Science.gov

Sample records for hair shaft abnormalities

  1. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Ma?gorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  2. Light microscopic hair shaft analysis in ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Stefanie A; Mason, Ashley R; Salkey, Kimberly; Williams, Judith V; Pariser, David M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to catalog hair shaft abnormalities in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes using light microscopy and to compare findings with those in unaffected controls. Light microscopy was performed in a nonblinded manner on hair shafts from 65 participants with seven types of ED (hypohidrotic ED, ED-ectrodactyly-cleft lip or palate, ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip and palate, Clouston syndrome, Goltz syndrome, Schopf-Schulz Passarge syndrome, and oculodentodigital dysplasia) and 41 unaffected controls. Hair donations were collected at the 28th Annual National Family Conference held by the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Control participants were recruited from a private dermatology practice and an academic children's hospital outpatient dermatology clinic. Sixty-five affected participants and 41 unaffected controls were included in the analysis. We assessed the hair shafts of ED and control participants for abnormalities visible using LM. Light microscopy identified various pathologic hair shaft abnormalities in each type of ED, although none of the findings were statistically significantly different from those of the control group. Light microscopy is a poor adjuvant tool in the diagnosis of ED syndromes. Most findings are nonspecific and not sufficiently sensitive. PMID:22084904

  3. Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2007-08-03

    Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via {beta}-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and {beta}-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/{beta}-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b.

  4. Mylodon darwinii DNA sequences from ancient fecal hair shafts.

    PubMed

    Clack, Andrew A; MacPhee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2012-01-20

    Preserved hair has been increasingly used as an ancient DNA source in high throughput sequencing endeavors, and it may actually offer several advantages compared to more traditional ancient DNA substrates like bone. However, cold environments have yielded the most informative ancient hair specimens, while its preservation, and thus utility, in temperate regions is not well documented. Coprolites could represent a previously underutilized preservation substrate for hairs, which, if present therein, represent macroscopic packages of specific cells that are relatively simple to separate, clean and process. In this pilot study, we report amplicons 147-152 base pairs in length (w/primers) from hair shafts preserved in a south Chilean coprolite attributed to Darwin's extinct ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. Our results suggest that hairs preserved in coprolites from temperate cave environments can serve as an effective source of ancient DNA. This bodes well for potential molecular-based population and phylogeographic studies on sloths, several species of which have been understudied despite leaving numerous coprolites in caves across of the Americas. PMID:21640569

  5. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P < 0.001), hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P < 0.001), chemical relaxer use (P < 0.001), hooded hair dryer use (P < 0.001), and hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P < 0.001), density (P = 0.0016), diameter (P = 0.01), number of broken hairs (P < 0.001), and blood flow (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth. PMID:26300276

  6. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis

    PubMed Central

    Laatsch, Chelsea N.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B.; Flagler, Michael J.; Davis, Michael G.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.

    2014-01-01

    Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

  7. A simple method to extract DNA from hair shafts using enzymatic laundry powder.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Jinchuan; Jiang, Xiaoling; Li, Sicong; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

    2013-01-01

    A simple method to extract DNA from hair shafts was developed by using enzymatic laundry powder at the first step of the process. The whole extraction can be finished in less than 2 hours. The simple extraction reagent proposed here contains only two cheap components: ordinary enzymatic laundry powder and PCR buffer. After extraction, an ultra sensitive fluorescent nucleic acid stain, PicoGreen, was used for quantifying trace amount of double-stranded DNA in the solution extracted. For further validation of DNA extraction, four primers were employed to amplify DNA microsatellite loci. Both fluorescence spectroscopy and PCR results suggested that this method can extract DNA from hair shafts with good efficiency and repeatability. The study will greatly facilitate the use of hair shafts in future for DNA analyses on genome-wide scale. PMID:23922747

  8. Trichoscopic Hair Evaluation in Patients with Ectodermal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Górska, Renata; Rudnicka, Lidia; Zadurska, Ma?gorzata

    2015-07-01

    Hair abnormalities in ectodermal dysplasia may be difficult to identify. Among 16 patients with ectodermal dysplasia trichoscopy (hair dermoscopy) revealed predominance of pilosebaceous units with 1 hair (69%), abnormalities of hair shaft pigmentation (gray hair with single dark hairs, 56%), pili torti, trichothiodystrophy, trichorrhexis nodosa, and rarely, cicatricial alopecia. PMID:25935816

  9. Extensive Hair-Shaft Elongation by Isolated Mouse Whisker Follicles in Very Long-Term Gelfoam® Histoculture

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Mii, Sumiyuki; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously studied mouse whisker follicles in Gelfoam® histoculture to determine the role of nestin-expressing plutipotent stem cells, located within the follicle, in the growth of the follicular sensory nerve. Long-term Gelfoam® whisker histoculture enabled hair follicle nestin-expressing stem cells to promote the extensive elongation of the whisker sensory nerve, which contained axon fibers. Transgenic mice in which the nestin promoter drives green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP) were used as the source of the whiskers allowing imaging of the nestin-expressing stem cells as they formed the follicular sensory nerve. In the present report, we show that Gelfoam®-histocultured whisker follicles produced growing pigmented and unpigmented hair shafts. Hair-shaft length increased rapidly by day-4 and continued growing until at least day-12 after which the hair-shaft length was constant. By day-63 in histoculture, the number of ND-GFP hair follicle stem cells increased significantly and the follicles were intact. The present study shows that Gelfoam® histoculture can support extensive hair-shaft growth as well as hair follicle sensory-nerve growth from isolated hair follicles which were maintained over very long periods of time. Gelfoam® histoculture of hair follicles can provide a very long-term period for evaluating novel agents to promote hair growth. PMID:26421923

  10. Cyclic Alopecia and Abnormal Epidermal Cornification in Zdhhc13-Deficient Mice Reveal the Importance of Palmitoylation in Hair and Skin Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Ming; Chen, Yi-Ju; Shen, Li-Fen; Haddad, Amir N S; Song, I-Wen; Chen, Li-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ju; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Yen, Jeffrey J Y; Chen, Yuan-Tsong

    2015-11-01

    Many biochemical pathways involved in hair and skin development have not been investigated. Here, we reported on the lesions and investigated the mechanism underlying hair and skin abnormalities in Zdhhc13(skc4) mice with a deficiency in DHHC13, a palmitoyl-acyl transferase encoded by Zdhhc13. Homozygous affected mice showed ragged and dilapidated cuticle of the hair shaft (CUH, a hair anchoring structure), poor hair anchoring ability, and premature hair loss at early telogen phase of the hair cycle, resulting in cyclic alopecia. Furthermore, the homozygous affected mice exhibited hyperproliferation of the epidermis, disturbed cornification, fragile cornified envelope (CE, a skin barrier structure), and impaired skin barrier function. Biochemical investigations revealed that cornifelin, which contains five palmitoylation sites at cysteine residues (C58, C59, C60, C95, and C101), was a specific substrate of DHHC13 and that it was absent in the CUH and CE structures of the affected mice. Furthermore, cornifelin levels were markedly reduced when two palmitoylated cysteines were replaced with serine (C95S and C101S). Taken together, our results suggest that DHHC13 is important for hair anchoring and skin barrier function and that cornifelin deficiency contributes to cyclic alopecia and skin abnormalities in Zdhhc13(skc4) mice. PMID:26121212

  11. Hair shaft elongation, follicle growth, and spontaneous regression in long-term, gelatin sponge-supported histoculture of human scalp skin.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L.; Margolis, L. B.; Paus, R.; Hoffman, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms of human hair growth control and to test hair growth-modulatory drugs, appropriate in vitro models are required. Here, we report the long-term growth, shaft elongation, and spontaneous regression of human hair follicles in histoculture of intact scalp skin. Human scalp skin with abundant hair follicles in various stages of the hair growth cycle was grown for up to 40 days in a gelatin sponge-supported histoculture system at the air/liquid interface. Isolated follicles placed in the gelatin-sponge matrix also supported hair shaft elongation, with the hair follicle cells remaining proliferative and viable for very long periods. Hair shaft elongation occurred mainly during the first 10 days of histoculture of both intact skin and isolated follicles. However, hair follicles were viable and follicle keratinocytes continued to incorporate [3H]thymidine for up to several weeks after shaft elongation had ceased as shown by fluorescent-dye double staining, measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and by histological autoradiography of [3H]thymidine incorporation, respectively. Hair follicles could continue their cycle in histoculture; for example, apparent spontaneous catagen induction was observed both histologically and by the actual regression of the hair follicle. In addition, vellus follicles were shown to be viable at day 40 after initiation of culture. In the histocultured human scalp we demonstrated the association of mast cells with anagen follicles and macrophages with catagen follicles, suggesting a role of these cells in the hair cycle. This histoculture technique should serve as a powerful tool for future hair research in the human system as well as a screening assay for compounds that can perturb the hair cycle. Images PMID:1528891

  12. Dysregulated expression of sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (Soat1) in the hair shaft of Hoxc13 null mice.

    PubMed

    Potter, Christopher S; Kern, Michael J; Baybo, Mary Ann; Pruett, Nathanael D; Godwin, Alan R; Sundberg, John P; Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The cholesterol-metabolizing enzyme sterol O-acetyltransferase (SOAT1) is implicated in an increasing number of biological and pathological processes in a number of organ systems, including the differentiation of the hair shaft. While the functional and regulatory mechanisms underlying these diverse functional roles remain poorly understood, the compartment of the hair shaft known as medulla, affected by mutations in Soat1, may serve as a suitable model for defining some of these mechanisms. A comparative analysis of mRNA and protein expression patterns of Soat1/SOAT1 and the transcriptional regulator Hoxc13/HOXC13 in postnatal skin of FVB/NTac mice indicated co-expression in the most proximal cells of the differentiating medulla. This finding combined with the significant downregulation of Soat1 expression in postnatal skin of both Hoxc13 gene-targeted and transgenic mice based on previously reported DNA microarray results suggests a potential regulatory relationship between the two genes. Non-detectable SOAT1 expression in the defective hair follicle medulla of Hoxc13(tm1Mrc) mice and evidence for binding of HOXC13 to the Soat1 upstream control region obtained by ChIP assay suggests that Soat1 is a downstream regulatory target for HOXC13 during medulla differentiation. PMID:26321246

  13. Massively parallel sequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes from hair shaft samples.

    PubMed

    Parson, Walther; Huber, Gabriela; Moreno, Lilliana; Madel, Maria-Bernadette; Brandhagen, Michael D; Nagl, Simone; Xavier, Catarina; Eduardoff, Mayra; Callaghan, Thomas C; Irwin, Jodi A

    2015-03-01

    Though shed hairs are one of the most commonly encountered evidence types, they are among the most limited in terms of DNA quantity and quality. As a result, DNA testing has historically focused on the recovery of just about 600 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Here, we describe our success in recovering complete mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) data (?16,569bp) from single shed hairs. By employing massively parallel sequencing (MPS), we demonstrate that particular hair samples yield DNA sufficient in quantity and quality to produce 2-3kb mtGenome amplicons and that entire mtGenome data can be recovered from hair extracts even without PCR enrichment. Most importantly, we describe a small amplicon multiplex assay comprised of sixty-two primer sets that can be routinely applied to the compromised hair samples typically encountered in forensic casework. In all samples tested here, the MPS data recovered using any one of the three methods were consistent with the control Sanger sequence data developed from high quality known specimens. Given the recently demonstrated value of complete mtGenome data in terms of discrimination power among randomly sampled individuals, the possibility of recovering mtGenome data from the most compromised and limited evidentiary material is likely to vastly increase the utility of mtDNA testing for hair evidence. PMID:25438934

  14. TGF alpha deficiency results in hair follicle and eye abnormalities in targeted and waved-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Luetteke, N C; Qiu, T H; Peiffer, R L; Oliver, P; Smithies, O; Lee, D C

    1993-04-23

    To explore the physiological roles of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), we disrupted the mouse gene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Homozygous mutant mice were viable and fertile, but displayed pronounced waviness of the whiskers and fur, accompanied by abnormal curvature, disorientation, and misalignment of the hair follicles. Homozygous and, to a lesser extent, heterozygous mice displayed eye abnormalities of variable incidence and severity, including open eyelids at birth, reduced eyeball size, and superficial opacity. Histological examination revealed eyelid and anterior segment dysgenesis, corneal inflammation and scarring, and lens and retinal defects. Although TGF alpha deficiency affected skin and eyes, wound healing in these tissues was not impaired. Similar hair and eye defects have been previously associated with the recessive mutation waved-1 (wa-1), and Northern analysis revealed reduced expression of TGF alpha in wa-1 mice. Crosses between wa-1 homozygotes and TGF alpha-targeted mice confirmed that wa-1 and TGF alpha are allelic. PMID:8477445

  15. Human mesenchymal stromal cells could deliver erythropoietin and migrate to the basal layer of hair shaft when subcutaneously implanted in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Mok, P L; Cheong, S K; Leong, C F; Chua, K H; Ainoon, O

    2012-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are an attractive cell-targeting vehicle for gene delivery. MIDGE (an acronym for Minimalistic, Immunologically Defined Gene Expression) construct is relatively safer than the viral or plasmid expression system as the detrimental eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene and sequences have been eliminated. The objective of this study was to test the ability of the human MSC (hMSC) to deliver the erythropoietin (EPO) gene in a nude mice model following nucleofection using a MIDGE construct. hMSC nucleofected with MIDGE encoding the EPO gene was injected subcutaneously in Matrigel at the dorsal flank of nude mice. Subcutaneous implantation of nucleofected hMSC resulted in increased hemoglobin level with presence of human EPO in the peripheral blood of the injected nude mice in the first two weeks post-implantation compared with the control groups. The basal layer of the hair shaft in the dermal layer was found to be significantly positive for immunohistochemical staining of a human EPO antibody. However, only a few basal layers of the hair shaft were found to be positively stained for CD105. In conclusion, hMSC harboring MIDGE-EPO could deliver and transiently express the EPO gene in the nude mice model. These cells could be localized to the hair follicle and secreted EPO protein might have possible role in hair regeneration. PMID:22560724

  16. Gsdma3 is required for hair follicle differentiation in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Zhou, Yue; Yang, Tian; Wang, Ning; Lian, Xiaohua; Yang, Li

    2010-12-01

    Hair follicle differentiation is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. However, the known cellular and molecular mechanisms are limited. Gsdma3 is a novel murine gene and considered to be a mutation hotspot. Six mutants have been reported in Gsdma3 and all these mutants exhibit hair loss and hyperkeratosis phenotypes. In order to verify how the lack of Gsdma3 affects the hair defects, we use alopecia and excoriation mice, a new mouse mutation in this gene, as our research model. This mutation exhibits progressive hair loss, from head to the whole back, and followed by hair regrowth. We test that Gsdma3 is expressed in matrix, inner root sheath, and hair shaft. Ultrastructural and histological analyses show abnormal hair structures and reduced hair keratins in AE mice. The loss of interlocking structures and abnormal constitutive protein indicate defects in anchoring hair shaft in the hair follicle and resisting external forces. Molecular analysis of Gsdma3 deficiency and overexpression shows an Msx2/Foxn1/acidic hair keratin genetic pathway is involved. Thus, Gsdma3 is necessary for normal hair follicle differentiation. PMID:20977888

  17. Hair casts

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Sweta S.; Parmar, Kirti S.; Shah, Bela J.

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

  18. Practical management of hair loss.

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, J.; Wiseman, M.; Lui, H.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe an organized diagnostic approach for both nonscarring and scarring alopecias to help family physicians establish an accurate in-office diagnosis. To explain when ancillary laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for hair loss are based on randomized controlled studies, uncontrolled studies, and case series. MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 1998 with the MeSH words alopecia, hair, and alopecia areata. Articles were selected on the basis of experimental design, with priority given to the most current large multicentre controlled studies. Overall global evidence for therapeutic intervention for hair loss is quite strong. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common forms of nonscarring alopecias are androgenic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and alopecia areata. Other disorders include trichotillomania, traction alopecia, tinea capitis, and hair shaft abnormalities. Scarring alopecia is caused by trauma, infections, discoid lupus erythematosus, or lichen planus. Key to establishing an accurate diagnosis is a detailed history, including medication use, systemic illnesses, endocrine dysfunction, hair-care practices, and family history. All hair-bearing sites should be examined. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the scalp is useful, particularly to diagnose scarring alopecias. Once a diagnosis has been established, specific therapy can be initiated. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis and management of hair loss is an interesting challenge for family physicians. An organized approach to recognizing characteristic differential features of hair loss disorders is key to diagnosis and management. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10925761

  19. The targeted overexpression of a Claudin mutant in the epidermis of transgenic mice elicits striking epidermal and hair follicle abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Troy, Tammy-Claire; Turksen, Kursad

    2007-06-01

    Skin is one of the largest organs of the body, and is formed during development through a highly orchestrated process involving mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, cell commitment, and terminal differentiation. It protects against microorganism invasion and UV irradiation, inhibits water loss, regulates body temperature, and is an important part of the immune system. Using transgenic mouse technology, we have demonstrated that Claudin (Cldn)-containing tight junctions (TJs) are intricately involved in cell signaling during epidermal differentiation and that an epidermal suprabasal overexpression of Cldn6 results in a perturbed epidermal terminal differentiation program with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. To delineate the role of the Cldn cytoplasmic tail domain in epidermal differentiation, we engineered transgenic mice targeting the overexpression of a Cldn6 cytoplasmic tail-truncation mutant in the epidermis. Transgenic mice were characterized by a lethal barrier dysfunction in addition to the existence of hyperproliferative squamous invaginations/cysts replacing hair follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an epidermal cytoplasmic accumulation of Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12, and Cldn18, downregulation of Cldn1 and aberrant expression of various classical markers of epidermal differentiation; namely the basal keratins as well as K1, involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin. Collectively these studies suggest an important role for Cldns in epidermal/hair follicle differentiation programs likely involving cross talk to signaling pathways (e.g., Notch) directing cell fate selection and differentiation. PMID:17914196

  20. Uncombable hair

    PubMed Central

    Garty, B; Metzker, A; Mimouni, M; Varsano, I

    1982-01-01

    Uncombable hair is a familial abnormality of scalp hair structure which affects children and lessens as they grow older. It is suggested that the mode of inheritance of the condition is autosomal dominant. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:7125692

  1. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  2. Nodules on the Hair: A Rare Case of Mixed Piedra

    PubMed Central

    Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

    2013-01-01

    Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair. PMID:24778538

  3. Hair Casts or Pseudonits

    PubMed Central

    França, Katlein; Villa, Ricardo Tadeu; Silva, Isabella Rezende; de Carvalho, Cristine Almeida; Bedin, Valcinir

    2011-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are thin, elongated, cylindrical concretions that encircle the hair shaft and can be easily dislodged. A case of pseudonits in a 9-year-old girl is reported. Though not unusual, false diagnoses are common. PMID:22223977

  4. Biomechanics of hair cell kinocilia: experimental measurement of kinocilium shaft stiffness and base rotational stiffness with Euler–Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam analysis

    PubMed Central

    Spoon, Corrie; Grant, Wally

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular hair cell bundles in the inner ear contain a single kinocilium composed of a 9+2 microtubule structure. Kinocilia play a crucial role in transmitting movement of the overlying mass, otoconial membrane or cupula to the mechanotransducing portion of the hair cell bundle. Little is known regarding the mechanical deformation properties of the kinocilium. Using a force-deflection technique, we measured two important mechanical properties of kinocilia in the utricle of a turtle, Trachemys (Pseudemys) scripta elegans. First, we measured the stiffness of kinocilia with different heights. These kinocilia were assumed to be homogenous cylindrical rods and were modeled as both isotropic Euler–Bernoulli beams and transversely isotropic Timoshenko beams. Two mechanical properties of the kinocilia were derived from the beam analysis: flexural rigidity (EI) and shear rigidity (kGA). The Timoshenko model produced a better fit to the experimental data, predicting EI=10,400 pN ?m2 and kGA=247 pN. Assuming a homogenous rod, the shear modulus (G=1.9 kPa) was four orders of magnitude less than Young's modulus (E=14.1 MPa), indicating that significant shear deformation occurs within deflected kinocilia. When analyzed as an Euler–Bernoulli beam, which neglects translational shear, EI increased linearly with kinocilium height, giving underestimates of EI for shorter kinocilia. Second, we measured the rotational stiffness of the kinocilium insertion (?) into the hair cell's apical surface. Following BAPTA treatment to break the kinocilial links, the kinocilia remained upright, and ? was measured as 177±47 pN ?m rad–1. The mechanical parameters we quantified are important for understanding how forces arising from head movement are transduced and encoded by hair cells. PMID:21307074

  5. Absence of plastin 1 causes abnormal maintenance of hair cell stereocilia and a moderate form of hearing loss in mice

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Ruth; Bullen, Anwen; Johnson, Stuart L.; Grimm-Günter, Eva-Maria; Rivero, Francisco; Marcotti, Walter; Forge, Andrew; Daudet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Hearing relies on the mechanosensory inner and outer hair cells (OHCs) of the organ of Corti, which convert mechanical deflections of their actin-rich stereociliary bundles into electrochemical signals. Several actin-associated proteins are essential for stereocilia formation and maintenance, and their absence leads to deafness. One of the most abundant actin-bundling proteins of stereocilia is plastin 1, but its function has never been directly assessed. Here, we found that plastin 1 knock-out (Pls1 KO) mice have a moderate and progressive form of hearing loss across all frequencies. Auditory hair cells developed normally in Pls1 KO, but in young adult animals, the stereocilia of inner hair cells were reduced in width and length. The stereocilia of OHCs were comparatively less affected; however, they also showed signs of degeneration in ageing mice. The hair bundle stiffness and the acquisition of the electrophysiological properties of hair cells were unaffected by the absence of plastin 1, except for a significant change in the adaptation properties, but not the size of the mechanoelectrical transducer currents. These results show that in contrast to other actin-bundling proteins such as espin, harmonin or Eps8, plastin 1 is dispensable for the initial formation of stereocilia. However, the progressive hearing loss and morphological defects of hair cells in adult Pls1 KO mice point at a specific role for plastin 1 in the preservation of adult stereocilia and optimal hearing. Hence, mutations in the human PLS1 gene may be associated with relatively mild and progressive forms of hearing loss. PMID:25124451

  6. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  7. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. PMID:25869730

  8. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Media resources Stats and facts Conditions Hair loss Hair loss Many conditions, diseases, and improper hair care can ... dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment. CAUSES OF HAIR LOSS Other causes of hair loss, some of which ...

  9. Body Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  10. Blind shaft development

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-02-15

    The article discusses how Shaft Drillers International (SDI) is breaking new ground in shaft development and ground stabilization. Techniques of blind shaft drilling and raise bore shaft development developed by SDI are briefly explained. An associated company, Coastal Drilling East, deals with all types of ground improvement such as pre-grouting work for shafts, grouting of poor soil and water leaks into the mine. 3 photos.

  11. Female adolescent hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Hawryluk, Elena Balestreire; English, Joseph C

    2009-08-01

    Hair abnormalities can have tremendous psychosocial impacts on adolescents and young adults, and may cause a great amount of anxiety regarding physical appearance, associated illnesses, and potential clinical course. The pathophysiology of such disorders may vary,with potential congenital, infectious, autoimmune, nutritional, or environmental causes. Hair abnormalities may present as changes in hair appearance or quality, becoming weathered or fractured.An abnormal increase in hair is present in hypertrichosis and hirsutism, whereas a thinning or shedding of hair is evident in patients with telogen effluviumand alopecia areata. Diagnosis is focused on a detailed clinical history and physical exam, in addition to laboratory testing, a variety of clinical diagnostic tests, and scalp biopsy, which may be necessary to confirm some diagnoses. Many hair disorders have no cure, but clinicians can have a positive impact on their patients by identifying the abnormality and educating the patient regarding disease course. However, some conditions such as infectious hair disorders or scarring alopecia should be identified promptly to initiate treatment and ensure clinical improvement or optimal outcome. PMID:19658203

  12. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the hair bulb. This is where the hair's color pigment, or melanin, is produced. Most people lose ... and styling. Treatments that use chemicals, like hair color, bleach, straightening, or perms can cause hair damage ...

  13. Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the substance that gives hair and skin its pigment. The lighter someone's hair, the less melanin there ... or red hair. Older people lose the melanin pigment in their hair as they age, making their ...

  14. Hair Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Hair care Hair care Short, long, curly, straight, up, down. Hair options can seem endless! Not all of what makes your hair look good comes from the outside, though. Good ...

  15. Oily hair

    MedlinePLUS

    Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

  16. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... causes hair to fall out in round patches. PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT OF HAIR LOSS While the physical symptoms ... hair loss can be traumatic for patients, the psychosocial impact of hair loss can be just as ...

  17. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  18. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  19. Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair

    PubMed Central

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

  20. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Hair Loss Overview What is the normal cycle of hair growth and loss? The normal cycle of hair growth lasts for 2 to ... some people may experience excessive (more than normal) hair loss. Hair loss of this type can affect men, ...

  1. Hair transplant

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair transplant have male or female pattern baldness . Hair loss is on the front or top of the ... follicles to move. In some cases, people with hair loss from lupus , injuries, or other medical problems are ...

  2. Dry hair

    MedlinePLUS

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  3. Hair Removal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... maintain a steady temperature by providing some insulation. Terminal hair is coarser, darker, and longer than vellus ... hair that grows on your head. Around puberty, terminal hair starts to grow in the armpits and ...

  4. 118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) FORWARD LOOKING AFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE SHOWING THE SHAFT, SHAFT PACKING GLAND, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE AND FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN PIPING. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... Print and Share (615 KB) En Español Hair dye is used to color your hair. Hair relaxers are used to make ...

  6. Trichoscopic Findings of Hair Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin; Kim, Joo-Ik; Kim, Han-Uk; Yun, Seok-Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichoscopic findings of hair loss have been well described for the differential diagnosis of alopecia; however, critical findings were not thoroughly investigated or compared among all ethnic groups, including Asians. Objective We aimed to find any characteristic trichoscopic findings in Korean alopecia patients and to verify whether those findings are closely related to previously reported observations. Methods Three hundred and twenty-seven patients with hair loss of various causes and 160 normal scalps were analyzed. Trichoscopic examination was performed with a polarized-light handheld dermoscope. Results A total of 35 patterns of trichoscopic features were represented, and certain features were significantly common or observed exclusively in a particular type of alopecia as follows: yellow dots, exclamation mark hairs, and proximal tapering hairs (alopecia areata), trichoptilosis and pointed hairs (trichotillomania), corkscrew hairs, septate hyphae hairs, and comma hairs (tinea capitis), diffuse white area, fibrotic white dots, and tufting hairs (primary cicatricial alopecia), hair diameter diversity and peripilar sign (androgenetic alopecia), and short nonvellus hairs (telogen effluvium). Conclusion The characteristic trichoscopic features for the differential diagnosis of alopecia in Koreans, shown as follicular, perifollicular, and hair shaft patterns, are similar to those of Caucasians; however, the frequencies of the pigment patterns are different between Koreans and Caucasians because of the contrast effect of the skin and hair color. Therefore, racial difference should be considered in the trichoscopic evaluation for differential diagnosis. PMID:26512168

  7. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  8. Crank shaft support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Natkin, Robert J. (Canton, MI); Oltmans, Bret (Stacy, MN); Allison, John E. (Ann Arbor, MI); Heater, Thomas J. (Milford, MI); Hines, Joy Adair (Plymouth, MI); Tappen, Grant K. (Washington, MI); Peiskammer, Dietmar (Rochester, MI)

    2007-10-23

    A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

  9. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  10. Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases.

  11. Targeted expression of GFP in the hair follicle using ex vivo viral transduction.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M; Li, Lingna

    2008-01-01

    There are many cell types in the hair follicle, including hair matrix cells which form the hair shaft and stem cells which can initiate the hair shaft during early anagen, the growth phase of the hair cycle, as well as pluripotent stem cells that play a role in hair follicle growth but have the potential to differentiate to non-follicle cells such as neurons. These properties of the hair follicle are discussed. The various cell types of the hair follicle are potential targets for gene therapy. Gene delivery system for the hair follicle using viral vectors or liposomes for gene targeting to the various cell types in the hair follicle and the results obtained are also discussed [corrected]. PMID:19066571

  12. Improved circumferential shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Comparative tests of modified and unmodified carbon ring seals showed that addition of helical grooves to conventional segmented carbon ring seals reduced leakage significantly. Modified seal was insensitive to shaft runout and to flooding by lubricant.

  13. Fabricated torque shaft

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles (Anderson, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

  14. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Sim?i?, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

    2007-07-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  15. Hair loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... continual hair pulling or scalp rubbing Radiation therapy Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) Tumor of the ovary or ... a plucked hair Skin biopsy If you have ringworm on the scalp, your doctor may prescribe an ...

  16. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z Diseases and treatments E - H Hair loss Hair loss Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE-shah) Hereditary ... our skin, hair, and nails. Learn more about hair loss: Hair loss: Signs and symptoms Hair loss: Who ...

  17. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Fang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Nuo, Mingtu; Guo, Xudong; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (T?4) is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF) development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed T?4 in the epidermis, as well as T?4 global knockout mice, to study the role of T?4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of T?4 on hair growth. To study T?4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). To explore the effect of T?4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of T?4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in T?4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that T?4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased T?4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in T?4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, T?4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. T?4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts. PMID:26083021

  18. 9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY BARS); VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  19. Polygonal shaft hole rotor

    DOEpatents

    Hussey, John H. (St. Louis, MO); Rose, John Scott (Alton, IL); Meystrik, Jeffrey J. (Webster Groves, MO); White, Kent Lee (Maryland Heights, MO)

    2001-01-23

    A laminated rotor for an induction motor has a plurality of ferro-magnetic laminations mounted axially on a rotor shaft. Each of the plurality of laminations has a central aperture in the shape of a polygon with sides of equal length. The laminations are alternatingly rotated 180.degree. from one another so that the straight sides of the polygon shaped apertures are misaligned. As a circular rotor shaft is press fit into a stack of laminations, the point of maximum interference occurs at the midpoints of the sides of the polygon (i.e., at the smallest radius of the central apertures of the laminations). Because the laminates are alternatingly rotated, the laminate material at the points of maximum interference yields relatively easily into the vertices (i.e., the greatest radius of the central aperture) of the polygonal central aperture of the next lamination as the shaft is inserted into the stack of laminations. Because of this yielding process, the amount of force required to insert the shaft is reduced, and a tighter fit is achieved.

  20. Shaft seal system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D. (Carlsbad, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A shaft seal system is disclosed for isolating two regions of different fluid mediums through which a rotatable shaft extends. The seal system includes a seal housing through which the shaft extends and which defines an annular land and an annular labyrinth both of which face on the shaft so that each establishes a corresponding fluid sealing annulus. A collection cavity is formed in communication with the annular sealing spaces, and fluids compatible with the fluids in each of the two regions to be isolated are introduced, respectively, into the annular sealing spaces and collected in the collection cavity from which the fluid mixture is removed and passed to a separator which separates the fluids and returns them to their respective annular sealing spaces in a recycling manner. In the illustrated embodiment, the isolated fluid mediums comprise a liquid region and a gas region. Gas is removed from the gas region and passed through a purifier and a gas pump operative to introduce the purified gas through the labyrinth sealing annulus to the collection cavity. After passing to the separator, the separated gas is passed through a dryer from which the dried gas is caused to pass through the labyrinth sealing annulus into the collection cavity independently of the purified gas so as to insure isolation of the gas region in the event of sealing gas pump malfunction.

  1. Shaft generator transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Economical on-board power can be generated from two-stroke, low-speed engines by installing a multistage hollow-shaft gearbox on the propeller intermediate shaft to drive the generator. Gearbox manufacturer Asug, based in Dessau, Germany, has designed units specifically for this purpose. The Asug shaft generator drive concept for generator drives at the front end of the engine is designed to reduce installation costs and uses an integrated engine-gearbox foundation. The complete propulsion system, consisting of the diesel engine, gear with coupling and generator, can be completely or partially preassembled outside the ship`s engine room to reduce onboard assembly time. A separate foundation for this arrangement is not necessary. The company offers a full range of gearboxes to generate power from 500 kW up to 5000 kW. Gearboxes driven from the forward engine end often incorporate an additional gear stage to gain energy from an exhaust turbine. This arrangement feeds part of the exhaust energy back into the system to increase efficiency. Latest installations of Asug shaft generator gears are in container ships and cargo/container ships built in Turkey and China.

  2. Gravity in a Mine Shaft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

  3. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  4. Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

  5. Preload Torque Limiting Shaft Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmening, W. A. (inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A torque limiting spring for a rotating shaft system which acts bidirectionally and is preloaded is examined. The spring is a split circular ring compressed into cavities on facing surfaces of matching shafts. The spring is preloaded by varying the width of a tang in the shaft cavity relative to the split in the spring.

  6. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity *

    PubMed Central

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  7. Hair Changes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... They can be absorbed into the skin. Permanent hair-removal techniques (such as electrolysis) are thought to be safe during pregnancy. But ... They can be absorbed into the skin. Permanent hair-removal techniques (such as electrolysis) are thought to be safe during pregnancy. But ...

  8. Hair Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in hair loss. No 5. Are you taking any new medicines, or are you being treated for cancer? Yes Hair loss may be a side effect of ... has given birth within the last three months? Yes HORMONE CHANGES ... without any treatment. While follicular degeneration cannot be reversed, gentle ...

  9. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

  10. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L. (Houston, TX); Schroeder, John E. (Richmond, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Alvarez, Patricio D. (Richmond, TX)

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  11. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  12. Effects of solar radiation on hair and photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Dario, Michelli F; Baby, André R; Velasco, Maria Valéria R

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the negative effects of solar radiation (ultraviolet, visible and infrared wavelengths) on hair properties like color, mechanical properties, luster, protein content, surface roughness, among others, will be discussed. Despite knowing that radiation damages hair, there are no consensus about the particular effect of each segment of solar radiation on the hair shaft. The hair photoprotection products are primarily targeted to dyed hair, specially auburn pigments, and gray shades. They are usually based on silicones, antioxidants and quaternary chemical UV filters that have more affinity for negatively charged hair surface and present higher efficacy. Unfortunately, there are no regulated parameters, like for skin photoprotection, for efficacy evaluation of hair care products, which makes impossible to compare the results published in the literature. Thus, it is important that researchers make an effort to apply experimental conditions similar to a real level of sun exposure, like dose, irradiance, time, temperature and relative humidity. PMID:26454659

  13. Alterations in hair follicle dynamics in women.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

  14. Hair follicle morphogenesis and epidermal homeostasis in we/we wal/wal mice with postnatal alopecia.

    PubMed

    Rippa, Alexandra; Terskikh, Vasily; Nesterova, Anastasia; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina

    2015-05-01

    Mice with skin and hair follicle (HF) defects are common models of human skin disorders. A mutant strain with the we/we wal/wal genotype develops alopecia. We found the hair shaft structure in the pelage of mutant mice to have significant defects. Although these mice lose their hair at 21 days, a label-retaining cell population persists in HFs until at least day 54. Depilation-induced anagen was accomplished in we/we wal/wal mutants but the resulting hair shafts were short and extremely deformed. Serious abnormalities in epidermis stratification and HF morphogenesis exist in we/we wal/wal homozygous E18.5 embryos. There were significantly fewer HF primordia in this mutant compared with wild type. We discovered specific structures, identified as invalid placodes, positive for ectodysplasin A1 receptor, nuclear ?-catenin, and LEF1, which failed to invaginate, produced a double basal-like layer of epidermal cells, and lacked cylindrical keratinocytes. Specification of dermal papillae (DP) was impaired, and the papillary dermis expressed alkaline phosphatase and LEF1. We also detected DP-like groups of intensively stained cells in the absence of visible signs of folliculogenesis in the epidermis. We showed differentiation disturbances in the mutant embryonic E18.5 epidermis and HFs: The cornified layer was absent, the width of the spinous layer was reduced, and HFs lacked LEF1-positive precortex cells. In this study, we used a very interesting and useful mouse model of alopecia. The presence of symptoms of skin disorders in we/we wal/wal murine embryos correlates with the postnatal skin phenotype. This correlation may help to evaluate reasons of alopecia. PMID:25366125

  15. Changing Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair also can hurt the scalp or cause hair loss . Styling tools, such as curling irons and straightening ... this treatment for kids. Some people complain about hair loss or a burning scalp after getting their hair ...

  16. Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of trichotillomania: recurrent hair pulling resulting in noticeable hair loss, unrelated to baldness or alopecia pleasure, excitement, or ... pulling out hair embarrassment or shame resulting from hair loss problems at home, school or work The cause ...

  17. Shaft seal assembly and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

  18. Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2008-03-07

    Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

  19. Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Griggs, J.E.; Newman, H.J.

    1983-06-16

    The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one end to a gear mechanism and at its other end to an adjustable coupling means which is to be connected to a rotatable shaft extending through a wall through which torque and rotary motion are to be transferred.

  20. Time-course mass spectrometry imaging for depicting drug incorporation into hair.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Tooru; Shima, Noriaki; Sasaki, Keiko; Matsuta, Shuntaro; Takei, Shiori; Katagi, Munehiro; Miki, Akihiro; Zaitsu, Kei; Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Sato, Takako; Suzuki, Koichi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the incorporation of drugs into hair, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging was performed on the longitudinal sections of single scalp hair shafts sampled from volunteers after a single oral administration of methoxyphenamine (MOP), a noncontrolled analogue of methamphetamine. Hair specimens were collected by plucking out with the roots intact, and these specimens were prepped by an optimized procedure based on freeze-sectioning to detect the drug inside the hair shaft and hair root. Time-course changes in the imaging results, with confirmatory quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for each 1-mm segment of single hair strands, revealed a substantial concentration of the drug first onto the hair bulbs after ingestion, while only a small portion appeared to be incorporated into the hair matrix, forming a 2-3 mm distinctive drug band with tailing. Comparable amount of the drug also appeared to be incorporated into the keratinized hair shaft in the upper dermis zone, forming another distinct drug band of about 2 mm, which both moved toward the distal side, following the strand's growth rate. These findings provide forensically crucial information: there are two major drug incorporation sites, at least for MOP, which cause overlap of the recordings and deteriorates its chronological resolution down to about 11 days or perhaps longer. PMID:25919888

  1. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair...

  5. [Forensic aspects of thermal changes in human head hair].

    PubMed

    Kijewski, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Under experimental conditions, head hairs of individuals of different age were exposed to defined increases of temperature up to 450 degrees C and examined by transmitted- and reflected-light microscopy with and without polarization. Preliminary tests had shown that the hair changes alone do not allow conclusions as to the temperature acting on the hair. Especially in the range of 200 to 300 degrees C, the temperature gradient during the heating process and the exposure time were additional influencing factors. Thick hair and hair with a high water content showed more pronounced thermal changes than thin hair. Elasticity and permeability of the cuticle and the cementing substance (cell membrane complex CMC) are also relevant factors. When heating head hairs lacking a medulla, a multiform pseudo-medulla formed under certain conditions. In the presence of thermally induced structural disturbances (e.g. by using hair straighteners), foreign substances can penetrate more easily into the hair shaft from outside. The possibility of such exogenous contamination has to be taken into consideration when performing chemical and toxicological analyses of hair. PMID:25004619

  6. Resilient shaft mounting for pump

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, W.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a pump. It comprises: a tube having a centrifugal pump mounted on an upper end thereof, the centrifugal pump having an inlet coaxial with the tube, an outlet disposed radially and an impeller rotatable in a housing to pump a liquid; at least one propeller disposed in the tube below the centrifugal pump, the propeller being rotatable to draw fluid upwardly in the tube; a shaft connecting the impeller of the centrifugal with the propeller in the tube; at least one triangular support for the shaft, having three resilient planar plates dimensioned to be bowed inwardly in the tube and enclosing the shaft. The plates are discrete sections, each having ends disposed against an inner surface of the tube and against an adjoining one of the plates, an intermediate portion of each of the plates resiliently bearing inwardly toward the shaft; and, a resilient bushing disposed between the plates and the shaft, the resilient bushing being a round tube deformed into a triangular shape by pressure of the plates; whereby the shaft is supported coaxially in the tube.

  7. Nudging hair shedding by antidandruff shampoos. A comparison of 1% ketoconazole, 1% piroctone olamine and 1% zinc pyrithione formulations.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Goffin, V; Henry, F; Uhoda, I; Braham, C; Piérard, G E

    2002-10-01

    Hair shedding and hair thinning have been reported to be affected by dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The present study was conducted in 150 men presenting with telogen effluvium related to androgenic alopecia associated with dandruff. They were randomly allocated to three groups receiving each one of the three shampoos in the market containing either 1% ketoconazole (KTZ), 1% piroctone olamine (PTO) or 1% zinc pyrithione (ZPT). Shampoos had to be used 2-3 times a week for 6 months. Hair shedding during shampoo was evaluated semiquantitatively. Hair density on the vertex was evaluated on photographs using a Dermaphot. Trichograms were used for determining the anagen hair percentage and the mean proximal hair shaft diameter using computerized image analysis. The sebum excretion rate (SER, mug cm(-2) h(-1)) was also measured using a Sebumeter. The three treatments cleared pruritus and dandruff rapidly. At end point, hair density was unchanged, although hair shedding was decreased (KTZ: -17.3%, PTO: -16.5%, ZPT: -10.1%) and the anagen hair percentage was increased (KTZ: 4.9%, PTO: 7.9%, ZPT: 6.8%). The effect on the mean hair shaft diameter was contrasted between the three groups of volunteers (KTZ: 5.4%, PTO: 7.7%, ZPT: -2.2%). In conclusion, telogen effluvium was controlled by KTZ, PTO and ZPT shampoos at 1% concentration. In addition, KTZ and PTO increased the mean hair shaft thickness while discretely decreasing the sebum output at the skin surface. PMID:18498517

  8. Influence of bearing support structures on shaft vibration of large hydraulic pump/turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Pistner, C.A.; Greenplate, B.S.; Waddell, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    Start-up transient loads from pump/turbine impellers can cause excessive vibration problems in the shaft system. If the radial guide bearing supports are structurally soft or loose, or if the bearings are worn, the resulting radial shaft movement causes abnormal wear. The wear normally occurs at the impeller sealing surfaces, main shaft seals, motor/generator components, piping, brackets, foundation connections, etc. This paper explores the critical factors causing shaft system vibration problems at the Tennessee Valley Authority`s Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant, as well as the unique modifications which were implemented to strengthen and improve the units. The solution involved extensive three-dimensional finite element structural and thermal transient analyses of the original and re-designed turbine shoe bearing, bearing housings, and support structures. The conclusion compares the calculated and measured shaft system response to transient loads of the original and modified system.

  9. Is Propionibacterium Acnes Associated with Hair Casts and Alopecia?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Etienne; Lee, Joyce Siong-See; Hee, Tan Hiok

    2012-01-01

    We report a series of four patients who presented with complaints of diffuse non-scarring alopecia. They had similar clinical features of alopecia, hyperseborrhea, and distinct keratinaceous hair casts that encircled the hair shafts. Propionibacterium acnes was isolated from two of the patients’ scalp, and Gram-positive, Giemsa-positive bacteria were seen in the hair follicles in the scalp biopsy of one of the patients. The patients’ symptoms did not respond to standard treatment for seborrheic dermatitis, but responded to a course of systemic antibiotics targeting P. acnes. We propose a role for P. acnes colonization of the terminal hair follicles in the pathogenesis of hair casts, and possibly diffuse non-scarring alopecia. Possible mechanisms of pathogenesis are discussed with a literature review. PMID:23180917

  10. An analysis of shaft/shaft seal interaction of a multiple disk centrifugal blood pump 

    E-print Network

    Manning, Keefe Baird

    1997-01-01

    A multiple disk centrifugal blood pump is in the early stages of development. As is the case with most pumps that are shaft driven, leakage problems around the shaft/shaft seal interface are of major interest. If leakage ...

  11. Hair bleach poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows this substance or splashes it on their skin or in their ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.

  12. Characterization of Hair Follicle Development in Engineered Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Sriwiriyanont, Penkanok; Lynch, Kaari A.; McFarland, Kevin L.; Supp, Dorothy M.; Boyce, Steven T.

    2013-01-01

    Generation of skin appendages in engineered skin substitutes has been limited by lack of trichogenic potency in cultured postnatal cells. To investigate the feasibility and the limitation of hair regeneration, engineered skin substitutes were prepared with chimeric populations of cultured human keratinocytes from neonatal foreskins and cultured murine dermal papilla cells from adult GFP transgenic mice and grafted orthotopically to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice. Non-cultured dissociated neonatal murine-only skin cells, or cultured human-only skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts without dermal papilla cells served as positive and negative controls respectively. In this study, neonatal murine-only skin substitutes formed external hairs and sebaceous glands, chimeric skin substitutes formed pigmented hairs without sebaceous glands, and human-only skin substitutes formed no follicles or glands. Although chimeric hair cannot erupt readily, removal of upper skin layer exposed keratinized hair shafts at the skin surface. Development of incomplete pilosebaceous units in chimeric hair corresponded with upregulation of hair-related genes, LEF1 and WNT10B, and downregulation of a marker of sebaceous glands, Steroyl-CoA desaturase. Transepidermal water loss was normal in all conditions. This study demonstrated that while sebaceous glands may be involved in hair eruption, they are not required for hair development in engineered skin substitutes. PMID:23799033

  13. The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    . 1997). Mutant mice lacking the Cathepsin L gene develop periodic hair loss, epidermal hyperplasiaThe role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals with abnormal hair A V Kalueff1 and P Tuohimaa2 1 Department of Anatomy, Medical School; 2 Department

  14. Observations on fur development in echidna (Monotremata, Mammalia) indicate that spines precede hairs in ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo; Rogers, George

    2015-04-01

    In the primitive mammal echidna, the initial 2-3 generations of skin appendages produced from birth forms spines and only later true hairs appear. Microscopy on preserved museum specimens reveals that the morphogenesis of spines and hairs is similar but that a larger dermal papilla is formed in spines. The growing shaft comprises a medulla surrounded by a cortex and by an external cuticle. A thick inner root sheath made of cornified cells surrounds the growing shaft inside the spine canal that eventually exits with a pointed tip. Hairs develop later with the same modality of spines but have a smaller papilla and give rise to a fur coat among spines. Therefore the integument of developing echidnas initially produces spines from large dermal papillae but the reduction in size of the papillae later determines the formation of hairs. Although the morphogenesis of spines and hairs can represent a case of specialization in this species, the primitive mammalian characteristics of echidnas has also inspired new speculations on the evolution of the mammalian hair from mammalian-like reptiles with a spiny coat. The resemblance in the morphogenesis between spines and hairs has suggested some hypothesis on hair evolution, in particular that hairs might be derived from the reduction of protective large spines present in ancient mammalian-like reptiles possibly derived from the reduction of pre-existing pointed scales. The hypothesis suggests that spines became reduced and internalized in the skin forming hairs. PMID:25367156

  15. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Current standards in the diagnostics and therapy of hair diseases - hair consultation.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika

    2011-05-01

    Hair and scalp diseases present an extensive diagnostic and therapeutic task. Treating them is often a challenge for the physician in daily practice. Unclear diagnoses, chronic conditions with long-lasting therapies and the uncertainty of the patient may often lead to unsatisfying situations for both the patient as well as the doctor. The complaints can be divided into (1) hair loss, (2) increased hair growth and (3) abnormal hair quality. A structured history and the objectification of the clinical findings with the help of standardized diagnostic methods and score systems or classifications enable a diagnosis in most patients already at the first visit. Moreover, such structured processes strengthen the treatment satisfaction and compliance of both the patient and the therapist. In the meantime, diagnostic measures and clinical practice guidelines are available for the most common hair disorders. Expertise in basic psychosomatic care and an empathetic approach to the fears and concerns as well as practical advice for the daily contact with hair disorders should be integrated as separate elements in the management of hair diseases; in most cases they are gratefully welcomed by the patients. The aim of this article is to provide the physician with a guideline for the structured management of a hair patient. An overview of recent new developments and the currently available clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis and therapy of hair disorders is presented. PMID:21284803

  17. Successful direct amplification of nuclear markers from single dog hairs using DogFiler multiplex.

    PubMed

    Blackie, Renée; Taylor, Duncan; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    We report on successful amplification of canine STR DNA profiles from single dog hairs. Dog hairs are commonly found on clothing or items of interest in forensic casework and may be crucial associative evidence if linked to an individual dog. We used direct amplification from these hairs to increase the DNA yield of the sample, as well as greatly reducing analysis time. Hairs from different somatic regions were used from several different dog breeds to amplify a selection of eight loci from the validated DogFiler multiplex. Naturally shed canine hairs were processed, with a mix of coarse topcoat (guard) hairs and thinner soft undercoat hairs. Multiple sections of single hairs were amplified in 5 mm segments to determine the viability of DNA recovery from the shaft of the hair. Single guard hairs were cut into 5 mm sections and added directly into a PCR tube. Undercoat hairs, which are very fine, were amplified together in a single tube (approximately ten small hairs). Coarse hairs were found to be the most successful in producing full DNA profiles at all eight loci, matching the corresponding reference profile for that dog. PMID:25994427

  18. Measuring cortisol in hair and saliva from dogs: coat color and pigment differences.

    PubMed

    Bennett, A; Hayssen, V

    2010-10-01

    Cortisol concentrations are frequently measured from a variety of sources including blood, saliva, urine, and feces to quantify stress in dogs. However, a need still exists for less intrusive collection methods in domestic animals and for more efficient means of measuring basal cortisol. The objectives of the present study were to minimize restraint for saliva sampling, to validate hair for basal cortisol measurement in dogs, and to determine concentrations of cortisol within the hair shaft and in relation to hair color. Using food luring, 79% of dogs required no restraint for saliva collection. Salivary and hair cortisol concentrations were positively correlated (P = 0.001), thus validating hair as a medium for basal cortisol quantification. Black dogs had less cortisol than nonblack dogs (P = 0.039) in hair, but not saliva. Across dogs, the average amount of cortisol did not differ between proximal and distal hair sections (P = 0.348). However, for 7 of the 9 dogs, more cortisol was present in the distal portions of the hair. We observed a difference in cortisol concentrations among hairs of different colors from individual dogs (P = 0.001). From the same 7 x 7 cm ischiatic patch from the same dog, black (eumelanin) hairs were consistently lower in cortisol than yellow (pheomelanin) hairs, and cortisol concentrations of agouti hairs were intermediate. This is the first evidence that hair of different colors might sequester cortisol differently. PMID:20705413

  19. Case study: ancient sloth DNA recovered from hairs preserved in paleofeces.

    PubMed

    Clack, Andrew A; Macphee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2012-01-01

    Ancient hair, which has proved to be an excellent source of well-preserved ancient DNA, is often preserved in paleofeces. Here, we separate and wash hair shafts preserved in a paleofecal specimen believed to be from a Darwin's ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. After extracting DNA from the recovered and cleaned hair using a protocol optimized for DNA extraction from keratinous substrates, we amplify 12S and 16S rDNA sequences from the DNA extract. As expected, the recovered sequences most closely match previously published sequences of M. darwinii. Our results demonstrate that hair preserved in paleofeces, even from temperate cave environments, is an effective source of ancient DNA. PMID:22237521

  20. Laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David J

    2002-07-01

    Laser hair removal created controversy when it was first described over 5 years ago. It has now become an accepted modality for long-term hair reduction. It rivals electrolysis in the successful treatment of small hair-bearing areas. It surpasses any modality in the treatment of larger hair-bearing anatomic areas. PMID:12170888

  1. Hair follicle Formation of

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    Hair follicle Formation of new follicles Bud Healed skin Hair bulge Open wound Epidermis a b Dermis 1950s and help to explain the controversy. What is the origin of the cells that make up these new hair follicles? Are they derived from existing hair follicles located at the wound edge

  2. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  3. Repairing A Shaft Prone To Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Roger A.; Larsen, David V.; Bates, Garold A.

    1991-01-01

    Shaft of hydraulic motor now outlives its bearings. Procedure for repairing John Deere Series 50 (or equivalent) hydraulic motor solves problem posed by common type of fatigue failure of shaft. Includes forming internally threaded hole in end of shaft, inserting double-threaded end stud, and adding washers and collars.

  4. 30 CFR 57.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft guides. 57.19102 Section 57.19102 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft guides. 56.19102 Section 56.19102 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19133 - Shaft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft. 57.19133 Section 57.19133 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19133 Shaft. Shafts that have not been inspected within the past 7 days...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft guides. 56.19102 Section 56.19102 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19133 - Shaft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft. 56.19133 Section 56.19133 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19133 Shaft. Shafts that have not been inspected within the past 7 days...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft guides. 57.19102 Section 57.19102 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19133 - Shaft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft. 56.19133 Section 56.19133 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19133 Shaft. Shafts that have not been inspected within the past 7 days...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19133 - Shaft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft. 57.19133 Section 57.19133 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19133 Shaft. Shafts that have not been inspected within the past 7 days...

  12. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  13. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  14. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  15. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  16. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  17. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  18. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  19. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 56.19104 Section 56.19104...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 57.19109 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 56.19104 Section 56.19104...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 56.19109 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 57.19104 Section 57.19104...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 56.19109 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 57.19104 Section 57.19104...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 57.19109 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and...

  8. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

  9. The Very Large G-Protein-Coupled Receptor VLGR1: A Component of the Ankle Link Complex Required for the Normal Development of Auditory Hair Bundles

    PubMed Central

    McGee, JoAnn; Goodyear, Richard J.; McMillan, D. Randy; Stauffer, Eric A.; Holt, Jeffrey R.; Locke, Kirsten G.; Birch, David G.; Legan, P. Kevin; White, Perrin C.; Walsh, Edward J.; Richardson, Guy P.

    2009-01-01

    Sensory hair bundles in the inner ear are composed of stereocilia that can be interconnected by a variety of different link types, including tip links, horizontal top connectors, shaft connectors, and ankle links. The ankle link antigen is an epitope specifically associated with ankle links and the calycal processes of photoreceptors in chicks. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting were used to identify this antigen as the avian ortholog of the very large G-protein-coupled receptor VLGR1, the product of the Usher syndrome USH2C (Mass1) locus. Like ankle links, Vlgr1 is expressed transiently around the base of developing hair bundles in mice. Ankle links fail to form in the cochleae of mice carrying a targeted mutation in Vlgr1 (Vlgr1/del7TM), and the bundles become disorganized just after birth. FM1-43 [N-(3-triethylammonium)propyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide] dye loading and whole-cell recordings indicate mechanotransduction is impaired in cochlear, but not vestibular, hair cells of early postnatal Vlgr1/del7TM mutant mice. Auditory brainstem recordings and distortion product measurements indicate that these mice are severely deaf by the third week of life. Hair cells from the basal half of the cochlea are lost in 2-month-old Vlgr1/del7TM mice, and retinal function is mildly abnormal in aged mutants. Our results indicate that Vlgr1 is required for formation of the ankle link complex and the normal development of cochlear hair bundles. PMID:16775142

  10. A Case of Woolly Hair Nevus Associated with Pigmentary Demarcation Lines and Heterochromia Iridis: Coincidence or a New Association?

    PubMed Central

    Kocak, Aslihan Yonca; Kocak, Oguzhan

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of woolly hair nevus with pigmentary demarcation lines and heterochromia iridis. Woolly hair nevus is a rare abnormality of the scalp hair characterized by the patch of hair, which is curlier and light colored than the rest of the scalp hair. Association of woolly hair nevus with some other ectodermal defects effecting skin and eyes has been reported before. Here, woolly hair nevus associated with demarcation lines and heterochromia iridis, to our knowledge, have not been previously reported. PMID:26622156

  11. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyuan; Tan, Qingchang; Zhang, Yachao

    2015-01-01

    A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is measured by the determined center and the projected image. Experiments evaluated the measuring accuracy of the method and the effects of some factors on the measurement are analyzed. PMID:26274963

  12. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siyuan; Tan, Qingchang; Zhang, Yachao

    2015-01-01

    A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is measured by the determined center and the projected image. Experiments evaluated the measuring accuracy of the method and the effects of some factors on the measurement are analyzed. PMID:26274963

  13. Hermetic seal for a shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombardi, F. (inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An hermetic seal for a linear rod having a portion thereof projected axially through a port defined in a wall for a pressure chamber and supported thereby for omni-directional motion is described. The seal is characterized by a resilient, impervious, cylindrical body having a first section concentrically related to the shaft and integrally affixed thereto comprising a linear ordered array of annular flutes. A second section integrally is affixed to the wall of the chamber and concentrically related to the port comprising a second linear ordered array of annular flutes. A third section is interposed between the first and second sections and integrally affixed in coaxial alignment therewith comprising an annular ordered array of linear flutes concentrically related to the shaft, whereby axial, angular, and pivotal motion of the rod is accommodated.

  14. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

  15. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. On the distribution of uranium in hair: Non-destructive analysis using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence microprobe techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israelsson, A.; Eriksson, M.; Pettersson, H. B. L.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study the distribution of uranium in single human hair shafts has been evaluated using two synchrotron radiation (SR) based micro X-ray fluorescence techniques; SR ?-XRF and confocal SR ?-XRF. The hair shafts originated from persons that have been exposed to elevated uranium concentrations. Two different groups have been studied, i) workers at a nuclear fuel fabrication factory, exposed mainly by inhalation and ii) owners of drilled bedrock wells exposed by ingestion of water. The measurements were carried out on the FLUO beamline at the synchrotron radiation facility ANKA, Karlsruhe. The experiment was optimized to detect U with a beam size of 6.8 ?m × 3 ?m beam focus allowing detection down to ppb levels of U in 10 s (SR ?-XRF setup) and 70 s (SR confocal ?-XRF setup) measurements. It was found that the uranium was present in a 10-15 ?m peripheral layer of the hair shafts for both groups studied. Furthermore, potential external hair contamination was studied by scanning of unwashed hair shafts from the workers. Sites of very high uranium signal were identified as particles containing uranium. Such particles, were also seen in complementary analyses using variable pressure electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (ESEM-EDX). However, the particles were not visible in washed hair shafts. These findings can further increase the understanding of uranium excretion in hair and its potential use as a biomonitor.

  17. Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its computational and algorithmic

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    1 Abstract Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its the complex behavior of long human hair, taking into account the hair-to-hair interactions. For long hair, we propose the thin shell volume (TSV) model for enhancing hair realism by simulating complex hair-hair

  18. Runx1 modulates developmental, but not injury-driven, hair follicle stem cell activation.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Karen M; Lee, Song Eun; McDermitt, David J; Waghmare, Sanjeev K; Zhang, Ying V; Woo, Hyun Nyun; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2008-03-01

    Aml1/Runx1 controls developmental aspects of several tissues, is a master regulator of blood stem cells, and plays a role in leukemia. However, it is unclear whether it functions in tissue stem cells other than blood. Here, we have investigated the role of Runx1 in mouse hair follicle stem cells by conditional ablation in epithelial cells. Runx1 disruption affects hair follicle stem cell activation, but not their maintenance, proliferation or differentiation potential. Adult mutant mice exhibit impaired de novo production of hair shafts and all temporary hair cell lineages, owing to a prolonged quiescent phase of the first hair cycle. The lag of stem cell activity is reversed by skin injury. Our work suggests a degree of functional overlap in Runx1 regulation of blood and hair follicle stem cells at an equivalent time point in the development of these two tissues. PMID:18256199

  19. Idiopathic hirsutism: excessive bodily and facial hair in women.

    PubMed

    Elghblawi, Ebtisam

    Hirsutism is the excessive and increased bodily and facial hair growth in women in locations where hair is normally minimal or absent. It refers to the growth of hair in a pattern normally occurring only in men, and therefore primarily raises psychological, cosmetic and social concerns. Idiopathic hirsutism (IH), where the cause of excessive hair growth is unknown, is considered to be the most common form of hirsutism. It is suspected that this type of hirsutism may be familial, as there is often a family history of the condition. Women with IH will generally have normal menses and normal levels of testosterone. There are many treatment modalities that fall into two broad groups: medical and mechanical treatment. An example of a medical treatment is when an agent is used, which interferes with the synthesis of androgen at the ovarian or adrenal level, or by inhibiting the effect of androgen at the receptor level. An example of a mechanical treatment is laser hair removal, where the hair follicle is destroyed; however, much depends on the on the skill of the treating practitioner, laser type, laser spot size, skin type, hair colour, and the stage at which the hair follicles were during their hair growth cycle, and the delivered wavelength. Laser offers the fastest method of hair loss. Other mechanical treatments include electrolysis, depilatory creams, plucking and waxing. This article presents a general overview of IH, including a definition, diagnostic measures, clinical manifestations, normal and abnormal physiology, and treatment options. PMID:18414261

  20. Diagnosis of Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Coupe, Robert L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Common causes of hair loss include androgenic hair loss, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium, and traction alopecia. The author discusses their distinguishing clinical features and those of less common alopecias. ImagesFigures 1-4 PMID:21221382

  1. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Hair Treatments and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to hair treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  2. The diaphanous Gene of Drosophila Interacts Antagonistically with multiple wing hairs and Plays a Key Role in Wing Hair Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qiuheng; Adler, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    The Drosophila wing is covered by an array of distally pointing hairs that has served as a key model system for studying planar cell polarity (PCP). The adult cuticular hairs are formed in the pupae from cell extensions that contain extensive actin filaments and microtubules. The importance of the actin cytoskeleton for hair growth and morphogenesis is clear from the wide range of phenotypes seen in mutations in well-known actin regulators. Formin proteins promote the formation of long actin filaments of the sort thought to be important for hair growth. We report here that the formin encoding diaphanous (dia) gene plays a key role in hair morphogenesis. Both loss of function mutations and the expression of a constitutively active Dia led to cells forming both morphologically abnormal hairs and multiple hairs. The conserved frizzled (fz)/starry night (stan) PCP pathway functions to restrict hair initiation and activation of the cytoskeleton to the distal most part of wing cells. It also ensures the formation of a single hair per cell. Our data suggest that the localized inhibition of Dia activity may be part of this mechanism. We found the expression of constitutively active Dia greatly expands the region for activation of the cytoskeleton and that dia functions antagonistically with multiple wing hairs (mwh), the most downstream member of the fz/stan pathway. Further we established that purified fragments of Dia and Mwh could be co-immunoprecipitated suggesting the genetic interaction could reflect a direct physical interaction. PMID:25730111

  3. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may ...

  4. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of a condition caused by numerical abnormalities is Down syndrome, which is marked by mental retardation, learning difficulties, ... muscle tone (hypotonia) in infancy. An individual with Down syndrome has three copies of chromosome 21 rather than ...

  5. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... course of action. Additional Information Your Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children ...

  6. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  7. Abnormal Pup 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    samples, appropriate reference genes were needed that showed stable, non-fluctuating levels in both normal and abnormal kidney tissue and urine sediment in dogs. Tested genes included Glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 40S ribosomal... into the pathogenesis and treatment of CKD in dogs. 3 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Primary glomerular diseases are a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in both humans and animals. These disorders are characterized by abnormal structure and function...

  8. The structure of people’s hair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

  9. Hair transplantation update.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary hair transplant surgery offers results that are natural and undetectable. It is an excellent treatment option for male and female pattern hair loss. Patients are encouraged to also use medical therapy to help protect their surgical results and prevent ongoing thinning of the surrounding hairs. The two major techniques of donor elliptical harvesting and follicular unit extraction are discussed here. PMID:26176286

  10. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Mardaryev, Andrei N; Ahmed, Mohammed I; Vlahov, Nikola V; Fessing, Michael Y; Gill, Jason H; Sharov, Andrey A; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2010-10-01

    The hair follicle is a cyclic biological system that progresses through stages of growth, regression, and quiescence, which involves dynamic changes in a program of gene regulation. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are critically important for the control of gene expression and silencing. Here, we show that global miRNA expression in the skin markedly changes during distinct stages of the hair cycle in mice. Furthermore, we show that expression of miR-31 markedly increases during anagen and decreases during catagen and telogen. Administration of antisense miR-31 inhibitor into mouse skin during the early- and midanagen phases of the hair cycle results in accelerated anagen development, and altered differentiation of hair matrix keratinocytes and hair shaft formation. Microarray, qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that miR-31 negatively regulates expression of Fgf10, the components of Wnt and BMP signaling pathways Sclerostin and BAMBI, and Dlx3 transcription factor, as well as selected keratin genes, both in vitro and in vivo. Using luciferase reporter assay, we show that Krt16, Krt17, Dlx3, and Fgf10 serve as direct miR-31 targets. Thus, by targeting a number of growth regulatory molecules and cytoskeletal proteins, miR-31 is involved in establishing an optimal balance of gene expression in the hair follicle required for its proper growth and hair fiber formation. PMID:20522784

  11. Unitary Shaft-Angle and Shaft-Speed Sensor Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a unit that contains a rotary-position or a rotary-speed sensor, plus electronic circuitry necessary for its operation, all enclosed in a single housing with a shaft for coupling to an external rotary machine. This rotation sensor unit is complete: when its shaft is mechanically connected to that of the rotary machine and it is supplied with electric power, it generates an output signal directly indicative of the rotary position or speed, without need for additional processing by other circuitry. The incorporation of all of the necessary excitatory and readout circuitry into the housing (in contradistinction to using externally located excitatory and/or readout circuitry) in a compact arrangement is the major difference between this unit and prior rotation-sensor units. The sensor assembly inside the housing includes excitatory and readout integrated circuits mounted on a circular printed-circuit board. In a typical case in which the angle or speed transducer(s) utilize electromagnetic induction, the assembly also includes another circular printed-circuit board on which the transducer windings are mounted. A sheet of high-magnetic permeability metal ("mu metal") is placed between the winding board and the electronic-circuit board to prevent spurious coupling of excitatory signals from the transducer windings to the readout circuits. The housing and most of the other mechanical hardware can be common to a variety of different sensor designs. Hence, the unit can be configured to generate any of variety of outputs by changing the interior sensor assembly. For example, the sensor assembly could contain an analog tachometer circuit that generates an output proportional (in both magnitude and sign or in magnitude only) to the speed of rotation.

  12. ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL

    E-print Network

    Jülicher, Frank

    415 ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL J-Y. TINEVEZ , P. MARTIN Laboratoire The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair

  13. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  14. Spiral groove seal. [for rotating shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates. This prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear. Provision is made for placing these spiral grooves in communication with the fluid to accelerate the generation of the hydraulic lifting force.

  15. Estrogen Leads to Reversible Hair Cycle Retardation through Inducing Premature Catagen and Maintaining Telogen

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiao-hua; Deng, Zhi-li; Guo, Wei-xiang; Qiu, Zhi-fang; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Xin-yue; Zhang, He; Duan, En-kui

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen dysregulation causes hair disorder. Clinical observations have demonstrated that estrogen raises the telogen/anagen ratio and inhibits hair shaft elongation of female scalp hair follicles. In spite of these clinical insights, the properties of estrogen on hair follicles are poorly dissected. In the present study, we show that estrogen induced apoptosis of precortex cells and caused premature catagen by up-regulation of TGF ?2. Immediately after the premature catagen, the expression of anagen chalone BMP4 increased. The up-regulation of BMP4 may further function to prevent anagen transition and maintain telogen. Interestingly, the hair follicle stem cell niche was not destructed during these drastic structural changes caused by estrogen. Additionally, dermal papilla cells, the estrogen target cells in hair follicles, kept their signature gene expressions as well as their hair inductive potential after estrogen treatment. Retention of the characteristics of both hair follicle stem cells and dermal papilla cells determined the reversibility of the hair cycle suppression. These results indicated that estrogen causes reversible hair cycle retardation by inducing premature catagen and maintaining telogen. PMID:22792225

  16. The measurement of a new antimicrobial quinolone in hair as an index of drug exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, T; Nakano, M; Akiyama, H; Nakashima, M

    1993-01-01

    1. Scalp hair samples were obtained at 1 month intervals up to 5 months from healthy male volunteers participating in a phase I study of a new antimicrobial quinolone, OPC-17116. 2. Hair was sectioned into 1 cm lengths from the scalp end. Corresponding portions from five pieces of hair were dissolved in 1 N NaOH and assayed for OPC-17116 by h.p.l.c. 3. In all subjects taking a single dose (400 mg, n = 5) or repeated doses (400 mg day-1, twice daily, for 6.5 days, n = 6), the drug was detected in the portions of hair corresponding to the administration period, assuming a hair growth rate of 1 cm/month. 4. OPC-17116 (300 mg day-1, three times daily, for 2 days) was given to four healthy male volunteers, from whom hair samples were obtained at 1 month and 3 months. The drug was detected in 1 to 4 consecutive 2.5-mm long portions of a single hair and there was no significant axial diffusion of the agent along the hair shaft with time. 5. These findings indicate the utility of measuring this quinolone derivative in hair as an index of exposure, and as a time-marker for the hair analysis of other drugs. PMID:8382934

  17. Exhaust powered drive shaft torque enhancer

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.B.

    1986-09-30

    This patent describes a power producing combination including an internal combustion engine and a mounting frame therefor, and power transmission means including rotating drive shaft means connected to the engine. The improvement described here is a drive shaft torque enhancing device, the device comprising: a multiplicity of blades secured to the drive shaft, equally spaced therearound, each generally lying in a plane containing the axis of the drive shaft; torque enhancer feed duct means for selectively directing a stream of exhaust gases from the engine to impact against the blades to impart torque to the drive shaft; and wherein the power producing combination is used in a vehicle, the vehicle having braking means including a brake pedal; and the power producing combination further comprising torque enhancer disengagement means responsive to motion of the brake pedal.

  18. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2003-12-02

    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  19. 30 CFR 56.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 56.19135 Section 56.19135 Mineral...Maintenance § 56.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined shafts shall be lubricated, properly aligned,...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4261 - Shaft-station waterlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft-station waterlines. 57.4261...Firefighting Equipment § 57.4261 Shaft-station waterlines. Waterline outlets that are located at underground shaft stations and are part of the...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 57.19135 Section 57.19135 Mineral...Maintenance § 57.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined shafts shall be lubricated, properly aligned,...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 56.19135 Section 56.19135 Mineral...Maintenance § 56.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined shafts shall be lubricated, properly aligned,...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 57.19135 Section 57.19135 Mineral...Maintenance § 57.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined shafts shall be lubricated, properly aligned,...

  4. Shaft Sinking at the Nevada Test Site, U1h Shaft Project

    SciTech Connect

    B. Briggs; R. Musick

    2001-03-01

    The U1h Shaft Project is a design/build subcontract to construct one 6.1 meter (m) (20 feet (ft)) finished diameter shaft to a depth of 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) at the Nevada Test Site. Atkinson Construction was subcontracted by Bechtel Nevada to construct the U1h Shaft for the U.S. Department of Energy. The project consists of furnishing and installing the sinking plant, construction of the 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) of concrete lined shaft, development of a shaft station at a depth of 297.5 m (976 ft.), and construction of a loading pocket at the station. The outfitting of the shaft and installation of a new hoist may be incorporated into the project at a later date. This paper will describe the design phase, the excavation and lining operation, shaft station construction and the contractual challenges encountered on this project.

  5. Radixin is a constituent of stereocilia in hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Pataky, F.; Pironkova, R.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2004-01-01

    Proteins of the ezrin-radixin-moesin family are ubiquitous constituents of the submembrane cortex, especially in epithelial cells. Earlier biochemical results suggested that a protein of this family occurs in the hair bundle, the cluster of actin-filled stereocilia that serves as the mechanoreceptive organelle of each hair cell in the inner ear. We prepared antipeptide antisera directed against chicken radixin and ezrin and demonstrated their specificity and absence of crossreactivity. When used in immunocytochemical studies of isolated hair cells, anti-radixin produced an intense band of labeling at the bases of hair bundles from the chicken, frog, mouse, and zebrafish. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry disclosed that radixin labeling commenced in the stereociliary taper, peaked in the lower stereociliary shaft, and declined progressively toward the hair bundle's top. Labeling with anti-ezrin produced no signal in hair bundles. Radixin is thus a prominent constituent of stereocilia, where it may participate in anchoring the “pointed” ends of actin filaments to the membrane. PMID:14983055

  6. R164C mutation in FOXQ1 H3 domain affects formation of the hair medulla.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baojin; Herbert Pratt, C; Potter, Christopher S; Silva, Kathleen A; Kennedy, Vicki; Sundberg, John P

    2013-03-01

    A number of single gene mutations in laboratory mice produce hair follicle defects resulting in deformed hair shafts. The radiation-induced (SB/LeJ-Foxq1(sa)) satin mutant mice have a satin-like sheen to their hair and dilute colouration. This sheen is due to failure of the hair shafts to develop normal medullas, while the pigment dilution is due to the unrelated beige (lysosomal trafficking regulator, Lyst(bg)) mutation. A new allelic mutation, Foxq1(sa-J), arose spontaneously on the albino (tyrosinase, Tyr(c)) MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) background. The Foxq1(sa-J) allele has a C to T transition at position 490. By contrast, the Foxq1(sa) mutant allele was confirmed to be a 67 base pair deletion followed by two base changes (GA to AT). Morphologic changes were similar to those seen in Hoxc13 transgenic and targeted mutant mice. This new allelic mutation provides yet another tool to investigate formation of the interior structures of hair shafts. PMID:23489430

  7. Photoaggravation of Hair Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Soo

    2009-01-01

    Photoaggravation of hair aging includes various chemical and physical changes in fiber properties which lead to an increase in fiber porosity, loss of mechanical strength and an increase in surface roughness. These changes come from lipid oxidation, disulfide bond cleavage, tryptophan degradation and cysteic acid formation. Hair exposed to sunlight is claimed to be more brittle, stiffer and drier than before irradiation and exhibits a reduced water-absorption capacity. Hair pigments function to provide photochemical protection to hair proteins. Hair pigments accomplish this protection by absorbing and filtering the impinging radiation and subsequently dissipating this energy as heat. However, in the process of protecting the hair proteins from light, the pigments are degraded or bleached. Dark hair is more resistant to photodegradation than light hair, because of the higher photostability of eumelanin compared to pheomelanin. Integral lipids of hair fibers are degraded by ultraviolet light, as well as by visible light, helping to explain the weakening of the cell membrane complex exposed to light radiation. PMID:20927230

  8. Female hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  9. Laser hair removal pearls.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal. PMID:18330794

  10. Taking Care of Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chemicals or other styling products, see a doctor. Hair Loss (Alopecia) It's normal for everyone to lose some ... out and are replaced with new ones. With hair loss, though, hair thins at a rate that can' ...

  11. Hair Loss in New Moms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... regain normal fullness even earlier. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

  12. A Dominantly Inherited Progressive Deafness Affecting Distal Auditory Nerve and Hair Cells

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    ­20 years to also involve outer hair cells, producing a profound sensorineural hearing loss with absent ABRsA Dominantly Inherited Progressive Deafness Affecting Distal Auditory Nerve and Hair Cells ARNOLD loss are of an auditory neu- ropathy (AN) with abnormal auditory nerve and brainstem responses (ABRs

  13. A PAIR OF TRANSMEMBRANE RECEPTORS ESSENTIAL FOR THE RETENTION AND PIGMENTATION OF HAIR

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rong; Beppu, Hideyuki; Lee, Yun-Kyoung; Georgopoulos, Katia; Larue, Lionel; Li, En; Weiner, Lorin; Brissette, Janice L.

    2012-01-01

    Hair follicles are simple, accessible models for many developmental processes. Here, using mutant mice, we show that Bmpr2, a known receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps), and Acvr2a, a known receptor for Bmps and activins, are individually redundant but together essential for multiple follicular traits. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in cutaneous epithelium, hair follicles undergo rapid cycles of hair generation and loss. Alopecia results from a failure to terminate hair development properly, as hair clubs never form, and follicular retraction is slowed. Hair regeneration is rapid due to premature activation of new hair-production programs. Hair shafts differentiate aberrantly due to impaired arrest of medullary-cell proliferation. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in melanocytes, gray hair develops, as melanosomes differentiate but fail to grow, resulting in organelle miniaturization. We conclude that Bmpr2 and Acvr2a normally play cell-type-specific, necessary roles in organelle biogenesis and the shutdown of developmental programs and cell division. PMID:22611050

  14. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair-care habits. Wet hair and scalp with warm water. Shampoo works best on wet heads and hair. ... leading to unhealthy looking hair. Rinse well with warm water until the hair is suds-free. Rinsing well ...

  15. Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)

    MedlinePLUS

    newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata) Information for adults A A A This image displays a close-up of the scalp with a round area of non-scarring hair loss typical of alopecia areata. Overview Alopecia areata is ...

  16. Tips for Healthy Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  17. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    SciTech Connect

    Fossum, A.F.

    1994-12-31

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

  18. Flexible shaft and roof drilling system

    DOEpatents

    Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

  19. Hair Follicular Expression and Function of Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 in Mouse Skin*

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kei; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Masuda, Seiko; Nishito, Yasumasa; Morioka, Kiyokazu; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Fukami, Kiyoko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Taguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Although perturbed lipid metabolism can often lead to skin abnormality, the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in skin homeostasis is poorly understood. In the present study we found that group X-secreted PLA2 (sPLA2-X) was expressed in the outermost epithelium of hair follicles in synchrony with the anagen phase of hair cycling. Transgenic mice overexpressing sPLA2-X (PLA2G10-Tg) displayed alopecia, which was accompanied by hair follicle distortion with reduced expression of genes related to hair development, during a postnatal hair cycle. Additionally, the epidermis and sebaceous glands of PLA2G10-Tg skin were hyperplasic. Proteolytic activation of sPLA2-X in PLA2G10-Tg skin was accompanied by preferential hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine species with polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as elevated production of some if not all eicosanoids. Importantly, the skin of Pla2g10-deficient mice had abnormal hair follicles with noticeable reduction in a subset of hair genes, a hypoplasic outer root sheath, a reduced number of melanin granules, and unexpected up-regulation of prostanoid synthesis. Collectively, our study highlights the spatiotemporal expression of sPLA2-X in hair follicles, the presence of skin-specific machinery leading to sPLA2-X activation, a functional link of sPLA2-X with hair follicle homeostasis, and compartmentalization of the prostanoid pathway in hair follicles and epidermis. PMID:21266583

  20. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911...Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All...shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development....

  6. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911...Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All...shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development....

  7. Effects of body region and time on hair cortisol concentrations in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Rukundo, Joshua; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-11-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are increasingly recognized as an integrated measure of the systemic cortisol secretion. Yet, we still know very little about confounding effects on HCC in animals. The present study therefore used hair from semi-wild and zoo living chimpanzees to investigate (1) intra-individual variability of HCC (body-region effect), and (2) the stability of HCC along the hair shaft (traditionally called the washout effect). Our results indicate that absolute HCC varied substantially between certain body regions, but a factor analysis revealed that these HCC differences were mainly attributable to one common source of variance. Thus, hair from all body regions provides similar biological signals and can be mixed, albeit at the cost of a lower signal-to-noise ratio. With regard to potential underlying mechanisms, we studied skin blood flow, as observed through thermal images from one chimpanzee. We found the general HCC pattern was reflected in differences in surface body temperature observed in this individual in three out of four body regions. In a separate set of samples, we found first evidence to suggest that the systematic cortisol decrease along the hair shaft, as observed in humans, is also present in chimpanzee hair. The effect was more pronounced in semi-wild than in zoo chimpanzees presumably due to more exposure to ambient weather conditions. PMID:26409891

  8. iRhom2 Mutation Leads to Aberrant Hair Follicle Differentiation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Leilei, Yang; Bing, Liu; Yang, Li; Shaoxia, Wang; Yuan, Xu; Dongping, Wang; Huahu, Ye; Shichen, Shang; Guangzhou, Zhang; Ruiyun, Peng; Lin, Zeng; Wenlong, Li

    2014-01-01

    iRhom1 and iRhom2 are inactive homologues of rhomboid intramembrane serine proteases lacking essential catalytic residues, which are necessary for the maturation of TNF?-converting enzyme (TACE). In addition, iRhoms regulate epidermal growth factor family secretion. The functional significance of iRhom2 during mammalian development is largely unclear. We have identified a spontaneous single gene deletion mutation of iRhom2 in Uncv mice. The iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mice exhibit hairless phenotype in a BALB/c genetic background. In this study, we observed dysplasia hair follicles in iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mice from postnatal day 3. Further examination found decreased hair matrix proliferation and aberrant hair shaft and inner root sheath differentiation in iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mutant hair follicles. iRhom2 is required for the maturation of TACE. Our data demonstrate that iRhom2Uncv cannot induce the maturation of TACE in vitro and the level of mature TACE is also significantly reduced in the skin of iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mice. The activation of Notch1, a substrate of TACE, is disturbed, associated with dramatically down-regulation of Lef1 in iRhom2Uncv/Uncv hair follicle matrix. This study identifies iRhom2 as a novel regulator of hair shaft and inner root sheath differentiation. PMID:25546423

  9. Integrated controls and health monitoring fiberoptic shaft monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, P.; Darejeh, H.; Collins, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent work was performed on development optical technology to provide real time monitoring of shaft speed, shaft axial displacement, and shaft orbit of the OTVE hydrostatic bearing tester. Results show shaft axial displacement can be optically measured (at the same time as shaft orbital motion and speed) to within 0.3 mills by two fiber optic deflectometers. The final results of this condition monitoring development effort are presented.

  10. Dynamic Hair Capture Princeton University

    E-print Network

    Dynamic Hair Capture Linjie Luo Princeton University Sylvain Paris Adobe Systems Inc. Hao Li University Figure 1: Our system reconstructs a temporally coherent set of hair fibers for real-world dynamic hair. It accommodates a variety of hair types and styles, as well as nontrivial motion (top: input

  11. Preoperative hair removal.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, H W; Hamilton, K R; Lone, F J

    1977-05-01

    This study compares the efficiency, safety and cost of hair removal before surgery, with a safety razor, an electric clipper and a depilatory. It was found that both the razor and the clipper damaged the surface of the skin, while the depilatory caused a mild lymphocytic reaction in the upper dermis. The depilatory was expensive and may cause sensitivity reactions in a few individuals, but was found to be the easiest and most efficient method of removing hair. It was concluded that if hair has to be removed a depilatory is the agent of choice. PMID:870157

  12. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  13. Constant-mesh, multiple-shaft transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, J.E.; Mills, D.D.; Sewell, J.S.

    1992-04-21

    This patent describes a multiple-shaft, constant-mesh transmission adapted to establish selectively a reverse torque delivery path and a forward drive torque delivery path and having a torque input means including a torque input shaft, a mainshaft aligned with the input shaft, a countershaft geared to the input shaft in spaced, parallel relationship with respect to the mainshaft, a torque output shaft joined to the mainshaft; multiple mainshaft gear elements journalled on the main airshaft, multiple cluster gear elements carried by the countershaft in meshing engagement with the mainshaft gear elements, one of the cluster gear elements being rotatably journalled on the countershaft; a reverse idle gear, a reverse gear journalled on the countershaft, the reverse idler gear being in constant mesh with the reverse gear and one of the mainshaft gear elements; first clutch means for connecting selectively the reverse gear and the countershaft; second synchronizer clutch means for connecting selectively the one of the mainshaft gear elements to the mainshaft; and third synchronizer clutch means for selectively connecting another of the mainshaft gear elements to the mainshaft; the first clutch means being a double-acting clutch with a first common axially movable clutch element adapted upon movement in one axial direction to drivably connected the reverse gear to the countershaft and adapted upon movement in the opposite axial direction to connect the one cluster gear element to the countershaft.

  14. Scurvy, corkscrew hair (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Scurvy is a nutritional disease caused by deficiency of vitamin C. Pinpoint bleeding around hair follicles, and " ... this picture, can occur as a result of scurvy. Bleeding along the gums is common. This disease ...

  15. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Puberty Video: Am I Normal? (Girls and Puberty) Movie: Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page ... Fungal Infections Some Kinds of Cancer Kids Get Movie: Hair When Can I Shave My Face? When ...

  16. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AAP Find a Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions ... and even steroid injections and other forms of therapy at the site of the hair loss often ...

  17. Methods of hair removal.

    PubMed

    Olsen, E A

    1999-02-01

    The methods of hair removal vary between simple inexpensive means of home treatment (shaving, plucking, depilatories) to expensive and potentially time-consuming means used by paraprofessionals, nurses, and/or physicians (electrolysis, lasers, x-ray). The ways in which these different methods induce hair removal, the duration of such removal, and the nuances between devices within the same category of methods are discussed. PMID:10025738

  18. Coupled shaft-torsion and blade-bending vibrations of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.C.; Ho, K.B.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach to analyzing the dynamic coupling between shaft torsion and blade bending of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit is introduced. The approach allows the shaft to vibrate freely around its rotation axis instead of assuming a periodic perturbation of the shaft speed that may accommodate the shaft flexibility only to a limited extent. A weighted residual method is applied, and the receptances at the connections of blades and shaft-disk are formulated. Numerical examples are given for cases with between two and six symmetrically arranged blades. The results show not only coupling between the shaft, disk, and blades, but also coupling between individual blades where the shaft acts as a rigid support and experiences no torsional vibration. The blade-coupling modes occurred only in repeated frequencies. Finally, the effect of shaft speed on the modal frequencies was investigated. Plots illustrating the occurrence of critical speeds and flutter instabilities are presented.

  19. Sealing performance of lip type seals for rotary shaft and reciprocating shaft under low temperature condition

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Y.; Motohashi, H.; Iida, S.; Miura, T.

    1987-01-01

    For either case for rotary shaft or reciprocating shaft motion, rubber lip type seal problems are often encountered under low temperature conditions. As for causes of leakage under low temperature conditions, there are several factors such as following ability of the sealing lip for runout of a shaft or rod, roughening of the sealing surface of the rubber material at the stage of initial motion and so on. Sealing performance is essentially dependent upon the low temperature property of the rubber materials. In this paper, the leakage phenomena is explained through visco-elastic characteristics of the rubber materials.

  20. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  1. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of aging. Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin , which hair follicles produce. Follicles are ... slows. Hair strands become smaller and have less pigment. So the thick, coarse hair of a young ...

  2. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... zone Video library Find a dermatologist Teaching your child healthy hair care habits Many common hair care ... Damaged hair looks and feels unhealthy. Teaching your child how to shampoo Healthy hair care begins with ...

  3. Moss hair water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Wu, Nan; Hurd, Randy; Thomson, Scott; Pitt, William; Truscott, Tadd

    2013-11-01

    We present an investigation of water transportation on a moss (Syntrichia caninervis) indigenous to temperate deserts. The moss typically appears to be in a dry, brown state, but is rehydrated by water during the wet season, making the desert green. Small hairs (500-2000 ?m in length, and 40 ?m in diameter, d) growing out from the tip of the moss leaves transport water back to the leaves. Through high speed observations and mathematical modeling it appears that this transportation is driven by two different mechanisms. 1) Droplet transport is achieved in three ways: i) A large (10d) droplet attached between two intersecting fibers will move toward the bases of the leaves by the changing angle between the two hairs. ii) The shape of the moss hair is conical, thicker at the base, producing a gradient that moves fluid (5d) toward the leaf similar to cactus spines. iii) We also observe that in some cases a Plateau-Rayleigh instability trigger a series of droplets moving toward the base. 2) Micro-grooves on the moss hair transport a film of water along the moss hair when larger droplets are not available. These various water transportation strategies combine to help the moss to survive in the desert and provide valuable insight.

  4. Hinged-Blade, Vertical-Shaft Windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shultz, B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Vertical-shaft windmill concept calls for hinged, flapping blades to increase energy-conversion efficiency by reducing wind-energy loss. Hinged Blade Halves unfold to catch wind when moving with it, then fold away from wind when moving against it.

  5. Improve reliability of liquid film shaft seals

    SciTech Connect

    Godse, A.G.

    1995-08-01

    A centrifugal compressor shaft seal and its supporting system form an important pat of a turbocompressor train. API-617 references different types of seals. The notable ones are shown with applicable remarks in Table 1. Of all the seals described in Table 1, process applications favor liquid film shaft seals. Since the design permits positive clearance between the shaft/shaft sleeve and inner bore of the seal rings with an oil film supplied by the system, theoretically long life is expected. There are instances of unforeseen shutdowns due more to seal failure than due to the bearings. An API requirement of uninterrupted compressor runs for three years is infeasible in some installations, in spite of the standby concept applied to the seal system pumps, filters and coolers that are prone to maintenance and changeover during operation. To pinpoint areas of concern, a seal system should be divided into two parts: seal itself; and seal auxiliary support system. The latter can be reliable in most installations while the former may not, which causes early shutdowns. Since it is essential to maintain uninterrupted oil supply under varying operating conditions, process upsets, orderly shutdown and blocking-in case of trips, the system designer is required to carefully size the components as well as instrumentation. The following summary on component sizing and other considerations according to API-614 will help to understand the factors that make the system reliable on the supply side. This also shows how the system can become too large.

  6. Interaction between Drilled Shaft and Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) Wall 

    E-print Network

    Aghahadi Forooshani, Mohammad

    2014-08-28

    Drilled shafts under horizontal loads are being constructed within Mechanically Stabled Earth (MSE) walls in the reinforced zone especially in overpass bridges and traffic signs. The interaction between the drilled shafts ...

  7. 8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SHAFT AND PUMP IN COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT PUMPHOUSES. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. Increased Natural Ventilation Flow Rates through Ventilation Shafts

    E-print Network

    Ray, Stephen D.

    Buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in ventilation shafts is investigated with a small scale physical experiment within a duct and CFD simulations of an office building. For a fixed exhaust opening, smaller shafts lead to ...

  9. 6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, CROSS SHAFT, AND INTERMEDIATE GEAR HOIST ASSEMBLY FOR CONTROL GATE NO. 6, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  10. Transmission with two parallel driving shafts bearing two driving gears each meshed with same driven gear on parallel driven shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Akashi, T.; Ito, H.; Yamada, S.

    1986-06-17

    A transmission mechanism for a vehicle is described for receiving input of rotational power from a power supply member which rotates in a particular rotational direction and for outputting rotational power to a power receiving member which includes: an input member connected to the power supply member and which is rotatably mounted and receives supplying of the rotational power from the power supply member; a first driving gear wheel shaft; a second driving gear wheel shaft mounted generally parallel to the first driving gear wheel shaft; a driven gear wheel shaft mounted generally parallel to the first and second driving gear wheel shafts, the driven gear wheel shaft being rotationally connected to the power receiving member; a first driven gear wheel fixedly mounted on the driven gear wheel shaft; a first driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the first driving gear wheel shaft and is constant mesh with the driven gear wheel, the first driving and driven gear wheels providing a first reduction gear ratio from the first driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft; a second driven gear wheel fixedly mounted on the driven gear wheel shaft; a second driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the second driving gear wheel shaft and is in constant mesh with the first driven gear wheel, the second driving and the first driven gear wheels providing a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio from the second driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft; a third driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the first driving gear wheel shaft and is in constant mesh with the second driven gear wheel, the third driving and the second driven gear wheels providing a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio from the first driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft.

  11. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md. Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P > 0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

  12. The M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor play a key role in the control of murine hair follicle cycling and pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Hasse, Sybille; Chernyavsky, Alex I.; Grando, Sergei A.; Paus, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Cholinergic receptors of the muscarinic class (M1-M5) are expressed in epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes as well as in the hair follicle. Knockout (KO) mice of all five receptors have been created and resulted in different phenotypes. KO mice with a deletion of the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M4R) present a striking hair phenotype, which we have analyzed here in greater detail by quantitative histomorphometry. Earlier studies revealed a retarded hair follicle morphogenesis in M4R KO mice, compared to age-matched wild type controls. On day 17, when mice enter the first hair growth cycle, the KO mice still showed a slightly retarded catagen phase. Subsequently, hair follicles of the KO mice stayed in a highly significantly prolonged telogen phase, while wild type mice had already far progressed in the hair cycle by entry into anagen. Most strikingly, the M4R KO mice did not engage in follicular melanogenesis and failed to produce pigmented hair shafts. The current pilot study suggests that the M4R plays a fundamental role in the control of the murine hair follicle cycling and is an essential signaling element in the control of hair follicle pigmentation. PMID:17346754

  13. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  14. A 3-Month, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Ability of an Extra-Strength Marine Protein Supplement to Promote Hair Growth and Decrease Shedding in Women with Self-Perceived Thinning Hair

    PubMed Central

    Ablon, Glynis

    2015-01-01

    An oral marine protein supplement (MPS) is designed to promote hair growth in women with temporary thinning hair (Viviscal Extra Strength; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL). This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the ability of MPS to promote terminal hair growth in adult women with self-perceived thinning hair associated with poor diet, stress, hormonal influences, or abnormal menstrual cycles. Adult women with thinning hair were randomized to receive MPS (N = 30) or placebo (N = 30) twice daily for 90 days. Digital images were obtained from a 4?cm2 area scalp target area. Each subject's hair was washed and shed hairs were collected and counted. After 90 days, these measures were repeated and subjects completed Quality of Life and Self-Assessment Questionnaires. MPS-treated subjects achieved a significant increase in the number of terminal hairs within the target area (P < 0.0001) which was significantly greater than placebo (P < 0.0001). MPS use also resulted in significantly less hair shedding (P = 0.002) and higher total Self-Assessment (P = 0.006) and Quality of Life Questionnaires scores (P = 0.035). There were no reported adverse events. MPS promotes hair growth and decreases hair loss in women suffering from temporary thinning hair. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02297360. PMID:25883641

  15. [Hypoplasia of cartilage and hair with combined immune deficiency].

    PubMed

    Rubie, H; Graber, D; Fischer, A; Tauber, M T; Maroteaux, P; Robert, A; Le Deist, F; Rochiccioli, P; Griscelli, C; Regnier, C

    1989-06-01

    We report a case of cartilage-hair hypoplasia in a girl. The patient had short stature with short limbs and scalloped long bone metaphyses, sparse, poorly-pigmented hair, and increased susceptibility to infections. Several features of this case deserve attention: neutropenia, probably due to an autoimmune mechanism, was an initial manifestation; the immune deficiency (defective B and T cell immunity, autoimmune manifestations) was severe, and cytomegalovirus infection possibly aggravated the immune deficiency and hormone abnormalities. Whereas this patient's short stature is becoming more marked, prophylaxis of infections and administration of immune globulins have effectively prevented complications for the last two years. PMID:2757330

  16. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1331. [PubMed Abstract] Rauscher GH, Shore D, Sandler DP. Hair dye use and risk of adult acute ... 10):1448–1454. [PubMed Abstract] Lin J, Dinney CP, Grossman HB, Wu X. Personal permanent hair dye ...

  17. [Hair diseases in childhood].

    PubMed

    Hamm, H

    2002-05-01

    This paper focuses on four important hair diseases mainly occurring in children. Trichotillomania is the most relevant differential diagnosis of alopecia areata in childhood. Meticulous inspection and lack of telogen hairs in the trichogram from the margin of the lesion usually are sufficient for differentiation. The trichogram also plays a significant role for the diagnosis of the loose anagen hair (loose anagen syndrome), a fairly new, but not rare entity, especially in distinguishing it from telogen effluvium. Five different types of clinical presentation are distinguished in tinea capitis. For the necessary systemic therapy; the new antimycotics terbinafine and itraconazole represent good alternatives to the well-tried griseofulvin. Several effective therapeutic options are also available for head lice, the most frequent parasitary infestation of school age. However, because of its neurotoxicity and the increasing problem of lice resistance lindane should not be used any longer for the treatment of head lice. PMID:12090118

  18. Hair pulling: a review.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2005-10-01

    Hair pulling has been reported in humans, six different non-human primate species, mice, guineapigs, rabbits, sheep and muskox, dogs and cats. This behaviour seems to occur only in subjects who are confined in an artificial environment. It has been classified as a mental disorder in humans, as a behavioural pathology in animals. The hair is not only pulled but also, in most species, ingested. Hair pulling can be both self-directed and partner-directed, contains elements of aggression, manifests more often in females than in males, is associated with psychogenic distress, and resists treatment. Research data collected from affected animals are probably not normative, hence scientifically unreliable. The preemptive correction of husbandry deficiencies causing long-term stress may prevent the development of this bizarre behaviour in healthy subjects. PMID:16197702

  19. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 56.19111 Section 56.19111...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19130 - Conveyance shaft test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyance shaft test. 56.19130 Section 56.19130...Maintenance § 56.19130 Conveyance shaft test. Before hoisting persons and...round trip after: (a) Any hoist or shaft repairs or related equipment repairs...

  2. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100...Subdivision Requirements § 171.100 Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. (a) Stern...machinery space must be located in a watertight shaft tunnel. The vessel must be designed...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 57.19111 Section 57.19111...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 56.19111 Section 56.19111...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders...

  5. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100...Subdivision Requirements § 171.100 Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. (a) Stern...machinery space must be located in a watertight shaft tunnel. The vessel must be designed...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19130 - Conveyance shaft test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyance shaft test. 56.19130 Section 56.19130...Maintenance § 56.19130 Conveyance shaft test. Before hoisting persons and...round trip after: (a) Any hoist or shaft repairs or related equipment repairs...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19130 - Conveyance shaft test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyance shaft test. 57.19130 Section 57.19130...Maintenance § 57.19130 Conveyance shaft test. Before hoisting persons and...round trip after— (a) Any hoist or shaft repairs or related equipment repairs...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 57.19111 Section 57.19111...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19130 - Conveyance shaft test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyance shaft test. 57.19130 Section 57.19130...Maintenance § 57.19130 Conveyance shaft test. Before hoisting persons and...round trip after— (a) Any hoist or shaft repairs or related equipment repairs...

  10. The Changes of Gene Expression on Human Hair during Long-Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Masahiro; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Higashibata, Akira; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sudoh, Masamichi; Minamisawa, Susumu

    Hair has many advantages as the experimental sample. In a hair follicle, hair matrix cells actively divide and these active changes sensitively reflect physical condition on human body. The hair shaft records the metabolic conditions of mineral elements in our body. From human hairs, we can detect physiological informations about the human health. Therefore, we focused on using hair root analysis to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts. In 2009, we started a research program focusing on the analysis of astronauts’ hairs to examine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the gene expression in the human body. We want to get basic information to invent the effectivly diagnostic methods to detect the health situations of astronauts during space flight by analyzing human hair. We extracted RNA form the collected samples. Then, these extracted RNA was amplified. Amplified RNA was processed and hybridized to the Whole Human Genome (4×44K) Oligo Microarray (Agilent Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Slide scanning was performed using the Agilent DNA Microarray Scanner. Scanning data were normalized with Agilent’s Feature Extraction software. Data preprocessing and analysis were performed using GeneSpring software 11.0.1. Next, Synthesis of cDNA (1 mg) was carried out using the PrimeScript RT reagent Kit (TaKaRa Bio) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The qRT-PCR experiment was performed with SYBR Premix Ex Taq (TaKaRa Bio) using the 7500 Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). We detected the changes of some gene expressions during spaceflight from both microarray and qRT-PCR data. These genes seems to be related with the hair proliferation. We believe that these results will lead to the discovery of the important factor effected during space flight on the hair.

  11. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introne, Steven D. (editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  12. An applicational process for dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a time-efficient methodology for dynamically balancing turbomachinery shafting. This methodology minimizes costly facility downtime by using a balancing arbor (mandrel) that simulates the turbomachinery (rig) shafting. The need for precision dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafting and for a dynamic balancing methodology is discussed in detail. Additionally, the inherent problems (and their causes and effects) associated with unbalanced turbomachinery shafting as a function of increasing shaft rotational speeds are discussed. Included are the design criteria concerning rotor weight differentials for rotors made of different materials that have similar parameters and shafting. The balancing methodology for applications where rotor replaceability is a requirement is also covered. This report is intended for use as a reference when designing, fabricating, and troubleshooting turbomachinery shafting.

  13. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    E-print Network

    Gia Dvali; Cesar Gomez

    2012-03-29

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  14. Vibration reduction on automotive shafts using piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Schmidt, Knut; Bianchini, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on active vibration reduction for automotive shafts with the use of piezoelectric material. The work focuses on an axle of an Audi A2. The demand in the automobile sector for higher comfort in the vehicle is of a great importance alongside the requirements of lighter weight and low fuel consumption. These requirements are typically in conflict with each other. One solution is the use of intelligent materials instead of viscoelastic materials and proof mass absorbers. These solutions are quite heavy especially at low frequencies. Active vibration control and piezoelectric devices are advantageous in this application due to their low mass to performance ratio. Our research study explores the use of such piezoelectric devices for an axle. In conjunction with electronics it will reduce vibrations in the first natural bending mode of the axle. Laboratory tests simulated the condition present in the road. At first a stationary set up was used, then a simulated disturbance was input at the attachment points of the shaft. Finally, a test with rotating shaft was performed. Piezoelectric devices (custom QuickPacks from ACX, a Division of Cymer) were used as sensors and as actuators to properly control the axle during the different operating conditions. The power consumption of each actuator pair was less than 20W. The work described here details the test setup, the control strategy, the hardware implementation as well as the test results obtained.

  15. Discussion of flexible shaft versus rigid shaft electric machines for petroleum and chemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hamer, P.S. )

    1992-04-01

    This book discusses flexible shaft versus rigid shaft electric machines for petroleum and chemical plants. A user of an electric machine will have a difficult time relating to the rigid bearing critical'' given in this paper as the determining definition for a rigid shaft'' machine. A rotor with an operating speed below its first system resonant speed, while mounted on its foundation, should be called rigid''or stiff'' shaft. The modern trend of motors is to have long and slender rotors with a low shaft height. Many 3600-r/min induction motors become flexible rotor'' design (i.e. not stiff'' by the definition given in the above paragraph) above a rating of approximately 800 to 1500. In conclusion the following are observation of a rotor designed to operate above its first system resonant speed: If the manufacturer does not process the rotor carefully during fabrication, balance shifts, which are difficult to correct or predict can occur. Balance of the rotor is more difficult, usually requiring the ability to add balance weight at the center of the rotor to correct the static unbalance component. Rated-temperature test of the machine, on a factory test stand, is the best way to prove the rotor thermal stability'' and to avoid field problems.

  16. Post-transcriptional Regulation of Keratinocyte Progenitor Cell Expansion, Differentiation and Hair Follicle Regression by miR-22

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qingyong; Zhao, Yiqiang; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Hongquan; Xue, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiuqing; Lengner, Christopher; Yu, Zhengquan

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles (HF) undergo precisely regulated recurrent cycles of growth, cessation, and rest. The transitions from anagen (growth), to catagen (regression), to telogen (rest) involve a physiological involution of the HF. This process is likely coordinated by a variety of mechanisms including apoptosis and loss of growth factor signaling. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying follicle involution after hair keratinocyte differentiation and hair shaft assembly remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a highly conserved microRNA, miR-22 is markedly upregulated during catagen and peaks in telogen. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches in vivo, we find that miR-22 overexpression leads to hair loss by promoting anagen-to-catagen transition of the HF, and that deletion of miR-22 delays entry to catagen and accelerates the transition from telogen to anagen. Ectopic activation of miR-22 results in hair loss due to the repression a hair keratinocyte differentiation program and keratinocyte progenitor expansion, as well as promotion of apoptosis. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that miR-22 directly represses numerous transcription factors upstream of phenotypic keratin genes, including Dlx3, Foxn1, and Hoxc13. We conclude that miR-22 is a critical post-transcriptional regulator of the hair cycle and may represent a novel target for therapeutic modulation of hair growth. PMID:26020521

  17. Stress-linked cortisol concentrations in hair: what we know and what we need to know

    PubMed Central

    Sharpley, Christopher F.; McFarlane, James R.; Slominski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Cortisol has major impacts upon a range of physiological homeostatic mechanisms and plays an important role in stress, anxiety and depression. Although traditionally described as being solely synthesised via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, recent animal and human studies indicate that cortisol may also be synthesised via a functionally-equivalent ‘peripheral’ HPA-like process within the skin, principally within hair follicles, melanocytes, epidermal melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Current data indicate that basal levels of cortisol within hair vary across body regions, show diurnal variation effects, respond to the onset and cessation of environmental stressors, and may demonstrate some degree of localisation in those responses. There are conflicting data regarding the presence of variability in cortisol concentrations across the length of the hair shaft, thus challenging the suggestion that hair cortisol may be used as a historical biomarker of stress and questioning the primary origin of cortisol in hair. The need to comprehensively ‘map’ the hair cortisol response for age, gender, diurnal rhythm and responsivity to stressor type is discussed, plus the major issue of if, and how, the peripheral and central HPA systems communicate. PMID:22150070

  18. Age-induced hair greying - the multiple effects of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Seiberg, M

    2013-12-01

    An obvious sign of ageing is hair greying, or the loss of pigment production and deposition within the hair shafts. Numerous mechanisms, acting at different levels and follicular locations, contribute to hair greying, ranging from melanocyte stem cells defects to follicular melanocyte death. One key issue that is in common to these processes is oxidative damage. At the hair follicle stem cells niche, oxidative stress, accelerated by B-cell lymphoma 2 gene (BCL-2) depletion, leads to selective apoptosis and diminution of melanocyte stem cells, reducing the repopulation of newly formed anagen follicles. Melanotic bulbar melanocytes express high levels of BCL-2 to enable survival from melanogenesis- and ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) attacks. With ageing, the bulbar melanocyte expression of anti-oxidant proteins such as BCL-2, and possibly TRP-2, is reduced, and the dedicated enzymatic anti-oxidant defence system throughout the follicle weakens, resulting in enhanced oxidative stress. A marked reduction in catalase expression and activity results in millimolar accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, contributing to bulbar melanocyte malfunction and death. Interestingly, amelanotic melanocytes at the outer root sheath (ORS) are somewhat less affected by these processes and survive for longer time even within the white, ageing hair follicles. Better understanding of the overtime susceptibility of melanocytes to oxidative stress at the different follicular locations might yield clues to possible therapies for the prevention and reversal of hair greying. PMID:24033376

  19. Slimy hairs: Hair sensors made with slime mould

    E-print Network

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a large single cell visible by unaided eye. We design a slime mould implementation of a tactile hair, where the slime mould responds to repeated deflection of hair by an immediate high-amplitude spike and a prolonged increase in amplitude and width of its oscillation impulses. We demonstrate that signal-to-noise ratio of the Physarum tactile hair sensor averages near six for the immediate response and two for the prolonged response.

  20. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  1. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  2. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  3. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  4. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  5. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial... Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean. (b) The Warden shall require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service...

  6. Normal and Aging Hair Biology and Structure 'Aging and Hair'.

    PubMed

    Goodier, Molly; Hordinsky, Maria

    2015-02-01

    Much like an individual's hairstyle, hair fibers along the scalp see a number of changes over the course of one's lifetime. As the decades pass, the shine and volume synonymous with youthful hair may give way to thin, dull, and brittle hair commonly associated with aging. These changes are a result of a compilation of genetic and environmental elements influencing the cells of the hair follicle, specifically the hair follicle stem cells and melanocytes. Telomere shortening, decrease in cell numbers, and particular transcription factors have all been implicated in this process. In turn, these molecular alterations lead to structural modifications of the hair fiber, decrease in melanin production, and lengthening of the telogen phase of the hair cycle. Despite this inevitable progression with aging, there exists an array of treatments such as light therapy, minoxidil, and finasteride which have been designed to mitigate the effects of aging, particularly balding and thinning hair. Although each works through a different mechanism, all aim to maintain or potentially restore the youthful quality of hair. PMID:26370639

  7. Evaluation of steel shafts for magnetostrictive torque sensors (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, F.; Yoshida, K.; Sasada, I.

    1997-04-01

    Based on the magnetostrictive effect in steel, a robust, noncontacting shaft torque sensor can be obtained. A fundamental problem in this scheme is compatibility between mechanical strength required for a shaft and a magnetic one needed for a torque sensor. In order to find shaft material accommodating these two requirements, we investigated basic characteristics, such as hysteresis, linearity, and zero-level fluctuation associated with shaft rotation, of the magnetostrictive torque sensor for various nickel chromium molybdenum steel shafts (SNCM in Japanese Industrial Standard) subjected to case hardening. We prepared three kinds of shafts of 25 mm in diameter: SNCM 420 (Ni=1.69%, C=0.2%), SNCM 616 (Ni=2.91%, C=0.15%), and SNCM 447 (Ni=1.67%, C=0.49%). Shafts of the first two materials were carburized, whereas those of the last one were quenched. We used a magnetic head-type torque sensor consisting of a pair of cross-coupled figure-eight coils (14 turn), which has been already proposed by us.1 The hysteresis in the input-output relationship was measured for the excitation current from 0.1 to 1.0 A at the excitation frequency of 60 kHz. The hysteresis of the SNCM 420 shaft changes sign from negative to positive with the increase in excitation current and that of the SNCM 616 shaft decreases monotonically but never reaches zero, whereas that of the SNCM 447 shaft exhibits minimum. The smallest values obtained are nearly zero for the SNCM 420 shaft at 0.3 A, 1.5%/(full scale (FS)=400 Nm) for the SNCM 616 shaft at 1.0 A and 0.7%/FS for the SNCM 447 shaft at 0.8 A, respectively. The linearity measured for the SNCM 420 shaft, which has the smallest hysteresis of the three, at 0.3 A and 60 kHz was virtually straight for the applied torque range -400-400 Nm and 0.8% of nonlinearity error for the range -1000-1000 Nm. The zero-level fluctuation was measured for the SNCM 420 shaft by rotating the shaft without applying torque. The level of the fluctuation was as small as ±1.8%/FS (FS=1000 Nm). It is interesting to consider the effect of carburization on the performance of the shaft seen from the torque sensor. The sensitivity of the as-ground SNCM 420 shaft is approximately ten times larger than that of carburized shafts, however, the input-output relationship measured for the as-ground shaft was saturated completely at the applied torque of 400 Nm. The zero-level fluctuation for the as-ground shaft was about the same in terms of %/FS as that of carburized shaft. Considering that the reduction of the sensitivity by carburization is a factor of 10, magnetic inhomogeneities at the surface are well improved by the carburizing process. We measured the two-dimensional pattern of magnetic anisotropy distribution by scanning the shaft surface using a 6.5 mm square eddy current probe that is sensitive to magnetic anisotropy.2 We found that the as-ground shaft has a peculiar magnetic anisotropy pattern, which is probably induced during manufacturing steel bars. The pattern was erased by the heat treatment at 920 °C for 4 h, which is a main course of carburization treatment.

  8. Twin-capacitive shaft angle encoder with analog output signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Wilson, R. L. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    A precision capacitive shaft encoder providing a dc signal corresponding to the angular position of a shaft is described. Two variable capacitances are coupled in tandem by a rotatable shaft. Each capacitor has a capacitance that varies linearly with a change in the angular position of the shaft. The sum of the two capacitances is always constant for any angular position of the shaft. Each capacitance is alternately coupled to a reference dc voltage and a discharge circuit. The capacitances are electrically coupled in series and the charge periodically acquired at the junction of the capacitance is a function of the position of the shaft. An error-compensating voltage is imposed on the junction when the capacitances are coupled to the reference voltages. The junction is coupled to sample-and-hold apparatus provided with a error-correcting circuit.

  9. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  10. 5. SPARE SHIPPER SHAFT IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE PINION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SPARE SHIPPER SHAFT IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE PINION GEARS ON SHAFT. END OF DIPPER STICK IN FOREGROUND, NOTE RACK IRON ON BOTTOM OF STICK, WHICH MESHES WITH GEARS ON SHIPPER SHAFT. LIVING QUARTERS IN BACKGROUND. CYLINDER AND SHEAVES FOR OPERATING BULL WHEEL (FOR SWINGING BOOM) ON LOWER RIGHT. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  12. Biomedical Analyses of Mice Body Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight as a Compliment of Human Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Chiaki

    Introduction: To understand the effect of space environment characterized by microgravity and radiation on protein and mineral metabolisms is important for developing the countermeasures to the adverse effects happening on the astronauts who stay long-term in space. Thus JAXA has started a human research to study the effects of long-term exposure in space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing astronaut's hair grown in space since December 2009 (Experiment nicknamed "HAIR"). Ten human subjects who are the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will be expected to complete this experiment. Thanks to the tissue sharing program of space-flown mice which is presented and organized by AGI(Italian Space Agency), we can also have an opportunity to analyze rodents samples which will greatly compliment human hair experiment by enable us to conduct more detailed analysis with the expansion of skin analysis which is not include in human experiment. The purpose of this flown-mice experiment is to study the effects of long-term exposure to space environment such as microgravity and space radiation on mineral and protein metabolism, the biological responses to the stress levels, and the initial process of skin carcinogenesis by analyzing hair shaft, its root cells, and skin. Approach and Method In this experiment, we analyzed hair shaft, hair root and skin. Hair samples with skin were taken from 3-month space-flown mice and ground-control mice in the AGI's tissue sharing program in 2009. The sample numbers of space-flown mice and control-mice were three and six, respectively. And they were at the Mice Drawer System (MDS) in ISS and in the laboratory of Geneva University. For the hair shaft, the mineral balance is investi-gated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). For hair root, the extracted RNA undergoes DNA microarray analysis, and will be further examined particular interests of gene-expression by real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. DNA is also extracted from the same samples and mitochondrial DNA copy numbers are ex-amined. For mice skin, the examination of the mutation was performed to investigate whether the space flight will cause the visible mutation which may reflect an evidence of promotion step of carcinogenesis by space radiation. Result: Analysis on the specimen is in progress. A brief results will be introduced during the COSPAR meeting. The mice body hair analysis will give us basic information to understand how space environment such as microgravity and radiation affect on the living organisms.

  13. Evaluation of steel shafts for magnetostrictive torque sensors (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, F.; Yoshida, K.; Sasada, I.

    1997-04-01

    Based on the magnetostrictive effect in steel, a robust, noncontacting shaft torque sensor can be obtained. A fundamental problem is compatibility between mechanical strength required for a shaft and a magnetic one needed for a torque sensor. To find shaft material accommodating these two requirements, we investigated basic characteristics, such as hysteresis, linearity, and zero-level fluctuation associated with shaft rotation, of the magnetostrictive torque sensor for various nickel chromium molybdenum steel shafts (SNCM in Japanese Industrial Standard) subjected to case hardening. We prepared three kinds of shafts of 25 mm in diameter: SNCM 420 (Ni=1.69{percent}, C=0.2{percent}), SNCM 616 (Ni=2.91{percent}, C=0.15{percent}), and SNCM 447 (Ni=1.67{percent}, C=0.49{percent}). Shafts of the first two materials were carburized, whereas those of the last one were quenched. We used a magnetic head-type torque sensor consisting of a pair of cross-coupled figure-eight coils (14 turn). The hysteresis in the input{endash}output relationship was measured for the excitation current from 0.1 to 1.0 A at 60 kHz. The hysteresis of the SNCM 420 shaft changes from negative to positive with the increase in excitation current and that of the SNCM 616 shaft decreases monotonically but never reaches zero, whereas that of the SNCM 447 shaft exhibits minimum. The smallest values obtained are nearly zero for the SNCM 420 shaft at 0.3 A, 1.5{percent}/(full scale (FS)=400 Nm) for the SNCM 616 shaft at 1.0 A and 0.7{percent}/FS for the SNCM 447 shaft at 0.8 A, respectively. The linearity measured for the SNCM 420 shaft, which has the smallest hysteresis of the three, at 0.3 A and 60 kHz was virtually straight for the applied torque range {minus}400{endash}400 Nm and 0.8{percent} of nonlinearity error for the range {minus}1000{endash}1000 Nm. The zero-level fluctuation was measured for the SNCM 420 shaft by rotating the shaft without applying torque. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... It tends to run in families. In general, hirsutism is a harmless condition. But many women find ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Keratoderma with woolly hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Keratoderma with woolly hair On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Reviewed November 2015 What is keratoderma with woolly hair? Keratoderma with woolly hair is a group of ...

  16. Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

  17. Do You Have Hair Loss or Hair Shedding?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  18. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  19. Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Shiroi, Akira; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2006-06-30

    We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis.

  20. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal. PMID:19834437

  1. Hair Loss in New Moms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  2. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  3. Loss of Mpzl3 function causes various skin abnormalities and greatly reduced adipose depots.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Angel G; Chen, Anne L; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin; Damanpour, Shadi; Hall, Jessica A; Bianco, Antonio C; Li, Jie; Badiavas, Evangelos V; Zaias, Julia; Miteva, Mariya; Romanelli, Paolo; Nouri, Keyvan; Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao

    2014-07-01

    The rough coat (rc) spontaneous mutation causes sebaceous gland (SG) hypertrophy, hair loss, and extracutaneous abnormalities including growth retardation. The rc mice have a missense mutation in the predicted Ig protein Myelin Protein Zero-Like 3 (Mpzl3). In this study, we generated Mpzl3 knockout mice to determine its functions in the skin. Homozygous Mpzl3 knockout mice showed unkempt and greasy hair coat and hair loss soon after birth. Histological analysis revealed severe SG hypertrophy and increased dermal thickness, but did not detect significant changes in the hair cycle. Mpzl3-null mice frequently developed inflammatory skin lesions; however, the early-onset skin abnormalities were not the result of immune defects. The abnormalities in the Mpzl3 knockout mice closely resemble those observed in rc/rc mice, and in mice heterozygous for both the rc and Mpzl3 knockout alleles, indicating that rc and Mpzl3 are allelic. Using a lacZ reporter gene, we detected Mpzl3 promoter activity in the companion layer and inner root sheath of the hair follicle, SG, and epidermis. Loss of MPZL3 function also caused a striking reduction in cutaneous and overall adipose tissue. These data reveal a complex role for Mpzl3 in the control of skin development, hair growth, and adipose cell functions. PMID:24531688

  4. Loss of Mpzl3 Function Causes Various Skin Abnormalities and Greatly Reduced Adipose Depots

    PubMed Central

    Leiva, Angel G.; Chen, Anne L.; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin; Damanpour, Shadi; Hall, Jessica A.; Bianco, Antonio C.; Li, Jie; Badiavas, Evangelos V.; Zaias, Julia; Miteva, Mariya; Romanelli, Paolo; Nouri, Keyvan; Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao

    2014-01-01

    The rough coat (rc) spontaneous mutation causes sebaceous gland hypertrophy, hair loss and extracutaneous abnormalities including growth retardation. The rc mice have a missense mutation in the predicted immunoglobulin protein Mpzl3. In this study, we generated Mpzl3 knockout mice to determine its functions in the skin. Homozygous Mpzl3 knockout mice showed unkempt and greasy hair coat and hair loss soon after birth. Histological analysis revealed severe sebaceous gland hypertrophy and increased dermal thickness, but did not detect significant changes in the hair cycle. Mpzl3 null mice frequently developed inflammatory skin lesions; however, the early onset skin abnormalities were not the results of immune defects. The abnormalities in the Mpzl3 knockout mice resemble closely those observed in the rc/rc mice, as well as mice heterozygous for both the rc and Mpzl3 knockout alleles, indicating that rc and Mpzl3 are allelic. Using a lacZ reporter gene, we detected Mpzl3 promoter activity in the companion layer and inner root sheath of the hair follicle, sebaceous gland, and epidermis. Loss of MPZL3 function also caused a striking reduction in cutaneous and overall adipose tissue. These data reveal a complex role for Mpzl3 in the control of skin development, hair growth and adipose cell functions. PMID:24531688

  5. 14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on,...

  6. 14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 27.931 Section 27... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on,...

  7. 29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross over valve. Shaft at left operates main flood valve to admit water into the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  8. Convertible turbo-fan, turbo-shaft aircraft propulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Ossi, R.R.

    1987-03-24

    A composite gas turbine engine propulsion system for aircraft which includes a propulsion fan for providing forward thrust as a first mode of operation and a turbo-shaft power output for driving an external load as a second mode of operation and means for selectably changing between the modes of operation and combinations thereof comprising: a gas turbine engine mounted to a frame providing power to a drift shaft; first transmission means connected to the drive shaft for providing a power output suitable for driving the external load; second transmission means connected to the drive shaft for providing a variable power output suitable for driving the propulsion fan, the second transmission comprising; a gear reduction system operatively connected to the drive shaft and constructed to provide output power to an output shaft suitable for driving the fan, the gear reduction system comprising a sun gear operatively connected for rotation with the drive shaft; a planet gear carrier fixed to the engine frame; planet gears mounted in the planet gear carrier in operative engagement with the sun gear; a bell gear mounted for rotation in operative engagement with the planet gears and having a shaft extending therefrom to provide the output of the gear reduction system; and a torque converter.

  9. 10. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DELIVERY CHUTE AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DELIVERY CHUTE AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER, (ORE HAULED FROM THE ADJACENT SHAFT WAS DELIVERED THROUGH THIS CHUTE TO THE OUTSIDE); VIEW TO THE EAST. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  10. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air current, and located in an area which will prevent a recirculation of air from the slope or shaft... prevent excessive leakage of air; (i) Flexible ducts shall be constructed to permit ventilation by either... be examined before each shift and the quantity of air in the slope or shaft measured daily by...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... air current, and located in an area which will prevent a recirculation of air from the slope or shaft... prevent excessive leakage of air; (i) Flexible ducts shall be constructed to permit ventilation by either... be examined before each shift and the quantity of air in the slope or shaft measured daily by...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... air current, and located in an area which will prevent a recirculation of air from the slope or shaft... prevent excessive leakage of air; (i) Flexible ducts shall be constructed to permit ventilation by either... be examined before each shift and the quantity of air in the slope or shaft measured daily by...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air current, and located in an area which will prevent a recirculation of air from the slope or shaft... prevent excessive leakage of air; (i) Flexible ducts shall be constructed to permit ventilation by either... be examined before each shift and the quantity of air in the slope or shaft measured daily by...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air current, and located in an area which will prevent a recirculation of air from the slope or shaft... prevent excessive leakage of air; (i) Flexible ducts shall be constructed to permit ventilation by either... be examined before each shift and the quantity of air in the slope or shaft measured daily by...

  15. Improved Rotary Transformer For Shaft-Position Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    Improved rotary transformer for Inductosyn (or equivalent) shaft-position-indicating circuit has pair of ferrite cores instead of the solid-iron cores. Designed with view toward decreasing excitation power (to maximum allowable 2 W) supplied to shaft-position-indicating circuit to increase its output signal and make tracking system less vulnerable to electromagnetic interference.

  16. 7. DETAIL VIEW NORTH OF TURBINE OUTPUT SHAFT, FLYWHEEL (RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW NORTH OF TURBINE OUTPUT SHAFT, FLYWHEEL (RIGHT CENTER), VERTICAL SHAFT TO GOVERNOR WITH RACK-AND-PINION GEARING (LEFT), AND BELTS - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  17. 8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the northwest, with turbine shaft and thrust bearing visible in upper center of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  18. Significant damage of the skin and hair following hair bleaching.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Won-Ji; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ki-Young

    2010-10-01

    Scalp burns can be caused by hair bleaching with excess procedures such as unnecessary heating and excessive treatment with bleaching agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and histological changes of the hair and skin after bleaching. Ammonium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (6% or 9%) solution mixed at a ratio of 1:2 (weight ratio) were sufficiently applied to human hairs and rat skin. The bleached hairs were brightened up to yellow by increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and time of bleach treatment. After bleaching, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe that the cuticle scales of the hairs were irregular and lifted. The mechanical properties of the bleached hairs, such as tensile strength and elongation, were slightly different than the untreated hairs. The tested rat skin showed severe swelling after treatment of the bleaching agent (9% hydrogen peroxide). The rat skin bleached with 9% hydrogen peroxide exhibited epidermal thinning and subepidermal vesicle formation. The extracellular matrix of the skin was seriously disrupted after bleaching. Therefore, the use of only suitable bleaching procedures is suggested in order to avoid injuries. PMID:20860738

  19. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp problems Itchy skin Painful skin / joints Rashes Scaly skin Skin cancer Why see a dermatologist? Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, ...

  20. Thinning Hair and Hair Loss: Could it be Female Pattern Hair Loss?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  1. Shaft instantaneous angular speed for blade vibration in rotating machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubran, Ahmed A.; Sinha, Jyoti K.

    2014-02-01

    Reliable blade health monitoring (BHM) in rotating machines like steam turbines and gas turbines, is a topic of research since decades to reduce machine down time, maintenance costs and to maintain the overall safety. Transverse blade vibration is often transmitted to the shaft as torsional vibration. The shaft instantaneous angular speed (IAS) is nothing but the representing the shaft torsional vibration. Hence the shaft IAS has been extracted from the measured encoder data during machine run-up to understand the blade vibration and to explore the possibility of reliable assessment of blade health. A number of experiments on an experimental rig with a bladed disk were conducted with healthy but mistuned blades and with different faults simulation in the blades. The measured shaft torsional vibration shows a distinct difference between the healthy and the faulty blade conditions. Hence, the observations are useful for the BHM in future. The paper presents the experimental setup, simulation of blade faults, experiments conducted, observations and results.

  2. New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

  3. Shaft Inflation and the Planck satellite observations

    E-print Network

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    A new family of inflation models is introduced and studied. The models are characterised by a scalar potential which, far from the origin, approaches an inflationary plateau in a power-law manner, while near the origin becomes monomial, as in chaotic inflation. The models are obtained in the context of global supersymmetry starting with a superpotential, which interpolates from a generalised monomial to an O'Raifearteagh form for small to large values of the inflaton field respectively. It is demonstrated that the observables obtained, such as the scalar spectral index, its running and the tensor to scalar ratio, are in excellent agreement with the latest observations, without any fine-tuning. Moreover, by widening mildly the shaft in field space, it is shown that sizable tensors can be generated, which may well be observable in the near future.

  4. 30 CFR 57.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 57.19108 Section 57.19108...AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  5. 30 CFR 77.105 - Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications. ...77.105 Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications. ...purpose of operating a hoist at a slope or shaft sinking operation if he has at...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1904 - Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators. 77.1904...AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1904 Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators....

  7. 30 CFR 77.105 - Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications. ...77.105 Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications. ...purpose of operating a hoist at a slope or shaft sinking operation if he has at...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1900-1 - Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans. 77.1900-1 Section...AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1900-1 Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans. Upon approval by...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 56.19110 Section 56...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1900-1 - Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans. 77.1900-1 Section...AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1900-1 Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans. Upon approval by...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 56.19110 Section 56...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56.19108 Section 56.19108...AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56.19108 Section 56.19108...AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. 57.12083 Section 57... § 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and boreholes shall be fastened securely in...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 57.19110 Section 57...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1904 - Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators. 77.1904...AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1904 Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators....

  17. 30 CFR 57.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 57.19110 Section 57...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 57.19108 Section 57.19108...AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  19. GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPID ANALYSIS OF EASTERN RED BAT (Lasiurus borealis) HAIR BY ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION TANDEM MASS SPECTROMET

    PubMed Central

    Pannkuk, Evan L.; McGuire, Liam P.; Gilmore, David F.; Savary, Brett J.; Risch, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Pilosebaceous units found in the mammalian integument are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle. Pilosebaceous units release protective oils, or sebum, by holocrine secretion onto skin and hair through rupturing of sebocytes. Sebum is largely composed of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids, free fatty acids, sterols, wax esters, sterol esters, and squalene. In addition to these lipid classes, there is a small proportion of ionic/anionic glycerophospholipids (GPs). Composition of GPs on hair is rarely addressed despite their broad biological activities as signaling molecules and membrane stability. Furthermore, knowledge on GP composition in bats is lacking. Bat GP composition is important to document due to GP roles ranging from decreasing drag during migration to interaction with the integumentary microbiome. In this study, we analyzed GP molecular composition with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and compared GP content to previous literature. A total of 152 GPs were detected. Broad GP classes identified include lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylglycerol, with PC being the most abundant class. The acyl components were consistent with fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglyceride moieties found in Eastern red bat sebum. GP proportions of the hair surface were different from a previous study on bat lung surfactants. This study determined the broad class and molecular species of bat sebum GPs that may be used in future ecological studies in vespertilionid bats. PMID:24532214

  20. Polymeric nanoparticles-embedded organogel for roxithromycin delivery to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    G?ówka, Eliza; Wosicka-Fr?ckowiak, Hanna; Hyla, Kinga; Stefanowska, Justyna; Jastrz?bska, Katarzyna; Klapiszewski, ?ukasz; Jesionowski, Teofil; Cal, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Drug delivery into hair follicles with the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is gaining more importance as drug-loaded NPs may accumulate in hair follicle openings. The aim was to develop and evaluate a pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) with roxithromycin (ROX)-loaded NPs for follicular targeting. Polymeric NPs were evaluated in terms of particle shape, size, zeta potential, suspension stability, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. Lyophilized NPs were incorporated into the PLO and rheological measurements of the nanoparticles-embedded organogels were done. The fate of the NPs in the skin was traced by incorporation of a fluorescent dye into the NPs. As a result, ROX was efficiently incorporated into polymeric NPs characterized by the appropriate size (approximately 300 nm) allowing drug delivery to hair follicles. In ex vivo human skin penetration studies, horizontal skin sections revealed fluorescence deep in the hair follicles. Although the organogel has higher affinity to the lipidic follicular area than an aqueous suspension of NPs, it did not seem to improve penetration of the NPs along the hair shaft. The results proved that it was possible to achieve preferential targeting to the pilosebaceous unit using polymeric NPs formulated either into the aqueous suspension or semisolid topical formulation. PMID:25014763

  1. Effect of hair dyes and bleach on the hair protein patterns as revealed by isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Nagai, A; Komoriya, H; Bunai, Y; Yamada, S; Jiang, X Y; Ohya, I

    1991-06-01

    The effect of hair dyes, i.e., temporary, semi-permanent, or permanent hair dyes, or hair bleach on the isoelectric focusing (IEF) hair protein patterns was studied. A permanent hair dye (metallic, alkaline oxidative, or acidic oxidative) and hair bleach induced changes in the IEF hair protein patterns and in the intensity of hair protein bands. The changes in the IEF patterns, caused by the alkaline oxidative dye or the bleach, are considered to result from the combined effect of an alkaline agent and an oxidative agent in the alkaline oxidative dye and in the hair bleach. PMID:1889397

  2. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePLUS

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  3. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options. PMID:12469966

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Hair Follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishioka, Noriaki; Terada, Masahiro; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Higashibata, Akira; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Hair root cells actively divide in a hair follicle, and they sensitively reflect physical conditions. By analyzing the human hair, we can know stress levels on the human body and metabolic conditions caused by microgravity environment and cosmic radiation. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. During long-term flights, the physiological effects on astronauts include muscle atrophy and bone calcium loss. Furthermore, radiation and psychological effects are important issue to consider. Therefore, an understanding of the effects of the space environment is important for developing countermeasures against the effects experienced by astronauts. In this experiment, we identify functionally important target proteins that integrate transcriptome, mineral metabolism and proteome profiles from human hair. To compare the protein expression data with the gene expression data from hair roots, we developed the protein processing method. We extracted the protein from five strands of hair using ISOGEN reagents. Then, these extracted proteins were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. These collected profiles will give us useful physiological information to examine the effect of space flight.

  5. Unifying the Various Incarnations of Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell

    E-print Network

    Jülicher, Frank

    Unifying the Various Incarnations of Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell Jean of the hair cells' responsiveness to small stimuli. As revealed by spontaneous oscillations and forms of mechanical excitability in response to force steps, the hair bundle that adorns each hair cell is both

  6. STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    #12;STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes May 2, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2 Hair structure and mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3 Oriented Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.4 Parameter values for natural hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 #12;2 Hair Interactions

  7. White matter integrity in hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania).

    PubMed

    Roos, Annerine; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine

    2013-03-30

    Hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania, HPD) is a disabling condition that is characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in hair loss. Although there is evidence of structural grey matter abnormalities in HPD, there is a paucity of data on white matter integrity. The aim of this study was to explore white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in subjects with HPD and healthy controls. Sixteen adult female subjects with HPD and 13 healthy female controls underwent DTI. Hair-pulling symptom severity, anxiety and depressive symptoms were also assessed. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to analyze data on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). There were no differences in DTI measures between HPD subjects and healthy controls. However, there were significant associations of increased MD in white matter tracts of the fronto-striatal-thalamic pathway with longer HPD duration and increased HPD severity. Our findings suggest that white matter integrity in fronto-striatal-thalamic pathways in HPD is related to symptom duration and severity. The molecular basis of measures of white matter integrity in HPD deserves further exploration. PMID:23149033

  8. No hair theorems for positive ?

    E-print Network

    Sourav Bhattacharya; Amitabha Lahiri

    2007-11-19

    We extend all known black hole no-hair theorems to space-times endowed with a positive cosmological constant $\\Lambda.$ Specifically, we prove that static spherical black holes with $\\Lambda>0$ cannot support scalar fields in convex potentials and Proca-massive vector fields in the region between black hole and cosmic horizons. We also demonstrate the existence of at least one type of quantum hair, and of exactly one charged solution for the Abelian Higgs model. Our method of proof can be applied to investigate other types of quantum or topological hair on black holes in the presence of a positive $\\Lambda.$

  9. Silvery Hair with Speckled Dyspigmentation: Chediak-Higashi Syndrome in Three Indian Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Raghuveer, Chekuri; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Mithuna, Mallur N; Suresh, Tamraparni

    2015-01-01

    Silvery hair is a common feature of Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), Griscelli syndrome, and Elejalde syndrome. CHS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, frequent pyogenic infections, and the presence of abnormal large granules in leukocytes and other granule containing cells. A 6-year-old girl had recurrent respiratory infections, speckled hypo- and hyper-pigmentation over exposed areas, and silvery hair since early childhood. Clinical features, laboratory investigations, hair microscopy, and skin biopsy findings were consistent with CHS. Her younger sisters aged 4 and 2 years had similar clinical, peripheral blood picture, and hair microscopy findings consistent with CHS. This case is reported for its rare occurrence in all the three siblings of the family, prominent pigmentary changes, and absent accelerated phase till date. Awareness, early recognition, and management of the condition may prevent the preterm morbidity associated. PMID:26622160

  10. A mechanical model of overnight hair curling.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hang; Chen, Xi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the observation of overnight hair curling procedure, we establish a mechanical model to describe the temporary wave formation of straight hair (initial curvature is zero), which incorporates the contact between hair and hair roller. Systematic studies are carried out to explore the effects of radius ratio between hair and hair roller, hair's average axial strain, creep time, Poisson's ratio and gravity on the curl retention. The variation of curl retention with respect to time obtained from our numerical model is validated by a simple theoretical model and by overnight curling experiments on hair samples. The results of simulation show that overnight hair curling is suitable to create a wavy hairstyle within about 7 hours, while the combined usage with hair fixatives enables a wavy hairstyle with desired curvature that lasts for a day or more. PMID:26338501

  11. Ethanol Affects the Development of Sensory Hair Cells in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%–1.75% by volume) from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS. PMID:24324841

  12. Hair removal by long-pulse alexandrite laser in oriental patients.

    PubMed

    Lu, S Y; Lee, C C; Wu, Y Y

    2001-10-01

    The laser depilation system, cleared by the Food and Drug Administration since 1995, is evolving rapidly. However, the parameters in the hair removal function of these devices emphasize use for white people with fair skin (Fitzpatrick types I, II, or III). The characteristics of oriental skin and hair are black, coarse hairs in darker skin (Fitzpatrick types IV or V). As seen, the higher the skin melanin content, the more difficult to remove hair by laser. The authors report 146 oriental patients (156 body sites) who underwent treatment with the long-pulse alexandrite laser (wavelength, 755 nm) depilation system since November 1997. Percentage of hair removal (clearance rate) was assessed, and the histological change from laser pulse damage was observed. After two treatments, the clearance rates in the axillae and the leg were 61% and 62% respectively in the 15 to 20-J group (N = 47), and were 66% and 67% respectively in 21 to 25-J group (N = 64). After five treatments, 59 patients (37 axillae and 22 legs, all of which received 21-25 J per square centimeter of laser energy treatment during the course) had an average clearance rate of 91% (axillae) and 86% (leg), and the clearance rates have been maintained near 90% after long-term follow-up (average follow-up, 17 months). Minimal and transient complications are noted. In conclusion, using a combination of longer wavelength (but still in the optimal window of 630-870 nm), long pulse duration (10-40 msec), high fluence (but limited up to 25 J per square centimeter), multiple treatments, and concomitant direct cooling applied to the skin of oriental patients (Fitzpatrick types IV and V) with black, moderately coarse hair shafts achieves satisfying long-term hair removal results. PMID:11601576

  13. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Zhiqian; Shen, Chengwu; Wen, Zhuoman; Liu, Shaojin; Cai, Sheng; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  14. Tryptophan in human hair: correlation with pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bertazzo, A; Biasiolo, M; Costa, C V; Cardin de Stefani, E; Allegri, G

    2000-08-01

    The distribution of tryptophan content in human hair of various colours was evaluated, in order to study the accumulation of this amino acid, precursor of serotonin, melatonin and niacin, in hair and the influence on hair pigmentation. Pigmentation is an important factor in determining drug incorporation into hair. Results from 1211 samples of hair from healthy subjects (577 men and 634 women) show that tryptophan levels are significantly higher in males (37.83 +/- 3.45 microg/g dry hair) than in females (26.62 +/- 2.40 microg/g hair). Besides sex, age also influences the distribution of tryptophan in human hair, the highest levels being found in both sexes in the first few years of life, probably due to the influence of milk, and in aging subjects in the groups of 61-80 and > 80 years. In order to investigate the influence of hair colour, hair samples were subdivided according to colour into blond, dark blond, red, light brown, brown, black, grey and white. The hair contents of tryptophan in both sexes was higher in brown and black hair than in blond hair, but in grey and white hair concentrations were the highest, demonstrating that tryptophan accumulates among hair fibres with age. Grouping subjects by age in relation to hair colour, we observed that at ages 1-5 and 6-12 years, colour did not influence tryptophan contents, but at ages 13-19 and 20-40 years tryptophan content increased significantly from blond to brown at 13-19 years and from blond to black at 20-40 years in both sexes. Therefore, variations in tryptophan levels of human hair appear to be correlated with differences in hair colour in both sexes. Tryptophan also accumulates in hair during keratinization, as shown by the presence of high levels of this amino acid in grey and white hair. PMID:11132729

  15. Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

  16. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePLUS

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  17. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Detection of mercury in the 411-year-old beard hairs of the astronomer Tycho Brahe by elemental analysis in electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Ludwig; Jaksch, Heiner; Zellmann, Erhard; Klemm, Kerstin I; Andersen, Peter Hvilshøj

    2012-10-01

    Hairs more than 400 years old of the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe were studied by electron microscopy to evaluate the hypothesis that Johannes Kepler murdered his teacher Brahe by mercury intoxication. The beard hairs showed a well-preserved ultrastructure with typical hair scales and melanosomes. The authors detected an accumulation of electron-dense granules of about 10 nm inside the outer hair scales, but not in the hair shaft and roots. At the places of these heavy-metal-containing granules they detected mercury besides other elements by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, Oxford, UK) in a field cathode scanning electron microscope (SEM, Gemini, Zeiss). The mercury-containing granules were found over the whole length of hairs, but only in the outer hair scales. Nevertheless, surface coatings of hairs were free of mercury. This distribution of mercury does not support the murder hypothesis, but could be related to precipitation of mercury dust from the air during long-term alchemistic activities. PMID:23025649

  19. Profiling Amino Acids of Jordanian Scalp Hair as a Tool for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rashaid, Ayat H B; Harrington, Peter de B; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-21

    Hair analysis is an area of increasing interest in the fields of medical and forensic sciences. Human scalp hair has attractive features in clinical studies because hair can be sampled easily and noninvasively from human subjects, and unlike blood and urine samples, it contains a chronological record of medication use. Keratin protein is the major component of scalp hair shaft material and it is composed of 21 amino acids. The method used herein for the amino acid determination in hair included keratin protein acid hydrolysis using 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), followed by amino acids derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and the determination of derivatized amino acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Amino acid profiles of scalp hair of 27 Jordanian subjects (15 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 patients and 12 control subjects) were analyzed. A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classified the amino acid profiles into diabetic and control groups based on multivariate analyses of the abundance of 14 amino acids. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diabetes detection using leave-one-individual-out cross-validation. The areas under the receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curves were 1.0, which represents a highly sensitive and specific diabetes test. The nonessential amino acids Gly and Glu, and the essential amino acid Ile were more abundant in the scalp hair of diabetic patients compared to the hair of control subjects. The associations between the abundance of amino acids of human hair and health status may have clinical applications in providing diagnostic indicator or predicting other chronic or acute diseases. PMID:26075473

  20. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal. PMID:16408139

  1. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is the same stuff that makes our skin's color fair or darker. It also helps determine whether a person will burn or tan in the sun . The dark or light color of someone's hair depends on how much melanin ...

  2. Follicular unit extraction hair transplant.

    PubMed

    Dua, Aman; Dua, Kapil

    2010-05-01

    Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT) of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of 'no visible scarring' in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the traditional FUT. The addition of latest automated FUE technique seeks to overcome some of the limitations in this relatively new technique and it is now possible to achieve more than a thousand grafts in one day in trained hands. This article reviews the methodology, limitations and advantages of FUE hair transplant. PMID:21031064

  3. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. ); Bethmann, H.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

  4. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D.; Bethmann, H.K.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

  5. Mechanical coupling for a rotor shaft assembly of dissimilar materials

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Jun (Glastonbury, CT); Bombara, David (New Hartford, CT); Green, Kevin E. (Broad Brook, CT); Bird, Connic (Rocky Hill, CT); Holowczak, John (South Windsor, CT)

    2009-05-05

    A mechanical coupling for coupling a ceramic disc member to a metallic shaft includes a first wedge clamp and a second wedge clamp. A fastener engages a threaded end of a tie-bolt to sandwich the ceramic disc between the wedge clamps. An axial spring is positioned between the fastener and the second wedge clamp to apply an axial preload along the longitudinal axis. Another coupling utilizes a rotor shaft end of a metallic rotor shaft as one wedge clamp. Still another coupling includes a solid ceramic rotor disc with a multiple of tie-bolts radially displaced from the longitudinal axis to exert the preload on the solid ceramic rotor disc.

  6. Noncontact Measurement Of Shaft Speed, Torque, And Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.

    1993-01-01

    Noncontact fiber-optic sensor and associated electronic equipment measure twist and speed of rotation of shaft. Measurements determine torque and power. Response of sensor remains linear even at cryogenic temperatures. Reflective strips on rotating shaft reflect two series of light pulses back into optical system. Bidirectional coupler in each of two optical fiber paths separates reflected light from incident light, sending it to photodiode for output to analog-to-digital converter and computer. Sensor requires no slip rings or telemetry to transfer signals from shaft. Well suited for providing data on performances of turbopumps for such cryogenic fluids as liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.

  7. ESF (Exploratory Shaft Facility) flexibility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brusenback, R.W.

    1987-03-01

    This report directs that uncertainty allowances be included within the ESF facilities. The recommendations herein developed are intended as input to Title II Design criteria. Flexibility is measured first by lineal ft of drift, and then by hoisting rate and capacity of supporting utilities and services. A defined probability of need shows an extra 10,000 ft of drift for the first level of flexibility responding to testing and operations, and over 60,000 ft of drift for the second level of flexibility which recognizes possible need for perimeter drifting to investigate geologic stratigraphy. Observing there will be time constraints, a single shaft muck hoisting rate up to 170 to 250 tons per hour is recommended. The potential hoisting rate recommended for flexibility should be satisfied by a hoist approximately equivalent to, or conveniently upgraded from those being considered for sinking and construction, or 1000 horsepower. The cost of flexibility is limited to engineering planning and design (mostly conceptual) which makes later expansion achievable, and to selected items for initial construction where later upgrading would be impractical, impossible, or very costly. The cost is fixed to the level of flexibility and does not vary with excavated footage. The incremental margin is only a small fraction of the additional footage made available. Flexibility presents a strategy and not a position of design or technology. Examples used in this report are intended to be illustrative only, and not to lead design or cost estimates. 7 tabs.

  8. Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wo?owiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. PMID:23121872

  9. The latest innovations in hair transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T

    2011-08-01

    Hair restoration began as a result of the fortuitous finding by Dr. Norman Orentreich that hair follicles taken from an area of nonbalding scalp could be implanted into an area of male pattern hair loss and continue to grow terminal hair. Since that time, hair transplants have progressed from the use of large plugs to the use of follicular units (normally occurring clusters of hairs). This has allowed surgeons to create undetectable results in cases of androgenetic alopecia and well as other conditions associated with hair loss. Advances continue in hair restoration technique ranging from surgical approach to instrumentation and ways to enhance growth. In this article, the more recent surgical and medical innovations in hair reconstruction are reviewed. PMID:21792780

  10. 8. Detail of gears, drive shaft and connection at bridgeway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of gears, drive shaft and connection at bridgeway - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  11. 173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  12. 30 CFR 57.4261 - Shaft-station waterlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4261 ...underground shaft stations and are part of the mine's fire protection system shall have at least one fitting...

  13. 1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM AND FURNACE). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Steel Skimmer Salt Roaster, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  14. 90. East Haven Tunnel Shaft. East Haven, New Haven Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. East Haven Tunnel Shaft. East Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 77.00 - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. 17. Detail view of coupling shaft connection between reduction gear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail view of coupling shaft connection between reduction gear and cane mill drive gears - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  16. 13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  17. 80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 UNIT IN POSITION. OVERVIEW LOOKING EAST IN THE POWERHOUSE, Print No. 234, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  18. 8. VIEW LOOKING UP INTO TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING UP INTO TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM THIRD FLOOR, SHOWING OPERATING CABLES AT LEFT, MAIN CABLE IN CENTER, AND CAR GUIDE AT RIGHT - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. Free Vibration of a Rotating Tapered Composite Timoshenko Shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, W.; ARGENTO, A.; SCOTT, R. A.

    1999-09-01

    A mechanical model is developed of a tapered, filament-wound composite, Timoshenko shaft which is rotating at constant speed about its axis. The model represents an extended length cutting tool intended for use in high-speed operations. The effects of shaft tapering and the use of composite materials on the structure's free response are studied. The spatial solutions to the equations of motion are carried out using the general Galerkin method. It is found that by tapering, bending natural frequencies and stiffness can be significantly increased over those of uniform shafts having the same volume and made of the same material. The potential for designing a taper function to meet a particular cutting need is also discussed. Various composite laminate cases are treated and it is found that improvements of performance are possible over equivalent steel shafts.

  20. 5. SHAFT HOUSE, EAST ELEVATION; VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST; (WASTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SHAFT HOUSE, EAST ELEVATION; VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST; (WASTE ROCK/SPOIL PILE IN THE FOREGROUND). - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  1. 1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE AS THE PROJECTING SUPERSTRUCTURE). - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  2. 11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME SUPPORT LOGS; VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  3. 158. BLACKSMITH SHOP, DRIVE SHAFT FOR BLACKSMITH AND WOOD SHOPS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. BLACKSMITH SHOP, DRIVE SHAFT FOR BLACKSMITH AND WOOD SHOPS. BELT ON RIGHT POWERS GRUBER BUILT BELT SANDER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  4. 9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  5. 8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  6. Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servomotor and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servo-motor and operating ring (left foreground) and hand wheel for butterfly valve (right background) - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Dam and Powerhouse, Morony Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  7. Blind shaft drilling: The state of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, P.A.

    1993-04-20

    This report discusses the ``Art`` of blind shaft drilling which has been in a continual state of evolution at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since the start of underground testing in 1957. Emplacement holes for nuclear devices are still being drilled by the rotary drilling process, but almost all the hardware and systems have undergone many changes during the intervening years. Blind shaft drilling and tunnel construction technologies received increased emphasis with the signing of the LTBT in 1963.

  8. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTHSOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTH-SOUTH IS IN PLACE; AT RIGHT IS A PRESS FOR WORKING THE ALUMINUM SHEETS; E. W. BLISS CO. OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, MANUFACTURED THE PRESS. MACHINERY ORIGINALLY POWERED BY OVERHEAD BELTS CONNECTED TO CENTRAL LINE SHAFTS; BY ABOUT THE 1940s THE MACHINERY WAS ELECTRICALLY POWERED. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  9. 11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the south, with operating ring at base of shaft and servo motor arms in foreground and in left background recess. Turbine monitoring and auxiliary equipment is located in the rightbackground recess. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  10. Measuring Motor-Shaft Clearance And Wobble During Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin James

    1996-01-01

    Noncontact proximity sensor, preferably eddy-current liftoff probe, provides realtime measurement of distance and small variations of distance between two mechanical components designed to be maintained at precise, fixed distance. In particular, system intended for use in measuring lateral clearance and variations in lateral clearance (wobble) of motor shaft relative to motor housing while shaft turning. Provides early indication of wear in motor bearings. Rate of rotation also measured.

  11. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  12. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  13. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other than your normal monthly period. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered abnormal uterine bleeding. Very heavy bleeding during a period and/or bleeding that ...

  15. Shaft Siting and Configuration for Flexible Operating Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Boutin

    2001-08-02

    The purpose of this document as stated in the ''Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities'' (CRWMS M&O 2001a, pg. 14) is to review and evaluate the most current concepts for shaft siting and configuration. The locations of the shaft sites will be evaluated in reference to the overall subsurface ventilation layout shown in Figure 1. The scope will include discussions on pad size requirements, shaft construction components such as collars, shaft stations, sumps, ground support and linings, head frames, fan ducting and facility equipping. In addition to these, shaft excavation methodologies and integration with the overall subsurface construction schedule will be described. The Technical Work Plan (TWP), (CRWMS M&O 2001a), for this document has been prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering and Regulatory Compliance Activities''. This document will be prepared in accordance with AP-3.10Q, ''Analysis and Models''. This document contributes to Site Recommendation (SR). The intended use of this document is to provide an analysis for shaft siting and configuration criteria for subsequent construction. This document identifies preliminary design concepts that should not be used for procurement, fabrication, or construction.

  16. Salt Repository Project shaft design guide: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Shaft Design Guide (SDG) and the accompanying SRP Input to Seismic Design define the basic approach for developing appropriate shaft designs for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The SDG is based on current mining industry standards and practices enhanced to meet the special needs of an underground nuclear waste repository. It provides a common approach for design of both the exploratory and repository shafts. The SDG defines shaft lining and material concepts and presents methods for calculating the loads and displacements that will be imposed on lining structures. It also presents the methodology and formulae for sizing lining components. The SDG directs the shaft designer to sources of geoscience and seismic design data for the Deaf Smith County, Texas repository site. In addition, the SDG describes methods for confirming shaft lining design by means of computer analysis, and it discusses performance monitoring needs that must be considered in the design. 113 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Repigmentation of hair following adalimumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Tintle, Suzanne J; Dabade, Tushar S; Kalish, Robert A; Rosmarin, David M

    2015-06-01

    Repigmentation of canities, or age-related grey or white hair, is a rare occurrence. Generalized repigmentation of grey-white hair has been reported following inflammatory processes, and heterochromia (localized patches of hair repigmentation) is even more unusual, reported in association with medication use and malignancy. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are increasingly utilized medications for inflammatory disorders, including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Hair loss, or alopecia, has been described among the side effects of these medications, but changes in hair pigmentation in association with this class of drugs have not previously been reported. We describe a patient with hair repigmentation associated with adalimumab therapy. PMID:26158363

  18. On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedings, Marc; DeHart, Shawn; Formby, Jason; Naumann, Charles

    2012-01-01

    On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS) is a rugged, compact, multiple-channel data acquisition computer system that is designed to record data from instrumentation while operating under extreme rotational centrifugal or gravitational acceleration forces. This system, which was developed for the Heritage Fuel Air Turbine Test (HFATT) program, addresses the problem of recording multiple channels of high-sample-rate data on most any rotating test article by mounting the entire acquisition computer onboard with the turbine test article. With the limited availability of slip ring wires for power and communication, OSDAS utilizes its own resources to provide independent power and amplification for each instrument. Since OSDAS utilizes standard PC technology as well as shared code interfaces with the next-generation, real-time health monitoring system (SPARTAA Scalable Parallel Architecture for Real Time Analysis and Acquisition), this system could be expanded beyond its current capabilities, such as providing advanced health monitoring capabilities for the test article. High-conductor-count slip rings are expensive to purchase and maintain, yet only provide a limited number of conductors for routing instrumentation off the article and to a stationary data acquisition system. In addition to being limited to a small number of instruments, slip rings are prone to wear quickly, and introduce noise and other undesirable characteristics to the signal data. This led to the development of a system capable of recording high-density instrumentation, at high sample rates, on the test article itself, all while under extreme rotational stress. OSDAS is a fully functional PC-based system with 48 channels of 24-bit, high-sample-rate input channels, phase synchronized, with an onboard storage capacity of over 1/2-terabyte of solid-state storage. This recording system takes a novel approach to the problem of recording multiple channels of instrumentation, integrated with the test article itself, packaged in a compact/rugged form factor, consuming limited power, all while rotating at high turbine speeds.

  19. Effect of Dieckol, a component of Ecklonia cava, on the promotion of hair growth.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Boo, Hye-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Sung-Myung; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Ecklonia cava, a marine alga native to Jeju Island in Korea, on the promotion of hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of E. cava enzymatic extract (which contains more than 35% of dieckol) for 21 days, E. cava enzymatic extract increased hair-fiber length. In addition, after topical application of the 0.5% E. cava enzymatic extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair-shaft was induced. The treatment with E. cava enzymatic extract resulted in the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPC). Especially, dieckol, among the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, showed activity that increased the proliferation of DPC. When NIH3T3 fibroblasts were treated with the E. cava enzymatic extract and the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, the E. cava enzymatic extract increased the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, but the isolated compounds such as eckol, dieckol, phloroglucinol and triphlorethol-A did not affect the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. On the other hand, the E. cava enzymatic extract and dieckol significantly inhibited 5?-reductase activity. These results suggest that dieckol from E. cava can stimulate hair growth by the proliferation of DPC and/or the inhibition of 5?-reductase activity. PMID:22754373

  20. Effect of Dieckol, a Component of Ecklonia cava, on the Promotion of Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Boo, Hye-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Sung-Myung; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Ecklonia cava, a marine alga native to Jeju Island in Korea, on the promotion of hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of E. cava enzymatic extract (which contains more than 35% of dieckol) for 21 days, E. cava enzymatic extract increased hair-fiber length. In addition, after topical application of the 0.5% E. cava enzymatic extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair-shaft was induced. The treatment with E. cava enzymatic extract resulted in the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPC). Especially, dieckol, among the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, showed activity that increased the proliferation of DPC. When NIH3T3 fibroblasts were treated with the E. cava enzymatic extract and the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, the E. cava enzymatic extract increased the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, but the isolated compounds such as eckol, dieckol, phloroglucinol and triphlorethol-A did not affect the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. On the other hand, the E. cava enzymatic extract and dieckol significantly inhibited 5?-reductase activity. These results suggest that dieckol from E. cava can stimulate hair growth by the proliferation of DPC and/or the inhibition of 5?-reductase activity. PMID:22754373

  1. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Hawking, Stephen W; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the ho...

  2. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Stephen W. Hawking; Malcolm J. Perry; Andrew Strominger

    2016-01-05

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  3. [Complications of synthetic hair implantation].

    PubMed

    Lange-Ionescu, S; Frosch, P J

    1995-01-01

    Five men (average age 35 years) suffering from the sequelae of hair implants were examined in the course of claims for legal compensation. Polyether amide hair fibres had been implanted, 1000 per patient and session. In all cases the improved implantation technique with a fine needle and subcutaneous knotting had been used in a total of three institutions. Three patients developed bacterial folliculitis after 4-8 weeks; in the other two patients this developed later, after 3-6 months. In two patients the possible triggering event was the wearing of a motorcycle helmet and a vacation in a tropical climate respectively. In another patient the artificial hair curled considerably after he visited a sauna. The implanted hair had fallen out almost completely in all cases (100% in two patients after 9-12 months, 50-75% in three patients after 7 months to 2 years). All patients showed cosmetically disturbing small scars and pigmentary changes. Despite an apparently improved complication rate, the new technique of hair fibre implantation remains a doubtful procedure and cannot be recommended in view of possible permanent sequelae. PMID:7875965

  4. Minireview: Hair Cortisol: A Novel Biomarker of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Melinda A.

    2012-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is commonly assessed by measuring glucocorticoids such as cortisol (CORT). For many years, CORT was obtained primarily from blood plasma or urine, whereas later approaches added saliva and feces for noninvasive monitoring of HPA functioning. Despite the value of all these sample matrices for answering many research questions, they remain limited in the temporal range of assessment. Plasma and saliva are point samples that vary as a function of circadian rhythmicity and are susceptible to confounding by environmental disturbances. Even urine and feces generally assess HPA activity over a period of only 24 h or less. We and others have recently developed and validated methods for measuring the concentration of CORT in the body hair of animals (e.g. rhesus monkeys) and scalp hair of humans. CORT is constantly deposited in the growing hair shaft, as a consequence of which such deposition can serve as a biomarker of integrated HPA activity over weeks and months instead of minutes or hours. Since the advent of this methodological advance, hair CORT has already been used as an index of chronic HPA activity and stress in human clinical and nonclinical populations, in a variety of laboratory-housed and wild-living animal species, and in archival specimens that are many decades or even centuries old. Moreover, because human hair is known to grow at an average rate of about 1 cm/month, several studies suggest that CORT levels in hair segments that differ in proximity to the scalp can, under certain conditions, be used as a retrospective calendar of HPA activity during specific time periods preceding sample collection. PMID:22778226

  5. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Women)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair root – the medical term for this is “folliculitis” . Shaving is a common cause. Before you decide ... the-counter topical medicine such as hydrocortisone cream. Folliculitis (Infection in the hair root): Soak in a ...

  6. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair root – the medical term for this is “folliculitis”. Shaving is a common cause. If you develop ... the-counter topical medicine such as hydrocortisone cream. Folliculitis (Infection in the hair root), Blisters, or Pimples ...

  7. Skin and hair changes during pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Most women have changes in their skin, hair, and nails during pregnancy. Most of these are normal and go away after pregnancy. ... changes in the texture and growth of your hair and nails during pregnancy. Some women say that ...

  8. A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching Hong Chen and Song Chun Zhu

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Song Chun

    to the original one. We test our models and algorithms in a data set of 300 human hairs extracted from a cosmetic-layer representa- tion (a-e) computed, we can reconstruct vivid hair images and generate hair sketches. We test our human animation, as well as in human recognition. For example, it is evident that hair style has

  9. Negative hair-bundle stiffness betrays a mechanism for mechanical amplification by the hair cell

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    Negative hair-bundle stiffness betrays a mechanism for mechanical amplification by the hair cell P. Hudspeth, August 15, 2000 Hearing and balance rely on the ability of hair cells in the inner ear to sense miniscule mechanical stimuli. In each cell, sound or acceleration deflects the mechanosensitive hair bundle

  10. Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus Michael E. Benser Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021 Hair bundles, the mechanically sensitive organelles of hair cells in the auditory and vestibular systems, are elastic structures that are deflected

  11. Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli, 1999 To enhance their mechanical sensitivity and frequency selectivity, hair cells amplify the mechanical stimuli to which they respond. Although cell-body contractions of outer hair cells are thought

  12. Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells in the sacculus

    E-print Network

    Hudspeth, A. James

    Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells transduction by the inner ear. We present evidence for a single-cell correlate of this phenomenon, hair motion that incorporates the negative stiffness of the hair bundle as well as its two mechanisms

  13. Laser hair removal: where are we now?

    PubMed

    DiBernardo, B E; Perez, J; Usal, H; Thompson, R; Callahan, L; Fallek, S R

    1999-07-01

    The hair removal market is evolving rapidly. The goal has always been long-term epilation. Success is dependent on understanding hair biology and physiology and on knowledge of laser physics, skin optics, and tissue preservation with respect to these emerging laser technologies. These topics will be reviewed, as will specific categories of laser systems in the hair removal arena and the clinical aspects of laser hair removal today. PMID:10597703

  14. Ethnic hair care products may increase false positives in hair drug testing.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, David A; Smith, Frederick P; Shepherd, Arica R

    2015-12-01

    The question of why different races appear more susceptible to hair contamination by external drugs remains controversial. This research studied susceptibility of head hair to external cocaine and methamphetamine when hair products have been applied. Three different chemical classes of ethnic hair products were applied to Caucasian, Asian, and African hair. Some products increased the methamphetamine and cocaine concentrations in all hair types. A unique finding of this research is that certain ethnic hair products can replace moisture as a diffusion medium, thereby increasing the susceptibility to contamination over 100-fold compared to petroleum-based products. PMID:26338354

  15. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  16. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  17. Facial hair policy in a respirator program

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmeyer, P.R. )

    1989-10-01

    In this paper the prohibition against facial hair for respirator users is explored. Reasons for the prohibition are given, along with suggestions for establishing or reviewing a policy. Recommendations are given for properly wording a facial hair policy, and the issue of facial hair on female workers is also addressed.

  18. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  19. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  20. 28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

  1. ISHair: Importance Sampling for Hair Scattering

    E-print Network

    Pellacini, Fabio

    ISHair: Importance Sampling for Hair Scattering Jiawei Ou1,2 Feng Xie2 Parashar Krishnamachari2 Fabio Pellacini3 1 Sunday, September 2, 12 #12;hair bsdf model [KK89] · diffuse scattering kajiya 2 Sunday, September 2, 12 #12;hair bsdf model [MJC*03] · diffuse scattering kajiya and kay's model

  2. Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells ELIZABETH C. OESTERLE,* DIANA I. LURIE avian inner ear by using immunocytochemical techniques. NF-M was detected in auditory hair cells and VIIIth cranial nerve neurons. NF-M-positive hair cells are first detected at embryonic day 11 (E11

  3. COCHLEAR PROPERTIES AND MICROMACHINED HAIR-LIKE

    E-print Network

    White, Robert D.

    COCHLEAR PROPERTIES AND MICROMACHINED HAIR-LIKE SHEAR SENSORS by Shuangqin Liu A dissertation. A novel hair-like sensor using capacitive sensing scheme for direct shear measurement is designed, fabricated and tested. The capacitive sensor base is fabricated using PolyMUMPsTM foundry process and hair

  4. Safety and Efficacy Study of Hairstetics' ANCHORING SYSTEM For Hair Extensions For Subjects Affected With Hair Thinning

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-10

    Post Radiation/Chemotherapy Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Post-burn Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Cicatricial Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Androgenetic Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning; Alopecia Due to Traumatic Injuries Presents With Hair Thinning.; Alopecia Due to Skin Disease Presents With Hair Thinning.

  5. Signaling Involved in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Development

    PubMed Central

    Rishikaysh, Pisal; Dev, Kapil; Diaz, Daniel; Qureshi, Wasay Mohiuddin Shaikh; Filip, Stanislav; Mokry, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis depends on Wnt, Shh, Notch, BMP and other signaling pathways interplay between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The Wnt pathway plays an essential role during hair follicle induction, Shh is involved in morphogenesis and late stage differentiation, Notch signaling determines stem cell fate while BMP is involved in cellular differentiation. The Wnt pathway is considered to be the master regulator during hair follicle morphogenesis. Wnt signaling proceeds through EDA/EDAR/NF-?B signaling. NF-?B regulates the Wnt pathway and acts as a signal mediator by upregulating the expression of Shh ligand. Signal crosstalk between epithelial and mesenchymal cells takes place mainly through primary cilia. Primary cilia formation is initiated with epithelial laminin-511 interaction with dermal ?-1 integrin, which also upregulates expression of downstream effectors of Shh pathway in dermal lineage. PDGF signal transduction essential for crosstalk is mediated through epithelial PDGF-A and PDGFR? expressed on the primary cilia. Dermal Shh and PDGF signaling up-regulates dermal noggin expression; noggin is a potent inhibitor of BMP signaling which helps in counteracting BMP mediated ?-catenin inhibition. This interplay of signaling between the epithelial and dermal lineage helps in epithelial Shh signal amplification. The dermal Wnt pathway helps in upregulation of epithelial Notch expression. Dysregulation of these pathways leads to certain abnormalities and in some cases even tumor outgrowth. PMID:24451143

  6. Eddy Current Sensing of Torque in Rotating Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varonis, Orestes J.; Ida, Nathan

    2013-12-01

    The noncontact torque sensing in machine shafts is addressed based on the stress induced in a press-fitted magnetoelastic sleeve on the shaft and eddy current sensing of the changes of electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability due to the presence of stress. The eddy current probe uses dual drive, dual sensing coils whose purpose is increased sensitivity to torque and decreased sensitivity to variations in distance between probe and shaft (liftoff). A mechanism of keeping the distance constant is also employed. Both the probe and the magnetoelastic sleeve are evaluated for performance using a standard eddy current instrument. An eddy current instrument is also used to drive the coils and analyze the torque data. The method and sensor described are general and adaptable to a variety of applications. The sensor is suitable for static and rotating shafts, is independent of shaft diameter and operational over a large range of torques. The torque sensor uses a differential eddy current measurement resulting in cancellation of common mode effects including temperature and vibrations.

  7. Counter pumping debris excluder and separator. [gas turbine shaft seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A dirt separator and excluder for removing entrained debris from gas turbine shaft seals is described. A helical groove pattern is constructed on the rotating shaft with the pumping pattern such that it tends to pump seal pressurizing gas toward the gas turbine seal. A second helical groove pattern is provided on the stationary housing or counter rotating member coaxial with the shaft, and this pattern is designed to provide pumping in the direction opposite from that of the groove pattern on the shaft. Gas with entrained debris entering this grooved area will be subjected to high centrifugal forces due to the swirl motion induced by the groove pattern and the rotation of the shaft. This debris is centrifuged outwardly into the outer groove pattern on the housing or counter rotating member. Because the outer groove pattern has a pumping direction opposite from that of the seal, dirt is pumped away from the seal and can be collected in a suitable debris trap remote from the seal location.

  8. Developments in the treatment of pediatric long bone shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Justus; Schmittenbecher, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Shaft fractures of the long bones are among the most common pediatric injuries. They are characterized by a limited potential for spontaneous correction because of the fractures--distance to the physis. Although conservative treatment has been practiced for many years with satisfying results, several aspects have led to an increase in the numbers of surgical procedures including changes of living, sports habits, economics, and patients-request to treatment. We reviewed the literature to describe developments of treatment concepts of pediatric shaft fractures. In shaft fractures of the upper extremities, increasing rates of surgical procedures have been reported preventing functional deficits of forearm prosupination and cosmetic deformities of the humerus. In fractures of the lower extremities maximizing stability shifted into the focus of interest to achieve early mobilization and to compensate heavier body weights of children and adolescents. Consecutively, the current gold standard of pediatric shaft fracture treatment--ESIN (elastic stable intramedullary nailing)--has been modified repeatedly using end caps, prebended nails, and optimized surgical techniques. In addition, new methods such as rigid locking nails and plates have been included in the treatment approaches for femur and tibia shaft fractures. All these methods of pediatric fracture care carry inherent advantages that require consideration for each clinical situation. On the other side, this has enlarged the spectrum of potential complications, which needs continuous evaluation to further improve treatment results. PMID:24327219

  9. Laboratory modeling of laterally-loaded drilled shafts in clay

    SciTech Connect

    Mayne, P.W.; Kulhawy, F.H.; Trautmann, C.H.

    1995-12-01

    The behavior of free-head rigid drilled shafts under static and cyclic lateral and moment loading was investigated using laboratory models in relatively large test chambers. This testing program represents perhaps one of the first larger-scale laboratory test series to utilize cast-in-place concrete shafts in consolidated and prestressed cohesive soil deposits for realistic simulation of prototype drilled shafts in clays. The construction procedure incorporated the actual effects of concrete curing and soil/concrete interface roughness, and the soil-deposit preparation included the characteristic anisotropy and overconsolidation associated with natural clays. A total of 28 cylindrical shafts having diameters of 51, 89, and 175 mm (2.0, 3.5, and 6.9 in.) and depth-do-diameter (D/B) ratios of 3--8 were constructed and tested. Many of the shafts were instrumented with total stress cells and pore-water stress transducers to permit both total and effective stress measurements during the load testing. The results of the lateral and moment load tests indicated a high degree of nonlinearity in the monotonic static load-displacement response, but it can be represented adequately by a hyperbola. This hyperbola also provides a reference backbone curve for the cyclic loading behavior.

  10. Method of lining a vertical mine shaft with concrete

    DOEpatents

    Eklund, James D. (Mattawa, WA); Halter, Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Spokane, WA); Sullivan, Robert G. (Richland, WA); Moffat, Robert B. (Federal Way, WA)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus includes a cylindrical retainer form spaced inwardly of the wall of the shaft by the desired thickness of the liner to be poured and having overlapping edges which seal against concrete flow but permit the form to be contracted to a smaller circumference after the liner has hardened and is self-supporting. A curb ring extends downwardly and outwardly toward the shaft wall from the bottom of the retainer form to define the bottom surface of each poured liner section. An inflatable toroid forms a seal between the curb ring and the shaft wall. A form support gripper ring having gripper shoes laterally extendable under hydraulic power to engage the shaft wall supports the retainer form, curb ring and liner until the newly poured liner section becomes self-supporting. Adjusting hydraulic cylinders permit the curb ring and retainer form to be properly aligned relative to the form support gripper ring. After a liner section is self-supporting, an advancing system advances the retainer form, curb ring and form support gripper ring toward a shaft boring machine above which the liner is being formed. The advancing system also provides correct horizontal alignment of the form support gripper ring.

  11. Models of Abnormal Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

    2013-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed. PMID:24078916

  12. Live imaging of root hairs.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Silvia M; Dinneny, Jose R; Estevez, José M

    2015-01-01

    Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients. Growing root hairs requires intensive cell wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip growth. The cell wall of plants is a very rigid structure comprised largely of polysaccharides and hydroxyproline-rich O-glycoproteins. The importance of root hairs stems from their capacity to expand the surface of interaction between the root and the environment, in search for the necessary nutrients and water to allow plant growth. Therefore, it becomes crucial to deepen our knowledge of them, particularly in the light of the applicability in agriculture by allowing the expansion of croplands. Root hair growth is an extremely fast process, reaching growth rates of up to 1 ?m/min and it also is a dynamic process; there can be situations in which the final length might not be affected but the growth rate is. Consequently, in this chapter we focus on a method for studying growth dynamics and rates during a time course. This method is versatile allowing for it to be used in other plant organs such as lateral root, hypocotyl, etc., and also in various conditions. PMID:25408443

  13. Scald Burns From Hair Braiding.

    PubMed

    Meizoso, Jonathan P; Ramaley, Stephen R; Ray, Juliet J; Allen, Casey J; Guarch, Gerardo A; Varas, Robin; Teisch, Laura F; Pizano, Louis R; Schulman, Carl I; Namias, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Only one previous case report has described scald burns secondary to hair braiding in pediatric patients. The present case study is the largest to date of scald burns as a result of hair braiding in children and adults. Charts of all 1609 female patients seen at a single burn center from 2008 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with scald burns attributed to hair braiding. Demographics, injury severity, injury patterns, and complications were analyzed. Twenty-six patients (1.6%) had scald burns secondary to hair braiding with median TBSA 3%. Eighty-five percent of patients were pediatric with median age 8 years. Injury patterns were as follows: back (62%), shoulder (31%), chest (15%), buttocks (15%), abdomen (12%), arms (12%), neck (12%), and legs (4%). No patients required operative intervention. Three patients were admitted to the hospital. Two patients required time off from school for 6 and 10 days post burn for recovery. Complications included functional limitations (n = 2), hypertrophic scarring (n = 1), cellulitis requiring antibiotics (n = 1), and anxiety requiring medical/psychological therapy (n = 2). This peculiar mechanism of injury not only carries inherent morbidity that includes the risks of functional limitations, infection, and psychological repercussions but also increases usage of resources through hospital admissions and multiple clinic visits. Further work in the form of targeted outreach programs is necessary to educate the community regarding this preventable mechanism of injury. PMID:26594857

  14. An examination of the utility of a nuclear DNA/mitochondrial DNA duplex qPCR assay to assess surface decontamination of hair.

    PubMed

    Date-Chong, Mavis; Buoncristiani, Martin R; Aceves, Margaret; Orrego, Cristián

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this study was to compare two commonly used methods for the surface decontamination of human hair shafts, and to evaluate the use of a duplex real-time qPCR assay to assess decontamination effectiveness for the purpose of mitochondrial DNA typing. Hair shafts of known mitochondrial DNA haplotype were coated with undiluted saliva, semen or blood, each of known mitochondrial haplotype distinct from the test hair. Surface decontamination was conducted by enzymatic treatment with Terg-a-zyme™ and by chemical treatment with dilutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO, bleach). Following DNA extraction, a duplex (nuclear and mitochondrial DNA) real-time qPCR assay was used to quantify mitochondrial DNA and to test for surface contamination by quantifying the exogenous nuclear DNA not removed from the hair shaft. The NaClO treatment was found to be more effective for removing surface contamination than the Terg-a-zyme™ treatment, and it was procedurally simpler to implement, resulting in a significant savings of sample processing time. Exposure to 3% NaClO for up to two minutes had no detrimental effect on quantity or typing of the mitochondrial DNA belonging to the hair. In addition, we demonstrated that the duplex real-time PCR assay is a convenient early-warning diagnostic method for the detection of the presence of external DNA contamination, providing an assessment of the purity of the sample prior to embarking on further analysis by more laborious mitochondrial DNA typing methods. PMID:23582697

  15. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  16. WIPP air-intake shaft disturbed-rock zone study

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, T.; Hurtado, L.D.

    1996-12-01

    The disturbed-rock zone surrounding the air-intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was investigated to determine the extent and the permeability of the disturbed-rock zone as a function of radial distance from the 6.1 m diameter shaft, at different elevations within the Salado. Gas- and brine-permeability tests were performed in the bedded halite of the Salado formation at two levels within the air-intake shaft. The gas- and brine-permeability test results demonstrated that the radial distance to an undisturbed formation permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}21} m{sup 2} was less than 3.0 m.

  17. Failure analysis of a tool steel torque shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A low design load drive shaft used to deliver power from an experimental exhaust heat recovery system to the crankshaft of an experimental diesel truck engine failed during highway testing. An independent testing laboratory analyzed the failure by routine metallography and attributed the failure to fatigue induced by a banded microstructure. Visual examination by NASA of the failed shaft plus the knowledge of the torsional load that it carried pointed to a 100 percent ductile failure with no evidence of fatigue. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed this. Torsional test specimens were produced from pieces of the failed shaft and torsional overload testing produced identical failures to that which had occurred in the truck engine. This pointed to a failure caused by a high overload and although the microstructure was defective it was not the cause of the failure.

  18. Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  19. Black hole?s 1/N hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    2013-02-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  20. Mammalian hairs in Early Cretaceous amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vullo, Romain; Girard, Vincent; Azar, Dany; Néraudeau, Didier

    2010-07-01

    Two mammalian hairs have been found in association with an empty puparium in a ˜100-million-year-old amber (Early Cretaceous) from France. Although hair is known to be an ancestral, ubiquitous feature in the crown Mammalia, the structure of Mesozoic hair has never been described. In contrast to fur and hair of some Jurassic and Cretaceous mammals preserved as carbonized filaments, the exceptional preservation of the fossils described here allows for the study of the cuticular structure. Results show the oldest direct evidence of hair with a modern scale pattern. This discovery implies that the morphology of hair cuticula may have remained unchanged throughout most of mammalian evolution. The association of these hairs with a possible fly puparium provides paleoecological information and indicates peculiar taphonomic conditions.

  1. Probable maximum floods at the Yucca Mountain exploration shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Cardle, J.A.; Lim, S.T.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents an analysis of flood flows in the Coyote Wash at the proposed high level nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Estimates of the hydrographs at various points in this wash resulting from the 100 year storm and from the probable maximum storms are developed and compared with other results. Flows in this particular wash are particularly critical due to the adjacent location of the proposed exploratory shafts. The resulting hydrographs at the site of the exploratory shaft pad are delineated.

  2. NNWSI exploratory shaft site and construction method recommendation report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, S.G.

    1984-08-01

    This report documents the process by which alternative construction methods were evaluated and by which potential sites were screened by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project for the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, in Nye County, Nevada. The evaluation was made by the Ad Hoc Technical Overview Contractor Committee. Our recommendations were to construct a vertical shaft using conventional mining techniques in a dry canyon known as Coyote Wash, located on the east flank of the mountain. 11 references, 10 figures, 15 tables.

  3. Improved circumferential shaft seal for aircraft gear transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1973-01-01

    Operation under simulated aircraft transmission conditions of speeds to 2850 m/min (9350 ft/min), lubricant temperatures to 394 K (250 F), shaft radial runouts to 0.254 mm (0.010 in.) F.I.R. (full indicator reading), and pressure differentials to 1.03 N/cm2 (1.5 psi) revealed that conventional circumferential seals leaked excessively. Modifying the conventional seal by adding helical grooves to the seal bore reduced leakage rates to within the acceptable level of 10 cm3/hr. The leakage rate of this modified seal was not significantly affected by lubricant flooding or by shaft radial runout.

  4. Skew And Twist Resistant Hydrodynamic Rotary Shaft Seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan Singh (Houston, TX)

    2000-03-14

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. Compared to prior art, this invention provides a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear in abrasive environments and provides a significant increase in seal life.

  5. Three-Wave Gas Journal Bearing Behavior With Shaft Runout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimofte, Florin; Hendricks, Robert C.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental orbits of a free-mounted, three-wave gas journal bearing housing were recorded and compared to transient predicted orbits. The shaft was mounted eccentric with a fixed runout. Experimental observations for both the absolute bearing housing center orbits and the relative bearing housing center to shaft center orbits are in good agreement with the predictions. The sub-synchronous whirl motion generated by the fluid film was found experimentally and predicted theoretically for certain speeds. A three-wave journal bearing can run stably under dynamic loads with orbits well inside the bearing clearance. Moreover, the orbits are almost circular free of the influence of bearing wave shape.

  6. Failure analysis of a tool steel torque shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A low design load drive shaft used to deliver power from an experimental exhaust heat recovery system to the crankshaft of an experimental diesel truck engine failed during highway testing. An independent testing laboratory analyzed the failure by routine metallography and attributed the failure to fatigue induced by a banded microstructure. Visual examination by NASA of the failed shaft plus the knowledge of the torsional load that it carried pointed to a 100 percent ductile failure with no evidence of fatigue. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed this. Previously announced in STAR as N82-11184

  7. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates hair cell planar polarity and cellular patterning in the developing cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Kirjavainen, Anna; Laos, Maarja; Anttonen, Tommi; Pirvola, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells of the organ of Corti (OC) of the cochlea exhibit distinct planar polarity, both at the tissue and cellular level. Planar polarity at tissue level is manifested as uniform orientation of the hair cell stereociliary bundles. Hair cell intrinsic polarity is defined as structural hair bundle asymmetry; positioning of the kinocilium/basal body complex at the vertex of the V-shaped bundle. Consistent with strong apical polarity, the hair cell apex displays prominent actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and polarization of various cell types, and, thus, serves as a candidate regulator of hair cell polarity. We have here induced Cdc42 inactivation in the late-embryonic OC. We show the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of planar polarity of hair cells and in cellular patterning. Abnormal planar polarity was displayed as disturbances in hair bundle orientation and morphology and in kinocilium/basal body positioning. These defects were accompanied by a disorganized cell-surface microtubule network. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a putative Cdc42 effector, colocalized with Cdc42 at the hair cell apex, and aPKC expression was altered upon Cdc42 depletion. Our data suggest that Cdc42 together with aPKC is part of the machinery establishing hair cell planar polarity and that Cdc42 acts on polarity through the cell-surface microtubule network. The data also suggest that defects in apical polarization are influenced by disturbed cellular patterning in the OC. In addition, our data demonstrates that Cdc42 is required for stereociliogenesis in the immature cochlea. PMID:25770185

  8. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  9. Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship between ion channel clustering and synaptic formation in hair cells and afferent neurons. In future studies, we will determine when hair cell precursors acquire electrical tuning, and, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, identify and characterize their L-VGCC and BK currents. We will also use biophysical techniques to determine the number of L-VGCC and BK channels and the size and gating kinetics of their underlying L-VGCC and BK conductances, correlating these variables with the amplitude and frequency of membrane oscillations produced by intracellular current steps. We expect these studies to determine how hair cells regulate ion channel expression to achieve specific physiological responses.

  10. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed. PMID:25903257

  11. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  12. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  13. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. PMID:26203266

  14. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-07-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice-carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), was present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice-producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity, and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth on the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and preventing them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S) compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as being the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  15. 9. Detail of Stoney gates, showing shaft that drives rack ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of Stoney gates, showing shaft that drives rack and pinion gears to raise and lower gates, looking south. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  16. Interference Assembly and Fretting Wear Analysis of Hollow Shaft

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fretting damage phenomenon often appears in the interference fit assembly. The finite element model of hollow shaft and shaft sleeve was established, and the equivalent stress and contact stress were computed after interference assembly. The assembly body of hollow shaft and shaft sleeve was in whirling bending load, and the contact status (sticking, sliding, and opening) and the distribution of stress along one typical contact line were computed under different loads, interferences, hollow degrees, friction coefficient, and wear quantity. Judgment formula of contact state was fixed by introducing the corrected coefficient k. The computation results showed that the “edge effect” appears in the contact surface after interference fit. The size of slip zone is unchanged along with the increase of bending load. The greater the interference value, the bigger the wear range. The hollow degree does not influence the size of stick zone but controls the position of the junction point of slip-open. Tangential contact stress increases with the friction coefficient, which has a little effect on normal contact stress. The relationship between open size and wear capacity is approximately linear. PMID:24955422

  17. Computer aided technique for shaft design through Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kreiner, J.H.; Putcha, C.S.

    1994-07-01

    The paper predicts the probability of failure of shafts subjected to reverse bending during the process of transfer of power. Since reliability and probability of failure are complementary to each other, the safety levels are calculated in terms of reliability factors. The shafts considered in this study are subjected to tension, compression, bending or torsional loads acting singly or in combination with one another. The static and fatigue strength become important design considerations in cases like these as the shafts are subjected to static stresses, completely reversed stresses and repeated cyclic stresses, all acting at the same time. All this is considered with the input parameters being probabilistic, as in reality, these are supposed to have some variations. Finally, theoretical equations are developed for the output coefficient of variation of shaft diameter as a function of the coefficient of variation of input parameter for various design theories existing in literature. The results are then checked with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. Excellent correlation was obtained between the two sets of results. 19 refs.

  18. Simulating seepage into mine shafts and tunnels with MODFLOW.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, Jacob; Markham, Bradley; Bleiker, David

    2010-01-01

    In cases when an equivalent porous medium assumption is suitable for simulating groundwater flow in bedrock aquifers, estimation of seepage into underground mine workings (UMWs) can be achieved by specifying MODFLOW drain nodes at the contact between water bearing rock and dewatered mine openings. However, this approach results in significant numerical problems when applied to simulate seepage into an extensive network of UMWs, which often exist at the mine sites. Numerical simulations conducted for individual UMWs, such as a vertical shaft or a horizontal drift, showed that accurate prediction of seepage rates can be achieved by either applying grid spacing that is much finer than the diameter/width of the simulated openings (explicit modeling) or using coarser grid with cell sizes exceeding the characteristic width of shafts or drifts by a factor of 3. Theoretical insight into this phenomenon is presented, based on the so-called well-index theory. It is demonstrated that applying this theory allows to minimize numerical errors associated with MODFLOW simulation of seepage into UMWs on a relatively coarse Cartesian grid. Presented examples include simulated steady-state groundwater flow from homogeneous, heterogeneous, and/or anisotropic rock into a vertical shaft, a horizontal drift/cross-cut, a ramp, two parallel drifts, and a combined system of a vertical shaft connected to a horizontal drift. PMID:20039952

  19. 9. VIEW OF FRANCIS TURBINE, GENERATOR DRIVE SHAFT. NOTE ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF FRANCIS TURBINE, GENERATOR DRIVE SHAFT. NOTE ORIGINAL EXCITER AND GENERATOR RHEOSTATS ATOP CONTROL PANEL AT REAR. CONTROL PANEL IS ORIGINAL EXCEPT FOR HORIZONTAL TOP PANEL WITH CLOCK AT LEFT AND SYNCHROSCOPE AT RIGHT, LOOKING EAST - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  20. 15. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION, FRANCIS TURBINE, SHOWING SHAFT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION, FRANCIS TURBINE, SHOWING SHAFT, LOOKING NORTHEAST Historic photograph no. SC8732, 1910, curated in the Jon Kitchen Collection, Special Collections, Meriam Library, California State University, Chico, CA. - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  1. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...fireproof air ducts; (3) Designed to permit the reversal of the air current, and located in an area which will prevent a recirculation of air from the slope or shaft or air contamination from any other source; (4) Equipped with an automatic...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...fireproof air ducts; (3) Designed to permit the reversal of the air current, and located in an area which will prevent a recirculation of air from the slope or shaft or air contamination from any other source; (4) Equipped with an automatic...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...fireproof air ducts; (3) Designed to permit the reversal of the air current, and located in an area which will prevent a recirculation of air from the slope or shaft or air contamination from any other source; (4) Equipped with an automatic...

  4. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100 Section 171.100... stern tubes. (a) Stern tubes in each of the following vessels must be enclosed in watertight spaces: (1... passengers on an international voyage. (b) The watertight seal in the bulkhead between the stern tube...

  5. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100 Section 171.100... stern tubes. (a) Stern tubes in each of the following vessels must be enclosed in watertight spaces: (1... passengers on an international voyage. (b) The watertight seal in the bulkhead between the stern tube...

  6. 10. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM IN BASEMENT BELOW SHAFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM IN BASEMENT BELOW SHAFT, SHOWING LOW CABINET THAT HOUSES HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND CLOSET THAT HOUSES TRAVELING SHEAVES AT RIGHT; OPERATING CABLE SHEAVE AT TOP OF PICTURE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 11. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM IN BASEMENT BELOW SHAFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM IN BASEMENT BELOW SHAFT SHOWING LOW CABINET THAT HOUSES HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND CLOSET THAT HOUSES TRAVELING SHEAVES AT RIGHT, WITH CABINET AND CLOSET DOORS OPEN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  8. 14. DETAIL SHOWING THE STERN TUBE, PROPELLOR SHAFT AND RELATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL SHOWING THE STERN TUBE, PROPELLOR SHAFT AND RELATED EQUIPMENT IN THE LOWER MOTOR ROOM. NOTE THE WORM-WHEEL TURNING GEAR AT CENTER, AND THE KINGBURY THRUST BEARING IN THE FOREGROUND IMMEDIATELY FOREWORD OF THE WORM-WHEEL GEAR. NOTE ALSO THE 50-POUND IRON BALLAST BLOCKS STACKED BETWEEN FRAMES. - Lightship 116, Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  9. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  10. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    SciTech Connect

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  11. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

  12. 30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and...

  13. 30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and...

  14. 30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and...

  15. Alström Syndrome protein ALMS1 localizes to basal bodies of cochlear hair cells and regulates cilium-dependent planar cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Jagger, Daniel; Collin, Gayle; Kelly, John; Towers, Emily; Nevill, Graham; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Benson, Jennifer; Halsey, Karin; Dolan, David; Marshall, Jan; Naggert, Jürgen; Forge, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Alström Syndrome is a life-threatening disease characterized primarily by numerous metabolic abnormalities, retinal degeneration, cardiomyopathy, kidney and liver disease, and sensorineural hearing loss. The cellular localization of the affected protein, ALMS1, has suggested roles in ciliary function and/or ciliogenesis. We have investigated the role of ALMS1 in the cochlea and the pathogenesis of hearing loss in Alström Syndrome. In neonatal rat organ of Corti, ALMS1 was localized to the basal bodies of hair cells and supporting cells. ALMS1 was also evident at the basal bodies of differentiating fibrocytes and marginal cells in the lateral wall. Centriolar ALMS1 expression was retained into maturity. In Alms1-disrupted mice, which recapitulate the neurosensory deficits of human Alström Syndrome, cochleae displayed several cyto-architectural defects including abnormalities in the shape and orientation of hair cell stereociliary bundles. Developing hair cells were ciliated, suggesting that ciliogenesis was largely normal. In adult mice, in addition to bundle abnormalities, there was an accelerated loss of outer hair cells and the progressive appearance of large lesions in stria vascularis. Although the mice progressively lost distortion product otoacoustic emissions, suggesting defects in outer hair cell amplification, their endocochlear potentials were normal, indicating the strial atrophy did not affect its function. These results identify previously unrecognized cochlear histopathologies associated with this ciliopathy that (i) implicate ALMS1 in planar cell polarity signaling and (ii) suggest that the loss of outer hair cells causes the majority of the hearing loss in Alström Syndrome. PMID:21071598

  16. Magnetic actuation of hair cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, David; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Cheon, Jinwoo; Bozovic, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    The bullfrog sacculus contains mechanically sensitive hair cells whose stereociliary bundles oscillate spontaneously when decoupled from the overlying membrane. Steady-state offsets on the resting position of a hair bundle can suppress or modulate this native motility. To probe the dynamics of spontaneous oscillation in the proximity of the critical point, we describe here a method for mechanical actuation that avoids loading the bundles or contributing to the viscous drag. Magnetite beads were attached to the tips of the stereocilia, and a magnetic probe was used to impose deflections. This technique allowed us to observe the transition from multi-mode to single-mode state in freely oscillating bundles, as well as the crossover from the oscillatory to the quiescent state.

  17. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Management of Humeral Shaft Fractures; Non-Operative Versus Operative

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Nicholas D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional humeral bracing remains the gold standard for treatment of humeral shaft fractures. There is an increasing trend in the literature to perform operative fixation of these fractures. Evidence Acquisition: The aim of this systematic review was to compare the level one evidence for the outcome of non-operative with operative management of humeral shaft fractures in adults. A comprehensive electronic literature search of Medline and PubMed was performed with specific inclusion criteria to identify randomized controlled trials. Results: In total, seventeen different studies were identified from the search terms and combinations used. Only one study met the inclusion criteria; however, this was a published study protocol of an ongoing trial currently being conducted. One additional published protocol for an ongoing trial was also identified, but this was for a prospective comparative observational study. Although this latter study may not be level one evidence, it would offer great insight into the functional outcome of humeral shaft fractures and economic implications of operative management, which is currently not addressed in the literature. Two retrospective comparative studies were also identified, one of which demonstrated a significantly lower rate of nonunion and malunion in those patients undergoing operative management. Conclusions: This systematic review demonstrated a deficiency in the current literature of level one evidence available for the management of humeral shaft fractures. The current ongoing randomized control trail would offer a greater insight into the management of humeral shaft fractures and help confirm or refute the current literature. If this randomized control trial affirms the reduction in the rate of nonunion with operative fixation, a cost economic analysis is essential. As it would seem to offer operative management to all patients may be over treatment and not to offer this at all would undertreat. PMID:26401493

  19. Direct shaft torque measurements in a transient turbine facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, Paul F.; Povey, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a shaft torque measurement system for the Oxford Turbine Research Facility (formerly the Turbine Test Facility (TTF) at QinetiQ, Farnborough), or OTRF. As part of the recent EU TATEF II programme, the facility was upgraded to allow turbine efficiency measurements to be performed. A shaft torque measurement system was developed as part of this upgrade. The system is unique in that, to the authors' knowledge, it provided the first direct measurement of shaft torque in a transient turbine facility although the system has wider applicability to rotating test facilities in which power measurement is a requirement. The adopted approach removes the requirement to quantify bearing friction, which can be difficult to accurately calibrate under representative operating conditions. The OTRF is a short duration (approximately 0.4 s run time) isentropic light-piston facility capable of matching all of the non-dimensional parameters important for aerodynamic and heat studies, namely Mach number, Reynolds number, non-dimensional speed, stage pressure ratio and gas-to-wall temperature ratio. The single-stage MT1 turbine used for this study is a highly loaded unshrouded design, and as such is relevant to modern military, or future civil aero-engine design. Shaft torque was measured directly using a custom-built strain gauge-based torque measurement system in the rotating frame of reference. This paper describes the development of this measurement system. The system was calibrated, including the effects of temperature, to a traceable primary standard using a purpose-built facility. The bias and precision uncertainties of the measured torque were ±0.117% and ±0.183%, respectively. To accurately determine the shaft torque developed by a turbine in the OTRF, small corrections due to inertial torque (associated with changes in the rotational speed) and aerodynamic drag (windage) are required. The methods for performing these corrections are described.

  20. Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1

    E-print Network

    Quan, Long

    Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1 Eyal Ofek2 Long Quan1 Heung-Yeung Shum2 1 The Hong; the recovered hair rendered with the recovered diffuse color; a fraction of the longest recovered hair fibers rendered with the recovered diffuse color to show the hair threads; the recovered hair rendered

  1. A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering

    E-print Network

    Kazhdan, Michael

    1 A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering Kelly Ward Florence Bertails Tae-Yong Kim Stephen R. Marschner Marie-Paule Cani Ming C. Lin Abstract-- Realistic hair modeling in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because

  2. [Developmental abnormalities and nevi of the scalp].

    PubMed

    Behle, V; Hamm, H

    2014-12-01

    Unusual congenital or early-onset skin lesions on the scalp often pose a diagnostic challenge particularly as the clinical evaluation may be hampered by dense hair growth. Thus, this paper provides a concise review on developmental abnormalities and nevi with exclusive or predominant scalp localization. Aplasia cutis congenita occurs as an isolated finding, in association with genetic syndromes, nevi and anomalies or as a consequence of intrauterine trauma and teratogens. A hairless area with a narrow surrounding rim of hypertrichosis (hair collar sign) may point to occult cranial dysraphism, especially if accompanied by further suggestive signs as port-wine stains, large hemangiomas, dimples, congenital dermoid cysts, and sinuses. Many diverse entities may hide behind cutis verticis gyrata with the primary essential form being rare and representing a diagnosis of exclusion. In contrast to former belief, benign adnexal tumors arise in a nevus sebaceus considerably more often than basal cell carcinomas and other malignant epithelial tumors. Provided that tumor development is not suspected, excision of a nevus sebaceus nevus is indicated primarily for aesthetic-psychosocial reasons. However, surgical treatment is considerably easier in small children. Nevus sebaceus may be a cutaneous marker for several complex syndromes whereas nevus psiloliparus presents almost always in connection with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis. Congenital melanocytic nevi of the scalp tend toward clinical regression, so that surgical intervention in large lesions should be carefully considered. In contrast, the threshold for excision of blue nevi and other conspicuous melanocytic nevi on the scalp should be low, especially since they are difficult to monitor. PMID:25298254

  3. Half-flat Quantum Hair

    E-print Network

    Hugo Garcia-Compean; Oscar Loaiza-Brito; Aldo Martinez-Merino; Roberto Santos-Silva

    2013-10-27

    By wrapping D3-branes over 3-cycles on a half-flat manifold we construct an effective supersymmetric black hole in the N=2 low-energy theory in four-dimensions. Specifically we find that the torsion cycles present in a half-flat compactification, corresponding to the mirror symmetric image of electric NS flux on a Calabi-Yau manifold, manifest in the half-flat black hole as quantum hair. We compute the electric and magnetic charges related to the quantum hair, and also the mass contribution to the effective black hole. We find that by wrapping a number of D3-branes equal to the order of the discrete group associated to the torsional part of the half-flat homology, the effective charge and mass terms vanishes. We compute the variation of entropy and the corresponding temperature associated with the lost of quantum hair. We also comment on the equivalence between canceling Freed-Witten anomaly and the assumption of self-duality for the 5-form field strength. Finally from a K-theoretical perspective, we compute the presence of discrete RR charge of D-branes wrapping torsional cycles in a half-flat manifold.

  4. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134...Operations Area § 60.134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and boreholes shall...

  5. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134...Operations Area § 60.134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and boreholes shall...

  6. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134...Operations Area § 60.134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and boreholes shall...

  7. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134...Operations Area § 60.134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and boreholes shall...

  8. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134...Operations Area § 60.134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and boreholes shall...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1900 - Slopes and shafts; approval of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Slopes and shafts; approval of plans. 77.1900 Section...WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1900 Slopes and shafts; approval of plans. (a) Each...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19078 - Hoisting buckets from the shaft bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Hoisting buckets from the shaft bottom. 57.19078 Section 57.19078...57.19078 Hoisting buckets from the shaft bottom. All buckets shall be stopped after being raised about three feet above the shaft bottom. A bucket shall be stabilized...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19078 - Hoisting buckets from the shaft bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Hoisting buckets from the shaft bottom. 56.19078 Section 56.19078...56.19078 Hoisting buckets from the shaft bottom. All buckets shall be stopped after being raised about 3 feet above the shaft bottom. A bucket shall be stabilized...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1402 - Communication between shaft stations and hoist room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Communication between shaft stations and hoist room. 75.1402...Mantrips § 75.1402 Communication between shaft stations and hoist room. [Statutory...Secretary of signaling between each of the shaft stations and the hoist room, one of...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19105 - Landings with more than one shaft entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Landings with more than one shaft entrance. 56.19105 Section 56.19105...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19105 Landings with more than one shaft entrance. A safe means of passage...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1402-1 - Communication between shaft stations and hoist room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Communication between shaft stations and hoist room. 75.1402-1...75.1402-1 Communication between shaft stations and hoist room. One of the methods used to communicate between shaft stations and the hoist room shall...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1900 - Slopes and shafts; approval of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Slopes and shafts; approval of plans. 77.1900 Section...WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1900 Slopes and shafts; approval of plans. (a) Each...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19105 - Landings with more than one shaft entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Landings with more than one shaft entrance. 57.19105 Section 57.19105...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19105 Landings with more than one shaft entrance. A safe means of passage...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1403-11 - Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes. 75.1403-11 Section 75... § 75.1403-11 Criteria—Entrances to shafts and slopes. All open entrances to shafts should be equipped with safety gates at the...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19105 - Landings with more than one shaft entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Landings with more than one shaft entrance. 57.19105 Section 57.19105...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19105 Landings with more than one shaft entrance. A safe means of passage...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19078 - Hoisting buckets from the shaft bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Hoisting buckets from the shaft bottom. 57.19078 Section 57.19078...57.19078 Hoisting buckets from the shaft bottom. All buckets shall be stopped after being raised about three feet above the shaft bottom. A bucket shall be stabilized...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1402-1 - Communication between shaft stations and hoist room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Communication between shaft stations and hoist room. 75.1402-1...75.1402-1 Communication between shaft stations and hoist room. One of the methods used to communicate between shaft stations and the hoist room shall...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1403-11 - Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes. 75.1403-11 Section 75... § 75.1403-11 Criteria—Entrances to shafts and slopes. All open entrances to shafts should be equipped with safety gates at the...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1402 - Communication between shaft stations and hoist room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Communication between shaft stations and hoist room. 75.1402...Mantrips § 75.1402 Communication between shaft stations and hoist room. [Statutory...Secretary of signaling between each of the shaft stations and the hoist room, one of...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19105 - Landings with more than one shaft entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Landings with more than one shaft entrance. 56.19105 Section 56.19105...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19105 Landings with more than one shaft entrance. A safe means of passage...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19078 - Hoisting buckets from the shaft bottom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Hoisting buckets from the shaft bottom. 56.19078 Section 56.19078...56.19078 Hoisting buckets from the shaft bottom. All buckets shall be stopped after being raised about 3 feet above the shaft bottom. A bucket shall be stabilized...

  5. Controlled blasting and its implications for the NNWSI project exploratory shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report reviews controlled blasting techniques for shaft sinking. Presplitting and smooth blasting are the techniques of principal interest. Smooth blasting is preferred for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations exploratory shaft. Shaft damage can be monitored visually or by peak velocity measurements and refractive techniques. Damage into the rock should be limited to 3 ft. 40 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. A functional analysis of hair pulling.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, J T; Miltenberger, R G; Galensky, T L; Ellingson, S A; Long, E S

    1999-01-01

    We experimentally assessed the functions of hair pulling and hair manipulation of a 19-year-old woman (Kris) with moderate mental retardation and cerebral palsy. In Phase 1 a functional analysis revealed that Kris pulled and manipulated hair for the greatest amount of time in the alone condition, suggesting that the behaviors were maintained by some form of automatic reinforcement (Vaughan & Michael, 1982). In Phase 2 we assessed the nature of the sensory stimulation that maintained hair pulling by providing continuous access to previously pulled or cut hair and, thereafter, by having Kris wear a rubber glove. The results suggested that hair pulling was maintained by digital-tactile stimulation (automatic positive reinforcement). These findings are discussed, and recommendations for further analyses of automatically reinforced habit behaviors are provided. PMID:10513028

  7. Computational hair quality categorization in lower magnifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heshmat, Barmak; Ikoma, Hayato; Lee, Ik Hyun; Rastogi, Krishna; Raskar, Ramesh

    2015-03-01

    We take advantage of human hair specific geometry to visualize sparse submicron cuticle peelings with highly oblique tip-side illumination. We show that the statistics of these features can directly estimate hair quality in much lower magnifications (down to 20x) with less powerful objectives when the features themselves are below the system resolution. Our technique has strong potential for lower cost, portable, and autonomous hair diagnostic apparatuses.

  8. Black holes with massive graviton hair

    E-print Network

    Richard Brito; Vitor Cardoso; Paolo Pani

    2013-09-03

    No-hair theorems exclude the existence of nontrivial scalar and massive vector hair outside four-dimensional, static, asymptotically flat black-hole spacetimes. We show, by explicitly building nonlinear solutions, that black holes can support massive graviton hair in theories of massive gravity. These hairy solutions are, most likely, the generic end state of the recently discovered monopole instability of Schwarzschild black holes in massive graviton theories.

  9. Physical means of treating unwanted hair.

    PubMed

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Alster, Tina S

    2008-01-01

    Unwanted facial and body hair is a common problem, generating a high level of interest for treatment innovations. A wide range of modalities for the management of unwanted hair have been advocated over the years with varying degrees of clinical success. Most recently, lasers and light sources have been used to address this problem with improved clinical success rates in properly selected patients. The full range of temporary and permanent hair removal techniques will be outlined in this review of physical means of treating unwanted hair. PMID:18844716

  10. Management of unwanted hair in females.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, S W

    2001-11-01

    The development of lasers as a treatment for unwanted hair has led to an increased interest in this field. Laser hair removal is frequently commercially led and there are few controlled studies to demonstrate efficacy. It is important to be aware of all treatment modalities for hair removal so that patients can be counselled adequately. This review covers all methods of hair removal from physical through hormonal to laser treatment and allows the reader to understand the pros and cons of each form of therapy. PMID:11722446

  11. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  12. Simplified nonlinear outer hair cell models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Niranjan; Grosh, Karl

    2005-04-01

    We present a consistent second-order expansion of nonlinear constitutive theories for outer hair cells. For a particular theory, we will test the validity of such a model for small variations in voltage and strain about the resting state of outer hair cells. An analysis of the various terms in the simplified nonlinear model and their relevance to outer hair cell mechanics are presented. Results show that the second-order expansion is adequate for modeling outer hair cell mechanics in a global model of the cochlea. Model predictions agree with the notion that voltage nonlinearities are the dominant ones at low sound levels in vivo. .

  13. Improved Biolistic Transfection of Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C) and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2) to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells. PMID:23049715

  14. Cochlear hair cell regeneration from neonatal mouse supporting cells

    E-print Network

    Bramhall, Naomi F

    2012-01-01

    Unlike lower vertebrates, capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration, mammals experience permanent sensorineural hearing loss following hair cell damage. Although low levels of hair cell regeneration have been demonstrated ...

  15. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

  16. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

  17. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants,...

  18. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants,...

  19. 21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

  20. Shaft Voltage and Life of Bearing electric-erosion for the Brushless DC Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maetani, Tatsuo; Isomura, Yoshinori; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Shigeo

    This paper describes the life of noise of bearing electro-erosion in the shaft voltage of brushless DC motors. We confirmed that shaft voltage is suppressed to equal to or less than the dielectric breakdown voltage of bearing lubricant in the insulated rotor proposed for suppression of shaft voltage. However, since bearing electro-erosion appears over time along with the deterioration of noise performance, the threshold of the shaft voltage to secure noise performance over long periods of time is necessary. Therefore, the threshold of the shaft voltage that influences the life of noise was obtained in acceleration tests.

  1. Hair follicles are viable after delayed FUE procedure.

    PubMed

    Mohebbipour Laran, Alireza; Mirmohammadi, Ramin; Rezaei Bana, Mohammadreza; Manoochehri, Shaghayegh

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, male pattern hair loss is usually managed with hair transplant. However, maintaining the hair follicle viability between extraction and implantation period is a great concern which restricts the hair transplantation period. However, it is possible that the hair follicles can be preserved and be viable for few days. Here, we report a case with delayed follicular unit extraction in three consecutive days with acceptable hair growth after a 5-month follow-up. PMID:25968165

  2. The search for ancient hair: a scientific approach to the probabilities and recovery of unattached hair in archaeological sites 

    E-print Network

    Turner-Pearson, Katherine

    2009-05-15

    importantly contaminated their samples with modern hair and did not test ancient hair at all. No standardized method has previously been established for searching for ancient hair in an archaeological site. This paper considers (a) a method of soil extraction...

  3. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-02-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Sensorineural Deafness, Distinctive Facial Features and Abnormal Cranial Bones

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Alona; Laurino, Mercy; Maravilla, Kenneth R.; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2008-01-01

    The Waardenburg syndromes (WS) account for approximately 2% of congenital sensorineural deafness. This heterogeneous group of diseases currently can be categorized into four major subtypes (WS types 1-4) on the basis of characteristic clinical features. Multiple genes have been implicated in WS, and mutations in some genes can cause more than one WS subtype. In addition to eye, hair and skin pigmentary abnormalities, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal bridge are seen in WS type 1. Mutations in the PAX3 gene are responsible for the condition in the majority of these patients. In addition, mutations in PAX3 have been found in WS type 3 that is distinguished by musculoskeletal abnormalities, and in a family with a rare subtype of WS, craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome (CDHS), characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hand abnormalities, and absent or hypoplastic nasal and wrist bones. Here we describe a woman who shares some, but not all features of WS type 3 and CDHS, and who also has abnormal cranial bones. All sinuses were hypoplastic, and the cochlea were small. No sequence alteration in PAX3 was found. These observations broaden the clinical range of WS and suggest there may be genetic heterogeneity even within the CDHS subtype. PMID:18553554

  5. Inflationary Universe with Anisotropic Hair

    E-print Network

    Masa-aki Watanabe; Sugumi Kanno; Jiro Soda

    2009-04-30

    We study an inflationary scenario with a vector field coupled with an inflaton field and show that the inflationary universe is endowed with anisotropy for a wide range of coupling functions. This anisotropic inflation is a tracking solution where the energy density of the vector field follows that of the inflaton field irrespective of initial conditions. We find a universal relation between the anisotropy and a slow-roll parameter of inflation. Our finding has observational implications and gives a counter example to the cosmic no-hair conjecture.

  6. Engine having multiple pumps driven by a single shaft

    DOEpatents

    Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL)

    2001-01-01

    An engine comprises an engine housing. A first engine fluid sub-system that includes a first pump and the engine housing defining a first fluid passage is also included in the engine. The engine also includes at least one additional engine fluid sub-system that includes a second pump and the engine housing defining a second fluid passage. A rotating shaft is at least partially positioned in the engine housing, the first pump and the second pump.

  7. Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, L.; Kalsi, M.S.

    1999-02-23

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. 14 figs.

  8. Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan Singh (Houston, TX)

    1999-01-01

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland.

  9. Interior of Right Powerhouse, looking northeast, showing shaft from Francis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of Right Powerhouse, looking northeast, showing shaft from Francis turbine (below) extending to the generator (above). This is unit G-11, a Francis turbine that is identical to the others in the Right Powerhouse: manufactured in 1950 by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Newport News, Virginia; 165,000 horsepower, 330 ft. head, 120 rpm. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam Powerplant Complex, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  10. Association of Hair Manganese Level with Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong-Won; Kim, Eun-Ji; Lim, Se-Won; Shin, Young-Chul; Oh, Kang-Seob

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study examined the association between hair manganese level and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Korean children. Methods Forty clinic-referred children with ADHD and 43 normal control children participated in this study. The participants were 6-15 years old and were mainly from the urban area of Seoul, Korea. ADHD was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition and Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version-Korean Version. The severity and symptoms of ADHD was evaluated according to the ADHD Diagnostic System, and parent's Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS). All participants completed intelligence test and hair mineral analysis. We divided the data of hair Mn into two groups to determine whether a deficit or excess of Mn are associated with ADHD. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify hair manganese levels associated with ADHD, controlling for age, sex, and full scale intelligence quotient (IQ). Results The proportion of abnormal range Mn group was significantly high in ADHD compared to controls. However, after statistical control for covariates including age and sex, abnormal range Mn group was significantly associated with ADHD (OR=6.40, 95% CI=1.39-29.41, p=0.017). Conclusion The result of this study suggests that excess exposure or deficiency of Mn were associated with ADHD among children in Korea. Further investigation is needed to evaluate the effects of hair manganese levels on symptoms in ADHD. PMID:25670948

  11. Coupled vibration response of a shaft with a breathing crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannopoulos, G. I.; Georgantzinos, S. K.; Anifantis, N. K.

    2015-02-01

    The accurate and detailed knowledge of the local flexibility which is introduced by a crack into a structure may be used in damage diagnosis. This paper investigates the variation of the local flexibility of cracked shafts under harmonic type of loadings causing tensional as well as compressional stresses around the crack faces in a periodic manner which inevitably lead to the opening and closure of the crack, i.e. the breathing mechanism. Time-dependent nonlinear finite element method (FEM) is adopted to analyze various crack sizes as well as time-dependent axial, bending and torsional types of loading. Special boundary conditions are adopted between crack faces to avoid penetration along the contact area and simultaneously permit the existence of stick or slip contact zones according to Coulomb's law. Deflection differences at the loaded edge between uncracked and cracked shaft are used for the computation of the local flexibilities. Apart from the computation of the diagonal terms of local flexibility matrix intensive emphasis is given to its off-diagonal coefficients which cause the coupling of motion between different degrees of freedom and thus may affect considerably the overall vibrational behavior of the shaft.

  12. Proximal humerus shaft fracture after pectoralis major tendon rupture repair.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Jeff A; Goldberg, Ben; Wolin, Preston

    2011-06-01

    Surgical repair of a complete pectoralis major tendon rupture at the humeral insertion has superior results compared to nonoperative treatment. To our knowledge, a proximal humerus shaft fracture occurring at the site of the bone trough and cortical drill holes after a pectoralis major tendon rupture repair has not been reported in the literature.A 45-year-old man sustained an acute left pectoralis major tendon rupture at the humeral insertion while performing a bench press maneuver. He underwent acute surgical repair. Approximately 8 weeks postoperatively, the patient fell from a standing height and sustained a proximal humerus shaft fracture through the repair site at the bone trough. Three days after the fracture, the patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the proximal humerus shaft fracture and exploration of the pectoralis major tendon repair. The fracture was found to be at the level of the repair site, and the pectoralis major tendon was completely intact to the distal fragment. The fracture healed uneventfully, and the patient regained full motion and strength of his extremity with no limitations.Any type of surgical fixation that creates a hole in the humerus or decreases the cross-sectional area such as a bone trough creates a stress riser. Patients undergoing pectoralis tendon repair that involves violating the humerus with a bone trough or hole have a slight risk of postoperative humerus fracture, especially if sustaining an early traumatic event such as a fall. PMID:21667914

  13. [Effects of hair dyeing on the heavy metals content in hair].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhen-lin; Rui, Yu-kui; Shen, Lin

    2008-09-01

    Cosmetic and hair dye has been one of the pollution resources of heavy metals. Contents of heavy metals in hair of dyed group and non-dyed group were analyzed by ICP-MS, the results showed that dyeing hair can change the content of heavy metals in hair, but the degree of effect is different for different element: contents of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd and Sb in hair of dyed group were higher than that of non-dyed group, but contents of As, Cr, Zn, Ag, Pb and Hg were lower. The cause of the above results could be that hair dye contains more Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd and Sb, but less As, Cr, Zn, Ag, Pb and Hg, and dyeing hair could restrain the metabolism and excretion of As, Cr, Zn, Ag, Pb and Hg from human body. PMID:19093590

  14. Species Identification Key of Korean Mammal Hair

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Eunok; CHOI, Tae-Young; WOO, Donggul; MIN, Mi-Sook; SUGITA, Shoei; LEE, Hang

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology. PMID:24451929

  15. How to Stop Damaging Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press kits Sign in Account For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care African-American hair Coloring and perming tips for healthier-looking ...

  16. Damping Properties of the Hair Bundle

    E-print Network

    Baumgart, Johannes; Risler, Thomas; Hudspeth, A James

    2015-01-01

    The viscous liquid surrounding a hair bundle dissipates energy and dampens oscillations, which poses a fundamental physical challenge to the high sensitivity and sharp frequency selectivity of hearing. To identify the mechanical forces at play, we constructed a detailed finite-element model of the hair bundle. Based on data from the hair bundle of the bullfrog's sacculus, this model treats the interaction of stereocilia both with the surrounding liquid and with the liquid in the narrow gaps between the individual stereocilia. The investigation revealed that grouping stereocilia in a bundle dramatically reduces the total drag. During hair-bundle deflections, the tip links potentially induce drag by causing small but very dissipative relative motions between stereocilia; this effect is offset by the horizontal top connectors that restrain such relative movements at low frequencies. For higher frequencies the coupling liquid is sufficient to assure that the hair bundle moves as a unit with a low total drag. This...

  17. Diffuse Hair Loss Induced by Sertraline Use

    PubMed Central

    K?vrak, Yüksel; Ya?c?, ?brahim; Üstünda?, Mehmet Fatih; Özcan, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a rare side effect of psychotropic drugs. The most related drug class with this side effect is the mood stabilizers. Studies reporting the sertraline-induced alopecia are limited in number. Sertraline is a potent antidepressant which inhibits the serotonin reuptake from the presynaptic terminals selectively. The reason for hair loss could not be elucidated completely. Psychotropic drugs are usually considered to lead to hair loss through influencing the telogen phase of hair follicle. This paper reports a 21-year-old male with diffuse hair loss induced by sertraline use and improved by quitting the drug. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other case reports on sertraline-induced alopecia within 2 weeks. PMID:26457219

  18. Evidence for biological shaping of hair ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D.; Preuss, G.; Mätzler, C.

    2015-04-01

    An unusual ice type, called hair ice, grows on the surface of dead wood of broad-leaf trees at temperatures slightly below 0 °C. We describe this phenomenon and present physical, chemical, and biological investigations to gain insight in the properties and processes related to hair ice. Tests revealed that the biological activity of a winter-active fungus is required in the wood for enabling the growth of hair ice. We confirmed the fungus hypothesis originally suggested by Wegener (1918) by reproducing hair ice on wood samples. Treatment by heat and fungicide, respectively, suppresses the formation of hair ice. Fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycota are identified on hair-ice carrying wood. One species, Exidiopsis effusa (Ee), has been present on all investigated samples. Both hair-ice producing wood samples and those with killed fungus show essentially the same temperature variation, indicating that the heat produced by fungal metabolism is very small, that the freezing rate is not influenced by the fungus activity and that ice segregation is the common mechanism of ice growth at the wood surface. The fungus plays the role of shaping the ice hairs and to prevent them from recrystallisation. Melted hair ice indicates the presence of organic matter. Chemical analyses show a complex mixture of several thousand CHO(N,S)-compounds similar to fulvic acids in dissolved organic matter (DOM). The evaluation reveals decomposed lignin as the main constituent. Further work is needed to clarify its role in hair-ice growth and to identify the recrystallisation inhibitor.

  19. What Is the Use of Elephant Hair?

    PubMed Central

    Myhrvold, Conor L.; Stone, Howard A.; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2012-01-01

    The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own. PMID:23071700

  20. Study of colouring effect of herbal hair formulations on graying hair

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijender; Ali, Mohammed; Upadhyay, Sukirti

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To screen the hair colouring properties of hair colorants/ herbal hair colouring formulations. Materials and Methods: The dried aqueous herbal extracts of Gudhal leaves (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), Jatamansi rhizome (Nardostachys jatamansi), Kuth roots (Saussurea lappa), Kattha (Acacia catechu), Amla dried fruit (Embelica officinalis), were prepared. Coffee powder (Coffea arabica) and Henna powder (Lowsonia inermis) were taken in the form of powder (# 40). Fourteen herbal hair colorants were prepared from these dried aqueous herbal extracts and powders. Activities of hair colorants were observed on sheep wool fibers. On the basis of the above observation six hair colorants were selected. These six formulations were taken for trials on human beings. Observation: The formulation coded HD-3 gave maximum colouring effect on sheep wool fibers as well as on human beings and percentage of acceptance among the volunteers were in the following order: HD- 3 > HD- 4 > HD-1 > HD-13 > HD-14 > HD-11. Results and Discussion: The remarkable results were obtained from five herbal hair colorants, viz., HD-1, HD- 3, HD- 4, HD-13 and HD-14 on sheep wool fibers and human beings. Formulation HD-3, having gudhal, jatamansi, kuth, kattha, amla, coffee and henna, was the maximum accepted formulation and suggested that these herbs in combination acts synergistically in hair colouring action. It also concluded that jatamansi, present in different hair colorants, was responsible to provide maximum blackening on hair PMID:26130937