Sample records for hair shaft abnormalities

  1. Hair Shaft Abnormalities – Clues to Diagnosis and Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Itin; Susanna K. Fistarol

    2005-01-01

    Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks

  2. Sebaceous gland, hair shaft, and epidermal barrier abnormalities in keratosis pilaris with and without filaggrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Robert; Sugarman, Jeffrey L; Crumrine, Debra; Hupe, Melanie; Mauro, Theodora M; Mauldin, Elizabeth A; Thyssen, Jacob P; Brandner, Johanna M; Hennies, Hans-Christian; Schmuth, Matthias; Elias, Peter M

    2015-04-01

    Although keratosis pilaris (KP) is common, its etiopathogenesis remains unknown. KP is associated clinically with ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis and molecular genetically with filaggrin-null mutations. In 20 KP patients and 20 matched controls, we assessed the filaggrin and claudin 1 genotypes, the phenotypes by dermatoscopy, and the morphology by light and transmission electron microscopy. Thirty-five percent of KP patients displayed filaggrin mutations, demonstrating that filaggrin mutations only partially account for the KP phenotype. Major histologic and dermatoscopic findings of KP were hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, mild T helper cell type 1-dominant lymphocytic inflammation, plugging of follicular orifices, striking absence of sebaceous glands, and hair shaft abnormalities in KP lesions but not in unaffected skin sites. Changes in barrier function and abnormal paracellular permeability were found in both interfollicular and follicular stratum corneum of lesional KP, which correlated ultrastructurally with impaired extracellular lamellar bilayer maturation and organization. All these features were independent of filaggrin genotype. Moreover, ultrastructure of corneodesmosomes and tight junctions appeared normal, immunohistochemistry for claudin 1 showed no reduction in protein amounts, and molecular analysis of claudin 1 was unremarkable. Our findings suggest that absence of sebaceous glands is an early step in KP pathogenesis, resulting in downstream hair shaft and epithelial barrier abnormalities. PMID:25660180

  3. Bubble hair and other acquired hair shaft anomalies due to hot ironing on wet hair.

    PubMed

    Savitha, As; Sacchidanand, S; Revathy, Tn

    2011-07-01

    Bubble hair is an acquired hair shaft abnormality characterized by multiple airfilled spaces within the hair shaft. It is a result of thermal injury. We report a classic case of 22-year-old female who complained of dry brittle hair of two-week duration. Patient had used hot iron on wet hair twice to straighten hair. Hair microscopy was diagnostic and showed multiple air-filled spaces within the hair shaft. PMID:22223976

  4. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Ma?gorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  5. STR genotyping of exogenous hair shaft DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate S. Robertson; Dennis McNevin; James Robertson

    2007-01-01

    Most hairs found at crime scenes yield low quality and\\/or low quantities of nuclear DNA. This DNA is further depleted when stringent hair cleaning procedures are applied in the laboratory, suggesting that detectable DNA exists exogenously. The phenomenon of exogenous hair DNA is the subject of this study. DNA was extracted from washed and unwashed hairs and the resulting Profiler™

  6. Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)]. E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Moriya, Kei [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2007-08-03

    Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via {beta}-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and {beta}-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/{beta}-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b.

  7. 6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

    2013-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

  8. Reduction of regrowing hair shaft size and pigmentation after ruby and diode laser treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tai-Yuan David Lin; Christine C. Dierickx; Valeria B. Campos; William A. Farinelli; Joshua Rosenthal; R. Rox Anderson

    2000-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract Laser pulses which selectively damage pigmented hair follicles are a useful treatment for hypertrichosis. Clinically, regrowing\\u000a hairs are often thinner and lighter after treatment. In this study, hair shaft diameter and optical transmission (700 nm)\\u000a were measured before and after ruby (694 nm) and diode (800 nm) laser irradiation. Hair was collected from 47 and 41 subjects\\u000a treated with

  9. Hair Shaft Elongation, Follicle Growth, and Spontaneous Regression in Long Term, Gelatin Sponge-Supported Histoculture of Human Scalp Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingna Li; Leonid B. Margolis; Ralf Paus; Robert M. Hoffman

    1992-01-01

    In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms of human hair growth control and to test hair growth-modulatory drugs, appropriate in vitro models are required. Here, we report the long-term growth, shaft elongation, and spontaneous regression of human hair follicles in histoculture of intact scalp skin. Human scalp skin with abundant hair follicles in various stages of the hair growth

  10. Trichoscopic Hair Evaluation in Patients with Ectodermal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Górska, Renata; Rudnicka, Lidia; Zadurska, Ma?gorzata

    2015-07-01

    Hair abnormalities in ectodermal dysplasia may be difficult to identify. Among 16 patients with ectodermal dysplasia trichoscopy (hair dermoscopy) revealed predominance of pilosebaceous units with 1 hair (69%), abnormalities of hair shaft pigmentation (gray hair with single dark hairs, 56%), pili torti, trichothiodystrophy, trichorrhexis nodosa, and rarely, cicatricial alopecia. PMID:25935816

  11. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis

    PubMed Central

    Laatsch, Chelsea N.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B.; Flagler, Michael J.; Davis, Michael G.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.

    2014-01-01

    Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

  12. A Simple Method to Extract DNA from Hair Shafts Using Enzymatic Laundry Powder

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinchuan; Jiang, Xiaoling; Li, Sicong; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

    2013-01-01

    A simple method to extract DNA from hair shafts was developed by using enzymatic laundry powder at the first step of the process. The whole extraction can be finished in less than 2 hours. The simple extraction reagent proposed here contains only two cheap components: ordinary enzymatic laundry powder and PCR buffer. After extraction, an ultra sensitive fluorescent nucleic acid stain, PicoGreen, was used for quantifying trace amount of double-stranded DNA in the solution extracted. For further validation of DNA extraction, four primers were employed to amplify DNA microsatellite loci. Both fluorescence spectroscopy and PCR results suggested that this method can extract DNA from hair shafts with good efficiency and repeatability. The study will greatly facilitate the use of hair shafts in future for DNA analyses on genome-wide scale. PMID:23922747

  13. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20?), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47?), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61?), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95?). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95? conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

  14. STR typing of ancient DNA extracted from hair shafts of Siberian mummies.

    PubMed

    Amory, S; Keyser, C; Crubézy, E; Ludes, B

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if ancient hair shafts could be suitable for nuclear DNA analysis and to develop an efficient and straightforward protocol for DNA extraction and STR typing of ancient specimens. The developed method was validated on modern and forensic samples and then successfully applied on ancient hairs collected from Siberian mummies dating from the 16th to the early 19th centuries. In parallel extractions including or excluding a washing step were performed at least two times for each sample in order to evaluate the influence on the quantity of nuclear DNA yielded and on the typing efficiency. Twelve ancient individuals were analyzed through our approach and full and reliable profiles were obtained for four of them. These profiles were validated by comparison with those obtained from bone and teeth DNA extracted from the same ancient specimens. The present study demonstrates that the washing step cannot be considered as deleterious for DNA retrieval since the same results were obtained by the two approaches. This finding challenges the hypothesis that recoverable nuclear DNA is only found on the outer surface of hair shafts and provides evidence that nuclear DNA can be successfully extracted from ancient hair shafts. The method described here constitutes a promising way for non-invasive investigations in ancient DNA analysis for precious or historical samples as well as forensic casework analyses. PMID:16839727

  15. Assay of elements contained in human hair shafts by energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dupré; P. Touron; J. Daste; R. Victor

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to qualitatively and semi-quantitativ ely determine the elements involved in the composition of normal hair shafts with the method of energy-dispersiv e analysis of X-rays (EDAX). Hair samples were removed from 70 subjects and analyzed with no prior treatment. The population sampled wa s composed of 70 subjects of both sexes in an

  16. Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of mitochondria from ancient hair shafts.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Tomsho, Lynn P; Rendulic, Snjezana; Packard, Michael; Drautz, Daniela I; Sher, Andrei; Tikhonov, Alexei; Dalén, Love; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Kosintsev, Pavel; Campos, Paula F; Higham, Thomas; Collins, Matthew J; Wilson, Andrew S; Shidlovskiy, Fyodor; Buigues, Bernard; Ericson, Per G P; Germonpré, Mietje; Götherström, Anders; Iacumin, Paola; Nikolaev, Vladimir; Nowak-Kemp, Malgosia; Willerslev, Eske; Knight, James R; Irzyk, Gerard P; Perbost, Clotilde S; Fredrikson, Karin M; Harkins, Timothy T; Sheridan, Sharon; Miller, Webb; Schuster, Stephan C

    2007-09-28

    Although the application of sequencing-by-synthesis techniques to DNA extracted from bones has revolutionized the study of ancient DNA, it has been plagued by large fractions of contaminating environmental DNA. The genetic analyses of hair shafts could be a solution: We present 10 previously unexamined Siberian mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) mitochondrial genomes, sequenced with up to 48-fold coverage. The observed levels of damage-derived sequencing errors were lower than those observed in previously published frozen bone samples, even though one of the specimens was >50,000 14C years old and another had been stored for 200 years at room temperature. The method therefore sets the stage for molecular-genetic analysis of museum collections. PMID:17901335

  17. Optical coherence tomography examination of hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wei; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Jianshu; Yang, Hongqin; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Human hair is a keratinous tissue composed mostly of flexible keratin, which can form a complex architecture consisting of distinct compartments or units (e.g. hair bulb, inner root sheath, shaft). Variations in hair shaft morphology can reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. Hair shaft abnormalities in cross section and diameter, as well as ultramorphological characterization and follicle shapes, might be visualized non-invasively by high-speed 2D and 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this study, swept source OCT (ThorLabs) was used to examine human hair. Preliminary results showed that the high-speed OCT was a suitable and promising tool for non-invasive analysis of hair conditions.

  18. Healthy hair: what is it?

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rodney D

    2007-12-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity. Manipulation of the normal structure of the hair shaft is epidemic and dictated by culture, fashion, and above all, celebrity. Although cosmetic procedures are intrinsically safe, there is potential for damage to the hair. Loss of lustre, frizz, split ends, and other hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair or among people with hair that is intrinsically weak. This may be due to individual or racial variation or less commonly an inherited structural abnormality in hair fiber formation. Hair health is also affected by common afflictions of the scalp as well as age-related phenomena such as graying and androgenetic alopecia. Hair products that improve the structural integrity of hair fibers and increase tensile strength are available, as are products that increase hair volume, reduce frizz, improve hair manageability, and stimulate new hair growth. PMID:18004288

  19. Massively parallel sequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes from hair shaft samples.

    PubMed

    Parson, Walther; Huber, Gabriela; Moreno, Lilliana; Madel, Maria-Bernadette; Brandhagen, Michael D; Nagl, Simone; Xavier, Catarina; Eduardoff, Mayra; Callaghan, Thomas C; Irwin, Jodi A

    2015-03-01

    Though shed hairs are one of the most commonly encountered evidence types, they are among the most limited in terms of DNA quantity and quality. As a result, DNA testing has historically focused on the recovery of just about 600 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Here, we describe our success in recovering complete mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) data (?16,569bp) from single shed hairs. By employing massively parallel sequencing (MPS), we demonstrate that particular hair samples yield DNA sufficient in quantity and quality to produce 2-3kb mtGenome amplicons and that entire mtGenome data can be recovered from hair extracts even without PCR enrichment. Most importantly, we describe a small amplicon multiplex assay comprised of sixty-two primer sets that can be routinely applied to the compromised hair samples typically encountered in forensic casework. In all samples tested here, the MPS data recovered using any one of the three methods were consistent with the control Sanger sequence data developed from high quality known specimens. Given the recently demonstrated value of complete mtGenome data in terms of discrimination power among randomly sampled individuals, the possibility of recovering mtGenome data from the most compromised and limited evidentiary material is likely to vastly increase the utility of mtDNA testing for hair evidence. PMID:25438934

  20. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Alterations in the cuticle, cortex, and medulla are necessary to modify the hair cosmetically. The hair can be modified externally by the use of shampoos to remove excess sebum, conditioners to restore shine, and styling aids to increase manageability. Several different formulations of all these products exist, depending on the needs of the patient. Furthermore, the hair can be modified both externally and internally through the use of hair dyes, permanent waving lotions, and hair straighteners. Use of these products causes external damage to the hair shaft by disrupting the overlapping cuticular scales, rendering the hair susceptible to static electricity and the effects of humidity while decreasing manageability and shine. Internal damage created by these products decreases the hair shaft's elastic properties, allowing increased hair breakage. The dermatologist can better aid the patient with hair difficulties if he or she has an understanding of the formulation and effects of products designed to cleanse, beautify, and modify the hair. PMID:2022094

  1. Human mesenchymal stromal cells could deliver erythropoietin and migrate to the basal layer of hair shaft when subcutaneously implanted in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Mok, P L; Cheong, S K; Leong, C F; Chua, K H; Ainoon, O

    2012-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are an attractive cell-targeting vehicle for gene delivery. MIDGE (an acronym for Minimalistic, Immunologically Defined Gene Expression) construct is relatively safer than the viral or plasmid expression system as the detrimental eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene and sequences have been eliminated. The objective of this study was to test the ability of the human MSC (hMSC) to deliver the erythropoietin (EPO) gene in a nude mice model following nucleofection using a MIDGE construct. hMSC nucleofected with MIDGE encoding the EPO gene was injected subcutaneously in Matrigel at the dorsal flank of nude mice. Subcutaneous implantation of nucleofected hMSC resulted in increased hemoglobin level with presence of human EPO in the peripheral blood of the injected nude mice in the first two weeks post-implantation compared with the control groups. The basal layer of the hair shaft in the dermal layer was found to be significantly positive for immunohistochemical staining of a human EPO antibody. However, only a few basal layers of the hair shaft were found to be positively stained for CD105. In conclusion, hMSC harboring MIDGE-EPO could deliver and transiently express the EPO gene in the nude mice model. These cells could be localized to the hair follicle and secreted EPO protein might have possible role in hair regeneration. PMID:22560724

  2. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products. PMID:23974582

  3. Hair casts.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Sweta S; Parmar, Kirti S; Shah, Bela J

    2014-10-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

  4. Hair casts

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Sweta S.; Parmar, Kirti S.; Shah, Bela J.

    2014-01-01

    Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

  5. Epidermal Dysplasia and Abnormal Hair Follicles in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Homeobox Gene MSX-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ting-Xin Jiang; Yi-Hsin Liu; Randall B. Widelitz; Ramendra K. Kundu; Robert E. Maxson; C. M. Chuong; Cheng-Ming Chuong

    1999-01-01

    The homeobox gene Msx-2 is expressed specifically in sites of skin appendage formation. To explore its part in skin morphogenesis, we produced transgenic mice expressing Msx-2 under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The skin of these transgenic mice was flaky, exhibiting desquamation and shorter hairs. Histologic analysis showed thickened epidermis with hyperproliferation, which was restricted to the basal layer.

  6. Mutation in xyloglucan 6-xylosytransferase results in abnormal root hair development in Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuang; Li, Shuai; Ng, Sophia; Zhang, Baocai; Zhou, Yihua; Whelan, James; Wu, Ping; Shou, Huixia

    2014-01-01

    Root hairs are important for nutrient uptake, anchorage, and plant–microbe interactions. From a population of rice (Oryza sativa) mutagenized by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), a short root hair2 (srh2) mutant was identified. In hydroponic culture, srh2 seedlings were significantly reduced in root hair length. Bubble-like extrusions and irregular epidermal cells were observed at the tips of srh2 root hairs when grown under acidic conditions, suggesting the possible reduction of the tensile strength of the cell wall in this mutant. Map-based cloning identified a mutation in the gene encoding xyloglucan (XyG) 6-xylosyltransferase (OsXXT1). OsXXT1 displays more than 70% amino acid sequence identity with the previously characterized Arabidopsis thaliana XYG XYLOSYL TRANSFERASE 1 (AtXXT1) and XYG XYLOSYL TRANSFERASE 2 (AtXXT2), which catalyse the transfer of xylose onto ?-1,4-glucan chains. Furthermore, expression of the full-length coding sequence of OsXXT1 could complement the root hair defect, and slow growth and XyG synthesis in the Arabidopsis xxt1 xxt2 double mutant. Transgenic plants expressing the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter under the control of the OsXXT1 promoter displayed GUS expression in multiple tissues, most prominently in root epidermal cells. These results demonstrate the importance of OsXXT1 in maintaining cell wall structure and tensile strength in rice, a typical grass species that contains relatively low XyG content in cell walls. PMID:24834920

  7. The targeted overexpression of a Claudin mutant in the epidermis of transgenic mice elicits striking epidermal and hair follicle abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Troy, Tammy-Claire; Turksen, Kursad

    2007-06-01

    Skin is one of the largest organs of the body, and is formed during development through a highly orchestrated process involving mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, cell commitment, and terminal differentiation. It protects against microorganism invasion and UV irradiation, inhibits water loss, regulates body temperature, and is an important part of the immune system. Using transgenic mouse technology, we have demonstrated that Claudin (Cldn)-containing tight junctions (TJs) are intricately involved in cell signaling during epidermal differentiation and that an epidermal suprabasal overexpression of Cldn6 results in a perturbed epidermal terminal differentiation program with distinct phenotypic abnormalities. To delineate the role of the Cldn cytoplasmic tail domain in epidermal differentiation, we engineered transgenic mice targeting the overexpression of a Cldn6 cytoplasmic tail-truncation mutant in the epidermis. Transgenic mice were characterized by a lethal barrier dysfunction in addition to the existence of hyperproliferative squamous invaginations/cysts replacing hair follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an epidermal cytoplasmic accumulation of Cldn6, Cldn11, Cldn12, and Cldn18, downregulation of Cldn1 and aberrant expression of various classical markers of epidermal differentiation; namely the basal keratins as well as K1, involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin. Collectively these studies suggest an important role for Cldns in epidermal/hair follicle differentiation programs likely involving cross talk to signaling pathways (e.g., Notch) directing cell fate selection and differentiation. PMID:17914196

  8. Hair colouring, permanent styling and hair structure.

    PubMed

    Harrison, S; Sinclair, R

    2003-07-01

    Hair is an important component of body image and has immense psychological importance for both men and women. Women, in particular, over the ages have modified their appearance through changing their hair colour or style. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown or red. These natural variations are an important part of our identity that can be manipulated according to the dictates of fashion, culture or society. Different types of hair have varying affinity for the different colouring and waving methods. Damaged hair also has a different affinity for hair products than normal healthy hair. The hair shaft is remarkably strong and resistant to the extremes of nature. Hair cosmetics are widely available and manipulate the structural properties of hair. Whilst most procedures are safe, there is considerable potential for damage to the hair and hair problems of acute onset, including hair breakage, hair loss and loss of condition, are frequently blamed on the last product used on the hair. Hair problems are particularly prevalent among people who repeatedly alter the natural style of their hair. PMID:17163926

  9. Acquired Hair Fragility in Pili anulati: Causal Relationship with Androgenetic Alopecia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günther F. L. Hofbauer; Dionysios Tsambaos; Max A. Spycher; Ralph M. Trüeb

    2001-01-01

    Pili anulati are defined by characteristic alternating light and dark banding in the hair shaft, due to air-filled spaces between the macrofibrillar units of the hair cortex, and are regarded as a congenital hair shaft disorder without increased hair fragility. Two cases of pili anulati are presented, in which fragility of hair developed in a causal relationship with the onset

  10. Aging of hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2005-06-01

    The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation. PMID:17166201

  11. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  12. Microscopic hair changes associated with hair coloring, hair waving and hair ironing in Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Talghini, Shahla; Ranjkesh, Mohammadreza

    2013-10-15

    Although, of no vital value, hair plays a significant role in expressing any person's psychosocial status. Many cosmetic and styling methods are available for hair. This study aimed to examine the microscopic changes in women with hair coloring, hair waving, or hair ironing in comparison with normal controls. In a cross-sectional study, 154 Iranian women were recruited and categorized in 4 groups: controls (n = 35) who had not dyed, waved or ironed their hair within the last 6 months; dyed-hair group (n = 49) who had dyed their hair using standard chemical hair colors at least three times within the last 6 months; waved-hair group (n = 35) who had frizzled their hair within the last 6 months and ironed-hair group (n = 35) who had ironed their hair at least 3 times a weak using a temperature more than 30 degrees C within the last 6 months. Hair samples of all four groups were examined microscopically, and the results were compared with the controls. The rate of abnormal findings was 17.1% in the controls, 53.1% in the dyed-hair group, 45.7% in the waved-hair group, and 54.3% in the ironed-hair group. Abnormal findings were significantly more frequent in the last three groups comparing with the controls (p < 0.05). Trichorrhexis was 17.1, 34.7, 40 and 11.4%; kinking was 0, 2, 2.9 and 25.7%; pseudo pili-annulati was 0, 6.1, 0 and 17.1%; trichonodosis was 0, 6.1, 0 and 0%; tracheoschises was 0, 2, 2.9 and 0% and trichoptilosis was 0, 2, 0 and 0% in the mentioned groups, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, hair coloring, waving and ironing all can induce abnormalities in the hair in comparison with the hairs of nonusers. PMID:24506020

  13. Is alopecia areata an autoimmune-response against melanogenesis-related proteins, exposed by abnormal MHC class I expression in the anagen hair bulb?

    PubMed Central

    Paus, R.; Slominski, A.; Czarnetzki, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    The etiology of alopecia areata (AA), a putative autoimmune disease characterized by sudden hair loss, has remained obscure. It is not understood, how the characteristic inflammatory infiltrate that selectively attacks anagen hair follicles in AA is generated. We hypothesize that this reflects an unexplored form of autoimmunity, a cytotoxic T cell attack on rhythmically synthesized autoantigens normally sequestered by a lack or very low level of MHC class I (MHC I)-expression, and suggest the following mechanism of AA pathogenesis: Microtrauma, neurogenic inflammation, or microbial antigens cause a localized breakdown of MHC I-"negativity" in the proximal anagen hair bulb via proinflammatory cytokines. This exposes autoantigens derived from melanogenesis-related proteins (MRP-DP), which are only generated during anagen, and triggers two successive waves of autoimmune responses: CD8+ cytotoxic T cells initiate AA after recognizing MRP-DP abnormally presented by MHC I molecules on hair matrix melanocytes and/or keratinocytes; a secondary attack, carried by CD4+ T cells and antigen presenting cells, is then mounted against MHC class II--presented additional autoantigens exposed by damaged melanocytes and keratinocytes. The latter causes most of the follicular damage, and extrafollicular disease, and depends greatly on the immunogenetic background of affected individuals. This unifying hypothesis explains the clinical heterogeneity and all salient features of AA, and argues that only the unlikely coincidence of multiple predisposing events triggers AA. The suppression of MHC I--expression and synthesis of MRP in the hair bulb, and the "tolerization" of MRP-DP autoreactive CD8+ T cells may be promising strategies for treating AA. PMID:7716973

  14. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. PMID:24656996

  15. Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

  16. Cutis laxa with pulmonary emphysema, conjunctivochalasis, nasolacrimal duct obstruction, abnormal hair, and a novel FBLN5 mutation.

    PubMed

    Kantaputra, Piranit Nik; Kaewgahya, Massupa; Wiwatwongwana, Atchareeya; Wiwatwongwana, Damrong; Sittiwangkul, Rekwan; Iamaroon, Anak; Dejkhamron, Prapai

    2014-09-01

    We report on a 4-year-old girl with autosomal recessive cutis laxa, type IA, or pulmonary emphysema type (ARCL1A; OMIM #219100), with loose and wrinkled skin, mitral and tricuspid valve prolapse, conjunctivochalasis, obstructed nasolacrimal ducts, hypoplastic maxilla, and early childhood-onset pulmonary emphysema. Mutation analysis of FBLN5 showed a homozygous c.432C>G missense mutation, and heterozygosity in the parents. This is predicted to cause amino acid substitution p.Cys144Trp. Conjunctivochalasis or redundant folds of conjunctiva and obstructed nasolacrimal ducts have not been reported to be associated with FBLN5 mutations. Histopathological study of the conjunctival biopsy showed that most blood vessels had normal elastic fibers. The gingiva appeared normal, but histologically elastic fibers were defective. Scanning electron micrography of scalp hair demonstrated hypoplastic hair follicles. The cuticles appear intact underneath the filamentous meshwork. PMID:24962763

  17. Scarring folliculitis in the ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-clefting syndrome. Histologic, scanning electron-microscopic and biophysical studies of hair.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M; Tsambaos, D; Spycher, M A; Müller, J; Burg, G

    1997-01-01

    Several clinical syndromes are characterized by ectodermal dysplasia (ED) in association with clefting of the lip and/or palate. In these syndromes, alopecia is primarily due to abnormalities of the hair shaft associated with increased hair fragility. Scalp dermatitis is yet another peculiar finding, primarily seen in the ankyloblepharon-ED-clefting (AEC) syndrome. We report on a 16-year-old patient with ectrodactyly-ED-clefting (EEC) syndrome, who exhibited a scarring alopecia due to deep folliculitis. On scanning electron microscopy, irregular torsion and longitudinal grooving of the hair shaft (pili torti et canaliculi) were observed. Quantitative determinations of the elastic and viscous parameters of hair demonstrated a normal viscosity but a significantly reduced hair elasticity, indicating either an abnormal composition or a disordered arrangement of microfibrils within the apparently normal keratin matrix. In contrast to the erosive scalp dermatitis of early onset in the AEC syndrome, alopecia in this case of EEC syndrome demonstrated follicular scarring with onset during puberty. We question a possible role of the anatomical hair abnormality in the pathogenesis of chronic deep folliculitis in this and clinically related syndromes. PMID:9094476

  18. Sensory Hairs in the Bowhead Whale, Balaena mysticetus (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Drake, Summer E; Crish, Samuel D; George, John C; Stimmelmayr, Raphaella; Thewissen, J G M

    2015-07-01

    We studied the histology and morphometrics of the hairs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). These whales are hairless except for two patches of more than 300 hairs on the rostral tip of the lower lip and chin, the rostral tip of the upper lip, and a bilateral row of approximately ten hairs caudal to the blowhole. Histological data indicate that hairs in all three of these areas are vibrissae: they show an outermost connective tissue capsule, a circumferential blood sinus system surrounding the hair shaft, and dense innervation to the follicle. Morphometric data were collected on hair diameters, epidermal recess diameters, hair follicle length, and external hair lengths. The main difference between the hairs in the different regions is that blowhole hairs have larger diameters than the hairs in the chin and rostrum regions. We speculate that the hair shaft thickness patterns in bowheads reflect functional specializations. Anat Rec, 298:1327-1335, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25869730

  19. A case of autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis with alternation in severity: deterioration and improvement with age.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Naoko; Kunisada, Makoto; Kanki, Haruhisa; Simomura, Yutaka; Nishigori, Chikako

    2013-09-01

    Autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis (ARWH/H) is a nonsyndromic hair abnormality characterized by sparse, short and curly hair (WH/H). We report the case of a 3-year-old female, with no consanguineous ancestry, who exhibited WH/H. Normal hair was observed at birth, but severe hair loss had developed within the first 6 months; however, her hair density had improved somewhat by age 3. Light microscopy showed hair shaft invaginations, and polarized light microscopy suggested complete medullary disruption of the hair. Direct sequence analysis of peripheral blood showed a homozygous missense mutation in exon 6 of the lipase H gene (LIPH: c.736T>A, p.Cys246Ser), and the exact same mutation was found in the heterozygous state in both parents. The initial deterioration followed by improvement with age observed in this case suggests that the clinical course of ARWH/H may vary among patients with the same mutation in LIPH detected in this case, indicating that additional factors may influence the effect of LIPH on hair development. PMID:24474919

  20. Hair care practices in African-American patients.

    PubMed

    Roseborough, Ingrid E; McMichael, Amy J

    2009-06-01

    The unique properties of hair in those patients of African descent allow a limitless range of hair-care options. For the clinician, a general understanding of hair-care practices is an important aid in the diagnosis and treatment of hair shaft and scalp disorders. This review highlights common hair-care practices in women, men, and children of color. Cleansing, moisturizing, and styling techniques are discussed, as well as potential complications associated with their use. PMID:19608061

  1. Shaft Adapter For Data Coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, James R.; Lord, Mark T.

    1990-01-01

    Shaft adapter developed to provide means for securing Acurex 1200B universal data coupler to rotating instrumented shaft. Consists of two major parts: shaft sleeve and shaft clamp. Provides for accurate measurements of stresses and strains in shaft.

  2. Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the substance that gives hair and skin its pigment. The lighter someone's hair, the less melanin there ... or red hair. Older people lose the melanin pigment in their hair as they age, making their ...

  3. Hair loss in infancy.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Romero, J A; Grimalt, R

    2014-02-01

    Hair diseases represent a significant portion of cases seen by pediatric dermatologists although hair has always been a secondary aspect in pediatricians and dermatologists training, on the erroneous basis that there is not much information extractable from it. Dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders with simple diagnostic techniques. The hair is easily accessible to examination but, paradoxically, this approach is often disregarded by non-dermatologist. This paper has been written on the purpose of trying to serve in the diagnostic process of daily practice, and trying to help, for example, to distinguish between certain acquired and some genetically determined hair diseases. We will focus on all the data that can be obtained from our patients' hair and try to help on using the messages given by hair for each patient. Quite often it is extremely hard to distinguish between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. We will specially focus in the most common physiological changes that may mislead to an incorrect diagnosis. Specific treatment for those hair diseases that do have one, and basic general approach to improve the cosmetic appearance of hair, will be also be discussed for those hair disturbances that do not have a specific treatment. PMID:24566566

  4. Rotary shaft seal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Langebrake

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith.

  5. Shaft seal system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kapich; Davorin D

    1985-01-01

    A shaft seal system is disclosed for isolating two regions of different fluid mediums through which a rotatable shaft extends. The seal system includes a seal housing through which the shaft extends and which defines an annular land and an annular labyrinth both of which face on the shaft so that each establishes a corresponding fluid sealing annulus. A collection

  6. Shaft speed control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Simple mechanism controls rotation of heavy-duty shaft by mechanical comparison with rotation of small, precise, stepper motor. Mechanism can be used to limit winding and unwinding speeds of large spools and reels and to control speed of other rotating shafts. Setup incorporates reference shaft geared down from stepper motor and feedback shaft geared up from shaft to be controlled. Feedback and reference shafts are coupled with brake assembly inside stationary cylinder. When work shaft speeds up, brakes are activated automatically to slow it down.

  7. Shaft-Rotation Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Signal-processing subsystem generates signal indicative of rotation of shaft from output of accelerometer mounted on housing of bearing supporting shaft. Output of subsystem binary signal at frequency of rotation of shaft. Part of assembly of electronic equipment measuring vibrations in rotating machinery. Accelerometer mounted in such way sensitive to vibrations of shaft perpendicular to axis. Output of accelerometer includes noise and components of vibration at frequencies higher than rotational frequency of shaft.

  8. Hair Treatments and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hair treatments include hair coloring, hair curling (permanents), hair bleaching, and hair straightening (relaxers) agents. Hair coloring procedures ... the second is a fixation or neutralization solution. Hair bleaching involves the use of hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners ...

  9. Rotary valve shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, R.M.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes a rotary valve shaft for use with an internal combustion engine having a combustion chamber port, the rotary valve shaft including at least one gas passage means. It comprises groove on the periphery of the rotary valve shaft and a means for connecting the groove with the port upon rotation of the rotary valve shaft, wherein the connecting means comprising notch adjacent to and leading into the groove.

  10. Hair Removal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... maintain a steady temperature by providing some insulation. Terminal hair is coarser, darker, and longer than vellus ... hair that grows on your head. Around puberty, terminal hair starts to grow in the armpits and ...

  11. Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2012-03-01

    We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases.

  12. Targeted expression of GFP in the hair follicle using ex vivo viral transduction.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M; Li, Lingna

    2008-01-01

    There are many cell types in the hair follicle, including hair matrix cells which form the hair shaft and stem cells which can initiate the hair shaft during early anagen, the growth phase of the hair cycle, as well as pluripotent stem cells that play a role in hair follicle growth but have the potential to differentiate to non-follicle cells such as neurons. These properties of the hair follicle are discussed. The various cell types of the hair follicle are potential targets for gene therapy. Gene delivery system for the hair follicle using viral vectors or liposomes for gene targeting to the various cell types in the hair follicle and the results obtained are also discussed [corrected]. PMID:19066571

  13. Designing Shafts For Long Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, Stuart H.

    1988-01-01

    Improved method developed for choosing sizes of power-transmitting shafts for limited or unlimited service lives under variety of operating conditions. Stress versus fatigue life of proposed shaft design plotted, modified to account for expected operating conditions and used to calculate shaft diameter required for given fatigue life. If diameter of shaft represented by plot equals or exceeds required diameter, shaft considered adequate.

  14. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling

    PubMed Central

    Sennett, Rachel; Rendl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic hair follicle induction and formation are regulated by mesenchymal-epithelial interactions between specialized dermal cells and epidermal stem cells that switch to a hair fate. Similarly, during postnatal hair growth, communication between mesenchymal dermal papilla cells and surrounding epithelial matrix cells coordinates hair shaft production. Adult hair follicle regeneration in the hair cycle again is thought to be controlled by activating signals originating from the mesenchymal compartment and acting on hair follicle stem cells. Although many signaling pathways are implicated in hair follicle formation and growth, the precise nature, timing, and intersection of these inductive and regulatory signals remains elusive. The goal of this review is to summarize our current understanding and to discuss recent new insights into mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. PMID:22960356

  15. Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.

    PubMed

    Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts. PMID:16197431

  16. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Sim?i?, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

    2007-07-01

    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  17. Eruptive Vellus Hair Cyst in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Mieno; Norihiro Fujimoto; Shingo Tajima

    2004-01-01

    Two cases of eruptive vellus hair cysts associated with chronic renal failure are reported. Histologically the lesions of both cases showed cystic structures in the dermis lined by squamous epithelium which contained varying amounts of vellus hair shafts. Immunohistochemical studies using monoclonal anti-AGE (advanced glycation end product) antibody demonstrated that keratinous materials within the cystic structures were immunoreactive to the

  18. Shaft-Motion-Analyzing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Richard L.; Collins, John J.; Coleman, Paul T.; Roschak, Edmund J.

    1993-01-01

    Optoelectronic system to monitor motions of turbopump shaft developed. Optical sensors detect passage of reflective triangles on shaft. Optical measurements processed in real time into indications of speed of rotation and of axial and lateral displacements of shaft.

  19. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  20. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lannie L. Dietle; John E. Schroeder; Manmohan S. Kalsi; Patricio D. Alvarez

    2010-01-01

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be

  1. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  2. Crank shaft support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Natkin, Robert J. (Canton, MI); Oltmans, Bret (Stacy, MN); Allison, John E. (Ann Arbor, MI); Heater, Thomas J. (Milford, MI); Hines, Joy Adair (Plymouth, MI); Tappen, Grant K. (Washington, MI); Peiskammer, Dietmar (Rochester, MI)

    2007-10-23

    A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

  3. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, Clair O. (Waverly, OH)

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  4. Rotary shaft seal

    SciTech Connect

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-10

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  5. Profiling the Response of Human Hair Follicles to Ultraviolet Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongfa Lu; Tobias W Fischer; Sybille Hasse; Koji Sugawara; York Kamenisch; Sven Krengel; Wolfgang Funk; Mark Berneburg; Ralf Paus

    2009-01-01

    Excessive UVR ranks among the most harmful environmental influences on human skin. However, the direct impact of UVR on human skin appendages remains to be systematically investigated. Organ-cultured human anagen hair follicles in vitro were irradiated, and reduction of hair shaft elongation, premature catagen entry, and reduced hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation were observed upon irradiation with UVB (20\\/50 mJ cm?2).

  6. Cam shaft with expanded hollow shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.W.; Brisson, R.H.; Brisson, G.R.

    1987-09-15

    This patent describes a camshaft having lobes with irregularly shaped apertures spaced along the longitudinal axis of a hollow tubular shaft. The lobes are orientated radially and axially in predetermined positions along the hollow tubular shaft. The camshaft is characterized by the walls of the hollow shaft expanded outwardly into aperture portions in irregular engagement with the interior of the apertures of the lobes and the walls expanded outwardly radially farther into ballooned portions between adjacent lobes to create corresponding outside and inside shoulders extending between the aperture and ballooned portions. The outside shoulders are disposed immediately adjacent and abutting each side of the lobes circumferentially about the apertures therein to secure the lobes axially upon the shaft, the inside shoulders disposed directly opposite the outside shoulders to that shoulder extend annularly about each end of each of the apertures and the ballooned portions extend between shoulders at adjacent lobes, the exterior circumferences of the lobes being furnished to closer tolerances than the interior apertures and the exterior surfaces of the lobes being positioned radially relative to the longitudinal axis with the radial positions of the interior apertures being offset among adjacent lobes.

  7. Thymosin Beta-4 Induces Mouse Hair Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Fang; Zhang, Zhipeng; Nuo, Mingtu; Guo, Xudong; Liu, Dongjun

    2015-01-01

    Thymosin beta-4 (T?4) is known to induce hair growth and hair follicle (HF) development; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. We generated mice that overexpressed T?4 in the epidermis, as well as T?4 global knockout mice, to study the role of T?4 in HF development and explore the mechanism of T?4 on hair growth. To study T?4 function, we depilated control and experimental mice and made tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). To explore the effect of T?4 on hair growth and HF development, the mRNA and protein levels of T?4 and VEGF were detected by real-time PCR and western blotting in control and experimental mice. Protein expression levels and the phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT were also examined by western blotting. The results of depilation indicated that hair re-growth was faster in T?4-overexpressing mice, but slower in knockout mice. Histological examination revealed that T?4-overexpressing mice had a higher number of hair shafts and HFs clustered together to form groups, while the HFs of control mice and knockout mice were separate. Hair shafts in knockout mice were significantly reduced in number compared with control mice. Increased T?4 expression at the mRNA and protein levels was confirmed in T?4-overexpressing mice, which also had increased VEGF expression. On the other hand, knockout mice had reduced levels of VEGF expression. Mechanistically, T?4-overexpressing mice showed increased protein expression levels and phosphorylation of P38, ERK and AKT, whereas knockout mice had decreased levels of both expression and phosphorylation of these proteins. T?4 appears to regulate P38/ERK/AKT signaling via its effect on VEGF expression, with a resultant effect on the speed of hair growth, the pattern of HFs and the number of hair shafts. PMID:26083021

  8. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging of human hair.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Alexander; Riemann, Iris; Stark, Martin; König, Karsten

    2007-02-01

    In vivo and in vitro multiphoton imaging was used to perform high resolution optical sectioning of human hair by nonlinear excitation of endogenous as well as exogenous fluorophores. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) based on time-resolved single photon counting and near-infrared femtosecond laser pulse excitation was employed to analyze the various fluorescent hair components. Time-resolved multiphoton imaging of intratissue pigments has the potential (i) to identify endogenous keratin and melanin, (ii) to obtain information on intrahair dye accumulation, (iii) to study bleaching effects, and (iv) to monitor the intratissue diffusion of pharmaceutical and cosmetical components along hair shafts. PMID:17152070

  9. Improved circumferential shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Comparative tests of modified and unmodified carbon ring seals showed that addition of helical grooves to conventional segmented carbon ring seals reduced leakage significantly. Modified seal was insensitive to shaft runout and to flooding by lubricant.

  10. Extraction and Analysis of Cortisol from Human and Monkey Hair

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

  11. Characterization of human scalp hairs by optical low-coherence reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. J.; Milner, T. E.; Dhond, R. P.; Sorin, W. V.; Newton, S. A.; Nelson, J. S.

    1995-03-01

    Optical low-coherence reflectometry is used to investigate the internal structure and optical properties of human scalp hair. Regardless of hair color, the refractive index of the cortical region remains within the range of 1.56-1.59. The amplitude of the backscattered infrared light coupled into different-colored hair confirms the relative melanin content. Discontinuities in the refractive index permit identification of distinct structural layers within the hair shaft.

  12. Dry hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air (environmental dryness) Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition (for example, kwashiorkor disease ) Underactive parathyroid ( hypoparathyroidism ) Underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism )

  13. To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

  14. Generation and suppression of singlet oxygen in hair by photosensitization of melanin.

    PubMed

    Chiarelli-Neto, Orlando; Pavani, Christiane; Ferreira, Alan S; Uchoa, Adjaci F; Severino, Divinomar; Baptista, Maurício S

    2011-09-15

    We have studied the spectroscopic properties of hair (white, blond, red, brown, and black) under illumination with visible light, giving special emphasis to the photoinduced generation of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). Irradiation of hair shafts (?(ex)>400 nm) changed their properties by degrading the melanin. Formation of C3 hydroperoxides in the melanin indol groups was proven by (1)H NMR. After 532-nm excitation, all hair shafts presented the characteristic (1)O(2) emission (?(em)=1270 nm), whose intensity varied inversely with the melanin content. (1)O(2) lifetime was also shown to vary with hair type, being five times shorter in black hair than in blond hair, indicating the role of melanin as a (1)O(2) suppressor. Lifetime ranged from tenths of a nanosecond to a few microseconds, which is much shorter than the lifetime expected for (1)O(2) in the solvents in which the hair shafts were suspended, indicating that (1)O(2) is generated and suppressed inside the hair structure. Both eumelanin and pheomelanin were shown to produce and to suppress (1)O(2), with similar efficiencies. The higher amount of (1)O(2) generated in blond hair and its longer lifetime is compatible with the stronger damage that light exposure causes in blond hair. We propose a model to explain the formation and suppression of (1)O(2) in hair by photosensitization of melanin with visible light and the deleterious effects that an excess of visible light may cause in hair and skin. PMID:21723388

  15. Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: part I. History and clinical examination.

    PubMed

    Mubki, Thamer; Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Shapiro, Jerry

    2014-09-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) is a common problem and is often a major source of distress for patients. The differential diagnosis of alopecia includes both scarring and nonscarring alopecias. In addition, many hair shaft disorders can produce hair shaft fragility, resulting in different patterns of alopecia. Therefore, an organized and systematic approach is needed to accurately address patients' complaints to achieve the correct diagnosis. Part 1 of this 2-part continuing medical education article on alopecia describes history taking and the clinical examination of different hair loss disorders. It also provides an algorithmic diagnostic approach based on the most recent knowledge about different types of alopecia. PMID:25128118

  16. Dynamic expression of Runx1 in skin affects hair structure.

    PubMed

    Raveh, Eli; Cohen, Shulamit; Levanon, Ditsa; Negreanu, Varda; Groner, Yoram; Gat, Uri

    2006-11-01

    The three mammalian Runx transcription factors, some of which are known to be involved in human genetic diseases and cancer, are pivotal players in embryo development and function as key regulators of cell fate determination and organogenesis. Here, we report the expression of Runx1 during the development of hair and other skin appendages in the mouse and describe the effect of Runx1 on the structural hair output. In hair follicles, where the three Runx proteins are expressed, Runx1 expression is most prominent in both mesenchymal and epithelial compartments. The epithelial expression includes the hair keratin forming layers of the hair shaft and the bulge, where interestingly, Runx1 is co-expressed with keratin 15, a putative hair follicle stem cell marker. In the hair mesenchyme, during early stages of hair morphogenesis, Runx1 is expressed in a discrete dermal sub-epithelial layer, while at later stages it is found in a hair cycle dependent pattern in the dermal papilla. To elucidate the function of Runx1 in the hair follicle we have generated a Runx1 epidermal conditional knockout and found that the mutant mice display a remarkable structural deformation of the zigzag hair type. The data delineate Runx1 as a novel specific marker of several hair follicle cell types and sheds light on its role in hair morphogenesis and differentiation. PMID:17011173

  17. Shaft Position Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

  18. 9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY BARS); VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  19. 22. Detail view of endlift drive shaft, threaded shaft and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Detail view of end-lift drive shaft, threaded shaft and level gears. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York, New York County, NY

  20. Gravity in a Mine Shaft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

  1. Lornoxicam-induced hair loss: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Keny, M S; Ghodge, R R; Bandekar, S M

    2013-01-01

    A patient started on 8 mg lornoxicam twice daily for pain in the hips developed acute-onset scalp hair loss. History and clinical examination revealed no evident abnormalities. Temporal association of the onset of hair loss with the use of lornoxicam, inability to explain hair loss by alternate causes, possibility of hair loss with lornoxicam and resolution on dechallenge placed this reaction as a probable adverse reaction to lornoxicam. PMID:24029201

  2. Chronological ageing of human hair keratin fibres.

    PubMed

    Thibaut, S; de Becker, E; Bernard, B A; Huart, M; Fiat, F; Baghdadli, N; Luengo, G S; Leroy, F; Angevin, P; Kermoal, A M; Muller, S; Peron, M; Provot, G; Kravtchenko, S; Saint-Léger, D; Desbois, G; Gauchet, L; Nowbuth, K; Galliano, A; Kempf, J Y; Silberzan, I

    2010-12-01

    Examination of very long hair (length > 2.4 m) using a large range of evaluation methods including physical, chemical, biochemical and microscopic techniques has enabled to attain a detailed understanding of natural ageing of human hair keratin fibres. Scrutinizing hair that has undergone little or no oxidative aggression--because of the absence of action of chemical agents such as bleaching or dyeing--from the root to the tip shows the deterioration process, which gradually takes place from the outside to the inside of the hair shaft: first, a progressive abrasion of the cuticle, whilst the cortex structure remains unaltered, is evidenced along a length of roughly 1 m onwards together with constant shine, hydrophobicity and friction characteristics. Further along the fibre, a significant damage to cuticle scales occurs, which correlates well with ceramides and 18-Methyl Eicosanoic Acid (18-MEA) decline, and progressive decrease in keratin-associated protein content. Most physical descriptors of mechanical and optical properties decay significantly. This detailed description of natural ageing of human hair fibres by a fine analysis of hair components and physical parameters in relationship with cosmetic characteristics provides a time-dependent 'damage scale' of human hair, which may help in designing new targeted hair care formulations. PMID:20384898

  3. Polygonal shaft hole rotor

    DOEpatents

    Hussey, John H. (St. Louis, MO); Rose, John Scott (Alton, IL); Meystrik, Jeffrey J. (Webster Groves, MO); White, Kent Lee (Maryland Heights, MO)

    2001-01-23

    A laminated rotor for an induction motor has a plurality of ferro-magnetic laminations mounted axially on a rotor shaft. Each of the plurality of laminations has a central aperture in the shape of a polygon with sides of equal length. The laminations are alternatingly rotated 180.degree. from one another so that the straight sides of the polygon shaped apertures are misaligned. As a circular rotor shaft is press fit into a stack of laminations, the point of maximum interference occurs at the midpoints of the sides of the polygon (i.e., at the smallest radius of the central apertures of the laminations). Because the laminates are alternatingly rotated, the laminate material at the points of maximum interference yields relatively easily into the vertices (i.e., the greatest radius of the central aperture) of the polygonal central aperture of the next lamination as the shaft is inserted into the stack of laminations. Because of this yielding process, the amount of force required to insert the shaft is reduced, and a tighter fit is achieved.

  4. Shaft Currents in Electric Machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Alger; H. W Samson

    1924-01-01

    This paper describes the causes of, and remedies for, the existence of ``shaft currents'' or ``bearing currents'' which sometimes flow across the rubbing surfaces of the bearings of electric machinery, thereby gradually damaging the shaft and bearings. Up to the present time the only cause of shaft currents that has attracted any particular attention has been the use of sectionalized

  5. Shaft voltages and rotating machinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Costello

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine whether a machine is experiencing shaft voltage and current problems, recognition of the four types of damage is imperative. The four distinct types of shaft current damage, frosting, spark tracks, pitting, and welding are described. The four shaft voltage sources and their means of generation are discussed in detail. Methods for correction and\\/or elimination of these

  6. Woolly Hair with Complete Atrioventricular Dissociation: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Sudhanan, V Madhu; Choudhary, Ranju; Bhukaria, Atishay; Chaudhary, Shyam Sunder

    2015-01-01

    Woolly hair is a rare congenital abnormality of structure of the scalp hair characterized by tightly coiled hair involving part or the entire scalp. There are mainly two types of woolly hair; autosomal dominant/hereditary woolly hair and autosomal recessive/familial woolly hair. We hereby report two cases of autosomal recessive/familial woolly hair from a single family associated with complete atrioventricular dissociation in one sibling, which is a very rare association and only a single case has been reported in literature with this association. This case report signifies the importance of cardiac evaluation in woolly hair and stresses the fact that hair examination is not just cosmetic but can be lifesaving. PMID:26180456

  7. Hair Dyes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Sřsted

    \\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

  8. Analysis of a new fluoroquinolone derivative (Q-35) in human scalp hair as an index of drug exposure and as a time marker in hair.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, T; Ohsawa, Y; Mizuno, A; Nakashima, M

    1994-01-01

    Scalp hair samples were obtained every month for three months after administration from healthy male volunteers who participated in the phase I study of a new antimicrobial fluoroquinolone derivative (Q-35). Hairs were cut into 1 cm long pieces successively from the scalp end. Corresponding pieces of 5 hair strands were dissolved in 1 M NaOH and assessed for Q-35 by HPLC. The drug was detectable in the hairs of all subjects taking either a single (400 mg, n = 6) or repeated oral doses of Q-35 (400 mg/day for 6.5 days, total 2600 mg, n = 6). The hair portions containing the drug were shown in most subjects to move outwards along the hair shafts month by month in proportion to the hair growth rate of about 1 cm/month. Q-35 (600 mg/day) was also given to 6 healthy male volunteers for 6.5 days (total 3900 mg) and hair samples were obtained 1 and 3 months after administration. When Q-35 was analyzed along a single hair shaft, the drug was detectable only in 1-2 consecutive 1 cm long pieces, which were also shown to move outwards along the hair shaft with time. A detailed analysis revealed that the drug was contained only in 2-4 consecutive 2.5 mm long pieces of a single hair collected after 3 months, showing that there was no significant axial diffusion of the drug along the hair shaft with time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8068569

  9. U1h shaft project

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Briggs; R. G. Musick

    2000-06-30

    The U1h shaft project is a design/build subcontract to construct one 20 foot (ft) finished diameter shaft to a depth of 1,045 ft at the Nevada Test Site. Atkinson Construction was subcontracted by Bechtel Nevada to construct the U1h Shaft for the Department of Energy. The project consists of furnishing and installing the sinking plant, construction of the 1,045 ft of concrete lined shaft, development of a shaft station at a depth of 976 ft, and construction of a loading pocket at the station. The outfitting of the shaft and installation of a new hoist may be incorporated into the project at a later date. This paper should be of interest to those involved with the construction of relatively deep shafts and underground excavations.

  10. Changing Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hair straight. These products break the chemical bonds (attachments) that make hair curly. Once broken, the relaxers ... treatment for kids. Some people complain about hair loss or a burning scalp after getting their hair ...

  11. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L. (Houston, TX); Schroeder, John E. (Richmond, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Alvarez, Patricio D. (Richmond, TX)

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  12. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  13. Brown-colored deposits on hair of female rats chronically exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, F.C.; Rommereim, D.N.; Miller, R.A.; Anderson, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    An increased incidence and severity of a brownish coloration of hair has been observed around the nose and on the ears of female rats that were chronically exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Microscopic examination of the colored areas revealed a red-brown globular deposit on hair shafts in affected areas without signs of physical injury.

  14. Reconstruction and morphometry of silkmoth olfactory hairs: A comparative study of sensilla trichodea on the antennae of male Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi (Insecta, Lepidoptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Keil

    1984-01-01

    Olfactory trichoid hairs on the antennae of male Antheraea silkmoths were reconstructed with respect to the following parameters: number, shape, course, and dimensions of outer dendritic segments as well as the numbers of their microtubules; inner and outer dimensions of the cuticular hair shafts; and number and distribution of pores and pore tubules in the hair walls. The smallest distances

  15. Analysis of human hair cross sections from two different population groups by Nuclear Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Pineda-Vargas; M. E. M. Eisa

    2010-01-01

    Trace element analysis of hair is used as a screening technique to assess body-nutrient levels and\\/or toxicity due to environmental pollutants. With the aim to compare element content and spatial distribution within scalp hair-shaft cross sections of two distinct human population groups, and to assess possible similarities and\\/or differences, hair samples from Sudan and South Africa were collected. Proton backscattering

  16. Forging Long Shafts On Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilghman, Chris; Askey, William; Hopkins, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Isothermal-forging apparatus produces long shafts integral with disks. Equipment based on modification of conventional isothermal-forging equipment, required stroke cut by more than half. Enables forging of shafts as long as 48 in. (122 cm) on typical modified conventional forging press, otherwise limited to making shafts no longer than 18 in. (46cm). Removable punch, in which forged material cools after plastic deformation, essential novel feature of forging apparatus. Technology used to improve such products as components of gas turbines and turbopumps and of other shaft/disk parts for powerplants, drive trains, or static structures.

  17. The dermal papilla: an instructive niche for epithelial stem and progenitor cells in development and regeneration of the hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    The dermal papilla (DP) of the hair follicle is both a chemical and physical niche for epithelial progenitor cells that regenerate the cycling portion of the hair follicle and generate the hair shaft. Here, we review experiments that revealed the importance of the DP in regulating the characteristics of the hair shaft and frequency of hair follicle regeneration. More recent work showed that the size of this niche is dynamic and actively regulated and reduction in DP cell number per follicle is sufficient to cause hair thinning and loss. The formation of the DP during follicle neogenesis provides a context to contemplate the mechanisms that maintain DP size and the potential to exploit these processes for hair preservation or restoration. PMID:24985131

  18. Time-course mass spectrometry imaging for depicting drug incorporation into hair.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Tooru; Shima, Noriaki; Sasaki, Keiko; Matsuta, Shuntaro; Takei, Shiori; Katagi, Munehiro; Miki, Akihiro; Zaitsu, Kei; Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Sato, Takako; Suzuki, Koichi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the incorporation of drugs into hair, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) imaging was performed on the longitudinal sections of single scalp hair shafts sampled from volunteers after a single oral administration of methoxyphenamine (MOP), a noncontrolled analogue of methamphetamine. Hair specimens were collected by plucking out with the roots intact, and these specimens were prepped by an optimized procedure based on freeze-sectioning to detect the drug inside the hair shaft and hair root. Time-course changes in the imaging results, with confirmatory quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for each 1-mm segment of single hair strands, revealed a substantial concentration of the drug first onto the hair bulbs after ingestion, while only a small portion appeared to be incorporated into the hair matrix, forming a 2-3 mm distinctive drug band with tailing. Comparable amount of the drug also appeared to be incorporated into the keratinized hair shaft in the upper dermis zone, forming another distinct drug band of about 2 mm, which both moved toward the distal side, following the strand's growth rate. These findings provide forensically crucial information: there are two major drug incorporation sites, at least for MOP, which cause overlap of the recordings and deteriorates its chronological resolution down to about 11 days or perhaps longer. PMID:25919888

  19. Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won-Soo Lee

    2011-01-01

    Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine,

  20. Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2008-03-07

    Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

  1. Shaft seal assembly and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

  2. Effect of clearing short circuits and automatic reclosing on torsional stress and life expenditure of turbine-generator shafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abolins; D. Lambrecht; J. S. Joyce; L. T. Rosenberg

    1976-01-01

    Recent concern over abnormal stresses imposed on the shafts of large turbine-generators, due to high speed switching of network faults, has led to intensive investigation of this phenomenon. Elaborate computer programs were developed for simulated model studies which revealed that hitherto unexpectedly high shaft stresses can occur merely by tripping a three-phase short circuit near the power station at an

  3. Characterization of hair follicle development in engineered skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyanont, Penkanok; Lynch, Kaari A; McFarland, Kevin L; Supp, Dorothy M; Boyce, Steven T

    2013-01-01

    Generation of skin appendages in engineered skin substitutes has been limited by lack of trichogenic potency in cultured postnatal cells. To investigate the feasibility and the limitation of hair regeneration, engineered skin substitutes were prepared with chimeric populations of cultured human keratinocytes from neonatal foreskins and cultured murine dermal papilla cells from adult GFP transgenic mice and grafted orthotopically to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice. Non-cultured dissociated neonatal murine-only skin cells, or cultured human-only skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts without dermal papilla cells served as positive and negative controls respectively. In this study, neonatal murine-only skin substitutes formed external hairs and sebaceous glands, chimeric skin substitutes formed pigmented hairs without sebaceous glands, and human-only skin substitutes formed no follicles or glands. Although chimeric hair cannot erupt readily, removal of upper skin layer exposed keratinized hair shafts at the skin surface. Development of incomplete pilosebaceous units in chimeric hair corresponded with upregulation of hair-related genes, LEF1 and WNT10B, and downregulation of a marker of sebaceous glands, Steroyl-CoA desaturase. Transepidermal water loss was normal in all conditions. This study demonstrated that while sebaceous glands may be involved in hair eruption, they are not required for hair development in engineered skin substitutes. PMID:23799033

  4. The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    behaviour. Hair and skin exposed to water may be an important factor affecting the performance in this test that hair condition is not an important factor in the forced swim test for this mouse strain, and suggest that this test may have wider utility for behavioural analyses of mice with abnormal hair. Keywords Swimming

  5. Influence of bearing support structures on shaft vibration of large hydraulic pump/turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Pistner, C.A.; Greenplate, B.S. [Voith, Hydro, Inc., Pennsylvania, PA (United States); Waddell, A.M. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Start-up transient loads from pump/turbine impellers can cause excessive vibration problems in the shaft system. If the radial guide bearing supports are structurally soft or loose, or if the bearings are worn, the resulting radial shaft movement causes abnormal wear. The wear normally occurs at the impeller sealing surfaces, main shaft seals, motor/generator components, piping, brackets, foundation connections, etc. This paper explores the critical factors causing shaft system vibration problems at the Tennessee Valley Authority`s Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant, as well as the unique modifications which were implemented to strengthen and improve the units. The solution involved extensive three-dimensional finite element structural and thermal transient analyses of the original and re-designed turbine shoe bearing, bearing housings, and support structures. The conclusion compares the calculated and measured shaft system response to transient loads of the original and modified system.

  6. Laser Hair Removal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... permanently removing hair is electrolysis. Temporary removal of hair can be accomplished with, razors, depilatories, waxing, threading, and plucking. Bleaching can be helpful in minimizing the appearance of ...

  7. Improve reliability of liquid film shaft seals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godse

    1995-01-01

    A centrifugal compressor shaft seal and its supporting system form an important pat of a turbocompressor train. API-617 references different types of seals. The notable ones are shown with applicable remarks in Table 1. Of all the seals described in Table 1, process applications favor liquid film shaft seals. Since the design permits positive clearance between the shaft\\/shaft sleeve and

  8. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair...

  16. Dynamic Balancing Of Turbomachinery Shafts And Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    Method for dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafts and rotors developed with view toward reducing time spent in balancing process. Improved method based on existing dynamic-balancing techniques and equipment, incorporating use of balancing arbor, which is mandrel duplicating mounting geometry and dynamic-balance properties of shaft balanced. Once shaft balanced, not necessary to disassemble machinery and/or shaft completely and rebalance shaft when replacing rotor on shaft. Instead, one balances replacement rotor on balancing arbor, then installs balanced rotor on shaft.

  17. Exploratory Shaft test portholes configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Plowman, D.E.

    1987-03-31

    Portholes are required at strategic locations in the Exploratory Shaft liner to facilitate borehole drilling and testing of the surrounding rock formations. Borehole drilling and testing through portholes will assist in determining effective grout seal between casting and rock; obtaining grout and rock samples for visual and laboratory testing; performance of hydrologic, geologic, and geomechanical tests in situ; and determining water inflow prior to breakout at the selected shaft station horizon. 3 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Congenital Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and may develop serious health problems (e.g. Down syndrome ). Single-Gene Abnormalities Sometimes the chromosomes are normal ... Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for Families Last Updated 5/ ...

  19. Hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Sisti, A; Duque-Estrada, B

    2009-10-01

    Hair loss in women is a very common clinical complaint, and is usually associated with severe emotional distress. In this article, the authors review the most common clinical causes of hair loss in women, and emphasize the role of hormonal changes in the regulation of hair loss and hair growth. PMID:19749676

  20. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  1. Dermal papilla cell number specifies hair size, shape and cycling and its reduction causes follicular decline.

    PubMed

    Chi, Woo; Wu, Eleanor; Morgan, Bruce A

    2013-04-01

    Although the hair shaft is derived from the progeny of keratinocyte stem cells in the follicular epithelium, the growth and differentiation of follicular keratinocytes is guided by a specialized mesenchymal population, the dermal papilla (DP), that is embedded in the hair bulb. Here we show that the number of DP cells in the follicle correlates with the size and shape of the hair produced in the mouse pelage. The same stem cell pool gives rise to hairs of different sizes or types in successive hair cycles, and this shift is accompanied by a corresponding change in DP cell number. Using a mouse model that allows selective ablation of DP cells in vivo, we show that DP cell number dictates the size and shape of the hair. Furthermore, we confirm the hypothesis that the DP plays a crucial role in activating stem cells to initiate the formation of a new hair shaft. When DP cell number falls below a critical threshold, hair follicles with a normal keratinocyte compartment fail to generate new hairs. However, neighbouring follicles with a few more DP cells can re-enter the growth phase, and those that do exploit an intrinsic mechanism to restore both DP cell number and normal hair growth. These results demonstrate that the mesenchymal niche directs stem and progenitor cell behaviour to initiate regeneration and specify hair morphology. Degeneration of the DP population in mice leads to the types of hair thinning and loss observed during human aging, and the results reported here suggest novel approaches to reversing hair loss. PMID:23487317

  2. Method and apparatus for sinking shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, J.R.

    1980-10-14

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for sinking shafts in which ring-like walling elements used as a shaft shoring are inserted into the shaft concurrently with the drilling thereof. The walling elements are held against rotation by a mechanism at the top of the shaft which sequentially inserts the walling elements into the shaft as dictated by the depth thereof as drilling progresses. The lowermost end of the lowermost walling element is supported on a bearing associated with the shaft drill bit.

  3. On the distribution of uranium in hair: Non-destructive analysis using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence microprobe techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israelsson, A.; Eriksson, M.; Pettersson, H. B. L.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study the distribution of uranium in single human hair shafts has been evaluated using two synchrotron radiation (SR) based micro X-ray fluorescence techniques; SR ?-XRF and confocal SR ?-XRF. The hair shafts originated from persons that have been exposed to elevated uranium concentrations. Two different groups have been studied, i) workers at a nuclear fuel fabrication factory, exposed mainly by inhalation and ii) owners of drilled bedrock wells exposed by ingestion of water. The measurements were carried out on the FLUO beamline at the synchrotron radiation facility ANKA, Karlsruhe. The experiment was optimized to detect U with a beam size of 6.8 ?m × 3 ?m beam focus allowing detection down to ppb levels of U in 10 s (SR ?-XRF setup) and 70 s (SR confocal ?-XRF setup) measurements. It was found that the uranium was present in a 10-15 ?m peripheral layer of the hair shafts for both groups studied. Furthermore, potential external hair contamination was studied by scanning of unwashed hair shafts from the workers. Sites of very high uranium signal were identified as particles containing uranium. Such particles, were also seen in complementary analyses using variable pressure electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (ESEM-EDX). However, the particles were not visible in washed hair shafts. These findings can further increase the understanding of uranium excretion in hair and its potential use as a biomonitor.

  4. Why does curly hair get less tangled than straight hair?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Jean-Baptiste

    2007-08-01

    We address the question of hair tangles and show experimentally that curly hair tends to become less tangled than straight hair. A statistical model based on geometry confirms our findings. The model gives an interesting geometric approach to hair behavior.

  5. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

  6. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... of the nail bed from the nail plate (onycholysis). Severe illness or surgery may cause horizontal depressions ...

  7. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Runx1 modulates developmental, but not injury-driven, hair follicle stem cell activation.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Karen M; Lee, Song Eun; McDermitt, David J; Waghmare, Sanjeev K; Zhang, Ying V; Woo, Hyun Nyun; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2008-03-01

    Aml1/Runx1 controls developmental aspects of several tissues, is a master regulator of blood stem cells, and plays a role in leukemia. However, it is unclear whether it functions in tissue stem cells other than blood. Here, we have investigated the role of Runx1 in mouse hair follicle stem cells by conditional ablation in epithelial cells. Runx1 disruption affects hair follicle stem cell activation, but not their maintenance, proliferation or differentiation potential. Adult mutant mice exhibit impaired de novo production of hair shafts and all temporary hair cell lineages, owing to a prolonged quiescent phase of the first hair cycle. The lag of stem cell activity is reversed by skin injury. Our work suggests a degree of functional overlap in Runx1 regulation of blood and hair follicle stem cells at an equivalent time point in the development of these two tissues. PMID:18256199

  9. Hair Loss in New Moms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hair loss in new moms Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... shedding after having a baby. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

  10. Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Soo

    2011-12-01

    Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine, ceramide in decreasing order. Minor constituents of IHL are cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate and cholesterol oleate. Cuticle or cortical cell surface in hair are abundant in fatty acids unlike the keratinized area of epidermis or sebaceous gland, and about 30-40% of such fatty acids are composed of 18-methyl-eicosanoic acid which is known to be bound to proteins by ester or thioester bond. Various factors including moisture, solvent, oxidative damage during bleaching or permanent waving affect IHL. Photochemical changes also can occur in IHL as well as in hair protein and hair pigment. Lipid metabolism is thought to play an essential role in lipid envelope of hair, but also involvement in hair development and function. PMID:21906914

  11. When a beam a definite shaft

    E-print Network

    No. 719 Aug. 31 When a beam a definite shaft A Science Service Foature ? \\UY THE WIEATEZR ? -----T and heavy clouds. For the long shafts of light can be seen i n the --------..- (Tomorrow: High Barometer VS

  12. Reconstruction of the Column Shaft* Jari Pakkanen

    E-print Network

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    Reconstruction of the Column Shaft* Jari Pakkanen This document is author's final English version shafts is soft brown sandstone: since it is very easy to carve, it is an economical and quick building

  13. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100 ...Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100 ...Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 57.19104 Section 57.19104...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 57.19109 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 56.19109 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 56.19109 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 57.19109 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 57.19104 Section 57.19104...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 56.19104 Section 56.19104...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 57.19109 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 56.19109 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 57.19104 Section 57.19104...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 56.19109 Section 56...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 56.19104 Section 56.19104...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 56.19104 Section 56.19104...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 57.19109 Section 57...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 57.19104 Section 57.19104...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 56.19104 Section 56.19104...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19104 Clearance at shaft stations. Suitable clearance at shaft...

  11. Laser-assisted hair removal: Side effects of Q-switched Nd:YAG, long-pulsed ruby, and alexandrite lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A. Nanni; Tina S. Alster

    1999-01-01

    Background: Laser-assisted hair removal has become popularized using wavelengths in both the red and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These photoepilation devices target follicular melanin or an exogenous pigment placed within the follicle resulting in thermal damage to the hair follicle and shaft. However, melanocytes and keratinocytes located within the superficial layers of the skin also absorb red and

  12. Distribution of the 275 kD hair cell antigen and cell surface specialisations on auditory and vestibular hair bundles in the chicken inner ear.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, R; Richardson, G

    1992-11-01

    The 275 kD hair cell antigen (HCA) is a protein that is specifically associated with the apical surface of sensory hair cells in the chick inner ear. A comparative study of the vestibular and auditory organs of the inner ear, using both wholemounts and cryosections double labelled for the HCA and F-actin, reveals that two distinct types of hair cells can be distinguished on the basis of antibody staining in each of the vestibular epithelia. One type of hair cell has the HCA restricted to the base of the stereocilia bundle and is found in the striolae of the maculae and in a large, centrally located region of each ampulla. The other type of hair cell is found in the extrastriolar regions of the maculae and the peripheral regions of the ampullae and has the HCA distributed over the entire surface of the stereocilia bundle. In the basilar papilla, the auditory epithelium of the chick inner ear, the HCA is, as in the striolar regions of the maculae, restricted to the base of the hair bundles. In all sensory epithelia the HCA is also present on the apical, nonstereociliary surface of the hair cells. Ultrastructural examination of the basilar papilla and the striolar and the extrastriolar regions of the lagenar macula after staining with ruthenium red and tannic acid shows that there are four morphologically different types of interstereociliary connectors (oblique tip connectors, horizontal tip connectors, shaft connectors and basal connectors) associated with the hair bundles. Oblique tip connectors and basal connectors are found on hair cells from all regions and have a similar distribution. Horizontal tip connectors are seen only on hair cells in the basilar papilla and the striolar region of the lagenar macula. Shaft connectors extend all the way to the tips of extrastriolar hair cell bundles, but extend only a short way up the bundles of hair cells in the basilar papilla and striolar region of the lagenar macula. Immunogold labelling confirms the results obtained with immunofluorescence microscopy and demonstrates that the distribution of the HCA on the surface of adjacent stereocilia correlates closely with that of the shaft connectors; i.e., immunostaining is observed up to the tips of the extrastriolar hair cell bundles, but is restricted to the lower regions of hair cell bundles in the striolar region and basilar papilla.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1281174

  13. Myosin VI is required for structural integrity of the apical surface of sensory hair cells in zebrafish

    E-print Network

    Avraham, Karen

    Myosin VI is required for structural integrity of the apical surface of sensory hair cells is required for maintaining the integrity of the apical surface of hair cells, suggesting a conserved role deafness in humans and deafness in Snell's waltzer mice associated with abnormal fusion of hair cell

  14. Management of femoral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Neumann, M V; Südkamp, N P; Strohm, P C

    2015-01-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are severe injuries and are often associated with a high impact trauma mechanism, frequently seen in multiple injured patients. In contrast an indirect trauma mechanism can lead to a complex femoral shaft fracture especially in elderly patients with minor bone stock quality. Hence management of femoral shaft fractures is often directed by co-morbidities, additional injuries and the medical condition of the patient. Timing of fracture stabilization is depended on the overall medical condition of the patient, but definite fracture fixation can often be implemented in the early total care concept in management of multiple injured patients. The treatment of choice is intramedullary fracture fixation. Further development of existing intramedullary nailing systems now offer comfortable handling and different locking options. Ipsilateral fractures of the neck and shaft are therefore facilitated in management. Then again increasing numbers of obese patient are representing a new patient group with challenging co-factors in fracture management. Sufficient preoperative planning is helpful to choose the most adequate fixation device. Correct reduction of the fracture and perioperative control of the axis and rotation is mandatory to avoid postoperative malrotation, which still represents the most frequent complication. PMID:25748658

  15. Healthy Hair: What Is it?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney D Sinclair

    2007-01-01

    Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity.

  16. Optoelectronic Shaft-Angle Encoder Tolerates Misalignments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Eric P.

    1991-01-01

    Optoelectronic shaft-angle encoder measures angle of rotation of shaft with high precision while minimizing effects of eccentricity and other misalignments. Grooves on disk serve as reference marks to locate reading heads and measure increments of rotation of disk. Shaft-angle encoder, resembling optical compact-disk drive, includes two tracking heads illuminating grooves on disk and measures reflections from them.

  17. 30 CFR 56.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft guides. 56.19102 Section 56.19102 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide...

  18. Metal-To-Composite Shaft Splice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, Jules; Nguyen, Dean; Lauder, Tim

    1992-01-01

    Strong, lightweight shaft formed without awkward bolted flanges. Composite and metal portions of shaft joined by winding composite portion onto outer surface and into spiral groove of metal portion. Groove and composite material constitute structural bond. If opposing spiral grooves used, then two shafts locked together against torques in both directions.

  19. 30 CFR 57.19133 - Shaft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft. 57.19133 Section 57.19133 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19133 Shaft. Shafts that have not been inspected within the past 7 days...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft guides. 56.19102 Section 56.19102 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19133 - Shaft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft. 56.19133 Section 56.19133 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19133 Shaft. Shafts that have not been inspected within the past 7 days...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft guides. 57.19102 Section 57.19102 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19133 - Shaft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft. 57.19133 Section 57.19133 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19133 Shaft. Shafts that have not been inspected within the past 7 days...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19133 - Shaft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft. 56.19133 Section 56.19133 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19133 Shaft. Shafts that have not been inspected within the past 7 days...

  5. 30 CFR 57.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft guides. 57.19102 Section 57.19102 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19133 - Shaft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft. 57.19133 Section 57.19133 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19133 Shaft. Shafts that have not been inspected within the past 7 days...

  7. Noncontact Measurements Of Torques In Shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzbart, Aaron

    1991-01-01

    Additional information extracted from eddy-current proximeter. Positioned over rotating shaft, measures both displacement of and torsion in shaft. Torque applied to shaft calculable from output of proximeter. Possible to extract torsion information from existing tape-recorded proximeter data.

  8. 30 CFR 56.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft guides. 56.19102 Section 56.19102 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft guides. 56.19102 Section 56.19102 Mineral...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft guides. 57.19102 Section 57.19102 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19133 - Shaft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft. 57.19133 Section 57.19133 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19133 Shaft. Shafts that have not been inspected within the past 7 days...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19133 - Shaft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft. 56.19133 Section 56.19133 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19133 Shaft. Shafts that have not been inspected within the past 7 days...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft guides. 57.19102 Section 57.19102 Mineral...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide...

  14. Repairing A Shaft Prone To Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Roger A.; Larsen, David V.; Bates, Garold A.

    1991-01-01

    Shaft of hydraulic motor now outlives its bearings. Procedure for repairing John Deere Series 50 (or equivalent) hydraulic motor solves problem posed by common type of fatigue failure of shaft. Includes forming internally threaded hole in end of shaft, inserting double-threaded end stud, and adding washers and collars.

  15. 30 CFR 56.19133 - Shaft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft. 56.19133 Section 56.19133 Mineral Resources...Hoisting Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19133 Shaft. Shafts that have not been inspected within the past 7 days...

  16. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Mardaryev, Andrei N; Ahmed, Mohammed I; Vlahov, Nikola V; Fessing, Michael Y; Gill, Jason H; Sharov, Andrey A; Botchkareva, Natalia V

    2010-10-01

    The hair follicle is a cyclic biological system that progresses through stages of growth, regression, and quiescence, which involves dynamic changes in a program of gene regulation. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are critically important for the control of gene expression and silencing. Here, we show that global miRNA expression in the skin markedly changes during distinct stages of the hair cycle in mice. Furthermore, we show that expression of miR-31 markedly increases during anagen and decreases during catagen and telogen. Administration of antisense miR-31 inhibitor into mouse skin during the early- and midanagen phases of the hair cycle results in accelerated anagen development, and altered differentiation of hair matrix keratinocytes and hair shaft formation. Microarray, qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that miR-31 negatively regulates expression of Fgf10, the components of Wnt and BMP signaling pathways Sclerostin and BAMBI, and Dlx3 transcription factor, as well as selected keratin genes, both in vitro and in vivo. Using luciferase reporter assay, we show that Krt16, Krt17, Dlx3, and Fgf10 serve as direct miR-31 targets. Thus, by targeting a number of growth regulatory molecules and cytoskeletal proteins, miR-31 is involved in establishing an optimal balance of gene expression in the hair follicle required for its proper growth and hair fiber formation. PMID:20522784

  17. The structure of people’s hair

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

    2014-01-01

    Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

  18. Hair Cell Generator Potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL L. ALKON; ANTHONY BAK

    1973-01-01

    A technique is introduced using a piezoelectric device to stimu- late hair cells of a molluscan statocyst while recording their responses intra- cellularly. Statocyst displacements produced with the technique are cali- brated with stroboscopic photography. Properties of the hair cells' response to currents and mechanical stimulation are studied. The hair cell generator potential arises from a conductance increase and, for

  19. [Hormones and hair growth].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair. PMID:20502852

  20. Non-invasive evaluation of hair interior morphology by X-ray microscope.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Joon; Kwon, Oh Sang; Park, Won Seok; Youn, Hwa Shik; Choi, Chong Won; Kim, Kyu Han; Eun, Hee Chul

    2006-11-01

    Lots of trials have been performed to obtain better microscopic images of hair structure. Although scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provide detailed images of hair, artificial processing may modify the original images during sample preparation. To overcome this limitation, we applied newly-developed X-ray microscopy with an 80-100 nm spatial resolution to produce a detailed view of the morphological change of hair interior. This X-ray microscopy permits us to penetrate a hair shaft without any artificial change and also provides precise images of hair interior with fine resolution. We evaluated the interior morphological change of Japanese standard hair tress No. 8 by various treatments such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, heating, hair dyeing, decolorizing bleaching agents and permanent waving. Internal morphological images were relatively similar in both heated and UV-irradiated hair. They revealed coarsening of cuticles and dehydration of cortex and medulla. When compared with TEM, X-ray microscopy provides more intact images in the cuticle and may be a useful tool in observing fine cracks of hair cortex. Additionally, X-ray images were intact and not influenced by any processing procedures. In observing the external and internal structure of hair, its resolution seems to be somewhat lesser than TEM and there are also several remaining weaknesses to be improved. Hopefully, forthcoming technology will solve these problems in the near future. PMID:17073990

  1. Scraggly, a new hair loss mutation on mouse Chromosome 19

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce J. Herron; Elizabeth C. Bryda; Stephanie A. Heverly; Doris N. Collins; Lorraine Flaherty

    1999-01-01

    .   By use of chlorambucil, we have generated a mouse mutation called scraggly (sgl) that exhibits skin and hair defects. Homozygous mutant mice exhibit hair loss, skin defects, and abnormalities in sebaceous\\u000a lipid composition. We have constructed a high-resolution genetic map of mouse Chromosome (Chr) 19 that links this mutation\\u000a to the anonymous DNA marker D19Umi1. An additional cross, (BALB\\/c

  2. Influence of the shaft rotation on the stability of magnetic fluid shaft seal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakov, M. S.; Nikiforov, I. V.

    2008-12-01

    Distribution of the magnetic particles concentration in a magnetic fluid shaft seal is studied numerically for a rotating shaft. It is revealed that the shaft rotation causes not only an azimuthal flow of the magnetic fluid, but a meridional flow as well. This meridional flow prevents the growth of magnetic particle concentration in the gap of the magnetic fluid shaft seal. As a result, the burst pressure of the magnetic fluid shaft seal for the rotating shaft is stable and does not change with time. Figs 6, Refs 7.

  3. Immunologic studies of cartilage-hair hypoplasia in the Amish.

    PubMed

    Trojak, J E; Polmar, S H; Winkelstein, J A; Hsu, S; Francomano, C; Pierce, G F; Scillian, J J; Gale, A N; McKusick, V A

    1981-04-01

    The immunologic status of 18 Old Order Amish persons with cartilage-hair hypoplasia and 9 unaffected sibs was studied. Although none of the subjects had a history suggestive of persistent immune dysfunction, the subjects with cartilage-hair hypoplasia had significantly lower lymphocyte mitogenic and allogeneic cell stimulation responses when compared to unaffected sibs and unrelated control subjects. The abnormalities of cellular immune function found in the 18 affected subjects were similar to those reported in Finnish subjects with cartilage-hair hypoplasia. PMID:6970848

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

    1980-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

  5. Shaft mount for data coupler system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, James R., Jr. (inventor); Lord, Mark T. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for mounting a data transmission apparatus to a rotating, tapered, and instrumented shaft is provided. This device permits attachment without interfering with shaft rotation or the accuracy of data output, and prevents both radial and axial slippage of the data transmission apparatus. The mounting device consists of a sleeve assembly which is attached to the shaft by means of clamps that are situated at some distance removed from the instrumented area of the shaft. The data transmission device is secured to the sleeve such that the entire assembly rotates with the shaft. Shim adjustments between sleeve sections assure that a minimum compressive load is transferred to the instrumented area of the shaft and a rubber lining is affixed to a large portion of the interior surface of the sleeve to absorb vibration.

  6. Chemotherapy Targets the Hair-Follicle Vascular Network but Not the Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyuki Amoh; Lingna Li; Kensei Katsuoka; Robert M. Hoffman

    2007-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a major problem in clinical oncology. Doxorubicin, a widely used cancer chemotherapy drug, induces disruption of the hair cycle and subsequent alopecia. We show in this report that doxorubicin causes disruption of the hair-follicle-associated blood vessel network resulting in a greatly reduced density of these blood vessels. Dystrophic hair follicles were also observed with abnormal melanogenesis in

  7. Securing Bearing Races To Turbopump Shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Dale H.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed method of attaching inner race of roller bearing to shaft prevents loosening now caused by difference between coefficients of thermal expansion of race and shaft materials. Intended for cryogenic turbopump in which race made of 440C stainless-steel alloy and shaft made of Inconel(R) 100 nickel alloy. Flanges of race replaced by tension bands that shrink faster as they are cooled. Tension band engages race on slightly sloping surface so axial forces do not dislodge it.

  8. Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

    2014-04-01

    Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. PMID:24680003

  9. Hair Cell Generator Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Alkon, Daniel L.; Bak, Anthony

    1973-01-01

    A technique is introduced using a piezoelectric device to stimulate hair cells of a molluscan statocyst while recording their responses intracellularly. Statocyst displacements produced with the technique are calibrated with stroboscopic photography. Properties of the hair cells' response to currents and mechanical stimulation are studied. The hair cell generator potential arises from a conductance increase and, for a certain range, is a logarithmic function of the amplitude of the displacement stimulus. PMID:4705640

  10. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Each hair follicle contains a certain number of pigment cells. These pigment cells continuously produce a chemical called melanin (say: ... each hair contains. As we get older, the pigment cells in our hair follicles gradually die. When ...

  11. Laser hair removal pearls.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal. PMID:18330794

  12. An analysis of shaft/shaft seal interaction of a multiple disk centrifugal blood pump 

    E-print Network

    Manning, Keefe Baird

    1997-01-01

    A multiple disk centrifugal blood pump is in the early stages of development. As is the case with most pumps that are shaft driven, leakage problems around the shaft/shaft seal interface are of major interest. If leakage were to occur during...

  13. Dose-hair concentration relationship and pigmentation effects in patients on low-dose clozapine.

    PubMed

    Kronstrand, R; Roman, M; Hedman, M; Ahlner, J; Dizdar, N

    2007-06-01

    Several hair components have been suggested as possible molecular sites for drug binding and interaction. Of these, keratin and melanin have been investigated in some detail in order to assess the mechanisms by which the binding occurs. Substances that are positively charged at physiological pH may interact by electrostatic forces between their cationic groups and the anionic carboxylic groups on the surface of the melanin polymer. Studies in human subjects with grey hair have shown that various drugs are detectable in both the coloured (melanin rich) and white (melanin free) hair shafts of these individuals. Again this supports the proposition that keratin and hair proteins play an important role in the binding of drugs in hair. However, drugs are often found in significantly higher concentrations in pigmented hair strands than in senile white hair strands. Another interesting question is if the concentration measured in hair reflects the dose taken. Previous reports have both verified and rejected this hypothesis, but most agree that many factors have impact on the incorporation rate, melanin being one. In this study we obtained blood and hair samples from 12 grey haired patients treated with low-dose clozapine as an adjunct medication in their treatment against Parkinson disease. Each patient's hair was divided into a pigmented and a non-pigmented portion and those were analyzed separately. Clozapine and desmethylclozapine were analyzed with LC-MS-MS after extraction of the analytes from hair and plasma. Paired results from the analysis of pigmented and white hair confirmed the preference for binding to pigmented hair for both clozapine and its metabolite. A majority of the incorporated clozapine was found in the pigmented hair but, as drugs could be detected in white hair, binding to hair protein or association with other hair matrix account for a significant part of drug accumulation in hair. High correlations between dose and the measured concentration of analyte were found for both clozapine (r = 0.91) and desmethylclozapine (r = 0.88). PMID:25869041

  14. How to diagnose hair loss.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Adrianna J; Price, Vera H

    2013-01-01

    This review presents a systematic approach to the diagnosis of hair loss. An accurate diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, laboratory tests, and scalp biopsy. Whether the hair loss is a cicatricial or noncicatricial alopecia guides one's history taking. After assessing the patient's global appearance, the hair and scalp are evaluated, aided by a hair pull, hair tug, Hair Card, and hair mount. Scalp biopsies can confirm a diagnosis and are essential in all cases of cicatricial alopecia. In all patients with hair loss a complete blood count, ferritin, thyroid stimulating hormone, and vitamin D 25OH should be ordered. PMID:23159173

  15. 30 CFR 57.4261 - Shaft-station waterlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft-station waterlines. 57.4261...Firefighting Equipment § 57.4261 Shaft-station waterlines. Waterline outlets that are located at underground shaft stations and are part of the...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4261 - Shaft-station waterlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft-station waterlines. 57.4261...Firefighting Equipment § 57.4261 Shaft-station waterlines. Waterline outlets that are located at underground shaft stations and are part of the...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 56.19135 Section 56.19135 Mineral...Maintenance § 56.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined shafts shall be lubricated, properly aligned,...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 56.19135 Section 56.19135 Mineral...Maintenance § 56.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined shafts shall be lubricated, properly aligned,...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4261 - Shaft-station waterlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft-station waterlines. 57.4261...Firefighting Equipment § 57.4261 Shaft-station waterlines. Waterline outlets that are located at underground shaft stations and are part of the...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4261 - Shaft-station waterlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft-station waterlines. 57.4261...Firefighting Equipment § 57.4261 Shaft-station waterlines. Waterline outlets that are located at underground shaft stations and are part of the...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 57.19135 Section 57.19135 Mineral...Maintenance § 57.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined shafts shall be lubricated, properly aligned,...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 57.19135 Section 57.19135 Mineral...Maintenance § 57.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined shafts shall be lubricated, properly aligned,...

  3. 30 CFR 57.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 57.19135 Section 57.19135 Mineral...Maintenance § 57.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined shafts shall be lubricated, properly aligned,...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 56.19135 Section 56.19135 Mineral...Maintenance § 56.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined shafts shall be lubricated, properly aligned,...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 56.19135 Section 56.19135 Mineral...Maintenance § 56.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined shafts shall be lubricated, properly aligned,...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19135 - Rollers in inclined shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Rollers in inclined shafts. 57.19135 Section 57.19135 Mineral...Maintenance § 57.19135 Rollers in inclined shafts. Rollers used in operating inclined shafts shall be lubricated, properly aligned,...

  7. iRhom2 Mutation Leads to Aberrant Hair Follicle Differentiation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Leilei, Yang; Bing, Liu; Yang, Li; Shaoxia, Wang; Yuan, Xu; Dongping, Wang; Huahu, Ye; Shichen, Shang; Guangzhou, Zhang; Ruiyun, Peng; Lin, Zeng; Wenlong, Li

    2014-01-01

    iRhom1 and iRhom2 are inactive homologues of rhomboid intramembrane serine proteases lacking essential catalytic residues, which are necessary for the maturation of TNF?-converting enzyme (TACE). In addition, iRhoms regulate epidermal growth factor family secretion. The functional significance of iRhom2 during mammalian development is largely unclear. We have identified a spontaneous single gene deletion mutation of iRhom2 in Uncv mice. The iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mice exhibit hairless phenotype in a BALB/c genetic background. In this study, we observed dysplasia hair follicles in iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mice from postnatal day 3. Further examination found decreased hair matrix proliferation and aberrant hair shaft and inner root sheath differentiation in iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mutant hair follicles. iRhom2 is required for the maturation of TACE. Our data demonstrate that iRhom2Uncv cannot induce the maturation of TACE in vitro and the level of mature TACE is also significantly reduced in the skin of iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mice. The activation of Notch1, a substrate of TACE, is disturbed, associated with dramatically down-regulation of Lef1 in iRhom2Uncv/Uncv hair follicle matrix. This study identifies iRhom2 as a novel regulator of hair shaft and inner root sheath differentiation. PMID:25546423

  8. Spiral groove seal. [for rotating shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates. This prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear. Provision is made for placing these spiral grooves in communication with the fluid to accelerate the generation of the hydraulic lifting force.

  9. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  10. UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION (TUNNELS), SHAFTS, AND CAISSONS

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 i Section 26 UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION (TUNNELS), SHAFTS, AND CAISSONS Table Compressed Air Work................................................26-26 26.J Underground Blasting...............................................26-27 #12;EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 26-1 SECTION 26 UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION (TUNNELS), SHAFTS

  11. Characteristics of shaft voltage and bearing currents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Busse; J. Erdman; R. Kerkman; D. Schlegel; G. Skibinski

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews investigations into reduced bearing life due to voltage source adjustable speed drive (ASD) AC motor operation. Relevant bearing failure mechanisms and indicators are discussed. dv\\/dt and electric discharge machining (EDM) contributions are discussed and experimental data presented showing the voltage levels on motor shafts when operating with ASDs. Finally, techniques to reduce shaft voltage are discussed, along

  12. Instabilities and bifurcations in a rotating shaft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Shaw; S. W. Shaw

    1989-01-01

    Flexural vibrations of a slender, balanced rotating shaft are considered. The shaft is of circular cross-section, it rotates at a constant rate about its longitudinal axis of symmetry, and is made of a viscoelastic material. The effects of large transverse displacements and external sources of dissipation are also included. The resulting non-linear model is analyzed for stability and bifurcations of

  13. Society of Hair Testing guidelines for drug testing in hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail A. A. Cooper; Robert Kronstrand; Pascal Kintz

    The Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) Guidelines for Drug Testing in Hair provide laboratories with recommended best practice guidelines whether they are currently offering drug testing in hair, or plan to offer a hair testing service in the future. The guidelines include reference to recommended sample collection and storage procedures, through sample preparation, pre-treatment and analysis and the use of

  14. Exogenous Factors in Hair Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liran Horev

    2004-01-01

    The health and beauty of human hair have immeasurable psychological importance. Hair structure and its cycle are influenced by intentionally or nonintentionally delivered factors such as grooming, heat styling, chemical agents and climatic exposure. All of these factors are capable of causing loss of hair color and luster, harshness, stiffness, weakness, brittleness and flyaway, transient loss of hair or scarring

  15. Photo yellowing of human hair.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

    2007-09-25

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content. PMID:17627835

  16. Gloriosa superba ingestion: Hair loss and acute renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Khanam, P. S.; Sangeetha, B.; Kumar, B. V.; Kiran, U.; Priyadarshini, P. I.; Ram, R.; Sridhar, M. S.; Kumar, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    Gloriosa superba is a plant that grows wild in several parts of South India. Tubers of this plant contain several alkaloids. Acute intoxication following the ingestion of G. superba results in gastrointestinal and haematological abnormalities, hepatic and renal insufficiency, cardiotoxicity and hair loss. We present a case with typical features of G superba toxicity.

  17. Angelica sinensis induces hair regrowth via the inhibition of apoptosis signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Woong Mo

    2014-01-01

    Hair loss is accompanied by keratinocyte apoptosis-regression during catagen and prolonged telogen. Angelica sinensis was reported to promote hair growth in vitro. Based on previous studies, we explored the hair growth effect and the mechanism of A. sinensis related to keratinocyte apoptosis-regression during catagen in mice. The 70% Ethanol extract of A. sinensis was applied topically at doses of 1 and 100 mg/mL to the dorsa of C57BL/6 mice for 2 weeks. The A. sinensis-treated group showed noticeable hair regrowth. Treatment with A. sinensis restored the lengths of hair shafts and size of hair follicles. In addition, mice treated with A. sinensis showed notably decreased apoptotic cells, along with a significant change in the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and the ratio of a pair of apoptosis-associated proteins: Bcl-2 and Bax. Also, A. sinensis inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-?B, the phosphorylation of I?B-?, the phosphorylation of three mitogen-activated protein MAP kinases, and the activation of c-Jun with decreased TNF-?. These findings reveal a role of A. sinensis as an alternative treatment for hair loss that acts through hair cycle pathways associated with apoptosis regression during catagen. PMID:25004889

  18. Shaft/shaft-seal interface characteristics of a multiple disk centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Manning, K B; Miller, G E

    1999-06-01

    A multiple disk centrifugal pump (MDCP) is under investigation as a potential left ventricular assist device. As is the case with most shaft driven pumps, leakage problems around the shaft/shaft seal interface are of major interest. If leakage were to occur during or after implantation, potential events such as blood loss, clotting, blood damage, and/or infections might result in adverse effects for the patient. Because these effects could be quite disastrous, potential shaft and shaft seal materials have been investigated to determine the most appropriate course to limit these effects. Teflon and nylon shaft seals were analyzed as potential candidates along with a stainless steel shaft and a Melonite coated shaft. The materials and shafts were evaluated under various time durations (15, 30, 45, and 60 min), motor speeds (800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 rpm), and outer diameters (1/2 and 3/4 inches). The motor speed and geometrical configurations were typical for the MDCP under normal physiologic conditions. An air and water study was conducted to analyze the inner diameter wear, the inner temperature values, and the outer temperature values. Statistical comparisons were computed for the shaft seal materials, the shafts, and the outer diameters along with the inner and outer temperatures. The conclusions made from the results indicate that both the tested shaft seal materials and shaft materials are not ideal candidates to be used for the MDCP. Teflon experienced a significant amount of wear in air and water studies. Nylon did experience little wear, but heat generation was an evident problem. A water study on nylon was not conducted because of its molecular structure. PMID:10392284

  19. Proptosis after hair pulling.

    PubMed

    Yip, Chee-Chew; McCulley, Timothy J; Kersten, Robert C; Kulwin, Dwight R

    2003-03-01

    We describe proptosis due to a subperiosteal orbital hematoma that originated from a subgaleal bleed caused by hair pulling. A 13-year-old boy presented with a one-week history of progressive proptosis after his older sister pulled his hair during an argument. Computerized tomography showed a subgaleal hematoma and a right superior subperiosteal orbital hematoma. Progressive proptosis and compressive optic neuropathy developed, necessitating surgical evacuation with a favorable outcome.Hair pulling can result in a subgaleal bleed with extension to the orbital subperiosteal space. When managing patients with a subgaleal hematoma, this vision-threatening complication should be considered and treated accordingly. PMID:12644765

  20. Turbocharger with improved roller bearing shaft support

    SciTech Connect

    Gutknecht, D.A.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes an exhaust gas driven turbocharger. It comprises: a housing, a shaft within the housing having a pair of ends, a compressor wheel mounted within the housing on one end of the shaft for rotation therewith, a turbine wheel mounted within the housing on the other end of the shaft for rotation therewith, means for communicating air through the compressor wheel, means for communicating exhaust gas through the turbine wheel to cause the latter to rotate the shaft and the compressor wheel mounted thereon to compress the air communicated through the compressor wheel, and bearing means mounting the shaft for rotation relative to the housing, the bearing means including a bearing outer ring, a bearing inner ring, and ball bearing elements supporting the bearing outer ring on the bearing inner ring, the ball bearing elements includes a first set of the elements and a second set of the elements spaced axially from the first set, the bearing outer ring being a rigid, uninterrupted member providing an uninterrupted structural link between the first and second sets to establish the axial spacing between the sets, a pair of axially spaced faying surfaces on the inner ring engaging corresponding faying surfaces on the shaft to support the inner ring on the shaft, the shaft defining a circumferentially extending surface between the faying surfaces on the inner ring cooperating with the shaft to define an air gap therebetween, one of the faying surfaces on the inner ring having a diameter greater than the diameter of the other of the faying surfaces on the inner ring.

  1. Computing Thermal Performances Of Shafts And Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Claudia M.

    1992-01-01

    SHABERTH computer program developed to predict steady-state and transient thermal performance of multi-bearing shaft system operating with either wet or dry friction. Calculates loads, torques, temperatures, and fatigue lives for ball and/or roller bearings on single shaft. Enables study of many causes of instabilities in bearings. Also provides for analysis of reaction of system to termination of supply of lubricant to bearings and other lubricated mechanical elements. Valuable software tool in design and analysis of shaft bearing systems. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  2. Lubricating system for vertical shaft engine

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.; Tachibana, Y.; Oguri, K.; Isaka, Y.

    1988-08-30

    This patent describes a lubrication system for an internal combustion engine having an output shaft rotatable about a generally vertically extending axis, a lubricant reservoir defined at least in part by a lower wall of the engine surrounding the output shaft and through which the output shaft passes for driving a driven element. The lower wall is formed with an upwardly extending baffle for dividing the lubricant reservoir into separate sections and for reducing sloshing of lubricant within the lubricant reservoir, and oil passage means extending through the baffle for permitting lubricant to flow therethrough.

  3. Repair of the Czar Shaft sinkhole

    SciTech Connect

    Deatherage, J.D.; Starkey, J. [DEI Professional Services, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Gustavson, N. [City of Bisbee, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    After a Portion of the Queen Mine parking lot collapsed into a sinkhole, an engineering study was conducted to confirm that the cause of the damage was settlement into the Czar Shaft in Bisbee, Arizona. Historical records were researched to describe and locate the original shaft, and a seismic refraction survey was performed to define the foundation conditions within and around the shaft. Recommended mitigation measures were developed to repair the parking lot. Mitigation included design and construction of a flexible geosynthetic cap and telltale settlement monitoring system.

  4. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... actually a modified type of skin. Hair grows everywhere on the human body except the palms of ... of sweat glands. The eccrine glands are found everywhere, although they're mostly in the forehead, palms, ...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be...

  13. 119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING #3 SHAFT COUPLING WITH LOCKING DEVICE INSTALLED, SHAFT SPRING BEARING, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE, FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN AND BALLASTING MANIFOLD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. Failure of a swing pinion shaft of a dragline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R. Ranganath; G. Das; S. Tarafder; Swapan K. Das

    2004-01-01

    The causes of failure of a swing pinion shaft of a coal handling dragline have been investigated in the present work. Along with the failed shaft, a small piece of material from the tooth of another shaft that rendered design life in service has also been analyzed. The chemical composition and general heat treatment of the shafts were as per

  15. Flexible shaft and roof drilling system

    DOEpatents

    Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

  16. Integrated controls and health monitoring fiberoptic shaft monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, P.; Darejeh, H.; Collins, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent work was performed on development optical technology to provide real time monitoring of shaft speed, shaft axial displacement, and shaft orbit of the OTVE hydrostatic bearing tester. Results show shaft axial displacement can be optically measured (at the same time as shaft orbital motion and speed) to within 0.3 mills by two fiber optic deflectometers. The final results of this condition monitoring development effort are presented.

  17. Aging changes in hair and nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of aging. Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin , which is produced by hair follicles. ... slows. Hair strands become smaller and have less pigment. So the thick, coarse hair of a young ...

  18. Comparative hair restorer efficacy of medicinal herb on nude (Foxn1nu) mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P>0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

  19. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md. Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P > 0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

  20. Short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping of keratinised hair Part 2. An optimised genomic DNA extraction procedure reveals donor dependence of STR profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis McNevin; Linzi Wilson-Wilde; James Robertson; Jennelle Kyd; Chris Lennard

    2005-01-01

    A feasibility study of short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping of telogen phase hairs in particular, and hair shaft in general, is presented. A number of extraction procedures in common use were investigated and the quantities of nuclear DNA (nuDNA) delivered were quantified via a real-time PCR assay. The extracts were subjected to two variations on AmpF?STR® Profiler Plus™ PCR amplification

  1. Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Olivier; Ohara, Takahiro; Shaffer, John R; Donahue, Danielle; Zerfas, Patricia; Dullnig, Andrew; Crecelius, Christopher; Beniash, Elia; Marazita, Mary L; Morasso, Maria I

    2014-12-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epithelial hair keratins, which are crucial for maintaining the integrity of the sheaths that support the hair shaft, are expressed in the enamel organ and are essential organic components of mature enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 386 children and 706 adults, we found that individuals harboring known hair disorder-associated polymorphisms in the gene encoding keratin 75 (KRT75), KRT75(A161T) and KRT75(E337K), are prone to increased dental caries. Analysis of teeth from individuals carrying the KRT75(A161T) variant revealed an altered enamel structure and a marked reduction of enamel hardness, suggesting that a functional keratin network is required for the mechanical stability of tooth enamel. Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries. PMID:25347471

  2. Study of turbocharger shaft motion by means of non-invasive optical techniques: Application to the behaviour analysis in turbocharger lubrication failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, J. V.; Serrano, J. R.; Dolz, V.; López, M. A.; Bouffaud, F.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a novel non-invasive technique to estimate the turbocharger shaft whirl motion. The aim of this article is to present a system for monitoring the shaft motion of a turbocharger, which will be used in turbocharger destructive testing. To achieve this, a camera and a light source were installed in a turbocharger test bench with a controlled lubrication circuit. An image recording methodology and a process algorithm have been developed, in order to estimate the shaft motion. This processing consists on differentiating specific zones of the image, in order to obtain their coordinates. Two reference points have been configured on the compressor side, which help to calculate the relative position of the shaft, avoiding the errors due to structural vibrations. Maximum eccentricity of the turbocharger has been determined and it has been compared with shaft motion when it is spinning in different conditions. A luminosity study has been also done, in order to improve the process and to obtain locus of shaft position in a picture exposition time period. The technique has been applied to diagnosis of a lubrication failure test and the main results will be presented in this article: like shaft motion figures; thermodynamic variables and pictures of the shaft while it is spinning at abnormal lubrication conditions. The measuring components used in this technique have the ability to withstand the catastrophic failure of the turbocharger in this type of test.

  3. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

  4. Promoted growth of murine hair follicles through controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Makoto; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether or not the controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is effective in promoting the hair follicle growth of mice in second anagen of hair cycle. VEGF was incorporated into a biodegradable collagen hydrogel for its controlled release. Following implantation of the collagen hydrogel incorporating 0 or 2 microg of VEGF and injection of 0 or 2 microg of VEGF in the solution form into the back subcutis of mice, the hair follicle growth was evaluated photometrically and histologically in terms of the skin color of reverse side of the implanted or injected site, the skin thickness, and the area occupied by hair follicle tissue. Ten days later, the skin color of mice implanted with the collagen hydrogel incorporating 2 microg of VEGF was significantly darker than that injected with 2 pg of VEGF. The collagen hydrogel incorporating VEGF increased the hair follicle area at the implanted site to a significantly greater extent than other agents while significant angiogenetic effect in the skin tissue was observed. VEGF-free, empty collagen hydrogels did not affect the skin darkness, hair follicle growth, and the angiogenesis. Moreover, the hair shaft length was significantly elongated by the collagen hydrogel incorporating VEGF, in marked contrast to other agents. Immunohistolchemicalstaining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen revealed that the collagen hydrogel incorporating VEGF promoted the proliferation of cells around the hair follicle more frequently than free VEGF. We concluded that the controlled release of VEGF more positively acted on the hair growth cycle of mice for hair growth than the injection of free VEGF. PMID:12013184

  5. The Changes of Gene Expression on Human Hair during Long-Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Masahiro; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Higashibata, Akira; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sudoh, Masamichi; Minamisawa, Susumu

    Hair has many advantages as the experimental sample. In a hair follicle, hair matrix cells actively divide and these active changes sensitively reflect physical condition on human body. The hair shaft records the metabolic conditions of mineral elements in our body. From human hairs, we can detect physiological informations about the human health. Therefore, we focused on using hair root analysis to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts. In 2009, we started a research program focusing on the analysis of astronauts’ hairs to examine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the gene expression in the human body. We want to get basic information to invent the effectivly diagnostic methods to detect the health situations of astronauts during space flight by analyzing human hair. We extracted RNA form the collected samples. Then, these extracted RNA was amplified. Amplified RNA was processed and hybridized to the Whole Human Genome (4×44K) Oligo Microarray (Agilent Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Slide scanning was performed using the Agilent DNA Microarray Scanner. Scanning data were normalized with Agilent’s Feature Extraction software. Data preprocessing and analysis were performed using GeneSpring software 11.0.1. Next, Synthesis of cDNA (1 mg) was carried out using the PrimeScript RT reagent Kit (TaKaRa Bio) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The qRT-PCR experiment was performed with SYBR Premix Ex Taq (TaKaRa Bio) using the 7500 Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). We detected the changes of some gene expressions during spaceflight from both microarray and qRT-PCR data. These genes seems to be related with the hair proliferation. We believe that these results will lead to the discovery of the important factor effected during space flight on the hair.

  6. Mechanisms of Active Hair Bundle Motion in Auditory Hair Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Ricci; A. C. Crawford; R. Fettiplace

    2002-01-01

    Sound stimuli vibrate the hair bundles on auditory hair cells, but the resulting motion attributable to the mechanical stimulus may be modified by forces intrinsic to the bundle, which drive it actively. One category of active hair bundle motion has prop- erties similar to fast adaptation of the mechanotransducer channels and is explicable if gating of the channels contributes significantly

  7. Automatic transmission with free-wheeling drive shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, D.S.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a free wheeling driven shaft. It comprises: a first drive gear having first shaft-engaging means on an inner, shaft-receiving diameter thereof; a driven shaft emplaced within the shaft-receiving diameter; and first releasable coupling means, on the driven shaft, for coupling the first shaft-engaging means when the first gear is driving the shaft and for automatically releasing the coupling as soon as the rotation of the first drive gear is retarded with respect to the rotation of the driven shaft, wherein the first shaft-engaging means comprises a pawl-engaging detent notch; and the first releasable coupling means comprises a drive-engaging pawl pivotally coupled to the driven shaft for pivotally extending into an engaging with the detent notch when the first drive gear is driving the shaft and pivotally withdrawing and disengaging from the detent notch when the rotation of the first drive gear is retarded with respect to the driven shaft; and further comprising a transfer shaft having fixedly coupled thereto a drive transfer gear coupled to and driven by the first drive gear.

  8. Hair pulling: a review.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2005-10-01

    Hair pulling has been reported in humans, six different non-human primate species, mice, guineapigs, rabbits, sheep and muskox, dogs and cats. This behaviour seems to occur only in subjects who are confined in an artificial environment. It has been classified as a mental disorder in humans, as a behavioural pathology in animals. The hair is not only pulled but also, in most species, ingested. Hair pulling can be both self-directed and partner-directed, contains elements of aggression, manifests more often in females than in males, is associated with psychogenic distress, and resists treatment. Research data collected from affected animals are probably not normative, hence scientifically unreliable. The preemptive correction of husbandry deficiencies causing long-term stress may prevent the development of this bizarre behaviour in healthy subjects. PMID:16197702

  9. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  10. European hair and eye color

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Frost

    2006-01-01

    Human hair and eye color is unusually diverse in northern and eastern Europe. The many alleles involved (at least seven for hair color) and their independent origin over a short span of evolutionary time indicate some kind of selection. Sexual selection is particularly indicated because it is known to favor color traits and color polymorphisms. In addition, hair and eye

  11. Photo yellowing of human hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. S. Nogueira; M. Richena; L. E. Dicelio; I. Joekes

    2007-01-01

    In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white,

  12. Hair zinc level in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yenigun, Ayse; Ozkinay, Ferda; Cogulu, Ozgur; Coker, Canan; Cetiner, Nurten; Ozden, Gonca; Aksu, Oguz; Ozkinay, Cihangir

    2004-07-01

    Immunological, endocrinological, and haematological abnormalities are relatively common in people with Down syndrome (Cuadrado & Barrena, 1996; Decoq & Vincker, 1995; Hestnes et al., 1991; Sustrova & Strbak, 1994; Nespoli, Burgio, Ugazio & Maccario, 1993; Kempski, Chessells & Reeves, 1997; Kivivuori, Rajantie, & Siimes, 1996; David et al., 1996; Gjertson, Sturm & Berger, 1999). Zinc is one of the elements that act in the maintenance of normal function of these systems. This study was designed to investigate zinc levels in children with Down syndrome. Zinc levels were measured in hair using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The hair zinc level of 19 children with Down syndrome was compared with the zinc level of 11 typically developing children. Hair zinc levels were found to be significantly lower (p < .05) in those with Down syndrome (average 95.18 +/- 56.10 ppm) than in the typically developing children (average 208.88 +/- 152.37 ppm). Some of the problems experienced by children with Down syndrome may be due to these low zinc levels, but further research is required to confirm these results, and to establish any correlation with these problems. PMID:15332439

  13. Coupled shaft-torsion and blade-bending vibrations of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.C.; Ho, K.B. [National Taiwan Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-01-01

    A new approach to analyzing the dynamic coupling between shaft torsion and blade bending of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit is introduced. The approach allows the shaft to vibrate freely around its rotation axis instead of assuming a periodic perturbation of the shaft speed that may accommodate the shaft flexibility only to a limited extent. A weighted residual method is applied, and the receptances at the connections of blades and shaft-disk are formulated. Numerical examples are given for cases with between two and six symmetrically arranged blades. The results show not only coupling between the shaft, disk, and blades, but also coupling between individual blades where the shaft acts as a rigid support and experiences no torsional vibration. The blade-coupling modes occurred only in repeated frequencies. Finally, the effect of shaft speed on the modal frequencies was investigated. Plots illustrating the occurrence of critical speeds and flutter instabilities are presented.

  14. Large Membrane Domains in Hair Bundles Specify Spatially Constricted Radixin Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyu; Williams, Diane E.; Shin, Jung-Bum; Brügger, Britta; Gillespie, PeterG.

    2012-01-01

    The plasma membrane of vertebrate hair bundles interacts intimately with the bundle cytoskeleton to support mechanotransduction and homeostasis. To determine the membrane composition of bundles, we used lipid mass spectrometry with purified chick vestibular bundles. While the bundle glycerophospholipids and acyl chains resemble those of other endomembranes, bundle ceramide and sphingomyelin nearly exclusively contain short-chain, saturated acyl chains. Confocal imaging of isolated bullfrog vestibular hair cells shows that the bundle membrane segregates spatially into at least three large structural and functional domains. One membrane domain, including the stereocilia basal tapers and ~1 ?m of the shaft, the location of the ankle links, is enriched in the lipid phosphatase PTPRQ (protein tyrosine phosphatase Q) and polysialylated gangliosides. The taper domain forms a sharp boundary with the shaft domain, which contains the plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPase PMCA2 and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2); moreover, a tip domain has elevated levels of cholesterol, PMCA2, and PI(4,5)P2. Protein mass spectrometry shows that bundles from chick vestibular hair cells contain a complete set of proteins that transport, synthesize, and degrade PI(4,5)P2. The membrane domains have functional significance; radixin, essential for hair-bundle stability, is activated at the taper-shaft boundary in a PI(4,5)P2-dependent manner, allowing assembly of protein complexes at that site. Membrane domains within stereocilia thus define regions within hair bundles that allow compartmentalization of Ca2+ extrusion and assembly of protein complexes at discrete locations. PMID:22457506

  15. Study of hair shine and hair surface smoothness.

    PubMed

    Gao, Timothy; Pereira, Abel; Zhu, Sam

    2009-01-01

    A new hair visual appearance measurement system called SAMBA from Bossa Nova Technologies (Venice, CA) has been employed to measure effects of cosmetic treatments on hair shine and surface smoothness of different types of hair samples. Experimental procedures for evaluations of shine value and surface cuticle angle of hair samples treated with rinse-off products (shampoo or/and conditioner) have been successfully established and applied. We demonstrated that hair spray and conditioner formulas containing PPG-3 benzyl ether myristate (PBEM) (1) showed great performance on shine enhancement for hairs with light and medium colors. Instrumental measurement of shine values was also conducted to compare different commercial shampoo and conditioner products. This study showed reliable utility of SAMBA system and demonstrated the shine enhancement of PBEM in hair care. PMID:19450419

  16. Identification of 14-3-3 mutation causing cutaneous abnormality in repeated-epilation mutant mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiutang Li; Qingxian Lu; Gabriela Estepa; Inder M. Verma

    2005-01-01

    Repeated-epilation (Er) mutation in the mouse is inherited as an autosomal and semidominant mutation. Major defects in heterozygous adults and homozygous fetuses were associated with skin and were caused by abnormal ectodermal differentiation. Heterozygous mice are characterized by repeated hair loss and regrowth, and homozygous fetuses die at birth with severe abnormality in skin, limb, tail, and face. To identify

  17. Investigating hair properties relevant for hair 'handle'. Part I: hair diameter, bending and frictional properties.

    PubMed

    Wortmann, F-J; Schwan-Jonczyk, A

    2006-02-01

    The expert working group 'Hair Care Products' of the DGK currently conducts a wide study to contribute to the understanding of how single hair fibre and hair collective properties contribute towards hair 'handle' and 'feel'. During the first stage of this study four hair types were selected from a large group of individual European hair braids, according to either similar or widely different panel ratings for handle. Against the background of the panel test and the state of the literature the working group readily identified the bending properties of single fibres interacting in the tress as a fibre collective and fibre friction as being of central relevance for hair 'handle' and 'feel'. Fibre diameters of the hair types were determined by Optical Fibre Diameter Analyzer and by weighing. From these data mean ellipticity and bending stiffness distributions were calculated. Single fibre friction was determined by the capstan method in the root, middle and tip regions. Significant differences were determined between the hair types in diameters, ellipticity, bending stiffness and friction. The results lead to conclude that 'handle' is perceived as inferior when the hair is thick and bending stiffness thus high. For such hair differences in handle rating are related to differences in friction, namely in the tip region. For thin and thus 'soft' hair fibre friction seems to play only a minor role. PMID:18492202

  18. Fire smoke ventilation through shafts: Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nireus, K.; Werling, P. O.; Hansson, S. G.; Onnermark, B.

    1994-06-01

    An experimental investigation studied the fire smoke filling of a large compartment (6 x 6 x 6 m) ventilated through shafts of various heights (0, 2, 4, 6 m). The fuel was kerosene. The experiments measured the optical smoke density (OD) and the gas temperature (T) at various heights. By visual observation the height of the smoke layer (h) was measured. The result of the investigation was primarily the large collection of data (OD, T, h) to be used in future tests of calculation models. Directly observed was only a weak correlation between the smoke filling and the heights of the ventilation shafts.

  19. Measuring deflections in a rotating shaft 

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Edmond Ira

    1968-01-01

    MEASURING DEFLECTIONS IN A ROTATING SHAFT A Thesi s By EOMOND I RA BAILEY Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A8M University in qartial ful fillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1968 Major... Subject: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MEASURING DEFLECTIONS IN A ROTATING SHAFT A Thesis By EDMOND IRA BAILEY Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of C ittee )Head of Department January 1968 /l, Member ACKNOWL E DGME NTS The author is most...

  20. Confocal microscopy of hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Lagarde; P. Peyre; D. Redoules; D. Black; M. Briot; Y. Gall

    1994-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is an excellent method for studying the localization of fluorescent stains. Used in this way, superior 3D images can be obtained from multiple optical sections with very shallow depth of field. The main advantage of this technique is that the sample is not damaged. We have taken serial confocal sections of hair and via specific image enhancement routines

  1. Post-transcriptional Regulation of Keratinocyte Progenitor Cell Expansion, Differentiation and Hair Follicle Regression by miR-22

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qingyong; Zhao, Yiqiang; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Hongquan; Xue, Lixiang; Zhang, Xiuqing; Lengner, Christopher; Yu, Zhengquan

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicles (HF) undergo precisely regulated recurrent cycles of growth, cessation, and rest. The transitions from anagen (growth), to catagen (regression), to telogen (rest) involve a physiological involution of the HF. This process is likely coordinated by a variety of mechanisms including apoptosis and loss of growth factor signaling. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying follicle involution after hair keratinocyte differentiation and hair shaft assembly remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that a highly conserved microRNA, miR-22 is markedly upregulated during catagen and peaks in telogen. Using gain- and loss-of-function approaches in vivo, we find that miR-22 overexpression leads to hair loss by promoting anagen-to-catagen transition of the HF, and that deletion of miR-22 delays entry to catagen and accelerates the transition from telogen to anagen. Ectopic activation of miR-22 results in hair loss due to the repression a hair keratinocyte differentiation program and keratinocyte progenitor expansion, as well as promotion of apoptosis. At the molecular level, we demonstrate that miR-22 directly represses numerous transcription factors upstream of phenotypic keratin genes, including Dlx3, Foxn1, and Hoxc13. We conclude that miR-22 is a critical post-transcriptional regulator of the hair cycle and may represent a novel target for therapeutic modulation of hair growth. PMID:26020521

  2. Loose Anagen Hair in a Child with Noonan’s Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tosti; C. Misciali; P. Borrello; P. A. Fanti; F. Bardazzi; A. Patrizi

    1991-01-01

    We report on a 4˝-year-old girl affected by loose anagen hair and Noonan’s syndrome. The girl had short, blond, easily pluckable hair that had never been cut. The trichogram showed an absolute prevalence of abnormally shaped anagen bulbs lacking inner and outer root sheaths. A scalp biopsy evidenced a marked cleft formation between fragmented inner root sheaths and irregularly shaped

  3. 30 CFR 57.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders shall be provided from the collar to as near...provided. When persons are on the shaft bottom, a chain ladder, wire rope ladder, or other extension ladders shall be used from...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders shall be provided from the collar to as near...provided. When persons are on the shaft bottom, a chain ladder, wire rope ladder, or other extension ladders shall be used from...

  5. 8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SHAFT AND PUMP IN COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT PUMPHOUSES. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Structure for supporting governor shaft of automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, H.

    1989-02-21

    An automatic transmission is described comprising; a transmission case, a governor driving shaft having a governor drive gear, a governor shaft having a governor shaft gear engaging with the governor drive gear, and extending upwardly from a lower end to an upper end, a governor connected with the upper end of the governor shaft, and governor shaft supporting means for rotatably supporting the governor shaft, the supporting means having a lower portion which supports the lower end of the governor shaft, and which is formed with an opening for allowing a lubricating oil contained in the transmission case to flow into a clearance between the lower end of the governor shaft and the lower portion.

  7. 161. BLACKSMITH SHOP, OVERHEAD SHAFT. BELT ON LEFT CONNECTS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    161. BLACKSMITH SHOP, OVERHEAD SHAFT. BELT ON LEFT CONNECTS TO SHAFTS WHICH RUN POWER PRESS AND HYDRAULIC TIRE SETTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  8. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Composite Synchronous Shafts

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2013 Composite Synchronous Shafts Overview monitor the health of a shaft. Also, we were to build a robust, portable, and adjustable test fixture so

  9. 108. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT BENEATH ORIGINAL SHOP OF 1883. BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT BENEATH ORIGINAL SHOP OF 1883. BELT AT RIGHT CONNECTS TO MAIN DRIVE SHAFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  10. Increased Natural Ventilation Flow Rates through Ventilation Shafts

    E-print Network

    Ray, Stephen D.

    Buoyancy-driven natural ventilation in ventilation shafts is investigated with a small scale physical experiment within a duct and CFD simulations of an office building. For a fixed exhaust opening, smaller shafts lead to ...

  11. StrongSignatureSchemes Shaft Goldwasser* Silvio Micali* Andy Yao

    E-print Network

    Goldwasser, Shafi

    StrongSignatureSchemes e by Shaft Goldwasser* Silvio Micali* Andy Yao Lab. for Compfiter Science, and supported by NSF gram MCS 82-04506. In addition, Shaft Goldwasser was supported by a Bantrell Fellowship

  12. 107. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT THAT RUNS JOINTER IN BENCH SHOP. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT THAT RUNS JOINTER IN BENCH SHOP. BELT ON RIGHT CONNECTS TO MAIN DRIVE SHAFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  13. 6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, CROSS SHAFT, AND INTERMEDIATE GEAR HOIST ASSEMBLY FOR CONTROL GATE NO. 6, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  14. Automobile transmission with output shaft parallel to crank shaft and parking gear fixed to the output shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, S.; Kuramochi, K.; Kyushima, T.

    1987-06-30

    A driving device is described for an automobile having axles, driving wheels supported by the axles and an engine located proximate the driving wheels, having a crankshaft disposed substantially parallel to the axles supporting the driving wheels, the device comprising: a fluid-type torque converter having coaxial input and output members and disposed on one axial side of the engine connected to and coaxial with the crankshaft; an auxiliary speed change gear assembly having coaxial input and output members and disposed on one axial side of the torque converter remote from the engine with the input member connected to and coaxial of the torque converter; the output member of the auxiliary speed change gear assembly is provided in the shape of a gear; a transmission shaft disposed substantially parallel to the auxiliary speed change gear assembly; a driven gear having a disc portion and toothed peripheral portion; a drive gear drivingly connected to the other end of the transmission shaft closer to the torque converter than the one end of the transmission shaft; a final reduction gear disposed between the driving wheels to be in meshing engagement with the drive gear to transmit power to the axles; a parking gear comprising an annular gear element fixed by bolts proximate the toothed peripheral portion to the axial side surface from which the transmission shaft extends toward the other end. The parking gear is supported by the disc portion for rotation with the driven gear; and means for selectively engaging the parking gear to prevent rotation of shaft when automobile is in parking condition.

  15. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  16. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 inhibits human hair growth.

    PubMed

    Borbíró, István; Lisztes, Erika; Tóth, Balázs I; Czifra, Gabriella; Oláh, Attila; Szöllosi, Attila G; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Nánási, Péter P; Péter, Zoltán; Paus, Ralf; Kovács, László; Bíró, Tamás

    2011-08-01

    In the current study, we aimed at identifying the functional role of transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 (TRPV3) ion channel in the regulation of human hair growth. Using human organ-cultured hair follicles (HFs) and cultures of human outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes, we provide the first evidence that activation of TRPV3 inhibits human hair growth. TRPV3 immunoreactivity was confined to epithelial compartments of the human HF, mainly to the ORS. In organ culture, TRPV3 activation by plant-derived (e.g., eugenol, 10-1,000??M) or synthetic (e.g., 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, 1-300??M) agonists resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of hair shaft elongation, suppression of proliferation, and induction of apoptosis and premature HF regression (catagen). Human ORS keratinocytes also expressed functional TRPV3, whose stimulation induced membrane currents, elevated intracellular calcium concentration, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. Of great importance, these effects on ORS keratinocytes were all mediated by TRPV3, as small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of TRPV3 effectively abrogated the cellular actions of the above agonists. These findings collectively support the concept that TRPV3 signaling is a significant player in human hair growth control. Therefore, TRPV3 and the related intracellular signaling mechanism might function as a promising target for pharmacological manipulations of clinically relevant hair growth disorders. PMID:21593771

  17. Hinged-Blade, Vertical-Shaft Windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shultz, B., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Vertical-shaft windmill concept calls for hinged, flapping blades to increase energy-conversion efficiency by reducing wind-energy loss. Hinged Blade Halves unfold to catch wind when moving with it, then fold away from wind when moving against it.

  18. Failure analysis of a condensate pump shaft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. m Lancha; M Serrano; D. Gómez Briceńo

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the failure analysis of a condensate pump from a nuclear power plant. The failed components were the martensitic stainless steel shaft and a chromium-plated sleeve in the first stage sealed area. The failure occurred during normal operation of the plant after a service of 8 years. The cause of the fracture was found to be quench cracking

  19. Mine shaft conveyance load-monitoring system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Beus; W. G. McCoy

    1995-01-01

    Technology to enhance safety features for mine shafts and elevators is being investigated by researchers at the US Bureau of Mines. This paper describes the development of a slack rope sensor and data transmission and collection hardware to sense conditions and acquire data directly from the hoisting conveyance. A new type of load cell senses wire rope tension at the

  20. Measuring deflections in a rotating shaft

    E-print Network

    Bailey, Edmond Ira

    1968-01-01

    was found by using an electronic stroboscope to be around 2000 RPN. To find the maximus amplitude that had to be measured, the shaft was allowed to approach the critical speed and the amplitude was measured with a ruler. This was taken at the point where...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1711-1 - Sealing of shaft openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sealing of shaft openings. 75.1711-1 Section 75.1711-1 Mineral...Miscellaneous § 75.1711-1 Sealing of shaft openings. Shaft openings required to be sealed under § 75.1711 shall...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19130 - Conveyance shaft test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyance shaft test. 57.19130 Section 57.19130...Maintenance § 57.19130 Conveyance shaft test. Before hoisting persons and...round trip after— (a) Any hoist or shaft repairs or related equipment repairs...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 56.19111 Section 56.19111...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders...

  4. Brief Report Replacement of Adenovirus Type 5 Fiber Shaft

    E-print Network

    Hemminki, Akseli

    Brief Report Replacement of Adenovirus Type 5 Fiber Shaft Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan-binding domain of the fiber shaft to GATK results in liver transduction detargeting, but it is not compatible shaft location efficiently enhances the infectivity of adenovirus and improves the tumor

  5. 30 CFR 56.19130 - Conveyance shaft test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyance shaft test. 56.19130 Section 56.19130...Maintenance § 56.19130 Conveyance shaft test. Before hoisting persons and...round trip after: (a) Any hoist or shaft repairs or related equipment repairs...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 57.19111 Section 57.19111...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 56.19111 Section 56.19111...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19130 - Conveyance shaft test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyance shaft test. 56.19130 Section 56.19130...Maintenance § 56.19130 Conveyance shaft test. Before hoisting persons and...round trip after: (a) Any hoist or shaft repairs or related equipment repairs...

  9. Synchronous Control Effort Minimized for Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2001-01-01

    Various disturbances that are synchronous with the shaft speed can complicate radial magnetic bearing control. These include position sensor target irregularities (runout) and shaft imbalance. The method presented here allows the controller to ignore all synchronous harmonics of the shaft position input (within the closed-loop bandwidth) and to respond only to asynchronous motions. The result is reduced control effort.

  10. 30 CFR 57.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 57.19111 Section 57.19111...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19130 - Conveyance shaft test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyance shaft test. 56.19130 Section 56.19130...Maintenance § 56.19130 Conveyance shaft test. Before hoisting persons and...round trip after: (a) Any hoist or shaft repairs or related equipment repairs...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 57.19111 Section 57.19111...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders...

  13. 30 CFR 57.19130 - Conveyance shaft test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyance shaft test. 57.19130 Section 57.19130...Maintenance § 57.19130 Conveyance shaft test. Before hoisting persons and...round trip after— (a) Any hoist or shaft repairs or related equipment repairs...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 56.19111 Section 56.19111...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19130 - Conveyance shaft test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyance shaft test. 56.19130 Section 56.19130...Maintenance § 56.19130 Conveyance shaft test. Before hoisting persons and...round trip after: (a) Any hoist or shaft repairs or related equipment repairs...

  16. 30 CFR 56.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 56.19111 Section 56.19111...STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders...

  17. WHIRLING OF A CANTILEVER ELASTIC SHAFT SUBJECTED TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE

    E-print Network

    Newland, David E.

    11 WHIRLING OF A CANTILEVER ELASTIC SHAFT SUBJECTED TO EXTERNAL PRESSURE D. E. Newland* This paper is a theoretical study of the whirling of a cantilever elastic shaft subjected to external pressure. The whirling speeds are shown to depend on the variation of pressure and area along the shaft and the lowest whirling

  18. 30 CFR 57.19130 - Conveyance shaft test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyance shaft test. 57.19130 Section 57.19130...Maintenance § 57.19130 Conveyance shaft test. Before hoisting persons and...round trip after— (a) Any hoist or shaft repairs or related equipment repairs...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19111 - Shaft-sinking ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft-sinking ladders. 57.19111 Section 57.19111...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19111 Shaft-sinking ladders. Substantial fixed ladders...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19130 - Conveyance shaft test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyance shaft test. 57.19130 Section 57.19130...Maintenance § 57.19130 Conveyance shaft test. Before hoisting persons and...round trip after— (a) Any hoist or shaft repairs or related equipment repairs...

  1. Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of The Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs. The topics include: 1) Rocket Turbomachinery Shaft Seals (Inter-Propellant-Seal (IPS) Systems, Lift-off Seal Systems, and Technology Development Needs); 2) Rocket Engine Characteristics (Engine cycles, propellants, missions, etc., Influence on shaft sealing requirements); and 3) Conclusions.

  2. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100 Section...Subdivision Requirements § 171.100 Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. (a) Stern tubes...must be located in a watertight shaft tunnel. The vessel must be designed so...

  3. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100 Section...Subdivision Requirements § 171.100 Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. (a) Stern tubes...must be located in a watertight shaft tunnel. The vessel must be designed so...

  4. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100 Section...Subdivision Requirements § 171.100 Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. (a) Stern tubes...must be located in a watertight shaft tunnel. The vessel must be designed so...

  5. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100 Section...Subdivision Requirements § 171.100 Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. (a) Stern tubes...must be located in a watertight shaft tunnel. The vessel must be designed so...

  6. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100 Section...Subdivision Requirements § 171.100 Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. (a) Stern tubes...must be located in a watertight shaft tunnel. The vessel must be designed so...

  7. Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinevez, J.-Y.; Martin, P.; Jülicher, F.

    2009-02-01

    The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but display non-monotonic movements in response to abrupt force steps. Extracellular calcium changes or static biases to the bundle's position at rest could affect the kinetics of bundle motion and evoke transitions between the different classes of motility. The calcium-dependent location of a bundle's operating point within its nonlinear force-displacement relation controlled the type of movements observed. A unified theoretical description, in which mechanical activity stems from myosin-based adaptation and electro-mechanical feedback by Ca2+, could account for the fast and slow manifestations of active hair-bundle motility.

  8. Human hair growth ex vivo is correlated with in vivo hair growth: selective categorization of hair follicles for more reliable hair follicle organ culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oh Sang Kwon; Jun Kyu Oh; Mi Hyang Kim; So Hyun Park; Hyun Keol Pyo; Kyu Han Kim; Kwang Hyun Cho; Hee Chul Eun

    2006-01-01

    Of the numerous assays used to assess hair growth, hair follicle organ culture model is one of the most popular and powerful in vitro systems. Changes in hair growth are commonly employed as a measurement of follicular activity. Hair cycle stage of mouse vibrissa follicles in vivo is known to determine subsequent hair growth and follicle behavior in vitro and

  9. Lithium treatment of chronic hair pulling.

    PubMed

    Christenson, G A; Popkin, M K; Mackenzie, T B; Realmuto, G M

    1991-03-01

    Ten patients with chronic hair pulling received trials of lithium carbonate of 2 to 14 months' duration. Eight patients demonstrated decreased hair pulling and mild to marked hair regrowth. Three responders experienced increased hair pulling subsequent to discontinuation of lithium treatment. Lithium's effect on hair pulling may be related to its observed benefits in treating aggressivity, impulsivity, and mood instability. PMID:1900831

  10. A practical model for hair mutual interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnny T. Chang; Jingyi Jin; Yizhou Yu

    2002-01-01

    Hair exhibits strong anisotropic dynamic properties which demand distinct dynamic models for single strands and hair-hair interactions. While a single strand can be modeled as a multibody open chain expressed in generalized coordinates, modeling hair-hair interactions is a more difficult problem. A dynamic model for this purpose is proposed based on a sparse set of guide strands. Long range connections

  11. Polymerization into Human Hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLARENCE ROBBINS; RICHARD CRAWFORD; D. W. McNEIL; JULIUS NACHTIGAL

    Synopsis-THIOGLYCOLIC ACID (TGA)-CUMENE HYDROPEROXIDE (CHP) and BISULFITE--CHP systems are described for po)ymerizing METHYL METHACRYLATE (MMA) in HUMAN HAIR. An ethanol-water solvent system was employed. Diffusion rate control appears to predominate over a variety of reaction conditions. The influence of reagent concentrations and so)vent effects on the reaction is also describe:). POLY- MERIZATION is shown to occur more rapidly into either

  12. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  13. Fiber-Optic Sensor Would Detect Movements Of Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschak, Edmund J.

    1989-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensor senses both rotational speed and axial displacement of shaft in motor, pump, or other rotating machine. Does not require magnetic materials, notches, or grooves in shaft. Required modification of shaft is etching or plating surface to make ring black around half circumference and reflective around other half along short length at one end or some other convenient location. Triangular bundle of sending and receiving optical fibers aimed at black/reflective ring on shaft. Frequency and amplitude of output pulses of fiber-optic probe indicates rotational frequency and axial position of shaft.

  14. Tachometer Derived From Brushless Shaft-Angle Resolver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    1995-01-01

    Tachometer circuit operates in conjunction with brushless shaft-angle resolver. By performing sequence of straightforward mathematical operations on resolver signals and utilizing simple trigonometric identity, generates voltage proportional to rate of rotation of shaft. One advantage is use of brushless shaft-angle resolver as main source of rate signal: no brushes to wear out, no brush noise, and brushless resolvers have proven robustness. No switching of signals to generate noise. Another advantage, shaft-angle resolver used as shaft-angle sensor, tachometer input obtained without adding another sensor. Present circuit reduces overall size, weight, and cost of tachometer.

  15. Effect of different human hair bleaching conditions on the hair coloration with hair boosting shampoo as colorant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; K. W. Lau; Y. L. Chow

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, detailed simulation of human hair bleaching was conducted. The materials and chemical used as well as the hair\\u000a bleaching procedures were described. After bleaching, the colour change of the hair was evaluated in accordance with CIE Lab\\u000a system and the hair bleaching results was analysed. Following the hair bleaching process, hair coloration was employed with\\u000a the use

  16. Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

  17. Evolution of Sensory Hair Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison Coffin; Matthew Kelley; Geoffrey A. Manley; Arthur N. Popper

    \\u000a The ears of all vertebrate species use sensory hair cells (Fig. 3.1) to convert mechanical energy to electrical signals compatible with the nervous system. However, although the basic structure\\u000a of hair cells is ubiquitous among the vertebrates and hair cells are also found in the lateral line of fishes and aquatic\\u000a amphibians, a growing body of literature has demonstrated considerable

  18. Photodamage determination of human hair.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Barba, Clara; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Parra, José Luis; Coderch, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Sunlight on human hair causes photo-degradation. This results in bleaching due to melanin oxidation through free radicals, and induces keratin impairment. Protein degradation, tryptophan degradation, lipidic peroxidation and electron paramagnetic resonance can be used to evaluate proteic and lipidic photodecomposition and free radical formation in hair fibres subjected to antioxidant action and different UV intensities. All these methodologies have been optimised to determine protein, lipid and melanin degradation in hair subjected to different UV intensities. PMID:22119660

  19. Hair pulling (trichotillomania).

    PubMed

    Galski, T

    1983-01-01

    Based on the findings in this case and common elements reported in other articles on trichotillomania, there seems to be evidence that the "irresistible urge" to pull out the hair has its beginnings in the early years of a child's life. The nature of the parent-child relationships appears to be especially important in establishing psychological antecedents for the later development of trichotillomania. Specifically, the trichotillomanic's mother sets the stage for the emergence of this symptom by extending the child's dependence upon her as the primary need-gratifier beyond early childhood into latency, adolescence, and adulthood. As a result the child is not gradually propelled to participate in newer and more complex learning experiences that ultimately lead to a sense of mastery and independent functioning in the environment. Important developmental stimuli are not presented at the appropriate times and the child is not exposed to certain types of interactions at the optimal times so that some very important ego functions do not develop, or develop minimally, or in a distorted manner. Simply, the mother cannot "let go" of her child, apparently deriving gratification of her own needs through infantilization of the child; as a result the child develops a limited or illusory sense of self sufficiency. Continuation of such an unhealthy symbiotic relationship, however, is found in many forms of psychopathology and the fact that it also underlies trichotillomania may partially account for hair pulling as a symptom associated with such a wide range of nosological categories. It is the main contention of this study, however, that the quality of the parent-child relationships impairs the ego development and causes failure of the trichotillomanic patient to establish object constancy. Without the establishment of object constancy an individual requires visible evidence that the object/person capable of gratifying basic security needs is present or available. In trichotillomania the hair seems to symbolize the need-gratifying object/person who is lost when the hair is pulled out and, more importantly, regained when it is eaten or restored. It appears to be this latter component of trichotillomania, i.e., reincorporation of the need-gratifying object/person, which reassures the patient that infantile needs can be gratified and security can be reestablished. Unfortunately, the trichotillomanic is driven to repeatedly and compulsively remove hair so that it can be regained temporarily since object constancy is never really established. PMID:6201939

  20. How to Stop Damaging Your Hair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Removing gum without cutting hair Stop hair damage Styling without damage Tips for healthy hair Nail care ... once a week — or even less often. Applying styling products that offer long-lasting hold Changes that ...

  1. Hair growth activity of Crataegus pinnatifida on C57BL/6 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Sang-Yong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ju-Han; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2013-09-01

    Crataegus pinnatifida has a long history of use in traditional oriental herbal medicine to stimulating digestion and improving blood circulation. Based on nutrition of hair, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of C. pinnatifida extract on hair growth using mouse model and its mechanisms of action. The C. pinnatifida extract containing the contents of total polyphenol of 5.88?0.82?g gallic acid/100?g extract and proanthocyanidin of 9.15?1.58?mg cyaniding chloride/100?g extract was orally administered daily at a dosage of 50?mg/kg weight to the 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice in telogen. The C. pinnatifida extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in mice in telogen, reflected by color of skin, thickness of hair shaft, and density of hair. The ratio of anagento telogen was determined by shape of hair follicles in vertically sectioned slide and increased by oral administration of C. pinnatifida extract. The number and the size of hair follicles were also enlarged, indicating anagen phase induction. The proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPC) was accelerated by addition of C. pinnatifida extract, which activated the signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk, p-38, and JNK) and Akt. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax as the determinant of cell fate was also raised in skin. These results suggest that the C. pinnatifida extract promotes hair growth by inducing anagen phase, which might be mediated by the activation of cellular signalings that enhance the survival of cultured hDPC and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax that protects cells against cell death. PMID:23148028

  2. Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)]. E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Shiroi, Akira [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)

    2006-06-30

    We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis.

  3. Effect of sun protection agent on preventing hair colour fading and hair damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; Y. L. Chow

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of sun protection agent on different hair samples including, (i) unbleached hair sample, (ii) bleached\\u000a hair sample and (iii) bleached hair sample with subsequent hair coloration, were studied. This paper was aimed at evaluating\\u000a the effectiveness of sun protection agent on the different hair conditions. The hair samples were divided into two sets; one\\u000a was

  4. Shaft-Angle Sensor Based on Tunnel-Diode Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso

    2008-01-01

    A proposed brushless shaft-angle sensor for use in extreme cold would offer significant advantages over prior such sensors: (1) It would be capable of operating in extreme cold; and (2) Its electronic circuitry would be simpler than that of a permanent-magnet/ multiple-Hall-probe shaft-angle sensor that would otherwise ordinarily be used to obtain comparable angular resolution. The principle of operation of the proposed shaft-angle sensor requires that the shaft (or at least the portion of the shaft at the sensor location) be electrically insulating. The affected portion of the shaft would be coated with metal around half of its circumference. Two half-circular-cylinder electrodes having a radius slightly larger than that of the shaft would be mounted on the stator, concentric with the shaft, so that there would be a small radial gap between them and the outer surface of the shaft. Hence, there would be a capacitance between each stationary electrode and the metal coat on the shaft.

  5. Black Holes with Short Hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David Brown, J.; Husain, Viqar

    We present spherically symmetric black hole solutions for Einstein gravity coupled to anisotropic matter. We show that these black holes have arbitrarily short hair, and argue for stability by showing that they can arise from dynamical collapse. We also show that a recent "no short hair" theorem does not apply to these solutions.

  6. Photodamage determination of human hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Estibalitz Fernández; Clara Barba; Cristina Alonso; Meritxell Martí; José Luis Parra; Luisa Coderch

    Sunlight on human hair causes photo-degradation. This results in bleaching due to melanin oxidation through free radicals, and induces keratin impairment. Protein degradation, tryptophan degradation, lipidic peroxidation and electron paramagnetic resonance can be used to evaluate proteic and lipidic photodecomposition and free radical formation in hair fibres subjected to antioxidant action and different UV intensities. All these methodologies have been

  7. Hair dosimetry following neutron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Briot, F; Distinguin, S; Boisson, P; Exmelin, L; Racine, Y; Berard, P; Flüry-Herard, A; Miele, A; Fottorino, R

    2007-05-01

    Use of hair as a biological dosimeter of neutron exposure was proposed a few years ago. To date, the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction in hair with a threshold of 2.5 MeV is the best choice to determine the fast neutron dose using body activation. This information is essential with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the organism. This is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction from the surface to the deeper tissues. This evaluation is essential to the adapted management of irradiated victims by specialized medical staff. Comparison exercises between clinical biochemistry laboratories from French sites (the CEA and COGEMA) and from the IRSN were carried out to validate the measurement of (32)P activity in hair and to improve the techniques used to perform this examination. Hair was placed on a phantom and was irradiated at different doses in the SILENE reactor (Valduc, France). Different parameters were tested: variation of hair type, minimum weight of hair sample, hair wash before measurement, delivery period of results, and different irradiation configurations. The results obtained in these comparison exercises by the different laboratories showed an excellent correlation. This allowed the assessment of a dose-activity relationship and confirmed the feasibility and the interest of (32)P measurement in hair following fast neutron irradiation. PMID:17440329

  8. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal. PMID:19834437

  9. Human hair growth ex vivo is correlated with in vivo hair growth: selective categorization of hair follicles for more reliable hair follicle organ culture.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Sang; Oh, Jun Kyu; Kim, Mi Hyang; Park, So Hyun; Pyo, Hyun Keol; Kim, Kyu Han; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Eun, Hee Chul

    2006-02-01

    Of the numerous assays used to assess hair growth, hair follicle organ culture model is one of the most popular and powerful in vitro systems. Changes in hair growth are commonly employed as a measurement of follicular activity. Hair cycle stage of mouse vibrissa follicles in vivo is known to determine subsequent hair growth and follicle behavior in vitro and it is recommended that follicles be taken at precisely the same cyclic stage. This study was performed to evaluate whether categorization of human hair follicles by the growth in vivo could be used to select follicles of the defined anagen stage for more consistent culture. Occipital scalp samples were obtained from three subjects, 2 weeks later after hair bleaching. Hair growth and follicle length of isolated anagen VI follicles were measured under a videomicroscope. Follicles were categorized into four groups according to hair growth and some were cultured ex vivo for 6 days. Follicles showed considerable variations with respect to hair growth and follicle length; however, these two variables were relatively well correlated. Hair growth in culture was closely related with hair growth rate in vivo. Moreover, minoxidil uniquely demonstrated a significant increase of hair growth in categorized hair follicles assumed at a similar early anagen VI stage of hair cycle. Selection of follicles at a defined stage based on hair-growth rate would permit a more reliable outcome in human hair follicle organ culture. PMID:16328343

  10. GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPID ANALYSIS OF EASTERN RED BAT (Lasiurus borealis) HAIR BY ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION TANDEM MASS SPECTROMET

    PubMed Central

    Pannkuk, Evan L.; McGuire, Liam P.; Gilmore, David F.; Savary, Brett J.; Risch, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Pilosebaceous units found in the mammalian integument are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle. Pilosebaceous units release protective oils, or sebum, by holocrine secretion onto skin and hair through rupturing of sebocytes. Sebum is largely composed of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids, free fatty acids, sterols, wax esters, sterol esters, and squalene. In addition to these lipid classes, there is a small proportion of ionic/anionic glycerophospholipids (GPs). Composition of GPs on hair is rarely addressed despite their broad biological activities as signaling molecules and membrane stability. Furthermore, knowledge on GP composition in bats is lacking. Bat GP composition is important to document due to GP roles ranging from decreasing drag during migration to interaction with the integumentary microbiome. In this study, we analyzed GP molecular composition with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and compared GP content to previous literature. A total of 152 GPs were detected. Broad GP classes identified include lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylglycerol, with PC being the most abundant class. The acyl components were consistent with fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglyceride moieties found in Eastern red bat sebum. GP proportions of the hair surface were different from a previous study on bat lung surfactants. This study determined the broad class and molecular species of bat sebum GPs that may be used in future ecological studies in vespertilionid bats. PMID:24532214

  11. Glycerophospholipid analysis of Eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) hair by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; McGuire, Liam P; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-03-01

    Pilosebaceous units found in the mammalian integument are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle. Pilosebaceous units release protective oils, or sebum, by holocrine secretion onto skin and hair through rupturing of sebocytes. Sebum is composed largely of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids, free fatty acids, sterols, wax esters, sterol esters, and squalene. In addition to these lipid classes, there is a small proportion of ionic/anionic glycerophospholipids (GPs). Composition of GPs on hair is rarely addressed despite their broad biological activities as signaling molecules and membrane stability. Furthermore, knowledge on GP composition in bats is lacking. Bat GP composition is important to document due to GP roles ranging from decreasing drag during migration to interaction with the integumentary microbiome. In this study, we analyzed GP molecular composition with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and compared GP content to previous literature. A total of 152 GPs were detected. Broad GP classes identified include lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylglycerol, with PC being the most abundant class. The acyl components were consistent with fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglyceride moieties found in Eastern red bat sebum. Glycerophospholipid proportions of the hair surface were different from a previous study on bat lung surfactants. This study determined the broad class and molecular species of bat sebum GPs that may be used in future ecological studies in vespertilionid bats. PMID:24532214

  12. Polymeric nanoparticles-embedded organogel for roxithromycin delivery to hair follicles.

    PubMed

    G?ówka, Eliza; Wosicka-Fr?ckowiak, Hanna; Hyla, Kinga; Stefanowska, Justyna; Jastrz?bska, Katarzyna; Klapiszewski, ?ukasz; Jesionowski, Teofil; Cal, Krzysztof

    2014-09-01

    Drug delivery into hair follicles with the use of nanoparticles (NPs) is gaining more importance as drug-loaded NPs may accumulate in hair follicle openings. The aim was to develop and evaluate a pluronic lecithin organogel (PLO) with roxithromycin (ROX)-loaded NPs for follicular targeting. Polymeric NPs were evaluated in terms of particle shape, size, zeta potential, suspension stability, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. Lyophilized NPs were incorporated into the PLO and rheological measurements of the nanoparticles-embedded organogels were done. The fate of the NPs in the skin was traced by incorporation of a fluorescent dye into the NPs. As a result, ROX was efficiently incorporated into polymeric NPs characterized by the appropriate size (approximately 300 nm) allowing drug delivery to hair follicles. In ex vivo human skin penetration studies, horizontal skin sections revealed fluorescence deep in the hair follicles. Although the organogel has higher affinity to the lipidic follicular area than an aqueous suspension of NPs, it did not seem to improve penetration of the NPs along the hair shaft. The results proved that it was possible to achieve preferential targeting to the pilosebaceous unit using polymeric NPs formulated either into the aqueous suspension or semisolid topical formulation. PMID:25014763

  13. Significant damage of the skin and hair following hair bleaching.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Chang-Moon; Jeong, Won-Ji; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Ki-Young

    2010-10-01

    Scalp burns can be caused by hair bleaching with excess procedures such as unnecessary heating and excessive treatment with bleaching agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and histological changes of the hair and skin after bleaching. Ammonium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide (6% or 9%) solution mixed at a ratio of 1:2 (weight ratio) were sufficiently applied to human hairs and rat skin. The bleached hairs were brightened up to yellow by increasing the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and time of bleach treatment. After bleaching, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe that the cuticle scales of the hairs were irregular and lifted. The mechanical properties of the bleached hairs, such as tensile strength and elongation, were slightly different than the untreated hairs. The tested rat skin showed severe swelling after treatment of the bleaching agent (9% hydrogen peroxide). The rat skin bleached with 9% hydrogen peroxide exhibited epidermal thinning and subepidermal vesicle formation. The extracellular matrix of the skin was seriously disrupted after bleaching. Therefore, the use of only suitable bleaching procedures is suggested in order to avoid injuries. PMID:20860738

  14. Twin-capacitive shaft angle encoder with analog output signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Wilson, R. L. (inventors)

    1977-01-01

    A precision capacitive shaft encoder providing a dc signal corresponding to the angular position of a shaft is described. Two variable capacitances are coupled in tandem by a rotatable shaft. Each capacitor has a capacitance that varies linearly with a change in the angular position of the shaft. The sum of the two capacitances is always constant for any angular position of the shaft. Each capacitance is alternately coupled to a reference dc voltage and a discharge circuit. The capacitances are electrically coupled in series and the charge periodically acquired at the junction of the capacitance is a function of the position of the shaft. An error-compensating voltage is imposed on the junction when the capacitances are coupled to the reference voltages. The junction is coupled to sample-and-hold apparatus provided with a error-correcting circuit.

  15. Phonipuits - new equipment for communications in mine shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, M.; Kempf, M.

    1983-10-01

    Communications in mine shafts pose many problems, particularly in the case of upcast or exhaust shafts in coal mines. Phonipuits is a telecommunication system that has been specially designed to solve these problems. It permits a two-way communication link between the moving cage in the shaft and the hoist driver by phone and conventional sound signals. The design, operating principles, and installation of the Phonipuits is described. 2 figures.

  16. Failure analysis of a high-speed pinion shaft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Stevenson; J. L. McDougall; R. D. Bowman; R. L. Herman

    2005-01-01

    The failure of a high-speed pinion shaft from a marine diesel engine was investigated. The shaft, which had been in service\\u000a for more than 30 years, failed shortly after a service operation in which the bearings were replaced. Examination of the shaft\\u000a revealed cyclic fatigue as the failure mechanism, with a substantial distribution of nonmetallic inclusions near the fracture\\u000a initiation

  17. 10. Photocopied August 1978. CLOSEUP VIEW OF TURBINE SHAFT PENETRATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopied August 1978. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF TURBINE SHAFT PENETRATING THE STEEL PLATE BULKHEAD THROUGH A STUFFING BOX AND AND ALSO SHOWING THE CONTROL GATE SHAFT. THIS PARTICULAR UNIT WAS INSTALLED IN 1916. THE ADMISSION OF WATER TO ALL FOUR RUNNERS IN A PENSTOCK UNIT COULD SIMULTANEOUSLY BE CONTROLLED BY THE CONTROL SHAFT ON THE LEFT. (899) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  18. 5. SPARE SHIPPER SHAFT IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE PINION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SPARE SHIPPER SHAFT IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE PINION GEARS ON SHAFT. END OF DIPPER STICK IN FOREGROUND, NOTE RACK IRON ON BOTTOM OF STICK, WHICH MESHES WITH GEARS ON SHIPPER SHAFT. LIVING QUARTERS IN BACKGROUND. CYLINDER AND SHEAVES FOR OPERATING BULL WHEEL (FOR SWINGING BOOM) ON LOWER RIGHT. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Hair-testing for illicit drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Parkes

    2004-01-01

    Human hair may contain deposits of illicit drugs. Testing of hair will provide an indicator of drug use at the time the hair was grown. Hair samples have several advantages over urine samples, particularly length of surveillance period (months rather than days) and resistance to tampering. Any form of drug-testing must be seen as a component of a clinical plan

  20. Amino Acid Analysis of Cosmetically Altered Hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CLARENCE R. ROBBINS; CHARLES KELLY

    Synopsis--Bleached and permanent waved hair, treated on the head by consumers, as well as unaltered hair, were hydrolyzed and examined by automatic amino acid analysis. The hydrolyzates of severely bleached hair were found to contain substantially less cystine and smaller quantities of tyrosine and methionine as compared to hydrolyzates from unaltered hair. Relatively large amounts of cysteic acid were also

  1. Hair-color modeling and head detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Zhao; Dihua Sun; Hengpan He

    2008-01-01

    A method based on hair-color modeling to detect human head in color images was proposed. The presented algorithm compared the performance of four different chrominance spaces for the distribution of hair color and built a human hair color model in YCbCr space. A Gaussian mixture density model was used to describe the distribution of hair color and segmentation threshold value

  2. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Spilde; Antonio Lanzirotti; Clifford Qualls; Genevieve Phillips; Abdul-Mehdi Ali; Larry Agenbroad; Otto Appenzeller; Matjaz Perc

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between

  3. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Hair Follicle Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Millar

    2002-01-01

    Clinical conditions causing hair loss, such as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, and scarring alopecia, can be psychologically devastating to individuals and are the target of a multimillion dollar pharmaceutical industry. The importance of the hair follicle in skin biology, however, does not rest solely with its ability to produce hair. Hair follicles are self-renewing and contain reservoirs of multipotent stem

  4. White matter integrity in hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania).

    PubMed

    Roos, Annerine; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine

    2013-03-30

    Hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania, HPD) is a disabling condition that is characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in hair loss. Although there is evidence of structural grey matter abnormalities in HPD, there is a paucity of data on white matter integrity. The aim of this study was to explore white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in subjects with HPD and healthy controls. Sixteen adult female subjects with HPD and 13 healthy female controls underwent DTI. Hair-pulling symptom severity, anxiety and depressive symptoms were also assessed. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to analyze data on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). There were no differences in DTI measures between HPD subjects and healthy controls. However, there were significant associations of increased MD in white matter tracts of the fronto-striatal-thalamic pathway with longer HPD duration and increased HPD severity. Our findings suggest that white matter integrity in fronto-striatal-thalamic pathways in HPD is related to symptom duration and severity. The molecular basis of measures of white matter integrity in HPD deserves further exploration. PMID:23149033

  5. Ethanol Affects the Development of Sensory Hair Cells in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%–1.75% by volume) from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS. PMID:24324841

  6. Ipsilateral Acetabular and Femoral Neck and Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Irifune, Hideto; Hirayama, Suguru; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Narimatsu, Eichi

    2015-01-01

    Floating hip injuries and ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures are rare. Additionally, the simultaneous occurrence of these injuries is extremely rare, and only one case report of the simultaneous occurrence of these injuries has been published. Here, we report the case of a patient with ipsilateral acetabular and femoral neck and shaft fractures following a suicide attempt. The patient experienced nonunion of the femoral neck and shaft after the initial operation and therefore underwent reconstruction using a femoral head prosthesis with a long stem and interlocking screws. Our procedure may be used in primary and/or secondary reconstruction for ipsilateral acetabular and femoral neck and shaft fractures. PMID:26171267

  7. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options. PMID:12469966

  8. Prevention of hair surface aging.

    PubMed

    Wiesche, Erik Schulze Zur; Körner, Andrea; Schäfer, Karola; Wortmann, Franz-Josef

    2011-01-01

    The hydrophobic character of the surface of human hair is particularly attributed to the lipid components of the epicuticle and to a layer of covalently bound fatty acids. This outer f-layer mainly consists of 18-methyl eicosanoic acid (18-MEA), which is covalently bound to the underlying protein matrix, forming the epicuticle as composite surface structure. Daily weathering and chemical treatments, specifically oxidative bleaching, decrease the hydrophobicity of the outer hair surface drastically.Multiple daily stress, simulated by an automatic test device including shampooing, blow drying and sun light exposure, changed the lipid composition of hair significantly. A marked loss of 18-MEA was observed. Decreasing contact angles are the direct consequence. A new method to determine the "pseudo-static" contact angle on hair was developed. The results correlate with the corresponding data obtained by dynamic contact angle measurements according to Wilhelmy. Besides that, the resorption time of water droplets by the hair surface provides additional information about the intactness of the outer f-layer.Specific proteolipids, which are lipid-modified keratins, are able to reconstruct the surface layer of damaged hair by creating renewed surface hydrophobicity and extending the water resorption time by the hair surface. PMID:21635851

  9. Quantum hair on black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Sidney; Preskill, John; Wilczek, Frank

    1992-07-01

    A black hole may carry quantum numbers that are not associated with massless gauge fields, contrary to the spirit of the ``no-hair'' theorems. We describe in detail two different types of black-hole hair that decay exponentially at long range. The first type is associated with discrete gauge charge and the screening is due to the Higgs mechanism. The second type is associated with color magnetic charge, and the screening is due to color confinement. In both cases, we perform semiclassical calculations of the effect of the hair on local observables outside the horizon, and on black-hole thermodynamics. These effects are generated by virtual cosmic strings, or virtual electric flux tubes, that sweep around the event horizon. The effects of discrete gauge charge are nonperturbative in h, but the effects of color magnetic charge become h-independent in a suitable limit. We present an alternative treatment of discrete gauge charge using dual variables, and examine the possibility of black-hole hair associated with discrete global symmetry. We draw the distinction between primary hair, which endows a black hole with new quantum numbers, and secondary hair, which does not, and we point out some varieties of secondary hair that occur in the standard model of particle physics. Reserch supported in part by DOE grant DE-FG02-90ER40542.

  10. Atoh1 directs hair cell differentiation and survival in the late embryonic mouse inner ear?

    PubMed Central

    Chonko, Kurt T.; Jahan, Israt; Stone, Jennifer; Wright, Margaret C.; Fujiyama, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Mikio; Fritzsch, Bernd; Maricich, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Atoh1 function is required for the earliest stages of inner ear hair cell development, which begins during the second week of gestation. Atoh1 expression in developing hair cells continues until early postnatal ages, but the function of this late expression is unknown. To test the role of continued Atoh1 expression in hair cell maturation we conditionally deleted the gene in the inner ear at various embryonic and postnatal ages. In the organ of Corti, deletion of Atoh1 at E15.5 led to the death of all hair cells. In contrast, deletion at E16.5 caused death only in apical regions, but abnormalities of stereocilia formation were present throughout the cochlea. In the utricle, deletion at E14.5 or E16.5 did not cause cell death but led to decreased expression of myosin VIIa and failure of stereocilia formation. Furthermore, we show that maintained expression of Barhl1 and Gfi1, two transcription factors implicated in cochlear hair cell survival, depends upon continued Atoh1 expression. However, maintained expression of Pou4f3 and several hair cell-specific markers is independent of Atoh1 expression. These data reveal novel late roles for Atoh1 that are separable from its initial role in hair cell development. PMID:23796904

  11. Skin surface lipids and skin and hair coat condition in dogs fed increased total fat diets containing polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kirby, N A; Hester, S L; Rees, C A; Kennis, R A; Zoran, D L; Bauer, J E

    2009-08-01

    It is generally believed that diets containing increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) result in improved canine skin and hair coat (SHC). However, the extent to which dietary fat amount and type play a role remains to be systematically investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of both increased dietary fat amount and type on SHC assessments of dogs. Improvements of SHC conditions were investigated after feeding three diets containing increased total dietary fat (i.e. 13% total fat) for 12 weeks in relation to a lower fat acclimation diet (i.e. 9% total fat). The higher fat diets varied in polyunsaturated and saturated fat types and amounts but total fat was kept constant. Skin and hair coat assessments were performed at selected intervals by a trained group of veterinarians and graduate students. In addition, hair lipids were fractionated by thin layer chromatography after extraction of plucked hair samples. Significant improvements were found in hair coat glossiness and softness in all dogs fed the higher fat diets in relation to the acclimation diet. Improvements as a result of fat type were also seen but only at 12 weeks. A parallel finding was a marked increase in hair cholesteryl ester content determined at the end of the study at which time SHC scores were significantly improved. Skin and hair coat condition improvements may thus be related to increased cholesteryl ester deposited on the hair shaft surface when high fat diets are fed. Whereas this finding is preliminary, hair lipid analysis may be a useful, non-invasive technique with which to help assess dietary effects on canine SHC. PMID:18700855

  12. Profiling Amino Acids of Jordanian Scalp Hair as a Tool for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rashaid, Ayat H B; Harrington, Peter de B; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-21

    Hair analysis is an area of increasing interest in the fields of medical and forensic sciences. Human scalp hair has attractive features in clinical studies because hair can be sampled easily and noninvasively from human subjects, and unlike blood and urine samples, it contains a chronological record of medication use. Keratin protein is the major component of scalp hair shaft material and it is composed of 21 amino acids. The method used herein for the amino acid determination in hair included keratin protein acid hydrolysis using 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), followed by amino acids derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and the determination of derivatized amino acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Amino acid profiles of scalp hair of 27 Jordanian subjects (15 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 patients and 12 control subjects) were analyzed. A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classified the amino acid profiles into diabetic and control groups based on multivariate analyses of the abundance of 14 amino acids. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diabetes detection using leave-one-individual-out cross-validation. The areas under the receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curves were 1.0, which represents a highly sensitive and specific diabetes test. The nonessential amino acids Gly and Glu, and the essential amino acid Ile were more abundant in the scalp hair of diabetic patients compared to the hair of control subjects. The associations between the abundance of amino acids of human hair and health status may have clinical applications in providing diagnostic indicator or predicting other chronic or acute diseases. PMID:26075473

  13. Hair morphology and systematics of Physalis ( Solanaceae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Almut Seithe; Janet R. Sullivan

    1990-01-01

    Hair morphology was exammed on developing seedlings and mature plants of ten species from five of seven series inPhysalis. The taxonomic importance of hair development and the distribution of hair types then was evaluated with respect to other comparative data. Two classes of hair types were observed, as found in earlier investigations ofSolanum andRhododendron. The first hair class comprises a

  14. Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found significant differences in the binding behavior of cationic polymers and surfactants (polyquaternium-55 and quaternium-26) on both hair types. PMID:24139434

  15. Example-based hair geometry synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lvdi Wang; Yizhou Yu; Kun Zhou; Baining Guo

    2009-01-01

    We present an example-based approach to hair modeling because creating hairstyles either manually or through image-based acquisi- tion is a costly and time-consuming process. We introduce a hierar- chical hair synthesis framework that views a hairstyle both as a 3D vector field and a 2D arrangement of hair strands on the scalp. Since hair forms wisps, a hierarchical hair clustering

  16. Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing

    PubMed Central

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2010-01-01

    Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

  17. Follicular Unit Extraction Hair Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Aman; Dua, Kapil

    2010-01-01

    Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT) of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of ‘no visible scarring’ in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the traditional FUT. The addition of latest automated FUE technique seeks to overcome some of the limitations in this relatively new technique and it is now possible to achieve more than a thousand grafts in one day in trained hands. This article reviews the methodology, limitations and advantages of FUE hair transplant. PMID:21031064

  18. Treatments for unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, J; Lui, H

    Twenty-two percent of women in North America have unwanted facial hair, which can cause embarrassment and result in a significant emotional burden. Treatment options include plucking, waxing (including the sugar forms), depilatories, bleaching, shaving, electrolysis, laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and eflornithine 13.9% cream (Vaniqa, Barrier Therapeutics in Canada and Shire Pharmaceuticals elsewhere). Eflornithine 13.9% cream is a topical treatment that does not remove the hairs, but acts to reduce the rate of growth and appears to be effective for unwanted facial hair on the mustache and chin area. Eflornithine 13.9% cream can be used in combination with other treatments such as lasers and IPL to give the patient the best chance for successful hair removal. PMID:16408139

  19. Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.

    PubMed

    Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

    2003-01-01

    Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting in no favorable impact on protein loss. PMID:12715094

  20. 30 CFR 57.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 57.19108 Section 57.19108...AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  1. 30 CFR 77.105 - Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications. ...77.105 Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications. ...purpose of operating a hoist at a slope or shaft sinking operation if he has at...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1900-1 - Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans. 77.1900-1 Section...AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1900-1 Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans. Upon approval by...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1904 - Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators. 77.1904...AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1904 Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators....

  4. 30 CFR 77.1904 - Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators. 77.1904...AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1904 Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators....

  5. 30 CFR 57.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 57.19108 Section 57.19108...AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  6. 30 CFR 77.105 - Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications. ...77.105 Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications. ...purpose of operating a hoist at a slope or shaft sinking operation if he has at...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1904 - Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators. 77.1904...AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1904 Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators....

  8. 30 CFR 56.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 56.19110 Section 56...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1900-1 - Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans. 77.1900-1 Section...AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1900-1 Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans. Upon approval by...

  10. 30 CFR 77.105 - Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications. ...77.105 Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications. ...purpose of operating a hoist at a slope or shaft sinking operation if he has at...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. 57.12083 Section 57... § 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and boreholes shall be fastened securely in...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56.19108 Section 56.19108...AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56.19108 Section 56.19108...AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1900-1 - Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans. 77.1900-1 Section...AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1900-1 Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans. Upon approval by...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56.19108 Section 56.19108...AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 57.19110 Section 57...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1904 - Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators. 77.1904...AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1904 Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators....

  18. 30 CFR 57.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 57.19110 Section 57...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56.19108 Section 56.19108...AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  20. 30 CFR 77.105 - Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications. ...77.105 Qualified hoistman; slope or shaft sinking operation; qualifications. ...purpose of operating a hoist at a slope or shaft sinking operation if he has at...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 57.19110 Section 57...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 56.19110 Section 56...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 56.19110 Section 56...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 57.19110 Section 57...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 56.19110 Section 56...METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19110 Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. A substantial...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 57.19108 Section 57.19108...AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 57.19108 Section 57.19108...AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1900-1 - Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans. 77.1900-1 Section...AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1900-1 Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans. Upon approval by...

  9. Testing human hair for cannabis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Cirimele; P. Kintz; P. Mangin

    1995-01-01

    To validate information on cannabis use, we investigated human hair and pubic hair for cannabinoids (THC and THC-COOH) by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Samples (100 mg approximately) were decontaminated with methylene chloride, then pulverized and dissolved in 1 ml 1 N NaOH for 10 min at 95 °C in the presence of 200 ng of deuterated standards. After cooling, samples were

  10. Trichotillomania (hair pulling) in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Wright, Harry H; Holmes, George R

    2003-02-01

    Although the clinical diagnosis of trichotillomania has been observed for more than a century, not until the last decade has there been a focus on this diagnosis in early childhood. This small case series focuses on the clinical evaluation of 10 toddlers, average of 26 mo., presenting at a specialty child and adolescent psychiatry clinic with hair pulling. Authors suggest that hair pulling in this age group might better be conceptualized as an anxiety disorder. PMID:12674287

  11. Reactor coolant pump shaft seal stability during station blackout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Rhodes; R. C. Hill; R. G. Wensel

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from an investigation into the behavior of Reactor Coolant Pump shaft seals during a potential station blackout (loss of all ac power) at a nuclear power plant. The investigation assumes loss of cooling to the seals and focuses on the effect of high temperature on polymer seals located in the shaft seal assemblies, and the identification of

  12. 29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross over valve. Shaft at left operates main flood valve to admit water into the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  13. 10. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DELIVERY CHUTE AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DELIVERY CHUTE AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER, (ORE HAULED FROM THE ADJACENT SHAFT WAS DELIVERED THROUGH THIS CHUTE TO THE OUTSIDE); VIEW TO THE EAST. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  14. 7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW SHOWS VERTICAL LADDER AND CAGE ALONG ELEVATOR SHAFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Direct shaft torque measurements in a transient turbine facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul F. Beard; Thomas Povey

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a shaft torque measurement system for the Oxford Turbine Research Facility (formerly the Turbine Test Facility (TTF) at QinetiQ, Farnborough), or OTRF. As part of the recent EU TATEF II programme, the facility was upgraded to allow turbine efficiency measurements to be performed. A shaft torque measurement system was developed as part

  16. Shaft Siting and Configuration for Flexible Operating Mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Boutin

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this document as stated in the ''Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities'' (CRWMS M&O 2001a, pg. 14) is to review and evaluate the most current concepts for shaft siting and configuration. The locations of the shaft sites will be evaluated in reference to the overall subsurface ventilation layout shown in Figure 1.

  17. Monitoring the Blind Shaft Borer Project, Oak Grove, Alabama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Amstutz; T. Danowski

    1982-01-01

    In 1974, plans of the United States to obtain energy self-sufficiency included a significant increase in coal production, primarily from new underground mines in the Eastern states. The poor condition of coal shaft sinking companies was a major concern. The US Bureau of Mines perceived similarities between shaft sinking and tunnel boring and felt that a machine could be produced

  18. ROTATING-SHAFT HELIUM SEAL INVESTIGATION. Status Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. K. Orcutt; J. C. Bell; W. A. Glaeser; C. M. Allen

    1959-01-01

    A research program was conducted to study positive rotating-shaft seals ; using helium for high-speed turbomachinery. Materials were evaluated to ; determine their - resistance to high-speed rubbing contact in helium, and a ; theoretical analysis of gas leakage past dry pressure seals was made. It is ; concluded that a dry face-type shaft seal can be developed if satisfactory

  19. Estimation of angular velocity and acceleration from shaft encoder measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Belanger

    1992-01-01

    The output of a shaft encoder is basically a quantized measurement of the shaft angle. One method of angular velocity and acceleration measurement is by finite difference of angle measurements (net pulse counts) at regular time samples. It is shown that these estimates become significantly degraded as sampling rates increase. Kalman filtering of the angle measurements, based on some model

  20. BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING TO REDUCTION GEAR SHAFTING. FERREL SPEED REDUCER IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST. NOTE TWO DIAGONAL LINES: TORQUE CONVERTER CABLE (IN PIECE OF WHITE GUTTER), THROTTLE CABLE (IN LOWER STEEL TUBING). - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  1. 8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the northwest, with turbine shaft and thrust bearing visible in upper center of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  2. 27. VIEW OF CRANK SHAFTS FROM TRIPLE EXPANSION ENGINE CONNECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW OF CRANK SHAFTS FROM TRIPLE EXPANSION ENGINE CONNECTED TO THE MAIN SHAFT LOCATED IN ENGINE ROOM CLOSEST CRANK IS IN THE UP POSITION. VIEW IS FROM NUMBER 2 END. - San Mateo Ferry, South end of Lake Union, Seattle, King County, WA

  3. Improved Rotary Transformer For Shaft-Position Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    Improved rotary transformer for Inductosyn (or equivalent) shaft-position-indicating circuit has pair of ferrite cores instead of the solid-iron cores. Designed with view toward decreasing excitation power (to maximum allowable 2 W) supplied to shaft-position-indicating circuit to increase its output signal and make tracking system less vulnerable to electromagnetic interference.

  4. Rotating Internal Damping in the Case of Composite Shafts

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ,7...]. Because of the specific strength and stiffness of high performance fiber reinforced materials, attempts are being made to replace metal shafts by composite ones in many applications: driveshafts for helicopters. For composite shafts, equivalent modulus beam theory (EMBT) based on classical laminate theory, has many

  5. Large power PWM IGBT converter for shaft alternator systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giacomo Marina; E. Gatti

    2004-01-01

    The use of shaft alternators in marine application is well known as a convenient and efficient way to supply all the electrical loads of a ship with two main purposes: sharing active and reactive power with the auxiliary generators installed on board and operating in stand alone configuration when the ship travels at cruising speed. An innovative shaft alternator system

  6. Spiral-grooved shaft seals substantially reduce leakage and wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. P.; Johnson, R. L.; Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1968-01-01

    Rotating shaft seals used in space power systems have spiral grooves in one or both of the opposing seal faces. These grooves induce a pumping action which displaces the intervening fluid radially inward toward the shaft and counters the centrifugal forces which tend to displace the fluid outward.

  7. 7. DETAIL VIEW NORTH OF TURBINE OUTPUT SHAFT, FLYWHEEL (RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW NORTH OF TURBINE OUTPUT SHAFT, FLYWHEEL (RIGHT CENTER), VERTICAL SHAFT TO GOVERNOR WITH RACK-AND-PINION GEARING (LEFT), AND BELTS - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  8. Ultra-structural hair alterations in Friedreich's ataxia: A scanning electron microscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Turkmenoglu, F Pinar; Kasirga, U Baran; Celik, H Hamdi

    2015-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder involving progressive damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems and cardiomyopathy. FRDA is caused by the silencing of the FXN gene and reduced levels of the encoded protein, frataxin. Frataxin is a mitochondrial protein that functions primarily in iron-sulfur cluster synthesis. Skin disorders including hair abnormalities have previously been reported in patients with mitochondrial disorders. However, to our knowledge, ultra-structural hair alterations in FRDA were not demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine ultra-structural alterations in the hairs of FRDA patients as well as carriers. Hair specimen from four patients, who are in different stages of the disease, and two carriers were examined by scanning electron microscope. Thin and weak hair follicles with absence of homogeneities on the cuticular surface, local damages of the cuticular layer, cuticular fractures were detected in both carriers and patients, but these alterations were much more prominent in the hair follicles of patients. In addition, erosions on the surface of the cuticle and local deep cavities just under the cuticular level were observed only in patients. Indistinct cuticular pattern, pores on the cuticular surface, and presence of concavities on the hair follicle were also detected in patients in later stages of the disease. According to our results, progression of the disease increased the alterations on hair structure. We suggest that ultra-structural alterations observed in hair samples might be due to oxidative stress caused by deficient frataxin expression in mitochondria. Microsc. Res. Tech. 78:731-736, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26138268

  9. Experimental investigation of rotorcraft hub and shaft fairing drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.; Graham, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    A wind-tunnel test was conducted to obtain data on several rotorcraft hub and shaft fairing drag reduction configurations. Aerodynamic loads and moments were acquired for each test configuration. Limited wake pressure measurements and flow visualization (tuft) photographs were obtained for some configurations. All hub and shaft fairing configurations were tested on a 1/5-scale XH-59A model fuselage. Both coaxial and single rotor configurations were tested. All rotor assemblies were modeled with nonrotating hardware. The drag reduction methods tested included cambered elliptical hub fairings, several different shaft fairings, and strakes. Test data show that significant drag reductions can be attained with certain fairing configurations. The lowest drag values for the single rotor configurations were obtained for a cambered elliptical hub fairing with a large thickness airfoil shaft fairing. The lowest coaxial configuration drag values were obtained with cambered elliptical hub fairings and a long chord intermediate shaft fairing.

  10. New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

  11. Pili annulati with fragility: Electron microscopic findings of a case

    PubMed Central

    Akoglu, Gulsen; Emre, Selma; Metin, Ahmet; Erbil, K Mine; Akpolat, Demet; Firat, Aysegul; Hayran, Murvet

    2012-01-01

    Pili annulati (PA) is typically characterized by shinny beads seen along the hair shaft. PA is accepted to belong to the classification of hair shaft abnormalities without fragility. Herein, we described a 14-year-old, fair skin with dark-haired girl diagnosed as PA with fragility which was demonstrated by weathering features in electron microscopic examinations. The patient had shinny beaded, easily breakable hairs since the age of four. A few broken hairs were observed by a light pull test. Transmitted light microscopy revealed periodic dark bands in the hair shaft. These dark bands disappeared after application of 10% aqueous potassium hydroxide. Multiple cavities within hair shaft and severe cuticular damages representing the weathering pattern were observed in electron microscopic examinations. All these findings were found to be consistent with presence of fragility in PA. This case provides evidences of fragile hair structure of PA which may be due to pathological cavities within hair shafts. PMID:23180916

  12. Formation of surface membranes in developing mammalian hair fibres.

    PubMed

    Jones, L N; Horr, T J; Kaplin, I J

    1994-01-01

    Mammalian hair fibres result from complex mechanisms involving synthesis, assembly and stabilisation of keratin proteins in the follicle. The developing hair shaft consists of outer cuticle cells surrounding cortical and medullary (optional) cell types. Presumptive fibre cuticle (FC) is contained by the inner root sheath (IRS) consisting of IRS cuticle, Huxley and Henle cells which are in turn enclosed in an outer root sheath (ORS) of epidermal-like cells. In the current structural studies we have used energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (Zeiss 902A) on Merino sheep skin biopsies to examine the fine sequence of morphological changes involved in forming the fibre surface membrane and the associated underlying structural bands comprising the a-layer and exocuticle. Prior to the development of the exocuticle, FC cells demonstrate a typical plasma-membrane apposed to IRS cuticle plasma-membranes separated by an intercellular space. The formation of exocuticular lamellae is followed by degradation of the residual FC surface membrane and the appearance of intercellular laminae demonstrating a stained central band. As maturation continues cleavage between IRS cuticle and FC occurs along this central band liberating hair into the pilary canal. The mature surface consists of keratinized cells containing a well developed exocuticle and a-layer coated with paired lamina (presumably two lipid containing bilayers) of material approximately 10-12 nm thick derived from the intercellular laminae. The current observations show FC surface formation is similar to processes occurring in epidermal stratum corneum and that the cuticle surface membrane of mammalian fibres is not derived from a modified plasma-membrane as previously documented. PMID:7881896

  13. Evaluation of deep shaft biological wastewater treatment process at Ithaca, New York. Final report Oct 79-Aug 81

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinn, D.E.; Storrier, D.F.; Butterworth, R.

    1983-10-01

    The major objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of the Deep Shaft biological treatment process and to evaluate its application for the treatment of municipal wastewater. A 757-cu m day (0.2-mgd) pilot plant facility was constructed at the existing wastewater treatment plant site in Ithaca, New York, for this purpose. Performance of the Deep Shaft process was evaluated under a variety of operating conditions including raw wastewater and primary effluent as influent sources, constant and diurnal (varying) flow patterns, with and without polymer addition as a flotation aid, and with alum addition for a short period for phosphorus removal. Pilot plant influent characteristics were not typical of domestic raw wastewater or primary effluent as had been anticipated in selecting Ithaca as the project site as a result of the practice of returning partially ground screenings and abnormally strong anaerobic digester supernatant to the main plant headworks.

  14. African-American Hair: Tips for Everyday Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health and beauty Hair care African-American hair African-American hair: Tips for everyday care Unique in appearance and structure, African-American hair is especially fragile and prone to injury ...

  15. Exploratory Shaft Facility geotechnical sensitivity report

    SciTech Connect

    Lentell, R.

    1986-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the design sensitivity of various components of the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) to the geotechnical and hydrological data needed for design and construction of the facility. The data fall into two broad categories: data used directly in design calculations and data used indirectly in the design and construction process. Design elements are much more sensitive to data that is used directly in design calculations than to the data that is used indirectly, and the degree of sensitivity can be used as a means of prioritizing the data gathering activities. The geotechnical and hydrological parameters that are directly used in design studies, the design elements that are effected by the parameters, and the relative sensitivity to the given parameter are briefly summarized. 9 refs., 10 tabs.

  16. The influence of cracks in rotating shafts

    E-print Network

    Sinou, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of transverse cracks in a rotating shaft is analysed. The paper addresses the two distinct issues of the changes in modal properties and the influence of crack breathing on dynamic response during operation. Moreover, the evolution of the orbit of a cracked rotor near half of the first resonance frequency is investigated. The results provide a possible basis for an on-line monitoring system. In order to conduct this study, the dynamic response of a rotor with a breathing crack is evaluated by using the alternate frequency/time domain approach. It is shown that this method evaluates the nonlinear behaviour of the rotor system rapidly and efficiently by modelling the breathing crack with a truncated Fourier series. The dynamic response obtained by applying this method is compared with that evaluated through numerical integration. The resulting orbit during transient operation is presented and some distinguishing features of a cracked rotor are examined.

  17. The influence of cracks in rotating shafts

    E-print Network

    Jean-Jacques Sinou; A. W. Lees

    2008-01-19

    In this paper, the influence of transverse cracks in a rotating shaft is analysed. The paper addresses the two distinct issues of the changes in modal properties and the influence of crack breathing on dynamic response during operation. Moreover, the evolution of the orbit of a cracked rotor near half of the first resonance frequency is investigated. The results provide a possible basis for an on-line monitoring system. In order to conduct this study, the dynamic response of a rotor with a breathing crack is evaluated by using the alternate frequency/time domain approach. It is shown that this method evaluates the nonlinear behaviour of the rotor system rapidly and efficiently by modelling the breathing crack with a truncated Fourier series. The dynamic response obtained by applying this method is compared with that evaluated through numerical integration. The resulting orbit during transient operation is presented and some distinguishing features of a cracked rotor are examined.

  18. Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.

    PubMed

    Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

    2013-06-01

    Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. PMID:23301816

  19. Hair breakage during combing. IV. Brushing and combing hair.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Clarence; Kamath, Yash

    2007-01-01

    During combing of hair, longer fiber breaks (>2.5 cm) occur principally by impact loading of looped crossover hairs, while short segment breaks (<2.5 cm) occur primarily by end wrapping. Brushing provides breakage similarly but with a higher ratio of long-to-short segment breaks, and the ratio of long-to-short segment breaks (L/S) is a good way to follow these two pathways of breakage under different conditions. For example, bleaching hair, a longer comb stroke, increasing fiber curvature, wet combing versus dry combing, and brushing versus combing all provide for an increase in long segment breaks and this ratio, with the largest effect produced by brushing. PMID:18305876

  20. DC Control Effort Minimized for Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic-bearing-supported shaft may have a number of concentricity and alignment problems. One of these involves the relationship of the position sensors, the centerline of the backup bearings, and the magnetic center of the magnetic bearings. For magnetic bearings with permanent magnet biasing, the average control current for a given control axis that is not bearing the shaft weight will be minimized if the shaft is centered, on average over a revolution, at the magnetic center of the bearings. That position may not yield zero sensor output or center the shaft in the backup bearing clearance. The desired shaft position that gives zero average current can be achieved if a simple additional term is added to the control law. Suppose that the instantaneous control currents from each bearing are available from measurements and can be input into the control computer. If each control current is integrated with a very small rate of accumulation and the result is added to the control output, the shaft will gradually move to a position where the control current averages to zero over many revolutions. This will occur regardless of any offsets of the position sensor inputs. At that position, the average control effort is minimized in comparison to other possible locations of the shaft. Nonlinearities of the magnetic bearing are minimized at that location as well.

  1. 1. Introduction: current issues in hair loss-related disorders

    E-print Network

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    1. Introduction: current issues in hair loss-related disorders 2. Basic biology of hair follicles 3. Physiological regeneration: modulating the regeneration of existing hair follicles by the extra-hair follicle environment and systemic hormone factors 4. Regeneration of hair fibers from existing follicles after hair

  2. [Interrelations between physician, hairdresser and mass media in management of hair loss].

    PubMed

    Trüeb, R M

    2000-10-01

    Hair problems are attacked at the levels of information supply, trichological competence and evidence based medical treatment. The alopecias represent a major health care challenge, and the psychological significance of hair loss has only recently found appreciation in the medical community. They may pose a vexing problem for non-specialized physicians, who tend to trivialize such complaints, although the patient's perception of abnormality determines whether or not advice is sought. Perception of a hair problem is subject to sociocultural standards; films and advertisements help determine the threshold for "normality" and what is "healthy" and "beautiful", and the media provide an abundance of undiscriminating information with respect to hair care. Patients with hair problems frequently consult the hairdresser prior to the medical specialist. Thus additional areas of competence should be incorporated into the hairdresser's training qualifications. Besides manual, creative and psychological aptitudes, "trichological competence" relating to the recognition of most important hair disorders, recognition of personal limitations and cooperation with the medical specialist are required. To optimize the interaction between the physician, hairdressers and the media, more effective communication and public activities from the medical profession are desirable, with success depending on full identification of the set goals, qualification and adherence to the standards determined by the medical speciality. PMID:11153357

  3. Hair loss in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Todorova, Antonia; Al Khuzaei, Safaa; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Ring, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Hair loss in elderly women has been becoming a major topic in the daily practice of dermatology. Aging of hair follicles seems to affect hair growth and pigmentation, the molecular mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Further senile changes in physiology and immunity may influence the onset and course of hair diseases. Some preexisting diseases such as androgenetic alopecia usually worsen after menopause, while others, like discoid lupus erythematosus, may attenuate. Hormone surveying, especially with regard to internal androgen-producing tumors, is indicated in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia of sudden exacerbation or with unusual manifestation or other virilizing signs. The prevalence of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis appears to be much lower in postmenopausal ages as compared to earlier onset. Acute or chronic telogen effluvium is not uncommonly superimposed on androgenetic alopecia. Trichotillomania shows a marked female predominance in the senile age group with a higher rate of psychopathology. Worldwide, tinea capitis has been increasingly observed in postmenopausal women. Frontal fibrosing alopecia, giant cell arteritis and erosive pustular dermatosis involve mainly elder women leading to scarring alopecia. Alopecia induced by tumor metastasis to the scalp must be considered in women with underlying neoplasms, especially breast cancer. Overall, hair loss in postmenopausal women is often multifactorial and warrants a close inspection. PMID:20172841

  4. Evaluation of the permeability of hair growing ingredient encapsulated PLGA nanospheres to hair follicles and their hair growing effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Tsujimoto; Kaori Hara; Yusuke Tsukada; C. C. Huang; Yoshiaki Kawashima; Minoru Arakaki; Hajime Okayasu; Haruko Mimura; Nobuhiko Miwa

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the process of encapsulating hair growing ingredients in the PLGA nanospheres by emulsion solvent diffusion method and investigates the feasibility of using the PLGA nanospheres as the DDS (Drug delivery System) carriers for delivering various hair growing ingredients to hair follicles. In-vitro and in-vivo tests were conducted to verify the performances of encapsulated PLGA nanospheres with three

  5. THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HAIR II. CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS AND PATHOLOGICAL HAIRS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lowell A. Goldsmith; Howard P. Baden

    1971-01-01

    The direct measurement of the ultrasonically determined modulus of elasticity (UME) has been extended to chemically modified hair and to pathological hairs. Single hairs are equilibrated at 75% relative humidity and studied with simultaneous stress-strain tests and direct measurements of the UME. Disulfide reduction with IM dithiothreitol produced more extensible hairs in which the UME retains its characteristic relationship to

  6. A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching Hong Chen and Song Chun Zhu

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Song Chun

    in graphics. We decompose a color hair im- age into three bands: a color band (a) (by Luv transform), a lowA Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching Hong Chen and Song Chun Zhu Departments Human hair is a very complex visual pattern whose rep- resentation is rarely studied in the vision

  7. Active Hair Bundle Motion Linked to Fast Transducer Adaptation in Auditory Hair Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Ricci; A. C. Crawford; R. Fettiplace

    2000-01-01

    During transduction in auditory hair cells, hair bundle deflection opens mechanotransducer channels that subsequently reclose or adapt to maintained stimuli, a major component of the adap- tation occurring on a submillisecond time scale. Using a photo- diode imaging technique, we measured hair bundle motion in voltage-clamped turtle hair cells to search for a mechanical correlate of fast adaptation. Excitatory force

  8. Seasonality of Hair Shedding in Healthy Women Complaining of Hair Loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kunz; Burkhardt Seifert; Ralph M. Trüeb

    2009-01-01

    Background: A number of otherwise healthy women with or without clinical alopecia complain of recurrent hair loss, presumably reflecting seasonality in the growth and shedding of hair. Objective: To test the hypothesis that periodicity in hair shedding reflects seasonal changes in human hair growth. Methods: Retrospective case study over a period of 6 years of apparently healthy women with the

  9. A new protocol for radiocarbon dating of hair and keratin type samples—application to an Andean mummy from the National Museum of Natural History in Paris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascale Richardin; Nathalie Gandolfo; Pauline Carminati; Philippe Walter

    The protocol of preparation of keratinized samples (e.g. hair, furs …) for radiocarbon dating that we have developed is based\\u000a on the selective extraction of keratin from the bulk part of the shaft (cortex). The aim of this method is to eliminate the\\u000a cuticle which could contain exogenous carbon from external contaminations. The total treatment takes place as follows: a

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Cartilage-hair hypoplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of each hair, which contains some of the pigment that contributes the hair's color, is missing. The ... system ; immunodeficiency ; incidence ; inherited ; leukemia ; lymphoma ; mitochondria ; molecule ; pigment ; population ; protein ; recessive ; respiratory ; ribosomal RNA ; RNA ; short ...

  11. Mechanical coupling for a rotor shaft assembly of dissimilar materials

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Jun (Glastonbury, CT); Bombara, David (New Hartford, CT); Green, Kevin E. (Broad Brook, CT); Bird, Connic (Rocky Hill, CT); Holowczak, John (South Windsor, CT)

    2009-05-05

    A mechanical coupling for coupling a ceramic disc member to a metallic shaft includes a first wedge clamp and a second wedge clamp. A fastener engages a threaded end of a tie-bolt to sandwich the ceramic disc between the wedge clamps. An axial spring is positioned between the fastener and the second wedge clamp to apply an axial preload along the longitudinal axis. Another coupling utilizes a rotor shaft end of a metallic rotor shaft as one wedge clamp. Still another coupling includes a solid ceramic rotor disc with a multiple of tie-bolts radially displaced from the longitudinal axis to exert the preload on the solid ceramic rotor disc.

  12. Noncontact Measurement Of Shaft Speed, Torque, And Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.

    1993-01-01

    Noncontact fiber-optic sensor and associated electronic equipment measure twist and speed of rotation of shaft. Measurements determine torque and power. Response of sensor remains linear even at cryogenic temperatures. Reflective strips on rotating shaft reflect two series of light pulses back into optical system. Bidirectional coupler in each of two optical fiber paths separates reflected light from incident light, sending it to photodiode for output to analog-to-digital converter and computer. Sensor requires no slip rings or telemetry to transfer signals from shaft. Well suited for providing data on performances of turbopumps for such cryogenic fluids as liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.

  13. MEMBRANE ELECTROMECHANICS AT HAIR-CELL SYNAPSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. BROWNELL; B. FARRELL; R. M. RAPHAEL

    Both outer hair cell electromotility and neurotransmission at the inner hair cell synapse are rapid mechanical events that are synchronized to the hair-cell receptor potential. We analyze whether the forces and potentials resulting from membrane flexoelectricity could affect synaptic vesicle fusion. The results suggest that the coupling of membrane curvature with membrane potential is of sufficient magnitude to influence neurotransmitter

  14. Light scattering from human hair fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen R. Marschner; Henrik Wann Jensen; Mike Cammarano; Steve Worley; Pat Hanrahan

    2003-01-01

    Light scattering from hair is normally simulated in computer graphics using Kajiya and Kay's classic phenomenological model. We have made new measurements of scattering from individual hair fibers that exhibit visually significant effects not predicted by Kajiya and Kay's model. Our measurements go beyond previous hair measurements by examining out-of-plane scattering, and together with this previous work they show a

  15. Detection, Analysis and Matching of Hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaser Yacoob; Larry S. Davis

    2005-01-01

    We develop computational models for measuring hair appearance for comparing different people. The models and methods developed have applications to person recognition and face image indexing. An automatic hair detection algorithm is described and results reported. A multidimensional representation of hair appearance is presented and computational algorithms are described. Results on a dataset of 524 subjects are reported. Identification of

  16. Effect of hair color on luster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. KEIS; K. R. RAMAPRASAD; Y. K. KAMATH

    2004-01-01

    The effect of color on instrumentally evaluated luster of hair dyed to different colors and depths of shades is studied. For natural hair colors, such as blond, brown, and black, the increase in luster with increasing color is associated with a decrease in diffusely scattered light as a result of light absorption by melanin granules. On dyed hair the interpretation

  17. Gene Delivery to the Hair Follicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manabu Ohyama; Jonathan C. Vogel

    2003-01-01

    Skin and appendages such as hair follicles are attractive candidates for gene therapy targets because they are easily accessible and can be removed and genetically manipulated in culture. Hair follicles are of special interest because our understanding of hair follicle biology and pathophysiology has progressed significantly in recent years, and we now have a much better understanding of how genes,

  18. Desmoplakin mutations with palmoplantar keratoderma, woolly hair and cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Pigors, Manuela; Schwieger-Briel, Agnes; Cosgarea, Rodica; Diaconeasa, Adriana; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fleck, Thilo; Has, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in genes encoding for desmosomal components are associated with a broad spectrum of phenotypes comprising skin and hair abnormalities and account for 45-50% of cases of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Today, more than 120 dominant and recessive desmoplakin (DSP) gene mutations have been reported to be associated with skin, hair and/or heart defects. Here we report on 3 cases with yet unreported DSP mutations, c.7566_7567delAAinsC, p.R2522Sfs*39, c.7756C>T, p.R2586*, c.2131_2132delAG and c.1067C>A, p.T356K, that were associated with variable woolly hair or hypotrichosis, palmoplantar keratoderma, and cardiac manifestations. In addition, we review and summarise the clinical features and DSP mutations of the patients described in the literature, which illustrates the complexity of this group of disorders and of their genotype-phenotype correlations, which cannot be easily predicted. Early diagnosis is crucial and cardiac examinations have to be performed on a regular basis. PMID:25227139

  19. Effects of intratympanic gentamicin on vestibular afferents and hair cells in the chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Timo P; Minor, Lloyd B; Hullar, Timothy E; Carey, John P

    2005-02-01

    Gentamicin is toxic to vestibular hair cells, but its effects on vestibular afferents have not been defined. We treated anesthetized chinchillas with one injection of gentamicin (26.7 mg/ml) into the middle ear and made extracellular recordings from afferents after 5-25 (early) or 90-115 days (late). The relative proportions of regular, intermediate, and irregular afferents did not change after treatment. The spontaneous firing rate of regular afferents was lower (P < 0.001) on the treated side (early: 44.3 +/- 16.3; late: 33.9 +/- 13.2 spikes x s(-1)) than on the untreated side (54.9 +/- 16.8 spikes x s(-1)). Spontaneous rates of irregular and intermediate afferents did not change. The majority of treated afferents did not measurably respond to tilt or rotation (82% in the early group, 76% in the late group). Those that did respond had abnormally low sensitivities (P < 0.001). Treated canal units that responded to rotation had mean sensitivities only 5-7% of the values for untreated canal afferents. Treated otolith afferents had mean sensitivities 23-28% of the values for untreated otolith units. Sensitivity to externally applied galvanic currents was unaffected for all afferents. Intratympanic gentamicin treatment reduced the histological density of all hair cells by 57% (P = 0.04). The density of hair cells with calyx endings was reduced by 99% (P = 0.03), although some remaining hair cells had other features suggestive of type I morphology. Type II hair cell density was not significantly reduced. These findings suggest that a single intratympanic gentamicin injection causes partial damage and loss of vestibular hair cells, particularly type I hair cells or their calyceal afferent endings, does not damage the afferent spike initiation zones, and preserves enough hair cell synaptic activity to drive the spontaneous activity of vestibular afferents. PMID:15456806

  20. A cracked beam finite element for rotating shaft dynamics and stability analysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A cracked beam finite element for rotating shaft dynamics and stability analysis Saber El Arem shaft is carried using the Floquet theory. Key words: breathing crack, beam, unilateral contact, finite. Thus, the risk of turbogenerator shaft cracking is increasing also. Rotating shafts are omnipresent

  1. Investigation on the failure of the gear shaft connected to extruder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing JianPing; Meng Guang

    2008-01-01

    In respect to the fracture of the gear shaft of an extruder, the torque on the shaft replaced the fractured one is measured under typical work conditions. The fatigue and material mechanics properties of the fractured shaft are obtained by tensile and fatigue test. Based on the analysis of cyclic fatigue load and the stress of gear shaft, the reason

  2. Hair Melanins and Hair Color: Ultrastructural and Biochemical Aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Ortonne; Giuseppe Prota

    1993-01-01

    The color variants of mammalian hair, including spotting and albinism, are the result of melanocyte activity and have been shown to be determined by the action of multiple genes, some of which operate through the milieu in which the pigment cell resides; others appear to act intracellularly to control the type of melanogenesis. Although there has been much descriptive work

  3. An examination of the utility of a nuclear DNA/mitochondrial DNA duplex qPCR assay to assess surface decontamination of hair.

    PubMed

    Date-Chong, Mavis; Buoncristiani, Martin R; Aceves, Margaret; Orrego, Cristián

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this study was to compare two commonly used methods for the surface decontamination of human hair shafts, and to evaluate the use of a duplex real-time qPCR assay to assess decontamination effectiveness for the purpose of mitochondrial DNA typing. Hair shafts of known mitochondrial DNA haplotype were coated with undiluted saliva, semen or blood, each of known mitochondrial haplotype distinct from the test hair. Surface decontamination was conducted by enzymatic treatment with Terg-a-zyme™ and by chemical treatment with dilutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO, bleach). Following DNA extraction, a duplex (nuclear and mitochondrial DNA) real-time qPCR assay was used to quantify mitochondrial DNA and to test for surface contamination by quantifying the exogenous nuclear DNA not removed from the hair shaft. The NaClO treatment was found to be more effective for removing surface contamination than the Terg-a-zyme™ treatment, and it was procedurally simpler to implement, resulting in a significant savings of sample processing time. Exposure to 3% NaClO for up to two minutes had no detrimental effect on quantity or typing of the mitochondrial DNA belonging to the hair. In addition, we demonstrated that the duplex real-time PCR assay is a convenient early-warning diagnostic method for the detection of the presence of external DNA contamination, providing an assessment of the purity of the sample prior to embarking on further analysis by more laborious mitochondrial DNA typing methods. PMID:23582697

  4. 28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. VERTICAL SHAFT GOES TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. VERTICAL SHAFT GOES TO CAPSTAN BARREL. LARGE DRUM ON LEFT PART OF SPUD ENGINE CABLE DRUM. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 8. Detail of gears, drive shaft and connection at bridgeway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of gears, drive shaft and connection at bridgeway - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  6. 11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME SUPPORT LOGS; VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  7. 5. SHAFT HOUSE, EAST ELEVATION; VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST; (WASTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SHAFT HOUSE, EAST ELEVATION; VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST; (WASTE ROCK/SPOIL PILE IN THE FOREGROUND). - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  8. 1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE AS THE PROJECTING SUPERSTRUCTURE). - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  9. 1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM AND FURNACE). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Steel Skimmer Salt Roaster, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  10. Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servomotor and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servo-motor and operating ring (left foreground) and hand wheel for butterfly valve (right background) - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Dam and Powerhouse, Morony Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  11. 15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  12. 13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  13. Long-term brine migration through an engineered shaft seal system

    SciTech Connect

    Fryar, D.G.; Beach, J.A.; Kelley, V.A. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Knowles, M.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1997-07-01

    The shaft seal system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) must provide a barrier to the migration of fluids within the shafts to prevent the release of contaminants to the accessible environment. To investigate the performance of the shaft seal system, a set of fluid flow performance models was developed based upon the physical characteristics of the WIPP shaft seal system and the surrounding geologic media. This paper describes the results of a numerical model used to investigate the long-term potential for brine migration through the shaft seal system. Modeling results demonstrate that the WIPP shaft seal system will effectively limit brine migration within the repository shafts.

  14. The current status of microscopical hair comparisons.

    PubMed

    Rowe, W F

    2001-12-01

    Although the microscopical comparison of human hairs has been accepted in courts of law for over a century, recent advances in DNA technology have called this type of forensic examination into question. In a number of cases, post-conviction DNA testing has exonerated defendants who were convicted in part on the results of microscopical hair comparisons. A federal judge has held a Daubert hearing on the microscopical comparison of human hairs and has concluded that this type of examination does not meet the criteria for admission of scientific evidence in federal courts. A review of the available scientific literature on microscopical hair comparisons (including studies conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Federal Bureau of Investigation) leads to three conclusions: (1) microscopical comparisons of human hairs can yield scientifically defensible conclusions that can contribute to criminal investigations and criminal prosecutions, (2) the reliability of microscopical hair comparisons is strongly affected by the training of the forensic hair examiner, (3) forensic hair examiners cannot offer estimates of the probability of a match of a questioned hair with a hair from a randomly selected person. In order for microscopical hair examinations to survive challenges under the U.S. Supreme Court's Daubert decision, hair microscopists must be better trained and undergo frequent proficiency testing. More research on the error rates of microscopical hair comparisons should be undertaken, and guidelines for the permissible interpretations of such comparisons should be established. Until these issues have been addressed and satisfactorily resolved, microscopical hair comparisons should be regarded by law enforcement agencies and courts of law as merely presumptive in nature, and all microscopical hair comparisons should be confirmed by nuclear DNA profiling or mitochondrial DNA sequencing. PMID:12805721

  15. Direct Measurement of Coupling between Dendritic Spines and Shafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karel Svoboda; David W. Tank; Winfried Denk

    1996-01-01

    Characterization of the diffusional and electrotonic coupling of spines to the dendritic shaft is crucial to understanding neuronal integration and synaptic plasticity. Two-photon photobleaching and photorelease of fluorescein dextran were used to generate concentration gradients between spines and shafts in rat CA1 pyramidal neurons. Diffusional reequilibration was monitored with two-photon fluorescence imaging. The time course of reequilibration was exponential, with

  16. Measuring Motor-Shaft Clearance And Wobble During Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin James

    1996-01-01

    Noncontact proximity sensor, preferably eddy-current liftoff probe, provides realtime measurement of distance and small variations of distance between two mechanical components designed to be maintained at precise, fixed distance. In particular, system intended for use in measuring lateral clearance and variations in lateral clearance (wobble) of motor shaft relative to motor housing while shaft turning. Provides early indication of wear in motor bearings. Rate of rotation also measured.

  17. Automatic Tension Adjuster For Flexible-Shaft Grinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Flexible shaft of grinding tool automatically maintained in tension by air pressure. Probelike tool bent to reach hard-to-reach areas for grinding and polishing. Unless shaft held in tension, however, it rubs against its sheath, overheating and wearing out quickly. By taking up slack in flexible cable, tension adjuster reduces friction and enables tool to operate more efficiently, in addition to lengthening operating life.

  18. High-Resolution Optoelectronic Shaft-Angle Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.

    1994-01-01

    Improved optoelectronic encoder measures absolute angle to which shaft has been rotated. Costs little more than older, less capable encoders do, yet measures absolute angles at high resolution and does not lose absolute-angle data because generates those data anew with each reading at up to 1,000 times per second. It accumulates increments to measure total angular interval through which shaft has been turned (including unlimited number of complete turns), as long as power remains on.

  19. Balancing of high speed, flexible rotating shafts across critical speeds

    E-print Network

    White, Gary Paul

    1977-01-01

    BALANCING OF HIGH SPEED, FLEXIBLE ROTATING SHAFTS ACROSS CRITICAL SPEEDS A Thesis by Gary Paul White Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1977 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering Gary Paul White 1977 BALANCING OF HIGH SPEED, FLEXIBLE ROTATING SHAFTS ACROSS CRITICAL SPEEDS A Thesis by GARY PAUL WHITE Approved as to style and content by: Head of Department Member August...

  20. Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection.

    PubMed

    Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2012-06-23

    Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection. PMID:22171023

  1. Shaft Siting and Configuration for Flexible Operating Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Boutin

    2001-08-02

    The purpose of this document as stated in the ''Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities'' (CRWMS M&O 2001a, pg. 14) is to review and evaluate the most current concepts for shaft siting and configuration. The locations of the shaft sites will be evaluated in reference to the overall subsurface ventilation layout shown in Figure 1. The scope will include discussions on pad size requirements, shaft construction components such as collars, shaft stations, sumps, ground support and linings, head frames, fan ducting and facility equipping. In addition to these, shaft excavation methodologies and integration with the overall subsurface construction schedule will be described. The Technical Work Plan (TWP), (CRWMS M&O 2001a), for this document has been prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering and Regulatory Compliance Activities''. This document will be prepared in accordance with AP-3.10Q, ''Analysis and Models''. This document contributes to Site Recommendation (SR). The intended use of this document is to provide an analysis for shaft siting and configuration criteria for subsequent construction. This document identifies preliminary design concepts that should not be used for procurement, fabrication, or construction.

  2. Myosin VI is required for structural integrity of the apical surface of sensory hair cells in zebrafish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Seiler; Orit Ben-David; Samuel Sidi; Oliver Hendrich; Alfons Rusch; Beth Burnside; Karen B. Avraham; Teresa Nicolsona

    2004-01-01

    Unconventional myosins have been associated with hearing loss in humans, mice, and zebrafish. Mutations in myosin VI cause both recessive and dominant forms of nonsyndromic deafness in humans and deafness in Snell's waltzer mice associated with abnormal fusion of hair cell stereocilia. Although myosin VI has been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as vesicle trafficking and epithelial morphogenesis, the

  3. Apoptosis in the Hair Follicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia V Botchkareva; Gurpreet Ahluwalia; Douglas Shander

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in many physiological processes, ranging from morphogenetic events to adult tissue homeostasis, and defects in its regulation contribute to many disorders. Here we review molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in the hair follicle (HF), whose cyclical growth pattern is repeatedly interrupted by apoptosis-driven involution (catagen). We review the common mechanisms underlying apoptosis in the HF during

  4. The Mechanism of Hair Bleaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LESZEK J. WOLFRAM; I. HUI

    Synopsis--The color of mammalian HAIRS is due mainly to the inclusion of discrete, darkly colored MELANIN granules in the keratinized cytoplasmic protein of the fiber-forming cells. During BLEACHING the melanin pigment undergoes irreversible physicochemical changes which result either in the toning down or complete elimination of the original fiber color. The modification of the fiber protein (KERATIN) attendant upon bleaching

  5. Hair follicle sebaceous gland (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Each pore on the surface of the skin is an opening to a canal called a follicle. The follicle also contains a hair and an oil gland (sebaceous gland). The oil gland helps remove old skin cells, keeps the skin lubricated, and prevents ...

  6. On Hair Color in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Gilkerson; Leslie Lamport

    2004-01-01

    Sex-linked coloration is a familiar phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Most people are familiar with the bright coloration of the male in many species of birds [2]. Instances of sex-linking of hair color in mammals are rare, but not unknown. For example, the tricolor pattern in the domestic house cat felix domesticus is found almost exclusively in the female [4].

  7. Renal abnormalities in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Kirsztajn, G M; Nishida, S K; Silva, M S; Ajzen, H; Pereira, A B

    1993-01-01

    We have evaluated laboratory and clinical manifestations of renal disease in 96 patients with leprosy, looking for a sensitive and early marker for detection and possibly follow-up of nephropathy in these patients. Microscopic hematuria was observed in 21.9% of the cases (with dysmorphic erythrocytes in 71.4% of them). Abnormal microalbuminuria and urinary beta 2-microglobulin were found in 15.8 and 19.8% of the cases, respectively. We have observed a high frequency of hematuria, abnormal microalbuminuria and elevation of urinary beta 2-microglobulin in these patients still with normal serum creatinine. PMID:8289988

  8. Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

    2014-02-01

    Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

  9. Comparison between single-shaft and mutli-shaft gas fired 800 MWel combined cycle power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Edris

    2010-01-01

    Multi-shaft and single-shaft configurations allow customization to optimize plant performance, capital investment, construction and maintenance access, operating convenience, and minimum space requirements. Technical comparison between both configurations at partial loads has not been published before. This paper will primarily address a comparison between the two configurations based on thermodynamic simulation results for a gross power capacity of approximately 800 MWel at

  10. Transcriptional activation of a subset of hair keratin genes by the NF-kappaB effector p65/RelA.

    PubMed

    Gilon, Michal; Sher, Noa; Cohen, Shulamit; Gat, Uri

    2008-05-01

    The hair follicle is an intricate miniature organ dedicated to the production of the structural hair fiber, which is largely composed of hair keratin (HK) proteins. Many developmental pathways contribute to hair follicle development; however, the molecular control of HK genes is still far from being resolved. Because the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway is known to be involved in the morphogenesis of the hair follicle, we explored the possibility that it may also regulate HK expression. To this end, we analyzed the effect of p65/RelA, an NF-kappaB effector, on HK regulatory regions using transient transfections into tissue culture cells. Reporter assays on cells transfected with HK promoter constructs and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of endogenous HK gene activity demonstrated that p65 induces transcriptional activation of several HK genes of human and mouse origin, primarily that of acidic hair keratin 5 (Ha5). Focusing on the highly responsive human Ha5 gene, we defined the major NF-kappaB/RelA binding sites in its regulatory region and showed the direct binding of p65 to these sites using gel shift assays. We further show, using immunohistochemistry on human hair follicle sections, that p65 is co-expressed with HKs in the hair shaft compartment and may thus be the effector that mediates the NF-kappaB pathway's activity, which recently was genetically demonstrated to be active in the same region. Thus, we provide evidence for a previously unknown function of NF-kappaB in hair formation-direct activation of HK target genes-a function that may shed light on some of the symptoms of ectodermal dysplasias. PMID:18021261

  11. Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

  12. Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship between ion channel clustering and synaptic formation in hair cells and afferent neurons. In future studies, we will determine when hair cell precursors acquire electrical tuning, and, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, identify and characterize their L-VGCC and BK currents. We will also use biophysical techniques to determine the number of L-VGCC and BK channels and the size and gating kinetics of their underlying L-VGCC and BK conductances, correlating these variables with the amplitude and frequency of membrane oscillations produced by intracellular current steps. We expect these studies to determine how hair cells regulate ion channel expression to achieve specific physiological responses.

  13. Clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic features of body hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Panchaprateep, Ratchathorn; Tanus, Aline; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-05-01

    Dermoscopic examination of hair and scalp, also named "trichoscopy," is an essential tool in diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases. Trichoscopy is fast and noninvasive and can be used to evaluate hair disorders in all body areas. Body hair disorders are uncommon, and most publications on their dermoscopic features are limited to case reports or series. In this review we present the available information on the dermoscopic diagnosis of body hair disorders including keratosis pilaris, trichostasis spinulosa, pili multigemini, circle hairs, rolled hairs, eruptive vellus hair cyst, and ingrown hairs. PMID:25748313

  14. Study of hair surface energy and conditioning.

    PubMed

    Gao, Timothy; He, Yingxia; Landa, Peter; Tien, Jung-Mei

    2011-01-01

    A new test method has been developed to determine surface energy of hair fibers through measurements of contact angles at two hair/liquid interfaces. By measuring changes in surface energy of the same hair fiber before and after a cosmetic treatment, effects of active ingredients and the performance of tested formulations can be evaluated.The establishment of the method is based on Fowkes theory (1,2) described with two components, a dispersive and a non-dispersive component. The non-polar liquid used in this study was diiodomethane, and the polar liquid was benzyl alcohol. A Kruss 100 Tensiometer was used to measure contact angles of hair fibers. Virgin dark brown and regular bleached hairs were treated with selected conditioner formulations. Reductions in combing forces of hair tresses before and after respective treatments were correlated with decreases in average surface energy of hair fibers obtained from the corresponding tresses.Experimental results indicate that the average surface energy of hair fibers treated with conditioners decreases and the hydrophobicity of the hair surface increases, the results correlate well with the reduction in combing forces after respective treatments. This research work provides a new methodology to evaluate/screen conditioning performance of hair care ingredients and formulations for development of better products. PMID:21635842

  15. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one’s self esteem and emotional well-being, as one’s appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges.

  16. Hair restoration surgery: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem affecting both men and women. The most frequent etiology is androgenetic alopecia, but other causes of hair loss such as trauma, various dermatologic diseases, and systemic diseases can cause alopecia. The loss of hair can have profound effects on one's self esteem and emotional well-being, as one's appearance plays a role in the work place and interpersonal relationships. It is therefore not surprising that means to remedy hair loss are widely sought. Hair transplant surgery has become increasingly popular, and the results that we are able to create today are quite remarkable, providing a natural appearance when the procedure is performed well. In spite of this, hair transplant surgery is not perfect. It is not perfect because the hair transplant surgeon is still faced with challenges that prevent the achievement of optimal results. Some of these challenges include a limit to donor hair availability, hair survival, and ways to conceal any evidence of a surgical procedure having taken place. This article examines some of the most important challenges facing hair restoration surgery today and possible solutions to these challenges. PMID:26203266

  17. Visible Volume Buffer for Efficient Hair Expression and Shadow Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waiming Kong; Masayuki Nakajima

    1999-01-01

    Much research has been conducted on hair modeling and hair rendering with considerable success. However, the immense number of hair strands means that memory and CPU time requirements are very severe. To reduce the memory and the time needed for hair modeling and rendering, a visible volume buffer is proposed. Instead of using thousands of thin hairs, the memory usage

  18. Differentiation between drug use and environmental contamination when testing for drugs in hair.

    PubMed

    Tsanaclis, Lolita; Wicks, John F C

    2008-03-21

    The differentiation between systemic exposure and external contamination for certain drug groups has been frequently referred to as one of the limitations of in drug testing in hair. When hair samples are used, three steps are usually employed in order to minimise the possibility of external contamination causing a misinterpretation. The first consists of decontaminating hair samples by washing the hair before analysis, the second is the detection of the relevant metabolites in the hair samples and the third is the use of cut-off levels. Difficulty in the interpretation arises when metabolites are not detected either due to external contamination of the hair or low doses of the drugs used. A wash protocol needs to be practical and ideally remove any drug deposited on the external portion of the hair. We propose an additional step that helps considerably in the interpretation of the results with the aim to establish a consensus: the analysis of the wash residue (W) and its comparison with the levels detected in hair (H). The wash residue is the remainder of a quick wash with methanol which is dried and reconstituted in buffer before analysis. The detection of small quantities of analytes that are not susceptible to external contamination in the wash residue, such as metabolites or drugs such as dihydrocodeine, indicates that the washing procedure is in fact able to remove drugs from the hair shaft. Where the W/H ratio is less then 0.1 or null, it would tend to indicate drug use as opposed to environmental contamination. Where the W/H ratio is above 0.1 but less than 0.5, it is likely to indicate possible use possibly combined with a level of external contamination. A W/H ratio greater than 0.5 is likely to indicate that the source of most of the drug in the wash residue is from external contamination. In this last case, the source of levels detected in the hair is questionable, as it is not possible to be absolutely sure that all external contamination was removed, and so use cannot be confirmed. Two hundred and sixteen hair samples from a population where external contamination could be expected (Police Investigations on drug related cases) and their wash residue were analysed. The W/H ratios of 891 results were evaluated over 13 analytes. Between 74 and 100% of the analytes studied produced W/H ratios less than 0.5, in particular in cannabis (93%) and cocaine (95%), where external contamination is more likely because of the way the drug is used. The data do show that while it is very important to always be aware of alternative explanations for test results, the likelihood of external contamination confounding the interpretation of hair tests can be reduced to manageable proportions. PMID:17980987

  19. Deadly hairs, lethal feathers--convergent evolution of poisonous integument in mammals and birds.

    PubMed

    Plikus, Maksim V; Astrowski, Aliaksandr A

    2014-07-01

    Hairs and feathers are textbook examples of the convergent evolution of the follicular appendage structure between mammals and birds. While broadly recognized for their convergent thermoregulatory, camouflage and sexual display functions, hairs and feathers are rarely thought of as deadly defence tools. Several recent studies, however, show that in some species of mammals and birds, the integument can, in fact, be a de facto lethal weapon. One mammalian example is provided by African crested rats, which seek for and chew on the bark of plants containing the highly potent toxin, ouabain. These rats then coat their fur with ouabain-containing saliva. For efficient toxin retention, the rodents have evolved highly specialized fenestrated and mostly hollow hair shafts that soak up liquids, which essentially function as wicks. On the avian side of the vertebrate integumental variety spectrum, several species of birds of New Guinea have evolved resistance to highly potent batrachotoxins, which they acquire from their insect diet. While the mechanism of bird toxicity remains obscure, in a recently published issue of the journal, Dumbacher and Menon explore the intriguing idea that to achieve efficient storage of batrachotoxins in their skin, some birds exploit the basic permeability barrier function of their epidermis. Batrachotoxins become preferentially sequestered in their epidermis and are then transferred to feathers, likely through the exploitation of specialized avian lipid-storing multigranular body organelles. Here, we discuss wider implications of this intriguing concept. PMID:24698054

  20. Turbocharger control device with optical turbocharger shaft speed sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, M.; Kawahata, Y.; Akagi, M.

    1986-02-25

    A turbocharger control device for use in conjunction with an internal combustion engine, is described which consists of: a turbine operatively connected to an exhaust manifold of the engine to be driven to rotate by exhaust gases; a centrifugal compressor; a shaft connecting the compressor for rotation with the turbine; a casing surrounding, in part, the compressor and the shaft; photo projecting means positioned adjacent to the shaft within the casing; photo receiving means positioned diametrically opposite the photo projecting means on the opposite side and adjacent to the shaft within the casing; the shaft being provided with a diametrically penetrating hole; light source means; first means for coupling the light source means and the photo projecting means in respect to the transmission of light and for isolating the light source means from the casing in respect to the transmission of vibration and heat, converter means, including a photo-voltage converter; second means for coupling the converter means and the photo receiving means in respect to the transmission of light and for isolating the photo-voltage converter from the casing in respect to the transmission of vibration and heat; the photo-voltage converter generating an electrical signal in response to light pulse signals transmitted from the photo receiving means; control means connected electrically to the converter means for generating a control signal in response to the electrical signal; an actuator operatively connected to the control means for movement in response to the control signal.

  1. Method of lining a vertical mine shaft with concrete

    DOEpatents

    Eklund, James D. (Mattawa, WA); Halter, Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Spokane, WA); Sullivan, Robert G. (Richland, WA); Moffat, Robert B. (Federal Way, WA)

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus includes a cylindrical retainer form spaced inwardly of the wall of the shaft by the desired thickness of the liner to be poured and having overlapping edges which seal against concrete flow but permit the form to be contracted to a smaller circumference after the liner has hardened and is self-supporting. A curb ring extends downwardly and outwardly toward the shaft wall from the bottom of the retainer form to define the bottom surface of each poured liner section. An inflatable toroid forms a seal between the curb ring and the shaft wall. A form support gripper ring having gripper shoes laterally extendable under hydraulic power to engage the shaft wall supports the retainer form, curb ring and liner until the newly poured liner section becomes self-supporting. Adjusting hydraulic cylinders permit the curb ring and retainer form to be properly aligned relative to the form support gripper ring. After a liner section is self-supporting, an advancing system advances the retainer form, curb ring and form support gripper ring toward a shaft boring machine above which the liner is being formed. The advancing system also provides correct horizontal alignment of the form support gripper ring.

  2. Tibia shaft fractures: costly burden of nonunions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tibia shaft fractures (TSF) are common for men and women and cause substantial morbidity, healthcare use, and costs. The impact of nonunions on healthcare use and costs is poorly described. Our goal was to investigate patient characteristics and healthcare use and costs associated with TSF in patients with and without nonunion. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical claims in large U.S. managed care claims databases (Thomson Reuters MarketScan®, 16 million lives). We studied patients???18 years old with a TSF diagnosis (ICD-9 codes: 823.20, 823.22, 823.30, 823.32) in 2006 with continuous pharmaceutical and medical benefit enrollment 1 year prior and 2 years post-fracture. Nonunion was defined by ICD-9 code 733.82 (after the TSF date). Results Among the 853 patients with TSF, 99 (12%) had nonunion. Patients with nonunion had more comorbidities (30 vs. 21, pre-fracture) and were more likely to have their TSF open (87% vs. 70%) than those without nonunion. Patients with nonunion were more likely to have additional fractures during the 2-year follow-up (of lower limb [88.9% vs. 69.5%, P?

  3. Co-regulation of root hair tip growth by ROP GTPases and nitrogen source modulated pH fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Daria; Monshausen, Gabriele; Gilroy, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Growth of plant cells involves tight regulation of the cytoskeleton and vesicle trafficking by processes including the action of the ROP small G proteins together with pH-modulated cell wall modifications. Yet, little is known on how these systems are coordinated. In a paper recently published in Plant Cell and Environment1 we show that ROPs/RACs function synergistically with NH4NO3-modulated pH fluctuations to regulate root hair growth. Root hairs expand exclusively at their apical end in a strictly polarized manner by a process known as tip growth. The highly polarized secretion at the apex is maintained by a complex network of factors including the spatial organization of the actin cytoskeleton, tip-focused ion gradients and by small G proteins. Expression of constitutively active ROP mutants disrupts polar growth, inducing the formation of swollen root hairs. Root hairs are also known to elongate in an oscillating manner, which is correlated with oscillatory H+ fluxes at the tip. Our analysis shows that root hair elongation in wild type plants and swelling in transgenic plants expressing a constitutively active ROP11 (rop11CA) is sensitive to the presence of NH4+ at concentrations higher than 1 mM and on NO3?. The NH4+ and NO3? ions did not affect the localization of ROP in the membrane but modulated pH fluctuations at the root hair tip. Actin organization and reactive oxygen species distribution were abnormal in rop11CA root hairs but were similar to wild-type root hairs when seedlings were grown on medium lacking NH4+ and/or NO3?. These observations suggest that the nitrogen source-modulated pH fluctuations may function synergistically with ROP regulated signaling during root hair tip growth. Interestingly, under certain growth conditions, expression of rop11CA suppressed ammonium toxicity, similar to auxin resistant mutants. In this short review we discuss these findings and their implications. PMID:21673509

  4. [Developmental abnormalities and nevi of the scalp].

    PubMed

    Behle, V; Hamm, H

    2014-12-01

    Unusual congenital or early-onset skin lesions on the scalp often pose a diagnostic challenge particularly as the clinical evaluation may be hampered by dense hair growth. Thus, this paper provides a concise review on developmental abnormalities and nevi with exclusive or predominant scalp localization. Aplasia cutis congenita occurs as an isolated finding, in association with genetic syndromes, nevi and anomalies or as a consequence of intrauterine trauma and teratogens. A hairless area with a narrow surrounding rim of hypertrichosis (hair collar sign) may point to occult cranial dysraphism, especially if accompanied by further suggestive signs as port-wine stains, large hemangiomas, dimples, congenital dermoid cysts, and sinuses. Many diverse entities may hide behind cutis verticis gyrata with the primary essential form being rare and representing a diagnosis of exclusion. In contrast to former belief, benign adnexal tumors arise in a nevus sebaceus considerably more often than basal cell carcinomas and other malignant epithelial tumors. Provided that tumor development is not suspected, excision of a nevus sebaceus nevus is indicated primarily for aesthetic-psychosocial reasons. However, surgical treatment is considerably easier in small children. Nevus sebaceus may be a cutaneous marker for several complex syndromes whereas nevus psiloliparus presents almost always in connection with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis. Congenital melanocytic nevi of the scalp tend toward clinical regression, so that surgical intervention in large lesions should be carefully considered. In contrast, the threshold for excision of blue nevi and other conspicuous melanocytic nevi on the scalp should be low, especially since they are difficult to monitor. PMID:25298254

  5. A functional analysis of hair pulling.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, J T; Miltenberger, R G; Galensky, T L; Ellingson, S A; Long, E S

    1999-01-01

    We experimentally assessed the functions of hair pulling and hair manipulation of a 19-year-old woman (Kris) with moderate mental retardation and cerebral palsy. In Phase 1 a functional analysis revealed that Kris pulled and manipulated hair for the greatest amount of time in the alone condition, suggesting that the behaviors were maintained by some form of automatic reinforcement (Vaughan & Michael, 1982). In Phase 2 we assessed the nature of the sensory stimulation that maintained hair pulling by providing continuous access to previously pulled or cut hair and, thereafter, by having Kris wear a rubber glove. The results suggested that hair pulling was maintained by digital-tactile stimulation (automatic positive reinforcement). These findings are discussed, and recommendations for further analyses of automatically reinforced habit behaviors are provided. PMID:10513028

  6. Do Hair Bulb Melanocytes Undergo Apotosis During Hair Follicle Regression (Catagen)?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Desmond J. Tobin; Evelin Hagen; Vladimir A. Botchkarev; Ralf Paus

    1998-01-01

    The fate of the hair follicle pigmentary unit during the cyclical involution of anagen hair follicles is unknown. Using the C57BL\\/6 mouse model for hair research, hair follicle melanocytes were examined during the anagen–catagen transformation, comparing spontaneous and pharmacologically induced catagen development. This study shows that both spontaneous catagen and dexamethasone-induced catagen display similar changes in the pigmentary unit. Catagen

  7. The Actions of Calcium on Hair Bundle Mechanics in Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryline Beurg; Jong-Hoon Nam; Andrew Crawford; Robert Fettiplacey

    2008-01-01

    Sound stimuli excite cochlear hair cells by vibration of each hair bundle, which opens mechanotransducer (MT) channels. We have measured hair-bundle mechanics in isolated rat cochleas by stimulation with flexible glass fibers and simultaneous recording of the MT current. Both inner and outer hair-cell bundles exhibited force-displacement relationships with a nonlinearity that reflects a time-dependent reduction in stiffness. The nonlinearity

  8. Hair care practices in African American women.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Chemene R; Quinn, Timothy M; Kelly, A Paul

    2003-10-01

    Hair care in African American women is wrought with historical and cultural issues. Dermatologists need to improve their understanding of hair and scalp disorders in their African American patient population by being informed about the styling methods commonly used by and for these patients. The styling habits described in this article are intended to encompass the hairstyles adapted by a wide range of African American women with varying hair textures. PMID:14604079

  9. Hair Growth Defects in Insig-Deficient Mice Caused by Cholesterol Precursor Accumulation and Reversed by Simvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Bret M.; Farooqi, Midhat S.; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Brown, Michael S.; Liang, Guosheng

    2010-01-01

    Insig-1 and Insig-2, two closely related proteins, are essential for feedback inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis. Here, we characterized a line of epidermal-specific, Insig-double knockout (Epi-Insig-DKO) mice lacking both Insigs in epidermis. At birth, Epi-Insig-DKO mice were indistinguishable from control littermates, but thereafter they failed to thrive and died before 6 weeks of age. By 14 days of age, 100% of Epi-Insig-DKO mice exhibited defects in hair growth along with other skin abnormalities, including hyperkeratosis. Hair follicles in Epi-Insig-DKO mice developed normally through postnatal day 7, but they failed to progress to later stages and thus exhibited defects in postnatal hair cycling. Insig deficiency caused a marked buildup of cholesterol precursors in skin associated with a marked increase in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase protein. Topical treatment of Epi-Insig-DKO mice with simvastatin, an inhibitor of reductase, reduced sterol precursors in skin and corrected the hair and skin defects. We conclude that Insig deficiency in skin causes accumulation of cholesterol precursors, and this impairs normal hair development. These findings have implications for several human genetic diseases in which mutations in cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes lead to accumulation of sterol precursors and multiple cutaneous abnormalities. PMID:20090767

  10. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home About Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  11. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  13. Shaft seal assembly for high speed and high pressure applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadt, W. F.; Ludwig, L. P. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A seal assembly is provided for reducing the escape of fluids from between a housing and a shaft rotably mounted in the housing. The seal assembly comprises a pair of seal rings resiliently connected to each other and disposed in side-by-side relationship. In each seal ring, both the internal bore surface and the radial face which faces away from the other seal ring are provided with a plurality of equi-spaced recesses. The seal faces referred to are located adjacent a seating surface of the housing. Under normal operating conditions, the seal assembly is stationary with respect to the housing, and the recesses generate life, keep the assembly spaced from the rotating shaft and allow slip therebetween. The seal assembly can seize on the shaft, and slip will then occur between the radial faces and the housing.

  14. Shaft Excavation in Frozen Ground at Point 5

    E-print Network

    Osborne, J

    2000-01-01

    Construction work on the 112 MCHF civil engineering contract started at Point 5 in August 1998. The new surface buildings and underground structures are necessary to accommodate the CMS detector for the LHC Project. The principal underground works consist of two new shafts, two parallel caverns separated by a supporting pillar, and a number of small connection tunnels and service galleries. The two shafts are to be sunk through approximately 50 m of water-bearing moraine to the underlying molasse rock. From a number of possible construction methods, ground freezing of the moraine was considered to be most appropriate. The ground freezing is used to control the groundwater and to support temporarily the moraine during excavation and lining of the shafts. The aim of this paper is to present the ground-freezing technique and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the system in the light of its first few months of running on the Point 5 site.

  15. Hair Growth Cycle Affects Hair Follicle Destruction by Ruby Laser Pulses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tai-Yuan David Lin; Woraphong Manuskiatti; Christine C Dierickx; William A Farinelli; Marnie E Fisher; Thomas Flotte; Howard P Baden; R Rox Anderson

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown that normal mode ruby laser pulses (694 nm) are effective in selectively destroying brown or black pigmented hair follicles in adult Caucasians. This study investigated how the various stages of the hair follicle growth cycle influence follicle destruction by ruby laser treatment, using a model of predictable synchronous hair growth cycles in the infantile and adolescent

  16. Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyu; Avenarius, Matthew R; Gillespie, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C) and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 2) to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells. PMID:23049715

  17. Return of Function after Hair Cell Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ryals, Brenda M.; Dent, Micheal L.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of hair cell regeneration is to restore functional hearing. Because birds begin perceiving and producing song early in life, they provide a propitious model for studying not only whether regeneration of lost hair cells can return auditory sensitivity but also whether this regenerated periphery can restore complex auditory perception and production. They are the only animal where hair cell regeneration occurs naturally after hair cell loss and where the ability to correctly perceive and produce complex acoustic signals is critical to procreation and survival. The purpose of this review article is to survey the most recent literature on behavioral measures of auditory functional return in adult birds after hair cell regeneration. The first portion of the review summarizes the effect of ototoxic drug induced hair cell loss and regeneration on hearing loss and recovery for pure tones. The second portion reviews studies of complex, species-specific vocalization discrimination and recognition after hair cell regeneration. Finally, we discuss the relevance of temporary hearing loss and recovery through hair cell regeneration on complex call and song production. Hearing sensitivity is restored, except for the highest frequencies, after hair cell regeneration in birds, but there are enduring changes to complex auditory perception. These changes do not appear to provide any obstacle to future auditory or vocal learning. PMID:23202051

  18. Dermoscopy for the pediatric dermatologist part I: dermoscopy of pediatric infectious and inflammatory skin lesions and hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Haliasos, Elena C; Kerner, Miryam; Jaimes-Lopez, Natalia; Rudnicka, Lidia; Zalaudek, Iris; Malvehy, Josep; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Braun, Ralph P; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2013-01-01

    The dermoscope allows physicians to examine the macroscopic and microscopic primary morphology of skin lesions, identify subtle clinical clues, confirm naked-eye clinical diagnoses, and monitor treatment progress while posing little threat to the young patient. This review summarizes important dermoscopic structures seen in infectious and inflammatory skin conditions and hair disorders in children. Scabies, pediculosis, phthiriasis, molluscum contagiosum, tinea nigra, and verrucae are well characterized dermoscopically by delta-shaped structures, ovoid-shaped nits, the crab louse, red corona, brown strands or spicules, and multiple densely packed papilla with a central black dot surrounded by a whitish halo, respectively. These dermoscopic structures will be discussed, focusing on the dermoscopic morphologies and dermoscopic sensitivity for diagnosis and its utility in monitoring treatment progress. Dermoscopy has also been shown to significantly improve the clinician's diagnostic and monitoring accuracy of inflammatory skin lesions such as psoriasis, which is characterized dermoscopically by uniformly distributed dotted blood vessels, and lichen planus, which is characterized by whitish lines on a purple to reddish background. Dermoscopy of the hair and scalp (trichoscopy) facilitates the differential diagnosis of hair diseases in children, including alopecia areata, trichotillomania, and tinea capitis. It can also assist in the diagnosis of multiple genetic hair shaft disorders, such as monilethrix, trichorrhexis invaginata, trichorrhexis nodosa, pili torti, and pili annulati. PMID:23405886

  19. Phonipuits - new equipment for communications in mine shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, M.; Kempf, M.

    1983-10-01

    Phonipuits is a telecommunication system that has been designed for use in shafts and has been successfully operated in the Lorraine Coalfield. It provides reliable two-way link between the moving cage and the winding man by radio-telephone and conventional sound signals. A waveguide is installed in the shaft, between the surface and pit bottom: there is a transceiver in the winding control room, and the cage transceiver is connected to the circuit by a magnetic coupler located close to the waveguide cable. The operation of the circuit and the choice of frequencies are discussed.

  20. TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft and pit decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Bengel, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    Decontamination of the elevator pit and shaft in the auxiliary building at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) was performed to remove high radiation and contamination levels which prevented personnel from utilizing the elevator. The radiation and contamination levels in the TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft have been reduced to the point where plant personnel are again permitted to ride in the elevator without a radiation work permit, with the exception of access to the 281-ft (basement) level. Based on the declassification and expanded use of the elevator, the task goal has been met. The tax expended 16.16 man-rem and 621 man-hours.