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1

Hair Shaft Abnormalities – Clues to Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks

Peter H. Itin; Susanna K. Fistarol

2005-01-01

2

Efficient DNA extraction from hair shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairs are common biological samples in crime scene investigation. However, most of this evidence is comprised of hair fragments without the root. As the major part of DNA is located in the root, hair shafts are usually problematic samples in forensic analysis. For these reasons, hair DNA typing is directed at mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is present in high copy

M. Almeida; E. Betancor; R. Fregel; N. M. Suárez; J. Pestano

3

Investigation of DNA extraction from hair shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair shafts can be important forensic evidence for identification, but DNA typing, even of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), presented certain difficulties. We describe three DNA extraction methods from hair shafts, such as the phenol\\/chloroform method, NaI treatment method, and silica-beads method. In order to make an investigation of mtDNA amplification rate and efficiency, the amplifications of the mtDNA control region

K Takayanagi; H Asamura; K Tsukada; M Ota; S Saito; H Fukushima

2003-01-01

4

Novel compound heterozygous mutations in the desmoplakin gene cause hair shaft abnormalities and culminate in lethal cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

A 2-month-old white girl born to nonconsanguineous parents presented to the dermatology department with hair loss that had commenced a few months after birth. Although her hair loss later stabilized, it remained sparse. By the age of 2 years, she was noted to have developed focal keratoderma over pressure points of the soles. Aged 5 years, she was admitted to hospital with a chest infection, and investigations at that point revealed that she had a dilated cardiomyopathy. Subsequent genetic investigations identified compound heterozygous mutations in the 3' end of the desmoplakin (DSP) gene (7567delAAGA and 6577G>A), explaining the cardiocutaneous phenotype. PMID:24825141

Yesudian, P D; Cabral, R M; Ladusans, E; Spinty, S; Gibbs, J; Fryer, A; Christiano, A M; Mendelsohn, S S

2014-06-01

5

Resistance of degraded hair shafts to contaminant DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the susceptibility of degraded human hair shaft samples to contamination by exogenous sources of DNA, including blood, saliva, skin cells, and purified DNA. The results indicate that on the whole hair shafts are either largely resistant to penetration by contaminant DNA, or extremely easy to successfully decontaminate. This pertains to samples that are both morphologically and biochemically

M Thomas P Gilbert; Laura Menez; Robert C Janaway; Desmond J Tobin; Alan Cooper; Andrew S Wilson

2006-01-01

6

Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.  

PubMed

Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. PMID:23165165

Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

2013-01-01

7

STR genotyping of exogenous hair shaft DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most hairs found at crime scenes yield low quality and\\/or low quantities of nuclear DNA. This DNA is further depleted when stringent hair cleaning procedures are applied in the laboratory, suggesting that detectable DNA exists exogenously. The phenomenon of exogenous hair DNA is the subject of this study. DNA was extracted from washed and unwashed hairs and the resulting Profiler™

Kate S. Robertson; Dennis McNevin; James Robertson

2007-01-01

8

Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures  

SciTech Connect

Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via {beta}-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and {beta}-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/{beta}-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)]. E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Moriya, Kei [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

2007-08-03

9

Optical coherent tomography: promising in vivo measurement of hair shaft cross section  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in hair shaft morphology reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. The measurement and the follow-up of the hair shaft thickness over a defined period of time would be a valuable diagnostic tool in clinical practice. Standard light microscopy (LM) measurements require the epilation of hair shafts and frequently yield inaccurate values caused by the elliptic geometry of human hair shafts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive investigation method based on the principles of Michelson interferometry with a detection depth of approximately 1 mm in human skin. Two-dimensional images of the cross sections of tissue samples at a resolution of approximately 10 ?m are produced, which allows convenient calculation of hair shaft thickness. To evaluate this new methodology for hair shaft thickness measurements, hair shafts taken from 28 healthy volunteers were analyzed by in vivo OCT and compared to standard in vitro LM measurements of hair shaft thickness. OCT yielded highly reproducible measurements of hair shaft thickness with a distinctly reduced variation compared to standard LM. This technique offers a unique opportunity for in vivo measurement and a follow-up of the kinetics of hair shaft thickness in humans during medical therapy.

Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Stieler, Karola; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

2011-09-01

10

6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-01-01

11

Purification of nuclear DNA from single hair shafts for DNA analysis in forensic sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The typing of nuclear DNA from hair shafts has often been unsuccessful to date. We tried to type one of the nuclear DNA loci, HLA-DQA1, from hair shafts, using an efficient cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) precipitation for DNA purification and a sensitive semi-nested PCR. After thorough washing with ethanol and water, hair shafts were digested by proteinase K in the

Hideki Nozawa; Toshimichi Yamamoto; Rieko Uchihi; Takashi Yoshimoto; Keiji Tamaki; Seiji Hayashi; Tomowo Ozawa; Yoshinao Katsumata

1999-01-01

12

A Simplified Method for Mitochondrial DNA Extraction from Head Hair Shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA isolation from hair shafts can involve a number of steps, each of which adds time to the procedure and increases the risk of contamination. A simple alkaline digestion procedure that directly dissolves hairs was developed and compared with a widely used glass grinding\\/organic extraction method, using samples collected from 30 volunteers with varying population ancestries, hair colors, and hair

Elizabeth A. Graffy; David R. Foran

2005-01-01

13

Mitochondrial DNA in human hair shafts – existence of intra-individual differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequences of the hypervariable region 1 (HV1) of the mitochondrial DNA control region from multiple hair shafts from\\u000a 10 unrelated individuals were compared to determine the frequency of differences in hairs from one individual. The extraction\\u000a method described herein showed an average success rate of 67% for all 150 hair shafts tested in HV1. The mtDNA sequences from\\u000a the

J. Hühne; H. Pfeiffer; K. Waterkamp; B. Brinkmann

1999-01-01

14

miR-424 levels in hair shaft are increased in psoriatic patients.  

PubMed

Objective diagnostic markers have not been in clinical use for psoriasis. In this study, we investigated the levels of miR-424 in hair roots and hair shafts in psoriatic patients, and evaluated the possibility that miR-424 can be a biomarker of the disease. A single hair root and five pieces of hair shafts (~5 cm in length) were obtained from the non-lesional occiput of each individual of 26 psoriatic patients. Control hair samples were collected from nine normal subjects. Samples from 10 atopic dermatitis patients were also included as the disease control. miR-424 levels were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hair shaft miR-424 levels were significantly upregulated only in patients with psoriasis compared with normal controls and those with atopic dermatitis. By receiver-operator curve analysis of hair shaft miR-424 to distinguish psoriatic patients from normal subjects, the area under the curve was 0.77. However, relative miR-424 levels were not correlated with disease activity markers including disease duration, body surface area and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Hair root miR-424 was not useful for evaluating both diagnosis and severity of the disease. Our results indicated hair shaft miR-424 levels may be useful as a diagnostic marker of psoriasis. PMID:24628460

Tsuru, Yasuo; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Ichihara, Asako; Fujisawa, Akihiko; Moriya, Chikako; Sakai, Keisuke; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

2014-05-01

15

Reduction of regrowing hair shaft size and pigmentation after ruby and diode laser treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract Laser pulses which selectively damage pigmented hair follicles are a useful treatment for hypertrichosis. Clinically, regrowing\\u000a hairs are often thinner and lighter after treatment. In this study, hair shaft diameter and optical transmission (700 nm)\\u000a were measured before and after ruby (694 nm) and diode (800 nm) laser irradiation. Hair was collected from 47 and 41 subjects\\u000a treated with

Tai-Yuan David Lin; Christine C. Dierickx; Valeria B. Campos; William A. Farinelli; Joshua Rosenthal; R. Rox Anderson

2000-01-01

16

Mitochondrial DNA typing from human axillary, pubic and head hair shafts – success rates and sequence comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from shed hairs has gained high importance in forensic casework since telogen hairs\\u000a are one of the most common types of evidence left at the crime scene. In this systematic study of hair shafts from 20 individuals,\\u000a the correlation of mtDNA recovery with hair morphology (length, diameter, volume, colour), with sex, and with body

H. Pfeiffer; J. Hühne; C. Ortmann; K. Waterkamp; B. Brinkmann

1999-01-01

17

Hair Shaft Elongation, Follicle Growth, and Spontaneous Regression in Long Term, Gelatin Sponge-Supported Histoculture of Human Scalp Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms of human hair growth control and to test hair growth-modulatory drugs, appropriate in vitro models are required. Here, we report the long-term growth, shaft elongation, and spontaneous regression of human hair follicles in histoculture of intact scalp skin. Human scalp skin with abundant hair follicles in various stages of the hair growth

Lingna Li; Leonid B. Margolis; Ralf Paus; Robert M. Hoffman

1992-01-01

18

STR typing of ancient DNA extracted from hair shafts of Siberian mummies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine if ancient hair shafts could be suitable for nuclear DNA analysis and to develop an efficient and straightforward protocol for DNA extraction and STR typing of ancient specimens. The developed method was validated on modern and forensic samples and then successfully applied on ancient hairs collected from Siberian mummies dating from the

S. Amory; C. Keyser; E. Crubézy; B. Ludes

2007-01-01

19

A Simple Method to Extract DNA from Hair Shafts Using Enzymatic Laundry Powder  

PubMed Central

A simple method to extract DNA from hair shafts was developed by using enzymatic laundry powder at the first step of the process. The whole extraction can be finished in less than 2 hours. The simple extraction reagent proposed here contains only two cheap components: ordinary enzymatic laundry powder and PCR buffer. After extraction, an ultra sensitive fluorescent nucleic acid stain, PicoGreen, was used for quantifying trace amount of double-stranded DNA in the solution extracted. For further validation of DNA extraction, four primers were employed to amplify DNA microsatellite loci. Both fluorescence spectroscopy and PCR results suggested that this method can extract DNA from hair shafts with good efficiency and repeatability. The study will greatly facilitate the use of hair shafts in future for DNA analyses on genome-wide scale.

Liu, Jinchuan; Jiang, Xiaoling; Li, Sicong; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

2013-01-01

20

[Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome. Case report and biophysical study of hair shaft parameters].  

PubMed

In 1956 Klingmüller first described the trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS), which was named by Giedion ten years later. The syndrome includes a combination of typical hair, facial and bone abnormalities with variable expression allowing the further distinction of three subtypes. In a 37-year old patient with TRPS type I who reportedly had reduced hair growth length, clinically fine and brittle hair were found. Scanning electron microscopy revealed widely spaced cuticular scales. Quantitative measurement of the biomechanical properties of the hair showed a significant increase in the viscous parameter. This could be a result of decreased disulfide bridges and increased halogen bonds in the keratin matrix of the hair. In dermatological practice patients with TRPS often present because of hair abnormalities. Because of premature arthrosis due to skeletal abnormalities, occupational counseling is advised.Congenital heart problems, kidney abnormalities and endocrinological problems are rare, but should be sought in the symptomatic individual. Apart from mild hair care and avoidance of additional physical or chemical injuries due to hair cosmetic procedures,there is no treatment for the hair defects. PMID:11220240

Schacht, V; Borelli, S; Tsambaos, D; Spycher, M A; Trüeb, R M

2001-01-01

21

Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer  

PubMed Central

Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20?), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47?), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61?), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95?). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95? conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally.

Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

2011-01-01

22

DNA extraction from hair shafts of wild Brazilian felids and canids.  

PubMed

Wild felids and canids are usually the main predators in the food chains where they dwell and are almost invisible to behavior and ecology researchers. Due to their grooming behavior, they tend to swallow shed hair, which shows up in the feces. DNA found in hair shafts can be used in molecular studies that can unravel, for instance, genetic variability, reproductive mode and family structure, and in some species, it is even possible to estimate migration and dispersion rates in given populations. First, however, DNA must be extracted from hair. We extracted successfully and dependably hair shaft DNA from eight wild Brazilian felids, ocelot, margay, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, pampas cat, jaguarundi, puma, and jaguar, as well as the domestic cat and from three wild Brazilian canids, maned wolf, crab-eating fox, and hoary fox, as well as the domestic dog. Hair samples came mostly from feces collected at the São Paulo Zoo and were also gathered from non-sedated pet or from recently dead wild animals and were also collected from museum specimens. Fractions of hair samples were stained before DNA extraction, while most samples were not. Our extraction protocol is based on a feather DNA extraction technique, based in the phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol general method, with proteinase K as digestive enzyme. PMID:21174262

Alberts, C C; Ribeiro-Paes, J T; Aranda-Selverio, G; Cursino-Santos, J R; Moreno-Cotulio, V R; Oliveira, A L D; Porchia, B F M M; Santos, W F; Souza, E B

2010-01-01

23

The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals with abnormal hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Animal swimming tests, such as the forced swim test, are extensively used in biomedical research to study rodent behaviour. Hair and skin exposed to water may be an important factor affecting the performance in this test. Since various hair and skin abnormalities are not uncommon in genetically modified or drug-treated laboratory animals, this test may be inappropriate for these

A V Kalueff; P Tuohimaa

2005-01-01

24

Hair shaft elongation, follicle growth, and spontaneous regression in long-term, gelatin sponge-supported histoculture of human scalp skin.  

PubMed Central

In order to better understand the molecular mechanisms of human hair growth control and to test hair growth-modulatory drugs, appropriate in vitro models are required. Here, we report the long-term growth, shaft elongation, and spontaneous regression of human hair follicles in histoculture of intact scalp skin. Human scalp skin with abundant hair follicles in various stages of the hair growth cycle was grown for up to 40 days in a gelatin sponge-supported histoculture system at the air/liquid interface. Isolated follicles placed in the gelatin-sponge matrix also supported hair shaft elongation, with the hair follicle cells remaining proliferative and viable for very long periods. Hair shaft elongation occurred mainly during the first 10 days of histoculture of both intact skin and isolated follicles. However, hair follicles were viable and follicle keratinocytes continued to incorporate [3H]thymidine for up to several weeks after shaft elongation had ceased as shown by fluorescent-dye double staining, measured by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and by histological autoradiography of [3H]thymidine incorporation, respectively. Hair follicles could continue their cycle in histoculture; for example, apparent spontaneous catagen induction was observed both histologically and by the actual regression of the hair follicle. In addition, vellus follicles were shown to be viable at day 40 after initiation of culture. In the histocultured human scalp we demonstrated the association of mast cells with anagen follicles and macrophages with catagen follicles, suggesting a role of these cells in the hair cycle. This histoculture technique should serve as a powerful tool for future hair research in the human system as well as a screening assay for compounds that can perturb the hair cycle. Images

Li, L.; Margolis, L. B.; Paus, R.; Hoffman, R. M.

1992-01-01

25

Conditional Activin Receptor Type IB (Acvr1b) Knockout Mice Reveal Hair Loss Abnormality  

PubMed Central

The in vivo functions of the activin A receptor type 1b (Acvr1b) have been difficult to study because Acvr1b?/? mice die during embryogenesis. To investigate the roles of Acvr1b in the epithelial tissues, we created mice with a conditional disruption of Acvr1b (Acvr1bflox/flox) and crossed them with K14-Cre mice. Acvr1bflox/flox; K14-Cre mice displayed various degrees of hairlessness at postnatal day 5, and the phenotype is exacerbated by age. Histological analyses showed that those hair follicles that developed during morphogenesis were later disrupted by delays in hair cycle reentry. Failure in cycling of the hair follicles and regrowth of the hair shaft and the inner root sheath resulted in subsequent severe hair loss. Apart from previous reports of other members of the transforming growth factor-?/activin/bone morphogenic protein pathways, we demonstrate a specialized role for Acvr1b in hair cycling in addition to hair follicle development. Acvr1bflox/flox; K14-Cre mice also had a thicker epidermis than did wild-type mice, which resulted from persistent proliferation of skin epithelial cells; however, no tumor formation was observed by 18 months of age. Our analysis of this Acvr1b knockout mouse line provides direct genetic evidence that Acvr1b signaling is required for both hair follicle development and cycling.

Qiu, Wanglong; Li, Xiaojun; Tang, Hongyan; Huang, Alicia S.; Panteleyev, Andrey A.; Owens, David M.; Su, Gloria H.

2014-01-01

26

Evaluation of a decontamination protocol for hair shafts before mtDNA sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing is a powerful and sensitive method to identify the donor of shed hairs found at a crime scene. Because of the low amounts of DNA in shed hair and the sensitivity of PCR, contaminating cells (e.g. saliva, blood), sometimes present on these hairs, will be co-amplified. This will result in ambiguous sequencing results and might even

Els Jehaes; Anja Gilissen; Jean-Jacques Cassiman; Ronny Decorte

1998-01-01

27

Dihydrotestosterone-inducible IL-6 inhibits elongation of human hair shafts by suppressing matrix cell proliferation and promotes regression of hair follicles in mice.  

PubMed

Autocrine and paracrine factors are produced by balding dermal papilla (DP) cells following dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-driven alterations and are believed to be key factors involved in male pattern baldness. Herein we report that the IL-6 is upregulated in balding DP cells compared with non-balding DP cells. IL-6 was upregulated 3? hours after 10-100 ?nM DHT treatment, and ELISA showed that IL-6 was secreted from balding DP cells in response to DHT. IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and glycoprotein 130 (gp130) were expressed in follicular keratinocytes, including matrix cells. Recombinant human IL-6 (rhIL-6) inhibited hair shaft elongation and suppressed proliferation of matrix cells in cultured human hair follicles. Moreover, rhIL-6 injection into the hypodermis of mice during anagen caused premature onset of catagen. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that DHT-inducible IL-6 inhibits hair growth as a paracrine mediator from the DP. PMID:21881585

Kwack, Mi Hee; Ahn, Ji Sup; Kim, Moon Kyu; Kim, Jung Chul; Sung, Young Kwan

2012-01-01

28

The Lysosomal Protease Cathepsin L Is an Important Regulator of Keratinocyte and Melanocyte Differentiation During Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Cycling  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that the ubiquitously expressed lysosomal cysteine protease, cathepsin L (CTSL), is essential for skin and hair follicle homeostasis. Here we examine the effect of CTSL deficiency on hair follicle development and cycling in ctsl?/? mice by light and electron microscopy, Ki67/terminal dUTP nick-end labeling, and trichohyalin immunofluorescence. Hair follicle morphogenesis in ctsl?/? mice was associated with several abnormalities. Defective terminal differentiation of keratinocytes occurred during the formation of the hair canal, resulting in disruption of hair shaft outgrowth. Both proliferation and apoptosis levels in keratinocytes and melanocytes were higher in ctsl?/? than in ctsl+/+ hair follicles. The development of the hair follicle pigmentary unit was disrupted by vacuolation of differentiating melanocytes. Hair cycling was also abnormal in ctsl?/? mice. Final stages of hair follicle morphogenesis and the induction of hair follicle cycling were retarded. Thereafter, these follicles exhibited a truncated resting phase (telogen) and a premature entry into the first growth phase. Further abnormalities of telogen development included the defective anchoring of club hairs in the skin, which resulted in their abnormal shedding. Melanocyte vacuolation was again apparent during the hair cycle-associated reconstruction of the hair pigmentary unit. A hallmark of these ctsl?/? mice was the severe disruption in the exiting of hair shafts to the skin surface. This was mostly because of a failure of the inner root sheath (keratinocyte layer next to the hair shaft) to fully desquamate. These changes resulted in a massive dilation of the hair canal and the abnormal routing of sebaceous gland products to the skin surface. In summary, this study suggests novel roles for cathepsin proteases in skin, hair, and pigment biology. Principal target tissues that may contain protein substrate(s) for this cysteine protease include the developing hair cone, inner root sheath, anchoring apparatus of the telogen club, and organelles of lysosomal origin (eg, melanosomes).

Tobin, Desmond J.; Foitzik, Kerstin; Reinheckel, Thomas; Mecklenburg, Lars; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Peters, Christoph; Paus, Ralf

2002-01-01

29

Results of a collaborative study of the EDNAP group regarding mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy and segregation in hair shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collaborative exercise was carried out by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) in order to evaluate the distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy amongst the hairs of an individual who displays point heteroplasmy in blood and buccal cells. A second aim of the exercise was to study reproducibility of mtDNA sequencing of hairs between laboratories using differing chemistries, further

G. Tully; S. m. Barritt; K. Bender; E. Brignon; C. Capelli; N. Dimo-simonin; C. Eichmann; C. m. Ernst; C. Lambert; M. v. Lareu; B. Ludes; B. Mevag; W. Parson; H. Pfeiffer; A. Salas; P. m. Schneider; E. Staalstrom

2004-01-01

30

Hair cosmetics.  

PubMed

The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products. PMID:23974582

Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

2013-01-01

31

Adult-onset hair loss in Chesapeake Bay retrievers: a clinical and histological study.  

PubMed

Ten Chesapeake Bay retriever (CBRS) dogs with hair loss were recruited in collaboration with the American Chesapeake Club. All dogs had nonpruritic, noninflammatory, regionalized hair loss affecting the same areas of the body in male and female dogs. Hormonal investigations showed increased adrenal and sex steroid concentration in seven cases. Histopathology revealed follicular hyperkeratosis and plugging, follicular atrophy, and occasional melanin clumping with malformed hair shafts. This study suggests that hair loss in CBRS is a breed syndrome in which young adult dogs have hair loss characterized by unusual histological features and abnormal steroid production. A familial predisposition seems likely and selective breeding might reduce the occurrence of this condition. PMID:15725104

Cerundolo, R; Mauldin, E A; Goldschmidt, M H; Beyerlein, S L; Refsal, K R; Oliver, J W

2005-02-01

32

Mutation in xyloglucan 6-xylosytransferase results in abnormal root hair development in Oryza sativa  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are important for nutrient uptake, anchorage, and plant–microbe interactions. From a population of rice (Oryza sativa) mutagenized by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), a short root hair2 (srh2) mutant was identified. In hydroponic culture, srh2 seedlings were significantly reduced in root hair length. Bubble-like extrusions and irregular epidermal cells were observed at the tips of srh2 root hairs when grown under acidic conditions, suggesting the possible reduction of the tensile strength of the cell wall in this mutant. Map-based cloning identified a mutation in the gene encoding xyloglucan (XyG) 6-xylosyltransferase (OsXXT1). OsXXT1 displays more than 70% amino acid sequence identity with the previously characterized Arabidopsis thaliana XYG XYLOSYL TRANSFERASE 1 (AtXXT1) and XYG XYLOSYL TRANSFERASE 2 (AtXXT2), which catalyse the transfer of xylose onto ?-1,4-glucan chains. Furthermore, expression of the full-length coding sequence of OsXXT1 could complement the root hair defect, and slow growth and XyG synthesis in the Arabidopsis xxt1 xxt2 double mutant. Transgenic plants expressing the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter under the control of the OsXXT1 promoter displayed GUS expression in multiple tissues, most prominently in root epidermal cells. These results demonstrate the importance of OsXXT1 in maintaining cell wall structure and tensile strength in rice, a typical grass species that contains relatively low XyG content in cell walls.

Wang, Chuang; Li, Shuai; Ng, Sophia; Zhang, Baocai; Zhou, Yihua; Whelan, James; Wu, Ping; Shou, Huixia

2014-01-01

33

Defect of hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1/serine protease inhibitor, Kunitz type 1 (Hai-1/Spint1) leads to ichthyosis-like condition and abnormal hair development in mice.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1)/serine protease inhibitor, Kunitz type 1 (SPINT1) is a membrane-bound, serine proteinase inhibitor initially identified as an inhibitor of hepatocyte growth factor activator. It also inhibits matriptase and prostasin, both of which are membrane-bound serine proteinases that have critical roles in epidermal differentiation and function. In this study, skin and hair phenotypes of mice lacking the Hai-1/Spint1 gene were characterized. Previously, we reported that the homozygous deletion of Hai-1/Spint1 in mice resulted in embryonic lethality attributable to impaired placental development. To test the role of Hai-1/Spint1 in mice, the placental function of Hai-1/Spint1-mutant mice was rescued. Injection of Hai-1/Spint1(+/+) blastocysts with Hai-1/Spint1(-/-) embryonic stem cells successfully generated high-chimeric Hai-1/Spint1(-/-) embryos (B6Hai-1(-/-High)) with normal placentas. These embryos were delivered without apparent developmental abnormalities, confirming that embryonic lethality of Hai-1/Spint1(-/-) mice was caused by placental dysfunction. However, newborn B6Hai-1(-/-High) mice showed growth retardation and died by 16 days. These mice developed scaly skin because of hyperkeratinization, reminiscent of ichthyosis, and abnormal hair shafts that showed loss of regular cuticular septation. The interfollicular epidermis showed acanthosis with enhanced Akt phosphorylation. Immunoblot analysis revealed altered proteolytic processing of profilaggrin in Hai-1/Spint1-deleted skin with impaired generation of filaggrin monomers. These findings indicate that Hai-1/Spint1 has critical roles in the regulated keratinization of the epidermis and hair development. PMID:18832587

Nagaike, Koki; Kawaguchi, Makiko; Takeda, Naoki; Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Sawaguchi, Akira; Kohama, Kazuyo; Setoyama, Mitsuru; Kataoka, Hiroaki

2008-11-01

34

Mutation in xyloglucan 6-xylosytransferase results in abnormal root hair development in Oryza sativa.  

PubMed

Root hairs are important for nutrient uptake, anchorage, and plant-microbe interactions. From a population of rice (Oryza sativa) mutagenized by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), a short root hair2 (srh2) mutant was identified. In hydroponic culture, srh2 seedlings were significantly reduced in root hair length. Bubble-like extrusions and irregular epidermal cells were observed at the tips of srh2 root hairs when grown under acidic conditions, suggesting the possible reduction of the tensile strength of the cell wall in this mutant. Map-based cloning identified a mutation in the gene encoding xyloglucan (XyG) 6-xylosyltransferase (OsXXT1). OsXXT1 displays more than 70% amino acid sequence identity with the previously characterized Arabidopsis thaliana XYG XYLOSYL TRANSFERASE 1 (AtXXT1) and XYG XYLOSYL TRANSFERASE 2 (AtXXT2), which catalyse the transfer of xylose onto ?-1,4-glucan chains. Furthermore, expression of the full-length coding sequence of OsXXT1 could complement the root hair defect, and slow growth and XyG synthesis in the Arabidopsis xxt1 xxt2 double mutant. Transgenic plants expressing the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter under the control of the OsXXT1 promoter displayed GUS expression in multiple tissues, most prominently in root epidermal cells. These results demonstrate the importance of OsXXT1 in maintaining cell wall structure and tensile strength in rice, a typical grass species that contains relatively low XyG content in cell walls. PMID:24834920

Wang, Chuang; Li, Shuai; Ng, Sophia; Zhang, Baocai; Zhou, Yihua; Whelan, James; Wu, Ping; Shou, Huixia

2014-08-01

35

Short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping of keratinised hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a review of the literature on procedures for obtaining short tandem repeat (STR) genotypes from keratinised hair, being either hair shaft or telogen phase (naturally shed) hairs without associated scalp, follicle or sheath cells. Both the hair shaft and the telogen hair club have been subjected to the DNA-degrading keratinisation process and are more likely to be found

Dennis McNevin; Linzi Wilson-Wilde; James Robertson; Jennelle Kyd; Chris Lennard

2005-01-01

36

Penetration of Trichophyton terrestre in human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The systematic human hair degradation by Trichophyton terrestre was examined by electron and light microscopy. The cuticular and hair shaft regions were readily decomposed by the wild type or parent strain selected for phenotype studies after exposure to spaceflight parameters.

Yuan C. Hsu; Paul A. Volz

1975-01-01

37

Acquired Hair Fragility in Pili anulati: Causal Relationship with Androgenetic Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pili anulati are defined by characteristic alternating light and dark banding in the hair shaft, due to air-filled spaces between the macrofibrillar units of the hair cortex, and are regarded as a congenital hair shaft disorder without increased hair fragility. Two cases of pili anulati are presented, in which fragility of hair developed in a causal relationship with the onset

Günther F. L. Hofbauer; Dionysios Tsambaos; Max A. Spycher; Ralph M. Trüeb

2001-01-01

38

Microscopic hair changes associated with hair coloring, hair waving and hair ironing in Iranian women.  

PubMed

Although, of no vital value, hair plays a significant role in expressing any person's psychosocial status. Many cosmetic and styling methods are available for hair. This study aimed to examine the microscopic changes in women with hair coloring, hair waving, or hair ironing in comparison with normal controls. In a cross-sectional study, 154 Iranian women were recruited and categorized in 4 groups: controls (n = 35) who had not dyed, waved or ironed their hair within the last 6 months; dyed-hair group (n = 49) who had dyed their hair using standard chemical hair colors at least three times within the last 6 months; waved-hair group (n = 35) who had frizzled their hair within the last 6 months and ironed-hair group (n = 35) who had ironed their hair at least 3 times a weak using a temperature more than 30 degrees C within the last 6 months. Hair samples of all four groups were examined microscopically, and the results were compared with the controls. The rate of abnormal findings was 17.1% in the controls, 53.1% in the dyed-hair group, 45.7% in the waved-hair group, and 54.3% in the ironed-hair group. Abnormal findings were significantly more frequent in the last three groups comparing with the controls (p < 0.05). Trichorrhexis was 17.1, 34.7, 40 and 11.4%; kinking was 0, 2, 2.9 and 25.7%; pseudo pili-annulati was 0, 6.1, 0 and 17.1%; trichonodosis was 0, 6.1, 0 and 0%; tracheoschises was 0, 2, 2.9 and 0% and trichoptilosis was 0, 2, 0 and 0% in the mentioned groups, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, hair coloring, waving and ironing all can induce abnormalities in the hair in comparison with the hairs of nonusers. PMID:24506020

Talghini, Shahla; Ranjkesh, Mohammadreza

2013-10-15

39

Shaft adjuster  

DOEpatents

Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

Harry, H.H.

1988-03-11

40

Shaft adjuster  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

Harry, Herbert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

41

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... Bad Reaction to Cosmetics? Tell FDA Cosmetics Tips Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers En Español Hair dye is ... hair relaxers. Hair Dyes Hair Relaxers Report Problems Hair Dyes There are different types of hair dyes used ...

42

Photoepilation of Unwanted Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Laser and IPL treatments for hair removal depend on the presence of melanin in the hair shaft. The ideal patient for laser\\u000a hair removal has light skin with black, coarse hair. There is substantial evidence for laser and photoepilation with a total\\u000a of 43 identified controlled trials in the beginning of 2009. Laser treatment and photoepilation are superior to conventional

Annesofie Faurschou; Merete Haedersdal

43

Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to "Untangle" Hair Disorders  

PubMed Central

Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair.

Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

2011-01-01

44

Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations.  

PubMed

Human hair has been classified into 3 major groups, as determined by ethnic origin. In these populations, significant structural and biochemical variations of the hair follicle and shaft are seen, as well as unique hair grooming practices. These structural variations of the hair are closely linked to the common disorders of the hair and scalp, such as acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, seborrheic dermatitis, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, dissecting cellulitis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. PMID:23652889

Rodney, Ife J; Onwudiwe, Oge C; Callender, Valerie D; Halder, Rebat M

2013-04-01

45

Impaired Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Cycling with Abnormal Epidermal Differentiation in nackt Mice, a Cathepsin L-Deficient Mutation  

PubMed Central

We previously described an autosomal-recessive mutation named nackt (nkt) exhibiting partial alopecia associated with CD4+ T-cell deficiency. Also, we recently reported that nkt (now Ctslnkt) comprises a deletion in the cathepsin L (Ctsl) gene. Another recent study reported that Ctsl knockout mice have CD4+ T-cell deficiency and periodic shedding of hair, which recapitulate the nkt mutation and the old furless (fs) mutation. The current study focuses on the dermatological aspects of the nkt mutation. Careful histological analysis of skin development of homozygous nkt mice revealed a delayed hair follicle morphogenesis and late onset of the first catagen stage. The skin of Ctslnkt/Ctslnkt mice showed mild epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, severe hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands, and structural alterations of hair follicles. Epidermal differentiation seems to be affected in nkt skin, with overexpression of involucrin and profilaggrin/filaggrin along with focal areas of keratin 6 expression in the interfollicular epidermis. Severe epidermal hyperplasia, acanthosis, orthokeratosis, and hyperkeratosis were only observed in mice maintained in nonpathogen-free environments. The analysis of Rag2?/? Ctslnkt/Ctslnkt double-mutant mice indicates that the skin defect remains under the absence of T and B cells. This animal model provides in vivo evidence that cysteine protease cathepsin L plays a critical role in hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling, as well as epidermal differentiation.

Benavides, Fernando; Starost, Matthew F.; Flores, Monica; Gimenez-Conti, Irma B.; Guenet, Jean-Louis; Conti, Claudio J.

2002-01-01

46

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Media resources Stats and facts Conditions Hair loss Hair loss Hair loss in women Hair loss is a common ... dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis of hair loss To properly diagnose the cause of hair ...

47

Ultrasound Shear Wave Propagation in Caucasian Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aspect of hair depends on the spatial organization of the hair shafts and on their chemical, physical and structural integrity. Some genetic disorders and exogenous influences may affect it. Aims: In vivo objective assessments are welcome in order to compare the consequences of hair damage and to assess the kinetics of the changes occurring in time after damaging

C. Piérard-Franchimont; V. Goffin; E. Uhoda; G. E. Piérard

2002-01-01

48

Modulating hair follicle size with Wnt10b/DKK1 during hair regeneration.  

PubMed

Hair follicles have characteristic sizes corresponding to their cycle-specific stage. However, how the anagen hair follicle specifies its size remains elusive. Here, we showed that in response to prolonged ectopic Wnt10b-mediated ?-catenin activation, regenerating anagen hair follicles grew larger in size. In particular, the hair bulb, dermal papilla and hair shaft became enlarged, while the formation of different hair types (Guard, Awl, Auchene and Zigzag) was unaffected. Interestingly, we found that the effect of exogenous WNT10b was mainly on Zigzag and less on the other kinds of hairs. We observed dramatically enhanced proliferation within the matrix, DP and hair shaft of the enlarged AdWnt10b-treated hair follicles compared with those of normal hair follicles at P98. Furthermore, expression of CD34, a specific hair stem cell marker, was increased in its number to the bulge region after AdWnt10b treatment. Ectopic expression of CD34 throughout the ORS region was also observed. Many CD34-positive hair stem cells were actively proliferating in AdWnt10b-induced hair follicles. Importantly, subsequent co-treatment with the Wnt inhibitor, DKK1, reduced hair follicle enlargement and decreased proliferation and ectopic localization of hair stem cells. Moreover, injection of DKK1 during early anagen significantly reduced the width of prospective hairs. Together, these findings strongly suggest that Wnt10b/DKK1 can modulate hair follicle size during hair regeneration. PMID:24750467

Lei, Mingxing; Guo, Haiying; Qiu, Weiming; Lai, Xiangdong; Yang, Tian; Widelitz, Randall B; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Lian, Xiaohua; Yang, Li

2014-06-01

49

Hair Breakage in Normal and Weathered Hair: Focus on the Black Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair breakage and fragility are a large problem for many patients as well as a treatment challenge to the dermatologist. Understanding the factors that lead to acquired hair shaft fragility and breakage is paramount to recommending appropriate treatment to affected patients. African or Black hair is known to be more affected by breakage with easily observed fragility in vivo. To

Amy J McMichael

2007-01-01

50

A Comprehensive Guide for the Accurate Classification of Murine Hair Follicles in Distinct Hair Cycle Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous strains of mice with defined mutations display pronounced abnormalities of hair follicle cycling, even in the absence of overt alterations of the skin and hair phenotype; however, in order to recognize even subtle, hair cycle-related abnormalities, it is critically important to be able to determine accurately and classify the major stages of the normal murine hair cycle. In this

Sven Müller-Röver; Bori Handjiski; Carina van der Veen; Stefan Eichmüller; Kerstin Foitzik; Ian A. McKay; Kurt S. Stenn; Ralf Paus

2001-01-01

51

A Case of Autosomal Recessive Woolly Hair/Hypotrichosis with Alternation in Severity: Deterioration and Improvement with Age  

PubMed Central

Autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis (ARWH/H) is a nonsyndromic hair abnormality characterized by sparse, short and curly hair (WH/H). We report the case of a 3-year-old female, with no consanguineous ancestry, who exhibited WH/H. Normal hair was observed at birth, but severe hair loss had developed within the first 6 months; however, her hair density had improved somewhat by age 3. Light microscopy showed hair shaft invaginations, and polarized light microscopy suggested complete medullary disruption of the hair. Direct sequence analysis of peripheral blood showed a homozygous missense mutation in exon 6 of the lipase H gene (LIPH: c.736T>A, p.Cys246Ser), and the exact same mutation was found in the heterozygous state in both parents. The initial deterioration followed by improvement with age observed in this case suggests that the clinical course of ARWH/H may vary among patients with the same mutation in LIPH detected in this case, indicating that additional factors may influence the effect of LIPH on hair development.

Matsuno, Naoko; Kunisada, Makoto; Kanki, Haruhisa; Simomura, Yutaka; Nishigori, Chikako

2013-01-01

52

Abnormal neuronal differentiation and mitochondrial dysfunction in hair follicle-derived induced pluripotent stem cells of schizophrenia patients.  

PubMed

One of the prevailing hypotheses suggests schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, involving dysfunction of dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. Accumulating evidence suggests mitochondria as an additional pathological factor in schizophrenia. An attractive model to study processes related to neurodevelopment in schizophrenia is reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiating them into different neuronal lineages. iPSCs from three schizophrenia patients and from two controls were reprogrammed from hair follicle keratinocytes, because of their accessibility and common ectodermal origin with neurons. iPSCs were differentiated into Pax6(+)/Nestin(+) neural precursors and then further differentiated into ?3-Tubulin(+)/tyrosine hydroxylase(+)/DAT(+) dopaminergic neurons. In addition, iPSCs were differentiated through embryonic bodies into ?3-Tubulin(+)/Tbox brain1(+) glutamatergic neurons. Schizophrenia-derived dopaminergic cells showed severely impaired ability to differentiate, whereas glutamatergic cells were unable to maturate. Mitochondrial respiration and its sensitivity to dopamine-induced inhibition were impaired in schizophrenia-derived keratinocytes and iPSCs. Moreover, we observed dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and perturbations in mitochondrial network structure and connectivity in dopaminergic along the differentiation process and in glutamatergic cells. Our data unravel perturbations in neural differentiation and mitochondrial function, which may be interconnected, and of relevance to dysfunctional neurodevelopmental processes in schizophrenia. PMID:23732879

Robicsek, O; Karry, R; Petit, I; Salman-Kesner, N; Müller, F-J; Klein, E; Aberdam, D; Ben-Shachar, D

2013-10-01

53

Hair Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... This is because higher hormone levels prevent normal hair loss. During pregnancy: Your hair tends to stay in ... hair. After delivery: The resting phase shortens. Normal hair loss that was delayed by pregnancy tends to take ...

54

Dry hair  

MedlinePLUS

Hair - dry ... Dry hair is hair that does not have enough moisture and oil to maintain its normal sheen and texture. ... blow-drying Dry air (environmental dryness) Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition (for example, kwashiorkor disease ) Underactive parathyroid ( ...

55

Oily hair  

MedlinePLUS

Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

56

Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair  

PubMed Central

The appearance of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today’s increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation.

Trueb, Ralph M

2006-01-01

57

Hair loss in infancy.  

PubMed

Hair diseases represent a significant portion of cases seen by pediatric dermatologists although hair has always been a secondary aspect in pediatricians and dermatologists training, on the erroneous basis that there is not much information extractable from it. Dermatologists are in the enviable situation of being able to study many disorders with simple diagnostic techniques. The hair is easily accessible to examination but, paradoxically, this approach is often disregarded by non-dermatologist. This paper has been written on the purpose of trying to serve in the diagnostic process of daily practice, and trying to help, for example, to distinguish between certain acquired and some genetically determined hair diseases. We will focus on all the data that can be obtained from our patients' hair and try to help on using the messages given by hair for each patient. Quite often it is extremely hard to distinguish between abnormality and normality in neonatal hair aspects. We will specially focus in the most common physiological changes that may mislead to an incorrect diagnosis. Specific treatment for those hair diseases that do have one, and basic general approach to improve the cosmetic appearance of hair, will be also be discussed for those hair disturbances that do not have a specific treatment. PMID:24566566

Moreno-Romero, J A; Grimalt, R

2014-02-01

58

Histologic and Cell Kinetic Studies of Hair Loss and Subsequent Recovery Process of Human Scalp Hair Follicles Grafted onto Severe Combined Immunodeficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a model for studying human scalp hair, individually isolated hair follicles were grafted onto back skin of severe combined immunodeficient mice. Histologic changes and cell kinetics in the hair loss and subsequent recovery process were investigated. In the dystrophic stage (from day 7 to 30), all the hair shafts became dystrophic and were shed. Thickening and corrugation of

Tsuyoshi Hashimoto; Takashi Kazama; Masaaki Ito; Koji Urano; Yuko Katakai; Naoko Yamaguchi; Yoshito Ueyama

2000-01-01

59

Hair analysis for veterinary drug monitoring in livestock production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the basic information and applications concerning the use of hair analysis for the detection of misuse of therapeutic and anabolic agents in livestock animals. Hair biology, hair-shaft structure and the mechanisms of drug incorporation are described, considering the different factors which can affect the deposition. Sampling and extraction methods are reviewed with special attention to the particularities

M. Gratacós-Cubarsí; M. Castellari; A. Valero; J. A. García-Regueiro

2006-01-01

60

Generalized hair casts due to traction.  

PubMed

Peripilar keratin casts, also called pseudonits or hair casts, are thin, elongated, greyish-white, cylindrical, sleeve-like structures that encircle the hair shaft and can easily be slid along the hair. They may be clinically misdiagnosed as nits. In addition to physical removal, keratolytic lotions or shampoos are helpful. We report an 11-year-old girl with pseudonits. Although it is not a rare condition, underdiagnosis is common. PMID:23909653

Ozuguz, Pinar; Kacar, Seval; Takci, Zennure; Ekiz, Ozlem; Kalkan, Goknur; Bulbul Sen, Bilge

2013-01-01

61

The cell cycle regulator protein 14-3-3? is essential for hair follicle integrity and epidermal homeostasis.  

PubMed

The 14-3-3? (Stratifin; Sfn) is a cell cycle regulator intimately involved in the program of epithelial keratinization. 14-3-3? is unique in that it is expressed primarily in epithelial cells and is frequently silenced in epithelial cancers. Despite its well-documented role as a cell cycle regulator and as a tumor suppressor, the function of 14-3-3? in the intricate balance of proliferation and differentiation in epithelial development is poorly understood. A mutation in 14-3-3? was found to be responsible for the repeated epilation (Er) phenotype. It has previously been shown that Sfn(+/Er) mice are characterized by repeated hair loss and regrowth, whereas Sfn(Er/Er) mice die at birth displaying severe oral fusions and limb abnormalities as a result of defects in keratinizing epithelia. Here we show that mice heterozygous for the 14-3-3? mutation have severe defects in hair shaft differentiation, resulting in destruction of the hair shaft during morphogenesis. Furthermore, we report that the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous glands are hyperproliferative, coincident with expanded nuclear Yap1 (Yes-associated protein 1)--a critical modulator of epidermal stem cell proliferation. We also report that hair follicle stem cells in the bulge cycle abnormally, raising important questions as to the role of 14-3-3? in the bulge. PMID:22377760

Hammond, Nigel L; Headon, Denis J; Dixon, Michael J

2012-06-01

62

Blind shaft development  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses how Shaft Drillers International (SDI) is breaking new ground in shaft development and ground stabilization. Techniques of blind shaft drilling and raise bore shaft development developed by SDI are briefly explained. An associated company, Coastal Drilling East, deals with all types of ground improvement such as pre-grouting work for shafts, grouting of poor soil and water leaks into the mine. 3 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2009-02-15

63

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Hair Loss Overview What is the normal cycle of hair growth and loss? The normal cycle of hair growth lasts for 2 to ... some people may experience excessive (more than normal) hair loss. Hair loss of this type can affect men, ...

64

Estrogen Leads to Reversible Hair Cycle Retardation through Inducing Premature Catagen and Maintaining Telogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogen dysregulation causes hair disorder. Clinical observations have demonstrated that estrogen raises the telogen\\/anagen ratio and inhibits hair shaft elongation of female scalp hair follicles. In spite of these clinical insights, the properties of estrogen on hair follicles are poorly dissected. In the present study, we show that estrogen induced apoptosis of precortex cells and caused premature catagen by up-regulation

Hui-min Hu; Shou-bing Zhang; Xiao-hua Lei; Zhi-li Deng; Wei-xiang Guo; Zhi-fang Qiu; Shuang Liu; Xin-yue Wang; He Zhang; En-kui Duan

2012-01-01

65

Desmogleins 1 and 3 in the Companion Layer Anchor Mouse Anagen Hair to the Follicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anchorage of the hair to its follicle is of paramount importance for survival of rodents in the wild, and is aberrant in some human alopecias. Little is understood about the mechanisms responsible for hair shaft anchorage. Desmoglein (Dsg)3?\\/? (knockout) mice lose hair during telogen, but their anagen hairs remain anchored to the follicle. We hypothesized that Dsg1 compensates for the

Yasushi Hanakawa; Hong Li; Chenyan Lin; John R. Stanley; George Cotsarelis

2004-01-01

66

Mutations in Gasdermin 3 Cause Aberrant Differentiation of the Hair Follicle and Sebaceous Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defolliculated (Dfl) is a spontaneous mouse mutant with a hair-loss phenotype that includes altered sebaceous gland differentiation, short hair shafts, aberrant catagen stage of the hair cycle, and eventual loss of the hair follicle. Recently a similar mutant, finnegan (Fgn), with an identical phenotype was discovered during a phenotypic screen for mutations induced by chemical mutagenesis. The gene underlying the

Declan P. Lunny; Erica Weed; Patrick M. Nolan; Andreas Marquardt; Martin Augustin; Rebecca M. Porter

2005-01-01

67

Fate of Melanocytes During Development of the Hair Follicle Pigmentary Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

During hair follicle morphogenesis, melanocyte precursors migrate into developing hair follicles and give rise to differentiated melanocytes that actively produce and transport pigment into the keratinocytes that form the hair shaft; however, patterns of melanocyte proliferation and differentiation during formation of the hair pigmentation unit remain to be elucidated. Using multicolor confocal microscopy and double immunofluorescence of melanogenic proteins (tyrosinase-related

Natalia V. Botchkareva; Vladimir A. Botchkarev; Barbara A. Gilchrest

2003-01-01

68

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... the underlying problem, if necessary. Continue What Causes Hair Loss? Here are some of the things that can ... to a dietitian or other nutrition expert. Catastrophic Hair Loss Hair loss can be the first outward sign ...

69

Hair transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... hair transplant have male or female pattern baldness . Hair loss is on the front or top of the ... follicles to move. In some cases, patients with hair loss from lupus , injuries, or other medical problems are ...

70

Differentiating Inbred Mouse Strains from Each Other and Those with Single Gene Mutations Using Hair Proteomics  

PubMed Central

Mutant laboratory mice with distinctive hair phenotypes are useful for identifying genes responsible for hair diseases. The work presented here demonstrates that shotgun proteomic profiling can distinguish hair shafts from different inbred mouse strains. For this purpose, analyzing the total hair shaft provided better discrimination than analyzing the isolated solubilized and particulate (cross-linked) fractions. Over 100 proteins exhibited significant differences among the 11 strains and 5 mutant stocks across the wide spectrum of strains surveyed. Effects on the profile of single gene mutations causing hair shaft defects were profound. Since the hair shaft provides a discrete sampling of the species proteome, with constituents serving important functions in epidermal appendages and throughout the body, this work provides a foundation for non-invasive diagnosis of genetic diseases of hair and perhaps other tissues.

Rice, Robert H.; Bradshaw, Katie M.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.; Sundberg, John P.

2012-01-01

71

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

1998-01-01

72

Mine shaft guide system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In combination with a mine shaft arrangement for an underground mine having a headframe above the surface at the shaft opening, a guide system is described which consists of: tubular pipe guides in the shaft, each guide comprising a multiplicity of pipes threaded one to another to provide a smooth exterior surface at each threaded joint and depending below the

1986-01-01

73

Hair Loss (Alopecia)  

MedlinePLUS

... Z Diseases and treatments E - H Hair loss Hair loss Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE-shah) Hereditary hair loss: Millions ... our skin, hair, and nails. Learn more about hair loss: Hair loss: Signs and symptoms Hair loss: Who ...

74

1123. Adenovirus-Mediated Expression of Sonic Hedgehog Increases the Number of CD34+ Cells in the Epidermal Stem Cell Niche in Hair Follicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair follicle stem cell niche, also known as the “bulge,” contains adult stem cells that give rise to the follicle keratinocytes that generate hair shafts . While epidermal stem cells are utilized cyclically for hair shaft regrowth, epidermal stem cells also contribute progenitor cells of interfollicular epidermis as part of wound repair. Prior work from this laboratory (Sato et

Howard Lou; Andrey Panteleyev; Angela M. Christiano; Ronald G. Crystal; Philip L. Leopold

2005-01-01

75

Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases.

Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

2012-03-01

76

Cartilage Hair Hypoplasia: First report from Iran.  

PubMed

Cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH), is a rare cause of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia and short stature. Other featuresincluded hair abnormality, immunodeficiency, anemia, gastrointestinal disorders (Hirschsprung disease,celiac, …) and increased risk of cancer. The disease is an autosomal recessive disorder and previously has notbeen reported in Iran. We report a 9-year-old boy diagnosed as cartilage hair hypoplasia, with severe short stature,metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, hair hypoplasia, Hirschsprung disease, hypothyroidism, vesicouretral refluxand renal stone. Renal stone and hypothyroidism have been reported in cartilage hair hypoplasia with lower frequencies.This is the first report of cartilage hair hypoplasia in Iran. PMID:24791127

Shiasi Arani, Kobra

2013-08-01

77

118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) FORWARD LOOKING AFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE SHOWING THE SHAFT, SHAFT PACKING GLAND, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE AND FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN PIPING. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

78

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

2006-11-24

79

Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Sim?i?, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

2007-07-01

80

Managing hair loss in midlife women.  

PubMed

Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. PMID:23182767

Mirmirani, Paradi

2013-02-01

81

Targeted expression of activated erbB-2 to the epidermis of transgenic mice elicits striking developmental abnormalities in the epidermis and hair follicles.  

PubMed

The erbB-2 proto-oncogene belongs to a receptor tyrosine kinase family that includes the epidermal growth factor receptor, erbB-2, erbB-3, and erbB-4. erbB-2 is expressed in basal cells of the squamous epithelia and the outer root sheath of the hair follicles, but its function in epidermal development has not been well studied. To investigate its role in the skin, we created transgenic mice harboring an activated erbB-2 oncogene under the control of the human keratin 14 promoter. The keratin 14 promoter directed its expression to cells in which erbB-2 is normally expressed, whereas the activated receptor gene ensured increased signaling. All transgenic founder mice exhibited extensive and striking skin phenotype, including epidermal hyperplasia, preneoplasia, papilloma, hyperkeratosis, and dyskeratosis. The majority of the hair follicles were replaced by bizarre hyperproliferative intradermal squamous invaginations, whereas the rest of the follicles exhibited severe hyperplasia and disorganization. All but one of the transgenic mice died before or shortly after birth, probably as a consequence of defects in the skin and esophagus. These observations demonstrate that the skin is sensitive to erbB-2 signaling, suggesting an important role for this receptor tyrosine kinase in epidermal growth, differentiation, and hair follicle morphogenesis. PMID:9563851

Xie, W; Wu, X; Chow, L T; Chin, E; Paterson, A J; Kudlow, J E

1998-04-01

82

Vertical shaft windmill  

SciTech Connect

A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted thereon. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

Grana, D.C.; Inge, S.V. Jr.

1983-11-15

83

Vertical shaft windmill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (inventors)

1983-01-01

84

Crank shaft support assembly  

DOEpatents

A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

Natkin, Robert J. (Canton, MI); Oltmans, Bret (Stacy, MN); Allison, John E. (Ann Arbor, MI); Heater, Thomas J. (Milford, MI); Hines, Joy Adair (Plymouth, MI); Tappen, Grant K. (Washington, MI); Peiskammer, Dietmar (Rochester, MI)

2007-10-23

85

Rotary shaft seal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

Langebrake, C.O.

1984-01-01

86

Rotary shaft seal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

Langebrake, Clair O. (Waverly, OH)

1984-01-01

87

Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair. PMID:17033177

Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji

2006-01-01

88

Root Hairs  

PubMed Central

Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology.

Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

2014-01-01

89

Investigation of structural proteins in human hair defects using anagen follicles.  

PubMed

An alternative to using hair specimens for the study of inherited hair shaft defects has been to explore protein compositions in the context of hair formation. Hair follicles were obtained from patients with a hair disorder and the presumptive hair shaft (PHS) separated by microdissection for protein solubilization and electrophoretic experiments aimed at providing a new basis to help explain the mechanism of hair shaft defects. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (fluorographs) of labelled extracts was used to examine the major hair structural proteins and other polypeptide(s) found associated with PHS extracts in normal and aberrant specimens. Changes in either the intermediate filaments (IFs) or matrix polypeptides were not normally found in defective PHS specimens. The polypeptides showing greatest variation were associated with a PHS-specific component which was recently found in normal specimens. The variation in this polypeptide was manifested as multiple spots of different molecular weights. An investigation of the role of PHS-associated polypeptides as a likely part of the hair cross-linking mechanisms, involved examination of a PHS extract from a Menkes' patient. The observations suggest that formation of hair fibre shaft defects may be related to the status of PHS-associated polypeptides which could in turn be influenced by the presence of copper in the hair follicle. PMID:8776364

Jones, L N

1996-07-01

90

Hair Removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hirsutism is represented by excessive growth of the coarse hairs in women, distributed in a male-like pattern. Hypertrichosis\\u000a is represented by excessive growth of coarser and longer hair than is normal for the age, sex and race of the person. The\\u000a hair growth cycle has three phases: anagen, catagen and telogen. The anagen phase is the growth phase, the catagen

Lucian Fodor; Yehuda Ullmann; Monica Elman

91

Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.  

PubMed

The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

2014-01-01

92

Ceramic rotor-shaft attachment  

SciTech Connect

A rotor shaft assembly is described comprising: a metal sleeve member having a cavity therein generally symmetrically distributed about the sleeve axis, a ceramic rotor having a stub shaft symmetrically distributed about the rotor axis; a crimp in the sleeve member corresponding to the annular groove in the stub shaft; and a shaft coaxially affixed to the sleeve member in torque receiving relationship.

Byrne, J.L.

1988-06-07

93

Fabricated torque shaft  

DOEpatents

A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

Mashey, Thomas Charles (Anderson, SC)

2002-01-01

94

Hair Care  

MedlinePLUS

... may prescribe something stronger. If you want to dye your hair: If possible, you might consider having a professional ... rash, don't use the dye on your hair. Wear gloves when you apply dye. Talk with your doctor if your skin or ...

95

Patchy hair loss on the pubis--a case study.  

PubMed

A female, aged 17 years and with a history of anorexia nervosa, presented with a 3 month history of a large, irregular area of hair loss over the pubis. Physical examination revealed scattered short hairs of varying length, follicular hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation throughout the area of alopecia (Figure 1a). A magnified view revealed decreased hair density, broken hairs with different shaft lengths, short vellous hairs and signs of recent haemorrhage (Figure 1b). The remainder of the hairs appeared normal, and her nails did not show any pathological changes. The hair-pull test was negative. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination and fungal culture were negative. Biochemical studies, abdominal X-ray and ultrasonography were normal. PMID:23826602

Grillo, Emiliano; Vano-Galvan, Sergio; Diaz-Ley, Blanca; Jaén, Pedro

2013-07-01

96

Gene and stem cell therapy of the hair follicle.  

PubMed

The hair follicle is a highly complex appendage of the skin containing a multiplicity of cell types. The follicle undergoes constant cycling through the life of the organism including growth and resorption with growth dependent on specific stem cells. The targeting of the follicle by genes and stem cells to change its properties, in particular, the nature of the hair shaft is discussed. Hair follicle delivery systems are described such as liposomes and viral vectors for gene therapy. The nature of the hair follicle stem cells is discussed, in particular, its pluripotency. PMID:15502205

Hoffman, Robert M

2005-01-01

97

Congenital hypothyroidism, spiky hair, and cleft palate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two brothers are described with athyroidal hypothyroidism, spiky hair, choanal atresia, cleft palate, and bifid epiglottis. Polyhydramnios was present in the third trimester of each pregnancy. These abnormalities appear to represent a new syndrome.

J S Bamforth; I A Hughes; J H Lazarus; C M Weaver; P S Harper

1989-01-01

98

Shaft Position Optical Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

99

9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY BARS); VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

100

Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Søsted

101

Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women  

PubMed Central

Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods.

Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine; Pierard, Gerald E.

2013-01-01

102

The Very Large G-Protein-Coupled Receptor VLGR1: A Component of the Ankle Link Complex Required for the Normal Development of Auditory Hair Bundles  

PubMed Central

Sensory hair bundles in the inner ear are composed of stereocilia that can be interconnected by a variety of different link types, including tip links, horizontal top connectors, shaft connectors, and ankle links. The ankle link antigen is an epitope specifically associated with ankle links and the calycal processes of photoreceptors in chicks. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting were used to identify this antigen as the avian ortholog of the very large G-protein-coupled receptor VLGR1, the product of the Usher syndrome USH2C (Mass1) locus. Like ankle links, Vlgr1 is expressed transiently around the base of developing hair bundles in mice. Ankle links fail to form in the cochleae of mice carrying a targeted mutation in Vlgr1 (Vlgr1/del7TM), and the bundles become disorganized just after birth. FM1-43 [N-(3-triethylammonium)propyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide] dye loading and whole-cell recordings indicate mechanotransduction is impaired in cochlear, but not vestibular, hair cells of early postnatal Vlgr1/del7TM mutant mice. Auditory brainstem recordings and distortion product measurements indicate that these mice are severely deaf by the third week of life. Hair cells from the basal half of the cochlea are lost in 2-month-old Vlgr1/del7TM mice, and retinal function is mildly abnormal in aged mutants. Our results indicate that Vlgr1 is required for formation of the ankle link complex and the normal development of cochlear hair bundles.

McGee, JoAnn; Goodyear, Richard J.; McMillan, D. Randy; Stauffer, Eric A.; Holt, Jeffrey R.; Locke, Kirsten G.; Birch, David G.; Legan, P. Kevin; White, Perrin C.; Walsh, Edward J.; Richardson, Guy P.

2009-01-01

103

Gravity in a Mine Shaft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

1995-01-01

104

Lornoxicam-induced hair loss: an unusual case.  

PubMed

A patient started on 8 mg lornoxicam twice daily for pain in the hips developed acute-onset scalp hair loss. History and clinical examination revealed no evident abnormalities. Temporal association of the onset of hair loss with the use of lornoxicam, inability to explain hair loss by alternate causes, possibility of hair loss with lornoxicam and resolution on dechallenge placed this reaction as a probable adverse reaction to lornoxicam. PMID:24029201

Keny, M S; Ghodge, R R; Bandekar, S M

2013-01-01

105

Mimicking hair disorders by genetic manipulation of organ-cultured human hair follicles.  

PubMed

Human hair follicles can be dissected out of scalp skin and cultured in vitro in defined growth medium. Hair follicle organ cultures have previously been used to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which various factors regulate the maintenance and cycling of adult hair follicles. In this issue, Samuelov et al. transfected organ-cultured human hair follicles with siRNA nucleotides and suppressed the expression of the endogenous P-cadherin gene in follicular keratinocytes. Knocking down the expression of P-cadherin in hair follicles in vitro recapitulated the hair follicle phenotype observed in patients with hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy (HJMD) and enabled the authors to establish a cause-effect relationship between loss of P-cadherin and suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and upregulation of TGF?2 during development of the hair abnormalities observed in HJMD patients. PMID:22971919

Chen, Jiang; Roop, Dennis R

2012-10-01

106

Topical liposome delivery of molecules to hair follicles in mice.  

PubMed

The hair cycle consisting of growing and resting phases, is subject to widespread disease such as androgenic alopecia or loss of pigment which are in need of effective, targeted therapeutics. In order to develop a hair-follicle delivery system we demonstrate here that phosphatidylcholine liposomes entrapping either the fluorescent dye calcein or the pigment melanin can deliver these molecules into the hair follicle and hair shafts of mice when applied topically. Liposomal delivery of these molecules is time dependent. Negligible amounts of delivered molecules enter the dermis, epidermis or blood stream thereby demonstrating the enrichment of follicle delivery. Naked calcein and melanin are trapped in the stratum corneum and are unable to enter the follicle. The potential of the hair-follicle liposome delivery system for therapeutic use for hair disease is discussed. PMID:9039973

Li, L; Hoffman, R M

1997-02-01

107

Do You Have Hair Loss or Hair Shedding?  

MedlinePLUS

... Hair loss vs. hair shedding Do you have hair loss or hair shedding? If you’ve been noticing ... than normal, you may worry that you have hair loss. You could actually just be shedding more hairs ...

108

Issues about axial diffusion during segmental hair analysis.  

PubMed

The detection of a single drug exposure in hair (doping offence, drug-facilitated crime) is based on the presence of the compound of interest in the segment corresponding to the period of the alleged event. However, in some cases, the drug is detected in consecutive segments. As a consequence, interpretation of the results is a challenge that deserves particular attention. Literature evaluation and data obtained from the 20-year experience in drug testing in hair of the author are used as the basis to establish a theory to validate the concept of single exposure in authentic forensic cases where the drug is detected in 2 or 3 segments. The gained experience recommends to wait for 4-5 weeks after the alleged event and then to collect strands of hair. Assuming normal hair growth rate (1 cm/mo), it is advisable to cut the strand into 3 segments of 2 cm to document eventual exposure. Administration of a single dose would be confirmed by the presence of the drug in the proximal 2-cm segment (root), whereas not detected in the 2 other segments. However, in the daily experience of the author, it was noticed that sometimes (about 1 case from 10 examinations), the drug can be detected in 2 or 3 consecutive segments. Such a disposition was even observed in volunteer experiments in the literature. As it was also described for cocaine in early 1996, there is considerable variability in the area over which incorporated drug can be distributed in the hair shaft and in the rate of axial distribution of drug along the hair shaft. This can explain why a small amount of drug, as compared with the concentration in the proximal segment, can be measured in the second segment, as a result of an irregular movement. Another explanation for broadening the band of positive hair from a single dose is that drugs and metabolites are incorporated into hair during formation of the hair shaft via diffusion from sweat and other secretions. The presence of confounding interferences in the hair matrix or changes in the hair structure due to cosmetic treatments might mislead the final result of hair analysis. To qualify for a single exposure in hair, the author proposes to consider that the highest drug concentration must be detected in the segment corresponding to the period of the alleged event (calculated with a hair growth rate at 1 cm/mo) and that the measured concentration be at least 3 times higher than those measured in the previous or the following segments. This must only be done using scalp hair after cutting the hair directly close to the scalp. PMID:23666571

Kintz, Pascal

2013-06-01

109

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

DOEpatents

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

Dietle, Lannie L. (Houston, TX); Schroeder, John E. (Richmond, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Alvarez, Patricio D. (Richmond, TX)

2010-09-21

110

Female Pattern Hair Loss  

PubMed Central

Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation.

Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

2013-01-01

111

Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine,

Won-Soo Lee

2011-01-01

112

Molecular Control of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Interactions During Hair Follicle Cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epithelial–mesenchymal interactions play pivotal roles in the morphogenesis of many organs and various types of appendages. During hair follicle development, extensive interactions between two embryologically different hair follicle compartments (epidermal keratinocytes and dermal papilla fibroblasts) lead to the formation of the hair shaft-producing mini-organ that shows cyclic activity during postnatal life with periods of active growth, involution and resting. During

Vladimir A. Botchkarev; Jiro Kishimoto

2003-01-01

113

The feasibility of targeted selective gene therapy of the hair follicle.  

PubMed

Loss of hair and hair colour is associated with ageing, and when it involves the scalp hair, it can be distressing to both sexes. Hair loss resulting from cancer chemotherapy is particularly distressing. However, safe, effective therapies directed to hair have only just started to be developed. The hair follicle is a complex skin appendage composed of epidermal and dermal tissue, with specialized keratinocytes, the hair matrix cells, forming the hair shaft. Specific therapy of the hair follicle depends on selective targeting of specific cells of the hair follicle. We have developed the histoculture of intact hair-growing skin on sponge-gel matrices. We have recently found in histocultured skin that liposomes can selectively target hair follicles to deliver both small and large molecules. That liposomes can target the hair follicle for delivery has been confirmed independently. Two decades ago we introduced the technique of entrapping DNA in liposomes for use in gene therapy. In this report we describe the selective targeting of the lacZ reporter gene to the hair follicles in mice after topical application of the gene entrapped in liposomes. These results demonstrate that highly selective, safe gene therapy for the hair process is feasible. PMID:7585157

Li, L; Hoffman, R M

1995-07-01

114

Conformational differences in protein disulfide linkages between normal hair and hair from subjects with trichothiodystrophy: a quantitative analysis by Raman microspectroscopy.  

PubMed

Raman spectra of normal hair shafts and hair shafts from patients exhibiting trichothiodystrophy (TTD) were obtained using line focus laser illumination. Because hair from TTD patients has a significant decrease in the content of the sulfur-containing amino acids in comparison to normal hair, the 550-500 cm(-1) disulfide stretching mode region of the Raman spectrum was examined in detail. A quantitative spectral analysis demonstrates significant increases in the two energetically less favored gauche-gauche-trans (g-g-t) and trans-gauche-trans (t-g-t) forms. These observations suggest that the increased amounts of these less stable disulfide conformers are contributing factors to or associated with the hair brittleness observed for this congenital disorder. Structure-spectra correlations for the three dominant disulfide conformers are confirmed by quantum chemical calculations using modern density functional theory (DFT). PMID:16557500

Schlücker, S; Liang, C; Strehle, K R; DiGiovanna, J J; Kraemer, K H; Levin, I W

2006-08-15

115

A model system to analyse the ability of human keratinocytes to form hair follicles.  

PubMed

Earlier studies showed that dermal cells lose trichogenic capacity with passage, but studies on the effect of keratinocyte passage on human hair follicle neogenesis and graft quality have been hampered by the lack of a suitable model system. We recently documented human hair follicle neogenesis in grafted dermal-epidermal composites, and in the present study, we determined the effects of keratinocyte passage on hair follicle neogenesis. Dermal equivalents were made with cultured human dermal papilla cells and were overlaid with either primary or passaged human keratinocytes to form dermal-epidermal composites; these were then grafted onto immunodeficient mice. Superior hair follicle neogenesis was observed using early keratinocyte cultures. Characteristics such as formation of hair shafts and sebaceous glands, presence of hair follicles with features of anagen or telogen follicles, and reproducible hair and skin function parameters make this model a tool to study human hair follicle neogenesis and development. PMID:24758480

Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Klover, Peter; Li, Shaowei; Wang, Ji-An; Sperling, Leonard; Darling, Thomas N

2014-06-01

116

Nudging hair shedding by antidandruff shampoos. A comparison of 1% ketoconazole, 1% piroctone olamine and 1% zinc pyrithione formulations.  

PubMed

Hair shedding and hair thinning have been reported to be affected by dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The present study was conducted in 150 men presenting with telogen effluvium related to androgenic alopecia associated with dandruff. They were randomly allocated to three groups receiving each one of the three shampoos in the market containing either 1% ketoconazole (KTZ), 1% piroctone olamine (PTO) or 1% zinc pyrithione (ZPT). Shampoos had to be used 2-3 times a week for 6 months. Hair shedding during shampoo was evaluated semiquantitatively. Hair density on the vertex was evaluated on photographs using a Dermaphot. Trichograms were used for determining the anagen hair percentage and the mean proximal hair shaft diameter using computerized image analysis. The sebum excretion rate (SER, mug cm(-2) h(-1)) was also measured using a Sebumeter. The three treatments cleared pruritus and dandruff rapidly. At end point, hair density was unchanged, although hair shedding was decreased (KTZ: -17.3%, PTO: -16.5%, ZPT: -10.1%) and the anagen hair percentage was increased (KTZ: 4.9%, PTO: 7.9%, ZPT: 6.8%). The effect on the mean hair shaft diameter was contrasted between the three groups of volunteers (KTZ: 5.4%, PTO: 7.7%, ZPT: -2.2%). In conclusion, telogen effluvium was controlled by KTZ, PTO and ZPT shampoos at 1% concentration. In addition, KTZ and PTO increased the mean hair shaft thickness while discretely decreasing the sebum output at the skin surface. PMID:18498517

Piérard-Franchimont, C; Goffin, V; Henry, F; Uhoda, I; Braham, C; Piérard, G E

2002-10-01

117

7-Phloroeckol promotes hair growth on human follicles in vitro.  

PubMed

7-Phloroeckol, phloroglucinol derivative isolated from marine brown algae, has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory responses and MMP inhibitory activities. In this study, we evaluated the hair growth-promoting effects of 7-phloroeckol in human hair follicles. To investigate cell viability of human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) and outer root sheath (ORS) cells in the presence or absence of 7-phloroeckol treatment, MTT assay was employed. Moreover, gene expression and protein concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. 7-Phloroeckol induced an increase in proliferation of DPCs and ORS cells. In addition, hair shaft growth was measured using the hair-follicle organ culture system. 7-Phloroeckol resulted in elongation of the hair shaft in cultured human hair follicles. 7-Phloroeckol induced an IGF-1 mRNA expression and protein concentration in DPCs and conditioned media, respectively. These results suggest that 7-phloroeckol promotes hair growth through stimulation of DPCs and ORS cells. PMID:24833298

Bak, Soon-Sun; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Se-Kwon

2014-08-01

118

Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth  

SciTech Connect

Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

2008-03-07

119

Chrysanthemum zawadskii extract induces hair growth by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of hair matrix.  

PubMed

Chrysanthemum zawadskii has been proven to possess hair growth activity and has been used as treatment for hair loss. The aim of this study was to provide a novel explanation of the mechanism by which Chrysanthemum zawadskii extracts (CZe) promote hair growth and to characterize the affected hair follicle (HF) regions and the progression of growth. The n-butanol and water fractions of CZe were used for hair growth induction by topical application to the backs of C57BL/6 mice for up to 30 days. To investigate cell development during HF morphogenesis, bromodeoxyuridine-labeled skin sections were detected using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the water fraction of CZe promoted hair shaft production and induced premature entry of telogen HFs into the anagen. Subsequently, immunohistochemical studies indicated that the water fraction of CZe stimulated the differentiation and proliferation of pluripotent epidermal matrix cells in the matrix region and epithelial stem cells in the basal layer of the epidermis. Additionally, flavonoids were identified as effective constituents. Therefore, the findings of this study suggested that the water fraction of CZe may be developed as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of hair loss. PMID:24807783

Li, Zheng; Li, Jingjie; Gu, Lijuan; Begum, Shahnaz; Wang, Yunbo; Sun, Baishen; Lee, Mira; Sung, Changkeun

2014-07-01

120

What Causes Hair Loss?  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Hereditary thinning or baldness . Also called androgenetic alopecia , this is the most common cause of hair ... hair loss due to hereditary thinning or baldness. Alopecia areata . This autoimmune disease causes hair loss on ...

121

Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

122

Laser Hair Removal  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Hair Removal, Laser A A A AFTER: Two laser hair removal treatments were performed. This picture is 7 months post ... laser or Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) technology, suitable hairs can be superheated and permanently removed. The target ...

123

Shaft seal assembly and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

Keba, John E. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

124

Age-Related Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... hereditary hair loss include: Surgical Procedures for Hair Restoration Hair transplantation – Skin on the scalp that has ... placed where hair is needed. Medication for Hair Restoration Finasteride – Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug ...

125

Shaft sinking method  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of sinking shafts comprising excavating a series of lifts wherein each lift is excavated by drilling a pattern of blast holes for the full depth of the lift boring a large diameter hole for the full depth of the lift. Then creating a chamber only at the lower end of the large diameter hole, blasting a portion of the walls of the chamber to deposit rock material into the chamber, extracting at least a portion of the rock material created by the blast and repeating the blasting and extraction step throughout the length of the lift from the bottom to the top and when the volume of the lift is blasted extracting the remaining rock broken material.

Sainsbury, G.M.

1987-10-20

126

Metallurgical analysis on a bending failed pump-shaft made of 17-7PH precipitation-hardening stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal jump and bending occurred on a shaft used in an erect multiple-grades pump when performing a trial run. The failed shaft is made of 17-7PH stainless steel. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the failed pump-shaft material were examined. Two different microstructural zones were exhibited. One is composed of the tempered martensite coexisting the retained austenite, which is the normal

X. L. Xu; Z. W. Yu

2008-01-01

127

Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus  

DOEpatents

The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one end to a gear mechanism and at its other end to an adjustable coupling means which is to be connected to a rotatable shaft extending through a wall through which torque and rotary motion are to be transferred.

Griggs, J.E.; Newman, H.J.

1983-06-16

128

Morphological changes of the hair roots in alopecia areata: a scanning electron microscopic study.  

PubMed

Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory condition causing non-scarring patchy hair loss. Diagnosis of alopecia areata is made by clinical observations, hair pluck test and dermoscopic signs. However, because differentiation from other alopecia diseases is occasionally difficult, an invasive diagnostic method using a punch biopsy is performed. In this study, to develop a reliable, less invasive diagnostic method for alopecia areata, we performed scanning electron microscopy of the hair roots of alopecia areata patients. This study identified four patterns of hair morphology specific to alopecia areata: (I) long tapering structure with no accumulation of scales; (II) club-shaped hair root with fine scales; (III) proximal accumulation of scales; and (IV) sharp tapering of the proximal end of hair. On the basis of these results, we can distinguish alopecia areata by scanning electron microscopic observation of the proximal end of the hair shafts. PMID:24304217

Karashima, Tadashi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Hamada, Takahiro; Ishii, Norito; Ono, Fumitake; Ueda, Akihiro; Abe, Toshifumi; Nakama, Takekuni; Dainichi, Teruki; Hashimoto, Takashi

2013-12-01

129

Hair, nail, and pigment changes in major systemic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the nail, hair, and pigment changes caused by systemic diseases will be reviewed. Among the subjects discussed are abnormalities of shape, attachments, surface, and color of the nails; hair alterations such as telogen and anagen effluvium, scarring alopecia, hypertrichosis, and hirsutism; and pigment changes due to connective tissue disorders, sarcoidosis, and metabolic and endocrinologic diseases, among others.

Marcia Ramos-e-Silva; Melissa Chaves Azevedo-e-Silva; Sueli Coclho Carneiro

2008-01-01

130

MALDI-TOF and MALDI-FTICR imaging mass spectrometry of methamphetamine incorporated into hair.  

PubMed

A new approach is described for imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) of methamphetamine (MA) incorporated into human hair using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF) and MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR). A longitudinal section of a lengthwise manually-cut single human hair shaft from a chronic MA user was directly analyzed by MALDI-TOF-IMS after deposited with ?-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix. A barcode-like image, which was most probably generated with repeated intakes of MA, was for the first time obtained by monitoring MA-specific product ion in the selected reaction monitoring mode. Laser beam scan lengthwise-cut hair shafts gave only poor mass spectra of MA, probably due to the loss of MA and/or the thermal denaturation of hair. The identity of MA detected in hair was further confirmed by MALDI-FTICR mass spectrometry. A combination with ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry by FTICR provided indisputable identification of MA. The MALDI-FTICR-IMS of another hair shaft from the same MA user also provided a barcode-like image by monitoring the protonated molecule of MA with ultra-high resolution. The two barcode-like images exhibited a close resemblance. Thus, MALDI-IMS can offer a new perspective: 'imaging hair analyses for drugs'. PMID:21438091

Miki, Akihiro; Katagi, Munehiro; Kamata, Tooru; Zaitsu, Kei; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Takubo, Takayuki; Suzuki, Koichi

2011-04-01

131

New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.  

PubMed

Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

2014-05-01

132

A receptor-like inositol lipid phosphatase is required for the maturation of developing cochlear hair bundles.  

PubMed

A screen for protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) expressed in the chick inner ear yielded a high proportion of clones encoding an avian ortholog of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor Q (Ptprq), a receptor-like PTP. Ptprq was first identified as a transcript upregulated in rat kidney in response to glomerular nephritis and has recently been shown to be active against inositol phospholipids. An antibody to the intracellular domain of Ptprq, anti-Ptprq, stains hair bundles in mice and chicks. In the chick ear, the distribution of Ptprq is almost identical to that of the 275 kDa hair-cell antigen (HCA), a component of hair-bundle shaft connectors recognized by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that stains inner-ear hair bundles and kidney glomeruli. Furthermore, anti-Ptprq immunoblots a 275 kDa polypeptide immunoprecipitated by the anti-HCA mAb from the avian inner ear, indicating that the HCA and Ptprq are likely to be the same molecule. In two transgenic mouse strains with different mutations in Ptprq, anti-Ptprq immunoreactivity cannot be detected in the ear. Shaft connectors are absent from mutant vestibular hair bundles, but the stereocilia forming the hair bundle are not splayed, indicating that shaft connectors are not necessary to hold the stereocilia together; however, the mice show rapid postnatal deterioration in cochlear hair-bundle structure, associated with smaller than normal transducer currents with otherwise normal adaptation properties, a progressive loss of basal-coil cochlear hair cells, and deafness. These results reveal that Ptprq is required for formation of the shaft connectors of the hair bundle, the normal maturation of cochlear hair bundles, and the long-term survival of high-frequency auditory hair cells. PMID:14534255

Goodyear, R J; Legan, P K; Wright, M B; Marcotti, W; Oganesian, A; Coats, S A; Booth, C J; Kros, C J; Seifert, R A; Bowen-Pope, D F; Richardson, G P

2003-10-01

133

ILK modulates epithelial polarity and matrix formation in hair follicles  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle morphogenesis requires coordination of multiple signals and communication between its epithelial and mesenchymal constituents. Cell adhesion protein platforms, which include integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), are critical for hair follicle formation. However, their precise contribution to this process is poorly understood. We show that in the absence of ILK, the hair follicle matrix lineage fails to develop, likely due to abnormalities in development of apical–basal cell polarity, as well as in laminin-511 and basement membrane assembly at the tip of the hair bud. These defects also result in impaired specification of hair matrix and absence of precortex and inner sheath root cell lineages. The molecular pathways affected in ILK-deficient follicles are similar to those in the absence of epidermal integrin ?1 and include Wnt, but not sonic hedgehog, signaling. ILK-deficient hair buds also show abnormalities in the dermal papilla. Addition of exogenous laminin-511 restores morphological and molecular markers associated with hair matrix formation, indicating that ILK regulates hair bud cell polarity and functions upstream from laminin-511 assembly to regulate the developmental progression of hair follicles beyond the germ stage.

Rudkouskaya, Alena; Welch, Ian; Dagnino, Lina

2014-01-01

134

Taking Care of Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... chemicals or other styling products, see a doctor. Hair Loss (Alopecia) It's normal for everyone to lose some hair. ... out and are replaced with new ones. With hair loss, though, hair thins at a rate that can' ...

135

Hair Loss in New Moms  

MedlinePLUS

... Hair loss in new moms Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... shedding after having a baby. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

136

Ethyl glucuronide: Unusual distribution between head hair and pubic hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor metabolite of ethanol that can be detected in hair. In some specific situations, head hair can be missing, and therefore, alternative anatomical locations of hair are of interest. In this study, paired hair specimens (head hair and pubic hair) from eight social drinkers were analyzed for EtG. Each sample was decontaminated by two dichloromethane

Pascal Kintz; Marion Villain; Emilie Vallet; Mathieu Etter; Guillaume Salquebre; Vincent Cirimele

2008-01-01

137

A Hot New Twist to Hair Biology  

PubMed Central

The vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1, or transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor, TRPV1) is activated by capsaicin, the key ingredient of hot peppers. TRPV1 was originally described on sensory neurons as a central integrator of various nociceptive stimuli. However, several human skin cell populations are also now recognized to express TRPV1, but with unknown function. Exploiting the human hair follicle (HF) as a prototypic epithelial-mesenchymal interaction system, we have characterized the HF expression of TRPV1 in situ and have examined TRPV1 signaling in organ-cultured human scalp HF and outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes in vitro. TRPV1 immunoreactivity was confined to distinct epithelial compartments of the human HF, mainly to the ORS and hair matrix. In organ culture, TRPV1 activation by capsaicin resulted in a dose-dependent and TRPV1-specific inhibition of hair shaft elongation, suppression of proliferation, induction of apoptosis, premature HF regression (catagen), and up-regulation of intrafollicular transforming growth factor-?2. Cultured human ORS keratinocytes also expressed functional TRPV1, whose stimulation inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, elevated intracellular calcium concentration, up-regulated known endogenous hair growth inhibitors (interleukin-1?, transforming growth factor-?2), and down-regulated known hair growth promoters (hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I, stem cell factor). These findings strongly support TRPV1 as a significant novel player in human hair growth control, underscore the physiological importance of TRPV1 in human skin beyond nociception, and identify TRPV1 as a promising, novel target for pharmacological manipulations of epithelial growth disorders.

Bodo, Eniko; Biro, Tamas; Telek, Andrea; Czifra, Gabriella; Griger, Zoltan; Toth, Balazs I.; Mescalchin, Alessandra; Ito, Taisuke; Bettermann, Albrecht; Kovacs, Laszlo; Paus, Ralf

2005-01-01

138

Help! It's Hair Loss!  

MedlinePLUS

... are in the resting phase. Continue What Causes Hair Loss? Men, especially older men, are the ones who ... loss, you might need more tests. Coping With Hair Loss In some cases, it can take a while ...

139

Inhibition of hair growth  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method of inhibiting hair growth in a mammal includes applying, to an area of skin from which reduced hair growth is desired, a dermatologically acceptable composition containing a non-steroidal suppressor of angiogenesis.

2000-07-25

140

Common Hair Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... have the inherited tendency to "common baldness." Male pattern baldness is the most common cause of hair ... top of the head. Women may develop female pattern baldness in which the hair becomes thin over ...

141

An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan  

SciTech Connect

This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

Not Available

1987-03-01

142

Changing Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... and long hours in the chair at the hair salon. Some people dye their hair a different color, get a bunch of braids, ... breathing. Also be careful if you decide to dye your hair a crazy color, like blue. Some dyes are ...

143

Laser Hair Removal  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatments should be performed by or under the direct supervision of a dermatologist or other physician who has appropriate training and expertise. In general, three or more treatments are required to achieve permanent hair growth reduction. Darker hair responds best to laser hair ...

144

Turbocharger with improved roller bearing shaft support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an exhaust gas driven turbocharger. It comprises: a housing, a shaft within the housing having a pair of ends, a compressor wheel mounted within the housing on one end of the shaft for rotation therewith, a turbine wheel mounted within the housing on the other end of the shaft for rotation therewith, means for communicating air through

Gutknecht

1991-01-01

145

Repairing A Shaft Prone To Fatigue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shaft of hydraulic motor now outlives its bearings. Procedure for repairing John Deere Series 50 (or equivalent) hydraulic motor solves problem posed by common type of fatigue failure of shaft. Includes forming internally threaded hole in end of shaft, inserting double-threaded end stud, and adding washers and collars.

Sharp, Roger A.; Larsen, David V.; Bates, Garold A.

1991-01-01

146

Walking abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Gait abnormalities ... of how a person walks is called the gait. Different types of walking problems occur without a ... Some walking abnormalities have been given names: Propulsive gait -- a stooped, stiff posture with the head and ...

147

The hair follicle: a specialised UV receptor in the human skin?  

PubMed

Coat colour changes in polar animals are related to seasonal variation in photic inputs. The present work was performed to study the photoresponses of hair follicular melanocytes in human skin. The melanocytes, being photosensitive cells, can function as UV biosensors, since dendrites extend towards the source of UV light. Fifty-one skin biopsies from the margin of vitiligo were subjected to whole skin organ cultures. These were exposed to a pulse of UV light to study hair bulb melanocytes in vitiligo. It is observed that the melanocytes are seen within the anagen matrix. These melanocytes are poorly dendritic in control and dark-incubated cultures. On UV exposure, they become highly dendritic, the dendrites extending towards the hair shaft in 93.5%. They show prominent catechol oxidase and noradrenaline positivity, all features of UV responsiveness. The melanocytes within the hair follicle are not directly exposed to UV light. The melanocyte dendricity and the alignment of dendrites towards the shaft on UV exposure indicate that the columns of the cells in the hair shaft act as an efficient fibre-optic system, transmitting UV light. Morphologically, the keratinocytes in the hair shaft are arranged in compressed linear columns which resemble the coaxial bundles of commercial fibre-optic strands as is observed in plants. Keratinocytes in the inner and outer sheaths do not show this arrangement. Thus the hair follicle functions as a specialised UV receptor in the skin responding to nuances of photic inputs in human skin. This is reflected in coat colour changes in animals exposed to large variations in day-night cycles. PMID:9672761

Iyengar, B

1998-01-01

148

Premature graying of hair.  

PubMed

Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined. PMID:23974581

Pandhi, Deepika; Khanna, Deepshikha

2013-01-01

149

Seal rubs can cause shaft deflections  

SciTech Connect

Seals in hydroelectric machines should prevent the escape of oil and oil vapor from bearings and water from the turbine case along the rotating shaft of the turbine/generator set. However, in cases where seals are placed or move too close to the shaft, they may be responsible for unacceptable shaft runout. During runout, the shaft connecting the turbine to the generator moves laterally, subjecting bearings and structural supports to large pulsating forces. This can lead to a breakdown of lubricating oil film, which, in turn, can damage the shaft. No shaft rotates in a perfectly concentric manner. For that reason, all hydroelectric machines exhibit some degree of shaft runout. In cases where unacceptable levels of vibration occur, station and maintenance staff may consider such possible causes as mechanical unbalance, excessive bearing clearances, hydraulic effects, and electrical unbalance. Seals rubbing against the shaft, are also a cause of runout. Maintenance staff often can determine whether seal rub is the cause of shaft runout by observing machine performance. Such machines will make smooth cold starts but as the machine continues to operate, runout becomes more and more pronounced. This characteristic points to a seal rub as a likely cause of the vibration. When localized heat is generated by seals rubbing against a rotating shaft, the heat bends the shaft in the direction of the original runout. The seal rub that produced the temperature rise then worsens, producing additional heat and more deflection. This snowballing effect can continue until the seal rub becomes destructive.

O'Kelly, F.

1991-10-01

150

Hermetic seal for a shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An hermetic seal for a linear rod having a portion thereof projected axially through a port defined in a wall for a pressure chamber and supported thereby for omni-directional motion is described. The seal is characterized by a resilient, impervious, cylindrical body having a first section concentrically related to the shaft and integrally affixed thereto comprising a linear ordered array of annular flutes. A second section integrally is affixed to the wall of the chamber and concentrically related to the port comprising a second linear ordered array of annular flutes. A third section is interposed between the first and second sections and integrally affixed in coaxial alignment therewith comprising an annular ordered array of linear flutes concentrically related to the shaft, whereby axial, angular, and pivotal motion of the rod is accommodated.

Lombardi, F. (inventor)

1982-01-01

151

Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle  

PubMed Central

The hair follicle is a cyclic biological system that progresses through stages of growth, regression, and quiescence, which involves dynamic changes in a program of gene regulation. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are critically important for the control of gene expression and silencing. Here, we show that global miRNA expression in the skin markedly changes during distinct stages of the hair cycle in mice. Furthermore, we show that expression of miR-31 markedly increases during anagen and decreases during catagen and telogen. Administration of antisense miR-31 inhibitor into mouse skin during the early- and midanagen phases of the hair cycle results in accelerated anagen development, and altered differentiation of hair matrix keratinocytes and hair shaft formation. Microarray, qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that miR-31 negatively regulates expression of Fgf10, the components of Wnt and BMP signaling pathways Sclerostin and BAMBI, and Dlx3 transcription factor, as well as selected keratin genes, both in vitro and in vivo. Using luciferase reporter assay, we show that Krt16, Krt17, Dlx3, and Fgf10 serve as direct miR-31 targets. Thus, by targeting a number of growth regulatory molecules and cytoskeletal proteins, miR-31 is involved in establishing an optimal balance of gene expression in the hair follicle required for its proper growth and hair fiber formation.—Mardaryev, A. N., Ahmed, M. I., Vlahov, N. V., Fessing, M. Y., Gill, J. H., Sharov, A. A., and Botchkareva, N. V. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle.

Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Ahmed, Mohammed I.; Vlahov, Nikola V.; Fessing, Michael Y.; Gill, Jason H.; Sharov, Andrey A.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.

2010-01-01

152

Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity in hairs and body fluids of monozygotic triplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Length heteroplasmy of the homopolymeric cytosine stretch in the hypervariable region II of the mitochondrial D-loop was investigated in blood, buccal cells and hair shafts of monozygotic triplets. The proportions of length heteroplasmy were determined by cloning and sequencing of multiple independent clones. Blood and buccal cells showed an accumulation of molecules with one and two insertions of cytosine residues

Heidi Pfeiffer; Sabine Lutz-Bonengel; Stefan Pollak; Rolf Fimmers; Max P. Baur; Bernd Brinkmann

2004-01-01

153

Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.  

PubMed

Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. PMID:24680003

Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

2014-04-01

154

Cyclosporine A stimulated hair growth from mouse vibrissae follicles in an organ culture model  

PubMed Central

Hypertrichosis is one of the most common side effects of systemic cyclosporine A therapy. It has been previously shown that cyclosporine A induces anagen and inhibits catagen development in mice. In the present study, to explore the mechanisms of cyclosporine A, we investigated the effects of cyclosporine A on hair shaft elongation, hair follicle cell proliferation, apoptosis, and mRNA expression of selected growth factors using an organ culture model of mouse vibrissae. In this model, cyclosporine A stimulated hair growth of normal mouse vibrissae follicles by inhibiting catagen-like development and promoting matrix cell proliferation. In addition, cyclosporine A caused an increase in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF), and inhibited follistatin expression. Our findings provide an explanation for the clinically observed effects of cyclosporine A on hair growth. The mouse vibrissae organ culture offers an attractive model for identifying factors involved in the modulation of hair growth.

Xu, Wenrong; Fan, Weixin; Yao, Kun

2012-01-01

155

Uncombable hair and atopic dermatitis in a case of trichodento-osseous syndrome.  

PubMed

The tricho-dento-osseous syndrome is a rare genetic disorder due to a mutation in the DLX3 gene on chromosome 17q21. It can affect hair, teeth, bone and nails, causing phenotypic variability. We report on an 8-year-old girl with tricho-dento-osseous syndrome, who presented in our allergy center with severe atopic dermatitis. Additional clinical findings included light, kinky hair reminiscent of pili trianguli et canaliculi (uncombable hair), enamel hypoplasia and enlarged pulp chambers of the molar teeth (taurodontism). A genetic investigation revealed a de-novo mutation in the DLX3 gene on chromosome 17q21. Electron microscopic examination of the curly hair showed a flattened hair shaft with longitudinal grooves. PMID:20151948

Mayer, Dagmara E Y; Baal, Christian; Litschauer-Poursadrollah, Margaritha; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Jarisch, Reinhart

2010-02-01

156

Alopecia universalis as a single abnormality in an inbred Pakistani kindred.  

PubMed

A Pakistani kindred comprising 5 generations contained 9 males and 4 females with alopecia universalis as a single abnormality without any associated defects. The skin biopsy from the scalp showed hair follicles without hair. Analysis of the pedigree is strongly suggestive of autosomal recessive inheritance, and consanguineous loops could account for all affected persons being homozygous for the abnormal allele. PMID:8357006

Ahmad, M; Abbas, H; Haque, S

1993-06-01

157

How to diagnose hair loss.  

PubMed

This review presents a systematic approach to the diagnosis of hair loss. An accurate diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, laboratory tests, and scalp biopsy. Whether the hair loss is a cicatricial or noncicatricial alopecia guides one's history taking. After assessing the patient's global appearance, the hair and scalp are evaluated, aided by a hair pull, hair tug, Hair Card, and hair mount. Scalp biopsies can confirm a diagnosis and are essential in all cases of cicatricial alopecia. In all patients with hair loss a complete blood count, ferritin, thyroid stimulating hormone, and vitamin D 25OH should be ordered. PMID:23159173

Jackson, Adrianna J; Price, Vera H

2013-01-01

158

Shaft mount for data coupler system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for mounting a data transmission apparatus to a rotating, tapered, and instrumented shaft is provided. This device permits attachment without interfering with shaft rotation or the accuracy of data output, and prevents both radial and axial slippage of the data transmission apparatus. The mounting device consists of a sleeve assembly which is attached to the shaft by means of clamps that are situated at some distance removed from the instrumented area of the shaft. The data transmission device is secured to the sleeve such that the entire assembly rotates with the shaft. Shim adjustments between sleeve sections assure that a minimum compressive load is transferred to the instrumented area of the shaft and a rubber lining is affixed to a large portion of the interior surface of the sleeve to absorb vibration.

Elliott, James R., Jr. (inventor); Lord, Mark T. (inventor)

1993-01-01

159

A pair of transmembrane receptors essential for the retention and pigmentation of hair.  

PubMed

Hair follicles are simple, accessible models for many developmental processes. Here, using mutant mice, we show that Bmpr2, a known receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps), and Acvr2a, a known receptor for Bmps and activins, are individually redundant but together essential for multiple follicular traits. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in cutaneous epithelium, hair follicles undergo rapid cycles of hair generation and loss. Alopecia results from a failure to terminate hair development properly, as hair clubs never form, and follicular retraction is slowed. Hair regeneration is rapid due to premature activation of new hair-production programs. Hair shafts differentiate aberrantly due to impaired arrest of medullary-cell proliferation. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in melanocytes, gray hair develops, as melanosomes differentiate but fail to grow, resulting in organelle miniaturization. We conclude that Bmpr2 and Acvr2a normally play cell-type-specific, necessary roles in organelle biogenesis and the shutdown of developmental programs and cell division. PMID:22611050

Han, Rong; Beppu, Hideyuki; Lee, Yun-Kyoung; Georgopoulos, Katia; Larue, Lionel; Li, En; Weiner, Lorin; Brissette, Janice L

2012-11-01

160

A PAIR OF TRANSMEMBRANE RECEPTORS ESSENTIAL FOR THE RETENTION AND PIGMENTATION OF HAIR  

PubMed Central

Hair follicles are simple, accessible models for many developmental processes. Here, using mutant mice, we show that Bmpr2, a known receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps), and Acvr2a, a known receptor for Bmps and activins, are individually redundant but together essential for multiple follicular traits. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in cutaneous epithelium, hair follicles undergo rapid cycles of hair generation and loss. Alopecia results from a failure to terminate hair development properly, as hair clubs never form, and follicular retraction is slowed. Hair regeneration is rapid due to premature activation of new hair-production programs. Hair shafts differentiate aberrantly due to impaired arrest of medullary-cell proliferation. When Bmpr2/Acvr2a function is reduced in melanocytes, gray hair develops, as melanosomes differentiate but fail to grow, resulting in organelle miniaturization. We conclude that Bmpr2 and Acvr2a normally play cell-type-specific, necessary roles in organelle biogenesis and the shutdown of developmental programs and cell division.

Han, Rong; Beppu, Hideyuki; Lee, Yun-Kyoung; Georgopoulos, Katia; Larue, Lionel; Li, En; Weiner, Lorin; Brissette, Janice L.

2012-01-01

161

Use of body and beard donor hair in surgical treatment of androgenic alopecia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Follicular unit transplant is a widely used surgical treatment for androgenic alopecia. However, for patients with extensive hair loss (Norwood 5 and above), scalp donor hair are not sufficient to cover all areas of baldness. This study aims to assess suitability of beard and body donor hair when transplanted to the scalp. Materials and Methods: In 35 male patients having varying degrees of androgenic alopecia, body and beard donor hair were extracted by follicular unit extraction method (under local anesthesia). They were transplanted in different locations of the scalp. Follow-up was carried out at various intervals (6 months to 2 years). The hairs were observed for colour, curl and calibre. Results: In all the patients, there was no change in the colour, curl or calibre of the transplanted body/beard hair. They maintained the same characteristics as in their original location. Conclusion: Body and beard hair can be used as additional donor resource for treating androgenic alopecia. These hairs, however, do not change their colour, curl, and shaft diameter (calibre). Thus, proper planning is a must when using the different types of donor hair for transplanting.

Poswal, Arvind

2013-01-01

162

Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata) Information for adults A A A This image displays a close-up of the scalp with a round area of non-scarring hair loss typical of alopecia areata. Overview Alopecia areata is ...

163

Adhesive Guard Hair Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long hairs of fur pelts known as guard hairs are removed to reveal soft underfur by contacting the pelt with a substrate coated with adhesive and then pulling the substrate away from the pelt. Recoverable or nonrecoverable adhesive systems may be used.

H. E. Hull

1976-01-01

164

Hair Follicle Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop on Hair Follicle Stem Cells brought together investigators who have used a variety of approaches to try to understand the biology of follicular epithelial stem cells, and the role that these cells play in regulating the hair cycle. One of the main concepts to emerge from this workshop is that follicular epithelial stem cells are multipotent, capable of

Robert M. Lavker; Tung-Tien Sun; Hideo Oshima; Yann Barrandon; Masashi Akiyama; Corinne Ferraris; Genevieve Chevalier; Bertrand Favier; Colin A. B. Jahoda; Danielle Dhouailly; Andrei A. Panteleyev; Angela M. Christiano

2003-01-01

165

Hair follicle stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of the hair follicle as a stem cell paradigm is due in part to the complex interplay between epithelial, dermal and other cell types, each with interesting differentiation potential and prospective therapeutic applications. This review focuses on research into the environmental niche, gene expression profiles and plasticity of hair follicle stem cell populations, where many recent advances

James M. Waters; Gavin D. Richardson; Colin A. B. Jahoda

2007-01-01

166

Long Hair Shampoo Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to a long hair shampoo basin for use at barber shops and beauty salons. More specifically, the present invention is directed to shampoo basins which are adapted for shampooing longer hair than is accommodated by present basin...

K. Schulken

2005-01-01

167

Removing Hair Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... the jurisdiction of FDA's Office of Cosmetics and Colors in the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. The practice of professional hair ... popular belief, shaving does not change the texture, color, or growth rate of hair. ... Safety Commission. back to top This article appears on ...

168

MicroRNAs in hair cell development and deafness  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The identification of transcriptional activators and repressors of hair cell fates has recently been augmented by the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) that can function as post-transcriptional repressors in sensory hair cells. Recent findings miRNAs are ~21 nucleotide single-stranded ribonucleic acids that can each repress protein synthesis of many target genes by interacting with messenger RNA transcripts. A triplet of these miRNAs, the miR-183 family, are highly expressed in vertebrate hair cells, as well as a variety of other peripheral neurosensory cells. Point mutations in one member of this family, miR-96, underlie DFNA50 autosomal deafness in humans and lead to abnormal hair cell development and survival in mice. In zebrafish, overexpression of the miR-183 family induces extra and ectopic hair cells, while knockdown reduces hair cell numbers. Genetically-engineered mice with a block in miRNA biosynthesis during early ear development, or during hair cell differentiation, reveal the necessity of miRNAs at these crucial time points. Summary Because miRNAs can simultaneously down-regulate dozens to perhaps hundreds of transcripts, they will soon be explored as potential therapeutic agents to repair or regenerate hair cells in animal models.

Li, Haiqiong; Fekete, Donna M.

2010-01-01

169

Chemotherapy Targets the Hair-Follicle Vascular Network but Not the Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a major problem in clinical oncology. Doxorubicin, a widely used cancer chemotherapy drug, induces disruption of the hair cycle and subsequent alopecia. We show in this report that doxorubicin causes disruption of the hair-follicle-associated blood vessel network resulting in a greatly reduced density of these blood vessels. Dystrophic hair follicles were also observed with abnormal melanogenesis in

Yasuyuki Amoh; Lingna Li; Kensei Katsuoka; Robert M. Hoffman

2007-01-01

170

Gene expression of mouse S100A3, a cysteine-rich calcium-binding protein, in developing hair follicle.  

PubMed

We have previously identified a cysteine-rich calcium binding protein S100A3 present in the cuticle of human hair fiber. In this study, we cloned a cDNA for mouse S100A3, identified its gene location, and elucidated the expression profile throughout hair follicle development. The mouse S100A3 gene was clustered with other S100 family members on chromosome 3, and specifically expressed in dorsal skin containing hair follicles. The level of S100A3 mRNA was elevated during the anagen phase of the hair growth cycle, and sharply declined from the regression phase on. In situ hybridization revealed that the S100A3 gene was prominently expressed in cuticular cells of the hair follicle, and mRNA levels were highest in the keratogenous zone over the entire cuticular layer. Expression was also observed to a lesser extent in differentiated cortical cells; however, expression was not observed in any other component of the hair follicle or dorsal tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the S100A3 protein accumulated in cuticular and cortical cells undergoing terminal differentiation. These results indicate that the S100A3 gene is exclusively expressed, and the translation product retained, in follicular cells differentiating into major components of the hair shaft. It seems likely that S100A3 plays an important role in calcium-dependent processes leading to hair shaft formation. PMID:9804353

Kizawa, K; Tsuchimoto, S; Hashimoto, K; Uchiwa, H

1998-11-01

171

Exogenous Factors in Hair Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and beauty of human hair have immeasurable psychological importance. Hair structure and its cycle are influenced by intentionally or nonintentionally delivered factors such as grooming, heat styling, chemical agents and climatic exposure. All of these factors are capable of causing loss of hair color and luster, harshness, stiffness, weakness, brittleness and flyaway, transient loss of hair or scarring

Liran Horev

2004-01-01

172

Unitary Shaft-Angle and Shaft-Speed Sensor Assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure depicts a unit that contains a rotary-position or a rotary-speed sensor, plus electronic circuitry necessary for its operation, all enclosed in a single housing with a shaft for coupling to an external rotary machine. This rotation sensor unit is complete: when its shaft is mechanically connected to that of the rotary machine and it is supplied with electric power, it generates an output signal directly indicative of the rotary position or speed, without need for additional processing by other circuitry. The incorporation of all of the necessary excitatory and readout circuitry into the housing (in contradistinction to using externally located excitatory and/or readout circuitry) in a compact arrangement is the major difference between this unit and prior rotation-sensor units. The sensor assembly inside the housing includes excitatory and readout integrated circuits mounted on a circular printed-circuit board. In a typical case in which the angle or speed transducer(s) utilize electromagnetic induction, the assembly also includes another circular printed-circuit board on which the transducer windings are mounted. A sheet of high-magnetic permeability metal ("mu metal") is placed between the winding board and the electronic-circuit board to prevent spurious coupling of excitatory signals from the transducer windings to the readout circuits. The housing and most of the other mechanical hardware can be common to a variety of different sensor designs. Hence, the unit can be configured to generate any of variety of outputs by changing the interior sensor assembly. For example, the sensor assembly could contain an analog tachometer circuit that generates an output proportional (in both magnitude and sign or in magnitude only) to the speed of rotation.

Alhorn, Dean C.; Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

2006-01-01

173

Hair follicular expression and function of group X secreted phospholipase A2 in mouse skin.  

PubMed

Although perturbed lipid metabolism can often lead to skin abnormality, the role of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) in skin homeostasis is poorly understood. In the present study we found that group X-secreted PLA(2) (sPLA(2)-X) was expressed in the outermost epithelium of hair follicles in synchrony with the anagen phase of hair cycling. Transgenic mice overexpressing sPLA(2)-X (PLA2G10-Tg) displayed alopecia, which was accompanied by hair follicle distortion with reduced expression of genes related to hair development, during a postnatal hair cycle. Additionally, the epidermis and sebaceous glands of PLA2G10-Tg skin were hyperplasic. Proteolytic activation of sPLA(2)-X in PLA2G10-Tg skin was accompanied by preferential hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine species with polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as elevated production of some if not all eicosanoids. Importantly, the skin of Pla2g10-deficient mice had abnormal hair follicles with noticeable reduction in a subset of hair genes, a hypoplasic outer root sheath, a reduced number of melanin granules, and unexpected up-regulation of prostanoid synthesis. Collectively, our study highlights the spatiotemporal expression of sPLA(2)-X in hair follicles, the presence of skin-specific machinery leading to sPLA(2)-X activation, a functional link of sPLA(2)-X with hair follicle homeostasis, and compartmentalization of the prostanoid pathway in hair follicles and epidermis. PMID:21266583

Yamamoto, Kei; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Masuda, Seiko; Nishito, Yasumasa; Morioka, Kiyokazu; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Fukami, Kiyoko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Taguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Makoto

2011-04-01

174

Shaft Placement in a Bedded Salt Repository.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preferred shaft pillar sizes and shaft locations were determined with respect to the induced thermal stresses in a generic bedded salt repository at a depth of 610 m with a gross thermal loading of 14.8 W/m exp 2 . The model assumes isotropic material pro...

M. L. Klasi

1982-01-01

175

Cavernous Hemangioma of Scrotum and Penile Shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a 13-year-old boy with two independently detected cavernous hemangiomas of the scrotum and the penile shaft. A right scrotal cavernous hemangioma was incidentally found at the age of 6 years by a histological examination of a right scrotal hematoma attributed to contusion. The patient noticed a soft tumor of the penile shaft at the age of 10 and

Hiroyuki Senoh; Yasuji Ichikawa; Akihiko Okuyama; Minato Takaha; Takao Sonoda

1986-01-01

176

Balancer shafts for use in multicylinder engines  

SciTech Connect

A balancer shaft for use in multicylinder engine is described, comprising; a balance weight part formed to be eccentric in relation to a rotation axis of the balancer shaft and disposed at a central area in the cylinder block in a direction along an alignment of cylinders, an elongated shaft part having one end portion connected with one end portion of the balance weight part and extending from the balance weight part in the direction of the alignment of cylinders with an axis coinciding with the rotation axis of the balancer shaft, and first, second and third journals provided on the other end portion of the elongated shaft part, a central portion of the balance weight part and the other end portion of the balance weight part, respectively, so that the balancer shaft journals by first, second and third bearing portions provided in the engine; wherein a first portion of the balancer shaft extending from the second journal to the first journal is longer than a second portion of the balancer shaft extending from the second journal to the third journal.

Takubo, H.; Isayama, K.; Yamashita, S.

1989-04-11

177

Hair and scalp dermatoscopy.  

PubMed

Dermatoscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye. Trichoscopy (scalp dermatoscopy and videodermatoscopy) is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of hair and scalp disorders. However, it is not widely used in the management of hair disorders. This review provides updated information from the literature and our experience on the dermoscopic features of the most common hair and scalp disorders. This will enable dermatologists to make fast diagnoses of tinea capitis and alopecia areata, distinguish early androgenetic alopecia from telogen effluvium, and differentiate scarring from nonscarring alopecia. PMID:22405573

Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

2012-11-01

178

Shaft Sinking at the Nevada Test Site, U1h Shaft Project  

SciTech Connect

The U1h Shaft Project is a design/build subcontract to construct one 6.1 meter (m) (20 feet (ft)) finished diameter shaft to a depth of 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) at the Nevada Test Site. Atkinson Construction was subcontracted by Bechtel Nevada to construct the U1h Shaft for the U.S. Department of Energy. The project consists of furnishing and installing the sinking plant, construction of the 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) of concrete lined shaft, development of a shaft station at a depth of 297.5 m (976 ft.), and construction of a loading pocket at the station. The outfitting of the shaft and installation of a new hoist may be incorporated into the project at a later date. This paper will describe the design phase, the excavation and lining operation, shaft station construction and the contractual challenges encountered on this project.

B. Briggs; R. Musick

2001-03-01

179

Loose Anagen Hair Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Loose anagen syndrome (LAS) is a benign, self-limiting condition where anagen hairs are easily and painlessly extracted. It is mainly reported in childhood; however, it may variably present in adulthood as well. The presence of anagen hair devoid of its sheath and with ‘floppy sock appearance’ is a characteristic feature of loose anagen hair (LAH) on trichogram. LAH can be seen in normal population and in alopecia areata. The percentage of LAH in LAS is more than 50%. The histopathological findings show clefting between the layers of hair and are very useful in differentiating LAS from alopecia areata. Here, a review on the diagnostic criteria and practical guidelines are discussed so as to enable the trichologist in managing this benign, self-limiting condition and differentiating it from the other causes of non-scarring alopecias.

Dhurat, Rachita P; Deshpande, Deepal J

2010-01-01

180

Female Pattern Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... desired professional counseling might be of help. Perms, dyes and other cosmetic options can be used to give a fuller appearance to hair. Contrary to common wisdom, shampooing doesn't increase ...

181

Hair Treatments and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Reproduced by permission. Selected References: Blackmore-Prince C, et al 1999. Chemical hair treatments and adverse pregnancy ... Am J Epidemiol 149:712-716. Burnett C, et al. 1976. Teratology and percutaneous toxicity studies on ...

182

Hair Restoration (Cosmetic Procedures)  

MedlinePLUS

... MS, Dover JS, Arndt KA, editors. Atlas of Cosmetic Surgery . United States of America, W. B. Saunders Company; ... of Dermatology Dermatologists have invented or refined several cosmetic procedures. Hair replacement and transplant surgery was pioneered by an American dermatologist.

183

Chemotherapy targets the hair-follicle vascular network but not the stem cells.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy-induced alopecia is a major problem in clinical oncology. Doxorubicin, a widely used cancer chemotherapy drug, induces disruption of the hair cycle and subsequent alopecia. We show in this report that doxorubicin causes disruption of the hair-follicle-associated blood vessel network resulting in a greatly reduced density of these blood vessels. Dystrophic hair follicles were also observed with abnormal melanogenesis in the mice treated with doxorubicin. Visualization of the effect of doxorubicin on hair-follicle angiogenesis was made possible by the use of transgenic mice in which green fluorescent protein was driven by regulatory elements of the nestin gene (ND-GFP). In these transgenic mice, the hair-follicle stem cells and the follicle structure as well as the blood vessels associated with the hair follicles express ND-GFP. The hair-follicle stem cells did not appear to be affected by doxorubicin, which may explain why hair regrows after chemotherapy. These results suggest that inhibition of hair-follicle-associated angiogenesis by doxorubicin may be an important factor in hair-follicle dystrophy associated with chemotherapy-induced alopecia. The ND-GFP mouse model is thus useful for the study of the role of angiogenesis in the hair-follicle cycle and the effect of drugs on processes associated with chemotherapy-induced alopecia. PMID:16841031

Amoh, Yasuyuki; Li, Lingna; Katsuoka, Kensei; Hoffman, Robert M

2007-01-01

184

Maintenance of stereocilia and apical junctional complexes by Cdc42 in cochlear hair cells.  

PubMed

Cdc42 is a key regulator of dynamic actin organization. However, little is known about how Cdc42-dependent actin regulation influences steady-state actin structures in differentiated epithelia. We employed inner ear hair-cell-specific conditional knockout to analyze the role of Cdc42 in hair cells possessing highly elaborate stable actin protrusions (stereocilia). Hair cells of Atoh1-Cre;Cdc42(flox/flox) mice developed normally but progressively degenerated after maturation, resulting in progressive hearing loss particularly at high frequencies. Cochlear hair cell degeneration was more robust in inner hair cells than in outer hair cells, and began as stereocilia fusion and depletion, accompanied by a thinning and waving circumferential actin belt at apical junctional complexes (AJCs). Adenovirus-encoded GFP-Cdc42 expression in hair cells and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging of hair cells from transgenic mice expressing a Cdc42-FRET biosensor indicated Cdc42 presence and activation at stereociliary membranes and AJCs in cochlear hair cells. Cdc42-knockdown in MDCK cells produced phenotypes similar to those of Cdc42-deleted hair cells, including abnormal microvilli and disrupted AJCs, and downregulated actin turnover represented by enhanced levels of phosphorylated cofilin. Thus, Cdc42 influenced the maintenance of stable actin structures through elaborate tuning of actin turnover, and maintained function and viability of cochlear hair cells. PMID:24610943

Ueyama, Takehiko; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Takashi; Goto, Akihiro; Morioka, Shigefumi; Shimizu, Aya; Nakao, Kazuki; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Ninoyu, Yuzuru; Kassai, Hidetoshi; Suetsugu, Shiro; Koji, Takehiko; Fritzsch, Bernd; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Hisa, Yasuo; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Aiba, Atsu; Saito, Naoaki

2014-05-01

185

Loose anagen hair syndrome in black-haired Indian children.  

PubMed

Loose anagen hair syndrome (LAHS) is an uncommonly reported autosomal dominant hair disorder with incomplete penetrance that primarily affects children but is occasionally seen in adults. LAHS is characterized by the ability to easily and painlessly extract unsheathed anagen hairs from the scalp with gentle traction. The hair is sparse and does not grow long. Usually the hairs are not fragile and do not have areas of breakage. Initially it was considered a rare, sporadic condition found predominantly in young white girls with blonde hair. Because autosomal dominant inheritance has been reported, it was suspected that the condition might be equally common in boys but was probably underdiagnosed. PMID:23937400

Dey, Vivek; Thawani, Manasi

2013-01-01

186

Eruptive vellus hair cyst presenting as asymptomatic follicular papules on extremities  

PubMed Central

Eruptive vellus hair cysts were first described in 1977. They usually appear as yellow to reddish-brown papules on the chest. Usual onset is between ages 17 and 24 years, but they may be congenital. Some believe that they may be inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder. Histologically the cyst has a stratified squamous epithelium and it contains laminated keratin and vellus hairs. They are felt to be caused by an abnormality at the infundibular level of the vellus hair. We present this because of this patient's unusual distribution of eruptive vellus hair cysts.

Khatu, Swapna; Vasani, Resham; Amin, Shital

2013-01-01

187

The miRNA-Processing Enzyme Dicer Is Essential for the Morphogenesis and Maintenance of Hair Follicles  

PubMed Central

Summary The discovery that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating gene expression via post-transcriptional repression has revealed a previously unsuspected mechanism controlling development and progenitor-cell function (reviewed in [1, 2]); however, little is known of miRNA functions in mammalian organogenesis. Processing of miRNAs and their assembly into the RNA-induced silencing (RISC) complex requires the essential multifunctional enzyme Dicer [1]. We found that Dicer mRNA and multiple miRNAs are expressed in mouse skin, suggesting roles in skin- and hair-follicle biology. In newborn mice carrying an epidermal-specific Dicer deletion, hair follicles were stunted and hypoproliferative. Hair-shaft and inner-root-sheath differentiation was initiated, but the mutant hair follicles were misoriented and expression of the key signaling molecules Shh and Notch1 was lost by postnatal day 7. At this stage, hair-follicle dermal papillae were observed to evaginate, forming highly unusual structures within the basal epidermis. Normal hair shafts were not produced in the Dicer mutant, and the follicles lacked stem cell markers and degenerated. In contrast to decreased follicular proliferation, the epidermis became hyperproliferative. These results reveal critical roles for Dicer in the skin and implicate miRNAs in key aspects of epidermal and hair-follicle development and function.

Andl, Thomas; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Yuhang; Yunta-Gonzalez, Monica; Tobias, John W.; Andl, Claudia D.; Seykora, John T.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Millar, Sarah E.

2010-01-01

188

Digital servo controller. [for rotating antenna shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system, for generating a signal to control the rotation of a shaft supporting an antenna so that the antenna is rotated the shortest angular distance from a present angular position to a new desired angular position, was described. The system comprises a shaft encoder which generates a digital encoder signal indicating the present position of the shaft. A command signal is compared with the encoder signal to produce an analog signal for rotating the antenna. An error signal is produced for controlling the direction of rotation of the antenna.

Byrne, F. (inventor)

1974-01-01

189

Distributions of sulphur and other elements in human hair follicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributions of sulphur and other elements have been measured in several different specimens of human hair follicles. Whole specimens, longitudinal bisections, and 10 ?m thick longitudinal sections have been analyzed by PIXE using the Melbourne scanning proton microprobe. Elemental maps consistently showed that sulphur contents of the presumptive hair shaft (PHS) were uniformly low from 0 to 400 ?m (bulb end), increased continuously from about 400 to 800 ?m, and reached a plateau. Sulphur levels were uniformly low in the inner root sheath. These observations are consistent with previous protein analysis of PHS sections, indicating sequential synthesis of the major classes of keratin proteins. Maps of other elements indicated that Si, Ca, and Fe tended to be concentrated randomly, whereas, P, Cl, K, and Zn were more uniformly distributed. Average relative concentrations of Si, P, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn were estimated from total X-ray spectra.

Ollerhead, R. W.; Legge, G. J. F.; Jones, L. N.

1989-04-01

190

Mutations in gasdermin 3 cause aberrant differentiation of the hair follicle and sebaceous gland.  

PubMed

Defolliculated (Dfl) is a spontaneous mouse mutant with a hair-loss phenotype that includes altered sebaceous gland differentiation, short hair shafts, aberrant catagen stage of the hair cycle, and eventual loss of the hair follicle. Recently a similar mutant, finnegan (Fgn), with an identical phenotype was discovered during a phenotypic screen for mutations induced by chemical mutagenesis. The gene underlying the phenotype of both finnegan and defolliculated has been mapped to chromosome 11 and here we show that both mice harbor mutations in gasdermin 3 (Gsdm3), a gene of unknown function. Gsdm3(Dfl) is a B2 insertion near the 3' splice site of exon 7 and Gsdm3(Fgn) is a point mutation T278P. To investigate the role of the gasdermin gene family an antiserum was raised to a peptide highly homologous to all three mouse gasdermins and human gasdermin. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that gasdermins are expressed specifically in cells at advanced stages of differentiation in the upper epidermis, the differentiating inner root sheath and hair shaft and in the most mature sebocytes of the sebaceous gland and preputial, meibomium, ceruminous gland, and anal glands. This expression pattern suggests a role for gasdermins in differentiation of the epidermis and its appendages. PMID:15737203

Lunny, Declan P; Weed, Erica; Nolan, Patrick M; Marquardt, Andreas; Augustin, Martin; Porter, Rebecca M

2005-03-01

191

The Pattern of Hair Dyeing in Koreans with Gray Hair  

PubMed Central

Background Hair graying is considered as a part of normal ageing process. Nonetheless, this process raises a significant cosmetic concern, especially among ethnic Korean elderly whose baseline hair color is black. For this reason, Korean elderly dye their hair with frequency despite the risk of dermatologic problems such as allergic contact dermatitis. Objective In this study, the authors investigate the prevalence and pattern of hair dyeing and its relation with scalp diseases in Korea. Methods Six hundred twenty subjects (330 men and 290 women) with graying hair were given a questionnaire survery and underwent a physical examination. Results Of the 620 total, 272 subjects (43.9%) dyed their hair. Hair dyeing was significantly more frequent among women than among men (p<0.001). Subjects from 50 to 69 years of age showed higher prevalence of hair dyeing when compared to either younger or older groups. Subjective self-assessment of the extent of hair graying was associated with increased prevalence of hair dyeing, that is, individuals who feel graying has advanced by more than 20% of the overall hair were much more likely to dye their hair (p<0.001). Hair dyeing did not correlate with either alopecia or scalp disease. Conclusion Our survey has found that the prevalence of hair dyeing is higher among Korean women than men. People in their fifties and sixties and people with more than 20% extent of grayness were more likely to dye their hair than otherwise. Hair dyeing was not associated with any increase in the prevalence of scalp diseases.

Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Choi, Jae Woo; Lee, Jong Hee; Cho, Soyun

2013-01-01

192

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2013-07-01

193

Flexible shaft and roof drilling system  

DOEpatents

A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

1981-01-01

194

119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING #3 SHAFT COUPLING WITH LOCKING DEVICE INSTALLED, SHAFT SPRING BEARING, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE, FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN AND BALLASTING MANIFOLD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

195

Nanoscale characterization of human hair and hair conditioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber. Hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners, along with damaging processes such as chemical dyeing and permanent wave treatments, affect the maintenance and grooming process and are important to study because they alter many hair properties. Nanoscale characterization of the cellular structure, mechanical properties, and morphological, frictional, and adhesive properties (tribological properties)

Bharat Bhushan

2008-01-01

196

Evaluation of the addiction history of a dead woman after exhumation and sectional hair testing.  

PubMed

In Greece, sectional hair analysis, in addition to clinical examination, has been used as a valuable tool for the confirmation of a person's history of drug use. The present report concerns the toxicologic analysis of the exhumed remains and hair samples of an 18-year-old woman. Postmortem toxicologic analysis of blood and urine confirmed recent opiate and cannabis use and indicated that death was associated with heroin abuse. Several months later, the woman's family asked for exhumation and reexamination of the body, insisting that the cause of death was homicide. The investigating judge ordered exhumation and new medicolegal examination of the body. The investigation of the drug profile along the hair shaft was undertaken by analyzing hair sections 1 cm from the hair root for morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, heroin, and cannabinoids. The total lengths of the hair samples ranged from 8 to 11 cm. The total morphine levels in the hair sections corresponding to the 3-month period before death were significantly lower (1.5-2.85 ng/mg) than those of the 4- to 10-month period before death (7.4-14.8 ng/mg). An interpretation of these results may be occasional drug use (with considerable attenuation of use during the last 3 months before death). Decrease of tolerance to heroin caused by abstinence and relapse in use could have been the cause of death. PMID:11444668

Tsatsakis, A M; Tzatzarakis, M N; Psaroulis, D; Levkidis, C; Michalodimitrakis, M

2001-03-01

197

Short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping of keratinised hair Part 2. An optimised genomic DNA extraction procedure reveals donor dependence of STR profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feasibility study of short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping of telogen phase hairs in particular, and hair shaft in general, is presented. A number of extraction procedures in common use were investigated and the quantities of nuclear DNA (nuDNA) delivered were quantified via a real-time PCR assay. The extracts were subjected to two variations on AmpF?STR® Profiler Plus™ PCR amplification

Dennis McNevin; Linzi Wilson-Wilde; James Robertson; Jennelle Kyd; Chris Lennard

2005-01-01

198

Integrated controls and health monitoring fiberoptic shaft monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent work was performed on development optical technology to provide real time monitoring of shaft speed, shaft axial displacement, and shaft orbit of the OTVE hydrostatic bearing tester. Results show shaft axial displacement can be optically measured (at the same time as shaft orbital motion and speed) to within 0.3 mills by two fiber optic deflectometers. The final results of this condition monitoring development effort are presented.

Coleman, P.; Darejeh, H.; Collins, J. J.

1989-01-01

199

Management of hair loss diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of hair loss diseases is sometimes difficult because of insufficient efficacy and limited options. However, recent advances in understanding of the pathophysiology and development of new remedies have improved the treatment of refractory hair loss conditions. In this article, an update on the management of hair loss diseases is provided, especially focusing on recently reported therapeutic approaches for

Manabu Ohyama

2010-01-01

200

The Growth of Human Hair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

Jones, Helen J.

1984-01-01

201

Hair Loss: Approach and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss is a very common and distressing problem faced by family physicians, in day to day practice. With a good history and physical examination most of the common causes of hair loss can be diagnosed. Androgenic alopecia is the commonest cause of hair loss in males and Telogen Effluvium in females. Other causes include Alopecia areata. Scarring alopecia needs

Sandeep Rai; Madhur Rai; Shiv Kumar

202

Biology of Human Hair: Know Your Hair to Control It  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Abstract  Hair can be engineered at different levels—its structure and surface—through modification of its constituent molecules, in\\u000a particular proteins, but also the hair follicle (HF) can be genetically altered, in particular with the advent of siRNA-based\\u000a applications. General aspects of hair biology are reviewed, as well as the most recent contributions to understanding hair\\u000a pigmentation and the regulation of hair development.

Rita Araújo; Margarida Fernandes; Artur Cavaco-Paulo; Andreia Gomes

203

Study of hair shine and hair surface smoothness.  

PubMed

A new hair visual appearance measurement system called SAMBA from Bossa Nova Technologies (Venice, CA) has been employed to measure effects of cosmetic treatments on hair shine and surface smoothness of different types of hair samples. Experimental procedures for evaluations of shine value and surface cuticle angle of hair samples treated with rinse-off products (shampoo or/and conditioner) have been successfully established and applied. We demonstrated that hair spray and conditioner formulas containing PPG-3 benzyl ether myristate (PBEM) (1) showed great performance on shine enhancement for hairs with light and medium colors. Instrumental measurement of shine values was also conducted to compare different commercial shampoo and conditioner products. This study showed reliable utility of SAMBA system and demonstrated the shine enhancement of PBEM in hair care. PMID:19450419

Gao, Timothy; Pereira, Abel; Zhu, Sam

2009-01-01

204

Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation  

PubMed Central

Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia.

Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

2012-01-01

205

Investigating hair properties relevant for hair 'handle'. Part I: hair diameter, bending and frictional properties.  

PubMed

The expert working group 'Hair Care Products' of the DGK currently conducts a wide study to contribute to the understanding of how single hair fibre and hair collective properties contribute towards hair 'handle' and 'feel'. During the first stage of this study four hair types were selected from a large group of individual European hair braids, according to either similar or widely different panel ratings for handle. Against the background of the panel test and the state of the literature the working group readily identified the bending properties of single fibres interacting in the tress as a fibre collective and fibre friction as being of central relevance for hair 'handle' and 'feel'. Fibre diameters of the hair types were determined by Optical Fibre Diameter Analyzer and by weighing. From these data mean ellipticity and bending stiffness distributions were calculated. Single fibre friction was determined by the capstan method in the root, middle and tip regions. Significant differences were determined between the hair types in diameters, ellipticity, bending stiffness and friction. The results lead to conclude that 'handle' is perceived as inferior when the hair is thick and bending stiffness thus high. For such hair differences in handle rating are related to differences in friction, namely in the tip region. For thin and thus 'soft' hair fibre friction seems to play only a minor role. PMID:18492202

Wortmann, F-J; Schwan-Jonczyk, A

2006-02-01

206

Confocal microscopy of hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confocal microscopy is an excellent method for studying the localization of fluorescent stains. Used in this way, superior 3D images can be obtained from multiple optical sections with very shallow depth of field. The main advantage of this technique is that the sample is not damaged. We have taken serial confocal sections of hair and via specific image enhancement routines

J. M. Lagarde; P. Peyre; D. Redoules; D. Black; M. Briot; Y. Gall

1994-01-01

207

Hair loss and contraceptives.  

PubMed

In a review of the relationship of hair loss to oral contraceptive (OC) use, several studies are examined. The effect of pregnancy on hair loss has been substantiated. After the 3rd month of pregnancy the proportion of follicles in active growth rises. Increased shedding follows childbirth due to the delayed physiological passage of some follicles into the resting phase, blood loss, and sometimes anticoagulants. In contraceptive studies it can be shown that in 1/2 of the patients there was a temporary increase in the proportion of resting during early treatment but that pretreatment status was regained in 6 months. In 11 patients in this study who showed high pretreatment levels of resting follicles, the proportion of actively growing follicles actually increased with OCs. The incidence of diffuse alopecia in women between 1952 and 1971 has remained unchanged although OC use has increased. This suggests the effect of OCs on alopecia is insignificant. There may be a causal relationship between stopping estrogen and hair loss. However, it may be possible that genetically suseptible women might be affected by OCs. In patients where hair loss is accompanied by seborrhea or where there is hirsuitism it is suggested that the pill be discontinued. PMID:4736624

1973-06-01

208

The Hair Colour Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class activity is designed to introduce young learners to the concept of tree diagrams. This class activity requires learners to organize data about the individual student's physical characteristics(gender, hair and eye color) utilizing connecting cubes. The activity includes a follow up activity, questions, tips on getting started, a teacher resource page, and a printable version of the problem.

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

209

Root hair sweet growth  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil. Growing root hairs require intensive cell-wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip or polarized growth. We have recently shown that cell wall glycoproteins such as extensins (EXTs) are essential components of the cell wall during polarized growth. Proline hydroxylation, an early posttranslational modification of cell wall EXTs that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), defines the subsequent O-glycosylation sites in EXTs. Biochemical inhibition or genetic disruption of specific P4Hs resulted in the blockage of polarized growth in root hairs. Our results demonstrate that correct hydroxylation and also further O-glycosylation on EXTs are essential for cell-wall self-assembly and, hence, root hair elongation. The changes that O-glycosylated cell-wall proteins like EXTs undergo during cell growth represent a starting point to unravel the entire biochemical pathway involved in plant development.

Velasquez, Silvia M; Iusem, Norberto D

2011-01-01

210

High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism  

DOEpatents

A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

2001-05-08

211

Constant-mesh, multiple-shaft transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a multiple-shaft, constant-mesh transmission adapted to establish selectively a reverse torque delivery path and a forward drive torque delivery path and having a torque input means including a torque input shaft, a mainshaft aligned with the input shaft, a countershaft geared to the input shaft in spaced, parallel relationship with respect to the mainshaft, a torque output shaft joined to the mainshaft; multiple mainshaft gear elements journalled on the main airshaft, multiple cluster gear elements carried by the countershaft in meshing engagement with the mainshaft gear elements, one of the cluster gear elements being rotatably journalled on the countershaft; a reverse idle gear, a reverse gear journalled on the countershaft, the reverse idler gear being in constant mesh with the reverse gear and one of the mainshaft gear elements; first clutch means for connecting selectively the reverse gear and the countershaft; second synchronizer clutch means for connecting selectively the one of the mainshaft gear elements to the mainshaft; and third synchronizer clutch means for selectively connecting another of the mainshaft gear elements to the mainshaft; the first clutch means being a double-acting clutch with a first common axially movable clutch element adapted upon movement in one axial direction to drivably connected the reverse gear to the countershaft and adapted upon movement in the opposite axial direction to connect the one cluster gear element to the countershaft.

Rea, J.E.; Mills, D.D.; Sewell, J.S.

1992-04-21

212

Large membrane domains in hair bundles specify spatially constricted radixin activation.  

PubMed

The plasma membrane of vertebrate hair bundles interacts intimately with the bundle cytoskeleton to support mechanotransduction and homeostasis. To determine the membrane composition of bundles, we used lipid mass spectrometry with purified chick vestibular bundles. While the bundle glycerophospholipids and acyl chains resemble those of other endomembranes, bundle ceramide and sphingomyelin nearly exclusively contain short-chain, saturated acyl chains. Confocal imaging of isolated bullfrog vestibular hair cells shows that the bundle membrane segregates spatially into at least three large structural and functional domains. One membrane domain, including the stereocilia basal tapers and ?1 ?m of the shaft, the location of the ankle links, is enriched in the lipid phosphatase PTPRQ (protein tyrosine phosphatase Q) and polysialylated gangliosides. The taper domain forms a sharp boundary with the shaft domain, which contains the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 2 (PMCA2) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)]; moreover, a tip domain has elevated levels of cholesterol, PMCA2, and PI(4,5)P(2). Protein mass spectrometry shows that bundles from chick vestibular hair cells contain a complete set of proteins that transport, synthesize, and degrade PI(4,5)P(2). The membrane domains have functional significance; radixin, essential for hair-bundle stability, is activated at the taper-shaft boundary in a PI(4,5)P(2)-dependent manner, allowing assembly of protein complexes at that site. Membrane domains within stereocilia thus define regions within hair bundles that allow compartmentalization of Ca(2+) extrusion and assembly of protein complexes at discrete locations. PMID:22457506

Zhao, Hongyu; Williams, Diane E; Shin, Jung-Bum; Brügger, Britta; Gillespie, Peter G

2012-03-28

213

[Hair cycle dynamics: the case of the human hair follicle].  

PubMed

The existence of a growth and regeneration cycle makes the hair follicle a true paradigm of tissue homeostasis. Analysis of about 9000 cycles led us to propose a stochastic model of human hair dynamics. The existence of hair cycles implies that stem cells must be cyclically activated and hair melanin unit has to be renewed. Using different markers, we were able to identify two distinct epithelial stem cell reservoirs, located in the upper and lower thirds of the anagen hair follicle outer root sheath. These two reservoirs fuse during the regression phase and individualize again in the new forming anagen hair follicle. Using a set of antibodies specific of melanocyte lineage and melanogenesis, pigmentation unit turnover was followed throughout the entire hair cycle. In the terminal anagen hair, active melanocytes were localized on top of the dermal papilla, while amelanotic melanocytes were identified in the upper third of the outer root sheath (ORS). Those amelanotic melanocytes located in upper ORS probably represented a melanocyte reservoir for successive hair generation, since at the induction of anagen phase, some melanocytes were committed to cell division and melanogenesis was turned on, but only in the nascent hair bulb, close to the dermal papilla. PMID:12868268

Bernard, Bruno A

2003-01-01

214

Coupled shaft-torsion and blade-bending vibrations of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to analyzing the dynamic coupling between shaft torsion and blade bending of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit is introduced. The approach allows the shaft to vibrate freely around its rotation axis instead of assuming a periodic perturbation of the shaft speed that may accommodate the shaft flexibility only to a limited extent. A weighted residual method is applied, and the receptances at the connections of blades and shaft-disk are formulated. Numerical examples are given for cases with between two and six symmetrically arranged blades. The results show not only coupling between the shaft, disk, and blades, but also coupling between individual blades where the shaft acts as a rigid support and experiences no torsional vibration. The blade-coupling modes occurred only in repeated frequencies. Finally, the effect of shaft speed on the modal frequencies was investigated. Plots illustrating the occurrence of critical speeds and flutter instabilities are presented.

Huang, S.C.; Ho, K.B. [National Taiwan Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-01-01

215

Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but display non-monotonic movements in response to abrupt force steps. Extracellular calcium changes or static biases to the bundle's position at rest could affect the kinetics of bundle motion and evoke transitions between the different classes of motility. The calcium-dependent location of a bundle's operating point within its nonlinear force-displacement relation controlled the type of movements observed. A unified theoretical description, in which mechanical activity stems from myosin-based adaptation and electro-mechanical feedback by Ca2+, could account for the fast and slow manifestations of active hair-bundle motility.

Tinevez, J.-Y.; Martin, P.; Jülicher, F.

2009-02-01

216

The small GTPase Rac1 regulates auditory hair cell morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Morphogenesis of sensory hair cells, in particular their mechanotransduction organelle, the stereociliary bundle, requires highly organized remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The roles of Rho family small GTPases during this process remain unknown. Here we show that deletion of Rac1 in the otic epithelium resulted in severe defects in cochlear epithelial morphogenesis. The mutant cochlea was severely shortened with a reduced number of auditory hair cells and cellular organization of the auditory sensory epithelium was abnormal. Rac1 mutant hair cells also displayed defects in planar cell polarity and morphogenesis of the stereociliary bundle, including bundle fragmentation or deformation, and mispositioning or absence of the kinocilium. We further demonstrate that a Rac-PAK signaling pathway mediates kinocilium-stereocilia interactions and is required for cohesion of the stereociliary bundle. Together, these results reveal a critical function of Rac1 in morphogenesis of the auditory sensory epithelium and stereociliary bundle.

Grimsley-Myers, Cynthia M.; Sipe, Conor W.; Geleoc, Gwenaellle S.G.; Lu, Xiaowei

2010-01-01

217

Review of hair follicle dermal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair follicle stem cells in the epithelial bulge are responsible for the continual regeneration of the hair follicle during cycling. The bulge cells reside in a niche composed of dermal cells. The dermal compartment of the hair follicle consists of the dermal papilla and dermal sheath. Interactions between hair follicle epithelial and dermal cells are necessary for hair follicle morphogenesis

Chao-Chun Yang; George Cotsarelis

2010-01-01

218

Automatic Hair Detection in the Wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm for segmenting the hair region in uncontrolled, real life conditions images. Our method is based on a simple statistical hair shape model representing the upper hair part. We detect this region by minimizing an energy which uses active shape and active contour. The upper hair region then allows us to learn the hair appearance parameters

P. Julian; Christophe Dehais; François Lauze; Vincent Charvillat; Adrien Bartoli; Ariel Choukroun

2010-01-01

219

Hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on basic aspects and recent studies of hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs and is discussed with 164 references. Firstly, biology of hair and sampling of hair specimens have been commented for the sake of correct interpretation of the results from hair analysis. Then the usual washing methods of hair samples and the extraction methods for

Yuji Nakahara

1999-01-01

220

Tryptophan in human hair: correlation with pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of tryptophan content in human hair of various colours was evaluated, in order to study the accumulation of this amino acid, precursor of serotonin, melatonin and niacin, in hair and the influence on hair pigmentation. Pigmentation is an important factor in determining drug incorporation into hair. Results from 1211 samples of hair from healthy subjects (577 men and

Antonella Bertazzo; Monica Biasiolo; Carlo V. L. Costa; Edda Cardin de Stefani; Graziella Allegri

2000-01-01

221

Hair Styling Appliances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

1984-01-01

222

Stress-linked cortisol concentrations in hair: what we know and what we need to know  

PubMed Central

Cortisol has major impacts upon a range of physiological homeostatic mechanisms and plays an important role in stress, anxiety and depression. Although traditionally described as being solely synthesised via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, recent animal and human studies indicate that cortisol may also be synthesised via a functionally-equivalent ‘peripheral’ HPA-like process within the skin, principally within hair follicles, melanocytes, epidermal melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Current data indicate that basal levels of cortisol within hair vary across body regions, show diurnal variation effects, respond to the onset and cessation of environmental stressors, and may demonstrate some degree of localisation in those responses. There are conflicting data regarding the presence of variability in cortisol concentrations across the length of the hair shaft, thus challenging the suggestion that hair cortisol may be used as a historical biomarker of stress and questioning the primary origin of cortisol in hair. The need to comprehensively ‘map’ the hair cortisol response for age, gender, diurnal rhythm and responsivity to stressor type is discussed, plus the major issue of if, and how, the peripheral and central HPA systems communicate.

Sharpley, Christopher F.; McFarlane, James R.; Slominski, Andrzej

2012-01-01

223

Age-induced hair greying - the multiple effects of oxidative stress.  

PubMed

An obvious sign of ageing is hair greying, or the loss of pigment production and deposition within the hair shafts. Numerous mechanisms, acting at different levels and follicular locations, contribute to hair greying, ranging from melanocyte stem cells defects to follicular melanocyte death. One key issue that is in common to these processes is oxidative damage. At the hair follicle stem cells niche, oxidative stress, accelerated by B-cell lymphoma 2 gene (BCL-2) depletion, leads to selective apoptosis and diminution of melanocyte stem cells, reducing the repopulation of newly formed anagen follicles. Melanotic bulbar melanocytes express high levels of BCL-2 to enable survival from melanogenesis- and ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) attacks. With ageing, the bulbar melanocyte expression of anti-oxidant proteins such as BCL-2, and possibly TRP-2, is reduced, and the dedicated enzymatic anti-oxidant defence system throughout the follicle weakens, resulting in enhanced oxidative stress. A marked reduction in catalase expression and activity results in millimolar accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, contributing to bulbar melanocyte malfunction and death. Interestingly, amelanotic melanocytes at the outer root sheath (ORS) are somewhat less affected by these processes and survive for longer time even within the white, ageing hair follicles. Better understanding of the overtime susceptibility of melanocytes to oxidative stress at the different follicular locations might yield clues to possible therapies for the prevention and reversal of hair greying. PMID:24033376

Seiberg, M

2013-12-01

224

Localised Acquired Trichorrhexis Nodosa of the Scalp Hair Induced by a Specific Comb and Combing Habit - A Report of Three Cases  

PubMed Central

Trichorrhexis nodosa is a hair shaft disorder often encountered in clinical practice. Acquired trichorrhexis is commoner of the two types and is most often due to weathering from physical or chemical causes. We report three representative cases of localized acquired trichorrhexis encountered in our clinic attributable to a specific comb, used commonly in Kerala, a Southern state of India.

Martin, Abhay Mani; Sugathan, P

2011-01-01

225

Rotating black hole hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is conical with respect to a local co-rotating frame, not with respect to the static frame at infinity.

Gregory, Ruth; Kubiz?ák, David; Wills, Danielle

2013-06-01

226

Determination of trace elements in hair of Wilson's disease patients using PIXE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contents of nine elements (P, S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Se, Sr) in the hair of 52 patients with Wilson's disease (HLD) and 52 well matched healthy controls were determined by the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method and they were in good agreement with published data. The apparently abnormal contents of Ca and Cu in the patient's hair were not observed. The Zn content of hair in Wilson's disease patients with splenomegaly was obviously higher than that in the matched controls ( P < 0.025). The abnormal content of Zn seems to indicate that Wilson's disease is a disease with a multielemental metabolic disturbance. Our results provide a proper ground for treatment of Wilson's disease patients with zinc sulphate. In contrast to reports from western countries, the content of Cu in the hair of healthy females was lower than that of healthy males.

Sha, Yin; Liu, Pingsheng; Zhang, Runhua; Liu, Guilin; Zhang, Zhengxin; Feng, Yinkun; Liu, Guodong; Sun, Guiqin; Wang, Shizhen

1987-03-01

227

Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents viewgraphs of The Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs. The topics include: 1) Rocket Turbomachinery Shaft Seals (Inter-Propellant-Seal (IPS) Systems, Lift-off Seal Systems, and Technology Develo...

J. E. Keba

1999-01-01

228

30 CFR 57.4261 - Shaft-station waterlines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4261 Shaft-station...underground shaft stations and are part of the mine's fire protection system shall have at least one fitting...

2013-07-01

229

Transmission with two parallel driving shafts bearing two driving gears each meshed with same driven gear on parallel driven shaft  

SciTech Connect

A transmission mechanism for a vehicle is described for receiving input of rotational power from a power supply member which rotates in a particular rotational direction and for outputting rotational power to a power receiving member which includes: an input member connected to the power supply member and which is rotatably mounted and receives supplying of the rotational power from the power supply member; a first driving gear wheel shaft; a second driving gear wheel shaft mounted generally parallel to the first driving gear wheel shaft; a driven gear wheel shaft mounted generally parallel to the first and second driving gear wheel shafts, the driven gear wheel shaft being rotationally connected to the power receiving member; a first driven gear wheel fixedly mounted on the driven gear wheel shaft; a first driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the first driving gear wheel shaft and is constant mesh with the driven gear wheel, the first driving and driven gear wheels providing a first reduction gear ratio from the first driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft; a second driven gear wheel fixedly mounted on the driven gear wheel shaft; a second driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the second driving gear wheel shaft and is in constant mesh with the first driven gear wheel, the second driving and the first driven gear wheels providing a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio from the second driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft; a third driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the first driving gear wheel shaft and is in constant mesh with the second driven gear wheel, the third driving and the second driven gear wheels providing a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio from the first driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft.

Akashi, T.; Ito, H.; Yamada, S.

1986-06-17

230

Cytoskeleton and Root Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Root hairs are long tubular outgrowths of root epidermis cell that form to increase the root surface in order to assist in\\u000a the uptake of water and nutrients from soil. Root hair development consists of two distinct processes: root hair initiation\\u000a and tip growth. During both events, the dynamic organization of the cytoskeleton translates local signaling events into a\\u000a focused

Eunsook Park; Andreas Nebenführ

231

Evolution of Sensory Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ears of all vertebrate species use sensory hair cells (Fig. 3.1) to convert mechanical energy to electrical signals compatible with the nervous system. However, although the basic structure\\u000a of hair cells is ubiquitous among the vertebrates and hair cells are also found in the lateral line of fishes and aquatic\\u000a amphibians, a growing body of literature has demonstrated considerable

Allison Coffin; Matthew Kelley; Geoffrey A. Manley; Arthur N. Popper

232

Effect of different human hair bleaching conditions on the hair coloration with hair boosting shampoo as colorant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, detailed simulation of human hair bleaching was conducted. The materials and chemical used as well as the hair\\u000a bleaching procedures were described. After bleaching, the colour change of the hair was evaluated in accordance with CIE Lab\\u000a system and the hair bleaching results was analysed. Following the hair bleaching process, hair coloration was employed with\\u000a the use

C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; K. W. Lau; Y. L. Chow

2009-01-01

233

Hinged-Blade, Vertical-Shaft Windmill  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vertical-shaft windmill concept calls for hinged, flapping blades to increase energy-conversion efficiency by reducing wind-energy loss. Hinged Blade Halves unfold to catch wind when moving with it, then fold away from wind when moving against it.

Shultz, B., Jr.

1985-01-01

234

Failure analysis of hydraulic turbine shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the analysis of major failure of 28MW horizontal hydro turbine shaft. The analysis of load carrying capacity of critical radius and fractography analysis are presented. Special emphasize is on metallurgical failure analysis of in-service crack initiation. The analysis of stresses is obtained by the finite element method and the developed model and load conditions are described. Finite

Dejan Mom?ilovi?; Zoran Odanovi?; Radivoje Mitrovi?; Ivana Atanasovska; Tomaž Vuherer

235

HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE AND DRILLED SHAFT CONSTRUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drilled shaft foundation s on major bridge projects often require the use of underwater placement of large volumes of concrete through densely placed rebar, with the cage often made even more congested with the placement of additional tubes for post - construction integrity testing. Such conditions represent the most difficult circumstances for constructors in terms of concrete placement to achieve

Dan Brown; Anton Schindler

236

Lateral Load Behavior of Drilled Shafts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drilled shaft foundations, used extensively to support highway structures, are often subjected to both axial and lateral loads. To obtain a safe and economical design, the response of the soil to the applied loads must be known. In this study, currently a...

L. C. Reese R. C. Welch

1972-01-01

237

The Promoting Effect of Ishige sinicola on Hair Growth  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs) with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3? level, ?-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of ?-catenin pathway, and the 5?-reductase inhibition.

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Eun-JI; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Jeon, You-Jin; Kang, Sung-Myung; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2013-01-01

238

The promoting effect of Ishige sinicola on hair growth.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs) with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3? level, ?-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of ?-catenin pathway, and the 5?-reductase inhibition. PMID:23708185

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Eun-Ji; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Jeon, You-Jin; Kang, Sung-Myung; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2013-06-01

239

Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1984-01-01

240

Induction of Hair Growth by Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in 1,763 MHz Radiofrequency-Irradiated Hair Follicle Cells  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency (RF) radiation does not transfer high energy to break the covalent bonds of macromolecules, but these low energy stimuli might be sufficient to induce molecular responses in a specific manner. We monitored the effect of 1,763 MHz RF radiation on cultured human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) by evaluating changes in the expression of cytokines related to hair growth. The expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA in hDPCs was significantly induced upon RF radiation at the specific absorption rate of 10 W/kg, which resulted in increased expression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) proteins and increased phosphorylation of MAPK1 protein. Exposure to 10 W/kg RF radiation 1 h per day for 7 days significantly enhanced hair shaft elongation in ex vivo hair organ cultures. In RF-exposed follicular matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, the expression of Ki-67 was increased, while the signal for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling was reduced. From these results, we suggest that 1,763 MHz RF exposure stimulates hair growth in vitro through the induction of IGF-1 in hDPCs.

Jo, Seong Jin; Cho, A-Ri; Jeon, Soon-Ik; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Kyu Han; Park, Gun-Sik; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Oh Sang; Park, Woong-Yang

2011-01-01

241

Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)  

MedlinePLUS

... National Institutes of Health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) It may help to join a support group ... gov/chemo-side-effects Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia) What should I do after my hair ...

242

Aging changes in hair and nails  

MedlinePLUS

... earlier in Caucasians and later in Asians. Nutritional supplements, vitamins, and other products will not stop or decrease the rate of graying. Hair thickness change. Hair is made of many protein strands. A single hair has a normal life ...

243

EARTH RETAINING SYSTEMS FOR THE SHAFT EXCAVATION OF SMART TUNNEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the temporary earth retaining systems used for the lateral support of deep shaft excavations for the SMART tunnel. The tunnel has a total of six shafts, one each at both ends of tunnel for TBM r etrieval, and two shafts, namely North a nd South Junction Boxes, at t he interface o f cut and cover r

Siow Meng; Chee Siong; Toong Woh

244

Connect-disconnect coupling for preadjusted rigid shafts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coupling device enables a rigid shaft to be connected to or disconnected from a fixed base without disturbing the point of adjustment of the shaft in a socket or causing the shaft to rotate. The coupling consists of an externally threaded, internally slotted boss extending from the fixed base.

Bajkowski, F. W.; Holmberg, A.

1969-01-01

245

Lateral Load Test of a Drilled Shaft in Clay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavior of a laterally drilled shaft in clay has been investigated by conducting a lateral load test on an instrumented shaft. Lateral deflection, shaft rotation, and soil resistance were measured for each applied load. Dial gages were used to measur...

V. R. Kasch H. M. Coyle R. E. Bartoskewitz W. G. Sarver

1977-01-01

246

Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents viewgraphs of The Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs. The topics include: 1) Rocket Turbomachinery Shaft Seals (Inter-Propellant-Seal (IPS) Systems, Lift-off Seal Systems, and Technology Development Needs); 2) Rocket Engine Characteristics (Engine cycles, propellants, missions, etc., Influence on shaft sealing requirements); and 3) Conclusions.

Keba, John E.

1999-01-01

247

Synchronous Control Effort Minimized for Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various disturbances that are synchronous with the shaft speed can complicate radial magnetic bearing control. These include position sensor target irregularities (runout) and shaft imbalance. The method presented here allows the controller to ignore all synchronous harmonics of the shaft position input (within the closed-loop bandwidth) and to respond only to asynchronous motions. The result is reduced control effort.

Brown, Gerald V.

2001-01-01

248

Biomedical Analyses of Mice Body Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight as a Compliment of Human Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: To understand the effect of space environment characterized by microgravity and radiation on protein and mineral metabolisms is important for developing the countermeasures to the adverse effects happening on the astronauts who stay long-term in space. Thus JAXA has started a human research to study the effects of long-term exposure in space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing astronaut's hair grown in space since December 2009 (Experiment nicknamed "HAIR"). Ten human subjects who are the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will be expected to complete this experiment. Thanks to the tissue sharing program of space-flown mice which is presented and organized by AGI(Italian Space Agency), we can also have an opportunity to analyze rodents samples which will greatly compliment human hair experiment by enable us to conduct more detailed analysis with the expansion of skin analysis which is not include in human experiment. The purpose of this flown-mice experiment is to study the effects of long-term exposure to space environment such as microgravity and space radiation on mineral and protein metabolism, the biological responses to the stress levels, and the initial process of skin carcinogenesis by analyzing hair shaft, its root cells, and skin. Approach and Method In this experiment, we analyzed hair shaft, hair root and skin. Hair samples with skin were taken from 3-month space-flown mice and ground-control mice in the AGI's tissue sharing program in 2009. The sample numbers of space-flown mice and control-mice were three and six, respectively. And they were at the Mice Drawer System (MDS) in ISS and in the laboratory of Geneva University. For the hair shaft, the mineral balance is investi-gated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). For hair root, the extracted RNA undergoes DNA microarray analysis, and will be further examined particular interests of gene-expression by real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. DNA is also extracted from the same samples and mitochondrial DNA copy numbers are ex-amined. For mice skin, the examination of the mutation was performed to investigate whether the space flight will cause the visible mutation which may reflect an evidence of promotion step of carcinogenesis by space radiation. Result: Analysis on the specimen is in progress. A brief results will be introduced during the COSPAR meeting. The mice body hair analysis will give us basic information to understand how space environment such as microgravity and radiation affect on the living organisms.

Mukai, Chiaki

249

Water-Soluble Polymers in Hair Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline hair relaxers used to straighten excessively curly hair, usually African-American hair, often cause considerable\\u000a hair damage. One of the effects of straightening the hair with relaxers is a loss in tensile strength due mainly to breakage\\u000a of disulfide and hydrogen bonds. This loss in tensile strength leaves the hair more susceptible to breakage and cuticle erosion\\u000a from subsequent grooming.

Ali N. Syed; Wagdi W. Habib; Anna M. Kuhajda

250

Best Rx Options for Hair Loss in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... different approach to re-grow hair. Stress-induced Hair Loss Women can lose a noticeable amount of hair ... and hair re-grows on its own. Hereditary Hair Loss Many women are surprised to learn that like ...

251

Hair loss in women.  

PubMed

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a progestogen. Antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate, always accompanied by tricyclic contraceptives, are the best choice of antiandrogens to use in patients with FPHL. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists such as leuprolide acetate suppress pituitary and gonadal function through a reduction in luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Subsequently, ovarian steroid levels also will be reduced, especially in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. When polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, metformin must be considered as treatment. Hyperprolactinemic SAHA and alopecia of pituitary hyperandrogenism should be treated with bromocriptine or cabergoline. Postmenopausal alopecia, with previous high levels of androgens or with prostatic-specific antigen greater than 0.04 ng/mL, improves with finasteride or dutasteride. Although we do not know the reason, postmenopausal alopecia in normoandrogenic women also improves with finasteride or dutasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg per day. Dermatocosmetic concealment with a hairpiece, hair prosthesis as extensions, or partial hairpieces can be useful. Lastly, weight loss undoubtedly improves hair loss in hyperandrogenic women. PMID:19341939

Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

2009-03-01

252

Hair growth activity of Crataegus pinnatifida on C57BL/6 mouse model.  

PubMed

Crataegus pinnatifida has a long history of use in traditional oriental herbal medicine to stimulating digestion and improving blood circulation. Based on nutrition of hair, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of C. pinnatifida extract on hair growth using mouse model and its mechanisms of action. The C. pinnatifida extract containing the contents of total polyphenol of 5.88?0.82?g gallic acid/100?g extract and proanthocyanidin of 9.15?1.58?mg cyaniding chloride/100?g extract was orally administered daily at a dosage of 50?mg/kg weight to the 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice in telogen. The C. pinnatifida extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in mice in telogen, reflected by color of skin, thickness of hair shaft, and density of hair. The ratio of anagento telogen was determined by shape of hair follicles in vertically sectioned slide and increased by oral administration of C. pinnatifida extract. The number and the size of hair follicles were also enlarged, indicating anagen phase induction. The proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPC) was accelerated by addition of C. pinnatifida extract, which activated the signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk, p-38, and JNK) and Akt. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax as the determinant of cell fate was also raised in skin. These results suggest that the C. pinnatifida extract promotes hair growth by inducing anagen phase, which might be mediated by the activation of cellular signalings that enhance the survival of cultured hDPC and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax that protects cells against cell death. PMID:23148028

Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Sang-Yong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ju-Han; Yi, Tae-Hoo

2013-09-01

253

Hair Loss Measurement Tool Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hair loss from cancer chemotherapy has received considerable attention in recent years in the field of cancer care because of the emotional and social distress it can cause patients. Many investigators have attempted to decrease hair loss by means of scal...

B. S. Mueggenborg

1983-01-01

254

Human Hair: An Educational Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describes some of the more recent developments in the use of human hairs for such instructional purposes as observing barr bodies and chromosomes, and for culturing to produce cells of both epithelial and fibroblastic morphology. Three main hair categories are also described. (JN)

Wells, John

1983-01-01

255

"Dissection" of a Hair Dryer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-01-01

256

Percutaneous penetration of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalp penetration of 7 hair dyes (oxidative and direct) that occurs under conditions of hair dye usage was evaluated for both rhesus monkey and man using 14C labeled materials by quantifying their absorbtion via urine assays. Both species showed a remarkably similar pattern of dye penetration. The extent of scalp penetratoon is slightly higher for direct dyes but in neither

L. J. Wolfram; H. I. Maibach

1985-01-01

257

Improved enzymatic hydrolysis of hair.  

PubMed

An enzymatic hair extraction method is proposed for drug analysis. Pronase digestion of various aliquots of hair from a cocaine abuser was preceded by a 2-h incubation with a dithiothreitol solution. The extraction solution was tested to identify possible interferences in the radioimmunoassay and was compared with other hydrolysis methods to assess the results of extraction. PMID:8138218

Offidani, C; Strano Rossi, S; Chiarotti, M

1993-12-01

258

18-MEA and hair appearance.  

PubMed

The effects of the removal of 18-MEA on the dynamic contact angle (advancing contact angle and receding contact angle) and friction force (friction force microscopy (FFM)) were examined in the present study. Chemically untreated hair tresses formed more finely ordered bundles, with the fibers aligned more parallel to each other, in the wet state, and lying flat and aligned parallel to each other in the dry state. Hair tresses in which 18-MEA had been removed by potassium t-butoxide treatment formed coarser tangled bundles and were aligned in a disorderly manner in the wet state, causing the hair to become entangled and disorderly in the dry state. This was because the 18-MEA-removed hair fibers adhered to each other and were not easy to realign in the wet state. The distorted part of the bundle dried faster and the tress shape was eventually fixed in the entangled shape. One role of 18-MEA is to allow hair fibers to lie flat and parallel with respect to each other in the wet state by providing relatively high receding contact angles and low surface friction. Hair alignment in the dry state is directly affected by hair alignment in the wet environment, particularly in the case of damaged hair. PMID:20447366

Tanamachi, Hiroto; Tokunaga, Shinichi; Tanji, Noriyuki; Oguri, Masashi; Inoue, Shigeto

2010-01-01

259

Monilethrix: One Step More on the Ladder of Cytogenetics  

PubMed Central

Monilethrix is one of the hair shaft abnormalities with increased fragility of hair. Here we describe a ten-year-old girl with a history of hair loss and breakage of hair since three months of age, associated with keratosis pilaris along with an abnormal microscopic finding of a hair shaft. A cytogenetic study of the patient showed an unexpectedly high degree of Acrocentric association.

Singh, Ashish; Ambujam, S; Srikanth, S; Uma, AN

2010-01-01

260

Effect of sun protection agent on preventing hair colour fading and hair damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effect of sun protection agent on different hair samples including, (i) unbleached hair sample, (ii) bleached\\u000a hair sample and (iii) bleached hair sample with subsequent hair coloration, were studied. This paper was aimed at evaluating\\u000a the effectiveness of sun protection agent on the different hair conditions. The hair samples were divided into two sets; one\\u000a was

C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; Y. L. Chow

2010-01-01

261

Is hair analysis for dialkyl phosphate metabolites a suitable biomarker for assessing past acute exposure to organophosphate pesticides?  

PubMed

In the present paper, the possibility to use dialkyl phosphate metabolites (DAPs) hair segmental analysis as a biomarker of past acute exposure to organophosphates is examined. Hair samples of four acute poisoning survivors were collected and segmental hair analysis was performed. The total hair samples were divided to 1 cm segments and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the presence of four DAP metabolites, dimethyl phosphate (DMP), diethyl phosphate (DEP), diethyl thiophosphate (DETP) and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP). Results were examined under the light of pesticide type and time of hair sample collection. Although DAPs were detected all along the hair shaft, higher concentrations (peaks) were detected in the segments proximate to the suicide period. It was also observed that the elevated concentrations of the present metabolites corresponded to the ones produced by the ingested parent compound. Conclusively, measurements of DAPs in the appropriate hair segments of OP-poisoned patients can be used for assessing past acute exposure to organophosphates in certain cases. PMID:21427137

Tsatsakis, A M; Tutudaki, M; Tzatzarakis, M N; Dawson, A; Mohamed, F; Christaki, M; Alegakis, A K

2012-03-01

262

Notch Signaling Regulates Late-Stage Epidermal Differentiation and Maintains Postnatal Hair Cycle Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Background Notch signaling involves ligand-receptor interactions through direct cell-cell contact. Multiple Notch receptors and ligands are expressed in the epidermis and hair follicles during embryonic development and the adult stage. Although Notch signaling plays an important role in regulating differentiation of the epidermis and hair follicles, it remains unclear how Notch signaling participates in late-stage epidermal differentiation and postnatal hair cycle homeostasis. Methodology and Principal Findings We applied Cre/loxP system to generate conditional gene targeted mice that allow inactivation of critical components of Notch signaling pathway in the skin. Rbpj, the core component of all four Notch receptors, and Pofut1, an essential factor for ligand-receptor interactions, were inactivated in hair follicle lineages and suprabasal layer of the epidermis using the Tgfb3-Cre mouse line. Rbpj conditional inactivation resulted in granular parakeratosis and reactive epidermal hyperplasia. Pofut1 conditional inactivation led to ultrastructural abnormalities in the granular layer and altered filaggrin processing in the epidermis, suggesting a perturbation of the granular layer differentiation. Disruption of Pofut1 in hair follicle lineages resulted in aberrant telogen morphology, a decrease of bulge stem cell markers, and a concomitant increase of K14-positive keratinocytes in the isthmus of mutant hair follicles. Pofut1-deficent hair follicles displayed a delay in anagen re-entry and dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis during the hair cycle transition. Moreover, increased DNA double stand breaks were detected in Pofut1-deficent hair follicles, and real time PCR analyses on bulge keratinocytes isolated by FACS revealed an induction of DNA damage response and a paucity of DNA repair machinery in mutant bulge keratinocytes. Significance our data reveal a role for Notch signaling in regulating late-stage epidermal differentiation. Notch signaling is required for postnatal hair cycle homeostasis by maintaining proper proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle stem cells.

Lin, Hsien-Yi; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Lin, Kurt Ming-Chao; Kaartinen, Vesa; Yang, Liang-Tung

2011-01-01

263

An applicational process for dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a time-efficient methodology for dynamically balancing turbomachinery shafting. This methodology minimizes costly facility downtime by using a balancing arbor (mandrel) that simulates the turbomachinery (rig) shafting. The need for precision dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafting and for a dynamic balancing methodology is discussed in detail. Additionally, the inherent problems (and their causes and effects) associated with unbalanced turbomachinery shafting as a function of increasing shaft rotational speeds are discussed. Included are the design criteria concerning rotor weight differentials for rotors made of different materials that have similar parameters and shafting. The balancing methodology for applications where rotor replaceability is a requirement is also covered. This report is intended for use as a reference when designing, fabricating, and troubleshooting turbomachinery shafting.

Verhoff, Vincent G.

1990-01-01

264

Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.  

PubMed

Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P > 0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P > 0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months. PMID:25036348

Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

2014-01-01

265

The d-c shaft furnace  

SciTech Connect

A recent projection of world steel production by process through the year 2000 illustrates a general consensus that electric arc furnace production will continue to increase and represent a greater proportion of total steel produced. State of the art technology is being applied to meet the increasing volume and quality demands with the continuing objectives being the production of high-quality product at the lowest possible cost. In this article, the integration of two state-of-the-art technologies into the d-c shaft furnace process is discussed: the direct current arc furnace; and scrap preheating. The d-c shaft furnace, with scrap preheating capability, provides the potential for not only major increases in production rate but also significant reductions in energy and electrode consumption in comparison with a conventional d-c furnace of similar physical and electrical characteristics.

Haissig, M. (Fuchs Systems Inc., Salisbury, NC (United States))

1994-05-01

266

Treatment shaft for combined sewer overflow detention.  

PubMed

A deep, large-diameter underground shaft to provide detention storage for combined sewer overflow control may be advantageous in urban environments, where space limitations require solutions with a small footprint. An underflow baffle wall is provided at the center of the treatment shaft to prevent short-circuiting of the flow. An additional objective is to maintain low headlosses through the structure. A physical model study was conducted to determine the effect of the bottom elevation of the baffle wall on the headloss and breakthrough curve for dye injected to the inflow. It was found that there is a considerable range of elevations for which the structure behaves acceptably in providing adequate contact time for disinfectant while maintaining small headlosses. PMID:20480764

Wright, Steven J; Ghalib, Saad; Eloubaidy, Aziz

2010-05-01

267

Lowest critical velocity of rotating shafts.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of the gyroscopic moment on the appearance of a first imaginary critical velocity (minimum negative value of lambda) is investigated and shown to have an important effect on the computation of the first critical velocity. A numerical procedure is developed which can be used for overcoming the difficulties arising when the first real and the first imaginary roots are similar in modulus. As an example, a real shaft with two supports was analyzed. For the computation the real shaft was subdivided into ten sections, and for two of them (representing compressor and turbine) the gyroscopic moment was taken into account. The present method is especially useful when high speed computational facilities are not available.

Atzori, B.; Curti, G.

1973-01-01

268

Milling of key slots on long shafts  

SciTech Connect

The authors look for and test methods and tool materials for milling key slots into rod pump shafts made of steel-03KH14N7V and K Monel alloy which not only increase the precision of the milling process but also extend the life of the milling tool. Their test parameters include various methods for introduction of the cutting fluid into the milling process, the effect of carbonitridation of the tool material, and the productivity of the machine itself.

Agadzhanyan, R.A.; Bogdanenko, Yu.G.

1987-03-01

269

Long vertical shaft bioreactor of simplified design  

SciTech Connect

An improved long vertical shaft bioreactor for the treatment of degradable waste is provided wherein the head tank or basin surmounting the vertical downcomer and riser chambers is surrounded by a foam oxidation vessel. Conduits are provided between the head tank and the foam vessel through which (A) foam accumulated in the head tank is passed to the foam vessel and (B) through which excess fluid in the head tank may be vented.

Pollock, D.C.

1981-06-09

270

Topical Calcitriol Enhances Normal Hair Regrowth but Does Not Prevent Chemotherapy-induced Alopecia in Mice1  

Microsoft Academic Search

I slut; a murine model that mimics chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) in humans particularly well, we show here that in contrast to previously reported CIA-protective effects in neonatal rats, topical calcit- riol does not prevent CIA in adolescent mice but enhances the regrowth of normally pigmented hair shafts. When, prior to injecting 1 x 120 mg\\/kg cyclophosphamide i.p., 0.2 \\/

Ralf Paus; Markus B. Schilli; Bori Handjiski; Andreas Menrad; Beate M. Henz; Przemyslaw Plonka

271

Discussion of flexible shaft versus rigid shaft electric machines for petroleum and chemical plants  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses flexible shaft versus rigid shaft electric machines for petroleum and chemical plants. A user of an electric machine will have a difficult time relating to the rigid bearing critical'' given in this paper as the determining definition for a rigid shaft'' machine. A rotor with an operating speed below its first system resonant speed, while mounted on its foundation, should be called rigid''or stiff'' shaft. The modern trend of motors is to have long and slender rotors with a low shaft height. Many 3600-r/min induction motors become flexible rotor'' design (i.e. not stiff'' by the definition given in the above paragraph) above a rating of approximately 800 to 1500. In conclusion the following are observation of a rotor designed to operate above its first system resonant speed: If the manufacturer does not process the rotor carefully during fabrication, balance shifts, which are difficult to correct or predict can occur. Balance of the rotor is more difficult, usually requiring the ability to add balance weight at the center of the rotor to correct the static unbalance component. Rated-temperature test of the machine, on a factory test stand, is the best way to prove the rotor thermal stability'' and to avoid field problems.

Hamer, P.S. (Chevron Research and Technology Co. (United States))

1992-04-01

272

Glycerophospholipid analysis of Eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) hair by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Pilosebaceous units found in the mammalian integument are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle. Pilosebaceous units release protective oils, or sebum, by holocrine secretion onto skin and hair through rupturing of sebocytes. Sebum is composed largely of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids, free fatty acids, sterols, wax esters, sterol esters, and squalene. In addition to these lipid classes, there is a small proportion of ionic/anionic glycerophospholipids (GPs). Composition of GPs on hair is rarely addressed despite their broad biological activities as signaling molecules and membrane stability. Furthermore, knowledge on GP composition in bats is lacking. Bat GP composition is important to document due to GP roles ranging from decreasing drag during migration to interaction with the integumentary microbiome. In this study, we analyzed GP molecular composition with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and compared GP content to previous literature. A total of 152 GPs were detected. Broad GP classes identified include lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylglycerol, with PC being the most abundant class. The acyl components were consistent with fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglyceride moieties found in Eastern red bat sebum. Glycerophospholipid proportions of the hair surface were different from a previous study on bat lung surfactants. This study determined the broad class and molecular species of bat sebum GPs that may be used in future ecological studies in vespertilionid bats. PMID:24532214

Pannkuk, Evan L; McGuire, Liam P; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

2014-03-01

273

Progressive Hair Loss and Myocardial Degeneration in Rough Coat Mice: Reduced Lysyl Oxidase-Like (LOXL) in the Skin and Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rough coat (rc) is a spontaneous recessive mutation in mice. To identify the mutated gene, we have characterized the rc phenotype and initiated linkage mapping. The rc mice show growth retardation, cyclic and progressive hair loss, hyperplastic epidermis, abnormal hair follicles, cardiac muscle degeneration, and reduced amount of collagen and elastin in the skin and heart. The rc locus

Kimiko Hayashi; Tongyu Cao; Howard Passmore; Claude Jourdan-Le Saux; Ben Fogelgren; Subarna Khan; Ian Hornstra; Youngho Kim; Masando Hayashi; Katalin Csiszar

2004-01-01

274

The Ethnic Differences of the Damage of Hair and Integral Hair Lipid after Ultra Violet Radiation  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic factors account for the majority of differences in skin color and hair morphology across human populations. Although many studies have been conducted to examine differences in skin color across populations, few studies have examined differences in hair morphology. Objective To investigate changing of integral hair lipids after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in three human ethnic groups. Methods We studied the UV irradiation induced hair damage in hairs of three human populations. UV irradiation had been performed with self-manufactured phototherapy system. Damaged hair samples were prepared at 12 and 48 hours after UVA (20 J/sec) and UVB (8 J/sec) irradiation. We evaluated the changes of hair lipid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), lipid TEM and HP-TLC. After UV irradiation, hair surface damage was shown. Results African hair showed more severe damage on hair surface than others. The lipid compositions across human populations were similar, but Asian hair had more integral hair lipids than other groups as a whole. Especially, free fatty acid contents were higher than other lipids. After UV irradiation, lipid contents were decreased. These patterns were shown in all human populations. Asian hair has more integral hair lipid than European or African hair. After UV irradiation, European and African hair samples exhibited more damage because they have less integral hair lipids. However, Asian hair samples have less damage. Conclusion We conclude that integral hair lipid may protect the hair against the UV light.

Ji, Jae Hong; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Jin, Xin-Hai

2013-01-01

275

Hair as Race: Why “Good Hair” May Be Bad for Black Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically examining the relationship between race, Black female beauty, and hair texture, this qualitative study used narratives from 38 Black females between the ages of 19 and 81, to determine messages that communicate hair valuations to Black females, definitions of good and bad hair, and motivations for desiring good hair. A legacy of slavery, hair valuations reflect racially motivated beauty

Cynthia L. Robinson

2011-01-01

276

Evaluation of human hair sources for the in vitro hair perforation test.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro hair perforation test for dermatophytes was evaluated with hair from males and females aged 6 months to 67 years, including hair of various natural colors and hair which had been bleached, tinted, curled, sprayed, or subjected to various combinations of these treatments. In contrast to published recommendations, the source of hair had no effect on this diagnostic procedure.

Salkin, I F; Hollick, G E; Hurd, N J; Kemna, M E

1985-01-01

277

Hair cycle and hair pigmentation: dynamic interactions and changes associated with aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tight coupling of hair follicle melanogenesis to the hair growth cycle dramatically distinguishes follicular melanogenesis from the continuous melanogenesis of the epidermis. Cyclic re-construction of an intact hair follicle pigmentary unit occurs optimally in all scalp hair follicles during only the first 10 hair cycles, i.e. by approximately 40 years of age. Thereafter there appears to be a genetically

Dominique Van Neste; Desmond J Tobin

2004-01-01

278

Capturing hair assemblies fiber by fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair models for computer graphics consist of many curves representing individual hair fibers. In current practice these curves are generated by ad hoc random processes, and in close-up views their arrangement appears plainly different from real hair. To begin improving this situation, this paper presents a new method for measuring the detailed arrangement of fibers in a hair assembly. Many

Wenzel Jakob; Jonathan T. Moon; Steve Marschner

2009-01-01

279

Development of Hair Dye from Herbal Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The developments of hair dyes from herbal extracts are studied. Seven herbs, such as Jackfruit core, Sappan wood, Lac, Henna, Mangosteen, Amla and Turmeric were ex- tracted and used as pigment for hair dyes. The dyed hair conditions, which comprised concentrations of a developer (hydrogen peroxide), concentrations of crude herbal ex- tracts, and dyed hair treatment process were compared

Kongtun Janphuk Sumonthip; Suracherdkaiti Wichai

2009-01-01

280

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Hair Follicle Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical conditions causing hair loss, such as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, and scarring alopecia, can be psychologically devastating to individuals and are the target of a multimillion dollar pharmaceutical industry. The importance of the hair follicle in skin biology, however, does not rest solely with its ability to produce hair. Hair follicles are self-renewing and contain reservoirs of multipotent stem

Sarah E. Millar

2002-01-01

281

Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

2005-06-01

282

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Overview What is abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ...

283

Shaft-Angle Sensor Based on Tunnel-Diode Oscillator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed brushless shaft-angle sensor for use in extreme cold would offer significant advantages over prior such sensors: (1) It would be capable of operating in extreme cold; and (2) Its electronic circuitry would be simpler than that of a permanent-magnet/ multiple-Hall-probe shaft-angle sensor that would otherwise ordinarily be used to obtain comparable angular resolution. The principle of operation of the proposed shaft-angle sensor requires that the shaft (or at least the portion of the shaft at the sensor location) be electrically insulating. The affected portion of the shaft would be coated with metal around half of its circumference. Two half-circular-cylinder electrodes having a radius slightly larger than that of the shaft would be mounted on the stator, concentric with the shaft, so that there would be a small radial gap between them and the outer surface of the shaft. Hence, there would be a capacitance between each stationary electrode and the metal coat on the shaft.

Chui, Talso

2008-01-01

284

[Sex differences in hair color].  

PubMed

The hair-colours of an unselected Vienese sample (8399 male, 8176 female) of all ages and ascertained by the author himself have been analysed with regard to their sexual distribution. The comparisons of the age-groups necessary because of the individual age-changes of the hair-colour did not reveal any significant sexual dimorphism. Only during the periods of intensified growth the girls show a slight tendency to darker hair than the boys at the same age because of their faster development. PMID:921225

Reuer, E

1977-08-01

285

Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing  

PubMed Central

Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish?

Draelos, Zoe D

2010-01-01

286

Hair anatomy in Plantago subg. Psyllium ( Plantaginaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hairs of seven representatives ofPlantago L. subg.Psyllium were studied. Three types of headless hairs and three types of headed hairs were observed. Clavate hairs and hairs with several-celled stalk and unicellular head are characteristic of subg.Psyllium and provide evidence for the distinctness of this taxon. Based on our studies it can be assumed thatRahn's idea of enlarging subg.Psyllium by

Emilia Andrzejewska-Golec; Jacek ?wi?tos?awski

1993-01-01

287

Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

Haines, Richard F.

1992-01-01

288

tmie Is required for gentamicin uptake by the hair cells of mice.  

PubMed

The circling (cir/cir) mouse is a spontaneous model of deafness due to deletion of a 40-kb genomic region that includes the transmembrane inner ear (tmie) gene. In addition to being deaf, cir/cir mice exhibit abnormal behaviors including circling and hyperactivity. Here we investigated differences between 3-d-old (that is, before hair-cell degeneration) cir/cir and phenotypically normal (+/cir) mice and the reason underlying the degeneration of the inner ear structure of cir/cir mice. To this end, we used gentamicin, gentamicin-Texas red conjugate, and FM1-43 to investigate mechanotransducer channel activity in the hair cells of cir/cir mice; these compounds are presumed to enter hair cells through the mechanotransducer channel. Although the structure of the inner ear of +/cir mice was equivalent to that of cir/cir mice, the hair cells of cir/cir mice (unlike +/cir) did not take up gentamicin, gentamicin-Texas red conjugate, or FM1-43. These findings suggest that hair cells in cir/cir mice demonstrate abnormal maturation and mechanotransduction. In addition, our current results indicate that tmie is required for maturation and maintenance of hair cells. PMID:23582420

Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong-Han; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Kyu-yup; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yun, Byung-Wook; Ryoo, ZaeYoung

2013-04-01

289

Twin-capacitive shaft angle encoder with analog output signal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A precision capacitive shaft encoder providing a dc signal corresponding to the angular position of a shaft is described. Two variable capacitances are coupled in tandem by a rotatable shaft. Each capacitor has a capacitance that varies linearly with a change in the angular position of the shaft. The sum of the two capacitances is always constant for any angular position of the shaft. Each capacitance is alternately coupled to a reference dc voltage and a discharge circuit. The capacitances are electrically coupled in series and the charge periodically acquired at the junction of the capacitance is a function of the position of the shaft. An error-compensating voltage is imposed on the junction when the capacitances are coupled to the reference voltages. The junction is coupled to sample-and-hold apparatus provided with a error-correcting circuit.

Hruby, R. J.; Wilson, R. L. (inventors)

1977-01-01

290

White matter integrity in hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania).  

PubMed

Hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania, HPD) is a disabling condition that is characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in hair loss. Although there is evidence of structural grey matter abnormalities in HPD, there is a paucity of data on white matter integrity. The aim of this study was to explore white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in subjects with HPD and healthy controls. Sixteen adult female subjects with HPD and 13 healthy female controls underwent DTI. Hair-pulling symptom severity, anxiety and depressive symptoms were also assessed. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to analyze data on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). There were no differences in DTI measures between HPD subjects and healthy controls. However, there were significant associations of increased MD in white matter tracts of the fronto-striatal-thalamic pathway with longer HPD duration and increased HPD severity. Our findings suggest that white matter integrity in fronto-striatal-thalamic pathways in HPD is related to symptom duration and severity. The molecular basis of measures of white matter integrity in HPD deserves further exploration. PMID:23149033

Roos, Annerine; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine

2013-03-30

291

[Adverse drug reactions on hair].  

PubMed

Adverse drug reactions on the hair are common side effects. The spectrum of loss of hair reaches from diffuse telogen effluvium up to circumscribed or diffuse alopecia on the scalp, sometimes also including other body areas. Other side effects observed are the stimulation of hair growth with hypertrichosis and induction or worsening of hirsutism, as well as changes of the structure or color of the hair. In most cases--other than those treated with cytostatics, androgens, or hormonal contraceptives with some androgenic effect--it is rather difficult to determine the time of onset and primary cause, since the diffuse types often start subclinically, and other factors may play an additional part. As a rule, adverse drug reactions are reversible provided the causative drug is avoided. PMID:2087842

Gollnick, H; Blume, U; Orfanos, C E

1990-12-01

292

Simultaneous determination of morphine and its glucuronides in rat hair and rat plasma by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The simultaneous determination of morphine and the glucuronide metabolites [morphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-beta-D-glucuronide (M6G)] in rat hair and rat plasma was carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The chromatographic separation of the analytes was achieved using a semi-micro-HPLC column (3 microm particle size; 100 x 2.0 mm id) by gradient elution with 50 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile as eluents. After separation, morphine and the glucuronides were determined by selected ion monitoring (SIM) of ESI-MS using the quasi-molecular ions [M + H]+ at m/z = 286 and 462, respectively. The calibration curves were linear between the concentration of the analytes and the deuterium-labelled morphine (M-d3) selected as internal standard. The method was applied for the determination of the incorporation of morphine and the glucuronides into the hair shafts and hair roots of Dark Agouti rats after single intraperitoneal administration of morphine hydrochloride. Plasma concentrations of morphine and glucuronides were simultaneously determined after administration. Morphine and M3G were detected in the hair shafts and the hair roots. The concentrations of M3G in the hair root were lower than those of morphine in all sampling periods. In contrast, M3G concentrations in plasma were relatively higher at each sampling time. Small quantities of M6G were also identified in the plasma up to 4 h after administration. The concentration difference between the hair root and plasma seems to be due to the incorporation ratio of morphine and glucuronide into hair. As M3G was also identified in the hair shaft 1 week after administration, the incorporation of glucuronide metabolites into hair is obvious. This is the first report of the identification of morphine glucuronide in hair samples without the use of acid hydrolysis or enzyme digestion. PMID:11534602

Toyo'oka, T; Yano, M; Kato, M; Nakahara, Y

2001-08-01

293

Proposed design procedure for transmission shafting under fatigue loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new standard for the design of transmission shafting is reported. Computed was the diameter of rotating solid steel shafts under combined cyclic bending and steady torsion is presented. The formula is based on an elliptical variation of endurance strength with torque exhibited by combined stress fatigue data. Fatigue factors are cited to correct specimen bending endurance strength data for use in the shaft formula. A design example illustrates how the method is to be applied.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1978-01-01

294

Percutaneous multiple K-wire fixation for humeral shaft fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

umeral shaft fractures are one of the common injuries, following Musculo-skeletal trauma. Being the most important bone of the upper extremity involved in the skilled movements, the appropriate management of the humeral shaft fractures is very important. There are various modalities of management for the humeral shaft fractures ranging from non-operative to operative. Non-operative management techniques include; hanging cast, U-slab,

Abdul Q. Khan; Aftab A. Iraqi; Mohammad-Khalid A. Sherwani; Mazhar Abbas; Adesh Sharma

295

Impact of shaft torsionals in steam turbine control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shaft torsional vibrations are discussed along with their effect on steam turbine-generator control following severe supply-network disturbances and the destabilization of shaft torsional modes through the action of high-speed electrohydraulic controllers. It is shown that shaft flexibility can exert a significant influence on steam turbine-generator response following a severe supply-system disturbance, particularly when the turbine has nonlinear valve stroking and

T. J. Hammons

1989-01-01

296

10. Photocopied August 1978. CLOSEUP VIEW OF TURBINE SHAFT PENETRATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopied August 1978. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF TURBINE SHAFT PENETRATING THE STEEL PLATE BULKHEAD THROUGH A STUFFING BOX AND AND ALSO SHOWING THE CONTROL GATE SHAFT. THIS PARTICULAR UNIT WAS INSTALLED IN 1916. THE ADMISSION OF WATER TO ALL FOUR RUNNERS IN A PENSTOCK UNIT COULD SIMULTANEOUSLY BE CONTROLLED BY THE CONTROL SHAFT ON THE LEFT. (899) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

297

Failure investigation and redesign of piston and pump shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the application of glue during the production of cars, a double-acting pump driven by a pneumatic piston is used. The shafts of the pump and the pneumatic piston are fixed to each other with a C-shaped split bush, which fits over a groove in both the pump and the piston shaft.A number of piston- and pump shafts failed prematurely

Wouter Ost; Patrick De Baets; Jeroen Van Wittenberghe

2009-01-01

298

Human Scalp Hair Follicles Are Both a Target and a Source of Prolactin, which Serves as an Autocrine and/or Paracrine Promoter of Apoptosis-Driven Hair Follicle Regression  

PubMed Central

The prototypic pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) exerts a wide variety of bioregulatory effects in mammals and is also found in extrapituitary sites, including murine skin. Here, we show by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology that, contrary to a previous report, human skin and normal human scalp hair follicles (HFs), in particular, express both PRL and PRL receptors (PRL-R) at the mRNA and protein level. PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity can be detected in the epithelium of human anagen VI HFs, while the HF mesenchyme is negative. During the HF transformation from growth (anagen) to apoptosis-driven regression (catagen), PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity appear up-regulated. Treatment of organ-cultured human scalp HFs with high-dose PRL (400 ng/ml) results in a significant inhibition of hair shaft elongation and premature catagen development, along with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of hair bulb keratinocytes (Ki-67/terminal dUTP nick-end labeling immunohistomorphometry). This shows that PRL receptors, expressed in HFs, are functional and that human skin and human scalp HFs are both direct targets and sources of PRL. Our data suggest that PRL acts as an autocrine hair growth modulator with catagen-promoting functions and that the hair growth-inhibitory effects of PRL demonstrated here may underlie the as yet ill-understood hair loss in patients with hyperprolactinemia.

Foitzik, Kerstin; Krause, Karoline; Conrad, Franziska; Nakamura, Motonobu; Funk, Wolfang; Paus, Ralf

2006-01-01

299

Human scalp hair as evidence of individual dosage history of haloperidol: a possible linkage of haloperidol excretion into hair with hair pigment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a method for determining haloperidol concentration in human scalp hair and discuss a possible linkage of haloperidol excretion into hair with the hair pigment melanin. First, an animal study was conducted to support the idea that hair contains amounts of haloperidol corresponding to the doses given and pigmented hair contains much more drug than does unpigmented hair. The

T. Uematsu; R. Sato; O. Fujimori; M. Nakashima

1990-01-01

300

23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ELEVATOR LOADING DOOR. - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

301

Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. PMID:23121872

Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wo?owiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

2012-11-01

302

Identification of Ectodysplasin Target Genes Reveals the Involvement of Chemokines in Hair Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ectodysplasin (Eda), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) family, regulates skin appendage morphogenesis via its receptor Edar and transcription factor NF-?B. In humans, inactivating mutations in the Eda pathway components lead to hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), a syndrome characterized by sparse hair, tooth abnormalities, and defects in several cutaneous glands. A corresponding phenotype is observed in Eda-null mice,

Sylvie Lefebvre; Ingrid Fliniaux; Pascal Schneider; Marja L Mikkola

2012-01-01

303

Cartilage-hair hypoplasia caused by novel compound heterozygous RMRP mutations.  

PubMed

Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a rare, autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, caused by mutations in the RMRP gene. The skeletal abnormalities include irregular metaphyses and cone shaped epiphyses of the hands. Molecular diagnosis confirmed two novel RMRP mutations in a compound heterozygous state in two siblings with this condition. PMID:21813924

Reicherter, Kerstin; Veeramani, Amithkumar Iynapillai; Jagadeesh, Sujatha

2011-07-01

304

Compositions and methods for improving the appearance of aging hair  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A hair care composition and method of using the composition is provided that can increase the appearance of thicker and/or fuller hair and/or delay the appearance of gray hair to provide healthy and younger looking hair.

2014-07-22

305

Loss of mpzl3 function causes various skin abnormalities and greatly reduced adipose depots.  

PubMed

The rough coat (rc) spontaneous mutation causes sebaceous gland (SG) hypertrophy, hair loss, and extracutaneous abnormalities including growth retardation. The rc mice have a missense mutation in the predicted Ig protein Myelin Protein Zero-Like 3 (Mpzl3). In this study, we generated Mpzl3 knockout mice to determine its functions in the skin. Homozygous Mpzl3 knockout mice showed unkempt and greasy hair coat and hair loss soon after birth. Histological analysis revealed severe SG hypertrophy and increased dermal thickness, but did not detect significant changes in the hair cycle. Mpzl3-null mice frequently developed inflammatory skin lesions; however, the early-onset skin abnormalities were not the result of immune defects. The abnormalities in the Mpzl3 knockout mice closely resemble those observed in rc/rc mice, and in mice heterozygous for both the rc and Mpzl3 knockout alleles, indicating that rc and Mpzl3 are allelic. Using a lacZ reporter gene, we detected Mpzl3 promoter activity in the companion layer and inner root sheath of the hair follicle, SG, and epidermis. Loss of MPZL3 function also caused a striking reduction in cutaneous and overall adipose tissue. These data reveal a complex role for Mpzl3 in the control of skin development, hair growth, and adipose cell functions. PMID:24531688

Leiva, Angel G; Chen, Anne L; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin; Damanpour, Shadi; Hall, Jessica A; Bianco, Antonio C; Li, Jie; Badiavas, Evangelos V; Zaias, Julia; Miteva, Mariya; Romanelli, Paolo; Nouri, Keyvan; Cao Wikramanayake, Tongyu

2014-07-01

306

10. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DELIVERY CHUTE AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DELIVERY CHUTE AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER, (ORE HAULED FROM THE ADJACENT SHAFT WAS DELIVERED THROUGH THIS CHUTE TO THE OUTSIDE); VIEW TO THE EAST. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

307

29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross over valve. Shaft at left operates main flood valve to admit water into the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

308

7. DETAIL VIEW NORTH OF TURBINE OUTPUT SHAFT, FLYWHEEL (RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL VIEW NORTH OF TURBINE OUTPUT SHAFT, FLYWHEEL (RIGHT CENTER), VERTICAL SHAFT TO GOVERNOR WITH RACK-AND-PINION GEARING (LEFT), AND BELTS - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

309

Applied Research on Risk Management in Mining Shaft Construction Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining the engineering characteristics with actual practices in mining shaft construction project (short for MSCP), this paper analyses the main features of mine shaft construction projects. Via directly investigating some MSCP under building with emphases on risk identification and risk evaluation, this paper designs risk lists of MSCP, and makes a system evaluation to the identified risks bearing the characteristics

Wenshun Wang; Wenchuang Zhao; Jun Hao

2008-01-01

310

Thermo-plastic analysis of a bowed sodium pump shaft  

SciTech Connect

A hollow sodium pump shaft was found to have a residual bow sufficient to cause unacceptable vibrations. Investigations suggested that the bow was caused by a sodium overfill event while the pump was shut down and the shaft was not turning. A rising sodium level with natural convection effects could result in local heating of the shaft. Even though the shaft may be essentially free, a local one-sided thermal loading may cause thermal stresses and plastic stains sufficient to give a residual bow when the thermal load is removed. A series of elastic-plastic analyses were carried out to assess the likelihood of the proposed mechanism's causing the residual bow. A special purpose computer program modelled the shaft as a Bernoulli beam. Isotropic hardening was evaluated by successive approximation. For each case studied, a loading sequence was followed by an assumed elastic unloading step, and the thermal loading zone was assumed small compared to the shaft length. These simplifying assumptions allowed parameterization of several variables--yield stress, thermal loading magnitude, extent of the heated zone around the shaft circumference, temperature distribution around the circumference, and shaft unrestrained/restrained conditions. Although the magnitude of the residual bow is not centered with the solution using mean parameters of this study, it is possible that a one-sided combination of parameter values did exist and that such a condition caused the bow under the proposed mechanism. 4 refs., 12 figs.

Weiner, E.O.

1989-03-01

311

Hair loss in elderly women.  

PubMed

Hair loss in elderly women has been becoming a major topic in the daily practice of dermatology. Aging of hair follicles seems to affect hair growth and pigmentation, the molecular mechanisms of which remain to be elucidated. Further senile changes in physiology and immunity may influence the onset and course of hair diseases. Some preexisting diseases such as androgenetic alopecia usually worsen after menopause, while others, like discoid lupus erythematosus, may attenuate. Hormone surveying, especially with regard to internal androgen-producing tumors, is indicated in postmenopausal women with androgenetic alopecia of sudden exacerbation or with unusual manifestation or other virilizing signs. The prevalence of alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis appears to be much lower in postmenopausal ages as compared to earlier onset. Acute or chronic telogen effluvium is not uncommonly superimposed on androgenetic alopecia. Trichotillomania shows a marked female predominance in the senile age group with a higher rate of psychopathology. Worldwide, tinea capitis has been increasingly observed in postmenopausal women. Frontal fibrosing alopecia, giant cell arteritis and erosive pustular dermatosis involve mainly elder women leading to scarring alopecia. Alopecia induced by tumor metastasis to the scalp must be considered in women with underlying neoplasms, especially breast cancer. Overall, hair loss in postmenopausal women is often multifactorial and warrants a close inspection. PMID:20172841

Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Todorova, Antonia; Al Khuzaei, Safaa; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Worret, Wolf-Ingo; Ring, Johannes

2010-01-01

312

Shaft mines can get power without armor  

SciTech Connect

A Pennsylvania coal operator has been able to install neoprene jacketed mine power feeder (MPF) cable in an airshaft without the use of expensive armored power cables. Armored cables traditionally have been favored in applications where the cable is dropped vertically because their galvanized metal shielding protects the cable as it is dragged across rough ground and stretched by its own weight as it is lowered into the hole. But armored cable poses some problems. It is as much as $20 per foot more expensive than MPF cable. Also, sinking armored cables is particularly difficult when space is limited because the cable must be laid out on the ground before it is lowered into the hole. The technique that allowed Pennsylvania Mines Corp. to install two 750-ft-long, 15-kv cables at is 400,000-tpy Tunnelton mine, near New Alexandria, Pa., was devised by J.H. Service Co.'s Indianola, Pa., branch office. The method involves feeding MPF cable from a spool on a truck equipped with special braking devices, over a steel drum that acts as a sheave, directly into a mine shaft or borehole. Robert C. Kadyk, a sales manager with J.H. Service, says that while this is not the first time standard MPF cable has been used in a borehole or shaft, the cables are not usually used in these cases because there were no dependable methods for holding the cable steady as it was lowered into the hole to keep it from abrading against the sides of the borehole or shaft. Also, dragging MPF cable through the woods invariably damages it. With its cable sinking method, J.H. Service vulcanizes stainless steel kellems grips into the cable about every 100 ft. The interval varies with the weight and diameter of the cable, depth of the hole, and length of the kellems grip. One twisted steel messenger wire is attached to each kellems grip to displace the weight of the cable as it takes its trip to the mine floor.

Brezovec, D.

1984-02-01

313

Clinicopathological features and expression of four keratins (K10, K14, K17 and K19) in six cases of eruptive vellus hair cysts.  

PubMed

Six cases of eruptive vellus hair cysts (EVHC) were evaluated for histopathology and the immunohistochemical profile of Ki-67 and four keratins (K10, K14, K17 and K19). The pathological hallmark of EVHC was the existence of vellus hair shafts within the cystic cavity, but atypical pathological changes included two or three cysts and a foreign-body granuloma in three cases. Our results demonstrate that atypical pathological changes are not uncommon in EVHC, and indicate that based on keratin expression, it is likely that EVHC is derived from the infrainfundibulum and sebaceous duct. PMID:24773427

Shi, G; Zhou, Y; Cai, Y-X; Li, S-J; Fan, Y-M

2014-06-01

314

New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1986-01-01

315

The use of radiolabelling techniques to measure substantivity to, and penetration into, hair of protein hydrolysates.  

PubMed

The use of 14C-labelled amino acids enables the measurement of both the total substantivity to hair and the degree of penetration into the hair shaft of amino acid mixtures derived from complete hydrolysis of proteins. The technique utilizes the fact that direct measurement of 14C radioactivity of the treated hair detects only the surface substantivity. Total substantivity can be determined following solubilization of the hair. Data obtained for wheat amino acids show significant penetration when used to treat hair from a shampoo or conditioner formulation. A similar technique has been investigated for a wheat protein partial hydrolysate using 14CNO for radiolabelling purposes and shows that significant penetration into hair can occur. L'utilisation d'amino-acides marques au 14C permet la mesure a la fois de l'absorption totale par les cheveux et du degre de penetration dans la fibre du cheveu de melanges d'amino-acides obtenus a partir d'une hydrolyse totale de proteines. La technique utilise le fait que la mesure directe de la radioactivite du 14C des cheveux traites ne detecte que l'absorption en surface. L'absorption totale peut etre determinee apres solubilisation des cheveux. Les donnees obtenues a partir d'amino-acides de ble montrent une penetration significative lors d'une utilisation pour traiter des cheveux a partir d'une formulation de shampoing ou d'apres-shampoing. Une technique similaire a ete exploree vis-a-vis d'un hydrolysat partiel d'une proteine de ble utilisant 14CNO a des fins de marquage, et montre qu'une penetration significative dans les cheveux peut avoir lieu. PMID:18507628

Jones, R T; Chahal, S P

1997-10-01

316

Minireview: Hair Cortisol: A Novel Biomarker of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Activity  

PubMed Central

Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is commonly assessed by measuring glucocorticoids such as cortisol (CORT). For many years, CORT was obtained primarily from blood plasma or urine, whereas later approaches added saliva and feces for noninvasive monitoring of HPA functioning. Despite the value of all these sample matrices for answering many research questions, they remain limited in the temporal range of assessment. Plasma and saliva are point samples that vary as a function of circadian rhythmicity and are susceptible to confounding by environmental disturbances. Even urine and feces generally assess HPA activity over a period of only 24 h or less. We and others have recently developed and validated methods for measuring the concentration of CORT in the body hair of animals (e.g. rhesus monkeys) and scalp hair of humans. CORT is constantly deposited in the growing hair shaft, as a consequence of which such deposition can serve as a biomarker of integrated HPA activity over weeks and months instead of minutes or hours. Since the advent of this methodological advance, hair CORT has already been used as an index of chronic HPA activity and stress in human clinical and nonclinical populations, in a variety of laboratory-housed and wild-living animal species, and in archival specimens that are many decades or even centuries old. Moreover, because human hair is known to grow at an average rate of about 1 cm/month, several studies suggest that CORT levels in hair segments that differ in proximity to the scalp can, under certain conditions, be used as a retrospective calendar of HPA activity during specific time periods preceding sample collection.

Novak, Melinda A.

2012-01-01

317

Distribution and chemical speciation of arsenic in ancient human hair using synchrotron radiation.  

PubMed

Pre-Columbian populations that inhabited the Tarapacá mid river valley in the Atacama Desert in Chile during the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period (AD 500-1450) show patterns of chronic poisoning due to exposure to geogenic arsenic. Exposure of these people to arsenic was assessed using synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy measurements on ancient human hair. These combined techniques of high sensitivity and specificity enabled the discrimination between endogenous and exogenous processes that has been an analytical challenge for archeological studies and criminal investigations in which hair is used as a proxy of premortem metabolism. The high concentration of arsenic mainly in the form of inorganic As(III) and As(V) detected in the hair suggests chronic arsenicism through ingestion of As-polluted water rather than external contamination by the deposition of heavy metals due to metallophilic soil microbes or diffusion of arsenic from the soil. A decrease in arsenic concentration from the proximal to the distal end of the hair shaft analyzed may indicate a change in the diet due to mobility, though chemical or microbiologically induced processes during burial cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:24320096

Kakoulli, Ioanna; Prikhodko, Sergey V; Fischer, Christian; Cilluffo, Marianne; Uribe, Mauricio; Bechtel, Hans A; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A

2014-01-01

318

Anagen Hairs May Fail to Replace Telogen Hairs in arly Androgenic Female Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Male baldness develops because of an increased duration of the lag phase. Objective and Methods: To assess if this occurs also in balding women we studied 2 women with Ludwig type I–II patterned baldness for 2 years with monthly phototrichograms. Hairs were identified as thick anagen hairs, thin anagen hairs and telogen hairs. Results and Conclusions: Most of the

M. Guarrera; A. Rebora

1996-01-01

319

Complex hair cycle domain patterns and regenerative hair waves in living rodents  

PubMed Central

Single hair follicles go through regeneration and involution cycles. In a population, hair follicles may affect each other during anagen re-entry, thus forming propagating regenerative hair waves. We review these regenerative hair waves and complex hair cycle domains which were recently reported in transgenic mice. Two non-invasive methods to track the propagating hair wave in large populations of hair follicles in vivo are described. We also reviewed early accounts of "hair growth patterns" from classical literature. We decipher the "behavior rules" that dictate how dynamic hair waves lead to complex hair cycle domains. In general, a single domain expands when a regenerative hair wave reaches a responsive region and boundaries form when the wave reaches a non-responsive region. As mice age, multiple hair cycle domains form, each with own regeneration rhythm. Domain patterns can be reset by physiological events such as pregnancy and lactation. Longitudinal sections across domains show arrays of follicles in a continuum of hair cycle stages. Hair cycle domains are different from regional specificity domains. Regenerative hair waves are different from the developmental wave of newly forming hair follicles. The study provides novel insights into the dynamic states of adult skin and physiological regulation of organ regeneration.

Plikus, Maksim V.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

2009-01-01

320

Tips for Removing Gum without Cutting Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... Stop hair damage Nail care Every stage of life For ... stuck in your child’s hair. Simply follow these steps from dermatologists: Find a jar of creamy style peanut butter or vegetable oil, such as olive ...

321

Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)  

MedlinePLUS

... who has experience with performing laser hair removal. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the only hair removal method that permanently ... using slow strokes. Rinse your skin with warm water after you are done shaving and then pat ...

322

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...551.4 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean....

2009-07-01

323

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...551.4 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and clean....

2010-07-01

324

Fast adaptation and Ca2+-sensitivity of the mechanotransducer require myosin-XVa in inner but not outer cochlear hair cells  

PubMed Central

In inner ear hair cells, activation of mechotransduction channels is followed by extremely rapid deactivation that depends on the influx of Ca2+ through these channels. Although the molecular mechanisms of this “fast” adaptation are largely unknown, the predominant models assume Ca2+ sensitivity as an intrinsic property of yet unidentified mechanotransduction channels. Here we examined mechanotransduction in the hair cells of young postnatal shaker 2 mice (Myo15sh2/sh2). These mice have no functional myosin-XVa, which is critical for normal growth of mechanosensory stereocilia of hair cells. Although stereocilia of both inner and outer hair cells of Myo15sh2/sh2 mice lack myosin-XVa and are abnormally short, these cells have dramatically different hair bundle morphology. Myo15sh2/sh2 outer hair cells retain a “staircase” arrangement of the abnormally short stereocilia and prominent tip links. Myo15sh2/sh2 inner hair cells do not have obliquely oriented tip links and their mechanosensitivity is mediated exclusively by “top-to-top” links between equally short stereocilia. In both inner and outer hair cells of Myo15sh2/sh2 mice, we found mechanotransduction responses with a normal “wild type” amplitude and speed of activation. Surprisingly, only outer hair cells exhibit fast adaptation and sensitivity to extracellular Ca2+. In Myo15sh2/sh2 inner hair cells, fast adaptation is disrupted and the transduction current is insensitive to extracellular Ca2+. We conclude that the Ca2+-sensitivity of the mechanotransduction channels and the fast adaptation require a structural environment that is dependent on myosin-XVa and is disrupted in Myo15sh2/sh2 inner hair cells, but not in Myo15sh2/sh2 outer hair cells.

Stepanyan, Ruben; Frolenkov, Gregory I.

2009-01-01

325

Fast adaptation and Ca2+ sensitivity of the mechanotransducer require myosin-XVa in inner but not outer cochlear hair cells.  

PubMed

In inner ear hair cells, activation of mechanotransduction channels is followed by extremely rapid deactivation that depends on the influx of Ca(2+) through these channels. Although the molecular mechanisms of this "fast" adaptation are largely unknown, the predominant models assume Ca(2+) sensitivity as an intrinsic property of yet unidentified mechanotransduction channels. Here, we examined mechanotransduction in the hair cells of young postnatal shaker 2 mice (Myo15(sh2/sh2)). These mice have no functional myosin-XVa, which is critical for normal growth of mechanosensory stereocilia of hair cells. Although stereocilia of both inner and outer hair cells of Myo15(sh2/sh2) mice lack myosin-XVa and are abnormally short, these cells have dramatically different hair bundle morphology. Myo15(sh2/sh2) outer hair cells retain a staircase arrangement of the abnormally short stereocilia and prominent tip links. Myo15(sh2/sh2) inner hair cells do not have obliquely oriented tip links, and their mechanosensitivity is mediated exclusively by "top-to-top" links between equally short stereocilia. In both inner and outer hair cells of Myo15(sh2/sh2) mice, we found mechanotransduction responses with a normal "wild-type" amplitude and speed of activation. Surprisingly, only outer hair cells exhibit fast adaptation and sensitivity to extracellular Ca(2+). In Myo15(sh2/sh2) inner hair cells, fast adaptation is disrupted and the transduction current is insensitive to extracellular Ca(2+). We conclude that the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the mechanotransduction channels and the fast adaptation require a structural environment that is dependent on myosin-XVa and is disrupted in Myo15(sh2/sh2) inner hair cells, but not in Myo15(sh2/sh2) outer hair cells. PMID:19339598

Stepanyan, Ruben; Frolenkov, Gregory I

2009-04-01

326

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities refer to a variety of bone structure problems in the arms or legs (limbs). ... Skeletal limb abnormalities are most often used to describe defects in the legs or arms that are ...

327

Hair analysis for drugs of abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliable analytical method for total morphine in hair was established by GC\\/MS-SIM. The calibration curve for morphine in hair showed linear over 0.5–100 ng\\/mg hair. Though the limit of detection was 0.1 ng\\/mg hair with an S\\/N >3 of the base ion(m\\/z 429) for morphine, the limit of confirmation by detection of three major ions was 0.5 ng\\/mg. The

Yuji Nakahara; Kazunori Takahashi; Mochihiko Shimamine; Atsushi Saitoh

1992-01-01

328

A novel stereocilia defect in sensory hair cells of the deaf mouse mutant Tasmanian devil.  

PubMed

Stereocilia are specialized actin-filled, finger-like processes arrayed in rows of graded heights to form a crescent or W-shape on the apical surface of sensory hair cells. The stereocilia are deflected by the vibration of sound, which opens transduction channels and allows an influx of ions to depolarize the hair cell, in turn triggering synaptic activity. The specialized morphology and organization of the stereocilia bundle is crucial in the process of sensory transduction in the inner ear. However, we know little about the development of stereocilia in the mouse and few molecules that are involved in stereocilia maturation are known. We describe here a new mouse mutant with abnormal stereocilia development. The Tasmanian devil (tde) mouse mutation arose by insertional mutagenesis and has been mapped to the middle of chromosome 5. Homozygotes show head-tossing and circling and have raised thresholds for cochlear nerve responses to sound. The gross morphology of the inner ear was normal, but the stereocilia of cochlear and vestibular hair cells are abnormally thin, and they become progressively disorganized with increasing age. Ultimately, the hair cells die. This is the first report of a mutant showing thin stereocilia. The association of thin stereocilia with cochlear dysfunction emphasizes the critical role of stereocilia in auditory transduction, and the discovery of the Tasmanian devil mutant provides a resource for the identification of an essential molecule in hair cell function. PMID:12405956

Erven, Alexandra; Skynner, Michael J; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Brown, Steve D M; Steel, Karen P; Allen, Nicholas D

2002-10-01

329

USS SCOUT (MCM 8) results of standardization, locked-shaft, and trailed-shaft trials. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Standardization, locked and trailed shaft, acceleration and deceleration, and fuel economy trials were conducted on USS SCOUT (MCM 8) to evaluate the performance of the ship equipped with Isotta Fraschini diesel engines and Voith fluid drive couplings. The results of the acceleration and deceleration trials and the fuel economy trials are the subject of separate reports. Standardization results from SCOUT showed a maximum speed of 14.21 kn achieved with an average shaft speed of 175.2 r/min, a total shaft torque of 67,800 lb-ft (91,900 N-m), a total shaft horsepower of 2,260 (1,690 kW), and a displacement of 1,293 tons (1,314 t). The average propeller pitch for this condition was 110%. This 110% pitch was found to be the optimum driving pitch as it was the only condition where maximum torque and shaft speed could both be achieved.

Klitsch, M.L.; Liu, W.P.

1992-05-01

330

``Dissection'' of a Hair Dryer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can ``dissect'' a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can discover how engineers solve problems such as how to vary between low and high heat and fan speed by simply moving the position of a single switch. Principles of alternating versus direct current, series and parallel circuits, electrical safety, voltage dividing, ac rectification, power, and measurement of resistance and continuity all come in to play.

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-12-01

331

Hair follicle stem cells: Walking the maze  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of epithelial stem cells (eSCs) in the bulge region of the outer root sheath of hair follicles in mice and man has encouraged research into utilizing the hair follicle as a therapeutic source of stem cells (SCs) for regenerative medicine, and has called attention to the hair follicle as a highly instructive model system for SC biology. Under

Stephan Tiede; Jennifer E. Kloepper; Enikö Bodò; Sanjay Tiwari; Charli Kruse; Ralf Paus

2007-01-01

332

Gene Delivery to the Hair Follicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin and appendages such as hair follicles are attractive candidates for gene therapy targets because they are easily accessible and can be removed and genetically manipulated in culture. Hair follicles are of special interest because our understanding of hair follicle biology and pathophysiology has progressed significantly in recent years, and we now have a much better understanding of how genes,

Manabu Ohyama; Jonathan C. Vogel

2003-01-01

333

Does lnterleukin-1 Induce Hair Loss?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines play an important role in both physiology and pathophysiology of human skin, and the possibility that they coordinate the cyclical hair growth cannot be excluded. Several clinical and experimental data point towards interleukin-1 which might be a crucial inducer of hair loss in various hair diseases. An aberrant expression of interleukin-1? was detected in affected areas of the scalp

R. Hoffmann; R. Happle

1995-01-01

334

Hair through the female life cycle.  

PubMed

At a population level female scalp hair growth shows features of regression with chronological ageing, although there is wide interindividual variation in timing and degree. The subjective assessment of hair loss is classically determined by hair density but it is apparent that other factors contribute to the clinical picture. Changes can occur in hair cycling, hair density, hair diameter and pigmentation, and possibly in structural qualities of the hair fibre. These changes are most pronounced in female pattern hair loss. Although conventionally considered as the female counterpart of male androgenetic alopecia the evidence that female pattern hair loss is androgen dependent is less clear cut than in men and it probably has a multifactorial basis. The emerging evidence implicating environmental factors is of particular interest as, unlike genes, such factors may be amenable to intervention. The clinical signs in women complaining of hair loss may be variable. In evaluating the patient complaining of hair loss, while true pathology must always be considered, the clinician needs to be aware of how age affects hair growth. These changes form the focus of this article. PMID:22171678

Messenger, A G

2011-12-01

335

Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal...

R. A. Baird

2003-01-01

336

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2013-07-01

337

Studies of human hair by friction force microscopy with the hair-model-probe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employed a cantilever modified with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) as a “hair-model-probe” for friction force microscopy (FFM) to measure friction acting between hair and hair-like surfaces. The “hair-model-probe” was prepared by forming a SAM of octadecanethiol on a gold-coated cantilever. We investigated frictional properties of human hair at both root and tip, and the dependency on applied load, influence

Megumi Sadaie; Naoki Nishikawa; Satomi Ohnishi; Kaoru Tamada; Kiyoshi Yase; Masahiko Hara

2006-01-01

338

Good Hair Care May Head off Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... and develop a reddish hue. To protect your hair from discoloration dermatologists recommend using a leave-in conditioner that contains zinc oxide and wearing a wide-brimmed hat. A hat provides the added benefit of protecting your face and scalp from the ...

339

No-hair theorems and black holes with hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical steps leading to the uniqueness theorem for the Kerr-Newman metric are examined in the light of the new black hole solutions with Yang-Mills and scalar hair. Various methods - including scaling techniques, arguments based on energy conditions, conformal transformations and divergence identities - are reviewed, and their range of application to selfgravitating scalar and non-Abelian gauge fields is

Markus Heusler

1996-01-01

340

Identification of ectodysplasin target genes reveals the involvement of chemokines in hair development.  

PubMed

Ectodysplasin (Eda), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) family, regulates skin appendage morphogenesis via its receptor Edar and transcription factor NF-?B. In humans, inactivating mutations in the Eda pathway components lead to hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), a syndrome characterized by sparse hair, tooth abnormalities, and defects in several cutaneous glands. A corresponding phenotype is observed in Eda-null mice, where failure in the initiation of the first wave of hair follicle development is a hallmark of HED pathogenesis. In an attempt to discover immediate target genes of the Eda/NF-?B pathway, we performed microarray profiling of genes differentially expressed in embryonic skin explants after a short exposure to recombinant Fc-Eda protein. Upregulated genes included components of the Wnt, fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-?, Tnf, and epidermal growth factor families, indicating that Eda modulates multiple signaling pathways implicated in skin appendage development. Surprisingly, we identified two ligands of the chemokine receptor cxcR3, cxcl10 and cxcl11, as new hair-specific transcriptional targets of Eda. Deficiency in cxcR3 resulted in decreased primary hair follicle density but otherwise normal hair development, indicating that chemokine signaling influences the patterning of primary hair placodes only. PMID:22277947

Lefebvre, Sylvie; Fliniaux, Ingrid; Schneider, Pascal; Mikkola, Marja L

2012-04-01

341

DC Control Effort Minimized for Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A magnetic-bearing-supported shaft may have a number of concentricity and alignment problems. One of these involves the relationship of the position sensors, the centerline of the backup bearings, and the magnetic center of the magnetic bearings. For magnetic bearings with permanent magnet biasing, the average control current for a given control axis that is not bearing the shaft weight will be minimized if the shaft is centered, on average over a revolution, at the magnetic center of the bearings. That position may not yield zero sensor output or center the shaft in the backup bearing clearance. The desired shaft position that gives zero average current can be achieved if a simple additional term is added to the control law. Suppose that the instantaneous control currents from each bearing are available from measurements and can be input into the control computer. If each control current is integrated with a very small rate of accumulation and the result is added to the control output, the shaft will gradually move to a position where the control current averages to zero over many revolutions. This will occur regardless of any offsets of the position sensor inputs. At that position, the average control effort is minimized in comparison to other possible locations of the shaft. Nonlinearities of the magnetic bearing are minimized at that location as well.

Brown, Gerald V.

2001-01-01

342

Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5?-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to minimize hair fibre breakage, improve hair volume or conceal visible bald scalp. PMID:22171680

Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

2011-12-01

343

The lead in Beethoven's hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past several years a number of inadequately substantiated reports appeared in the popular media, asserting that lead (Pb) found in Beethoven's hair indicated that he was a victim of Pb poisoning and suggesting that lead played a role in his deafness and illnesses. This article reviews critically a recent report of the longitudinal distribution of Pb along individual

Josef Eisinger

2008-01-01

344

Fibre Forms in Animal Hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNDER the above title Mr. H. J. Woods1 proposes three alternatives to the `weathering' hypothesis tentatively advanced by me2 to account for supernormal curvature in the apical region of certain guard hairs. Of the opposing evidence, it will suffice to point out that, in the light of a previous communication by Woods3, the fibres should, if his views are correct,

R. O. Hall

1935-01-01

345

Nonsurgical therapy for hair loss.  

PubMed

This article is an update of the currently available options for medical therapies to treat androgenetic alopecia in men and women. Emerging novel therapeutic modalities with potential for treating these patients are discussed. Because androgenetic alopecia is progressive in nature, stabilization of the process using medical therapy is an important adjunct to any surgical hair-restoration plan. PMID:24017975

Nusbaum, Aron G; Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard P

2013-08-01

346

Science Shorts: Tangling With Hair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You're probably familiar with the fairy tale of Rapunzel and how her prince climbed her golden locks to her tower. In this month's activity, your students will be surprised to find that--though not suitable as a ladder--hair is a lot stronger than they might think.

Adams, Barbara

2006-03-01

347

Triboelectricity in wool and hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

When wool fibres (or hairs) are rubbed together, the sign of the tribo-electric charges produced depends upon the sense of the rubbing. This effect is due to the cuticle cells of the fibre, which are piezo- and pyro-electric. Pyro-electricity is absent or weak in the cortical cells.

A J P Martin

1941-01-01

348

Mitochondrial profiling of dog hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make greater use of dog hairs as forensic evidence, we have developed a robust method for duplex amplification of adjacent 306 and 332bp amplicons within the 5? hypervariable region (5? HVR) of the canine mitochondrial control region. In support of this, a 595bp region covering 35 polymorphic sites has been sequenced from the blood of 105 UK

Jon H. Wetton; Jenny E. Higgs; Adrian C. Spriggs; Chris A. Roney; Carol S. F. Tsang; Aiden P. Foster

2003-01-01

349

Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. (Bechtel National, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)); Bethmann, H.K. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

1991-01-01

350

Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States); Bethmann, H.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-31

351

Noncontact Measurement Of Shaft Speed, Torque, And Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noncontact fiber-optic sensor and associated electronic equipment measure twist and speed of rotation of shaft. Measurements determine torque and power. Response of sensor remains linear even at cryogenic temperatures. Reflective strips on rotating shaft reflect two series of light pulses back into optical system. Bidirectional coupler in each of two optical fiber paths separates reflected light from incident light, sending it to photodiode for output to analog-to-digital converter and computer. Sensor requires no slip rings or telemetry to transfer signals from shaft. Well suited for providing data on performances of turbopumps for such cryogenic fluids as liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.

Madzsar, George C.

1993-01-01

352

Signaling involved in hair follicle morphogenesis and development.  

PubMed

Hair follicle morphogenesis depends on Wnt, Shh, Notch, BMP and other signaling pathways interplay between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The Wnt pathway plays an essential role during hair follicle induction, Shh is involved in morphogenesis and late stage differentiation, Notch signaling determines stem cell fate while BMP is involved in cellular differentiation. The Wnt pathway is considered to be the master regulator during hair follicle morphogenesis. Wnt signaling proceeds through EDA/EDAR/NF-?B signaling. NF-?B regulates the Wnt pathway and acts as a signal mediator by upregulating the expression of Shh ligand. Signal crosstalk between epithelial and mesenchymal cells takes place mainly through primary cilia. Primary cilia formation is initiated with epithelial laminin-511 interaction with dermal ?-1 integrin, which also upregulates expression of downstream effectors of Shh pathway in dermal lineage. PDGF signal transduction essential for crosstalk is mediated through epithelial PDGF-A and PDGFR? expressed on the primary cilia. Dermal Shh and PDGF signaling up-regulates dermal noggin expression; noggin is a potent inhibitor of BMP signaling which helps in counteracting BMP mediated ?-catenin inhibition. This interplay of signaling between the epithelial and dermal lineage helps in epithelial Shh signal amplification. The dermal Wnt pathway helps in upregulation of epithelial Notch expression. Dysregulation of these pathways leads to certain abnormalities and in some cases even tumor outgrowth. PMID:24451143

Rishikaysh, Pisal; Dev, Kapil; Diaz, Daniel; Qureshi, Wasay Mohiuddin Shaikh; Filip, Stanislav; Mokry, Jaroslav

2014-01-01

353

OsCSLD1, a Cellulose Synthase-Like D1 Gene, Is Required for Root Hair Morphogenesis in Rice1[C][W  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are long tubular outgrowths that form on the surface of specialized epidermal cells. They are required for nutrient and water uptake and interact with the soil microflora. Here we show that the Oryza sativa cellulose synthase-like D1 (OsCSLD1) gene is required for root hair development, as rice (Oryza sativa) mutants that lack OsCSLD1 function develop abnormal root hairs. In these mutants, while hair development is initiated normally, the hairs elongate less than the wild-type hairs and they have kinks and swellings along their length. Because the csld1 mutants develop the same density and number of root hairs along their seminal root as the wild-type plants, we propose that OsCSLD1 function is required for hair elongation but not initiation. Both gene trap expression pattern and in situ hybridization analyses indicate that OsCSLD1 is expressed in only root hair cells. Furthermore, OsCSLD1 is the only member of the four rice CSLD genes that shows root-specific expression. Given that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) gene KOJAK/AtCSLD3 is required for root hair elongation and is expressed in the root hair, it appears that OsCSLD1 may be the functional ortholog of KOJAK/AtCSLD3 and that these two genes represent the root hair-specific members of this family of proteins. Thus, at least part of the mechanism of root hair morphogenesis in Arabidopsis is conserved in rice.

Kim, Chul Min; Park, Sung Han; Je, Byoung Il; Park, Su Hyun; Park, Soon Ju; Piao, Hai Long; Eun, Moo Young; Dolan, Liam; Han, Chang-deok

2007-01-01

354

An examination of the utility of a nuclear DNA/mitochondrial DNA duplex qPCR assay to assess surface decontamination of hair.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to compare two commonly used methods for the surface decontamination of human hair shafts, and to evaluate the use of a duplex real-time qPCR assay to assess decontamination effectiveness for the purpose of mitochondrial DNA typing. Hair shafts of known mitochondrial DNA haplotype were coated with undiluted saliva, semen or blood, each of known mitochondrial haplotype distinct from the test hair. Surface decontamination was conducted by enzymatic treatment with Terg-a-zyme™ and by chemical treatment with dilutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO, bleach). Following DNA extraction, a duplex (nuclear and mitochondrial DNA) real-time qPCR assay was used to quantify mitochondrial DNA and to test for surface contamination by quantifying the exogenous nuclear DNA not removed from the hair shaft. The NaClO treatment was found to be more effective for removing surface contamination than the Terg-a-zyme™ treatment, and it was procedurally simpler to implement, resulting in a significant savings of sample processing time. Exposure to 3% NaClO for up to two minutes had no detrimental effect on quantity or typing of the mitochondrial DNA belonging to the hair. In addition, we demonstrated that the duplex real-time PCR assay is a convenient early-warning diagnostic method for the detection of the presence of external DNA contamination, providing an assessment of the purity of the sample prior to embarking on further analysis by more laborious mitochondrial DNA typing methods. PMID:23582697

Date-Chong, Mavis; Buoncristiani, Martin R; Aceves, Margaret; Orrego, Cristián

2013-05-01

355

Testing for GHB in hair by GC/MS/MS after a single exposure. Application to document sexual assault.  

PubMed

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, or GHB, is a substance naturally present within mammal species. Properties of neurotransmitter or neuromodulator are generally given to this substance. GHB is therapeutically used as an anesthetic, but can be used for criminal offenses (date-rape drug). It appears that the window of detection of GHB is very short in both blood and urine, and therefore its presence is very difficult to prove after a rape case. In order to document single exposure, we investigated the use of hair. Hair was collected one month after the allegated event in order to sample the corresponding period after regular growing. After rapid (2 min) decontamination with dichloromethane, the hair shaft was cut into 3-mm segments. They were overnight incubated in 0.01 N NaOH in the presence of GHB-d6, followed by neutralization and extraction in ethyl acetate under acidic conditions. GHB (precursor ion m/z 233, product ions m/z 147 and 148) was tested by GC/MS/MS (Finnigan TSQ 700) after derivatization with BSTFA + 1% TMCS. Physiological concentrations (n = 24) were in the range 0.5 to 12.0 ng/mg, with no influence due to hair color. No variation of concentrations was observed along the hair shaft in controlled subjects, except for the proximal segment, due to an incorporation through sweat. This demonstrates that endogenous levels for each single subject are constant during hair growth. A controlled human administration of 25 mg/kg to a volunteer demonstrated that a single exposure to GHB is detectable in hair after segmentation. In a case of rape under influence, a clear increase of the corresponding segment (about 2.4 ng/mg) in time was observed, in comparison with the other segments (0.6 to 0.8 ng/mg). This study demonstrates that a single exposure to GHB in a case of sexual assault can be documented by hair analysis when collected about one month after the crime. PMID:12570228

Kintz, Pascal; Cirimele, Vincent; Jamey, Carole; Ludes, Bertrand

2003-01-01

356

13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

357

11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME SUPPORT LOGS; VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

358

1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE AS THE PROJECTING SUPERSTRUCTURE). - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

359

5. SHAFT HOUSE, EAST ELEVATION; VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST; (WASTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SHAFT HOUSE, EAST ELEVATION; VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST; (WASTE ROCK/SPOIL PILE IN THE FOREGROUND). - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

360

Drilled Shaft Foundations for Noise Barrier Walls and Slope Stabilization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This primary objective of this research is twofold: (1) development of a methodology for using the Standard Penetrating Testing (SPT) blow count to design the laterally loaded drilled shafts, and (2) development of a methodology for design of drilled shaf...

R. Lang

2002-01-01

361

18. INTERIOR OF WARD ROOM WITH RUDDER QUADRANT AND SHAFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. INTERIOR OF WARD ROOM WITH RUDDER QUADRANT AND SHAFT LOCATED ABOVE. NOTE WIRE ROPE ALONG CEILING WHICH RUNS DIRECT TO WHEEL MECHANISM. - Lightship 116, Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

362

17. Detail view of coupling shaft connection between reduction gear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Detail view of coupling shaft connection between reduction gear and cane mill drive gears - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

363

80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 UNIT IN POSITION. OVERVIEW LOOKING EAST IN THE POWERHOUSE, Print No. 234, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

364

28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. VERTICAL SHAFT GOES TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. VERTICAL SHAFT GOES TO CAPSTAN BARREL. LARGE DRUM ON LEFT PART OF SPUD ENGINE CABLE DRUM. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

365

1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM AND FURNACE). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Steel Skimmer Salt Roaster, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

366

Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servomotor and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servo-motor and operating ring (left foreground) and hand wheel for butterfly valve (right background) - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Dam and Powerhouse, Morony Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

367

Nuclear reactor coolant pump impeller/shaft assembly  

SciTech Connect

A pump is described comprising: (a) a casing having an inlet and an outlet in fluid communication for circulating fluid coolant through the pump; (b) a shaft positioned in the casing; (c) an impeller nut connected to the shaft; (d) a lockbolt fixedly connecting the impeller nut relative to the shaft; (e) passageway means with first and second ends for directing fluid from the lockbolt to the shaft; (f) first conduit means formed in the impeller nut in fluid communication with the first end of the passageway means and the inlet of the casing; and (g) second conduit means formed in the impeller nut in fluid communication with the second end of the passageway means and the outlet of the casing. A portion of the fluid coolant circulating through the inlet of the casing is pumped through the first conduit means, through the passageway means, out the second conduit means and into the outlet of the casing.

Jenkins, L.S.

1987-09-01

368

9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

369

8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

370

Pump shaft failures — a compendium of case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a collection of pump shaft failures that have been encountered during the consulting activities at the University of the Witwatersrand and the Plant Infrastructure and Pipelines Centre at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR).

F. Berndt; A. van Bennekom

2001-01-01

371

Exploratory Shaft Facility Preliminary Designs - Gulf Interior Region Salt Domes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Gulf Interior Region, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility on the Richton Dome, Mississippi. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for con...

1983-01-01

372

8. CRANCE BOOM WITH DETAIL OF SHIPPER SHAFT AND BRAKE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. CRANCE BOOM WITH DETAIL OF SHIPPER SHAFT AND BRAKE ASSEMBLY. DIPPER STICK AND TWO-YARD BUCKET ALSO VISIBLE. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

373

Comparison of techniques for measurement of shaft currents in rotating machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irregularities in the magnetic circuits of motors may result in spurious voltages that lead to shaft currents through the shaft, bearings, bearing supports and closing through the machine framework. The IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators discusses the shaft current and presents a measurement method for recording either the voltage across the ends of the shaft

Raymond Ong; J. H. Dymond; R. D. Findlay

1997-01-01

374

Manufacture of one-piece automotive drive shafts with aluminum and composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural bending frequency of a torque transmission shaft can be increased without reducing the torque transmission capability if the shaft is made using both carbon fiber composite and aluminum: the former increases the natural bending frequency and the latter sustains the applied torque. The high natural bending frequency of a shaft makes it possible to manufacture the drive shaft

Jin Ho Choi

1997-01-01

375

An investigation of shaft current in a large sleeve bearing induction machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irregularities in the magnetic circuits of machines may result in spurious voltages that lead to shaft currents through the shaft, bearings, bearing supports and closing through the machine framework. The IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators discusses the shaft current and presents a measurement method for recording either the voltage across the ends of the shaft

Raymond Ong K. J

1999-01-01

376

11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the south, with operating ring at base of shaft and servo motor arms in foreground and in left background recess. Turbine monitoring and auxiliary equipment is located in the rightbackground recess. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

377

Automatic Tension Adjuster For Flexible-Shaft Grinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible shaft of grinding tool automatically maintained in tension by air pressure. Probelike tool bent to reach hard-to-reach areas for grinding and polishing. Unless shaft held in tension, however, it rubs against its sheath, overheating and wearing out quickly. By taking up slack in flexible cable, tension adjuster reduces friction and enables tool to operate more efficiently, in addition to lengthening operating life.

Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

1990-01-01

378

Failure analysis of a diesel engine gear-shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A failure investigation has been conducted on a diesel-engine gear-shaft used in a truck, which is made from 45# steel. The crack initiated from the root transition region between the cylinder and the platform of the gear-shaft, and propagated toward the direction with an angle of 45° to the axial direction first, then toward the direction normal to the axial

Xiaolei Xu; Zhiwei Yu; Hongxin Ding

2006-01-01

379

Fabrication of WC micro-shaft by using electrochemical etching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tungsten carbide (WC) micro-shaft can be used as various micro-tools for MEMS because of its high rigidity and toughness.\\u000a In this study, we performed fabrication experiments of the WC micro-shaft using electrochemical etching. H2SO4 solution was used as the electrolyte because it can dissolve tungsten and cobalt simultaneously. Optimal electrolyte concentration\\u000a and applied voltage resulting in uniform shape, good surface

S. H. Choi; S. H. Ryu; D. K. Choi; C. N. Chu

2007-01-01

380

DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

381

HPLC Analysis of Oxidation Hair Dyes in Permanent Hair Colorants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation of several hair dyes (diamines, aminophenols, phenols, etc.), using mobile phases containing 1,8-diaminoctane as new amine modifier and sodium heptansulfonate, is described. The combined effect of the amine and of the alkylsulfonate enabled very good separation of all the dyes studied. The proposed chromatographic system was found to be selective, rugged and therefore suitable for

V. Andrisano; R. Gotti; A. M. Di Pietra; V. Cavrini

1994-01-01

382

Spermidine Promotes Human Hair Growth and Is a Novel Modulator of Human Epithelial Stem Cell Functions  

PubMed Central

Background Rapidly regenerating tissues need sufficient polyamine synthesis. Since the hair follicle (HF) is a highly proliferative mini-organ, polyamines may also be important for normal hair growth. However, the role of polyamines in human HF biology and their effect on HF epithelial stem cells in situ remains largely unknown. Methods and Findings We have studied the effects of the prototypic polyamine, spermidine (0.1–1 µM), on human scalp HFs and human HF epithelial stem cells in serum-free organ culture. Under these conditions, spermidine promoted hair shaft elongation and prolonged hair growth (anagen). Spermidine also upregulated expression of the epithelial stem cell-associated keratins K15 and K19, and dose-dependently modulated K15 promoter activity in situ and the colony forming efficiency, proliferation and K15 expression of isolated human K15-GFP+ cells in vitro. Inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboyxlase (ODC), downregulated intrafollicular K15 expression. In primary human epidermal keratinocytes, spermidine slightly promoted entry into the S/G2-M phases of the cell cycle. By microarray analysis of human HF mRNA extracts, spermidine upregulated several key target genes implicated e.g. in the control of cell adherence and migration (POP3), or endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial functions (SYVN1, NACA and SLC25A3). Excess spermidine may restrict further intrafollicular polyamine synthesis by inhibiting ODC gene and protein expression in the HF's companion layer in situ. Conclusions These physiologically and clinically relevant data provide the first direct evidence that spermidine is a potent stimulator of human hair growth and a previously unknown modulator of human epithelial stem cell biology.

Biro, Tamas; Abu Bakar, Mohd Hilmi; Sugawara, Koji; Philpott, Michael P.; Harrison, Wesley; Pietila, Marko; Paus, Ralf

2011-01-01

383

Study of hair surface energy and conditioning.  

PubMed

A new test method has been developed to determine surface energy of hair fibers through measurements of contact angles at two hair/liquid interfaces. By measuring changes in surface energy of the same hair fiber before and after a cosmetic treatment, effects of active ingredients and the performance of tested formulations can be evaluated.The establishment of the method is based on Fowkes theory (1,2) described with two components, a dispersive and a non-dispersive component. The non-polar liquid used in this study was diiodomethane, and the polar liquid was benzyl alcohol. A Kruss 100 Tensiometer was used to measure contact angles of hair fibers. Virgin dark brown and regular bleached hairs were treated with selected conditioner formulations. Reductions in combing forces of hair tresses before and after respective treatments were correlated with decreases in average surface energy of hair fibers obtained from the corresponding tresses.Experimental results indicate that the average surface energy of hair fibers treated with conditioners decreases and the hydrophobicity of the hair surface increases, the results correlate well with the reduction in combing forces after respective treatments. This research work provides a new methodology to evaluate/screen conditioning performance of hair care ingredients and formulations for development of better products. PMID:21635842

Gao, Timothy; He, Yingxia; Landa, Peter; Tien, Jung-Mei

2011-01-01

384

Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts  

PubMed Central

Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful.

Dinh, Quan Q; Sinclair, Rodney

2007-01-01

385

Pathogenesis in trichorrhexis invaginata (bamboo hair).  

PubMed

The mechanism of formation of trichorrhexis invaginata, which is one of the characteristic hair anomalies seen in Netherton's syndrome, was studied using plucked hairs obtained from 3 patients with the typical clinical features. The biopsy specimens used to examine the hair root were obtained from the scalp of one of the patients and the eyebrow area of the other. The scanning electron microscopic observation of plucked hairs showed trichorrhexis invaginata, tortion nodule, pili torti, and trichorrhexis nodosa. The light microscopic sections of nodules of plucked hairs revealed invaginated hair cuticle into the cortex. Transmission electron microscopy revealed cleavages and electron-dense depositions in the cortex of plucked hair nodules; such changes were not seen in newly formed nodules in follicles in biopsy specimens. In the keratogenous zone, a zigzag pattern of cortical fibers and invaginations of hair cuticle cells into the cortex were observed. Histochemical staining for -SH groups and S-S linkages using N-(7-dimethylamino-4-methyl-3-coumarinyl)maleimide (DACM) was performed on frozen sections of plucked hairs from patients and normal controls. Keratinized cortical cells of patients possessed more -SH groups than the controls and a strong fluorescence for -SH was sometimes seen in the cortex of nodules. It is concluded that the invagination of affected hairs is caused by softness of the cortex in the keratogenous zone, which may result from an incomplete conversion from -SH to S-S in proteins in cortical fibers. PMID:6547464

Ito, M; Ito, K; Hashimoto, K

1984-07-01

386

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs  

SciTech Connect

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

2011-12-31

387

Metals in female scalp hair globally and its impact on perceived hair health.  

PubMed

Globally, billions of individuals wash their hair in water, which acts as an exogenous metal source. Many studies which measure the metal levels found on human hair specifically aim to remove exogenous materials prior to analysis. Although this is needed when using hair analysis to probe the impact of the local environment on endogenous metal levels, it is not relevant for understanding exactly what is on hair as a result of contact with its daily environment. Understanding these levels are important, as the presence of redox active metals, such as copper and iron, can impact fibre health, either as a result of UV irradiation, or during the hair colouring process. A global hair sampling study of over 300 individuals from nine countries has been performed, and the combined endogenous and exogenous metals analysed. The levels measured vary widely, even within the narrow geography of each hair sampling location. The levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and iron were not correlated, and within each location, there are expected to be individuals with high metal levels. Levels increased from hair root to tip for calcium, magnesium and copper, attributed to hair contact with the environment showing the impact of exogenous metals in the overall levels on hair. Levels of redox metals were comparable between individuals who coloured or did not colour their hair, although water hardness ions were statistically significantly higher for hair colouring individuals. Individuals who perceived their hair health as poor had higher metal levels on their hair. Controlling metals on hair, either by preventing their binding during environmental contact, or through controlling their ability to cause hair damage, should lead to improved consumer perceived hair health. PMID:23305149

Godfrey, Simon; Staite, William; Bowtell, Philip; Marsh, Jennifer

2013-06-01

388

Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome with low expression of TRPS1 on epidermal and hair follicle epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is an autosomal-dominant congenital hair loss disease characterized by sparse and slow-growing scalp hair, craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, pear-shaped nose, thin upper lip, brittle and thin toenails, and bilateral brachydactyly of the big toes. We report a case of TRPS1 exhibiting these clinical features with a novel heterozygous single nucleotide substitution in exon 3 of the TRPS1 gene. By immunohistochemical analysis of a biopsied specimen of the patient's alopecia lesion, we found for the first time that the expression level of TRPS1 was markedly reduced in the epidermis and the outer root sheath of hair follicles as compared to a normal subject. In addition, higher expression of phospho-Stat3 was found consequent to the loss of TRPS1 in the outer root sheath. PMID:23451857

Ito, Taisuke; Shimomura, Yutaka; Farooq, Muhammad; Suzuki, Noriko; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Tokura, Yoshiki

2013-05-01

389

Application of an Enzymatic Method for Identifying Hair Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was investigating the use of an enzymatic method for identifying various treat- ments, such as permanent waving, hair dyeing and bleachin gu se do nh air from hair samples .M orphologically only negligible difference was observed between untreated hair and hair permed in vitro .H owever, after protease treat- ment, the degradation of permed hair

Chikara Yamauchi; Wataru Okazakib

2007-01-01

390

Using the Web as a Resource on Hair Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of hair (alopecia) is one of the most common symptoms of aging in men. The most common cause of hair loss in men is androgenic or androgenetic alopecia, often referred to as male-pattern baldness. Current treatments include two drugs, Rogaine and Propecia, which have been shown effective for hair regrowth and prevention of further hair loss; surgical hair transplantation;

Deborah G. Lovett

2002-01-01

391

Hair analysis by immunological methods from the beginning to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoassays for hair testing must satisfy three requirements: (1) They must have cross-reactivity with parent drug and lipophilic metabolites actually found in hair (2) they must not experience interference from the dissolved hair matrix and (3) they must be titered for cutoffs appropriate to the drug concentrations found in hair. Because the analytes found in hair after drug use are

Vina Spiehler

2000-01-01

392

Underground test facility: Shaft\\/tunnel laboratory for horizontal well technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) has initiated an extensive, long-term program to evaluate horizontal well recovery processes in a shaft\\/tunnel complex in the Athabasca tar sands 56 km (35 miles) northwest of Fort McMurray, Alta. Shaft-sinking of the 213-m (699-ft) twin shafts started in Feb. 1985. Shaft 1 took 55 days to drill; Shaft 2 took

D. A. Best; G. M. Cordell; J. A. Haston

1987-01-01

393

Clinical Analysis of Femur Shaft Insufficiency Fractures  

PubMed Central

Background To characterize the recently issued femur shaft insufficiency fracture in terms of a patient's own epidemiological status. Methods Fourteen patients were treated for insufficiency fracture from July 2002 to June 2008, excluding cases including the risk factors of insufficiency fracture. All patients were female, and their mean age was 75.6 years (range, 65 to 89 years). The mean follow-up period was 50.6 months (range, 14 to 86 months). Results The mean body weight of the Koreans in the same age group was 58.1 ± 9.7 kg, and the mean height was 155.5 ± 8.8 cm. The mean body weight of our insufficiency fracture patients was 45.7 kg and it was statistically significantly lower than that of the Koreans in the same age group (p < 0.001). The mean height was 147.3 cm and it was significantly shorter than the mean height of the Koreans in the same age group (p = 0.002). In regard to menopausal time, the mean menopausal time of the Koreans was 48.0 ± 4.2 years, it was 44 years in our study, as menopause occurred statistically significantly earlier (p = 0.017). The patients with insufficiency fracture showed statistically lower weight, shorter stature and an earlier menopausal period than that of the general population. Conclusions In early menopausal, underweight, and short patients prescribed osteoporosis medication for an extended period of time, if predromal symptom is present, it is necessary to suspect insufficiency fracture of the femur.

Lee, Sang-Wook; Park, Chang-Min; Lee, Sang-Hwa

2012-01-01

394

On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS) is a rugged, compact, multiple-channel data acquisition computer system that is designed to record data from instrumentation while operating under extreme rotational centrifugal or gravitational acceleration forces. This system, which was developed for the Heritage Fuel Air Turbine Test (HFATT) program, addresses the problem of recording multiple channels of high-sample-rate data on most any rotating test article by mounting the entire acquisition computer onboard with the turbine test article. With the limited availability of slip ring wires for power and communication, OSDAS utilizes its own resources to provide independent power and amplification for each instrument. Since OSDAS utilizes standard PC technology as well as shared code interfaces with the next-generation, real-time health monitoring system (SPARTAA Scalable Parallel Architecture for Real Time Analysis and Acquisition), this system could be expanded beyond its current capabilities, such as providing advanced health monitoring capabilities for the test article. High-conductor-count slip rings are expensive to purchase and maintain, yet only provide a limited number of conductors for routing instrumentation off the article and to a stationary data acquisition system. In addition to being limited to a small number of instruments, slip rings are prone to wear quickly, and introduce noise and other undesirable characteristics to the signal data. This led to the development of a system capable of recording high-density instrumentation, at high sample rates, on the test article itself, all while under extreme rotational stress. OSDAS is a fully functional PC-based system with 48 channels of 24-bit, high-sample-rate input channels, phase synchronized, with an onboard storage capacity of over 1/2-terabyte of solid-state storage. This recording system takes a novel approach to the problem of recording multiple channels of instrumentation, integrated with the test article itself, packaged in a compact/rugged form factor, consuming limited power, all while rotating at high turbine speeds.

Pedings, Marc; DeHart, Shawn; Formby, Jason; Naumann, Charles

2012-01-01

395

Unveiling Hair Follicle Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult mammalian skin consists of the epidermis, hair follicles (HFs), and sebaceous glands (SGs). Each of these three epithelial\\u000a lineages contains its own stem cell (SC) population for normal tissue homeostasis, HF cycling, and repair of the epidermis\\u000a following injury. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on follicle SCs of the adult skin, including their\\u000a essential features

Leilei Yang; Ruiyun Peng

2010-01-01

396

Assessing Hair Shedding in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The wash test is currently used to assess hair shedding, though it lacks a cut-off point of normality and any evidence of being reliable. The aim of this study is to provide data to fulfil those needs. Methods: The wash test was employed in a standardized way on 31 children aged 3–11 years. Results: The test yielded 10.68 ±

Paolo Rampini; Marcella Guarrera; Enrico Rampini; Alfredo Rebora

1999-01-01

397

Torsional deformity after intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures. Measurement of anteversion angles in 110 patients.  

PubMed

The torsion of both femora was evaluated in 110 patients who had been treated by intramedullary nailing for unilateral femoral shaft fractures. The anteversion (AV) angle was measured by ultrasound, using a tilted-transducer technique. True torsional deformity, defined as an AV difference of 15 degrees or more between sides was found in 21 patients, but only eight had complaints related to the deformity. Three patients had reoperations for troublesome external torsional deformities. Of 26 patients with AV differences of 10 degrees to 14 degrees, defined as possible torsional deformity, three had complaints, but none had serious problems. AV differences of up to 29 degrees were observed in symptom-free patients, and no patients with AV differences below 10 degrees had complaints. Static and dynamic nailing showed almost equal tendencies to lead to torsional deformity. We conclude that torsional deformities are usually established during the operation. Many patients tolerate abnormal torsion, but efforts should be made to reduce and stabilise the femoral shaft fracture with an AV difference of less than 15 degrees. PMID:8376444

Bråten, M; Terjesen, T; Rossvoll, I

1993-09-01

398

Urine - abnormal color  

MedlinePLUS

The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

399

A note on hair whorl position and cattle temperament in the auction ring.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to further describe the relationships between facial hair whorls and temperament in cattle. Cattle (n=1636) from six commercial cattle auctions in Colorado and Texas were observed. Whorl location was classified according to lateral position (left, right, or middle) and height (high: above the top of the eye, middle: at eye level, low: below the bottom of the eye). A 4-point temperament score was used to rate each animal while it was in the auction ring. Cattle with a score of 1 remained calm and stood still or walked around, and those with a score of 4 were highly agitated and hit the ring fence, walls, partitions, or people with its head. The cattle observed were 75% Bos taurus beef breeds, 21% Holstein dairy cattle, 3% Bos indicus beef breeds, and 1% non-Holstein dairy breeds. Ten percent of cattle surveyed had no facial hair whorl, while 86% had a single spiral hair whorl, of which 47% had middle-middle whorl placement. Animals with a high whorl position or no hair whorl had higher temperament scores (P=0.01). Cattle with low whorls were more likely to have greater lateral displacement of whorls off of the centerline than cattle with high or middle whorls (P<0.01). Abnormally shaped whorls were more common on cattle with low whorls (P<0.01) and on cattle with lateral whorls located off of the centerline (P<0.01). Cattle with hair whorls on the centerline had more variable temperament scores (P=0.04). Beef cattle had more abnormal whorls than Holsteins (P<0.01). Temperament scores showed that Holsteins were calmer than beef cattle (P<0.01). Facial hair whorls in cattle may be a useful management tool in assessing which animals may become disturbed in novel environments. PMID:11358607

Lanier, J L.; Grandin, T; Green, R; Avery, D; McGee, K

2001-07-28

400

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

401

Do Hair Bulb Melanocytes Undergo Apotosis During Hair Follicle Regression (Catagen)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of the hair follicle pigmentary unit during the cyclical involution of anagen hair follicles is unknown. Using the C57BL\\/6 mouse model for hair research, hair follicle melanocytes were examined during the anagen–catagen transformation, comparing spontaneous and pharmacologically induced catagen development. This study shows that both spontaneous catagen and dexamethasone-induced catagen display similar changes in the pigmentary unit. Catagen

Desmond J. Tobin; Evelin Hagen; Vladimir A. Botchkarev; Ralf Paus

1998-01-01

402

Differentiation between drug use and environmental contamination when testing for drugs in hair.  

PubMed

The differentiation between systemic exposure and external contamination for certain drug groups has been frequently referred to as one of the limitations of in drug testing in hair. When hair samples are used, three steps are usually employed in order to minimise the possibility of external contamination causing a misinterpretation. The first consists of decontaminating hair samples by washing the hair before analysis, the second is the detection of the relevant metabolites in the hair samples and the third is the use of cut-off levels. Difficulty in the interpretation arises when metabolites are not detected either due to external contamination of the hair or low doses of the drugs used. A wash protocol needs to be practical and ideally remove any drug deposited on the external portion of the hair. We propose an additional step that helps considerably in the interpretation of the results with the aim to establish a consensus: the analysis of the wash residue (W) and its comparison with the levels detected in hair (H). The wash residue is the remainder of a quick wash with methanol which is dried and reconstituted in buffer before analysis. The detection of small quantities of analytes that are not susceptible to external contamination in the wash residue, such as metabolites or drugs such as dihydrocodeine, indicates that the washing procedure is in fact able to remove drugs from the hair shaft. Where the W/H ratio is less then 0.1 or null, it would tend to indicate drug use as opposed to environmental contamination. Where the W/H ratio is above 0.1 but less than 0.5, it is likely to indicate possible use possibly combined with a level of external contamination. A W/H ratio greater than 0.5 is likely to indicate that the source of most of the drug in the wash residue is from external contamination. In this last case, the source of levels detected in the hair is questionable, as it is not possible to be absolutely sure that all external contamination was removed, and so use cannot be confirmed. Two hundred and sixteen hair samples from a population where external contamination could be expected (Police Investigations on drug related cases) and their wash residue were analysed. The W/H ratios of 891 results were evaluated over 13 analytes. Between 74 and 100% of the analytes studied produced W/H ratios less than 0.5, in particular in cannabis (93%) and cocaine (95%), where external contamination is more likely because of the way the drug is used. The data do show that while it is very important to always be aware of alternative explanations for test results, the likelihood of external contamination confounding the interpretation of hair tests can be reduced to manageable proportions. PMID:17980987

Tsanaclis, Lolita; Wicks, John F C

2008-03-21

403

Myosin VI is required for structural integrity of the apical surface of sensory hair cells in zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconventional myosins have been associated with hearing loss in humans, mice, and zebrafish. Mutations in myosin VI cause both recessive and dominant forms of nonsyndromic deafness in humans and deafness in Snell's waltzer mice associated with abnormal fusion of hair cell stereocilia. Although myosin VI has been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as vesicle trafficking and epithelial morphogenesis, the

Christoph Seiler; Orit Ben-David; Samuel Sidi; Oliver Hendrich; Alfons Rusch; Beth Burnside; Karen B. Avraham; Teresa Nicolsona

2004-01-01

404

Purine Phosphoribosyl Transferases in Human Hair Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for the simultaneous measurement of the two enzymes involved in purine salvage in human hair roots. Km values of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HG-PRT) for hypoxanthine and 5?-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) and of adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (A-PRT) for adenine and PRPP in human hair roots were similar to values reported for human erythrocytes. No differences were observed between hair

C. H. M. M. de Bruyn; T. L. Oei

1974-01-01

405

Hair dye poisoning and the developing world  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.

Sampathkumar, Krishnaswamy; Yesudas, Sooraj

2009-01-01

406

Doping control for nandrolone using hair analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive, specific and reproducible method for the quantitative determination of nandrolone in human hair has been developed. The sample preparation involved a decontamination step of the hair with methylene chloride. The hair sample (about 100 mg) was solubilized in 1 ml NaOH IN, 15 min at 95°C, in presence of 10 ng nandrolone-d3 used as an internal standard. The

P. Kintz; V. Cirimele; V. Dumestre-Toulet; B. Ludes

2001-01-01

407

Sliding adhesion confers coherent motion to hair cell stereocilia and parallel gating to transduction channels  

PubMed Central

When the tip of a hair bundle is deflected by a sensory stimulus, the stereocilia pivot as a unit, producing a shearing displacement between adjacent tips. It is not clear how stereocilia can stick together laterally but still shear. We used dissociated hair cells from the bullfrog saccule and high-speed video imaging to characterize this sliding adhesion. Movement of individual stereocilia was proportional to height, indicating that stereocilia pivot at their basal insertion points. All stereocilia moved by approximately the same angular deflection, and the same motion was observed at 1, 20 and 700 Hz stimulus frequency. Motions were consistent with a geometric model that assumes the stiffness of lateral links holding stereocilia together is >1000 times the pivot stiffness of stereocilia and that these links can slide in the plane of the membrane—in essence, that stereocilia shear without separation. The same motion was observed when bundles were moved perpendicular to the tip links, or when tip links, ankle links and shaft connectors were cut, ruling out these links as the basis for sliding adhesion. Stereocilia rootlets are angled towards the center of the bundle, tending to push stereocilia tips together for small deflections. However, stereocilia remained cohesive for deflections of up to ±35°, ruling out rootlet prestressing as the basis for sliding adhesion. These observations suggest that horizontal top connectors mediate a sliding adhesion. They also indicate that all transduction channels of a hair cell are mechanically in parallel, an arrangement that may enhance amplification in the inner ear.

Karavitaki, K. Domenica; Corey, David P.

2010-01-01

408

Deadly hairs, lethal feathers - convergent evolution of poisonous integument in mammals and birds.  

PubMed

Hairs and feathers are textbook examples of the convergent evolution of the follicular appendage structure between mammals and birds. While broadly recognized for their convergent thermoregulatory, camouflage and sexual display functions, hairs and feathers are rarely thought of as deadly defence tools. Several recent studies, however, show that in some species of mammals and birds, the integument can, in fact, be a de facto lethal weapon. One mammalian example is provided by African crested rats, which seek for and chew on the bark of plants containing the highly potent toxin, ouabain. These rats then coat their fur with ouabain-containing saliva. For efficient toxin retention, the rodents have evolved highly specialized fenestrated and mostly hollow hair shafts that soak up liquids, which essentially function as wicks. On the avian side of the vertebrate integumental variety spectrum, several species of birds of New Guinea have evolved resistance to highly potent batrachotoxins, which they acquire from their insect diet. While the mechanism of bird toxicity remains obscure, in a recently published issue of the journal, Dumbacher and Menon explore the intriguing idea that to achieve efficient storage of batrachotoxins in their skin, some birds exploit the basic permeability barrier function of their epidermis. Batrachotoxins become preferentially sequestered in their epidermis and are then transferred to feathers, likely through the exploitation of specialized avian lipid-storing multigranular body organelles. Here, we discuss wider implications of this intriguing concept. PMID:24698054

Plikus, Maksim V; Astrowski, Aliaksandr A

2014-07-01

409

Human exposure to mercury due to goldmining in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon, Brazil: Speciation of mercury in human hair, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in Amazon, total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeI Ig) were determined for human hair, blood and\\/or urine samples collected from populations living in gold mining area and fishing villages upstream of the Tapajos River basin. Abnormally high levels of T-Hg were observed in hair

H. Akagi; O. Malm; F. J. P. Branches; Y. Kinjo; Y. Kashima; J. R. D. Guimaraes; R. B. Oliveira; K. Haraguchi; W. C. Pfeiffer; Y. Takizawa; H. Kato

1995-01-01

410

Thymosin  4 increases hair growth by activation of hair follicle stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thymosin ?4, a 43-amino acid polypeptide that is an important mediator of cell migration and differentiation, also promotes angiogenesis and wound healing. Here, we report that thymosin ?4 stimulates hair growth in normal rats and mice. A specific subset of hair follicular keratinocytes in mouse skin expresses thymosin ?4 in a highly coordinated manner during the hair growth cycle. These

Deborah Philp; Mychi Nguyen; Brooke Scheremeta; Sharleen St-Surin; Ana M. Villa; Adam Orgel; Hynda K. Kleinman; Michael Elkin

2003-01-01

411

Hair Growth Cycle Affects Hair Follicle Destruction by Ruby Laser Pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that normal mode ruby laser pulses (694 nm) are effective in selectively destroying brown or black pigmented hair follicles in adult Caucasians. This study investigated how the various stages of the hair follicle growth cycle influence follicle destruction by ruby laser treatment, using a model of predictable synchronous hair growth cycles in the infantile and adolescent

Tai-Yuan David Lin; Woraphong Manuskiatti; Christine C Dierickx; William A Farinelli; Marnie E Fisher; Thomas Flotte; Howard P Baden; R Rox Anderson

1998-01-01

412

Unifying the Various Incarnations of Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dazzling sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the vertebrate ear rely on mechanical amplification of the hair cells’ responsiveness to small stimuli. As revealed by spontaneous oscillations and forms of mechanical excitability in response to force steps, the hair bundle that adorns each hair cell is both a mechanosensory antenna and a force generator that might participate in the amplificatory

Jean-Yves Tinevez; Frank Jülicher; Pascal Martin

2007-01-01

413

Dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in human hair investigated by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

To develop more effective oxidative hair coloring products, it is important to understand the localization of colored chromophores, which are formed from oxidative dyes, in the fine structure of hair. However, the dyeing regions of oxidative hair dyes in the fine structure of hair have not been extensively examined. In this study, we investigated the distribution and localization of colored chromophores formed by an oxidative hair coloring product in the fine structure of human hair by using a stable isotope-labeled oxidative dye with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). First, formation of the colored chromophore from a deuterium-labeled oxidative dye was examined by visible spectra similarly to a study of its formation using nonlabeled oxidative dye. Furthermore, the formation of binuclear indo dye containing deuterium in its chemical structure was confirmed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis. As a result of the NanoSIMS image on a cross-sectional dyed hair, although deuterium ions were detected in whole hair cross-section, quite a few of them were detected at particulate regions. These particulate regions of the dyed black hair in which deuterium ions were intensely detected were identified as melanin granules, by comparing the dyeing behaviors of black and white hair. NanoSIMS analysis revealed that melanin granules of black human hair are important dyeing regions in oxidative hair coloring. PMID:23434703

Kojima, Toru; Yamada, Hiromi; Yamamoto, Toshihiko; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Fukushima, Kazuhiko

2013-06-01

414

Return of Function after Hair Cell Regeneration  

PubMed Central

The ultimate goal of hair cell regeneration is to restore functional hearing. Because birds begin perceiving and producing song early in life, they provide a propitious model for studying not only whether regeneration of lost hair cells can return auditory sensitivity but also whether this regenerated periphery can restore complex auditory perception and production. They are the only animal where hair cell regeneration occurs naturally after hair cell loss and where the ability to correctly perceive and produce complex acoustic signals is critical to procreation and survival. The purpose of this review article is to survey the most recent literature on behavioral measures of auditory functional return in adult birds after hair cell regeneration. The first portion of the review summarizes the effect of ototoxic drug induced hair cell loss and regeneration on hearing loss and recovery for pure tones. The second portion reviews studies of complex, species-specific vocalization discrimination and recognition after hair cell regeneration. Finally, we discuss the relevance of temporary hearing loss and recovery through hair cell regeneration on complex call and song production. Hearing sensitivity is restored, except for the highest frequencies, after hair cell regeneration in birds, but there are enduring changes to complex auditory perception. These changes do not appear to provide any obstacle to future auditory or vocal learning.

Ryals, Brenda M.; Dent, Micheal L.; Dooling, Robert J.

2012-01-01

415

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal baldness. Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic,...

2009-04-01

416

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal baldness. Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic,...

2010-04-01

417

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201... Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions. ...shampoos and conditioners. (2) Hair care products for which Federal preferred...

2014-01-01

418

In vitro methodology, hormonal and nutritional effects and fibre production in isolated ovine and caprine anagen hair follicles.  

PubMed

Mammalian hair follicles are complex multicellular structures in the skin, which produce hair fibre under the influence of locally produced and systemic signalling systems. Investigation to determine mechanisms of regulation, follicular responses and the importance of nutritional supply have utilised a number of in vivo and in vitro approaches. Included in these are studies on isolated intact anagen secondary follicles singly or in groups with incubation in culture medium. These utilise techniques developed for investigation of follicles from human skin. Results from selected studies reviewed here demonstrate differences in capacity for hair growth and protein synthesis between secondary follicles from Angora and cashmere-bearing goats. Mohair follicles were shown to exhibit faster hair shaft elongation both in vivo and in vitro, to have greater DNA content per follicle and to deposit significantly more protein per follicle and per unit of DNA. Incubation of anagen mohair and cashmere follicles in the presence of melatonin or prolactin showed positive responses in hair shaft growth and protein synthesis to both signalling molecules. This result indicated directly acting effects on the follicle in addition to any indirect effects arising at a whole animal level in response to, for example, variation in photoperiod. Similarly, epidermal growth factor was shown to alter elongation and protein synthesis in mohair follicles and to produce, at higher concentration, club hair structures similar to effects observed in other species. The vitamin biotin was shown to be important in maintaining viability of isolated sheep secondary hair follicles where supplementation increased the proportion continuing to grow. Effects on growth and apparent protein synthesis suggested comparatively lesser effects on follicles, which remained viable. Histology on follicles indicated effects of biotin deficiency in reducing proliferation of basal keratinocytes. The final study, included in this review, demonstrated that supply of the essential sulphur-containing amino acid l-methionine was necessary to maintain the viability and growth of mohair follicles. l-cysteine was not required in the presence of l-methionine, although there was evidence of an optimisation when both amino acids were present in adequate concentrations. Consideration is given to the importance of transport mechanisms and capacity to utilise absorbed nutrients when considering optimising nutritional supply to individual follicles. These may then provide targets for attainment in applied nutrition of animals in vivo. PMID:22444695

Galbraith, H

2010-09-01

419

Tibia shaft fractures: costly burden of nonunions  

PubMed Central

Background Tibia shaft fractures (TSF) are common for men and women and cause substantial morbidity, healthcare use, and costs. The impact of nonunions on healthcare use and costs is poorly described. Our goal was to investigate patient characteristics and healthcare use and costs associated with TSF in patients with and without nonunion. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical claims in large U.S. managed care claims databases (Thomson Reuters MarketScan®, 16 million lives). We studied patients???18 years old with a TSF diagnosis (ICD-9 codes: 823.20, 823.22, 823.30, 823.32) in 2006 with continuous pharmaceutical and medical benefit enrollment 1 year prior and 2 years post-fracture. Nonunion was defined by ICD-9 code 733.82 (after the TSF date). Results Among the 853 patients with TSF, 99 (12%) had nonunion. Patients with nonunion had more comorbidities (30 vs. 21, pre-fracture) and were more likely to have their TSF open (87% vs. 70%) than those without nonunion. Patients with nonunion were more likely to have additional fractures during the 2-year follow-up (of lower limb [88.9% vs. 69.5%, P?

2013-01-01

420

Eddy Current Sensing of Torque in Rotating Shafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noncontact torque sensing in machine shafts is addressed based on the stress induced in a press-fitted magnetoelastic sleeve on the shaft and eddy current sensing of the changes of electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability due to the presence of stress. The eddy current probe uses dual drive, dual sensing coils whose purpose is increased sensitivity to torque and decreased sensitivity to variations in distance between probe and shaft (liftoff). A mechanism of keeping the distance constant is also employed. Both the probe and the magnetoelastic sleeve are evaluated for performance using a standard eddy current instrument. An eddy current instrument is also used to drive the coils and analyze the torque data. The method and sensor described are general and adaptable to a variety of applications. The sensor is suitable for static and rotating shafts, is independent of shaft diameter and operational over a large range of torques. The torque sensor uses a differential eddy current measurement resulting in cancellation of common mode effects including temperature and vibrations.

Varonis, Orestes J.; Ida, Nathan

2013-12-01

421

Method of lining a vertical mine shaft with concrete  

SciTech Connect

The apparatus includes a cylindrical retainer form spaced inwardly of the wall of the shaft by the desired thickness of the liner to be poured and having overlapping edges which seal against concrete flow but permit the form to be contracted to a smaller circumference after the liner has hardened and is selfsupporting. A curb ring extends downwardly and outwardly toward the shaft wall from the bottom of the retainer form to define the bottom surface of each poured liner section. An inflatable toroid forms a seal between the curb ring and the shaft wall. A form support gripper ring having gripper shoes laterally extendable under hydraulic power to engage the shaft wall supports the retainer form, curb ring and liner until the newly poured liner section becomes self-supporting. Adjusting hydraulic cylinders permit the curb ring and retainer form to be properly aligned relative to the form support gripper ring. After a liner section is self-supporting, an advancing system advances the retainer form, curb ring and form support gripper ring toward a shaft boring machine above which the liner is being formed. The advancing system also provides correct horizontal alignment of the form support gripper ring.

Eklund, J. D.; Halter, J. M.; Moffat, R. B.; Rasmussen, D. E.; Sullivan, R. G.

1981-06-02

422

Hair cortisol reflects socio-economic factors and hair zinc in preschoolers.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between children's hair cortisol and socioeconomic status of the family, as measured by parental education and income. Low family socioeconomic status has traditionally been considered a long-term environmental stressor. Measurement of hair cortisol provides an integrated index of cumulative stress exposure across an extended period of time. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between hair cortisol and parental education as well as parental income in a representative sample of preschoolers. Data on hair cortisol, family income, and parental education were collected for a representative sample of 339 children (Mean age=4.6 years; SD=.5 years) from across 23 neighbourhoods of the city of Vancouver, Canada. As maternal education was shown previously to be associated with hair zinc level, hair zinc measurements were included as well in order to explore potential relationships between hair zinc and hair cortisol. The relationship between hair cortisol and parental education was examined using hierarchical regression, with hair zinc, gender, age, and single parenthood included as covariates. Maternal and paternal education both were correlated significantly with hair cortisol (r=-0.18; p=.001). The relationship remained statistically significant even after controlling for all demographic covariates as well as for hair zinc and after taking the neighbourhood-level clustering of the data into account. Parental income, on the other hand, was not related significantly to children's hair cortisol. This study provides evidence that lower maternal and paternal education are associated with higher hair cortisol levels. As hair cortisol provides an integrated index of cortisol exposure over an extended time period, these findings suggest a possibly stable influence of SES on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Cumulative exposure to cortisol during early childhood may be greater in children from low socio-economic backgrounds, possibly through increased exposure to environmental stressors. PMID:22809790

Vaghri, Ziba; Guhn, Martin; Weinberg, Joanne; Grunau, Ruth E; Yu, Wayne; Hertzman, Clyde

2013-03-01

423

Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.  

PubMed

Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways, and others, can explain many alternatives and specific variations of hair bending phenotypes. Mechanisms for hair papilla budding or its division by bisection or fission can explain MPC formation. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) and mesenchymal-to-epithelial (MET) transitions, acting in collaboration with epithelial-mesenchymal communications are also considered as mechanisms affecting hair growth and its bending and twisting. These may be treated as sub-mechanisms of an overall development from neural-crest stem cell (NCSC) lineages to differentiated hair follicle (HF) cell types, thus providing a unified framework for hair growth and development. PMID:24617997

Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

2014-08-01

424

Abnormal menstrual periods (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... may have a variety of causes, such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, and abnormal thyroid or ... the endometrium becomes unusually thick it is called endometrial ... Hyperplasia may cause profuse or extended menstrual bleeding.

425

Abnormal haemoglobins: detection & characterization  

PubMed Central

Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques.

Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

2011-01-01

426

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

Abnormal tooth color is any color other than the white to yellowish-white of normal teeth. ... things can cause tooth discoloration. The change in color may affect the entire tooth, or just appear ...

427

Depletion of CD200+ Hair Follicle Stem Cells in Human Prematurely Gray Hair Follicles  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Melanocyte stem cells (MelSCs) are known to be depleted in gray hair follicles. Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are important for maintenance of stemness of MelSCs. Methods: We compared the proportion of CD200+ (Cluster of Differentiation 200 positive) stem cells in the outer root sheath cell suspension of gray and pigmented hair follicles of three patients with the premature graying of hair. In addition, explants culture for HFSCs was also carried out from gray and pigmented hair follicles. Cultured HFSCs were also differentiated into melanocytes. Results: The mean ± SD CD200+ HFSCs population were 9.4 ± 1.4% and 3.5 ± 0.5% for pigmented and gray hair follicles, respectively (P = 0.002). In explants culture, the growth of HFSCs from the gray hair follicle stopped at around day 20–22, whereas the growth of the cells from the pigmented follicle continued. Conclusion: CD200+ HFSCs are depleted in prematurely gray hair in the humans. CD200+ hair follicle stem cell yield is poorer in gray hair explant culture than pigmented hair explant culture.

Mohanty, Sujata; Kumar, Anil; Dhawan, Jyoti; Sharma, Vinod K; Gupta, Somesh

2013-01-01

428

Efficient optimal design of suspension systems for rotating shafts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technique is proposed for the optimum design of suspension systems for rotating shafts. In this approach the conventional method of trial and error search for optimum parameter values for a prescribed design configuration has been replaced by an efficient two-stage procedure. In the first stage a generic force is substituted for the suspension system to be designed and the absolute optimum (or limiting) performance characteristics of the shaft are computed. In the second stage, using a chosen suspension system configuration, parameter identification techniques are are applied to find the design parameters so that the suspension system will respond as close as possible to the absolute optimal performance. In this approach the repetitive shaft analyses required in the conventional search techniques are avoided. Hence, the new technique is relatively efficient computationally and is suitable for large systems. Both linear and nonlinear suspension systems can be designed. A simple Jeffcott rotor is used to demonstrate the new technique.

Pilkey, W. D.; Wang, B. P.; Vannoy, D.

1975-01-01

429

Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material  

SciTech Connect

Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1996-12-01

430

Chromosomal Abnormalities and Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a common and serious psychiatric illness with strong evidence for genetic causation, but no specific loci yet identified. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia may help to understand the genetic complexity of the illness. This paper reviews the evidence for associations between chromosomal abnormalities and schizophrenia and related disorders. The results indicate that 22q11.2 microdeletions detected by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) are significantly associated with schizophrenia. Sex chromosome abnormalities seem to be increased in schizophrenia but insufficient data are available to indicate whether schizophrenia or related disorders are increased in patients with sex chromosome aneuploidies. Other reports of chromosomal abnormalities associated with schizophrenia have the potential to be important adjuncts to linkage studies in gene localization. Advances in molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e., FISH) have produced significant increases in rates of identified abnormalities in schizophrenia, particularly in patients with very early age at onset, learning difficulties or mental retardation, or dysmorphic features. The results emphasize the importance of considering behavioral phenotypes, including adult onset psychiatric illnesses, in genetic syndromes and the need for clinicians to actively consider identifying chromosomal abnormalities and genetic syndromes in selected psychiatric patients.

BASSETT, ANNE S.; CHOW, EVA W.C.; WEKSBERG, ROSANNA

2011-01-01

431

Testing of hair dryers for asbestos emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted on 30 hair dryers for the release of asbestos fibers into the effluent air to evaluate potential consumer exposure, for the Consumer Product Safety Commission. A hair-dryer test system was developed, consisting of a clean air source, a sampling duct assembly, several types of monitoring equipment and filter samplers. Generated samples were assessed by transmission electron microscopy

C. L. Geraci; P. A. Baron; J. W. Carter; D. L. Smith

1979-01-01

432

Testing of Hair Dryers for Asbestos Emissions,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were conducted on 30 hair dryers for the release of asbestos (1332214) fibers into the effluent air to evaluate potential consumer exposure, for the Consumer Product Safety Commission. A hair dryer test system was developed, consisting of a clean ai...

C. L. Geraci P. A. Baron J. W. Carter D. L. Smith

1979-01-01

433

Species identification key of korean mammal hair.  

PubMed

The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology. PMID:24451929

Lee, Eunok; Choi, Tae-Young; Woo, Donggul; Min, Mi-Sook; Sugita, Shoei; Lee, Hang

2014-06-01

434

Photoageing of Hair Fiber and Photoprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination by transmission electron microscopy of hair exposed to sunlight has revealed important damage. Findings indicate an alteration of various cell components. Damage occurs in the cuticle and leads to its loss. Separation of macro-fibrils and destruction of melanin pigments result in cortex damage. Some of the chemical and physical changes which occur in hair exposed to sunlight were studied:

Damarys Braida; Claude Dubief; Gérard Lang

1994-01-01

435

Content of heavy metals in the hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our investigation was to determine of HM content in the hair of people and animals. Two of the main essential elements-Zn and Cu and two of the supertoxical heavy metals- Pb and Cd were chosen. The investigations were conducted in Russian Federation and Belarus Republic in 2001-2002. About 500 hair samples of people, dogs, cats, cattle, horses,

S. A. Patrashkov; V. L. Petukhov; O. S. Korotkevich; I. V. Petukhov

2003-01-01

436

The Value of Hair Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

As early as can be traced, written documents testify endeavors shown by humanity to please by means of the hair. Hair care, color and style play an important role in people’s physical appearance and self-perception. Dermatologists should be knowledgeable about the procedures people follow to look their best and should have the competence to provide patients with information on the

R. M. Trüeb

2001-01-01

437

Follicular Unit Hair Transplantation: Current Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1959, when Norman Orentreich described the phenomenon of donor dominance in androgenic alopecia and opened the way to hair transplantation, the field of hair replacement surgery has been evolving continuously. Advances in the last 15 years, and particularly the microscopic dissection of donor strips into follicular units, have eradicated the idea that follicular transplantation is an aggressive procedure that

F. Jiménez-Acosta; I. Ponce

2010-01-01

438

Hair straighteners: A significant burn risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimHair straighteners have become increasingly common household appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temperatures reached by the exposed plates of hair straighteners when switched on, and the length of time taken to cool to a safe temperature after switching off. We also present the case of a child with deep dermal burns caused by

Eleonore E. Breuning; Remo P. G. Papini

2008-01-01

439

Mouse models for human hair loss disorders  

PubMed Central

The outer surface of the hand, limb and body is covered by the epidermis, which is elaborated into a number of specialized appendages, evolved not only to protect and reinforce the skin but also for social signalling. The most prominent of these appendages is the hair follicle. Hair follicles are remarkable because of their prolific growth characteristics and their complexity of differentiation. After initial embryonic morphogenesis, the hair follicle undergoes repeated cycles of regression and regeneration throughout the lifetime of the organism. Studies of mouse mutants with hair loss phenotypes have suggested that the mechanisms controlling the hair cycle probably involve many of the major signalling molecules used elsewhere in development, although the complete pathway of hair follicle growth control is not yet understood. Mouse studies have also led to the discovery of genes underlying several human disorders. Future studies of mouse hair-loss mutants are likely to benefit the understanding of human hair loss as well as increasing our knowledge of mechanisms controlling morphogenesis and tumorigenesis.

Porter, Rebecca M

2003-01-01

440

Hair testing and doping control in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard in drug testing for doping control is gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry conducted on a urine sample. For the past 20 years, hair analysis has been proposed for identifying drug abusers in forensic science. Specimens can be collected under close supervision without embarrassment and are not subject to evasive maneuvers. In contrast with urine, hair analysis has a wide window

Pascal Kintz

1998-01-01

441

[Diagnosis and therapy of diffuse hair loss].  

PubMed

Dependent on the nature and intensity of the causative damage, the clinical picture of diffuse loss of hair varies considerably. We give a review on 4 typical clinical forms with different courses and degrees of hair loss. The differentiation of these variants may help to estimate the possible causes and prognosis and avoid unnecessary investigations. PMID:2087836

Zaun, H

1990-12-01

442

Effects of Facial Hair in Oxygen Masks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study is to determine whether or not hazards are associated with facial hair on Naval aircrewmen using oxygen breathing equipment. The study showed that undesirable conditions do exist because of facial hair, but there is no evidence...

D. G. Naber

1972-01-01

443

Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and\\/or

A. K. Geim; S. V. Dubonos; I. V. Grigorieva; K. S. Novoselov; A. A. Zhukov; S. Yu. Shapoval

2003-01-01

444

Hair analysis for opiates, cocaine and metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a technique for the simultaneous testing of opiates, cocaine and metabolites in hair by interlaboratory comparison. Sixteen forensic and clinical laboratories with different degrees of experience in hair analysis participated voluntarily in the study (no selection criteria were applied). The suggested analytical procedure, the one routinely used in our

M Montagna; A Polettini; C Stramesi; A Groppi; C Vignali

2002-01-01

445

Species Identification Key of Korean Mammal Hair  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology.

LEE, Eunok; CHOI, Tae-Young; WOO, Donggul; MIN, Mi-Sook; SUGITA, Shoei; LEE, Hang

2014-01-01

446

Psychotrichology: psychosomatic aspects of hair diseases.  

PubMed

Hair growth and hair disorders with changes in hair density or quality not only influence an individual's appearance but also often lead to an enormous emotional burden with low self-confidence, impaired quality of life, and even psychological disorders. Psychosomatic hair diseases cover a wide spectrum of specific psycho-dermatological disease patterns. This review provides an overview and classification of psychosomatic hair diseases based on primary and secondary disorders. Somatoform disorders are among the primary psychiatric diseases, especially body dysmorphic disorder in which patients have an exaggerated and excessive preoccupation of normal and physiological hair loss. Self-inflicted skin diseases as trichotillomania, often with an impairment of impulse control, also belong to this group. Secondary/reactive psychosocial disorders may occur in congenital and acquired hair disorders. These may be accompanied by feelings of disfigurement, depressive and anxiety disorders including social avoidance. Furthermore, psychosomatic comorbidity could complicate coping with hair loss. Psychosomatic therapy and coping are based on an early and accurate differential diagnostic approach to psychosomatic disorders. Psychotrichological disorders need to be treated promptly with psychosomatic basic care, improvement of coping strategies, behavior therapy, depth psychology, and/or appropriate psychopharmacotherapy with antidepressants or anxiolytics. PMID:23176605

Harth, Wolfgang; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

2013-02-01

447

The nail and hair in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the

C Ralph Daniel; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Antonella Tosti

2004-01-01

448

Inducible, reversible hair loss in transgenic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telogen effluvium is a common type of hair loss. Although the morphological changes associated with telogen effluvium have been well characterized, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown, and no animal models have been developed. We report here that inducible transgenic mice expressing high levels of the transcription factor, tTA (tetracycline transactivator), plus a reporter luciferase gene, show a reversible hair

Jingshan Chen; Max B. Kelz; Guoqi Zeng; Cathy Steffen; Penny E. Shockett; Gordon Terwilliger; David G. Schatz; Eric J. Nestler

2002-01-01

449

Double crush syndrome due to plating of humeral shaft fracture  

PubMed Central

Median nerve injury is rarely associated with the humeral shaft fracture. A Sixty two year old woman with a displaced humeral shaft fracture, developed a symptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome after plating with a screw protruding medially. 16 months later, the implants were removed and the symptoms gradually improved without carpal tunnel release surgery. A double crush syndrome resulted due to the proximal compression by the medially protruding screw and the distal compression by carpal tunnel. The proximal decompression produced by removal of the screw led to relief of the symptoms.

Huang, Yi-Gang; Chang, Shi-Min

2014-01-01

450

Skew And Twist Resistant Hydrodynamic Rotary Shaft Seal  

DOEpatents

A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. Compared to prior art, this invention provides a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear in abrasive environments and provides a significant increase in seal life.

Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan Singh (Houston, TX)

2000-03-14

451

Ipsilateral femoral shaft and vertical patella fracture: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction A femoral shaft fracture with an ipsilateral patella fracture has been, to our knowledge, given only cursory attention in English-speaking literature. Case presentation A 15 year old male patient had hitten by a car to his motorcycle came to emergency room and he had been operated for his femoral shaft freacture and vertical patellar fracture which was iniatally missed. Conclusion To us it is vital to obtain CT scan of the patient’s knee if there is an ipsilateral femoral fracture with an ipsilateral knee effusion and a punction which reveals hematoma even in the absence of a fracture line seen in AP and lateral projections.

Ozkan, Korhan; Eceviz, Engin; Sahin, Adem; Ugutmen, Ender

2009-01-01

452

Three-Wave Gas Journal Bearing Behavior With Shaft Runout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental orbits of a free-mounted, three-wave gas journal bearing housing were recorded and compared to transient predicted orbits. The shaft was mounted eccentric with a fixed runout. Experimental observations for both the absolute bearing housing center orbits and the relative bearing housing center to shaft center orbits are in good agreement with the predictions. The sub-synchronous whirl motion generated by the fluid film was found experimentally and predicted theoretically for certain speeds. A three-wave journal bearing can run stably under dynamic loads with orbits well inside the bearing clearance. Moreover, the orbits are almost circular free of the influence of bearing wave shape.

Dimofte, Florin; Hendricks, Robert C.

1997-01-01

453

Is one hair lock really representative?  

PubMed

When investigating someone's hair a single lock is cut, washed, extracted and analysed. The forensic institutes in Switzerland agreed to retain a second lock for a possible reassessment. We were interested in the reproducibility of the concentrations of analytes in hair locks taken from different areas of the head of the same person covering the same time period. Therefore we analysed ethyl glucuronide and caffeine as model substances in 10 hair locks from three individuals categorised as social drinkers. The individual coefficients of variation varied between 14% and 28% for ethyl glucuronide and between 13% and 62% for caffeine corresponding to factors of 1.6 to 4.2 for the highest to the lowest concentrations between the hair locks. This finding has a significant importance both when the second hair lock has to be analysed in a forensic case and if the interpretation of the result is depending on a cut-off value. PMID:24817042

Dussy, Franz; Carson, Nicholas; Hangartner, Sarah; Briellmann, Thomas

2014-06-01

454

Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes.  

PubMed

Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus, up to 1.1% p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 0.04% toluene-2,5-diamine, 0.02% 3-aminophenol and 0.02% resorcinol were found in the hair dye formulation after the required colour was developed. The consumers are thus exposed to precursors and couplers of oxidative hair dyes, both during and after hair dyeing, when the hair is washed. Furthermore, the consumers are also expected to be exposed to intermediates of oxidative hair dyes. The allergenic potential of oxidative hair dyes as well as the intermediates of these remains unknown. PMID:16930234

Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil; Bossi, Rossana

2006-08-01

455

Biomedical analysis of rat body hair after hindlimb suspension for 14 days  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The levels of 26 minerals in rat body hair were analyzed in control and hindlimb-suspended Wistar Hannover rats (n=5 each). We quantified the levels of 22 minerals in this experiment. However, we were unable to measure the levels of 4 minerals (Be, V, Cd, and Hg) quantitatively because they were below the limit of detection. Of the 22 quantified, the levels of 19 minerals were not significantly different between control and hindlimb-suspended groups. The levels of 3 minerals (Pb, Cr, and Al) tended to be higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group; however, this difference was not significant. The concentrations of 3 other minerals (I, K, and Mg) were significantly different between the 2 groups. The iodine (I) level was 58.2% higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group (P<0.05). Potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) levels were 55.2% and 20.4% lower, respectively, in the experimental group (P<0.05 in both cases). These results indicate that a physiological change in mineral metabolism resulting from physical or mental stress, such as hindlimb suspension, is reflected in body hair. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. We believe that hindlimb suspension for 14 days can simulate the effects of an extremely severe environment, such as space flight, because the hindlimb suspension model elicits a rapid physiological change in skeletal muscle, bone, and fluid shift even in the short term. These results also suggest that we can detect various effects on the body by analyzing the human scalp hair shaft.

Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ishioka, Noriaki; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamazaki, Takashi; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Niihori, Maki; Nakao, Reiko; Yamada, Shin; Mukai, Chiaki; Ohira, Yoshinobu

2012-04-01

456

Growth retardation and hair loss in transgenic mice overexpressing human H-ferritin gene.  

PubMed

H-ferritin (HF) is a core subunit of the iron storage protein ferritin, and plays a central role in the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. Recent studies revealed that ferritin and HF are involved in a wide variety of iron-independent functions, including regulating biological processes during physiological and pathological conditions, and can be overexpressed in some human diseases. To investigate the in vivo function of HF, we generated transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing the human HF gene (hHF-tg). We established two independent hHF-tg mouse lines. Although both lines of hHF-tg mice were viable, they showed reduced body size compared to wild-type (WT) mice at 4-12 weeks of age. Serum iron concentration and blood parameters of hHF-tg mice such as hemoglobin and red blood cell counts were comparable to those of WT mice. At 3-5 weeks of age, hHF-tg mice exhibited temporary loss of coat hair on the trunk, but not on the head or face. Histological analyses revealed that although initial hair development was normal, hHF-tg mice had epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis, dilated hair follicles, bended hair shafts and keratinous debris during the hairless period. In conclusion, we showed that hHF-tg mice exhibited mild growth retardation and temporary hairless phenotype. Our findings highlight the physiological roles of HF and demonstrate that hHF-tg mice are useful for understanding the in vivo functions of HF. PMID:23111618

Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Harada, Kazutoshi; Morokoshi, Yukie; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo

2013-06-01

457

What Is the Use of Elephant Hair?  

PubMed Central

The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own.

Myhrvold, Conor L.; Stone, Howard A.; Bou-Zeid, Elie

2012-01-01

458

Delayed epidermal permeability barrier formation and hair follicle aberrations in Inv-Cldn6 mice.  

PubMed

Homozygous mice overexpressing Claudin-6 (Cldn6) exhibit a perturbation in the epidermal differentiation program leading to a defective epidermal permeability barrier (EPB) and dehydration induced death ensuing within 48 h of birth [Turksen, K., Troy, T.C., 2002. Permeability barrier dysfunction in transgenic mice overexpressing claudin 6. Development 129, 1775-1784]. Their heterozygous counterparts are also born with an incomplete EPB; however, barrier formation continues after birth and normal hydration levels are achieved by postnatal day 12 allowing survival into adulthood. Heterozygous Inv-Cldn6 mice exhibit a distinct coat phenotype and histological analysis shows mild epidermal hyperkeratosis. Expression of K5 and K14 is aberrant, extending beyond the basal layer into the suprabasal layer where they are not co-localized suggesting that their expression is uncoupled. There is also atypical K17 and patchy K15 expression in the basal layer with no K6 expression in the interfollicular epidermis; together with marked changes in late differentiation markers (e.g. profilaggrin/filaggrin, loricrin, transglutaminase 3) indicating that the normal epidermal differentiation program is modified. The expression compartment of various Cldns is also perturbed although overall protein levels remained comparable. Most notably induction of Cldn5 and Cldn8 was observed in the Inv-Cldn6 epidermis. Heterozygous Inv-Cldn6 animals also exhibit subtle alterations in the differentiation program of the hair follicle including a shorter anagen phase, and altered hair type distribution and length compared to the wild type; the approximately 20% increase in zig-zag hair fibers at the expense of guard hairs and the approximately 30% shorter guard hairs contribute to coat abnormalities in the heterozygous mice. In addition, the transgenic hair follicles exhibit a decreased expression of K15 as well as some hair-specific keratins and express Cldn5 and Cldn18, which are not detectable in the wild type. These data indicate that Cldn6 plays a role in the differentiation processes of the epidermis and hair follicle and supports the notion of a link between Cldn regulation and EPB assembly/maintenance as well as the hair cycle. PMID:15908185

Troy, Tammy-Claire; Rahbar, Ramtin; Arabzadeh, Azadeh; Cheung, Robert Man-Kit; Turksen, Kursad

2005-06-01

459

Influence of thermal hair straightening on ethyl glucuronide content in hair.  

PubMed

Hair analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has become a valuable marker for the detection of moderate and chronic alcohol consumption. It has been shown that bleaching and perming may decrease EtG content in hair. So far, no studies exist about the influence of thermal hair straightening on EtG content in hair. Forty-one positive EtG hair samples were treated in vitro with a hair straightener at 200°C. Duration of treatment of 1 min was chosen for this study. After washing, pulverization, incubation in ultrasonic bath, solid-phase extraction, and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, EtG was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry - negative ion chemical ionization (GC-MS-NICI). The EtG contents in straightened hair strands were then compared with those in the corresponding untreated strands. In 20 of 41 hair samples, a decrease of EtG content was found ranging from 0.7% to 79.3% (average 20%) whereas in 21 cases an increase was shown ranging from 2.0% to 50.9% (average 15%). The variation of the results seems to depend on hair colour. The decrease may be explained by thermic in vitro destruction of EtG. The increase may be explained by denaturation of the hair matrix by thermal treatment possibly causing a better extraction of EtG during incubation in ultrasonic bath. This in vitro study indicates that thermal hair straightening has an impact on the EtG content in hair. This has to be considered for a correct interpretation of EtG results in hair. However, these results should be confirmed by in vivo studies. PMID:24817051

Ettlinger, Jana; Kirchen, Luc; Yegles, Michel

2014-06-01