impacts to power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chuen-Shii; Jhang, Jhih-Wei; Chou, Sheng-Wei; Wu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by combining chemical modeling with experimentation. The interfacial chemical reactions in a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 system were simulated using a thermochemistry software package, which led to the design and testing of hybrid working electrodes. Chemical thermodynamic modeling proved that TiCl4 is an effective agent in removing Tin+ (n<4) and Snm+ (m<4) ion impurities from dry-mixed TiO2/SnO2 composite particles. Our results demonstrate that the power conversion efficiency of DSSC with a TiO2/SnO2/TiCl4 hybrid electrode exceeds that of the conventional DSSC with a TiO2 electrode due to the effects of light-scattering and the formation of additional absorbance (SnCl2), which is an unexpected side effect of TiCl4 treatment enabling the absorption of visible light. The proposed approach is ideally suited to establishing relationships between chemistry theory and the structure and performance of advanced DSSCs as well as photo-electro-chemical systems.

  4. Lavender Foal Syndrome Hair Sample Sheet Please tape hair samples within boxed area as illustrated and place in individual envelope.

    E-print Network

    Keinan, Alon

    Lavender Foal Syndrome Hair Sample Sheet Please tape hair samples within boxed area as illustrated and place in individual envelope. *Pull 50 hairs from the tail or mane (do not use hairs shed on brush) #Hairs must be pulled, not cut #Hairs must contain hair root *Align the "roots" of the hairs and trim

  5. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

    2009-03-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a progestogen. Antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate, always accompanied by tricyclic contraceptives, are the best choice of antiandrogens to use in patients with FPHL. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists such as leuprolide acetate suppress pituitary and gonadal function through a reduction in luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Subsequently, ovarian steroid levels also will be reduced, especially in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. When polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, metformin must be considered as treatment. Hyperprolactinemic SAHA and alopecia of pituitary hyperandrogenism should be treated with bromocriptine or cabergoline. Postmenopausal alopecia, with previous high levels of androgens or with prostatic-specific antigen greater than 0.04 ng/mL, improves with finasteride or dutasteride. Although we do not know the reason, postmenopausal alopecia in normoandrogenic women also improves with finasteride or dutasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg per day. Dermatocosmetic concealment with a hairpiece, hair prosthesis as extensions, or partial hairpieces can be useful. Lastly, weight loss undoubtedly improves hair loss in hyperandrogenic women. PMID:19341939

  6. Contact allergy to hair colouring products. The cosmetovigilance experience of 4 companies (2003-2006).

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Maya; Bons, Brigitte; Tozer, Sarah; Rich, Kim; Hoting, Edo; Hollenberg, Detlef; Fuchs, Anne; Fautz, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The post-marketing undesirable events to hair colouring products in the European Union notified to the cosmetovigilance departments of four major cosmetic companies were analysed (2003-2006). The objective was to determine whether there was any time effect (trend to increase or decrease), country effect (significant difference between the countries included in the analysis) or product type effect (direct or oxidation), as well as to identify risk factors. Alleged undesirable events (UEvs, all notifications prior to causality assessment), were compared to the respective undesirable effects (UEfs, reasonably attributable to product use). A detailed analysis was performed on notifications with manifestations compatible with allergic contact dermatitis. No time effect of UEvs and UEfs was shown, for all hair-dye associated notifications and for allergic contact dermatitis, for all hair colouring products together and by product type. The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis to direct hair colouring products was lower for all four companies compared to oxidative hair dyes. The reporting rates of UEfs were statistically higher in the UK for one of four companies. Past history of black henna tattoos appeared as a major risk factor for seriousness of allergic contact reactions. PMID:19797040

  7. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  8. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  9. Zeolite-dye micro lasers

    E-print Network

    Vietze, U; Laeri, F; Ihlein, G; Schüth, F; Limburg, B; Abraham, M

    1998-01-01

    We present a new class of micro lasers based on nanoporous molecular sieve host-guest systems. Organic dye guest molecules of 1-Ethyl-4-(4-(p-Dimethylaminophenyl)-1,3-butadienyl)-pyridinium Perchlorat were inserted into the 0.73-nm-wide channel pores of a zeolite AlPO$_4$-5 host. The zeolitic micro crystal compounds where hydrothermally synthesized according to a particular host-guest chemical process. The dye molecules are found not only to be aligned along the host channel axis, but to be oriented as well. Single mode laser emission at 687 nm was obtained from a whispering gallery mode oscillating in a 8-$\\mu$m-diameter monolithic micro resonator, in which the field is confined by total internal reflection at the natural hexagonal boundaries inside the zeolitic microcrystals.

  10. Studies on Dyeing Process Variables for Salt Free Reactive Dyeing of Glycine Modified Cationized Cotton Muslin Fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Kar, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Asis; Shome, Debashis; Konar, Adwaita

    2015-03-01

    Bleached cotton muslin fabric with or without pre-oxidized with NaIO4 (oxy-cotton) was chemically modified with glycine (amino acid) by pad dry calendar process to investigate the changes in textile properties and its dyeability with reactive dye. This glycine modified cotton incorporates new functional groups producing -NH3 + or -C=NH+ -ion (cationic groups) in acid bath to obtain cationized cotton making it amenable to a newer route of salt free reactive dyeing in acid bath. In the present work the process variables of reactive dyeing in the salt free acid bath for dyeing of amine (glycine) modified cationized cotton were studied and optimized. The present study also includes thorough investigation of changes in important textile related properties and dyeability with reactive dye after such chemical modifications. Between oxidized and unoxidized cotton muslin fabric, unoxidized cotton fabric shows better reactive dye uptake in both conventional alkaline bath dyeing and nonconventional salt free acid bath dyeing particularly for high exhaustion class of reactive dye with acceptable level of colour fastness and overall balance of other textile related properties. Moreover, application of dye fixing agent further improves surface colour depth (K/S) of the glycine treated cotton fabric for HE brand of reactive dyes. Corresponding reaction mechanisms for such modifications were supported by FTIR spectroscopy. Finally unoxidized cotton and pre-oxidized cotton further treated with glycine (amino acid) provide a new route of acid bath salt free reactive dyeing showing much higher dye uptake and higher degree of surface cover with amino acid residue anchored to modified cotton.

  11. Degradation of dye solution by an activated carbon fiber electrode electrolysis system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhemin Shen; Wenhua Wang; Jinping Jia; Jianchang Ye; Xue Feng; An Peng

    2001-01-01

    Degradation of 29 dyes by means of an activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrode electrolysis system was performed successfully. Almost all dye solutions tested were decolorized effectively in this ACF electrolysis process. Internal relationships between treatment mechanisms and chemical composition of the dye have been discussed in this paper. Generally, it is shown that higher solubility leads to greater degradation in

  12. 40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). 721.10633 Section 721... Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to...

  13. Photostability, laser energy conversion efficiency and absorption of IR heptamethine cyanine dyes absorbing beyond 1 ?m

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinlong Zhang; Weimei Luo; Zhenghua Zhu

    1995-01-01

    The optical absorption, photostability and energy conversion efficiency of a series of heptamethine IR dyes are reported and results related to chemical structure. The high photostability and high laser energy conversion efficiency of several of the dyes indicate potential use in IR dye lasers.

  14. Degradation of Azo Dyes by Trametes villosa Laccase over Long Periods of Oxidative Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Zille; Barbara Gornacka; Astrid Rehorek; Artur Cavaco-Paulo

    2005-01-01

    The chemical structure of dyes is comprised of a conjugated system of double bonds and aromatic rings. The major classes of dyes have antroquinoid, indigoid, and azo aromatic struc- tures. All of these structures allow strong -* transitions in the UV-visible (UV-Vis) area, with high extinction coefficients that allow us to consider these structures dye chromophores. Of all of these

  15. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Neural Network (NN) calculations of some disazo dye adsorption on cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simona Timofei; Ludovic Kurunczi; Takahiro Suzuki; Walter M. F Fabian; Sorel Mure?an

    1997-01-01

    Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) analysis and Neural Network (NN) calculations are applied to a series of 21 disazo anionic dyes. Three-dimensional QSAR parameters were derived from the Cartesian coordinates of the dye molecules. Low energy conformations were obtained by molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Electronic and steric effects in the dye-cellulose binding are present. The proposed MLR models are

  16. ESTIMATION OF IONIZATION CONSTANTS OF AZO DYES AND RELATED AROMATIC AMINES: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ionization constants for 214 dye molecules were calculated from molecular structures using the chemical reactivity models developed in SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry). hese models used fundamental chemical structure theory to predict chemical reactivities ...

  17. Hair as Race: Why “Good Hair” May Be Bad for Black Females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia L. Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Critically examining the relationship between race, Black female beauty, and hair texture, this qualitative study used narratives from 38 Black females between the ages of 19 and 81, to determine messages that communicate hair valuations to Black females, definitions of good and bad hair, and motivations for desiring good hair. A legacy of slavery, hair valuations reflect racially motivated beauty

  18. Unifying the Various Incarnations of Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell

    E-print Network

    Jülicher, Frank

    Unifying the Various Incarnations of Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell Jean of the hair cells' responsiveness to small stimuli. As revealed by spontaneous oscillations and forms of mechanical excitability in response to force steps, the hair bundle that adorns each hair cell is both

  19. Hair cycle and hair pigmentation: dynamic interactions and changes associated with aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Van Neste; Desmond J Tobin

    2004-01-01

    The tight coupling of hair follicle melanogenesis to the hair growth cycle dramatically distinguishes follicular melanogenesis from the continuous melanogenesis of the epidermis. Cyclic re-construction of an intact hair follicle pigmentary unit occurs optimally in all scalp hair follicles during only the first 10 hair cycles, i.e. by approximately 40 years of age. Thereafter there appears to be a genetically

  20. The color(s) of human hair—Forensic hair analysis with SpectraCube ®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Birngruber; Frank Ramsthaler; Marcel A. Verhoff

    2009-01-01

    Human hair is among the most common kind of evidence secured at crime scenes. Although DNA analysis through STR-typing is possible in principle, it is not very promising for telogenic hair or single hairs. For the mixed traces frequently found in practice, composed of different hair from an unknown number of individuals, mtDNA sequencing of each individual hair seems to

  1. Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

    2009-12-01

    Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

  2. Measurement of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of human hair using optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenxing; Li, Gaosheng; Xie, Huimin; Hua, Tao; Chen, Pengwan; Huang, Fenglei

    2010-03-01

    Human hair is a complex nanocomposite fiber whose physical appearance and mechanical strength are governed by a variety of factors like ethnicity, cleaning, grooming, chemical treatments and environment. Characterization of mechanical properties of hair is essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Hence the behavior of hair under tension is of interest to beauty care science. Human hair fibers experience tensile forces as they are groomed and styled. Previous researches about tensile testing of human hair were seemingly focused on the longitudinal direction, such as elastic modulus, yield strength, breaking strength and strain at break after different treatment. In this research, experiment of evaluating the mechanical properties of human hair, such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, was designed and conducted. The principle of the experimental instrument was presented. The system of testing instrument to evaluate the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was introduced. The range of Poisson's ratio of the hair from the identical person was evaluated. Experiments were conducted for testing the mechanical properties after acid, aqueous alkali and neutral solution treatment of human hair. Explanation of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was conducted base on these results of experiments. These results can be useful to hair treatment and cosmetic product.

  3. A closer look at the complex hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions forces at the human hair surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdadli, N.; Luengo, G. S.; Recherche, L.

    2008-03-01

    The complex chemical structure of the hair surface is far from being completely understood. Current understanding is based on Rivett's model1 that was proposed to explain the macroscopic hydrophobic nature of the surface of natural hair. In this model covalently-linked fatty acids are chemically grafted to the amorphous protein (keratin) through a thio-ester linkage2,3. Nevertheless, experience like wetting and electrical properties of human hair surface4 shows that the complexity of the hair surface is not fully understand based on this model in literature. Recent studies in our laboratory show for the first time microscopic evidence of the heterogeneous physico-chemical character of the hair surface. By using Chemical Force Microscopy, the presence of hydrophobic and ionic species are detected and localized, before and after a cosmetic treatment (bleaching). Based on force curve analysis the mapping of the local distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups of hair surface is obtained. A discussion on a more plausible hair model and its implications will be presented based on these new results.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Hair Follicle Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Millar

    2002-01-01

    Clinical conditions causing hair loss, such as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, and scarring alopecia, can be psychologically devastating to individuals and are the target of a multimillion dollar pharmaceutical industry. The importance of the hair follicle in skin biology, however, does not rest solely with its ability to produce hair. Hair follicles are self-renewing and contain reservoirs of multipotent stem

  5. STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    #12;STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes May 2, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2 Hair structure and mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3 Oriented Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.4 Parameter values for natural hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 #12;2 Hair Interactions

  6. Hair-color modeling and head detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Zhao; Dihua Sun; Hengpan He

    2008-01-01

    A method based on hair-color modeling to detect human head in color images was proposed. The presented algorithm compared the performance of four different chrominance spaces for the distribution of hair color and built a human hair color model in YCbCr space. A Gaussian mixture density model was used to describe the distribution of hair color and segmentation threshold value

  7. Efficient DNA extraction from hair shafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Almeida; E. Betancor; R. Fregel; N. M. Suárez; J. Pestano

    Hairs are common biological samples in crime scene investigation. However, most of this evidence is comprised of hair fragments without the root. As the major part of DNA is located in the root, hair shafts are usually problematic samples in forensic analysis. For these reasons, hair DNA typing is directed at mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is present in high copy

  8. Simulating Rapunzel's hair in Disney's Tangled

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Ward; Maryann Simmons; Andy Milne; Hidetaka Yosumi; Xinmin Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Hair simulation is known to be a complex problem in animation. In Tangled we have the extreme task of simulating 70 feet of hair for the film's main character, Rapunzel. The excessive hair length in addition to the loose style and intricate structure of the hair present many unique challenges in simulation. Moreover, the specific art direction of the film

  9. Age-dependent changes in eumelanin composition in hairs of various ethnic origins.

    PubMed

    Commo, S; Wakamatsu, K; Lozano, I; Panhard, S; Loussouarn, G; Bernard, B A; Ito, S

    2012-02-01

    Hair pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes of humans. From a chemical point of view, however, data remain scarce regarding human hair pigmentation characteristics. To determine melanin content and composition in human eumelanic hair from individuals of different ethnic origins and at different ages, we collected hair from 56 subjects with eumelanic hair from each group of African-American, East Asian, and Caucasian origin. The 56 subjects consist of 14, seven each of males and females, each from four age classes of younger than 11, between 12 and 19, between 20 and 45, and older than 46. We analysed hair colour scale, total melanin value, and contents of pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA). We measured age-dependent increases in the relative quantity of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs in the three ethnic groups. Regarding melanin composition, we observed an increase in the PDCA/PTCA ratio with age in African-American and Caucasian hairs until approaching the quite constant level of the ratio in East Asian hairs in the elderly individuals. Our results evidence differences in the content and composition of eumelanin in human hair among African-American, Caucasian and East Asian individuals. Furthermore, we show evidence of age-dependent changes in the quantity and quality of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs. In particular, the age-dependent modification of the PDCA/PTCA ratio, a marker for 5,6-dihydroxyindole units in eumelanin, suggests a chronological evolution of hair follicle melanocyte phenotype (e.g. decrease in dopachrome tautomerase expression). PMID:22017184

  10. Toward rational design of organic dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs): an application to the TA-St-CA dye.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Narges; Mahon, Peter J; Wang, Feng

    2013-03-01

    A computer aided rational design has been performed on TA-St-CA dye sensitizer in order to improve the desirable properties for new organic dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A number of electron-donating (ED) and electron-withdrawing (EW) units based on Dewar's rules are substituted into the ?-conjugated oligo-phenylenevinylene bridge of the reference TA-St-CA dye. The effects of these alternations on the molecular structures and the electron absorption spectra are calculated using time-dependant density functional theory (TDDFT). It is found that chemical modifications using electron donating (ED) substitutions exhibit advantages over the electron withdrawing (EW) substitutes to reduce the HOMO-LUMO energy gap as well as the electron distribution of the frontier orbitals of the new dyes. Dewar's rule is a useful guideline for rational design of new dye sensitizers with desired HOMO-LUMO gap. The impact on the optical spectra of new dyes are, however, less significant. PMID:23353583

  11. Childhood Hair Product Use and Earlier Age at Menarche in a Racially Diverse Study Population: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    James-Todd, Tamarra; Terry, Mary Beth; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Deierlein, Andrea; Senie, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies suggest that hair products containing endocrine disrupting chemicals could alter puberty. We evaluated the association between childhood hair product use and age at menarche in a racially diverse study population. Methods We recruited 300 African-American, African-Caribbean, Hispanic, and white women from the New York City metropolitan area who were between 18 and 77 years of age. Data were collected retrospectively on hair oil, lotion, leave-in conditioner, perm, and other types of hair products used prior to age 13. Recalled age at menarche ranged from 8 to 19 years. We used multivariable binomial regression to evaluate the association between hair product use and age at menarche (< 12 versus >=12), adjusting for potential confounders. Results African-Americans were more likely to use hair products and reached menarche earlier than other racial/ethnic groups. Women reporting childhood hair oil use had a risk ratio of 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.9) for earlier menarche, adjusting for race/ethnicity and year of birth. Hair perm users had an increased risk for earlier menarche (adjusted risk ratio: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). Other types of hair products assessed in this study were not associated with earlier menarche. Conclusions Childhood hair oil and perm use were associated with earlier menarche. If replicated, these results suggest that hair product use may be important to measure in evaluating earlier age at menarche. PMID:21421329

  12. No hair theorems for positive ?

    E-print Network

    Sourav Bhattacharya; Amitabha Lahiri

    2007-11-19

    We extend all known black hole no-hair theorems to space-times endowed with a positive cosmological constant $\\Lambda.$ Specifically, we prove that static spherical black holes with $\\Lambda>0$ cannot support scalar fields in convex potentials and Proca-massive vector fields in the region between black hole and cosmic horizons. We also demonstrate the existence of at least one type of quantum hair, and of exactly one charged solution for the Abelian Higgs model. Our method of proof can be applied to investigate other types of quantum or topological hair on black holes in the presence of a positive $\\Lambda.$

  13. How Thick is Your Hair?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rebecca Thompson-Flagg

    2010-01-01

    In this activity on page 13 of the PDF, learners use a laser pointer (with known wavelength of light) to measure the thickness of a human hair. By shining the laser on a hair, analyzing the patterns created, and completing some calculations, learners the thickness of a hair in nanometers. Learners can calibrate the laser to find its wavelength by completing the first activity in the manual entitled, "Spots, Lines and Lasers." This manual contains 4 activities related to the Spectra: The Original Laser Superhero Force comic book published by the American Physical Society.

  14. Chemical characterization of hair using ion beams

    E-print Network

    Yulo, Ma. Melinda S

    1979-01-01

    :octc et al. (?1) l. ave sho?rn that this tcchnicu? !tas a set of. ' . eat;ur cs nrh ich ?or?pare f'avorably cr th those of t!ne pr evio&tsly ?&?ntioned l! mict hods: app lie a'o il' ty to small a nounts o' . "a nple ( 10 10 g), hi -h se?si'-, ivi... severa) beamlir?es to p? even!. or! r, y losses, sma11 anple scatterinp; or chanc!e or t??c charge s:a?e (?'I) . ?caml inc-21? was used I'c? this sI r?dy. Tab o, 1 1?. s the ion beams that v!er e util? wed in I. I?1. :? wol'k tc Pe hen wi ti. the? r...

  15. Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

  16. BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT OF AZO DYES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Toxic Substances evaluates existing chemicals under Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Premanufacture Notification (PMN) submissions under Section 5 of TSCA. Azo dyes constitute a significant portion...

  17. Simplified Representations for Modeling Hair Abstract: We present a novel framework for modeling hair

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    Simplified Representations for Modeling Hair Abstract: We present a novel framework for modeling hair using simplified representations. The set of representations, in- cluding individual strands rendering of hair, and offers flexibility to balance between performance and quality. Furthermore

  18. Tie-Dye Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gretchen Cessna

    2001-03-01

    In their travels to the indigo dye pits of northern Nigeria, the authors were struck by the beauty, history, and chemistry of indigo dyeing. They returned from Nigeria eager to develop a laboratory exercise that would expose students to the science of ind

  19. Oxazine laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Field, George F. (Danville, CA)

    1992-01-01

    New oxazine compounds useful as dye laser media in solution, are superiior to prior art materials. The oxazine dyes useful when pumped by the 578.2 nm copper line to operate in the 700-800 nm range are described by formula I ##STR1##

  20. Rhodamine B as a systemic hair marker for assessment of bait acceptance by stoats (Mustela erminea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Spurr

    2002-01-01

    Rhodamine B (RB) is a dye that becomes incorporated into the structure of growing hair of animals that ingest it, appearing as an orange?red fluorescent band detectable under a fluorescent?light microscope. This marker was evaluated as a means of assessing bait acceptance by stoats (Mustela erminea L.). Eleven wild?caught captive stoats were each fed a broken hen egg injected with

  1. Transfer characteristics of the hair cell's afferent synapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, Erica C.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2006-04-01

    The sense of hearing depends on fast, finely graded neurotransmission at the ribbon synapses connecting hair cells to afferent nerve fibers. The processing that occurs at this first chemical synapse in the auditory pathway determines the quality and extent of the information conveyed to the central nervous system. Knowledge of the synapse's input-output function is therefore essential for understanding how auditory stimuli are encoded. To investigate the transfer function at the hair cell's synapse, we developed a preparation of the bullfrog's amphibian papilla. In the portion of this receptor organ representing stimuli of 400-800 Hz, each afferent nerve fiber forms several synaptic terminals onto one to three hair cells. By performing simultaneous voltage-clamp recordings from presynaptic hair cells and postsynaptic afferent fibers, we established that the rate of evoked vesicle release, as determined from the average postsynaptic current, depends linearly on the amplitude of the presynaptic Ca2+ current. This result implies that, for receptor potentials in the physiological range, the hair cell's synapse transmits information with high fidelity. auditory system | exocytosis | glutamate | ribbon synapse | synaptic vesicle

  2. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  3. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  4. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human hair from the college environment: comparison with indoor dust.

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Lei, Bo; Xu, Gang; Ma, Jing; Lei, Jian-Qiu; Jin, Shi-Qi; Hu, Gu-Yu; Wu, Ming-Hong

    2013-10-01

    Eight Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) were determined to examine the hair burden at low concentrations, and the relationship between PBDE concentrations in human hair and indoor dust from a college environment (Shanghai University campus). Chemical analyses showed that the total concentrations of PBDEs in hair ranged from 4.04 to 99 ng/g dw, and were found to be fourfold higher in females than in males (p < 0.05). The total PBDEs concentrations in indoor dust samples ranged from 170 to 1,360 ng/g dw. Significantly positive correlations were observed between human hair and indoor dust for BDE 47 (r = 0.44, p = 0.048) and BDE 99 (r = 0.68, p = 0.025). However, no significant association was noted between other PBDE congeners in human hair and indoor dust in the present study. PMID:23873288

  5. Adaptation for improving lifetime of dye laser using coumarin dyes

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, A.N.

    1984-10-23

    The effective lasing lifetime of laser dyes including coumarin dyes are significantly extended by the use of an inert cover gas for the laser dye solution such as argon in combination with the employment of a glass filter such as Pyrex disposed between the pumping flash lamp and the dye laser cavity capable of absorbing electromagnetic radiation of about 300 nanometers or shorter wavelength.

  6. Dye system for dye laser applications

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A dye of the DCM family, [2-methyl-6-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-methyl-6-quinolinyl)ethenyl]-4H-pyran -4-ylidene]-propanedinitrile, dissolved in 2-phenoxyethanol, is non-mutagenic, stable and efficient, particularly in a pumped continuous wave laser system.

  7. A Guide to Assessing Damage Response Pathways of the Hair Follicle: Lessons From Cyclophosphamide-Induced Alopecia in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Hendrix; Bori Handjiski; Eva M. J. Peters; Ralf Paus

    2005-01-01

    After chemical, biological, or physical damage, growing (i.e. anagen) hair follicles develop abnormalities that are collectively called hair follicle dystrophy. Comparatively lower follicular damage induces the “dystrophic anagen” response pathway (=prolonged, dystrophic anagen, followed by severely retarded follicular recovery). More severe follicular damage induces the dystrophic catagen pathway (=immediate anagen termination, followed by a dystrophic, abnormally shortened telogen and maximally

  8. 6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

  9. First-principles study of Carbz-PAHTDDT dye sensitizer and two Carbz-derived dyes for dye sensitized solar cells

    E-print Network

    Mohammadi, Narges

    2014-01-01

    Two new carbazole-based organic dye sensitizers are designed and investigated in silico. These dyes are designed through chemical modifications of the conjugated bridge of a reference organic sensitizer known as Carbz-PAHTDDT (S9) dye. The aim of designing these dyes was to reduce the energy gap between their highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and to red-shift their absorption response compared to those of the reference S9 dye sensitizer. This reference dye has a reported promising efficiency when coupled with ferrocene-based electrolyte composition. To investigate geometric and electronic structure, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were conducted on the new dyes as well as the reference dye. The present study indicated that the long-range correction to the theoretical model in the TD-DFT simulation is important to produce accurate absorption wavelengths.The theoretical studies have shown a reduced HOMO-LUMO gap ...

  10. Studies in treatment of disperse dye waste: Membrane-wet oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Dhale, A.D.; Mahajani, V.V.

    2000-07-01

    An integrated process, membrane-wet oxidation (MEMWO) has been demonstrated to treat the disperse dye bath waste. The dye bath waste stream containing azo class disperse dye CL 79, was studied to demonstrate the process. A nanofiltration membrane (MPT 30) showed > 99% color and 97% chemical oxygen demand (COD) rejection of dye compound. The concentrate was then treated by wet oxidation (WO) process. WO of dye was studied in the range of 160--225 C and oxygen partial pressure 0.69--1.38 MPa. A homogeneous copper sulfate was found to be a suitable catalyst to effectively destroy the dye as well as the real waste. While non catalytic WO of dye achieved 75% reduction in COD during 120 min with 99% color destruction, the catalytic WO showed about 90% reduction in COD. The performance of WO of actual waste stream was comparable with that of pure dye molecule.

  11. Development and Validation of a Triple Quad LC/MS Method for Fiber Dye Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly-Ingram, Ceirin M.

    This study aims to determine whether the analysis of dyed fiber through liquid chromatography (HPLC) with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) can be used as a reliable alternative to the current chemical techniques used to differentiate dyes. Other methods of analysis involving HPLC and MS have proven to be capable of distinguishing chemically different dyes within a few dye classifications, but none have proven capable of providing a complete alternative to the current accepted technique of thin layer chromatography (TLC). In theory, HPLC-triple quad MS is capable of providing more reproducible and reliable data than the conventional TLC methods with a much greater depth of measurable information with which to characterize dye components. In this study, dyes will be extracted from various types of fibers, including commonly worn types like cotton, polyester, nylon, and wool, and examine dyes from most of the eight different dye classes.

  12. Growth of TiO 2 nanosheet-array thin films by quick chemical bath deposition for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Zhu; Junyou Yang; Shuanglong Feng; Ming Liu; Jiansheng Zhang; Gen Li

    Rutile TiO2 nanofilms, which were composed of many nanosheet-array domains with different orientations, were synthesized directly on\\u000a fluorine-doped SnO2 conductive glass (FTO) substrates by a chemical deposition method in a short time in this paper. The average thickness of\\u000a the nanosheets is about 10 nm; the nanosheets in each domain were parallel to each other and perpendicular to the substrate.

  13. Toxicological effect of indole and its azo dye derivatives on some microorganisms under aerobic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayten Öztürk; Meysun I. Abdullah

    2006-01-01

    Azo dyes are ubiquitous commercial chemicals that present unique environmental problems. The azo dyes in particular can undergo natural anaerobic degradation to potentially carcinogenic amines. They pose a major problem for water-treatment plants downstream. One strategy to remidate polluted surface contaminants is to make use of the degradative capacity of bacteria rather than using destructive chemical reactions. Therefore, pathogenic and

  14. Module Based Complexity Formation: Periodic Patterning in Feathers and Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Yeh, Chao-Yuan; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Widelitz, Randall

    2012-01-01

    Patterns describe order which emerges from homogeneity. Complex patterns on the integument are striking because of their visibility throughout an organism's lifespan. Periodic patterning is an effective design because the ensemble of hair or feather follicles (modules) allows the generation of complexity, including regional variations and cyclic regeneration, giving the skin appendages a new lease on life. Spatial patterns include the arrangements of feathers and hairs in specified number, size, and spacing. We explore how a field of equivalent progenitor cells can generate periodically arranged modules based on genetic information, physical-chemical rules and developmental timing. Reconstitution experiments suggest a competitive equilibrium regulated by activators / inhibitors involving Turing reaction-diffusion. Temporal patterns result from oscillating stem cell activities within each module (micro-environment regulation), reflected as growth (anagen) and resting (telogen) phases during the cycling of feather and hair follicles. Stimulating modules with activators initiates the spread of regenerative hair waves, while global inhibitors outside each module (macro-environment) prevent this. Different wave patterns can be simulated by Cellular Automata principles. Hormonal status and seasonal changes can modulate appendage phenotypes, leading to “organ metamorphosis”, with multiple ectodermal organ phenotypes generated from the same precursors. We discuss potential evolutionary novel steps using this module based complexity in several amniote integument organs, exemplified by the spectacular peacock feather pattern. We thus explore the application of the acquired knowledge of patterning in tissue engineering. New hair follicles can be generated after wounding. Hairs and feathers can be reconstituted through self-organization of dissociated progenitor cells. PMID:23539312

  15. 1. Introduction: current issues in hair loss-related disorders

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    1. Introduction: current issues in hair loss-related disorders 2. Basic biology of hair follicles 3 in hair loss-related disorders Hair loss or alopecia can result either from a failure to regrow hair therapeutic strategies are required for each condition. Hair loss is most frequently caused by a failure

  16. A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching Hong Chen and Song Chun Zhu

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Song Chun

    human animation, as well as in human recognition. For example, it is evident that hair style has and wisps which create diverse hair styles. Hair appearance plays an important role in graphics, digital and vision. In graphics, hair acquisition, modeling and animation have attracted increasing attention

  17. A Comprehensive Guide for the Accurate Classification of Murine Hair Follicles in Distinct Hair Cycle Stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Müller-Röver; Bori Handjiski; Carina van der Veen; Stefan Eichmüller; Kerstin Foitzik; Ian A. McKay; Kurt S. Stenn; Ralf Paus

    2001-01-01

    Numerous strains of mice with defined mutations display pronounced abnormalities of hair follicle cycling, even in the absence of overt alterations of the skin and hair phenotype; however, in order to recognize even subtle, hair cycle-related abnormalities, it is critically important to be able to determine accurately and classify the major stages of the normal murine hair cycle. In this

  18. Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli, 1999 To enhance their mechanical sensitivity and frequency selectivity, hair cells amplify the mechanical stimuli to which they respond. Although cell-body contractions of outer hair cells are thought

  19. Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus Michael E. Benser Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021 Hair bundles, the mechanically sensitive organelles of hair cells in the auditory and vestibular systems, are elastic structures that are deflected

  20. Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells in the sacculus

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells transduction by the inner ear. We present evidence for a single-cell correlate of this phenomenon, hair motion that incorporates the negative stiffness of the hair bundle as well as its two mechanisms

  1. Negative hair-bundle stiffness betrays a mechanism for mechanical amplification by the hair cell

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    Negative hair-bundle stiffness betrays a mechanism for mechanical amplification by the hair cell P. Hudspeth, August 15, 2000 Hearing and balance rely on the ability of hair cells in the inner ear to sense miniscule mechanical stimuli. In each cell, sound or acceleration deflects the mechanosensitive hair bundle

  2. High efficiency genetic modification of hair follicles and growing hair shafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norimitsu Saito; Ming Zhao; Lingna Li; Eugene Baranov; Meng Yang; Yukinori Ohta; Kensei Katsuoka; Sheldon Penman; Robert M. Hoffman

    2002-01-01

    A technique for genetic modification of hair follicles was developed which results in efficient alteration of the hair shaft phenotype. High-level in vivo transgene expression was maintained in hair follicles such that growing hair shafts were phenotypically altered. Mouse anagen skin fragments, maintained in histoculture, were genetically modified at high efficiency with adenoviral-GFP. The histocultured skin fragments were treated with

  3. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Institutes of Health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) It may help to join a support group to talk with others whose hair has fallen out during cancer treatment. Questions other ...

  4. Molecular Models of Dyes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The paper on the synthesis of several dyes by James V. McCullagh and Kelly A. Daggett (1) provides us with the JCE Featured Molecules for this month. The authors mention various applications of these dyes, ranging from commercial dyeing to techniques for determining the course of complex biochemical processes. One of the reaction products, rhodamine B, is a member of a family of molecules that are widely used as tunable laser dyes. In this application, the rhodamines are most commonly encountered in a cationic form, rather than in the neutral form shown in the paper. In the cations, the carboxyl group is no longer part of a ring system. Several different members of the rhodamine family are included in the molecule collection because substituents have a marked effect on the effective lasing range of a given dye. Additionally, the solvent and the excitation source also influence the lasing range (2). Students can learn more about the relationship between structure, absorption and emission properties, and lasing ranges of various dyes by consulting ref 2 and from PhotochemCAD, Jonathan Lindsey's free application (3).

  5. Promotive Effect of Topical Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on Hair Growth in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aldhalimi, Muhsin A.; Hadi, Najah R.; Ghafil, Fadaa A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently topical use of 2% Ketoconazole solution has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on androgenic alopecia. Minoxidil is a vasodilatory medication used primarily as antihypertensive drug. It was discovered to have the side effect of hair growth and reversing baldness. Tretinoin is commonly used topically for acne treatment and in the treatment of photoaging. It is used by some as hair loss treatment. Objective. To compare the stimulatory effect of Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin on hair growth in a mouse model. Materials and Methods. Coat hairs on the dorsal skin of seven weeks old male mice were gently clipped and then stained by using commercial dye. These mice were divided into four groups each of five treated with topical application of ethanol 95%, Ketoconazole solution 2%, Minoxidil solution 5%, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin solution 0.1%, respectively. The drugs were applied once daily for three weeks, the clipped area was photographed, and the ratio of regrown coat area was calculated. Results. The results demonstrated that Ketoconazole, Minoxidil, and Minoxidil with Tretinoin had a significant stimulatory effect on hair growth compared with the control group and Minoxidil was the most effective drug among them. PMID:24734193

  6. ANTAGONISTIC FREQUENCY TUNING OF HAIR BUNDLES BY DIFFERENT CHEMORECEPTORS REGULATES NEMATOCYST DISCHARGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GLEN M. WATSON; DAVID A. HESSINGER

    Summary Sea anemones capture prey by discharging nematocysts into them. Chemical and mechanical cues identify suitable prey to sensory receptor systems on the anemone. Conjugated N-acetylated sugars from prey bind to chemoreceptors on cnidocyte\\/supporting cell complexes to tune hair bundles on the complexes to lower frequencies matching prey movements. The hair bundles regulate discharge of microbasic p-mastigophore nematocysts into vibrating

  7. Safety and Efficacy Study of Hairstetics' ANCHORING SYSTEM For Hair Extensions For Subjects Affected With Hair Thinning

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-10

    Post Radiation/Chemotherapy Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Post-burn Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Cicatricial Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Androgenetic Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning; Alopecia Due to Traumatic Injuries Presents With Hair Thinning.; Alopecia Due to Skin Disease Presents With Hair Thinning.

  8. Review of hair follicle dermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao-Chun; Cotsarelis, George

    2010-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells in the epithelial bulge are responsible for the continual regeneration of the hair follicle during cycling. The bulge cells reside in a niche composed of dermal cells. The dermal compartment of the hair follicle consists of the dermal papilla and dermal sheath. Interactions between hair follicle epithelial and dermal cells are necessary for hair follicle morphogenesis during development and in hair reconstitution assays. Dermal papilla and dermal sheath cells express specific markers and possess distinctive morphology and behavior in culture. These cells can induce hair follicle differentiation in epithelial cells and are required in hair reconstitution assays either in the form of intact tissue, dissociated freshly-prepared cells or cultured cells. This review will focus on hair follicle dermal cells since most therapeutic efforts to date have concentrated on this aspect of the hair follicle, with the idea that enriching hair-inductive dermal cell populations and expanding their number by culture while maintaining their properties, will establish an efficient hair reconstitution assay that could eventually have therapeutic implications. PMID:20022473

  9. STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes, (Course #33) May 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2 Hair structure and mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3 Oriented Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.4 Parameter values for natural hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 inria-00520193,version1

  10. COCHLEAR PROPERTIES AND MICROMACHINED HAIR-LIKE

    E-print Network

    White, Robert D.

    COCHLEAR PROPERTIES AND MICROMACHINED HAIR-LIKE SHEAR SENSORS by Shuangqin Liu A dissertation. A novel hair-like sensor using capacitive sensing scheme for direct shear measurement is designed, fabricated and tested. The capacitive sensor base is fabricated using PolyMUMPsTM foundry process and hair

  11. On Hair Color in France Ellen Gilkerson

    E-print Network

    Lamport ,Leslie

    On Hair Color in France Ellen Gilkerson Genentech, Inc. Leslie Lamport Microsoft Research 22 May coloration of the male in many species of birds [2]. Instances of sex-linking of hair color in mammals is found almost exclusively in the female [4]. We report here our discovery of sex-linking of hair

  12. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  13. Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells ELIZABETH C. OESTERLE,* DIANA I. LURIE avian inner ear by using immunocytochemical techniques. NF-M was detected in auditory hair cells and VIIIth cranial nerve neurons. NF-M-positive hair cells are first detected at embryonic day 11 (E11

  14. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  15. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  16. Effect of hair color on luster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. KEIS; K. R. RAMAPRASAD; Y. K. KAMATH

    2004-01-01

    The effect of color on instrumentally evaluated luster of hair dyed to different colors and depths of shades is studied. For natural hair colors, such as blond, brown, and black, the increase in luster with increasing color is associated with a decrease in diffusely scattered light as a result of light absorption by melanin granules. On dyed hair the interpretation

  17. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  18. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  19. Theoretical considerations in laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ross, E V; Ladin, Z; Kreindel, M; Dierickx, C

    1999-04-01

    A systematic and logical approach for laser hair removal demands an understanding of its biologic and physical bases. This article presents an overview of hair anatomy and physiology followed by a mathematically nonrigorous review of tissue optics and thermal responses to laser irradiation. The reader is provided with a step by step approach to laser hair removal. PMID:10327301

  20. Modelling and Animating 3D Cartoon Hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Noble; Wen Tang; Alex Parkinson; Ciaran Wills

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a technique for the modelling and animation of cartoon hair based on its tendency to be drawn and animated in clumps. In our approach the primary shape and motion of the hair is defined by an animated NURBS surface, thus allowing animators greater artistic control. The basis of the hair clumps is formed by key

  1. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20?), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47?), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61?), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95?). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95? conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

  2. Ethanol affects the development of sensory hair cells in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Phillip M; Asuncion, James D; Matsui, Jonathan I

    2013-01-01

    Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%-1.75% by volume) from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS. PMID:24324841

  3. Hair Melanins and Hair Color: Ultrastructural and Biochemical Aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Ortonne; Giuseppe Prota

    1993-01-01

    The color variants of mammalian hair, including spotting and albinism, are the result of melanocyte activity and have been shown to be determined by the action of multiple genes, some of which operate through the milieu in which the pigment cell resides; others appear to act intracellularly to control the type of melanogenesis. Although there has been much descriptive work

  4. QSPR study of absorption maxima of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells based on 3D descriptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Liang, Guijie; Wang, Luoxin; Shen, Xiaolin; Xu, Weilin

    2010-07-01

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study was performed for the prediction of the absorption maxima (lambda(max)) of organic dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The entire set of 70 dyes was divided into a training set of 53 dyes and a test set of 17 dyes according to Kennard and Stones algorithm. Three-dimensional (3D) descriptors were calculated to represent the dye molecules. A ten-descriptor model, with a squared correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9543 and a standard error of estimation (s) of 14.7 nm, was produced by using the stepwise multilinear regression analysis (MLRA) on the training set. The reliability of the proposed model was further illustrated using various evaluation techniques: leave-one-out cross-validation procedure, randomization tests, and validation through the external test set. All descriptors involved in the model were derived solely from the chemical structure of the dye molecules, which makes the model very useful to estimate the lambda(max) of dyes before they are actually synthesized. PMID:20381412

  5. Analysis of in vivo penetration of textile dyes causing allergic reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Worm, M.; Richter, H.; Sterry, W.; Meinke, M.

    2009-10-01

    Contact allergies to textile dyes are common and can cause severe eczema. In the present study, we investigated the penetration of a fluorescent textile dye, dissolved from a black pullover, into the skin of one volunteer during perspiration and nonperspiration. Previously, wearing this pullover had induced a severe contact dermatitis in an 82-year old woman, who was not aware of her sensitization to textile dyes. The investigations were carried out by in vivo laser scanning microscopy. It could be demonstrated that the dye was eluted from the textile material by sweat. Afterwards, the dye penetrated into the stratum corneum and into the hair follicles. Inside the hair follicles, the fluorescent signal was still detectable after 24 h, whereas it was not verifiable anymore in the stratum corneum, Laser scanning microscopy represents an efficient tool for in vivo investigation of the penetration and storage of topically applied substances and allergens into the human skin and reveals useful hints for the development and optimization of protection strategies.

  6. Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

    2011-12-01

    Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5?-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to minimize hair fibre breakage, improve hair volume or conceal visible bald scalp. PMID:22171680

  7. Nonsurgical therapy for hair loss.

    PubMed

    Nusbaum, Aron G; Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard P

    2013-08-01

    This article is an update of the currently available options for medical therapies to treat androgenetic alopecia in men and women. Emerging novel therapeutic modalities with potential for treating these patients are discussed. Because androgenetic alopecia is progressive in nature, stabilization of the process using medical therapy is an important adjunct to any surgical hair-restoration plan. PMID:24017975

  8. Science Shorts: Tangling With Hair

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Adams

    2006-03-01

    You're probably familiar with the fairy tale of Rapunzel and how her prince climbed her golden locks to her tower. In this month's activity, your students will be surprised to find that--though not suitable as a ladder--hair is a lot stronger than they might think.

  9. [[Hair zinc levels in children].

    PubMed

    Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis

    2013-09-01

    Study with the objective to assess the capillary zinc concentrations in children, considering differences according to sex, age, growth, and socioeconomic status and hair characteristics. A random sample comprised of 282 children. Capillary zinc concentrations were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique. The capillary level of zinc less than 70 ?g/g was considered as deficient. Reference curves of the World Health Organization were used to rate children with height deficit. Domiciliary characteristics and benefit of government assistance were considered as socioeconomic condition. Color, type and size were considered as characteristics of hair. Zinc deficiency was observed in 9.1% of 276 children studied, with mean of 306.06 ?g/g ± 245.13. Lower capillary zinc concentrations were found in children whose households had fewer rooms, fewer individuals and were rented. Children 37-72 months showed higher zinc concentrations than children aged 6-12 and 13-3 6 months. Capillary zinc concentrations showed no statistical difference according to sex and growth, unlike that found for some hair characteristics that showed variations. Zinc deficiency is a health problem in the population studied with more vulnerability in children of lower age; socioeconomic conditions and hair characteristics can affect the capillary zinc concentration. PMID:25362824

  10. Modulation of hair cell efferents

    PubMed Central

    Wersinger, Eric; Fuchs, Paul Albert

    2011-01-01

    Outer hair cells (OHCs) amplify the sound-evoked motion of the basilar membrane to enhance acoustic sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents inhibit OHCs to reduce the sound-evoked response of cochlear afferent neurons. OHC inhibition occurs through the activation of postsynaptic ?9?10 nicotinic receptors tightly coupled to calcium-dependent SK2 channels that hyperpolarize the hair cell. MOC neurons are cholinergic but a number of other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been proposed to participate in efferent transmission, with emerging evidence for both pre- and postsynaptic effects. Cochlear inhibition in vivo is maximized by repetitive activation of the efferents, reflecting facilitation and summation of transmitter release onto outer hair cells. This review summarizes recent studies on cellular and molecular mechanisms of cholinergic inhibition and the regulation of those molecular components, in particular the involvement of intracellular calcium. Facilitation at the efferent synapse is compared in a variety of animals, as well as other possible mechanisms of modulation of ACh release. These results suggest that short-term plasticity contributes to effective cholinergic inhibition of hair cells. PMID:21187136

  11. Preparation of highly selective solid-phase extractants for Cibacron reactive dyes using molecularly imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Al-Degs, Yahya S; Abu-Surrah, Adnan S; Ibrahim, Khalid A

    2009-02-01

    Selective polymeric extractants were prepared for preconcentration of Cibacron reactive red dye, a dye that is often applied with Cibacron reactive blue and Cibacron reactive yellow for dyeing of fabrics. The best extractant was fabricated (in chloroform) using methacrylic acid (as monomer), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (as crosslinker), AIBN (as initiator for polymerization), and red dye as template molecule, with a molar stoichiometric ratio of 8.0:40.0:2.5:0.63, respectively. The structure of the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was robust, and resisted dissolution up to 260 degrees C. Compared with the un-imprinted polymer, the imprinted product has a large specific surface area which improved its adsorption capacity. The effect of imprinting was obvious from the adsorption capacity measured at pH 4 for red dye (the imprinted molecule), which was increased from 24.0 to 79.3 mg g(-1) after imprinting. Equilibrium adsorption studies revealed that the dye-imprinted-polymer enables efficient extraction of red dye even in the presence of blue and yellow dyes which have similar chemical natures to the red dye. The selectivity coefficients S (red dye/dye), were 13.9 and 17.1 relative to the yellow and blue dyes, respectively. The MIP was found to be effective for red dye preconcentration, with a preconcentration factor of 100, from tap water and treated textile wastewater. The factors affecting extraction of red dye by the MIP were studied and optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions, red dye was selectively quantified in the presence of other competing dyes at a concentration of 20 microg L(-1) from different water systems with satisfactory recoveries (91-95%) and RSD values (approximately 5.0%). PMID:19002672

  12. Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women

    PubMed Central

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

  13. Tandem mass spectrometry: a helpful tool in hair analysis for the forensic expert.

    PubMed

    Uhl, M

    2000-01-10

    The Bavarian State Bureau of Investigation in Munich has the exclusive responsibility for investigation of criminal acts. One considerable expertise is that of hair analysis. According to the legal system in Germany, there is a special interest when some clients' hair tested positive for illicit drugs. An accused with a lot of drugs in his hair will be treated as a supposed addict and will be guaranteed extenuating circumstances. The instrumentation used for hair analysis is a powerful analytical tool: a Varian 3400 gas chromatograph linked to a Finnigan Tandem-MS (TSQ 700). The methanol extraction method is used for the detection of illegal drugs and metabolites: amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA (ecstasy), MDE, MBDB, methadone, THC, EDDP (metabolite of methadone), cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, opiates (dihydrocodeine, codeine, heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, acetylcodeine). For the detection of 9-carboxy-THC by negative chemical ionization the hair sample is hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions. Solid-phase extraction is used for clean-up. The LOQ for the determination of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic-acid is 0.16 pg/mg hair. An unsurpassed combination for rendering an expert opinion based on hair analysis may be: a forensic expert using diligence and experience, coupled with the performance of a sophisticated analytical instrument. PMID:10689570

  14. Regulation of root hair initiation and expansin gene expression in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    The expression of two Arabidopsis expansin genes (AtEXP7 and AtEXP18) is tightly linked to root hair initiation; thus, the regulation of these genes was studied to elucidate how developmental, hormonal, and environmental factors orchestrate root hair formation. Exogenous ethylene and auxin, as well as separation of the root from the medium, stimulated root hair formation and the expression of these expansin genes. The effects of exogenous auxin and root separation on root hair formation required the ethylene signaling pathway. By contrast, blocking the endogenous ethylene pathway, either by genetic mutations or by a chemical inhibitor, did not affect normal root hair formation and expansin gene expression. These results indicate that the normal developmental pathway for root hair formation (i.e., not induced by external stimuli) is independent of the ethylene pathway. Promoter analyses of the expansin genes show that the same promoter elements that determine cell specificity also determine inducibility by ethylene, auxin, and root separation. Our study suggests that two distinctive signaling pathways, one developmental and the other environmental/hormonal, converge to modulate the initiation of the root hair and the expression of its specific expansin gene set.

  15. Utility of hair shafts from study skins for mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, N

    2013-01-01

    The condition of mtDNA in hair shafts preserved in a museum was examined using 30 study skins of masked palm civets, Paguma larvata (Viverridae), collected between 1924 and 2011. Comparisons of extracts from fresh and burnt alum-fixed hair shafts showed that burnt alum, which is commonly used in taxidermy, had no harmful effect on the amount of total DNA and lengths of the mtDNA fragments. Burnt alum-fixed hair shafts had a tendency to develop a small degree of melanin hindering PCR amplification compared with fresh hair shafts, although that observation was not supported statistically (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Z = -0.183, P = 0.855). However, the amount of total DNA decreased after preparation of specimen in an exponential relation (regression of log DNA amount with year, regression analysis, F = 7.065, P = 0.013). Nevertheless, the oldest specimen, collected in 1924, yielded 1341.5 ng of DNA per 100 hair shafts, which was sufficient for PCR amplification. In addition, the mtDNA fragment length and amount of melanin in the hair shaft were not significantly correlated with the passage of time after preparation (F = 0.244, P = 0.625 for mtDNA fragment length; F = 0.039, P = 0.845 for the amount of melanin). Therefore, hair shafts prepared and preserved by chemical treatment in museums are good sources of mtDNA and useful for genetic analysis. PMID:24301912

  16. Power ultrasound-assisted cleaner leather dyeing technique: influence of process parameters.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Rao, Paruchuri Gangadhar

    2004-03-01

    The application of power ultrasound to leather processing has a significant role in the concept of "clean technology" for leather production. The effect of power ultrasound in leather dyeing has been compared with dyeing in the absence of ultrasound and conventional drumming. The power ultrasound source used in these experiments was ultrasonic cleaner (150 W and 33 kHz). The effect of various process parameters such as amount of dye offer, temperature, and type of dye has been experimentally found out. The effect of presonication of dye solution as well as leather has been studied. Experiments at ultrasonic bath temperature were carried out to find out the combined thermal as well as stirring effects of ultrasound. Dyeing in the presence of ultrasound affords about 37.5 (1.8 times) difference as increase in % dye exhaustion or about 50% decrease in the time required for dyeing compared to dyeing in the absence of ultrasound for 4% acid red dye. About 29 (1.55 times) increase in % dye exhaustion or 30% reduction in time required for dyeing was observed using ultrasound at stationary condition compared with conventional dynamic drumming conditions. The effect of ultrasound at constant temperature conditions with a control experiment has also been studied. The dye exhaustion increases as the temperature increases (30-60 degrees C) and better results are observed at higher temperature due to the use of ultrasound. Presonication of dye solution or crust leather prior to the dyeing process has no significant improvement in dye exhaustion, suggesting ultrasound effect is realized when it is applied during the dyeing process. The results indicate that 1697 and 1416 ppm of dye can be reduced in the spent liquor due to the use of ultrasound for acid red (for 100 min) and acid black (for 3 h) dyes, respectively, thereby reducing the pollution load in the effluent stream. The color yield of the leather as inferred from the reflectance measurement indicates that dye offer can be halved when ultrasound is employed to promote dyeing. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the cross section of the dyed leather indicates that fiber structure is not affected due to the use of ultrasound under the given process conditions. The present study clearly demonstrates that ultrasound can be used as a tool to improve the rate of exhaustion of dye, reduce pollution load in the spent effluent liquor, and improve the quality of leather produced. The study also offered provision to employ optimum levels of chemicals and increases percentage exhaustion for a given time, thereby limiting the pollution load in the tannery effluent, which is of great social concern. PMID:15046369

  17. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, P.R.; Feeman, J.F.; Field, G.F.

    1998-08-11

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula 1 are provided by the formula described in the paper wherein R{sup 1} and R{sup 4} are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R{sup 1}--R{sup 2} or R{sup 2}--R{sup 4} form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R{sup 2} is hydrogen or joined with R{sup 1} or R{sup 4} as described above; R{sup 3} is --(CH{sub 2}){sub m}--SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or formula 2 given in paper where Y is 2 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  18. Water soluble laser dyes

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, Peter R. (Livermore, CA); Feeman, James F. (Wyomissing, PA); Field, George F. (Santa Ana, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Novel water soluble dyes of the formula I are provided ##STR1## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.4 are alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms or hydrogen; or R.sup.1 -R.sup.2 or R.sup.2 -R.sup.4 form part of aliphatic heterocyclic rings; R.sup.2 is hydrogen or joined with R.sup.1 or R.sup.4 as described above; R.sup.3 is --(CH.sub.2).sub.m --SO.sub.3.sup.-, where m is 1 to 6; X is N, CH or ##STR2## where Y is 2 --SO.sub.3.sup.- ; Z is 3, 4, 5 or 6 --SO.sub.3.sup.-. The novel dyes are particularly useful as the active media in water solution dye lasers.

  19. Effects of ultrasonic energy on dyeing of polyamide (microfibre)/Lycra blends.

    PubMed

    Merdan, Nigar; Akalin, Mehmet; Kocak, Dilara; Usta, Ismail

    2004-04-01

    Although ultrasonic energy is widely used cleaning and degreasing of parts and assemblies in automotive and other industries, the use of ultrasonic energy in an industrial scale for textile washing is very new. This is due to the complexity of controlling the combination of chemical and mechanical effects, whereas with degreasing of machine parts only the mechanical effects is applied. The use of ultrasonic energy in dyeing PA/Lycra fabrics with reactive dyes has been studied spectrophotometrically in this work. PA/Lycra (85/15) blends have been dyed using conventional and ultrasonic dyeing techniques with three reactive dyes containing different chromophore and reactive groups. The dyeing carried out conventionally and by the use of ultrasonic techniques. The results were compared in terms of percentage exhaustion; total dye transferred to the washing bath after dyeing and the fastness properties. PMID:15047280

  20. Optical Properties of Nano-Spherical Gold Doped Dye Solution Hybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoa, D. Q.; Lien, N. T. H.; Ha, C. V.; Nhung, T. H.; Long, P.

    2011-03-01

    Gold nanoparticles with average diameter of 16 nm which are coated with Cetrimonium Bromide (CTAB) by chemical method are dissolved in dye solution at different concentrations. The absorption spectra of the dye mixture appeared almost unchanged at low concentrations of gold nanoparticles (around 1×1014 cm-3) despite its fluorescence intensity increased many-fold. Energy transfer from gold nanoparticles to dye molecules occurs through surface plasmon resonance(SPR). The fluorescence of rhodamine 610 (Rh610) dye molecules co-adsorbed within 16 nm gold nanoparticles assemblies can be useful for enhancing gain in lasing emission. An increase in laser efficiency by a factor of one and half times stronger compared to the single Rh610 dye suggest the potential of using the mixture of rhodamine dye with gold nanoparticles as laser medium in the configuration of quenching distributed feedback dye laser.

  1. Dye-multilayer semiconductor nanostructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. D. Duleepa P. Pitigala; M. K. Indika Senevirathna; V. P. Susira Perera; Kirthi Tennakone

    2006-01-01

    Broadening of the spectral response of dye-sensitized semiconductor devices is one of the major issues confronting practical application of dye-sensitization. It is the main factor limiting the energy conversion efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells. Synthesis of dyes with broader spectral response has been attempted as a possible strategy. The other method is to adopt more than one pigment. However, the

  2. Dye filled security seal

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Dennis C. W. (Tijeras, NM)

    1982-04-27

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member.

  3. Reduction of acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent using Fenton-coagulation process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin

    2014-06-15

    Dye wastewater exhibits significant ecotoxicity even though its physico-chemical parameters meet the discharge standards. In this work, the acute toxicity and genotoxicity of dye effluent were tested, and the Fenton-coagulation process was carried out to detoxify this dye effluent. The acute toxicity was evaluated according to the mortality rate of zebrafish, and genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Removal of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was also investigated. The results indicated that the dye effluent showed strong acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. After 4h of treatment by Fenton-coagulation process, the dye effluent exhibited no significant acute toxicity and genotoxicity to zebrafish. In addition, its COD was less than 50mg/L, which met the discharge standard. It demonstrates that Fenton-coagulation process can comprehensively reduce the acute toxicity and genotoxicity as well as the COD of the dye effluent. PMID:24793295

  4. An Investigation of Hair Cortisol Concentration Across Body Sites and within Hair Shaft

    PubMed Central

    Sharpley, Christopher F.; Kauter, Kathleen G.; McFarlane, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol concentrations in hair collected from young male and female adults were assayed and compared for differences along shaft length and between body sites. No significant differences were found between hair shaft sites, supporting a model of the hair shaft as “alive” and responsive to environmental demand in terms of cortisol production. Hair taken from forearms had significantly higher concentrations of cortisol than hair from lower legs, suggesting a localized hair cortisol response and verifying previous findings. Issues of the link between central and peripheral HPA axes are raised for discussion and further investigation. PMID:22879783

  5. An Investigation of Hair Cortisol Concentration Across Body Sites and within Hair Shaft.

    PubMed

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Kauter, Kathleen G; McFarlane, James R

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol concentrations in hair collected from young male and female adults were assayed and compared for differences along shaft length and between body sites. No significant differences were found between hair shaft sites, supporting a model of the hair shaft as "alive" and responsive to environmental demand in terms of cortisol production. Hair taken from forearms had significantly higher concentrations of cortisol than hair from lower legs, suggesting a localized hair cortisol response and verifying previous findings. Issues of the link between central and peripheral HPA axes are raised for discussion and further investigation. PMID:22879783

  6. Removal of triphenylmethane dyes by bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Cheriaa, Jihane; Khaireddine, Monia; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2012-01-01

    A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila)-(CM-4) was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50?mg/L) and malachite green (50?mg/L) dyes within 24?h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2?h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increases after 24?h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes. PMID:22623907

  7. Removal of Triphenylmethane Dyes by Bacterial Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Cheriaa, Jihane; Khaireddine, Monia; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2012-01-01

    A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila)-(CM-4) was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50?mg/L) and malachite green (50?mg/L) dyes within 24?h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2?h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increases after 24?h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes. PMID:22623907

  8. Novel preparation and characterization of human hair-based nanofibers using electrospinning process.

    PubMed

    Park, Mira; Shin, Hye Kyoung; Panthi, Gopal; Rabbani, Mohammad Mahbub; Alam, Al-Mahmnur; Choi, Jawun; Chung, Hea-Jong; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Kim, Hak-Yong

    2015-05-01

    Human hair-based biocomposite nanofibers (NFs) have been fabricated by an electrospinning technique. Aqueous keratin extracted from human hair was successfully blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The focus here is on transforming into keratin/PVA nanofibrous membranes and insoluble property of electrospun NFs. The resulting hair-based NFs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Toward the potential use of these NFs after cross-linking with various weight fractions of glyoxal, its physicochemical properties, such as morphology, mechanical strength, crystallinity, and chemical structure were investigated. Keratin/PVA ratio of 2/1 NFs with 6wt%-glyoxal showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and excellent antibacterial activity providing a potential application of hair-based NFs in biomedical field. PMID:25709023

  9. Molecular mechanisms and potentials for differentiating inner ear stem cells into sensory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quanwen; Chen, Ping; Wang, Jinfu

    2014-06-15

    In mammals, hair cells may be damaged or lost due to genetic mutation, infectious disease, chemical ototoxicity, noise and other factors, causing permanent sensorineural deafness. Regeneration of hair cells is a basic pre-requisite for recovery of hearing in deaf animals. The inner ear stem cells in the organ of Corti and vestibular utricle are the most ideal precursors for regeneration of inner ear hair cells. This review highlights some recent findings concerning the proliferation and differentiation of inner ear stem cells. The differentiation of inner ear stem cells into hair cells involves a series of signaling pathways and regulatory factors. This paper offers a comprehensive analysis of the related studies. PMID:24680894

  10. Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship between ion channel clustering and synaptic formation in hair cells and afferent neurons. In future studies, we will determine when hair cell precursors acquire electrical tuning, and, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, identify and characterize their L-VGCC and BK currents. We will also use biophysical techniques to determine the number of L-VGCC and BK channels and the size and gating kinetics of their underlying L-VGCC and BK conductances, correlating these variables with the amplitude and frequency of membrane oscillations produced by intracellular current steps. We expect these studies to determine how hair cells regulate ion channel expression to achieve specific physiological responses.

  11. Hair-based sensors for micro-autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Mahdi M.; Peterson, Rebecca L.; Najafi, Khalil

    2012-06-01

    We seek to harness microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies to build biomimetic devices for low-power, high-performance, robust sensors and actuators on micro-autonomous robot platforms. Hair is used abundantly in nature for a variety of functions including balance and inertial sensing, flow sensing and aerodynamic (air foil) control, tactile and touch sensing, insulation and temperature control, particle filtering, and gas/chemical sensing. Biological hairs, which are typically characterized by large surface/volume ratios and mechanical amplification of movement, can be distributed in large numbers over large areas providing unprecedented sensitivity, redundancy, and stability (robustness). Local neural transduction allows for space- and power-efficient signal processing. Moreover by varying the hair structure and transduction mechanism, the basic hair form can be used for a wide diversity of functions. In this paper, by exploiting a novel wafer-level, bubble-free liquid encapsulation technology, we make arrays of micro-hydraulic cells capable of electrostatic actuation and hydraulic amplification, which enables high force/high deflection actuation and extremely sensitive detection (sensing) at low power. By attachment of cilia (hair) to the micro-hydraulic cell, air flow sensors with excellent sensitivity (< few cm/s) and dynamic range (> 10 m/s) have been built. A second-generation design has significantly reduced the sensor response time while maintaining sensitivity of about 2 cm/s and dynamic range of more than 15 m/s. These sensors can be used for dynamic flight control of flying robots or for situational awareness in surveillance applications. The core biomimetic technologies developed are applicable to a broad range of sensors and actuators.

  12. Hair analysis for ketamine and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min; Zhuo, Xianyi

    2006-10-16

    A rapid and sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of ketamine (K) and its major metabolite, norketamine (NK) in hair. After decontamination, the hair sample was incubated and extracted, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Limits of quantitation were found to be 0.05 ng/mg. Hair segments in black color were collected from 15 K abusers. Based on an experiment with 15 cavies with black, white, and brown hair, the mechanism of incorporation of K into hair was investigated. After shaving hair on the back of the cavies (8 cm x 4 cm), they were separated into three groups and administered intraperitoneally once a day for 7 successive days with high, medium, and low doses of K, respectively. Two days after this, hair segments with different colors were shaved. There was a direct correlation between the concentration of K in cavy hair and the dose and DHNK was detected only in high dosage group. The concentration of K increased in the order of white, brown, and black hair. The possible factors responsible for the incorporation of K and its metabolites in hair were discussed. PMID:16844332

  13. Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Quan Q; Sinclair, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful. PMID:18044135

  14. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    SciTech Connect

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  15. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    PubMed

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

  16. Developing azo and formazan dyes based on environmental considerations: Salmonella mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Laura C; Freeman, Harold S; Claxton, Larry D

    2004-02-26

    In previous papers, the synthesis and chemical properties of iron-complexed azo and formazan dyes were reported. It was shown that in certain cases iron could be substituted for the traditionally used metals such as chromium and cobalt, without having an adverse effect on dye stability. While these results suggested that the iron analogs were potential replacements for the commercially used chromium and cobalt prototypes, characterization of potentially adverse environmental effects of the new dyes was deemed an essential step in their further development. The present paper provides results from using the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay to determine the mutagenicity of some important commercial metal complexed dyes, their unmetallized forms, and the corresponding iron-complexed analogs. The study compared the mutagenic properties of six unmetallized azo dyes, six commercial cobalt- or chromium-complexed azo dyes, six iron-complexed azo dyes, six unmetallized formazan dyes, and six iron-complexed formazan dyes. The results of this study suggest that the mutagenicity of the unmetallized dye precursors plays a role in determining the mutagenicity of the iron-complexes. For the monoazo dye containing a nitro group, metal complex formation using iron or chromium decreased or removed mutagenicity in TA100; however, little reduction in mutagenicity was noted in TA98. For the formazan dye containing a nitro group, metal-complex formation using iron increased mutagenicity. Results varied for metal-complexes of azo and formazan dyes without nitro groups, but in general, the metal-complexed dyes based on mutagenic ligands were also mutagenic, while those dyes based on nonmutagenic ligands were nonmutagenic. PMID:14757189

  17. Solar\\/UV-induced photocatalytic degradation of three commercial textile dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Neppolian; H. C Choi; S Sakthivel; Banumathi Arabindoo; V Murugesan

    2002-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of three commercial textile dyes with different structure has been investigated using TiO2 (Degussa P25) photocatalyst in aqueous solution under solar irradiation. Experiments were conducted to optimise various parameters viz. amount of catalyst, concentration of dye, pH and solar light intensity. Degradation of all the dyes were examined by using chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. The degradation

  18. Excited state absorption and decay kinetics of near IR polymethine dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lazaro A. Padilha; Scott Webster; Honghua Hu; Olga V. Przhonska; David J. Hagan; Eric W. Van Stryland; Mikhail V. Bondar; Iryna G. Davydenko; Yuriy L. Slominsky; Alexei D. Kachkovski

    2008-01-01

    We performed a detailed experimental investigation and quantum-chemical analysis of linear, excited state absorption (ESA) spectra, and lifetime dynamics of a new series of near IR symmetrical cationic polymethine dyes, with 5-butyl-7,8-dihydrobenzo[cd]furo[2,3-f]indolium terminal groups. Additionally, two neutral dyes, squaraine and tetraone, were synthesized with the same terminal groups. We compare the nonlinear absorption properties of these three dyes with an

  19. Optical Properties of Nano-Spherical Gold Doped Dye Solution Hybrid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Q. Hoa; N. T. H. Lien; C. V. Ha; T. H. Nhung; P. Long

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles with average diameter of 16 nm which are coated with Cetrimonium Bromide (CTAB) by chemical method are dissolved in dye solution at different concentrations. The absorption spectra of the dye mixture appeared almost unchanged at low concentrations of gold nanoparticles (around 1×1014 cm-3) despite its fluorescence intensity increased many-fold. Energy transfer from gold nanoparticles to dye molecules occurs

  20. Optical Properties of Nano-Spherical Gold Doped Dye Solution Hybrid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Q. Hoa; N. T. H. Lien; C. V. Ha; T. H. Nhung; P. Long

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles with average diameter of 16 nm which are coated with Cetrimonium Bromide (CTAB) by chemical method are dissolved in dye solution at different concentrations. The absorption spectra of the dye mixture appeared almost unchanged at low concentrations of gold nanoparticles (around 1×1014 cm?3) despite its fluorescence intensity increased many-fold. Energy transfer from gold nanoparticles to dye molecules occurs

  1. Metals in female scalp hair globally and its impact on perceived hair health.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Simon; Staite, William; Bowtell, Philip; Marsh, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    Globally, billions of individuals wash their hair in water, which acts as an exogenous metal source. Many studies which measure the metal levels found on human hair specifically aim to remove exogenous materials prior to analysis. Although this is needed when using hair analysis to probe the impact of the local environment on endogenous metal levels, it is not relevant for understanding exactly what is on hair as a result of contact with its daily environment. Understanding these levels are important, as the presence of redox active metals, such as copper and iron, can impact fibre health, either as a result of UV irradiation, or during the hair colouring process. A global hair sampling study of over 300 individuals from nine countries has been performed, and the combined endogenous and exogenous metals analysed. The levels measured vary widely, even within the narrow geography of each hair sampling location. The levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and iron were not correlated, and within each location, there are expected to be individuals with high metal levels. Levels increased from hair root to tip for calcium, magnesium and copper, attributed to hair contact with the environment showing the impact of exogenous metals in the overall levels on hair. Levels of redox metals were comparable between individuals who coloured or did not colour their hair, although water hardness ions were statistically significantly higher for hair colouring individuals. Individuals who perceived their hair health as poor had higher metal levels on their hair. Controlling metals on hair, either by preventing their binding during environmental contact, or through controlling their ability to cause hair damage, should lead to improved consumer perceived hair health. PMID:23305149

  2. Active Hair-Bundle Movements Can Amplify a Hair Cell's Response to Oscillatory Mechanical Stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Pascal; Hudspeth, A. J.

    1999-12-01

    To enhance their mechanical sensitivity and frequency selectivity, hair cells amplify the mechanical stimuli to which they respond. Although cell-body contractions of outer hair cells are thought to mediate the active process in the mammalian cochlea, vertebrates without outer hair cells display highly sensitive, sharply tuned hearing and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. In these animals the amplifier must reside elsewhere. We report physiological evidence that amplification can stem from active movement of the hair bundle, the hair cell's mechanosensitive organelle. We performed experiments on hair cells from the sacculus of the bullfrog. Using a two-compartment recording chamber that permits exposure of the hair cell's apical and basolateral surfaces to different solutions, we examined active hair-bundle motion in circumstances similar to those in vivo. When the apical surface was bathed in artificial endolymph, many hair bundles exhibited spontaneous oscillations of amplitudes as great as 50 nm and frequencies in the range 5 to 40 Hz. We stimulated hair bundles with a flexible glass probe and recorded their mechanical responses with a photometric system. When the stimulus frequency lay within a band enclosing a hair cell's frequency of spontaneous oscillation, mechanical stimuli as small as ± \\ 5 nm entrained the hair-bundle oscillations. For small stimuli, the bundle movement was larger than the stimulus. Because the energy dissipated by viscous drag exceeded the work provided by the stimulus probe, the hair bundles powered their motion and therefore amplified it.

  3. Vegetable Dyeing of Wool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Pearl

    1976-01-01

    In keeping with the Bicentennial celebration, many art teachers will find themselves "looking back" to crafts of the American past. Dyeing is certainly one that was used extensively and here a professor in a Fine Arts Department details how the process takes place. (Author/RK)

  4. A Generative Sketch Model for Human Hair Analysis and Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Song Chun

    in graphics, digital human animation, and nonphotorealistic rendering. It is evident that hair style also test our algorithm on a large data set of hair images with diverse hair styles. Analysis, synthesis into strands and wisps in diverse hair styles. Modeling hair appearance is an important and challenging problem

  5. Using the Web as a Resource on Hair Loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah G. Lovett

    2002-01-01

    Loss of hair (alopecia) is one of the most common symptoms of aging in men. The most common cause of hair loss in men is androgenic or androgenetic alopecia, often referred to as male-pattern baldness. Current treatments include two drugs, Rogaine and Propecia, which have been shown effective for hair regrowth and prevention of further hair loss; surgical hair transplantation;

  6. Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1

    E-print Network

    Quan, Long

    Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1 Eyal Ofek2 Long Quan1 Heung-Yeung Shum2 1 The Hong; the recovered hair rendered with the recovered diffuse color; a fraction of the longest recovered hair fibers rendered with the recovered diffuse color to show the hair threads; the recovered hair rendered

  7. A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering Kelly Ward Florence Bertails Tae-Yong Kim Stephen R. Marschner Marie-Paule Cani Ming C. Lin Abstract-- Realistic hair modeling in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because

  8. Two-state approach to stochastic hair bundle dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Clausznitzer; Benjamin Lindner; Frank Jülicher; Pascal Martin

    2008-01-01

    Hair cells perform the mechanoelectrical transduction of sound signals in the auditory and vestibular systems of vertebrates. The part of the hair cell essential for this transduction is the so-called hair bundle. In vitro experiments on hair cells from the sacculus of the American bullfrog have shown that the hair bundle comprises active elements capable of producing periodic deflections like

  9. Modelling and Animating Cartoon Hair with NURBS Surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Noble; Wen Tang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a technique for the modelling and animation of cartoon hair. In our approach the primary shape and motion of the hair is defined by an animated NURBS volume, along whose surface are generated clumps of hair geometry. The basis of these hair clumps is formed by key hair curves that are grown along the isocurves

  10. Methods of evaluating hair growth.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Alexander J; Dawber, Rodney P R

    2003-02-01

    For decades, scientists and clinicians have examined methods of measuring scalp hair growth. With the development of drugs that stem or even reverse the miniaturization of androgenetic alopecia, there has been a greater need for reliable, economical and minimally invasive means of measuring hair growth and, specifically, response to therapy. We review the various methods of measurement described to date, their limitations and value to the clinician. In our opinion, the potential of computer-assisted technology in this field is yet to be maximized and the currently available tools are less than ideal. The most valuable means of measurement at the present time are global photography and phototrichogram-based techniques (with digital image analysis) such as the 'TrichoScan'. Subjective scoring systems are also of value in the overall assessment of response to therapy and these are under-utilized and merit further refinement. PMID:12581076

  11. Magnetic actuation of hair cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, David; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Cheon, Jinwoo; Bozovic, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    The bullfrog sacculus contains mechanically sensitive hair cells whose stereociliary bundles oscillate spontaneously when decoupled from the overlying membrane. Steady-state offsets on the resting position of a hair bundle can suppress or modulate this native motility. To probe the dynamics of spontaneous oscillation in the proximity of the critical point, we describe here a method for mechanical actuation that avoids loading the bundles or contributing to the viscous drag. Magnetite beads were attached to the tips of the stereocilia, and a magnetic probe was used to impose deflections. This technique allowed us to observe the transition from multi-mode to single-mode state in freely oscillating bundles, as well as the crossover from the oscillatory to the quiescent state.

  12. Analysis of environmental contaminates in hair using an ion trap mass spectrometer with a filtered noise field waveboard

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A.; Hulsey, S.S.; Frantz, C.E.; Andresen, B.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A variety of methods have been established using mass spectrometry (MS) for the analysis of chemicals in hair. Much of this past work has been focused on the detection of drugs of abuse. Human hair has been analyzed either directly by probe distillation (DIP) with some preliminary clean-up using HPLC or solid phase extraction (SPE). However, established drug analysis methods do not apply for the detection of some environmental contaminates. In this study, the authors selected 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and malathion as the target compounds. In addition two types of hair samples were analyzed: (1) human hair fortified with either TNT or malathion and (2) hair from mice who ingested the same analytes. The analytical method was DIP-EI-MS/MS with an ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with a filtered noise field wave board.

  13. Photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes

    SciTech Connect

    von Trebra, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Coumarin laser dyes are widely used in dye lasers for the generation of tunable laser light in the blue-green spectral region. As in the case with most laser dyes, coumarin dyes undergo photochemical reactions that interfere with simulated emission and result in loss of laser power output. This thesis describes the photochemistry of coumarin laser dyes under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions and some attempts to extend the useful lifetime of several dyes in dye lasers. Irradiation of Coumarin 311, 7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-coumarin (15), in oxygen-free ethanol solution results in the inefficient dye destruction. Products formed absorb light at the lasing wavelength of the dye, interfere with stimulated emission, and decrease the power output of the dye laser. Addition of the sulfur free radical chain transfer agents ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide retard the rate of formation of photoproducts absorbing at the lasing wavelengths. Deuterium incorporation, from the irradiation of Coumarin 311 in the presence of ethanethiol-S-d and ethyl disulfide, indicates that photoproducts most likely result from the reactions of free radicals which are generated in a bimolecular reaction between excited Coumarin 311 and ground state Coumarin 311. Ethanethiol and ethyl disulfide are shown to decrease the rate of power loss from a Coumarin 1 (3) dye laser. The naturally occurring amino acid cysteine acts similarly.

  14. Laser photolysis of fluorone dyes in a chitosan matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Slyusareva, E A; Sizykh, A G; Gerasimova, M A; Slabko, V V; Myslivets, S A

    2012-08-31

    Kinetics of laser-induced photobleaching of fluorone dyes (fluorescein, dibromofluorescein, eosin Y, erythrosin B, Rose Bengal) is studied in a chitosan matrix. For all dyes the bleaching kinetics at the intensities of laser radiation 0.7 - 11.9 W cm{sup -2} demonstrates quasi-monomolecular behaviour. The results are analysed using a kinetic model, based on the four-level (S{sub 0}, S{sub 1}, T{sub 1}, T{sub n}) scheme of the dye with chemically active triplet states taken into account. It is shown that the rate constants of the chemical reaction involving higher triplet states in the dyes studied amount to (3.9 - 18.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} and exceed the analogous values for the reaction involving the first lower triplet states by nine orders of magnitude. The rate of reaction involving the first triplet states appeared to be higher by one - two orders of magnitude than that in the case of higher triplet states involved because of low population of the latter. The possible mechanism of dye bleaching with participation of chitosan that consists in reduction of the dye to the leuco form by transfer of hydrogen from the chitosan matrix is discussed. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasmas)

  15. Half-flat quantum hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Compeán, Hugo; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Santos-Silva, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    By wrapping D3-branes over 3-cycles on a half-flat manifold, we construct an effective supersymmetric black hole in the N=2 low-energy theory in four dimensions. Specifically, we find that the torsion cycles present in a half-flat compactification, corresponding to the mirror symmetric image of electric Neveu-Schwarz flux on a Calabi-Yau manifold, manifest in the half-flat black hole as quantum hair. We compute the electric and magnetic charges related to the quantum hair and also the mass contribution to the effective black hole. We find that by wrapping a number of D3-branes equal to the order of the discrete group associated to the torsional part of the half-flat homology, the effective charge and mass terms vanish. We compute the variation of entropy and the corresponding temperature associated with the loss of quantum hair. We also comment on the equivalence between canceling Freed-Witten anomaly and the assumption of self-duality for the 5-form field strength. Finally from a K-theoretical perspective, we compute the presence of discrete Ramond-Ramond charge of D-branes wrapping torsional cycles in a half-flat manifold.

  16. Electrochemical removal of synthetic textile dyes from aqueous solutions using Ti/Pt anode: role of dye structure.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cynthia K C; Oliveira, Gustavo R; Fernandes, Nedja S; Zanta, Carmem L P S; Castro, Suely Souza Leal; da Silva, Djalma R; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

    2014-08-01

    In this work, the efficiency of electrochemical oxidation (EO) was investigated for removing a dye mixture containing Novacron Yellow (NY) and Remazol Red (RR) in aqueous solutions using platinum supported on titanium (Ti/Pt) as anode. Different current densities (20, 40 and 60 mA cm(-2)) and temperatures (25, 40 and 60 °C) were studied during electrochemical treatment. After that, the EO of each of these dyes was separately investigated. The EO of each of these dyes was performed, varying only the current density and keeping the same temperature (25 °C). The elimination of colour was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, and the degradation of organic compounds was analysed by means of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Data obtained from the analysis of the dye mixture showed that the EO process was effective in colour removal, in which more than 90% was removed. In the case of COD removal, the application of a current density greater than 40 mA cm(-2) favoured the oxygen evolution reaction, and no complete oxidation was achieved. Regarding the analysis of individual anodic oxidation dyes, it was appreciated that the data for the NY were very close to the results obtained for the oxidation of the dye mixture while the RR dye achieved higher colour removal but lower COD elimination. These results suggest that the oxidation efficiency is dependent on the nature of the organic molecule, and it was confirmed by the intermediates identified. PMID:24801286

  17. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

  18. Dissecting the bulge in hair regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Mayumi; Myung, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    The adult hair follicle houses stem cells that govern the cyclical growth and differentiation of multiple cell types that collectively produce a pigmented hair. Recent studies have revealed that hair follicle stem cells are heterogeneous and dynamic throughout the hair cycle. Moreover, interactions between heterologous stem cells, including both epithelial and melanocyte stem cells, within the hair follicle are just now being explored. This review will describe how recent findings have expanded our understanding of the development, organization, and regeneration of hair follicle stem cells. At a basic level, this review is intended to help construct a reference point to integrate the surge of studies on the molecular mechanisms that regulate these cells. PMID:22293183

  19. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Sim?i?, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

    2007-07-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  20. Hair cycle and hair pigmentation: dynamic interactions and changes associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, Dominique; Tobin, Desmond J

    2004-01-01

    The tight coupling of hair follicle melanogenesis to the hair growth cycle dramatically distinguishes follicular melanogenesis from the continuous melanogenesis of the epidermis. Cyclic re-construction of an intact hair follicle pigmentary unit occurs optimally in all scalp hair follicles during only the first 10 hair cycles, i.e. by approximately 40 years of age. Thereafter there appears to be a genetically regulated exhaustion of the pigmentary potential of each individual hair follicle leading to the formation of true gray and white hair. Pigment dilution results primarily from a reduction in tyrosinase activity within hair bulbar melanocytes. Thereafter, sub-optimal melanocyte-cortical keratinocyte interactions, and defective migration of melanocytes from a reservoir in the upper outer root sheath to the pigment-permitting microenvironment close to the follicular papilla of the hair bulb, will all disrupt normal function of the pigmentary unit. Evidence from studies on epidermal melanocyte aging suggest that reactive oxygen species-mediated damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA may lead to mutation accumulation in bulbar melanocytes. Parallel dysregulation of anti-oxidant mechanisms or pro/anti-apoptotic factors is also likely to occur within the cells. Pigment loss in canities may also affect keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, providing the tantalizing suggestion that melanocytes in the hair follicle contribute far more that packages of pigment alone. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of the development, regulation and control of the aging human hair follicle pigmentary system in relation with hair cycling. The exploitation of recently available methodologies to manipulate hair follicle melanocytes in vitro, and the observations that melanocytes remain in senile white hair follicles that can be induced to pigment in culture, raises the possibility of someday reversing canities. The perspective of rejuvenation of the whole hair follicle apparatus are still part of the dream but optimising its functional properties is clinically relevant and is close to reality. Finally as hair color influences its visibility when optical methods such as scalp photography are used to count hair fibers, the attention is drawn to possible interpretations of statistically significant changes in visible hair. Such changes may not exclusively be related to improved hair growth itself but also to changes in natural hair color that makes the hair more visible with the method used to count hairs. PMID:15036274

  1. The Actions of Calcium on Hair Bundle Mechanics in Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryline Beurg; Jong-Hoon Nam; Andrew Crawford; Robert Fettiplacey

    2008-01-01

    Sound stimuli excite cochlear hair cells by vibration of each hair bundle, which opens mechanotransducer (MT) channels. We have measured hair-bundle mechanics in isolated rat cochleas by stimulation with flexible glass fibers and simultaneous recording of the MT current. Both inner and outer hair-cell bundles exhibited force-displacement relationships with a nonlinearity that reflects a time-dependent reduction in stiffness. The nonlinearity

  2. Regrowth of black hair in two red-haired alopecia areata patients.

    PubMed

    Ramot, Yuval; Sinclair, Rodney D; Zlotogorski, Abraham

    2012-11-01

    The occurrence of alopecia areata (AA) in a red-haired individual is considered to be rare. We report two cases of red-haired men who were afflicted with patch-type AA. Astonishingly, the hair regrowth was coloured black, in contrast to the surrounding red hair, an event which has been reported only once in the past after cyclophosphamide administration. This phenomenon raises some interesting questions regarding the significance of pigmentation and the melanocortin-1 receptor in AA pathogenesis. PMID:23157795

  3. Hair Cycle-Dependent Changes in Adrenergic Skin Innervation, and Hair Growth Modulation by Adrenergic Drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir A. Botchkarev; Eva M. J. Peters; Natalia V. Botchkareva; Marcus Maurer; Ralf Paus

    1999-01-01

    Skin nerves may exert ‘‘trophic’’ functions during hair follicle development, growth, and\\/or cycling. Here, we demonstrate hair cycle-related plasticity in the sympathetic innervation of skin and hair follicle in C57BL\\/6 mice. Compared with telogen skin, the number of nerve fibers containing norepinephrine or immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase increased during the early growth phase of the hair cycle (anagen) in dermis

  4. Active Hair-Bundle Motility of the Hair Cells of Vestibular and Auditory Organs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Martin

    The hair bundle is the mechanosensitive organelle that protrudes from the hair cell’s apical surface. Sound in hearing organs, head acceleration in vestibular organs and water flow in the lateral line of fish and amphibians ultimately evoke hair-bundle deflections, to which the hair cell responds by generating an electrical signal. Mechanical-to-electrical transduction, a process that is fast enough to enable

  5. Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

  6. Ethnic considerations in hair restoration surgery.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jeffrey; Bared, Anthony; Kuka, Gorana

    2014-08-01

    Patients of different ethnicities have specific characteristics that are essential for hair transplant surgeons to understand so that aesthetic results can be achieved. In this article, the approaches of follicular unit extraction and follicular unit grafting or strip hair transplants for pattern hair loss are reviewed, along with the procedures of eyebrow and beard transplants and surgical hairline advancement/forehead reduction surgeries, within various ethnic groups. PMID:25049126

  7. A research note: an analysis of RIA and GC\\/MS split hair samples from the New Orleans pretrial diversion program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Mieczkowski; Rosemary Mumm; Harry Connick

    1997-01-01

    This paper compares the outcomes of hair analysis for cocaine conducted by two different, independently developed analytical methods, one using radioimmunoassay and the other GC\\/MS chemical ionization. In this study two hair samples were collected from each subject and a sample was sent simultaneously to each laboratory. The assays were done independently with each laboratory being unaware of the results

  8. Direct measurement of beta-agonists in swine hair extract in multiplexed mode by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and microfluidic paper.

    PubMed

    Dou, Bin; Luo, Yong; Chen, Xu; Shi, Bo; Du, Yuguang; Gao, Zhigang; Zhao, Weijie; Lin, Bingcheng

    2015-02-01

    Bare gold nanoparticles selectively enhance the Raman signal of beta-agnonists in swine hair extract at 780 nm, which enables analysis of beta-agonists in swine hair extract without chemical labeling, purification, or separation. The analysis is multiplexable and the LOD of beta-agonists is around ng/mL in the assistance of microfluidic paper. PMID:25296903

  9. Effects of Wnt10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukiteru. Ouji; Masahide Yoshikawa; Kei Moriya; Shigeaki Ishizaka

    2007-01-01

    Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via ?-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we

  10. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

  12. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

  13. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

  14. 7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

  15. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

  16. Cochlear hair cell regeneration from neonatal mouse supporting cells

    E-print Network

    Bramhall, Naomi F

    2012-01-01

    Unlike lower vertebrates, capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration, mammals experience permanent sensorineural hearing loss following hair cell damage. Although low levels of hair cell regeneration have been demonstrated ...

  17. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

  18. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

  19. Electrochemical oxidation of a textile dye wastewater using a Pt\\/Ti electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G Vlyssides; M Loizidou; P. K Karlis; A. A Zorpas; D Papaioannou

    1999-01-01

    Textile dye wastewater (TDW) from a reactive azo dyeing process was treated by an electrochemical oxidation method using Ti\\/Pt as anode and stainless steel 304 as cathode. Due to the strong oxidizing potential of the chemicals produced (chlorine, oxygen, hydroxyl radicals and other oxidants) when the wastewater was passed through the electrolytic cell the organic pollutants were oxidized to carbon

  20. Excited state absorption and femtosecond lifetime dynamics in a new series of near IR dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Webster; Lazaro A. Padilha; Honghua Hu; Olga V. Przhonska; David J. Hagan; E. W. Van Stryland; Mikhail V. Bondar; Iryna G. Davydenko; Yuriy L. Slominsky; Alexei D. Kachkovski

    2008-01-01

    Large excited-state-absorption (ESA) spectra and lifetime dynamics for a new series of NIR cyanine-like dyes are compared to similar visible dyes. Strongly red-shifted (200-300 nm) and increased ESA are observed and explained through quantum-chemical calculations.

  1. Laser behavior and photostability characteristics of organic dye doped silicate gel materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward T. Knobbe; Bruce Dunn; Peter D. Fuqua; Fumito Nishida

    1990-01-01

    The solgel process is a solution synthesis technique which provides a low temperature chemical route for the preparation of rigid transparent matrix materials. Luminescent organic dye molecules have been incorporated via the solgel method into organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) polymer host matrices. Optical gain, laser oscillation, and photostability of rhodamine and coumarin dyes doped into ORMOSIL gels are reported. The

  2. The potential use of diisononyl phthalate metabolites hair as biomarkers to assess long-term exposure demonstrated by a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jen-Yi; Ho, Hsin-Hui; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a widely used industrial plasticizer. People come into contact with this chemical by using plastic products made with it. Human health can be adversely affected by long-term DINP exposure. However, because the body rapidly excretes DINP metabolites, the use of single-point urine analysis to assess long-term exposure may produce inconsistent results in epidemiologic studies. Hair analysis has a useful place in biomonitoring, particularly in estimating long-term or historical exposure for some chemicals. Several studies have reported using hair analysis to assess the concentrations of heavy metals, drugs and organic pollutants in humans. As a biomarker, DINP metabolites were measured in rat hair in animal experiments to evaluated long-term exposure to DINP. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between the levels of DINP metabolites in hair and in urine. The levels of DINP metabolites in rat hair were significantly higher in the exposure group, relative to the control group (p<0.05). DINP metabolites had a positive correlation with increasing administered dose. Significant positive correlations for MINP, MOINP and MHINP were found between hair and urine (r=0.86, r=0.79 and r=0.74, respectively, p<0.05). Several metabolites in urine showed earlier saturation than in hair. In this report, we detected eight metabolites in hair and demonstrate that hair analysis has potential applications in the assessment of long-term exposure to DINP. PMID:25278043

  3. Dyeing of wool with natural anthraquinone dyes from Fusarium oxysporum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Nagia; R. S. R. EL-Mohamedy

    2007-01-01

    Two anthraquinone compounds are described which were produced by liquid cultures of Fusarium oxysporum (isolate no. 4), isolated from the roots of citrus trees affected with root rot disease. These anthraquinone compounds are 2-acetyl-3,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone or 3-acetyl-2,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy anthraquinone. Dyeing of wool fabrics with these new anthraquinone compounds as natural dyes has been studied. The values of dyeing rate constant, half-time

  4. Optimization of dyeing poly(lactic acid) fibers with vat dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sawada; M. Ueda

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of dyeing poly(lactic acid) fibers with vat dyes has been investigated. Conventional method for dyeing cellulose fibers with vat dyes was able to be applied for dyeing poly(lactic acid) fibers. It has become obvious that higher dyeing temperature and concentration of auxiliaries have negative effects on the dyeability of dyes on poly(lactic acid) fibers. Determination of optimal dyeing condition

  5. Localization of human hair structural lipids using nanoscale infrared spectroscopy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Marcott, Curtis; Lo, Michael; Kjoller, Kevin; Fiat, Françoise; Baghdadli, Nawel; Balooch, Guive; Luengo, Gustavo S

    2014-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy have been combined in a single instrument (AFM-IR) capable of producing IR spectra and absorption images at a sub-micrometer spatial resolution. This new device enables human hair to be spectroscopically characterized at levels not previously possible. In particular, it was possible to determine the location of structural lipids in the cuticle and cortex of hair. Samples of human hair were embedded, cross-sectioned, and mounted on ZnSe prisms. A tunable IR laser generating pulses of the order of 10 ns was used to excite sample films. Short duration thermomechanical waves, due to infrared absorption and resulting thermal expansion, were studied by monitoring the resulting excitation of the contact resonance modes of the AFM cantilever. Differences are observed in the IR absorbance intensity of long-chain methylene-containing functional groups between the outer cuticle, middle cortex, and inner medulla of the hair. An accumulation of structural lipids is clearly observed at the individual cuticle layer boundaries. This method should prove useful in the future for understanding the penetration mechanism of substances into hair as well as elucidating the chemical nature of alteration or possible damage according to depth and hair morphology. PMID:25014600

  6. Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.

    PubMed

    Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

    2014-08-01

    Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways, and others, can explain many alternatives and specific variations of hair bending phenotypes. Mechanisms for hair papilla budding or its division by bisection or fission can explain MPC formation. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) and mesenchymal-to-epithelial (MET) transitions, acting in collaboration with epithelial-mesenchymal communications are also considered as mechanisms affecting hair growth and its bending and twisting. These may be treated as sub-mechanisms of an overall development from neural-crest stem cell (NCSC) lineages to differentiated hair follicle (HF) cell types, thus providing a unified framework for hair growth and development. PMID:24617997

  7. Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity in Bengalese nches

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity Birds regenerate auditory hair cells when original hair cells are lost. Regenerated hair cells become innervated and restore hearing function. Functional recovery during hair cell regeneration is particularly

  8. Contaminant characterization on hair and fiber surfaces using imaging TOF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewold, Gary S.; Gresham, Garold L.; Gianotto, Anita K.; Avci, Recep

    1999-02-01

    Imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to evaluate the detection of contaminant chemicals on the surfaces of single synthetic textile and canine hair fibers. The results of the study showed that a variety of chemical classes can be detected. Both cocaine and heroin could be easily observed as intact protonated molecules ([M + H]+) in the cation spectra acquired from textile fibers. Two organophosphates were evaluated: malathion, which is a common pesticide, and pinacolyl methyl phosphonic acid (PMPA), which is the principal degradation product of the nerve agent soman (a close relative of sarin). Malathion could be observed as (CH3O)2P(equalsS)S-, which is formed by thiophosphate cleavage of the intact malathion. PMPA is observed as the conjugate base ([PMPA - H]-). Surfactant chemicals found in hair care products were successfully detected on single hair fibers. Specifically, alkyl sulfates, ethoxylated alkyl sulfates, silicones, and alkylammonium compounds could be readily identified in spectra acquired from single hair fiber samples exposed to shampoo and/or conditioner. Generally, the results of the study show that imaging SIMS is applicable to single fiber analysis, for a range of adsorbed compound types. The forensic application of this instrumental approach has not been widely recognized. However, the ability of the technique to acquire specific chemical information from trace samples clearly points to applications where the need for chemical analysis is great, but the amount of sample is limited.

  9. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ?E (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample. PMID:21550289

  10. Dye-coated europium monosulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Srotoswini [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Dollahon, Norman R. [Department of Biology, Villanova University, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Stoll, Sarah L., E-mail: sls55@georgetown.ed [Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Nanoparticles of EuS were synthesized using europium dithiocarbamate complexes. The resulting nanoparticles were coated with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid and the resulting material was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine the relative energy of the conduction band edge to the excited state energy of the dye. -- Graphical abstract: Dye sensitized magnetic semiconductor materials were prepared by synthesizing EuS nanoparticles using single source precursors and coating with the dye, 1-pyrene carboxylic acid. Display Omitted highlights: > Synthesized EuS nanoparticles, 11{+-}2.4 nm characterized using XRD, TEM, and UV-vis. spect. > Grafted a dye to the surface and characterized the product using XRD, FTIR, UV-vis., and TEM. > Studied the photophysical properties using fluorescence spectroscopy. > Determined the relative dye excited state to the conduction band of the semiconductor.

  11. Optical properties of lanthanide dyes for spectral conversion encapsulated in porous silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzol, Paolo; Marques-Hueso, Jose; Robertson, Neil; Freris, Isidora; Bellotto, Luca; Meyer, Thomas J. J.; Richards, Bryce S.

    2012-06-01

    Lanthanide based dyes belong to one of the most promising fields of photovoltaic research, combining high quantum yields and large spectral shift. However, many challenges are faced when working with lanthanide dyes for spectral conversion: their thermal and chemical stability, which can greatly influence the shelf-life of the dyes; the absorption band position, which depends on the organic part of the dye, the so called "antenna" self-quenching mechanisms, which lead to a photoluminescence emission loss. The chemical composition of the surrounding environment of the dyes has a fundamental role in their properties. In this paper, the optical and PLQY (photoluminescence quantum yield) properties of an europium-based dye embedded in a silica matrix are reported. The in-house synthesized dye consists of a bis(2- (diphenylphosphino)phenyl)ether oxide (DPEPO) ligand and three hexafluoroacetylacetonate (hfac) co-ligands coordinating a central europium ion. The dye has been included in porous core-shell particles, to study its optical properties once embedded in a solid dielectric matrix. The optical properties of the resulting samples have been characterized by photoluminescence emission and PLQY measurements. The results have been compared with data obtained from a commercially available dye (BASF Lumogen family) in similar conditions.

  12. Inflationary Universe with Anisotropic Hair

    E-print Network

    Masa-aki Watanabe; Sugumi Kanno; Jiro Soda

    2009-04-30

    We study an inflationary scenario with a vector field coupled with an inflaton field and show that the inflationary universe is endowed with anisotropy for a wide range of coupling functions. This anisotropic inflation is a tracking solution where the energy density of the vector field follows that of the inflaton field irrespective of initial conditions. We find a universal relation between the anisotropy and a slow-roll parameter of inflation. Our finding has observational implications and gives a counter example to the cosmic no-hair conjecture.

  13. Molecular engineering and photostability of laser dyes within sol-gel hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suratwala, Tayyab I.; Davidson, Kevin; Gardlund, Zack; Uhlmann, Donald R.; Bonilla, Sandra I.; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    1997-03-01

    The use of solid-state dye laser for commercial applications has been limited largely by the poor photostability of the gain medium. Techniques are examined to improve the photostability of Coumarin and Pyrromethene-BF2 567 (PM- 567) laser dyes within xerogel and Polyceram hosts synthesized by sol-gel processing. The photochemical mechanisms by which laser dyes degrade are discussed and determined specifically for PM-567. PM-567 was determined to degrade both by photo-oxidation and acid degradation. Techniques for improving photostability are described from a molecular engineering perspective. These techniques include: covalently attaching the laser dye to the host; controlling the chemical environment of the dye; increasing dye caging by increasing the SiO2 content; removing porosity from the host; and incorporating additives such as hindered amine light stabilizers to minimize photodegradation.

  14. Utilization of carbon nanotubes for the removal of rhodamine B dye from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Jangra, Kavita; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Umar, Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attracting increasing research interest as promising adsorbents for harmful cations, anions, and other organic and inorganic impurities present in natural sources of water. This study examined the feasibility of removing Rhodamine B dye from aqueous solutions using multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The effects of dye concentration, pH and contact time on adsorption of direct dye by CNTs were also evaluated. The study used the Langmuir and Temkin isotherms to describe equilibrium adsorption. Additionally, pseudo second-order model was adopted to evaluate experimental data and thereby elucidate the kinetic adsorption process. The adsorption percentage of dye increased as contact time increased. Conversely, the adsorption percentage of dye decreased as dye concentration increased. The pseudo second-order model best represented adsorption kinetics. The capacity of CNTs to adsorb Rhodamine B was 65-90% at different pH values. PMID:24738392

  15. Hydrothermal conversion of urban food waste to chars for removal of textile dyes from contaminated waters.

    PubMed

    Parshetti, Ganesh K; Chowdhury, Shamik; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2014-06-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization of urban food waste was carried out to prepare hydrochars for removal of Acridine Orange and Rhodamine 6G dyes from contaminated water. The chemical composition and microstructure properties of the synthesized hydrochars were investigated in details. Batch adsorption experiments revealed that hydrochars with lower degree of carbonization were more efficient in adsorption of dyes. Operational parameters such as pH and temperature had a strong influence on the dye uptake process. The adsorption equilibrium data showed excellent fit to the Langmuir isotherm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental kinetic data in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic investigations suggested that dye adsorption onto hydrochars was spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of dye removal appears to be associated with physisorption. An artificial neural network (ANN)-based modelling was further carried out to predict the dye adsorption capacity of the hydrochars. PMID:24727353

  16. ‘Cyclic alopecia’ in Msx2 mutants: defects in hair cycling and hair shaft differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liang; Liu, Jian; Wu, Tobey; Plikus, Maksim; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Bi, Qun; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Müller-Röver, Sven; Peters, Heiko; Sundberg, John P.; Maxson, Rob; Maas, Richard L.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Msx2-deficient mice exhibit progressive hair loss, starting at P14 and followed by successive cycles of wavelike regrowth and loss. During the hair cycle, Msx2 deficiency shortens anagen phase, but prolongs catagen and telogen. Msx2-deficient hair shafts are structurally abnormal. Molecular analyses suggest a Bmp4/Bmp2/Msx2/Foxn1 acidic hair keratin pathway is involved. These structurally abnormal hairs are easily dislodged in catagen implying a precocious exogen. Deficiency in Msx2 helps to reveal the distinctive skin domains on the same mouse. Each domain cycles asynchronously – although hairs within each skin domain cycle in synchronized waves. Thus, the combinatorial defects in hair cycling and differentiation, together with concealed skin domains, account for the cyclic alopecia phenotype. PMID:12466204

  17. Determination of selected trace elements in human head hair by neutron activation analysis

    E-print Network

    Courson, Leonard Austin

    1981-01-01

    of Aluminum in Hair Distribution Histogram of Barium in Hair Distribution Histogram of Bromine in Hair Distr ibution Histogram of Calcium in Hair Distribution Histogram of Copper in Hair Distribution Histogram of Iodine in Hair Distribution Histogram... Histogram of . Qluminum in Hair by Sex Distribution Histogram of Barium in Hair by Sex Distribution Histogram of Bromine in &air by Sex Distr ibution Histogram of Calcium in Hair by Sex Distr ibution Histogram of Copper in Hair by Sex Distribution...

  18. Interactive Modelling of Hair with Texture Maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Will Baker; Scott A. King

    We present a system for interactively modelling and styling hair on an arbitrary surface using texture maps . Texture maps are used to modulate characteristics of hair strands on the surface, and combinations of these texture maps represent a great deal of information about a hairstyle. We render the scenes in real-time, enabling the user to interactively design and style

  19. Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Geim; S. V. Dubonos; I. V. Grigorieva; K. S. Novoselov; A. A. Zhukov; S. Yu. Shapoval

    2003-01-01

    The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and\\/or

  20. Hair testing and doping control in sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Kintz

    1998-01-01

    The standard in drug testing for doping control is gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry conducted on a urine sample. For the past 20 years, hair analysis has been proposed for identifying drug abusers in forensic science. Specimens can be collected under close supervision without embarrassment and are not subject to evasive maneuvers. In contrast with urine, hair analysis has a wide window

  1. Species Identification Key of Korean Mammal Hair

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Eunok; CHOI, Tae-Young; WOO, Donggul; MIN, Mi-Sook; SUGITA, Shoei; LEE, Hang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology. PMID:24451929

  2. Species identification key of Korean mammal hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunok; Choi, Tae-Young; Woo, Donggul; Min, Mi-Sook; Sugita, Shoei; Lee, Hang

    2014-05-01

    The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology. PMID:24451929

  3. [Application of hair analysis of selected psychoactive substances for medico-legal purposes. Part I. Segmental hair analysis in cases of fatal opioids and amphetamines poisoning].

    PubMed

    Rojek, Sebastian; K?ys, Ma?gorzata; Konopka, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The present experimental investigations were inspired by the necessity of standardizing the procedures and analytical methods employed in hair analysis aiming at a retrospective evaluation of ingestion of various xenobiotics. Thus, in keeping with the principal premises, the main objective of the study was development of unique, novel chemico-toxicological procedures for analyzing hair content of psychoactive substances in two basic groups of substances of abuse: opioids (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine) and amphetamines (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA, MDEA) by HPLC-APCI-MS-MS, followed by verification of the thus worked out procedures in medico-legal practice through opinionating in selected group of patients deceased due to fatal psychoactive substance poisoning (cause of death determination). Determinations of opioids and amphetamines in the hair biological matrix were performed using high performance liquid chromatography - atmospheric pressure chemical ionization - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-APCI-MS-MS). In the group of fatal poisonings by ,,Polish heroine", hair segmental analysis confirmed the abuse profile of the opiate or mixed (opiate-amphetamine) type, which to some measure is characteristic of Polish drug addiction, indicating the presence of these xenobiotics in the investigating hair samples in the premortem period. PMID:20860298

  4. Hepatocyte growth factor mimetic protects lateral line hair cells from aminoglycoside exposure

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Phillip M.; Kawas, Leen H.; Harding, Joseph W.; Coffin, Allison B.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of sensory hair cells from exposure to certain licit drugs (e.g., aminoglycoside antibiotics, platinum-based chemotherapy agents) can result in permanent hearing loss. Here we ask if allosteric activation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) cascade via Dihexa, a small molecule drug candidate, can protect hair cells from aminoglycoside toxicity. Unlike native HGF, Dihexa is chemically stable and blood-brain barrier permeable. As a synthetic HGF mimetic, it forms a functional ligand by dimerizing with endogenous HGF to activate the HGF receptor and downstream signaling cascades. To evaluate Dihexa as a potential hair cell protectant, we used the larval zebrafish lateral line, which possesses hair cells that are homologous to mammalian inner ear hair cells and show similar responses to toxins. A dose-response relationship for Dihexa protection was established using two ototoxins, neomycin and gentamicin. We found that a Dihexa concentration of 1 ?M confers optimal protection from acute treatment with either ototoxin. Pretreatment with Dihexa does not affect the amount of fluorescently tagged gentamicin that enters hair cells, indicating that Dihexa’s protection is likely mediated by intracellular events and not by inhibiting aminoglycoside entry. Dihexa-mediated protection is attenuated by co-treatment with the HGF antagonist 6-AH, further evidence that HGF activation is a component of the observed protection. Additionally, Dihexa’s robust protection is partially attenuated by co-treatment with inhibitors of the downstream HGF targets Akt, TOR and MEK. Addition of an amino group to the N-terminal of Dihexa also attenuates the protective response, suggesting that even small substitutions greatly alter the specificity of Dihexa for its target. Our data suggest that Dihexa confers protection of hair cells through an HGF-mediated mechanism and that Dihexa holds clinical potential for mitigating chemical ototoxicity. PMID:25674052

  5. Hepatocyte growth factor mimetic protects lateral line hair cells from aminoglycoside exposure.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Phillip M; Kawas, Leen H; Harding, Joseph W; Coffin, Allison B

    2015-01-01

    Loss of sensory hair cells from exposure to certain licit drugs (e.g., aminoglycoside antibiotics, platinum-based chemotherapy agents) can result in permanent hearing loss. Here we ask if allosteric activation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) cascade via Dihexa, a small molecule drug candidate, can protect hair cells from aminoglycoside toxicity. Unlike native HGF, Dihexa is chemically stable and blood-brain barrier permeable. As a synthetic HGF mimetic, it forms a functional ligand by dimerizing with endogenous HGF to activate the HGF receptor and downstream signaling cascades. To evaluate Dihexa as a potential hair cell protectant, we used the larval zebrafish lateral line, which possesses hair cells that are homologous to mammalian inner ear hair cells and show similar responses to toxins. A dose-response relationship for Dihexa protection was established using two ototoxins, neomycin and gentamicin. We found that a Dihexa concentration of 1 ?M confers optimal protection from acute treatment with either ototoxin. Pretreatment with Dihexa does not affect the amount of fluorescently tagged gentamicin that enters hair cells, indicating that Dihexa's protection is likely mediated by intracellular events and not by inhibiting aminoglycoside entry. Dihexa-mediated protection is attenuated by co-treatment with the HGF antagonist 6-AH, further evidence that HGF activation is a component of the observed protection. Additionally, Dihexa's robust protection is partially attenuated by co-treatment with inhibitors of the downstream HGF targets Akt, TOR and MEK. Addition of an amino group to the N-terminal of Dihexa also attenuates the protective response, suggesting that even small substitutions greatly alter the specificity of Dihexa for its target. Our data suggest that Dihexa confers protection of hair cells through an HGF-mediated mechanism and that Dihexa holds clinical potential for mitigating chemical ototoxicity. PMID:25674052

  6. Isolation of a novel alkaline-induced laccase from Flammulina velutipes and its application for hair coloring.

    PubMed

    Otsuka Saito, Kaori; Ikeda, Ryuzo; Endo, Katsunori; Tsujino, Yoshio; Takagi, Masahiro; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2012-05-01

    Laccase is a member of the multi-copper oxidase family and a promising for hair coloring. In this study, we isolated a novel alkaline-induced laccase from the white-rot fungus Flammulina velutipes and studied the possibility to apply the enzyme for hair coloring. Laccase activity detected in the culture supernatant of F. velutipes was found to significantly increase when exchanging the medium to laccase inducing one whose pH was adjusted to 9.0. Three isozymes were detected by activity staining on non-denaturing SDS-PAGE. The major isozyme, Flac1, was purified from the culture supernatant after being induced at pH 9.0 by ion-exchange column chromatography. The N-terminal peptide sequence of Flac1 was determined, revealing clear homology with laccases from other white-rot fungi. Optimum pH of oxidation was found to be around pH 5.0-6.5 regardless of several different substrates used. Oxidation activities of Flac1 to several hair dye agents as substrate showed the higher activity at pH 6.5 than that at pH 9.0. Oxidation activity was also detected at pH 9.0 which was suitable for hair coloring. When the purified Flac1 was applied for hair coloring system without using hydrogen peroxide, effective coloring was observed at the protein amount of 0.25mg/1g of hair used. These results indicated that this alkaline-induced novel laccase isolated from the culture supernatant of F. velutipes might be a useful enzyme for hair color. PMID:22300716

  7. The influence of the hair cycle on the thickness of mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L S; Coggle, J E; Wells, J; Charles, M W

    1984-12-01

    The data on mouse skin thickness reported here was prompted by the need to know the true position of basal cells of the epidermis and hair follicles as these are important "cells at risk" for a variety of skin reactions including carcinogenesis following exposure to radiation. There is little reliable data in the literature and most previous reports have ignored the shrinkage of skin that occurs because of its natural elasticity. The values determined for mouse flank skin in telogen--the resting phase of the hair cycle for the different skin layers--are epidermis 10 micron, corium 250 micron, adipose layer 150 micron, and hair follicle depth 150 micron. Three days after chemical depilation which triggers the hair follicles into active cycle (anagen) the epidermis doubles in thickness, remains at this value for 7 days, and then gradually returns to telogen values by day 18. The corium and adipose layers also increase significantly to reach approximately 390 micron and approximately 260 micron, respectively, by day 10 and then return to control values from day 15 onward. The change in hair follicles depths are more dramatic with active follicle basal cells reaching approximately 450-550 micron into the adipose layer between days 7 and 15. One important finding is that chemical depilation does not affect the telogen thickness of skin-the teleogen values for the epidermis and dermis immediately prior to and immediately after depilation were similar to those 23 days later at the beginning of the next telogen phase. PMID:6524697

  8. What Is the Use of Elephant Hair?

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Conor L.; Stone, Howard A.; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2012-01-01

    The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own. PMID:23071700

  9. Changes in hair properties by Eucalyptus extract.

    PubMed

    Mamada, Akira; Ishihama, Mariko; Fukuda, Reiko; Inoue, Shigeto

    2008-01-01

    A long-term usage investigation of a scalp lotion containing Eucalyptus extract, which increases the amount of ceramide in the skin, was carried out to explore the change in physical properties of the hair fiber. Half-head or whole-head usage studies of a scalp lotion with Eucalyptus extract were carried out for the following groups: Japanese female, Japanese senior female, Japanese male, and Caucasian female panelists. As a result, the improvement in hair luster and bounce in the root part of the hair were recognized by the panelists after the long-term application of the scalp lotion with Eucalyptus extract. Measurement of hair gloss intensity and bending stress at the root suggests that this improvement is based on changes in these physical properties. These results indicate that the recognition of panelists is based on an actual change in the hair fiber properties. The efficacy of Eucalyptus extract is expressed regardless of race, age, or gender, since similar results were confirmed in all panelist groups. In order to investigate the cause of these phenomena, we measured the elasticity (Young's modulus) of the new-growth part of the cortex in Eucalyptus extract-treated hair and placebo hair by the nano-indentation method of atomic force microscopy (AFM). These results suggest that the Young's modulus of the new-growth part of the cortex in Eucalyptus extract treated-hair increases in comparison with placebo hair. The IR spectra of treated samples of hair show changes that appear to confirm a decrease in the alpha-helix structure and an increase in the beta-sheet structure. PMID:19156331

  10. Intraindividual stability of hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Tobias; Steudte, Susann; Miller, Robert; Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-05-01

    The analysis of cortisol in human hair constitutes a promising method for the retrospective assessment of cumulative cortisol secretion over extended periods of time. An implicit assumption underlying the use of this method is that in the absence of major life changes hair cortisol concentrations show a high level of intraindividual stability, i.e. single hair cortisol assessments exhibit considerable trait-specificity and are only to a smaller extent influenced by state-dependent factors. Here, we present data from two independent studies examining patterns of intraindividual stability in hair cortisol levels. In study I, 45 participants were examined at two sampling points carried out one year apart from each other. In study II, 64 individuals provided data at three sampling points which occurred at two-month intervals. In both studies, at each time point hair was sampled and relevant psychosocial and hair-related variables were assessed. Results of both studies consistently revealed strong test-retest associations for repeated hair cortisol measurements ('r's between 0.68 and 0.79, 'p's <0.0001). Findings of structural equation modelling applied to data of study II showed that single hair cortisol assessments comprise a strong trait component, explaining between 59 and 82% of variance, and are only to a lesser extent influenced by state-related factors. Only inconsistent evidence for covariation of changes in hair cortisol concentrations and simultaneous changes in perceived stress or other relevant variables was seen across the two studies. The current findings suggest a considerable degree of intraindividual stability in hair cortisol levels which highlights the utility of this method for obtaining trait estimates of long-term cortisol secretion in psychoneuroendocrinological research. PMID:21917384

  11. Removal of synthetic dyes from wastewaters: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Forgacs; Tibor Cserháti; Gyula Oros

    2004-01-01

    The more recent methods for the removal of synthetic dyes from waters and wastewater are complied. The various methods of removal such as adsorption on various sorbents, chemical decomposition by oxidation, photodegradation, and microbiological decoloration, employing activated sludge, pure cultures and microbe consortiums are described. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed and their efficacies are compared.

  12. HIGH-SENSITIVITY THERMOSPRAY IONIZATION MASS SPECTROMETRY OF DYES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of dyes belonging to different chemical classes have been analyzed by thermospray (TSP) ionization mass spectrometry using a modified source containing a wire-repeller. etection limits were determined and found to be in the range 0.05-20ng, which are lower by a factor of...

  13. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FAT, SKIN, NAILS, HAIR, BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human tissues and fluids including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, and urine. These methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well ...

  14. Assessment of Poplar Seed Hair Fibers as a Potential Bulk Textile Thermal Insulation Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiou-Lien Chen; Brigitte Cluver

    2010-01-01

    Poplar seed hair fibers, harvested from the seed pods of one of the most common trees grown in the United States, have properties that make them ideal fibers for thermal insulation applications. This preliminary study examines some physical, chemical, and thermal characteristics of poplar fiber in relation to wool, down, and polyester. Results show that when compared to wool and

  15. Glandular hairs and essential oils in micropropagated plants of Salvia officinalis L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pinarosa Avato; Irene Morone Fortunato; Claudia Ruta; Roberta D’Elia

    2005-01-01

    Micropropagation of Salvia officinalis L. (the common sage) plants to verify their ability to produce the typical volatile oil is described. The morphology of the glandular hairs and the chemical composition of the essential oils from in vitro shoots and micropropagated plants have been studied. For comparative purposes, volatile constituents from field grown mother plants and derived rooted cuttings have

  16. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  17. Gel Electrophoresis of Dyes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Janice Stephens

    2011-01-01

    In this experiment related to plant biotechnology, learners discover how to prepare and load an electrophoresis gel. They will then run the gels in an electrophoresis system to separate several dyes that are of different molecular sizes and carry different charges. This technique is fundamental to many of the procedures used in biotechnology. This lesson guide includes background information for the educator, safety precautions, and questions with answers for learners. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended. Modifications for use with younger learners are described in a related PDF (see related resource).

  18. iRootHair: A Comprehensive Root Hair Genomics Database1[W

    PubMed Central

    Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Nowakowska, Urszula; Szumera, Jakub; Chwialkowska, Karolina; Szarejko, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    The specialized root epidermis cells of higher plants produce long, tubular outgrowths called root hairs. Root hairs play an important role in nutrient and water uptake, and they serve as a valuable model in studies of plant cell morphogenesis. More than 1,300 articles that describe the biological processes of these unique cells have been published to date. As new fields of root hair research are emerging, the number of new papers published each year and the volumes of new relevant data are continuously increasing. Therefore, there is a general need to facilitate studies on root hair biology by collecting, presenting, and sharing the available information in a systematic, curated manner. Consequently, in this paper, we present a comprehensive database of root hair genomics, iRootHair, which is accessible as a Web-based service. The current version of the database includes information about 153 root hair-related genes that have been identified to date in dicots and monocots along with their putative orthologs in higher plants with sequenced genomes. In order to facilitate the use of the iRootHair database, it is subdivided into interrelated, searchable sections that describe genes, processes of root hair formation, root hair mutants, and available references. The database integrates bioinformatics tools with a focus on sequence identification and annotation. iRootHair is a unique resource for root hair research that integrates the large volume of data related to root hair genomics in a single, curated, and expandable database that is freely available at www.iroothair.org. PMID:23129204

  19. Optofluidic microcavities: Dye-lasers and biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.; Lei, L.; Zhang, K.; Shi, J.; Wang, L.; Li, H.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, Y.; Chan, H. L. W.

    2010-01-01

    Optofluidic microcavities are integrated elements of microfluidics that can be explored for a large variety of applications. In this review, we first introduce the physics basis of optical microcavities and microflow control. Then, we describe four types of optofluidic dye lasers developed so far based on both simple and advanced device fabrication technologies. To illustrate the application potential of such devices, we present two types of laser intracavity measurements for chemical solution and single cell analyses. In addition, the possibility of single molecule detection is discussed. All these recent achievements demonstrated the great importance of the topics in biology and several other disciplines. PMID:24753719

  20. Beyond generalized hair cells: Molecular cues for hair cell types

    PubMed Central

    Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are crucial for inner ear neurosensory development. The proneural TF Atoh1 regulates the differentiation of hair cells (HCs) whereas Neurog1 and Neurod1 regulate specification and differentiation of neurons, respectively, but also affect HC development. Expression of Delta and Jagged ligands in nascent HCs and Notch receptors in supporting cells induce supporting cell differentiation through the regulation of neurogenic bHLH TFs (such as Hes1, Hes5) and suppression of limited Atoh1 expression. In sensorineural hearing loss, HCs are lost followed by supporting cells and progressive degeneration of neurons, at least in rodents. Regaining complete hearing may require reconstituting the organ of Corti (OC) from scratch, including the two types of HCs, inner (IHC) and outer (OHC) hair cells with the precise sorting of two types of afferent (type I and II) and efferent (lateral, LOC and medial, MOC olivo-cochlear) innervation. We review effects of bHLH TF dosage and their cross-regulation to differentiate HC types in the OC. We categorize findings of specific gene expressions in HCs: 1. as markers without meaning for the regeneration task, 2. as stabilizers who are needed to maintain or complete differentiation, and 3. as decision making genes, expressed and acting early enough to be useful in this process. Only one TF has been characterized that fits the last aspect: Atoh1. We propose that temporal and intensity variations of Atoh1 are naturally modulated to differentiate specific types of HCs. Importantly, the molecular means to modify the Atoh1 expression are at least partially understood and can be readily implemented in the attempts to regenerate specific types of HCs. PMID:23201032

  1. Beyond generalized hair cells: molecular cues for hair cell types.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2013-03-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are crucial for inner ear neurosensory development. The proneural TF Atoh1 regulates the differentiation of hair cells (HCs) whereas Neurog1 and Neurod1 regulate specification and differentiation of neurons, respectively, but also affect HC development. Expression of Delta and Jagged ligands in nascent HCs and Notch receptors in supporting cells induce supporting cell differentiation through the regulation of neurogenic bHLH TFs (such as Hes1, Hes5) and suppression of limited Atoh1 expression. In sensorineural hearing loss, HCs are lost followed by supporting cells and progressive degeneration of neurons, at least in rodents. Regaining complete hearing may require reconstituting the organ of Corti from scratch, including the two types of HCs, inner and outer hair cells with the precise sorting of two types of afferent (type I and II) and efferent (lateral and medial olivo-cochlear) innervation. We review effects of bHLH TF dosage and their cross-regulation to differentiate HC types in the organ of Corti. We categorize findings of specific gene expressions in HCs: 1. as markers without meaning for the regeneration task, 2. as stabilizers who are needed to maintain or complete differentiation, and 3. as decision-making genes, expressed and acting early enough to be useful in this process. Only one TF has been characterized that fits the last aspect: Atoh1. We propose that temporal and intensity variations of Atoh1 are naturally modulated to differentiate specific types of HCs. Importantly, the molecular means to modify the Atoh1 expression are at least partially understood and can be readily implemented in the attempts to regenerate specific types of HCs. PMID:23201032

  2. Decolorization Of Textile Dye Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Carrière; J. Peter Jones; Arthur D. Broadbent

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented on the use of ozone to decolorize textile dye solutions. The results describe the rates of reaction and the stoichiometry for the use of ozone to decolorize a simulated wastewater containing a bisazo acid dye (Acid Red 158). These rates of reaction are not sensitive to pH and are only mildly affected by temperature. The effects of

  3. Dye laser traveling wave amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, F.

    1983-01-01

    A flash lamp pumped dye laser suitable for use as an amplifier stage was developed. The desired output laser pulses are of nanosecond duration, tunable in center frequency, and of good optical quality. Its usefulness as a laser oscillator is emphasized, because it constitutes a compact, relatively efficient source of tunable dye laser light.

  4. Towards a molecular understanding of hair loss and its treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Cotsarelis; Sarah E Millar

    2001-01-01

    Most common forms of hair loss (alopecia) are caused by aberrant hair follicle cycling and changes in hair follicle morphology. However, current treatments for alopecia do not specifically target these processes. We are now beginning to identify the molecules and molecular pathways that control normal hair follicle formation, cycling and growth. In parallel, new techniques are being developed for delivering

  5. To appear in the ACM SIGGRAPH conference proceedings Hair Meshes

    E-print Network

    Schaefer, Scott

    To appear in the ACM SIGGRAPH conference proceedings Hair Meshes Cem Yuksel Cyber Radiance Scott Schaefer Texas A&M University John Keyser Texas A&M University Figure 1: An example hair mesh model and the final hair model generated using this hair mesh and procedural styling operations. Abstract Despite

  6. A Layered Wisps Model for Simulating Interactions inside Long Hair

    E-print Network

    Montréal, Université de

    A Layered Wisps Model for Simulating Interactions inside Long Hair Eric Plante Taarna Studios Inc@iro.umontreal.ca Abstract. This paper presents a method for animating long hair while mod­ elling both interactions between the hair and the character's body and between different hair wisps. Our method relies on a layered models

  7. Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells

    E-print Network

    Corey, David P.

    Colloquium Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells Jeffrey R. Holt and Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman 414, Boston, MA 02114 Deflection of the hair bundle atop a sensory hair deflections, hair cells adapt. Two fundamentally distinct models have been proposed to explain transducer

  8. A Layered Wisp Model for Simulating Interactions inside Long Hair

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Layered Wisp Model for Simulating Interactions inside Long Hair Eric Plante Taarna Studios Inc@iro.umontreal.ca Abstract. This paper presents a method for animating long hair while mod- elling both interactions between the hair and the character's body and between different hair wisps. Our method relies on a layered model

  9. Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis Tsinghua University

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Kun

    Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis Lvdi Wang1 1 Tsinghua University Yizhou Yu2 2 University) (b) (c) (f) (d) (e) (g) (h) Figure 1: Example-based hair geometry synthesis pipeline. (a) input hair) level-2 geometry reconstructed from (e); (g) level-1 of the output hierarchy; (h) final output hair

  10. AJ Hudspeth amplification of stimuli by hair cells

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    400 Mechanical AJ Hudspeth amplification of stimuli by hair cells Unlike any other known sensory receptor, the hair cell uses positive feedback to augment the stimulus to which it responds. In the internal ears of many vertebrates, hair cells amplify the inputs to their mechanosensitive hair bundles

  11. The Hair Follicle: A Paradoxical Androgen Target Organ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie A. Randall; Nigel A. Hibberts; M. Julie Thornton; Kazuto Hamada; Alison E. Merrick; Shoji Kato; Tracey J. Jenner; Isobel De Oliveira; Andrew G. Messenger

    2000-01-01

    Androgens are the main regulator of normal human hair growth. After puberty, they promote transformation of vellus follicles, producing tiny, unpigmented hairs, to terminal ones, forming larger pigmented hairs, in many areas, e.g. the axilla. However, they have no apparent effect on the eyelashes, but can cause the opposite transformation on the scalp leading to the replacement of terminal hairs

  12. Spontaneous Oscillation by Hair Bundles of the Bullfrog's Sacculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Martin; D. Bozovic; Y. Choe; A. J. Hudspeth

    2003-01-01

    One prominent manifestation of mechanical activity in hair cells is spontaneous otoacoustic emission, the unprovoked emanation of sound by an internal ear. Because active hair bundle motility probably constitutes the active process of nonmammalian hair cells, we investigated the ability of hair bundles in the bullfrog's sacculus to produce oscillations that might underlie spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. When maintained in the

  13. A trigonal prism-based method for hair image generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiko Watanabe; Yasuhito Suenaga

    1992-01-01

    The difficulties involved in modeling and rendering hair in computer graphics are described. An efficient method using a trigonal prism model to render individual human hairs is presented. A wisp model easily controls hair shape with a few parameters. The method also proves effective for rendering eyebrows, eyelashes, beards, moustaches, clothes and personal ornaments such as earrings and hair accessories.

  14. Hair Evaluation Methods: Merits and Demerits

    PubMed Central

    Dhurat, Rachita; Saraogi, Punit

    2009-01-01

    Various methods are available for evaluation (for diagnosis and/or quantification) of a patient presenting with hair loss. Hair evaluation methods are grouped into three main categories: Non-invasive methods (e.g., questionnaire, daily hair counts, standardized wash test, 60-s hair count, global photographs, dermoscopy, hair weight, contrasting felt examination, phototrichogram, TrichoScan and polarizing and surface electron microscopy), semi-invasive methods (e.g., trichogram and unit area trichogram) and invasive methods (e.g., scalp biopsy). Any single method is neither 'ideal' nor feasible. However, when interpreted with caution, these are valuable tools for patient diagnosis and monitoring. Daily hair counts, wash test, etc. are good methods for primary evaluation of the patient and to get an approximate assessment of the amount of shedding. Some methods like global photography form an important part of any hair clinic. Analytical methods like phototrichogram are usually possible only in the setting of a clinical trial. Many of these methods (like the scalp biopsy) require expertise for both processing and interpreting. We reviewed the available literature in detail in light of merits and demerits of each method. A plethora of newer methods is being introduced, which are relevant to the cosmetic industry/research. Such methods as well as metabolic/hormonal evaluation are not included in this review. PMID:20927232

  15. Hair evaluation methods: merits and demerits.

    PubMed

    Dhurat, Rachita; Saraogi, Punit

    2009-07-01

    Various methods are available for evaluation (for diagnosis and/or quantification) of a patient presenting with hair loss. Hair evaluation methods are grouped into three main categories: Non-invasive methods (e.g., questionnaire, daily hair counts, standardized wash test, 60-s hair count, global photographs, dermoscopy, hair weight, contrasting felt examination, phototrichogram, TrichoScan and polarizing and surface electron microscopy), semi-invasive methods (e.g., trichogram and unit area trichogram) and invasive methods (e.g., scalp biopsy). Any single method is neither 'ideal' nor feasible. However, when interpreted with caution, these are valuable tools for patient diagnosis and monitoring. Daily hair counts, wash test, etc. are good methods for primary evaluation of the patient and to get an approximate assessment of the amount of shedding. Some methods like global photography form an important part of any hair clinic. Analytical methods like phototrichogram are usually possible only in the setting of a clinical trial. Many of these methods (like the scalp biopsy) require expertise for both processing and interpreting. We reviewed the available literature in detail in light of merits and demerits of each method. A plethora of newer methods is being introduced, which are relevant to the cosmetic industry/research. Such methods as well as metabolic/hormonal evaluation are not included in this review. PMID:20927232

  16. Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Johannes; Kozlov, Andrei S.; Risler, Thomas; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2011-11-01

    The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps between the individual stereocilia. The investigation revealed that grouping stereocilia in a bundle dramatically reduces the total drag. During hair-bundle deflections, the tip links potentially induce drag by causing small but very dissipative relative motions between stereocilia; this effect is offset by the horizontal top connectors that restrain such relative movements at low frequencies. For higher frequencies the coupling liquid is sufficient to assure that the hair bundle moves as a unit with a low total drag. This work reveals the mechanical characteristics originating from hair-bundle morphology and shows quantitatively how a hair bundle is adapted for sensitive mechanotransduction.

  17. An overview of unwanted female hair.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, U

    2011-12-01

    Unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important but often overlooked issue, with over 40% of women experiencing some degree of UFH. In the female population a wide spectrum of unwanted hair concerns is represented - from biologically normal but undesirable to excessive unwanted hair with an underlying pathology. While women may seek to manage unwanted hair across their bodies, UFH is a particular concern, due to its negative impact on perceived femininity. There may not always be a direct correlation between degree of severity diagnosed objectively by the physician and level of concern and impact upon the patient. This review discusses the spectrum of facial hair experience and outlines the clinical approach to unwanted hair management including UFH. It highlights the importance of a treatment regimen which should respond to the causation factors and needs of the individual. This will lead to a holistic treatment approach including evaluation of the implementation of emotional coping strategies and on-going support, lifestyle modifications, pharmacological interventions (to address underlying pathologies) and the use of cosmetic hair removal methods as either a stand-alone or adjunct treatment as appropriate to the individual. PMID:22171681

  18. FLUX OF IONIC DYES ACROSS MICRONEEDLE-TREATED SKIN: EFFECT OF DYE MOLECULAR CHARACTERISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Yasmine A.; Garland, Martin J.; McInnes, Fiona; Donnelly, Ryan F.; El-Khordagui, Labiba K.; Wilson, Clive

    2014-01-01

    Drug flux across microneedle (MN)-treated skin is influenced by the characteristics of the MN array, microconduits and drug molecules in addition to the overall diffusional resistance of microconduits and viable tissue. Relative implication of these factors has not been fully explored. In the present study, the in vitro permeation of a series of six structurally related ionic xanthene dyes with different molecular weights (MW) and chemical substituents, across polymer MN-pretreated full thickness porcine skin was investigated in relation of their molecular characteristics. Phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4, the medium used in skin permeation experiments, was used to determine the equilibrium solubility of the dyes and their partition coefficient both in the isotropic n-octanol/ aqueous system and porcine skin/ aqueous system. Additionally, dissociation constants were determined potentiometrically. Results indicated that for rhodamine dyes, skin permeation of the zwitterionic form which predominates at physiological pH, was significantly reduced by an increase in MW, the presence of the chemically reactive isothiocyanate substituent reported to interact with stratum corneum proteins and the skin thickness. These factors were generally shown to override aqueous solubility, an important determinant of drug diffusion in an aqueous milieu. Findings provided more insight into the mechanism of drug permeation across MN-treated skin, of importance to both the design of MN-based transdermal drug delivery systems and in vitro skin permeation research. PMID:22960319

  19. Phytoremediation of dye contaminated soil by Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) seed and growth assessment of Vigna radiata in the remediated soil

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthy, V.; Geetha, R.; Rajendran, R.; Prabhavathi, P.; Karthik Sundaram, S.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Santhanam, P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was investigated for soil bioremediation through sababul plant biomass (Leucaena leucocephala). The soil contaminated with textile effluent was collected from Erode (chithode) area. Various physico-chemical characterizations like N, P, and K and electrical conductivity were assessed on both control and dye contaminated soils before and after remediation. Sababul (L. leucocephala) powder used as plant biomass for remediation was a tool for textile dye removal using basic synthetic dyes by column packing and eluting. The concentration of the dye eluted was compared with its original concentration of dye and were analyzed by using UV–vis spectrophotometer. Sababul plant biomass was analyzed for its physico-chemical properties and active compounds were detected by GC–MS, HPTLC and FTIR. Plant growth was assessed with green gram on the textile contaminated soil and sababul had the potential of adsorbing the dye as the contaminated soil and also check the growth of green gram. PMID:25183943

  20. Photovoltaic application of Si nanoparticles fabricated by multihollow plasma discharge CVD: Dye and Si co-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyunwoong; Ichida, Daiki; Hashimoto, Shinji; Uchida, Giichiro; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) still need wider absorption range despite their stable and good performance. This work proposed the co-sensitization of Si quantum dot (QD) and N749 dye for better photo-generation. Si QD was chemically stable with regard to all DSC components and its stability enabled to co-sensitize with dye. Si QDs were fabricated by multihollow discharge plasma chemical vapor deposition and applied for the co-sensitization. Si and dye co-sensitization led to the increase of incident photon to current conversion efficiency and decrease of internal impedance as compared with a standard DSC. As a result, short-circuit current density was increased over 1 mA/cm2 and the performance was enhanced with co-sensitization from 4.36 to 5.10%. Si and dye co-sensitization was very effective because the enhancement was much larger than the performance of Si QDSC without dye sensitization.

  1. A rare case of woolly hair with unusual associations.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Biju; Verma, Rajesh; Pragasam, Vijendran; Badad, Ambresh

    2013-07-01

    Woolly hair is a congenital abnormality of scalp hair manifesting as short, kinked hair, which may also involve the hair over the other parts of the body. Keratosis pilaris has been a well known association of woolly hair, and can also be a part of the Naxos or Carvajal syndromes. We herein present a case of woolly hair with associated keratosis pilaris, canaliform dystrophy of nails, increased interdental spaces and recurrent bullous impetigo. Although keratosis pilaris and teeth abnormalities have been reported as isolated associations with woolly hair, such a combination of findings as seen in our patient has not been reported before. PMID:23984241

  2. Comparative Transduction Mechanisms of Vestibular Otolith Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs regenerate following aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Hair cells in these organs are differentially sensitive to gentamicin, with saccular hair cells and hair cells in the utricular striola being damaged at lower gentamicin concentrations than hair cells in the utricular extrastriola. Regenerating hair cells in these organs have short hair bundles and can be classified into a number of phenotypes using the same morphological criteria used to identify their mature counterparts. Our studies suggest that some supporting cells can convert, or transdifferentiate,into hair cells without an intervening cell division. By stimulating these processes in humans, clinicians may be able to alleviate human deafness and peripheral vestibular disorders by regenerating and replacing lost hair cells. In vivo and in vitro studies were done on cell proliferation and hair cell regeneration.

  3. Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saidel, William M.; Lanford, Pamela J.; Yan, Hong Y.; Popper, Arthur N.

    1995-01-01

    A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the same techniques to the saccule of Carassius auratus (Teleostei, Otophysi, Cyprinidae) and demonstrates similar types of hair cells to those found in Astronotus. Since Carassius and Astronous are species of extreme taxonomic distance within the Euteteostei, two classes of mechanoreceptive hair cells are likely to represent the primitive condition for sensory receptors in the euteleost inner ear and perhaps in all bony fish ears.

  4. Cochlear amplification, outer hair cells and prestin

    PubMed Central

    Dallos, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical amplification of acoustic signals is apparently a common feature of vertebrate auditory organs. In non-mammalian vertebrates amplification is produced by stereociliary processes, related to the mechanotransducer channel complex and probably to the phenomenon of fast adaptation. The extended frequency range of the mammalian cochlea has likely co-evolved with a novel hair cell type, the outer hair cell and its constituent membrane protein, prestin. Cylindrical outer hair cells are motile and their somatic length changes are voltage driven and powered by prestin. One of the central outstanding problems in mammalian cochlear neurobiology is the relation between the two amplification processes. PMID:18809494

  5. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe. PMID:23725308

  6. The structure of people’s hair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

  7. Synthesis and characterization of organic dyes with various electron-accepting substituents for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Weidelener, Martin; Powar, Satvasheel; Kast, Hannelore; Yu, Ze; Boix, Pablo P; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Geiger, Thomas; Kuster, Simon; Nüesch, Frank; Bach, Udo; Mishra, Amaresh; Bäuerle, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Four new donor-?-acceptor dyes differing in their acceptor group have been synthesized and employed as model systems to study the influence of the acceptor groups on the photophysical properties and in NiO-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. UV/Vis absorption spectra showed a broad range of absorption coverage with maxima between 331 and 653?nm. Redox potentials as well as HOMO and LUMO energies of the dyes were determined from cyclic voltammetry measurements and evaluated concerning their potential use as sensitizers in p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs). Quantum-chemical density functional theory calculations gave further insight into the frontier orbital distributions, which are relevant for the electronic processes in p-DSCs. In p-DSCs using an iodide/triiodide-based electrolyte, the polycyclic 9,10-dicyano-acenaphtho[1,2-b]quinoxaline (DCANQ) acceptor-containing dye gave the highest power conversion efficiency of 0.08%, which is comparable to that obtained with the perylenemonoimide (PMI)-containing dye. Interestingly, devices containing the DCANQ-based dye achieve a higher V(OC) of 163?mV compared to 158?mV for the PMI-containing dye. The result was further confirmed by impedance spectroscopic analysis showing higher recombination resistance and thus a lower recombination rate for devices containing the DCANQ dye than for PMI dye-based devices. However, the use of the strong electron-accepting tricyanofurane (TCF) group played a negative role in the device performance, yielding an efficiency of only 0.01% due to a low-lying LUMO energy level, thus resulting in an insufficient driving force for efficient dye regeneration. The results demonstrate that a careful molecular design with a proper choice of the acceptor unit is essential for development of sensitizers for p-DSCs. PMID:25234556

  8. Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog uticulus. 2: Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was motivated by an interest in seeing whether hair cell types in the bullfrog utriculus might differ in their voltage responses to hair bundle displacement. Particular interest was in assessing the contributions of two factors to the responses of utricular hair cells. First, interest in examining the effect of hair bundle morphology on the sensitivity of hair cells to natural stimulation was motivated by the observation that vestibular hair cells, unlike many auditory hair cells, are not free-standing but rather linked to an accessory cupular or otolithic membrane via the tip of their kinocilium. Interest also laid in examining the contribution, if any, of adaptation to the response properties of utricular hair cells. Hair cells in auditory and vibratory inner ear endorgans adapt to maintained displacements of their hair bundles, sharply limiting their low frequency sensitivity. This adaptation is mediated by a shift in the displacement-response curve (DRC) of the hair cell along the displacement axis. Observations suggest that the adaptation process occurs within the hair bundle and precedes mechanoelectric transduction. Recent observations of time-dependent changes in hair bundle stiffness are consistent with this conclusion. Adaptation would be expected to be most useful in inner ear endorgans in which hair cells are subject to large static displacements that could potentially saturate their instantaneous response and compromise their sensitivity to high frequency stimulation. The adaptation process also permits hair cells to maintain their sensory hair bundle in the most sensitive portion of their DRC. In vestibular otolith organs in which static sensitivity is desirable, any adaptation process in the hair cells may be undesirable. The rate and extent of the decline of the voltage responses was measured of utricular hair cells to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements. Then for similar resting potentials and response amplitudes, the voltage responses of individual hair cells were compared to both hair bundle displacement and intracellular current.

  9. Mechanical Relaxation of the Hair Bundle Mediates Adaptation in Mechanoelectrical Transduction by the Bullfrog's Saccular Hair Cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Howard; A. J. Hudspeth

    1987-01-01

    Mechanoelectrical transduction by hair cells of the frog's internal ear displays adaptation: the electrical response to a maintained deflection of the hair bundle declines over a period of tens of milliseconds. We investigated the role of mechanics in adaptation by measuring changes in hair-bundle stiffness following the application of force stimuli. Following step stimulation with a glass fiber, the hair

  10. Organic Chemicals: Angels or Goblins?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Lloyd N.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses some of the controversial organic chemical substances such as DDT, Red Dye No. 2, DES, Tris, Laetrile, cyclamate, and saccharin. Concludes that the use of some has to be considered on a benefit/risk ratio. (GA)

  11. Incendiary potential of the flash-lamp pumped 585-nm tunable dye laser.

    PubMed

    Epstein, R H; Brummett, R R; Lask, G P

    1990-08-01

    The recently introduced pulsed flash-lamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to treat cutaneous port-wine stains. In our practice, infants and children receive general anesthesia for these brief, yet painful, treatments. Because the flammability of this laser has not been reported and because we administer supplemental oxygen and nitrous oxide, we analyzed the incendiary potential of this laser by measuring the flammability of gauze and Telfa strips, hair, clear plastic face masks and tracheal tubes, and green nasal cannulae in 21%-100% oxygen and in nitrous oxide at laser energies between 6.0 and 10.0 J/cm2. (Our clinical range is 6.0-7.0 J/cm2.) In room air, gauze, Telfa, masks, and tubes did not ignite; only gauze ignited at high energy in 100% oxygen. Hair ignited in room air only when struck repeatedly at high energy, but easily ignited in 100% oxygen. Wetting hair with saline prevented ignition in room air and decreased flammability in supplemental oxygen. Green nasal cannulae prongs were extremely flammable in oxygen. Caution should be taken when using supplemental oxygen/nitrous oxide during treatment with the tunable dye laser. PMID:2375518

  12. Degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV / H2O2 process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Che Zulzikrami Azner; Fahmi, Muhammad Ridwan; Fazara, Md Ali Umi; Nadhirah, Siti Nurfatin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the degradation characteristic of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye by UV / H2O2 process was evaluated based on the trend of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Three types of dyes consist of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dyes were used to compare the degradation mechanism of the dyes. The UV / H2O2 experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale cylindrical glass reactor operated in semi-batch mode. The UV/Vis characterization of monoazo, diazo and anthraquinone dye indicated that the rapid degradation of the dyes by UV / H2O2 process is meaningful with respect to decolourization, as a result of the azo bonds and substitute antraquinone chromophore degradation. However, this process is not efficient for aromatic amines removal. The monoazo MO was difficult to be decolorized than diazo RR120 dye, which imply that number of sulphonic groups in the dye molecules determines the reactivity with hydroxyl radical. The increased in COD removal is the evidence for oxidation and decreased in carbon content of dye molecules. TOC removal analysis shows that low TOC removal of monoazo MO and diazo RR120, as compared to anthraquinone RB19 may indicate an accumulation of by-products that are resistant to the H2O2 photolysis.

  13. Extracting natural dyes from wool--an evaluation of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Manhita, Ana; Ferreira, Teresa; Candeias, António; Dias, Cristina Barrocas

    2011-05-01

    The efficiency of eight different procedures used for the extraction of natural dyes was evaluated using contemporary wool samples dyed with cochineal, madder, woad, weld, brazilwood and logwood. Comparison was made based on the LC-DAD peak areas of the natural dye's main components which had been extracted from the wool samples. Among the tested methods, an extraction procedure with Na(2)EDTA in water/DMF (1:1, v/v) proved to be the most suitable for the extraction of the studied dyes, which presented a wide range of chemical structures. The identification of the natural dyes used in the making of an eighteenth century Arraiolos carpet was possible using the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction of the wool embroidery samples and an LC-DAD-MS methodology. The effectiveness of the Na(2)EDTA/DMF extraction method was particularly observed in the extraction of weld dye components. Nine flavone derivatives previously identified in weld extracts could be identified in a single historical sample, confirming the use of this natural dye in the making of Arraiolos carpets. Indigo and brazilwood were also identified in the samples, and despite the fact that these natural dyes were referred in the historical recipes of Arraiolos dyeing, it is the first time that the use of brazilwood is confirmed. Mordant analysis by ICP-MS identified the widespread use of alum in the dyeing process, but in some samples with darker hues, high amounts of iron were found instead. PMID:21416400

  14. Gas chromatographic determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair: Comparison between tandem mass spectrometry and single quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cappelle, Delphine; Neels, Hugo; Yegles, Michel; Paulus, Jeff; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Covaci, Adrian; Crunelle, Cleo L

    2015-04-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol, accumulates in hair and is currently used as a long-term marker for the detection of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. Sensitive methods are required to differentiate teetotalers from moderate drinkers according to the established cut-off (i.e., 7pg/mg hair). The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive method using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) operated in the negative ion chemical ionization (NICI) mode. The validated method was applied to hair samples from teetotalers, moderate and excessive alcohol consumers, and results were compared to a previously validated GC-NICI-MS method. The developed GC-NICI-MS/MS method showed linearity over a range from 2 to 400pg/mg hair, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05pg/mg hair and a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.2pg/mg hair, compared to an LOD of 0.5pg/mg hair and LLOQ of 1.5pg/mg hair obtained with GC-NICI-MS. Furthermore, lower background noise was observed using GC-NICI-MS/MS. Comparison of results of hair samples (n=58) obtained by GC-NICI-MS and GC-NICI-MS/MS showed no significant difference between both methods (paired-sample t-test, p>0.05; mean CV=1.0%). The differences between both methods were larger for EtG concentrations<30mg/pg hair (mean CV=1.7%) than for EtG concentrations>30mg/pg hair (mean CV=0.7%). This suggests a higher selectivity of GC-NICI-MS/MS at lower concentrations. In conclusion, by using GC-NICI-MS/MS, a higher analytical selectivity and an improved signal to noise ratio, can be achieved. Although GC-NICI-MS would not change the interpretation of the EtG concentrations, the present GC-NICI-MS/MS method should preferentially be used for the determination of EtG in hair, especially when differentiating between teetotalers and moderate drinkers according to the current cut-off (i.e., 7pg/mg hair). PMID:25562794

  15. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. Setting: The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Participants: Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. Measurements: The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. Results: More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Conclusion: Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population. PMID:25276273

  16. Dye-Sensitized Approaches to Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Sensitization of wide band-gap semiconductors to photons of energy less than the band-gap is a key step in two technically important processes - panchromatic photography and photoelectrochemical solar cells. In both cases the photosensitive species is not the semiconductor - silver halide or metal oxide - but rather an electrochemically active dye. The gap between the highest occupied molecular level (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular level (LUMO) is less than the band-gap of the semiconductor with which it is associated. It can therefore absorb light of a wavelength longer than that to which the semiconductor itself is sensitive. The electrochemical process is initiated when the dye molecule relaxes from its photoexcited level by electron injection into the semiconductor, which therefore acts as a photoanode. If the dye is in contact with a redox electrolyte, the negative charge represented by the lost electron can be recovered from the reduced state of the redox system, which in return is regenerated by charge transfer from a cathode. An external load completes the electrical circuit. The system therefore represents a conversion of the energy of absorbed photons into an electrical current by a regenerative device in every functional respect analogous to a solid-state photovoltaic cell. As in any engineering system, choice of materials, their optimization and their synergy are essential to efficient operation. While a semiconductor-electrolyte contact is analogous to a Schottky contact, in that a barrier is established between two materials of different conduction mechanism, with the possibility of optical absorption, charge carrier pair generation and separation, it should be remembered that the photogenerated valence band hole in the semiconductor represents a powerful oxidizing agent. Given that the band-gap is related to the strength and therefore the stability of chemical bonding within the semiconductor, for narrow-gap materials the most likely reaction of such a hole is the photocorrosion of the semiconductor itself. However, only relatively narrow band-gap materials have an effective optical absorption through the visible spectrum, towards and into the infra-red. Materials with an optimal band-gap match to the solar spectrum, of the order of 1.5eV, are therefore electrochemically unstable. A stable photoelectrochemical cell, without some process of optical sensitization, and necessarily using a wide-gap semiconductor is sensitive only to the ultra-violet limit of the visible spectrum. Over recent years a suitable combination of semiconductor and sensitizer has been identified and optimized, so that now a solar spectrum conversion efficiency of over 11% has been verified in a sensitized photoelectrochemical device. One key to such an efficient system is the suppression of recombination losses. When the excited dye relaxes by electron loss, the separated charge carriers find themselves on opposite sides of a phase barrier -- the electron within the solid-state semiconductor, the positive charge externally, in association with the dye molecule. There is no valence---band involvement in the process, so the system represents a majority-carrier device, avoiding one of the major loss mechanisms in conventional photovoltaics. In consequence also a highly-disordered, even porous, semiconductor structure is acceptable, enabling surface adsorption of a sufficient concentration of the dye to permit total optical absorption of incident light of photon energy greater than the HOMO-LUMO gap of the dye molecule. The accepted wide-band semiconductor for photoelectrochemical applications is titanium dioxide in the anatase crystal structure. The size of the nanocrystals making up the semiconductor photoanode can be determined by hydrothermal processing of a precursor sol, and the film can be deposited on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate by any convenient thin-film process such as screen printing or tape casting. The preferred dye system is inspired by the natural processes involving chlorophyll, the coloring

  17. Nanoscale determination of ecotoxicological hall-mark in animal hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Ristoiu, Tania

    2010-11-01

    Biomonitoring studies for estimation population health surveillance and exposure risk assessment of different chemical contaminants such as chlorinated compounds or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds has become an important task especially after the Stockholm Convention. If before the toxicological evaluation of humans were done using invasive methods like surgery or pricking, today many scientists tried to elaborate non-invasive analytical methods without disparage the final results. During the last years studies it was observed a relative higher pollution with organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in surrounding regions of Dej, Transylvania. These past studies shown that pollution with chlorinated compounds as chlorinated solvents are attributed to the industrial activities from this region. The levels in soil and river water of these compounds were: ~ 20 - 60 ?g.kg-1 and ~ 15 - 45 ?g.L-1, respectively. In case of PAHs the following results were obtained for soil and river water: for two ring specie was between ~ 26 - 35 ?g.kg-1 and ~ 21 - 30 ?g.L-1, respectively; for three ring species was 15 - 35 ?g.kg-1 and ~ 10 - 24 ?g.L-1, respectively; and in case of four ring species was between 10 - 20 ?g.kg-1 and ~ 3 - 15 ?g.L-1, respectively. These results carry on concern regarding the bioaccumulation of these pollutants by humans through food web chain. In order to establish the uptake level of these compounds by humans, home grown animal hair as pig and cow were analyzed through SIM-GC-MS mode and ECD-FID-GC. The presence of chlorinated solvents detected in pig and cows hair were as follows: compounds from chloromethane family ~ 5 - 10 ng.kg-1 dry weight; compounds from chloroethane family ~ 7 - 34 ng.kg-1 dry weight for pig hair, and ~ 12 - 17 ng.kg-1 dry weight for compounds from chloromethane family and 14 - 48 ng.kg-1 dry weight for cow hair. Difference between accumulation levels of PAH metabolites were observed also between cow and pig hair samples.

  18. Recent findings with computerized methods for scalp hair growth measurements.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Rolf; Van Neste, Dominique

    2005-12-01

    Sensitive tools have been developed in order to monitor hair loss and treatment responses. Recently the Tricho-Scan was presented (by RH) as such a method which combines epiluminescence microscopy (ELM) with automatic digital image analysis. Herewith new TrichoScan data obtained from 10 women and 21 men with androgenetic hair loss after 6 mo of treatment with 5%-minoxidil are presented. Even in this small cohort of patients, we noticed a significant increase of hair density, cumulative hair thickness and terminal hair counts. Alternative methods were developed during a human alopecia investigation and research technology (HAIR Technology) programme at Skinterface. This involves contrast-enhancement, image acquisition, and processing by qualified technicians followed by computer-assisted image analysis. The specific identification of exogen hair, further adds to this very refined non-invasive investigative method for hair follicle function investigation. Regional variations of hair growth dynamics do exist in the human scalp such as in female patients complaining of hair loss, scalp hair density and growth on top of the head differs significantly from the occipital site. Finally, from transversal studies and from detailed monitoring of subsequent hair cycles during longitudinal studies, data were obtained that support the fact that shortening of hair cycle, slowing down of growth rates and thinning of hair shafts are heralding hair miniaturisation. In the workshop the TrichoScan, the method of Canfield and Skinterface have been shown. PMID:16382682

  19. Removal of Acid Orange 7 and Remazol Black 5 reactive dyes from aqueous solutions using a novel biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Hamzeh, Yahya; Ashori, Alireza; Azadeh, Elham; Abdulkhani, Ali

    2012-08-01

    This study utilizes canola stalks (CS), an agro-residue, as a biosorbent to remove two different dyes, namely Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and Remozol Black 5 (RB5) from aqueous solutions. The effects of operational parameters on the efficiency of dye removal including pH, adsorbent mass, initial dye concentration and contact time have been investigated. For both tested dyes, the maximum absorption capacity was reached at initial pH 2.5 and 120 min contact time. The results showed that the absorption of both dyes depended on the pH of milieu, temperature, dye and CS concentrations. Freundlich and Langmuir models were used to analyze the obtained experimental data. The isotherms are found to be linear over the entire concentration range for both dyes. The highest value of linear correlation coefficients for AO7 (0.9926) and RB5 (0.9882) showed that the Langmuir is the best model to fit the experimental data. Kinetic study of absorption was done applying the pseudo first-order and the pseudo second-order equations. Absorption of both dyes could be well predicted by the pseudo second-order equation. The obtained results are very promising since: (i) high levels of dye removal (>90%) were achieved with low contact times biosorbent/dye (less than 20 min contact); and (ii) the whole CS can be successfully used as biosorbent of AO7 and RB5 dyes in aqueous solution without needing any chemical modifications. PMID:24364937

  20. Optical and morphological investigation of hair of patients with Chediak Higashi syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Goyo-Rivas, Jose

    1998-04-01

    The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare disease and is very often observed in a single family. In Venezuelan Los Andes area, its appearance is not uncommon. One of the peculiar aspects of CHS patients is the color, texture and structure of the hairs. We have, therefore, investigated structure, morphology and composition of hairs and compared those properties with that of normal human subject grown in the same geographical region. A few hairs were cut along its length and their fluorescence was investigated. For CHS patients, dark patches were observed. Investigations of chemical compositions of these regions were carried out of using Energy Dispersive Analysis and it was found the presence of Na, K and Ca ions. Fluorescence spectral studies were carried out at room temperature. Observed spectra reveal two peaks, however, those were not useful for positive identification of CHS.