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1

Sebaceous Gland, Hair Shaft, and Epidermal Barrier Abnormalities in Keratosis Pilaris with and without Filaggrin Deficiency.  

PubMed

Although keratosis pilaris (KP) is common, its etiopathogenesis remains unknown. KP is associated clinically with ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis and molecular genetically with filaggrin-null mutations. In 20 KP patients and 20 matched controls, we assessed the filaggrin and claudin 1 genotypes, the phenotypes by dermatoscopy, and the morphology by light and transmission electron microscopy. Thirty-five percent of KP patients displayed filaggrin mutations, demonstrating that filaggrin mutations only partially account for the KP phenotype. Major histologic and dermatoscopic findings of KP were hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, mild T helper cell type 1-dominant lymphocytic inflammation, plugging of follicular orifices, striking absence of sebaceous glands, and hair shaft abnormalities in KP lesions but not in unaffected skin sites. Changes in barrier function and abnormal paracellular permeability were found in both interfollicular and follicular stratum corneum of lesional KP, which correlated ultrastructurally with impaired extracellular lamellar bilayer maturation and organization. All these features were independent of filaggrin genotype. Moreover, ultrastructure of corneodesmosomes and tight junctions appeared normal, immunohistochemistry for claudin 1 showed no reduction in protein amounts, and molecular analysis of claudin 1 was unremarkable. Our findings suggest that absence of sebaceous glands is an early step in KP pathogenesis, resulting in downstream hair shaft and epithelial barrier abnormalities. PMID:25660180

Gruber, Robert; Sugarman, Jeffrey L; Crumrine, Debra; Hupe, Melanie; Mauro, Theodora M; Mauldin, Elizabeth A; Thyssen, Jacob P; Brandner, Johanna M; Hennies, Hans-Christian; Schmuth, Matthias; Elias, Peter M

2015-04-01

2

Efficient DNA extraction from hair shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairs are common biological samples in crime scene investigation. However, most of this evidence is comprised of hair fragments without the root. As the major part of DNA is located in the root, hair shafts are usually problematic samples in forensic analysis. For these reasons, hair DNA typing is directed at mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is present in high copy

M. Almeida; E. Betancor; R. Fregel; N. M. Suárez; J. Pestano

3

Light microscopic hair shaft analysis in ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to catalog hair shaft abnormalities in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes using light microscopy and to compare findings with those in unaffected controls. Light microscopy was performed in a nonblinded manner on hair shafts from 65 participants with seven types of ED (hypohidrotic ED, ED-ectrodactyly-cleft lip or palate, ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip and palate, Clouston syndrome, Goltz syndrome, Schopf-Schulz Passarge syndrome, and oculodentodigital dysplasia) and 41 unaffected controls. Hair donations were collected at the 28th Annual National Family Conference held by the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Control participants were recruited from a private dermatology practice and an academic children's hospital outpatient dermatology clinic. Sixty-five affected participants and 41 unaffected controls were included in the analysis. We assessed the hair shafts of ED and control participants for abnormalities visible using LM. Light microscopy identified various pathologic hair shaft abnormalities in each type of ED, although none of the findings were statistically significantly different from those of the control group. Light microscopy is a poor adjuvant tool in the diagnosis of ED syndromes. Most findings are nonspecific and not sufficiently sensitive. PMID:22084904

Hirano, Stefanie A; Mason, Ashley R; Salkey, Kimberly; Williams, Judith V; Pariser, David M

2012-01-01

4

‘Cyclic alopecia’ in Msx2 mutants: defects in hair cycling and hair shaft differentiation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Msx2-deficient mice exhibit progressive hair loss, starting at P14 and followed by successive cycles of wavelike regrowth and loss. During the hair cycle, Msx2 deficiency shortens anagen phase, but prolongs catagen and telogen. Msx2-deficient hair shafts are structurally abnormal. Molecular analyses suggest a Bmp4/Bmp2/Msx2/Foxn1 acidic hair keratin pathway is involved. These structurally abnormal hairs are easily dislodged in catagen implying a precocious exogen. Deficiency in Msx2 helps to reveal the distinctive skin domains on the same mouse. Each domain cycles asynchronously – although hairs within each skin domain cycle in synchronized waves. Thus, the combinatorial defects in hair cycling and differentiation, together with concealed skin domains, account for the cyclic alopecia phenotype. PMID:12466204

Ma, Liang; Liu, Jian; Wu, Tobey; Plikus, Maksim; Jiang, Ting-Xin; Bi, Qun; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Müller-Röver, Sven; Peters, Heiko; Sundberg, John P.; Maxson, Rob; Maas, Richard L.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

2015-01-01

5

High efficiency genetic modification of hair follicles and growing hair shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for genetic modification of hair follicles was developed which results in efficient alteration of the hair shaft phenotype. High-level in vivo transgene expression was maintained in hair follicles such that growing hair shafts were phenotypically altered. Mouse anagen skin fragments, maintained in histoculture, were genetically modified at high efficiency with adenoviral-GFP. The histocultured skin fragments were treated with

Norimitsu Saito; Ming Zhao; Lingna Li; Eugene Baranov; Meng Yang; Yukinori Ohta; Kensei Katsuoka; Sheldon Penman; Robert M. Hoffman

2002-01-01

6

An Investigation of Hair Cortisol Concentration Across Body Sites and within Hair Shaft  

PubMed Central

Cortisol concentrations in hair collected from young male and female adults were assayed and compared for differences along shaft length and between body sites. No significant differences were found between hair shaft sites, supporting a model of the hair shaft as “alive” and responsive to environmental demand in terms of cortisol production. Hair taken from forearms had significantly higher concentrations of cortisol than hair from lower legs, suggesting a localized hair cortisol response and verifying previous findings. Issues of the link between central and peripheral HPA axes are raised for discussion and further investigation. PMID:22879783

Sharpley, Christopher F.; Kauter, Kathleen G.; McFarlane, James R.

2010-01-01

7

An Investigation of Hair Cortisol Concentration Across Body Sites and within Hair Shaft.  

PubMed

Cortisol concentrations in hair collected from young male and female adults were assayed and compared for differences along shaft length and between body sites. No significant differences were found between hair shaft sites, supporting a model of the hair shaft as "alive" and responsive to environmental demand in terms of cortisol production. Hair taken from forearms had significantly higher concentrations of cortisol than hair from lower legs, suggesting a localized hair cortisol response and verifying previous findings. Issues of the link between central and peripheral HPA axes are raised for discussion and further investigation. PMID:22879783

Sharpley, Christopher F; Kauter, Kathleen G; McFarlane, James R

2010-01-01

8

Effects of Wnt10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via ?-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we

Yukiteru. Ouji; Masahide Yoshikawa; Kei Moriya; Shigeaki Ishizaka

2007-01-01

9

Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures  

SciTech Connect

Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via {beta}-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and {beta}-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/{beta}-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)]. E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Moriya, Kei [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

2007-08-03

10

Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research  

PubMed Central

The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm). The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future. PMID:24302865

Schembri, Kevin; Scerri, Christian

2013-01-01

11

6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice  

PubMed Central

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-01-01

12

Mylodon darwinii DNA sequences from ancient fecal hair shafts.  

PubMed

Preserved hair has been increasingly used as an ancient DNA source in high throughput sequencing endeavors, and it may actually offer several advantages compared to more traditional ancient DNA substrates like bone. However, cold environments have yielded the most informative ancient hair specimens, while its preservation, and thus utility, in temperate regions is not well documented. Coprolites could represent a previously underutilized preservation substrate for hairs, which, if present therein, represent macroscopic packages of specific cells that are relatively simple to separate, clean and process. In this pilot study, we report amplicons 147-152 base pairs in length (w/primers) from hair shafts preserved in a south Chilean coprolite attributed to Darwin's extinct ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. Our results suggest that hairs preserved in coprolites from temperate cave environments can serve as an effective source of ancient DNA. This bodes well for potential molecular-based population and phylogeographic studies on sloths, several species of which have been understudied despite leaving numerous coprolites in caves across of the Americas. PMID:21640569

Clack, Andrew A; MacPhee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

2012-01-20

13

Transglutaminase3 Enzyme: A Putative Actor in Human Hair Shaft Scaffolding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family of transglutaminases (TGase) is known to be involved in terminal differentiation processes in the epidermis. These enzymes contribute also to the physical resistance and the preservation of the hair follicle structure. Our particular interest in hair fiber keratinization led us to focus on the TGase 3, exclusively expressed in the hair shaft. To date its function is still

Sébastien Thibaut; Nükhet Cavusoglu; Emmanuelle de Becker; Franck Zerbib; Audrey Bednarczyk; Christine Schaeffer; Alain van Dorsselaer; Bruno A Bernard

2009-01-01

14

Utility of hair shafts from study skins for mitochondrial DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The condition of mtDNA in hair shafts preserved in a museum was examined using 30 study skins of masked palm civets, Paguma larvata (Viverridae), collected between 1924 and 2011. Comparisons of extracts from fresh and burnt alum-fixed hair shafts showed that burnt alum, which is commonly used in taxidermy, had no harmful effect on the amount of total DNA and lengths of the mtDNA fragments. Burnt alum-fixed hair shafts had a tendency to develop a small degree of melanin hindering PCR amplification compared with fresh hair shafts, although that observation was not supported statistically (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Z = -0.183, P = 0.855). However, the amount of total DNA decreased after preparation of specimen in an exponential relation (regression of log DNA amount with year, regression analysis, F = 7.065, P = 0.013). Nevertheless, the oldest specimen, collected in 1924, yielded 1341.5 ng of DNA per 100 hair shafts, which was sufficient for PCR amplification. In addition, the mtDNA fragment length and amount of melanin in the hair shaft were not significantly correlated with the passage of time after preparation (F = 0.244, P = 0.625 for mtDNA fragment length; F = 0.039, P = 0.845 for the amount of melanin). Therefore, hair shafts prepared and preserved by chemical treatment in museums are good sources of mtDNA and useful for genetic analysis. PMID:24301912

Kurihara, N

2013-01-01

15

miR-424 levels in hair shaft are increased in psoriatic patients.  

PubMed

Objective diagnostic markers have not been in clinical use for psoriasis. In this study, we investigated the levels of miR-424 in hair roots and hair shafts in psoriatic patients, and evaluated the possibility that miR-424 can be a biomarker of the disease. A single hair root and five pieces of hair shafts (~5 cm in length) were obtained from the non-lesional occiput of each individual of 26 psoriatic patients. Control hair samples were collected from nine normal subjects. Samples from 10 atopic dermatitis patients were also included as the disease control. miR-424 levels were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hair shaft miR-424 levels were significantly upregulated only in patients with psoriasis compared with normal controls and those with atopic dermatitis. By receiver-operator curve analysis of hair shaft miR-424 to distinguish psoriatic patients from normal subjects, the area under the curve was 0.77. However, relative miR-424 levels were not correlated with disease activity markers including disease duration, body surface area and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Hair root miR-424 was not useful for evaluating both diagnosis and severity of the disease. Our results indicated hair shaft miR-424 levels may be useful as a diagnostic marker of psoriasis. PMID:24628460

Tsuru, Yasuo; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Ichihara, Asako; Fujisawa, Akihiko; Moriya, Chikako; Sakai, Keisuke; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

2014-05-01

16

Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis  

PubMed Central

Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

Laatsch, Chelsea N.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B.; Flagler, Michael J.; Davis, Michael G.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.

2014-01-01

17

A simple method to extract DNA from hair shafts using enzymatic laundry powder.  

PubMed

A simple method to extract DNA from hair shafts was developed by using enzymatic laundry powder at the first step of the process. The whole extraction can be finished in less than 2 hours. The simple extraction reagent proposed here contains only two cheap components: ordinary enzymatic laundry powder and PCR buffer. After extraction, an ultra sensitive fluorescent nucleic acid stain, PicoGreen, was used for quantifying trace amount of double-stranded DNA in the solution extracted. For further validation of DNA extraction, four primers were employed to amplify DNA microsatellite loci. Both fluorescence spectroscopy and PCR results suggested that this method can extract DNA from hair shafts with good efficiency and repeatability. The study will greatly facilitate the use of hair shafts in future for DNA analyses on genome-wide scale. PMID:23922747

Guan, Zheng; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Jinchuan; Jiang, Xiaoling; Li, Sicong; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

2013-01-01

18

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Mitochondria from Ancient Hair Shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the application of sequencing-by-synthesis techniques to DNA extracted from bones has revolutionized the study of ancient DNA, it has been plagued by large fractions of contaminating environmental DNA. The genetic analyses of hair shafts could be a solution: We present 10 previously unexamined Siberian mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) mitochondrial genomes, sequenced with up to 48-fold coverage. The observed levels of

M. Thomas P. Gilbert; Lynn P. Tomsho; Snjezana Rendulic; Michael Packard; Daniela I. Drautz; Andrei Sher; Alexei Tikhonov; Love Dalén; Tatyana Kuznetsova; Pavel Kosintsev; Paula F. Campos; Thomas Higham; Matthew J. Collins; Andrew S. Wilson; Fyodor Shidlovskiy; Bernard Buigues; Per G. P. Ericson; Mietje Germonpré; Anders Götherström; Paola Iacumin; Vladimir Nikolaev; Malgosia Nowak-Kemp; Eske Willerslev; James R. Knight; Gerard P. Irzyk; Clotilde S. Perbost; Karin M. Fredrikson; Timothy T. Harkins; Sharon Sheridan; Webb Miller; Stephan C. Schuster

2007-01-01

19

Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer  

PubMed Central

Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20?), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47?), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61?), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95?). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95? conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

2011-01-01

20

Effects of ultraviolet B radiation on physicochemical properties of human hair shaft.  

PubMed

Changes in physicochemical properties of the human hair shaft induced by UVB during the summer climate were investigated. Using atomic force microscopy and thermogravimetric analyzer measurements, we investigated the changes in hair shaft physical properties including morphology, roughness, and water content. The changes in chemical properties were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy. Hair samples from 20 females without any chemical or physical stresses were investigated. The samples were exposed to various UVB doses of 400, 2,000, and 4,000 mJ/cm(2), which correspond to the radiation times of 0.44, 2.22, and 4.44 h, respectively. The morphology and surface of the hair shaft was not significantly affected by UVB irradiation. The components of keratin were affected by the UVB irradiation where the amide A bands at 3,263 and 3,246 cm(-1) of the proximal and distal roots, respectively, were shifted to higher band region because ?-helix converted to ?-sheet, and the stretching modes of C-H lipid alkyl chains at 2,965 and 2,850 cm(-1) in the proximal and distal roots, respectively, were developed. As the UVB intensity increased, the water content of the proximal root decreased. PMID:22461420

Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

2012-07-01

21

Genetic interplays between Msx2 and Foxn1 are required for Notch1 expression and hair shaft differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair shafts are produced from stem cells located in the bulge. Our knowledge of the genetic pathways regulating cell fate acquisition in the immediate descendents of these stem cells, and fate maintenance in their committed progeny, is still incomplete. One pathway involved in fate maintenance within the hair matrix is the Notch pathway. Here we use compound genetic mutants to

Jing Cai; Jonghyeob Lee; Raphael Kopan; Liang Ma

2009-01-01

22

Genetic interplays between Msx2 and Foxn1 are required for Notch1 expression and hair shaft differentiation  

PubMed Central

Hair shafts are produced from stem cells located in the bulge. Our knowledge of the genetic pathways regulating cell fate acquisition in the immediate descendents of these stem cells, and fate maintenance in their committed progeny, is still incomplete. One pathway involved in fate maintenance within the hair matrix is the Notch pathway. Here we use compound genetic mutants to demonstrate that two transcription factors, Msx2 and Foxn1, are both required to maintain Notch1 expression in the hair follicle matrix. In their absence, Notch1 is markedly reduced in hair matrix; as a consequence, medulla and inner root sheath (IRS) differentiation is impaired. Our studies also suggest that Foxn1 is a direct activator of the Notch1 promoter activity through one or more putative Foxn1 consensus binding sites located within the 4.7 kb of mouse Notch1 promoter. Since recombinant human BMP4 can induce Foxn1 expression in Msx2-deficient hair follicles, and that their effect on cortical keratin expression appears synergistic, we suggest that these two genes function in parallel pathways downstream of BMP signaling and upstream of Notch1. Independent from their role in Notch activation, Msx2 and Foxn1 also contribute to the expression of several cortical and cuticle keratins. The impact of these additional defects is the complete loss of all visible external hairs, not seen in Notch1 mutants. Our results position Msx2 and Foxn1 upstream of Notch1 within the hair matrix and demonstrate that together these factors play a pivotal role in IRS, cortex and medulla differentiation. PMID:19103190

Cai, Jing; Lee, Jonghyeob; Kopan, Raphael; Ma, Liang

2010-01-01

23

Evidence for calcium soaps in human hair shaft revealed by sub-micrometer X-ray fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New information about calcium status in human scalp hair shaft, deduced from X-ray microfluorescence imaging, including its distribution over the hair section, the existence of one or several binding-types and its variation between people, is presented. The existence of two different calcium types is inferred. The first one corresponds to atoms (or ions) easily removable by hydrochloric acid, located in the cortex (granules), in the cuticle zone and also in the core of the medulla, which are identified as calcium soaps cy comparison with X-ray diffraction and IR spectromicroscopy data. The second type consists of non-easily removable calcium atoms (or ions) that are located in the medulla wall, probably also the cuticle, and rather uniformly in the cortex; these calcium atoms may be involved in Ca^{2+}-binding proteins, their concentration is fairly constant from one subject to another.

Briki, F.; Mérigoux, C.; Sarrot-Reynauld, F.; Salomé, M.; Fayard, B.; Susini, J.; Doucet, J.

2003-03-01

24

Massively parallel sequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes from hair shaft samples.  

PubMed

Though shed hairs are one of the most commonly encountered evidence types, they are among the most limited in terms of DNA quantity and quality. As a result, DNA testing has historically focused on the recovery of just about 600 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Here, we describe our success in recovering complete mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) data (?16,569bp) from single shed hairs. By employing massively parallel sequencing (MPS), we demonstrate that particular hair samples yield DNA sufficient in quantity and quality to produce 2-3kb mtGenome amplicons and that entire mtGenome data can be recovered from hair extracts even without PCR enrichment. Most importantly, we describe a small amplicon multiplex assay comprised of sixty-two primer sets that can be routinely applied to the compromised hair samples typically encountered in forensic casework. In all samples tested here, the MPS data recovered using any one of the three methods were consistent with the control Sanger sequence data developed from high quality known specimens. Given the recently demonstrated value of complete mtGenome data in terms of discrimination power among randomly sampled individuals, the possibility of recovering mtGenome data from the most compromised and limited evidentiary material is likely to vastly increase the utility of mtDNA testing for hair evidence. PMID:25438934

Parson, Walther; Huber, Gabriela; Moreno, Lilliana; Madel, Maria-Bernadette; Brandhagen, Michael D; Nagl, Simone; Xavier, Catarina; Eduardoff, Mayra; Callaghan, Thomas C; Irwin, Jodi A

2015-03-01

25

Craniofacial anomalies, abnormal hair, camptodactyly, and caudal appendage (Teebi-Shaltout syndrome): clinical and autopsy findings.  

PubMed

Teebi and Shaltout [1989: Am J Med Genet 33: 58-60] described a new syndrome of craniofacial anomalies, abnormal hair, camptodactyly, and caudal appendage in children born to a consanguineous couple. We report on a second family with the same pattern of anomalies occurring in a liveborn female and 3 spontaneously aborted fetuses, and include autopsy findings. As additional findings 2 of our cases had unilateral microphthalmia and kidney anomalies. Our observation confirms that this pattern of anomalies is a distinct syndrome with autosomal recessive inheritance; we suggest the synonym Teebi-Shaltout syndrome. PMID:8267003

Froster, U G; Rehder, H; Höhn, W; Oberheuser, F

1993-10-01

26

Control of Human Hair Growth by Neurotrophins: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Inhibits Hair Shaft Elongation, Induces Catagen, and Stimulates Follicular Transforming Growth Factor ?2 Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotrophins are important modulators of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. Previously, we had shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) are prominently involved in the control of murine hair follicle cycling. We now show that BDNF and TrkB are also expressed in the human hair follicle in a manner that is both hair cycle dependent and

Eva M. J. Peters; Marit G. Hansen; Rupert W. Overall; Motonobu Nakamura; Paolo Pertile; Burghard F. Klapp; Petra C. Arck; Ralf Paus

2005-01-01

27

Normalization of hair growth in sparse fur-abnormal skin and hair (SPF-ASH) mice by introduction of the rat ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) gene.  

PubMed

The sparse fur-abnormal skin and hair (SPF-ASH) mouse is a model for the human X-linked hereditary disease, ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. This condition is characterized by abnormal skin and delayed hair growth, hyperammonemia, orotic aciduria and low levels of serum citrulline and arginine. Murakami et al. [1] established a line of transgenic mice, by introducing the recombinant rat OTC (rOTC) gene into fertilized C57BL mouse eggs. We introduced the rOTC gene into SPF-ASH mice by mating SPF-ASH heterozygotes and transgenic mice, which carried this gene. The hemizygous SPF-ASH mice bearing the rOTC gene showed normal hair growth without sparse fur, normal urinary orotic acid excretion and normal serum citrulline and arginine levels. These mice showed OTC activities 2 and 6 times higher in the liver and small intestine, respectively, than the SPF-ASH mice but about 12% and 27% those of the controls [2]. PMID:7999674

Shimada, T; Tashiro, M; Kanzaki, T; Noda, T; Murakami, T; Takiguchi, M; Mori, M; Yamamura, K; Saheki, T

1994-07-01

28

Neurodegenerative disorders with hair abnormalities: an emergency room consultation for dermatologists.  

PubMed

Menke's syndrome and Elejalde disease are the two neurodegenerative disorders of dermatological interest. These patients present with characteristic hair changes which may be of diagnostic value in resource-poor setup where facilities for specific genetic analysis are not available. Simple light microscopic examination of hair may be a helpful diagnostic tool to pick up such cases. PMID:20805973

Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna

2009-01-01

29

Defect of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator Inhibitor Type 1/Serine Protease Inhibitor, Kunitz Type 1 (Hai-1/Spint1) Leads to Ichthyosis-Like Condition and Abnormal Hair Development in Mice  

PubMed Central

Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1)/serine protease inhibitor, Kunitz type 1 (SPINT1) is a membrane-bound, serine proteinase inhibitor initially identified as an inhibitor of hepatocyte growth factor activator. It also inhibits matriptase and prostasin, both of which are membrane-bound serine proteinases that have critical roles in epidermal differentiation and function. In this study, skin and hair phenotypes of mice lacking the Hai-1/Spint1 gene were characterized. Previously, we reported that the homozygous deletion of Hai-1/Spint1 in mice resulted in embryonic lethality attributable to impaired placental development. To test the role of Hai-1/Spint1 in mice, the placental function of Hai-1/Spint1-mutant mice was rescued. Injection of Hai-1/Spint1+/+ blastocysts with Hai-1/Spint1?/? embryonic stem cells successfully generated high-chimeric Hai-1/Spint1?/? embryos (B6Hai-1?/?High) with normal placentas. These embryos were delivered without apparent developmental abnormalities, confirming that embryonic lethality of Hai-1/Spint1?/? mice was caused by placental dysfunction. However, newborn B6Hai-1?/?High mice showed growth retardation and died by 16 days. These mice developed scaly skin because of hyperkeratinization, reminiscent of ichthyosis, and abnormal hair shafts that showed loss of regular cuticular septation. The interfollicular epidermis showed acanthosis with enhanced Akt phosphorylation. Immunoblot analysis revealed altered proteolytic processing of profilaggrin in Hai-1/Spint1-deleted skin with impaired generation of filaggrin monomers. These findings indicate that Hai-1/Spint1 has critical roles in the regulated keratinization of the epidermis and hair development. PMID:18832587

Nagaike, Koki; Kawaguchi, Makiko; Takeda, Naoki; Fukushima, Tsuyoshi; Sawaguchi, Akira; Kohama, Kazuyo; Setoyama, Mitsuru; Kataoka, Hiroaki

2008-01-01

30

Bioengineering the Hair Follicle  

PubMed Central

The hair follicle develops from the primitive embryonic epidermis as a result of complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. The full follicle, consisting of epithelial cylinders under control of a proximal lying mesenchymal papilla, grows in cycles giving rise to a new hair shaft during each cycle. The ability to cycle endows the follicle with regenerative properties. The evolution of hair follicle engineering began with the recognition in the early 1960's that hair follicles could be transplanted clinically into a foreign site and still grow a shaft typical of the donor site. Since that time, it has been found that the follicular papilla has hair follicle inducing properties and that the hair follicle houses within it epithelial stem cells that can respond to hair inductive signals. These findings have laid the foundation for isolating hair-forming cells, for expanding the cells in culture, and for forming new follicles in vivo. PMID:19279694

Parimoo, S; Zheng, Y; Barrows, T; Boucher, M; Washenik, K

2007-01-01

31

Shaft adjuster  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

Harry, Herbert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

32

Shaft adjuster  

DOEpatents

Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

Harry, H.H.

1988-03-11

33

Ectodermal abnormalities in patients with Kabuki syndrome.  

PubMed

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is extensively described in the literature and characterized by a typical facial gestalt in combination with postnatal short stature, hypotonia, joint laxity, developmental delay, persistent fetal fingertip pads, and an ever-growing group of congenital abnormalities. In this study, we focus on some ectodermal manifestations that we have observed. We studied seven patients who fulfilled the clinical criteria for KS and undertook a detailed clinical, dental, cytogenetic, and immunoglobulin assessments. In addition, microscopic hair examinations were performed on all patients and compared with matched control patients. All patients had receding of the anterior hair line, but five had evident sparse frontal scalp hair. They all showed peculiar similar microscopic hair abnormalities in the form of twisting of the hair shafts, irregularity of the diameter of the hair, and trichorrhexis nodosa. In addition, hypoplastic nails, café-au-lait patches, and missing upper lateral incisors were observed in 57.1%, 28.6%, and 14.3% of the patients, respectively. Variable orodental anomalies were seen in all the patients with an everted lower lip found in four patients (57.1%). This report provides further evidence that some cases of KS have ectodermal involvement. PMID:21692838

Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Afifi, Hanan H; Eid, Maha M; El-Badry, Tarek H; Kholoussi, Naglaa

2011-01-01

34

Hair removal.  

PubMed

Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New treatment procedures are evolving. Consumer-based treatments with portable home devices are rapidly evolving, and presently include low-level diode lasers and IPL devices. PMID:21865803

Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

2011-01-01

35

Aging of hair.  

PubMed

The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life expectation, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and also more capable to deliver active products that are directed toward meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft and aging of the hair follicle. The latter manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production in androgenetic and senescent alopecia. The scalp is also subject to intrinsic or physiologic aging and extrinsic aging caused by external factors. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation. Prototypes are familial premature graying and androgenetic alopecia. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and smoking. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in skin and hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds for hair include humefactants, hair conditioners, photoprotectors, and antioxidants. Current available treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil, oral finasteride, and autologous hair transplantation. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants are the mainstays of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are under current investigation. PMID:17166201

Trüeb, Ralph M

2005-06-01

36

Is alopecia areata an autoimmune-response against melanogenesis-related proteins, exposed by abnormal MHC class I expression in the anagen hair bulb?  

PubMed Central

The etiology of alopecia areata (AA), a putative autoimmune disease characterized by sudden hair loss, has remained obscure. It is not understood, how the characteristic inflammatory infiltrate that selectively attacks anagen hair follicles in AA is generated. We hypothesize that this reflects an unexplored form of autoimmunity, a cytotoxic T cell attack on rhythmically synthesized autoantigens normally sequestered by a lack or very low level of MHC class I (MHC I)-expression, and suggest the following mechanism of AA pathogenesis: Microtrauma, neurogenic inflammation, or microbial antigens cause a localized breakdown of MHC I-"negativity" in the proximal anagen hair bulb via proinflammatory cytokines. This exposes autoantigens derived from melanogenesis-related proteins (MRP-DP), which are only generated during anagen, and triggers two successive waves of autoimmune responses: CD8+ cytotoxic T cells initiate AA after recognizing MRP-DP abnormally presented by MHC I molecules on hair matrix melanocytes and/or keratinocytes; a secondary attack, carried by CD4+ T cells and antigen presenting cells, is then mounted against MHC class II--presented additional autoantigens exposed by damaged melanocytes and keratinocytes. The latter causes most of the follicular damage, and extrafollicular disease, and depends greatly on the immunogenetic background of affected individuals. This unifying hypothesis explains the clinical heterogeneity and all salient features of AA, and argues that only the unlikely coincidence of multiple predisposing events triggers AA. The suppression of MHC I--expression and synthesis of MRP in the hair bulb, and the "tolerization" of MRP-DP autoreactive CD8+ T cells may be promising strategies for treating AA. PMID:7716973

Paus, R.; Slominski, A.; Czarnetzki, B. M.

1993-01-01

37

Hair cosmetics: dyes.  

PubMed

Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. PMID:24656996

Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

2014-11-01

38

Absence of plastin 1 causes abnormal maintenance of hair cell stereocilia and a moderate form of hearing loss in mice  

PubMed Central

Hearing relies on the mechanosensory inner and outer hair cells (OHCs) of the organ of Corti, which convert mechanical deflections of their actin-rich stereociliary bundles into electrochemical signals. Several actin-associated proteins are essential for stereocilia formation and maintenance, and their absence leads to deafness. One of the most abundant actin-bundling proteins of stereocilia is plastin 1, but its function has never been directly assessed. Here, we found that plastin 1 knock-out (Pls1 KO) mice have a moderate and progressive form of hearing loss across all frequencies. Auditory hair cells developed normally in Pls1 KO, but in young adult animals, the stereocilia of inner hair cells were reduced in width and length. The stereocilia of OHCs were comparatively less affected; however, they also showed signs of degeneration in ageing mice. The hair bundle stiffness and the acquisition of the electrophysiological properties of hair cells were unaffected by the absence of plastin 1, except for a significant change in the adaptation properties, but not the size of the mechanoelectrical transducer currents. These results show that in contrast to other actin-bundling proteins such as espin, harmonin or Eps8, plastin 1 is dispensable for the initial formation of stereocilia. However, the progressive hearing loss and morphological defects of hair cells in adult Pls1 KO mice point at a specific role for plastin 1 in the preservation of adult stereocilia and optimal hearing. Hence, mutations in the human PLS1 gene may be associated with relatively mild and progressive forms of hearing loss. PMID:25124451

Taylor, Ruth; Bullen, Anwen; Johnson, Stuart L.; Grimm-Günter, Eva-Maria; Rivero, Francisco; Marcotti, Walter; Forge, Andrew; Daudet, Nicolas

2015-01-01

39

Absence of plastin 1 causes abnormal maintenance of hair cell stereocilia and a moderate form of hearing loss in mice.  

PubMed

Hearing relies on the mechanosensory inner and outer hair cells (OHCs) of the organ of Corti, which convert mechanical deflections of their actin-rich stereociliary bundles into electrochemical signals. Several actin-associated proteins are essential for stereocilia formation and maintenance, and their absence leads to deafness. One of the most abundant actin-bundling proteins of stereocilia is plastin 1, but its function has never been directly assessed. Here, we found that plastin 1 knock-out (Pls1 KO) mice have a moderate and progressive form of hearing loss across all frequencies. Auditory hair cells developed normally in Pls1 KO, but in young adult animals, the stereocilia of inner hair cells were reduced in width and length. The stereocilia of OHCs were comparatively less affected; however, they also showed signs of degeneration in ageing mice. The hair bundle stiffness and the acquisition of the electrophysiological properties of hair cells were unaffected by the absence of plastin 1, except for a significant change in the adaptation properties, but not the size of the mechanoelectrical transducer currents. These results show that in contrast to other actin-bundling proteins such as espin, harmonin or Eps8, plastin 1 is dispensable for the initial formation of stereocilia. However, the progressive hearing loss and morphological defects of hair cells in adult Pls1 KO mice point at a specific role for plastin 1 in the preservation of adult stereocilia and optimal hearing. Hence, mutations in the human PLS1 gene may be associated with relatively mild and progressive forms of hearing loss. PMID:25124451

Taylor, Ruth; Bullen, Anwen; Johnson, Stuart L; Grimm-Günter, Eva-Maria; Rivero, Francisco; Marcotti, Walter; Forge, Andrew; Daudet, Nicolas

2015-01-01

40

Light Microscopy of the Hair: A Simple Tool to “Untangle” Hair Disorders  

PubMed Central

Light microscopy of the hair forms an important bedside clinical tool for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair. Hair abnormalities can be seen in the primary diseases affecting the hair or as a secondary involvement of hair in diseases affecting the scalp. Hair abnormalities also form a part of various genodermatoses and syndromes. In this review, we have briefly highlighted the light microscopic appearance of various infectious and non-infectious conditions affecting the hair. PMID:21769242

Adya, Keshavmurthy A; Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna; Shivanna, Ragunatha; Deshmukh, Niranjan S

2011-01-01

41

Analysis of apoptotic cell death in human hair follicles in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

We analyzed changes of growth and apoptotic cell death in human hair follicles. In anagen hair follicles, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick labeling-positive cells were observed in the keratogenous zone of the upper bulb matrix, the inner root sheath, and the companion layer of the outer root sheath. DNA ladder formation was also detected in anagen hair follicles. In catagen hair follicles, the lower bulb matrix cells around the dermal papilla and the outer layer cells of the outer root sheath became strongly positive, showing that apoptosis in catagen hair is distinct from that in anagen hair. We also confirmed the mRNA expression of four caspases (caspase-1, caspase-3, caspase-4, and caspase-7) in anagen hair follicles by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. When human anagen hair follicles were cultured in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the serum-free medium, transforming growth factor-beta but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced catagen-like morphologic changes, which were indistinguishable from normal catagen hair follicles. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, however, strongly inhibited the elongation of the hair shaft in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by abnormal morphology and increased cell death in the bulb matrix cells. Our results suggest that apoptosis in hair follicles involves two different types. One is related to the terminal differentiation of follicular epithelial cells in anagen hair. The other occurs as a major driving force to eliminate the distinct portion of epithelial components in catagen hair. Furthermore, this study strongly indicates that the transforming growth factor-beta pathway is involved in the induction of catagen phase in human hair cycle. PMID:9856801

Soma, T; Ogo, M; Suzuki, J; Takahashi, T; Hibino, T

1998-12-01

42

Compound Heterozygous Desmoplakin Mutations Result in a Phenotype with a Combination of Myocardial, Skin, Hair, and Enamel Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the mid- and lower epidermal layers, whereas the heart showed extensive fibrosis and fibrofatty replacement in both ventricles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a reduction in the C-terminal domain of DP in the skin and oral mucosa. Sequencing of the DP gene showed undescribed mutations in the maternal and paternal alleles. Both mutations affected exon 24 encoding the C-terminal domain. The paternal mutation, c.6310delA, leads to a premature stop codon. The maternal mutation, c.7964 C to A, results in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a conserved alanine residue at amino acid 2655 (A2655D). Structural modeling indicated that this mutation changes the electrostatic potential of the mutated region of DP, possibly altering functions that depend on intermolecular interactions. To conclude, we describe a combination of DP mutation phenotypes affecting the skin, heart, hair, and teeth. This patient case emphasizes the importance of heart examination of patients with desmosomal genodermatoses. PMID:19924139

Mahoney, M? G.; Sadowski, Sara; Brennan, Donna; Pikander, Pekka; Saukko, Pekka; Wahl, James; Aho, Heikki; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fertala, Andrzej; Peltonen, Juha; Uitto, Jouni; Peltonen, Sirkku

2014-01-01

43

A Comprehensive Guide for the Accurate Classification of Murine Hair Follicles in Distinct Hair Cycle Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous strains of mice with defined mutations display pronounced abnormalities of hair follicle cycling, even in the absence of overt alterations of the skin and hair phenotype; however, in order to recognize even subtle, hair cycle-related abnormalities, it is critically important to be able to determine accurately and classify the major stages of the normal murine hair cycle. In this

Sven Müller-Röver; Bori Handjiski; Carina van der Veen; Stefan Eichmüller; Kerstin Foitzik; Ian A. McKay; Kurt S. Stenn; Ralf Paus

2001-01-01

44

Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

2005-07-01

45

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

Benavides, G.L.

1998-05-05

46

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

47

Oily hair  

MedlinePLUS

Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

48

Histologic and Cell Kinetic Studies of Hair Loss and Subsequent Recovery Process of Human Scalp Hair Follicles Grafted onto Severe Combined Immunodeficient Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a model for studying human scalp hair, individually isolated hair follicles were grafted onto back skin of severe combined immunodeficient mice. Histologic changes and cell kinetics in the hair loss and subsequent recovery process were investigated. In the dystrophic stage (from day 7 to 30), all the hair shafts became dystrophic and were shed. Thickening and corrugation of

Tsuyoshi Hashimoto; Takashi Kazama; Masaaki Ito; Koji Urano; Yuko Katakai; Naoko Yamaguchi; Yoshito Ueyama

2000-01-01

49

Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair.  

PubMed

The appearance of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. With today's increasing life-expectations, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever. The hair care industry has become aware of this and is delivering active products directed towards meeting this consumer demand. The discovery of pharmacological targets and the development of safe and effective drugs also indicate strategies of the drug industry for maintenance of healthy and beautiful hair. Hair aging comprises weathering of the hair shaft, decrease of melanocyte function, and decrease in hair production. The scalp is subject to intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Intrinsic factors are related to individual genetic and epigenetic mechanisms with interindividual variation: prototypes are familial premature graying, and androgenetic alopecia. Currently available pharmacologic treatment modalities with proven efficacy for treatment of androgenetic alopecia are topical minoxidil and oral finasteride. Extrinsic factors include ultraviolet radiation and air pollution. Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress also plays a role in hair aging. Topical anti-aging compounds include photoprotectors and antioxidants. In the absence of another way to reverse hair graying, hair colorants remain the mainstay of recovering lost hair color. Topical liposome targeting for melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles are currently under investigation. PMID:18044109

Trüeb, Ralph M

2006-01-01

50

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers En Espańol Hair dye is used to ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

51

Analysis of the efficiency of hair removal by different optical methods: comparison of Trichoscan, reflectance confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

Noninvasive diagnostic tools, such as Trichoscan®, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), and optical coherence tomography (OCT), are efficient methods of hair shaft and growth evaluation. The aim of this study was to carry out a comparative assessment of these three medical procedures by measuring the hair shaft and hair growth after hair removal for a defined period of five days. The application of these techniques was demonstrated by measuring hair growth on the lower leg of six female volunteers. After removal of the hair shaft with a shaving system, the hair follicle infundibula and the length of the growing hairs were measured with the Trichoscan®, RCM, and OCT method. All three methods are reliable hair measuring tools after hair removal. Trichoscan® is best suited in the implementation of hair growth measurement and RCM in the analysis of hair follicles, whereas the OCT system can be consulted as an additional measurement for the evaluation of the hair follicle and length. PMID:23223980

Kuck, Monika; Schanzer, Sabine; Ulrich, Martina; Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Meinke, Martina C; Fluhr, Joachim; Krah, Martin; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Stockfleth, Eggert; Lademann, Jürgen

2012-10-01

52

Analysis of the efficiency of hair removal by different optical methods: comparison of Trichoscan, reflectance confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noninvasive diagnostic tools, such as Trichoscan, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), and optical coherence tomography (OCT), are efficient methods of hair shaft and growth evaluation. The aim of this study was to carry out a comparative assessment of these three medical procedures by measuring the hair shaft and hair growth after hair removal for a defined period of five days. The application of these techniques was demonstrated by measuring hair growth on the lower leg of six female volunteers. After removal of the hair shaft with a shaving system, the hair follicle infundibula and the length of the growing hairs were measured with the Trichoscan, RCM, and OCT method. All three methods are reliable hair measuring tools after hair removal. Trichoscan is best suited in the implementation of hair growth measurement and RCM in the analysis of hair follicles, whereas the OCT system can be consulted as an additional measurement for the evaluation of the hair follicle and length.

Kuck, Monika; Schanzer, Sabine; Ulrich, Martina; Bartels, Natalie Garcia; Meinke, Martina C.; Fluhr, Joachim; Krah, Martin; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Stockfleth, Eggert; Lademann, Jürgen

2012-10-01

53

Hair follicular cell\\/organ culture in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair follicles are complex organs composed of the dermal papilla (DP), dermal sheath (DS), outer root sheath (ORS), inner root sheath (IRS) and hair shaft. Development of hair follicles begins towards the end of the first trimester of pregnancy and is controlled by epidermal–mesenchymal interaction (EMI), which is a signaling cascade between epidermal and mesenchymal cell populations. Hair grows in

Bo-Young Yoo; Youn-Ho Shin; Hee-Hoon Yoon; Young-Kwon Seo; Jung-Keug Park

2010-01-01

54

Desmogleins 1 and 3 in the Companion Layer Anchor Mouse Anagen Hair to the Follicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anchorage of the hair to its follicle is of paramount importance for survival of rodents in the wild, and is aberrant in some human alopecias. Little is understood about the mechanisms responsible for hair shaft anchorage. Desmoglein (Dsg)3?\\/? (knockout) mice lose hair during telogen, but their anagen hairs remain anchored to the follicle. We hypothesized that Dsg1 compensates for the

Yasushi Hanakawa; Hong Li; Chenyan Lin; John R. Stanley; George Cotsarelis

2004-01-01

55

Crank shaft support assembly  

DOEpatents

A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

Natkin, Robert J. (Canton, MI); Oltmans, Bret (Stacy, MN); Allison, John E. (Ann Arbor, MI); Heater, Thomas J. (Milford, MI); Hines, Joy Adair (Plymouth, MI); Tappen, Grant K. (Washington, MI); Peiskammer, Dietmar (Rochester, MI)

2007-10-23

56

Rotary shaft seal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

Langebrake, C.O.

1984-01-01

57

Rotary shaft seal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

Langebrake, Clair O. (Waverly, OH)

1984-01-01

58

Rotary shaft seal  

SciTech Connect

The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

Langebrake, C.O.

1984-01-10

59

Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... eyes from sweat dripping down from your forehead. Hair Comes From Where? Whether hair is growing out ... may look greasy. Time for a shampoo! Continue Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow! You have more than 100, ...

60

Deflection of stepped shafts  

E-print Network

4 5 6 7 8 C I . 02 Q o o . 03 Figure 14. Eccentricity curve of both stepped shafts. 36 Figure 15. Typical oscillogram record showing how the radius of whirl and rotational speed wete obtained. . 20 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 26... 35 15. Typical oscillogram record showing how the radius of whirl and rotational speed were obtained 36 16. Radius of whirl of the one-stepped shaft, station number 1 37 17. Radius of whirl of the one-stepped shaft, station number 3 38 18...

Alexander, Richard Marvin

1967-01-01

61

Fabricated torque shaft  

DOEpatents

A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

Mashey, Thomas Charles (Anderson, SC)

2002-01-01

62

Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography.  

PubMed

We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases. PMID:22502568

Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

2012-03-01

63

A rare case of woolly hair with unusual associations.  

PubMed

Woolly hair is a congenital abnormality of scalp hair manifesting as short, kinked hair, which may also involve the hair over the other parts of the body. Keratosis pilaris has been a well known association of woolly hair, and can also be a part of the Naxos or Carvajal syndromes. We herein present a case of woolly hair with associated keratosis pilaris, canaliform dystrophy of nails, increased interdental spaces and recurrent bullous impetigo. Although keratosis pilaris and teeth abnormalities have been reported as isolated associations with woolly hair, such a combination of findings as seen in our patient has not been reported before. PMID:23984241

Vasudevan, Biju; Verma, Rajesh; Pragasam, Vijendran; Badad, Ambresh

2013-07-01

64

The Post-Apoptotic Fate of RNAs Identified Through High-Throughput Sequencing of Human Hair  

PubMed Central

The hair of all mammals consists of terminally differentiated cells that undergo a specialized form of apoptosis called cornification. While DNA is destroyed during cornification, the extent to which RNA is lost is unknown. Here we find that multiple types of RNA are incompletely degraded after hair shaft formation in both mouse and human. Notably, mRNAs and short regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) are stable in the hair as far as 10 cm from the scalp. To better characterize the post-apoptotic RNAs that escape degradation in the hair, we performed sequencing (RNA-seq) on RNA isolated from hair shafts pooled from several individuals. This hair shaft RNA library, which encompasses different hair types, genders, and populations, revealed 7,193 mRNAs, 449 miRNAs and thousands of unannotated transcripts that remain in the post-apoptotic hair. A comparison of the hair shaft RNA library to that of viable keratinocytes revealed surprisingly similar patterns of gene coverage and indicates that degradation of RNA is highly inefficient during apoptosis of hair lineages. The generation of a hair shaft RNA library could be used as months of accumulated transcriptional history useful for retrospective detection of disease, drug response and environmental exposure. PMID:22110684

Lefkowitz, Gloria K.; Mukhopadhyay, Anandaroop; Cowing-Zitron, Christopher; Yu, Benjamin D.

2011-01-01

65

Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling  

PubMed Central

Embryonic hair follicle induction and formation are regulated by mesenchymal-epithelial interactions between specialized dermal cells and epidermal stem cells that switch to a hair fate. Similarly, during postnatal hair growth, communication between mesenchymal dermal papilla cells and surrounding epithelial matrix cells coordinates hair shaft production. Adult hair follicle regeneration in the hair cycle again is thought to be controlled by activating signals originating from the mesenchymal compartment and acting on hair follicle stem cells. Although many signaling pathways are implicated in hair follicle formation and growth, the precise nature, timing, and intersection of these inductive and regulatory signals remains elusive. The goal of this review is to summarize our current understanding and to discuss recent new insights into mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. PMID:22960356

Sennett, Rachel; Rendl, Michael

2012-01-01

66

Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Sim?i?, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

2007-07-01

67

9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY BARS); VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

68

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... The infection is easily treated with antifungal medicines. Finally, hair loss may occur as part of an ... to look for other causes of hair loss. Finally, blood tests or a biopsy (taking a small ...

69

Hair Removal  

MedlinePLUS

... eyebrows. Back Continue Getting Rid of Hair (continued) Electrolysis How It Works: Over a series of several ... Pros: Some people have permanent hair removal. Cons: Electrolysis takes big bucks and lots of time, so ...

70

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

71

Body Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... electrolysis, a professional uses an electric current to kill the hair root. Electrolysis can take many sessions ... removing pubic hair top In recent years, more girls and women have also begun removing all or ...

72

HAIR NEOGENESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of new hairs is regularly seen as a spontaneous phenomenon in the velvet of deer antlers and in the Australian bandicoot. Nevertheless, skepticism persists as to its occurrence otherwise, despite a continuing accumulation of reports of hair neogenesis in many laboratory animals, sheep, and man. The objectors have cited the tremendous ability of the hair follicle to reorganize

Sigfrid A. Muller

1971-01-01

73

Hair Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Hair changes During pregnancy, you may notice that the hair on your head is thicker than usual. After ... find that you'll lose a lot of hair a few weeks or months after delivery. These ...

74

Hair Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Dryers and other products that use heat can dry out or break your hair. It’s a good idea to take a few days off from time to time. If you swim in a pool a lot: Protect your hair from chlorine by wearing a swim cap or rinsing out your hair right after swimming. ...

75

Polygonal shaft hole rotor  

DOEpatents

A laminated rotor for an induction motor has a plurality of ferro-magnetic laminations mounted axially on a rotor shaft. Each of the plurality of laminations has a central aperture in the shape of a polygon with sides of equal length. The laminations are alternatingly rotated 180.degree. from one another so that the straight sides of the polygon shaped apertures are misaligned. As a circular rotor shaft is press fit into a stack of laminations, the point of maximum interference occurs at the midpoints of the sides of the polygon (i.e., at the smallest radius of the central apertures of the laminations). Because the laminates are alternatingly rotated, the laminate material at the points of maximum interference yields relatively easily into the vertices (i.e., the greatest radius of the central aperture) of the polygonal central aperture of the next lamination as the shaft is inserted into the stack of laminations. Because of this yielding process, the amount of force required to insert the shaft is reduced, and a tighter fit is achieved.

Hussey, John H. (St. Louis, MO); Rose, John Scott (Alton, IL); Meystrik, Jeffrey J. (Webster Groves, MO); White, Kent Lee (Maryland Heights, MO)

2001-01-23

76

Gravity in a Mine Shaft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

1995-01-01

77

Shaft voltages and rotating machinery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine whether a machine is experiencing shaft voltage and current problems, recognition of the four types of damage is imperative. The four distinct types of shaft current damage, frosting, spark tracks, pitting, and welding are described. The four shaft voltage sources and their means of generation are discussed in detail. Methods for correction and\\/or elimination of these

Michael J. Costello

1993-01-01

78

Recent findings with computerized methods for scalp hair growth measurements.  

PubMed

Sensitive tools have been developed in order to monitor hair loss and treatment responses. Recently the Tricho-Scan was presented (by RH) as such a method which combines epiluminescence microscopy (ELM) with automatic digital image analysis. Herewith new TrichoScan data obtained from 10 women and 21 men with androgenetic hair loss after 6 mo of treatment with 5%-minoxidil are presented. Even in this small cohort of patients, we noticed a significant increase of hair density, cumulative hair thickness and terminal hair counts. Alternative methods were developed during a human alopecia investigation and research technology (HAIR Technology) programme at Skinterface. This involves contrast-enhancement, image acquisition, and processing by qualified technicians followed by computer-assisted image analysis. The specific identification of exogen hair, further adds to this very refined non-invasive investigative method for hair follicle function investigation. Regional variations of hair growth dynamics do exist in the human scalp such as in female patients complaining of hair loss, scalp hair density and growth on top of the head differs significantly from the occipital site. Finally, from transversal studies and from detailed monitoring of subsequent hair cycles during longitudinal studies, data were obtained that support the fact that shortening of hair cycle, slowing down of growth rates and thinning of hair shafts are heralding hair miniaturisation. In the workshop the TrichoScan, the method of Canfield and Skinterface have been shown. PMID:16382682

Hoffmann, Rolf; Van Neste, Dominique

2005-12-01

79

Hair regrowth following a Wnt- and follistatin containing treatment: safety and efficacy in a first-in-man phase 1 clinical trial.  

PubMed

Research has shown the importance of follistatin, Wnt 7a, and wound healing growth factors on the stimulation of bulge cells and inter-follicular stem cells to induce hair growth. We have studied the effects of a bioengineered, non-recombinant, human cell-derived formulation, termed Hair Stimulating Complex (HSC), containing these factors to assess its hair growth activity in male pattern baldness. HSC showed in vitro Wnt activity and contained follistatin, KGF, and VEGF. The clinical study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized single site trial and was designed to evaluate safety of the HSC product and assess efficacy in stimulating hair growth. All 26 subjects tolerated the single, intradermal injection of HSC procedures well, and no signs of an adverse reaction were reported. Histopathological evaluation of the treatment site biopsies taken at 22 and 52 weeks post-treatment revealed no abnormal morphology, hamartomas, or other pathological responses. Trichoscan image analysis of HSC-treated sites at 12 and 52 weeks showed significant improvements in hair growth over the placebo. At the initial 12-week evaluation period, HSC-treated sites demonstrated an increase in hair shaft thickness (6.3%±2.5% vs. -0.63%±2.1%; P=0.046), thickness density (12.8%±4.5% vs. -0.2%±2.9%; P=0.028), and terminal hair density (20.6±4.9% vs. 4.4±4.9%; P=0.029). At one year, a statistically significant increase in total hair count (P=0.032) continued to be seen. These results demonstrate that a single intradermal administration of HSC improved hair growth in subjects with androgenetic alopecia and is a clinical substantiation of previous preclinical research with Wnts, follistatin, and other growth factors associated with wound healing and regeneration. PMID:22052313

Zimber, Michael P; Ziering, Craig; Zeigler, Fraink; Hubka, Mark; Mansbridge, Jonathan N; Baumgartner, Mark; Hubka, Kelsea; Kellar, Robert; Perez-Meza, David; Sadick, Neil; Naughton, Gail K

2011-11-01

80

Inhibition of Bmp signaling affects growth and differentiation in the anagen hair follicle  

PubMed Central

Growth and differentiation of postnatal hair follicles are controlled by reciprocal interactions between the dermal papilla and the surrounding epidermal hair precursors. The molecular nature of these interactions is largely unknown, but they are likely to involve several families of signaling molecules, including Fgfs, Wnts and Bmps. To analyze the function of Bmp signaling in postnatal hair development, we have generated transgenic mice expressing the Bmp inhibitor, Noggin, under the control of the proximal Msx2 promoter, which drives expression in proliferating hair matrix cells and differentiating hair precursor cells. Differentiation of the hair shaft but not the inner root sheath is severely impaired in Msx2–Noggin transgenic mice. In addition to hair keratins, the expression of several transcription factors implicated in hair development, including Foxn1 and Hoxc13, is severely reduced in the transgenic hair follicles. Proliferating cells, which are normally restricted to the hair matrix surrounding the dermal papilla, are found in the precortex and hair shaft region. These results identify Bmps as key regulators of the genetic program controlling hair shaft differentiation in postnatal hair follicles. PMID:11118201

Kulessa, Holger; Turk, Gail; Hogan, Brigid L.M.

2000-01-01

81

Extraction and Analysis of Cortisol from Human and Monkey Hair  

PubMed Central

The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

2014-01-01

82

Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.  

PubMed

The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

2014-01-01

83

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

DOEpatents

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

2013-08-13

84

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

DOEpatents

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

Dietle, Lannie L. (Houston, TX); Schroeder, John E. (Richmond, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Alvarez, Patricio D. (Richmond, TX)

2010-09-21

85

Root Hairs  

PubMed Central

Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

2014-01-01

86

Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: part I. History and clinical examination.  

PubMed

Hair loss (alopecia) is a common problem and is often a major source of distress for patients. The differential diagnosis of alopecia includes both scarring and nonscarring alopecias. In addition, many hair shaft disorders can produce hair shaft fragility, resulting in different patterns of alopecia. Therefore, an organized and systematic approach is needed to accurately address patients' complaints to achieve the correct diagnosis. Part 1 of this 2-part continuing medical education article on alopecia describes history taking and the clinical examination of different hair loss disorders. It also provides an algorithmic diagnostic approach based on the most recent knowledge about different types of alopecia. PMID:25128118

Mubki, Thamer; Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Shapiro, Jerry

2014-09-01

87

Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice.

Yukiteru. Ouji; Masahide Yoshikawa; Akira Shiroi; Shigeaki Ishizaka

2006-01-01

88

To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders  

PubMed Central

Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

2014-01-01

89

Hair follicle morphogenesis and epidermal homeostasis in we/we wal/wal mice with postnatal alopecia.  

PubMed

Mice with skin and hair follicle (HF) defects are common models of human skin disorders. A mutant strain with the we/we wal/wal genotype develops alopecia. We found the hair shaft structure in the pelage of mutant mice to have significant defects. Although these mice lose their hair at 21 days, a label-retaining cell population persists in HFs until at least day 54. Depilation-induced anagen was accomplished in we/we wal/wal mutants but the resulting hair shafts were short and extremely deformed. Serious abnormalities in epidermis stratification and HF morphogenesis exist in we/we wal/wal homozygous E18.5 embryos. There were significantly fewer HF primordia in this mutant compared with wild type. We discovered specific structures, identified as invalid placodes, positive for ectodysplasin A1 receptor, nuclear ?-catenin, and LEF1, which failed to invaginate, produced a double basal-like layer of epidermal cells, and lacked cylindrical keratinocytes. Specification of dermal papillae (DP) was impaired, and the papillary dermis expressed alkaline phosphatase and LEF1. We also detected DP-like groups of intensively stained cells in the absence of visible signs of folliculogenesis in the epidermis. We showed differentiation disturbances in the mutant embryonic E18.5 epidermis and HFs: The cornified layer was absent, the width of the spinous layer was reduced, and HFs lacked LEF1-positive precortex cells. In this study, we used a very interesting and useful mouse model of alopecia. The presence of symptoms of skin disorders in we/we wal/wal murine embryos correlates with the postnatal skin phenotype. This correlation may help to evaluate reasons of alopecia. PMID:25366125

Rippa, Alexandra; Terskikh, Vasily; Nesterova, Anastasia; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina

2015-05-01

90

Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women  

PubMed Central

Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E.

2013-01-01

91

Spider joint hair sensilla: adaptation to proprioreceptive stimulation.  

PubMed

Adding to previous efforts towards a better understanding of the remarkable diversity of spider mechanosensitive hair sensilla, this study examines hairs of Cupiennius salei most likely serving a proprioreceptive function. At the tibia-metatarsus joint of all walking legs, there are two opposing groups of hairs ventrally on the tibia (20 hairs) and metatarsus (75 hairs), respectively. These hairs deflect each other when the joint flexes during locomotion, reversibly interlocking by microtrichs on their hair shafts. The torque resisting the hair deflection into the direction of natural stimulation is smaller by up to two powers of ten than that for the other directions. The torsional restoring constant S of the hair suspension is about 10(-10) Nm rad(-1) in the preferred direction, up to a hair deflection angle of 30° (mean of natural deflection angles). Joint movements were imposed in ranges and at rates measured in walking spiders and sensory action potentials recorded. Within the natural step frequencies (0.3-3 Hz) the rate of action potentials follows the velocity of hair deflection. All findings point to the morphological, mechanical, and physiological adaptedness of the joint hair sensilla to their proprioreceptive stimulation during locomotion. PMID:25398577

Schaber, Clemens F; Barth, Friedrich G

2015-02-01

92

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... enough protein from non-meat sources. And some athletes are at higher risk for hair loss because ... tik) alopecia. This is sometimes called male- or female-pattern baldness. This condition is caused by a ...

93

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... similar hair loss? Yes You may have classic MALE-PATTERN BALDNESS. Over-the-counter and prescription medicines are available to treat male-pattern baldness. See your doctor. He or she will determine ...

94

Autoantibodies to Hair Follicles in C3H\\/HeJ Mice With Alopecia Areata-Like Hair Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously described spontaneous but reversible hair loss that clinically and histologically resembles human alopecia areata in a colony of C3H\\/ HeJ mice. Alopecia areata in humans is associated with antibodies to hair follicles. This study was conducted to determine whether C3H\\/HeJ mice with hair loss have a similar abnormal antibody response to hair follicles. Eighteen C3H\\/HeJ mice with

Desmond J. Tobin; John P. Sundberg; Lloyd E. King Jr.; Dawnalyn Boggess; Jean-Claude Bystryn

1997-01-01

95

Analysis of a new fluoroquinolone derivative (Q-35) in human scalp hair as an index of drug exposure and as a time marker in hair.  

PubMed

Scalp hair samples were obtained every month for three months after administration from healthy male volunteers who participated in the phase I study of a new antimicrobial fluoroquinolone derivative (Q-35). Hairs were cut into 1 cm long pieces successively from the scalp end. Corresponding pieces of 5 hair strands were dissolved in 1 M NaOH and assessed for Q-35 by HPLC. The drug was detectable in the hairs of all subjects taking either a single (400 mg, n = 6) or repeated oral doses of Q-35 (400 mg/day for 6.5 days, total 2600 mg, n = 6). The hair portions containing the drug were shown in most subjects to move outwards along the hair shafts month by month in proportion to the hair growth rate of about 1 cm/month. Q-35 (600 mg/day) was also given to 6 healthy male volunteers for 6.5 days (total 3900 mg) and hair samples were obtained 1 and 3 months after administration. When Q-35 was analyzed along a single hair shaft, the drug was detectable only in 1-2 consecutive 1 cm long pieces, which were also shown to move outwards along the hair shaft with time. A detailed analysis revealed that the drug was contained only in 2-4 consecutive 2.5 mm long pieces of a single hair collected after 3 months, showing that there was no significant axial diffusion of the drug along the hair shaft with time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8068569

Uematsu, T; Ohsawa, Y; Mizuno, A; Nakashima, M

1994-01-01

96

Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth  

SciTech Connect

Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

2008-03-07

97

Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus  

DOEpatents

The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one end to a gear mechanism and at its other end to an adjustable coupling means which is to be connected to a rotatable shaft extending through a wall through which torque and rotary motion are to be transferred.

Griggs, J.E.; Newman, H.J.

1983-06-16

98

Topical liposome delivery of molecules to hair follicles in mice.  

PubMed

The hair cycle consisting of growing and resting phases, is subject to widespread disease such as androgenic alopecia or loss of pigment which are in need of effective, targeted therapeutics. In order to develop a hair-follicle delivery system we demonstrate here that phosphatidylcholine liposomes entrapping either the fluorescent dye calcein or the pigment melanin can deliver these molecules into the hair follicle and hair shafts of mice when applied topically. Liposomal delivery of these molecules is time dependent. Negligible amounts of delivered molecules enter the dermis, epidermis or blood stream thereby demonstrating the enrichment of follicle delivery. Naked calcein and melanin are trapped in the stratum corneum and are unable to enter the follicle. The potential of the hair-follicle liposome delivery system for therapeutic use for hair disease is discussed. PMID:9039973

Li, L; Hoffman, R M

1997-02-01

99

Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)  

MedlinePLUS

... for children and adolescents to play with their hair. However, frequent or obsessive hair pulling can lead to serious problems. The medical term for severe hair pulling is trichotillomania. People with trichotillomania pull hair ...

100

Hair Treatments and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... neutralization solution. Hair bleaching involves the use of hydrogen peroxide. Hair straighteners or hair relaxers involve a ... wearing protective gloves, taking frequent breaks, practicing safe storage of hair care products, and avoiding eating or ...

101

Topical liposome targeting of dyes, melanins, genes, and proteins selectively to hair follicles.  

PubMed

For therapeutic and cosmetic modification of hair, we have developed a hair-follicle-selective macromolecule and small molecule targeting system with topical application of phosphatidylcholine-based liposomes. Liposome-entrapped melanins, proteins, genes, and small-molecules have been selectively targeted to the hair follicle and hair shafts of mice. Liposomal delivery of these molecules is time dependent. Negligible amounts of delivered molecules enter the dermis, epidermis, or bloodstream thereby demonstrating selective follicle delivery. Naked molecules are trapped in the stratum corneum and are unable to enter the follicle. The potential of the hair-follicle liposome delivery system for therapeutic use for hair disease as well as for cosmesis has been demonstrated in 3-dimensional histoculture of hair-growing skin and mouse in vivo models. Topical liposome selective delivery to hair follicles has demonstrated the ability to color hair with melanin, the delivery of the active lac-Z gene to hair matrix cells and delivery of proteins as well. Liposome-targeting of molecules to hair follicles has also been achieved in human scalp in histoculture. Liposomes thus have high potential in selective hair follicle targeting of large and small molecules, including genes, opening the field of gene therapy and other molecular therapy of the hair process to restore hair growth, physiologically restore or alter hair pigment, and to prevent or accelerate hair loss. PMID:9588863

Hoffman, R M

1998-01-01

102

Reconstruction and morphometry of silkmoth olfactory hairs: A comparative study of sensilla trichodea on the antennae of male Antheraea polyphemus and Antheraea pernyi (Insecta, Lepidoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olfactory trichoid hairs on the antennae of male Antheraea silkmoths were reconstructed with respect to the following parameters: number, shape, course, and dimensions of outer dendritic segments as well as the numbers of their microtubules; inner and outer dimensions of the cuticular hair shafts; and number and distribution of pores and pore tubules in the hair walls. The smallest distances

T. A. Keil

1984-01-01

103

Structural scaling and functional design of the cercal wind-receptor hairs of cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have estimated the intrinsic mechanical parameters of cricket cercal wind-receptor hairs. The hairs were modeled as an\\u000a inverted pendulum, and mechanical parameters of the equation of motion were determined from data given by a systematic measurement\\u000a of mobility by the least-square error method. The theoretical torque which turns the hair shaft is given by the drag force\\u000a due to

T. Shimozawa; T. Kumagai; Y. Baba

1998-01-01

104

Female Pattern Hair Loss  

PubMed Central

Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

2013-01-01

105

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... How to apply self tanner How to prevent athlete's foot How to prevent skin conditions in athletes How to shave How to treat sunburn Skin ... type of hair loss are: Male-pattern baldness. Female-pattern baldness. Androgenetic alopecia. Luckily, most causes of ...

106

Nudging hair shedding by antidandruff shampoos. A comparison of 1% ketoconazole, 1% piroctone olamine and 1% zinc pyrithione formulations.  

PubMed

Hair shedding and hair thinning have been reported to be affected by dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The present study was conducted in 150 men presenting with telogen effluvium related to androgenic alopecia associated with dandruff. They were randomly allocated to three groups receiving each one of the three shampoos in the market containing either 1% ketoconazole (KTZ), 1% piroctone olamine (PTO) or 1% zinc pyrithione (ZPT). Shampoos had to be used 2-3 times a week for 6 months. Hair shedding during shampoo was evaluated semiquantitatively. Hair density on the vertex was evaluated on photographs using a Dermaphot. Trichograms were used for determining the anagen hair percentage and the mean proximal hair shaft diameter using computerized image analysis. The sebum excretion rate (SER, mug cm(-2) h(-1)) was also measured using a Sebumeter. The three treatments cleared pruritus and dandruff rapidly. At end point, hair density was unchanged, although hair shedding was decreased (KTZ: -17.3%, PTO: -16.5%, ZPT: -10.1%) and the anagen hair percentage was increased (KTZ: 4.9%, PTO: 7.9%, ZPT: 6.8%). The effect on the mean hair shaft diameter was contrasted between the three groups of volunteers (KTZ: 5.4%, PTO: 7.7%, ZPT: -2.2%). In conclusion, telogen effluvium was controlled by KTZ, PTO and ZPT shampoos at 1% concentration. In addition, KTZ and PTO increased the mean hair shaft thickness while discretely decreasing the sebum output at the skin surface. PMID:18498517

Piérard-Franchimont, C; Goffin, V; Henry, F; Uhoda, I; Braham, C; Piérard, G E

2002-10-01

107

[Forensic aspects of thermal changes in human head hair].  

PubMed

Under experimental conditions, head hairs of individuals of different age were exposed to defined increases of temperature up to 450 degrees C and examined by transmitted- and reflected-light microscopy with and without polarization. Preliminary tests had shown that the hair changes alone do not allow conclusions as to the temperature acting on the hair. Especially in the range of 200 to 300 degrees C, the temperature gradient during the heating process and the exposure time were additional influencing factors. Thick hair and hair with a high water content showed more pronounced thermal changes than thin hair. Elasticity and permeability of the cuticle and the cementing substance (cell membrane complex CMC) are also relevant factors. When heating head hairs lacking a medulla, a multiform pseudo-medulla formed under certain conditions. In the presence of thermally induced structural disturbances (e.g. by using hair straighteners), foreign substances can penetrate more easily into the hair shaft from outside. The possibility of such exogenous contamination has to be taken into consideration when performing chemical and toxicological analyses of hair. PMID:25004619

Kijewski, Harald

2014-01-01

108

Axle Shaft Optical Inspection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electro-optical instrument to gauge automotive rear axle shafts is described. A high contrast image of the axle lug flange is projected via a high quality photographic lens on two self-scanning linear photodiode arrays. In one three-second rotation, a dedicated digital processor measures bolt circle location, hole diameter and separation. The unit automatically: compares each measurement with preset tolerances, computes the average bolt circle diameter, computes the bolt circle runout, makes a pass/fail decision, provides a digital readout, marks the axle shaft with colored ink and provides the operator a pass/fail light.

Freese, Fritz; Geise, Philip; George, Eugene; Singh, Tom

1980-11-01

109

Help! It's Hair Loss!  

MedlinePLUS

... more hairs than usual are in the resting phase and fall out more easily. As a result, you lose more hair than usual. You might notice more hair on your brush or a big clump of hair in the drain after you shower. A fever, stress, or surgery can cause this change in your hair. The good news is that ...

110

An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan  

SciTech Connect

This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

Not Available

1987-03-01

111

Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts  

SciTech Connect

The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts.

Lentell, R.L. [AWD Technologies, Inc., Boise, ID (US); Byrne, J. [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, WA (US)

1993-09-01

112

Changing Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... straight when it's curly. Treatments That Can Damage Hair Are these treatments OK for kids? That's something ... woven, glued, or clipped into the hair. Damaged Hair? If you have used these or any other ...

113

14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must have provision for...

2014-01-01

114

14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must have provision for...

2012-01-01

115

14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must have provision for...

2010-01-01

116

14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must have provision for...

2010-01-01

117

14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must have provision for...

2012-01-01

118

14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must have provision for...

2011-01-01

119

14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must have provision for...

2013-01-01

120

14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must have provision for...

2013-01-01

121

14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must have provision for...

2011-01-01

122

14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must have provision for...

2014-01-01

123

Observations on Fur Development in Echidna (Monotremata, Mammalia) Indicate that Spines Precede Hairs in Ontogeny.  

PubMed

In the primitive mammal echidna, the initial 2-3 generations of skin appendages produced from birth forms spines and only later true hairs appear. Microscopy on preserved museum specimens reveals that the morphogenesis of spines and hairs is similar but that a larger dermal papilla is formed in spines. The growing shaft comprises a medulla surrounded by a cortex and by an external cuticle. A thick inner root sheath made of cornified cells surrounds the growing shaft inside the spine canal that eventually exits with a pointed tip. Hairs develop later with the same modality of spines but have a smaller papilla and give rise to a fur coat among spines. Therefore the integument of developing echidnas initially produces spines from large dermal papillae but the reduction in size of the papillae later determines the formation of hairs. Although the morphogenesis of spines and hairs can represent a case of specialization in this species, the primitive mammalian characteristics of echidnas has also inspired new speculations on the evolution of the mammalian hair from mammalian-like reptiles with a spiny coat. The resemblance in the morphogenesis between spines and hairs has suggested some hypothesis on hair evolution, in particular that hairs might be derived from the reduction of protective large spines present in ancient mammalian-like reptiles possibly derived from the reduction of pre-existing pointed scales. The hypothesis suggests that spines became reduced and internalized in the skin forming hairs. Anat Rec, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25367156

Alibardi, Lorenzo; Rogers, George

2014-11-01

124

Shaft Coupler With Friction and Spline Clutches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coupling, developed for rotor of lift/cruise aircraft, employs two clutches for smooth transmission of power from gas-turbine engine to rotor. Prior to ascent, coupling applies friction-type transition clutch that accelerates rotor shaft to speeds matching those of engine shaft. Once shafts synchronized, spline coupling engaged and friction clutch released to provide positive mechanical drive.

Thebert, Glenn W.

1987-01-01

125

Black hair follicular dysplasia, an autosomal recessive condition in dogs.  

PubMed Central

Using histology, a coat color abnormality and the subsequent hair loss were diagnosed as black hair follicular dysplasia. A pedigree analysis of an affected litter and literature review suggests that this is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor gene is ruled out by using linkage analysis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9789677

Schmutz, S M; Moker, J S; Clark, E G; Shewfelt, R

1998-01-01

126

c-Maf and MafB transcription factors are differentially expressed in Huxley's and Henle's layers of the inner root sheath of the hair follicle and regulate cuticle formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe hair follicle of mammalian skin consists of a group of concentric epithelial cell layers. The inner root sheath (IRS), which surrounds the hardening hair shaft beneath the skin surface, is subdivided into three layers, termed the cuticle of the IRS, Huxley's layer, and Henle's layer. The IRS forms a follicular wall in the hair canal and helps guide the

Masashi Miyai; Yoshihiro G. Tanaka; Akiyo Kamitani; Michito Hamada; Satoru Takahashi; Kohsuke Kataoka

2010-01-01

127

Measuring cortisol in hair and saliva from dogs: coat color and pigment differences.  

PubMed

Cortisol concentrations are frequently measured from a variety of sources including blood, saliva, urine, and feces to quantify stress in dogs. However, a need still exists for less intrusive collection methods in domestic animals and for more efficient means of measuring basal cortisol. The objectives of the present study were to minimize restraint for saliva sampling, to validate hair for basal cortisol measurement in dogs, and to determine concentrations of cortisol within the hair shaft and in relation to hair color. Using food luring, 79% of dogs required no restraint for saliva collection. Salivary and hair cortisol concentrations were positively correlated (P = 0.001), thus validating hair as a medium for basal cortisol quantification. Black dogs had less cortisol than nonblack dogs (P = 0.039) in hair, but not saliva. Across dogs, the average amount of cortisol did not differ between proximal and distal hair sections (P = 0.348). However, for 7 of the 9 dogs, more cortisol was present in the distal portions of the hair. We observed a difference in cortisol concentrations among hairs of different colors from individual dogs (P = 0.001). From the same 7 x 7 cm ischiatic patch from the same dog, black (eumelanin) hairs were consistently lower in cortisol than yellow (pheomelanin) hairs, and cortisol concentrations of agouti hairs were intermediate. This is the first evidence that hair of different colors might sequester cortisol differently. PMID:20705413

Bennett, A; Hayssen, V

2010-10-01

128

The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals  

E-print Network

The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals with abnormal hair A V Kalueff1 and P Tuohimaa2 1 Department of Anatomy, Medical School; 2 Department behaviour. Hair and skin exposed to water may be an important factor affecting the performance in this test

Kalueff, Allan V.

129

A Comprehensive Guide for the Recognition and Classification of Distinct Stages of Hair Follicle Morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous spontaneous and experimentally induced mouse mutations develop a hair phenotype, which is often associated with more or less discrete abnormalities in hair follicle development. In order to recognize these, it is critically important to be able to determine and to classify accurately the major stages of normal murine hair follicle morphogenesis. As an aid, we propose a pragmatic and

Ralf Paus; Sven Müller-Röver; Carina van der Veen; Marcus Maurer; Stefan Eichmüller; Gao Ling; Udo Hofmann; Kerstin Foitzik; Lars Mecklenburg; Bori Handjiski

1999-01-01

130

Case study: ancient sloth DNA recovered from hairs preserved in paleofeces.  

PubMed

Ancient hair, which has proved to be an excellent source of well-preserved ancient DNA, is often preserved in paleofeces. Here, we separate and wash hair shafts preserved in a paleofecal specimen believed to be from a Darwin's ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. After extracting DNA from the recovered and cleaned hair using a protocol optimized for DNA extraction from keratinous substrates, we amplify 12S and 16S rDNA sequences from the DNA extract. As expected, the recovered sequences most closely match previously published sequences of M. darwinii. Our results demonstrate that hair preserved in paleofeces, even from temperate cave environments, is an effective source of ancient DNA. PMID:22237521

Clack, Andrew A; Macphee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

2012-01-01

131

Hair follicle Formation of  

E-print Network

Hair follicle Formation of new follicles Bud Healed skin Hair bulge Open wound Epidermis a b Dermis 1950s and help to explain the controversy. What is the origin of the cells that make up these new hair follicles? Are they derived from existing hair follicles located at the wound edge

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

132

Removing Hair Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... common methods of hair removal. back to top Laser Hair Removal In this method, a laser destroys hair follicles with heat. Sometimes it is ... a topical anesthetic product be used before a laser hair removal procedure, to minimize pain. In these ...

133

Hair Cosmetics: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

2015-01-01

134

Hair loss in women.  

PubMed

Hair loss is a common cause of morbidity for many women. As a key member of the woman's health care team, the obstetrician/gynecologist may be the first person to evaluate the complaint of hair loss. Common types of nonscarring hair loss, including female pattern hair loss and telogen effluvium, may be diagnosed and managed by the obstetrician/gynecologist. A systematic approach to diagnosis and management of these common forms of hair loss is presented. PMID:25517757

Harfmann, Katya L; Bechtel, Mark A

2015-03-01

135

Dermal papilla cell number specifies hair size, shape and cycling and its reduction causes follicular decline.  

PubMed

Although the hair shaft is derived from the progeny of keratinocyte stem cells in the follicular epithelium, the growth and differentiation of follicular keratinocytes is guided by a specialized mesenchymal population, the dermal papilla (DP), that is embedded in the hair bulb. Here we show that the number of DP cells in the follicle correlates with the size and shape of the hair produced in the mouse pelage. The same stem cell pool gives rise to hairs of different sizes or types in successive hair cycles, and this shift is accompanied by a corresponding change in DP cell number. Using a mouse model that allows selective ablation of DP cells in vivo, we show that DP cell number dictates the size and shape of the hair. Furthermore, we confirm the hypothesis that the DP plays a crucial role in activating stem cells to initiate the formation of a new hair shaft. When DP cell number falls below a critical threshold, hair follicles with a normal keratinocyte compartment fail to generate new hairs. However, neighbouring follicles with a few more DP cells can re-enter the growth phase, and those that do exploit an intrinsic mechanism to restore both DP cell number and normal hair growth. These results demonstrate that the mesenchymal niche directs stem and progenitor cell behaviour to initiate regeneration and specify hair morphology. Degeneration of the DP population in mice leads to the types of hair thinning and loss observed during human aging, and the results reported here suggest novel approaches to reversing hair loss. PMID:23487317

Chi, Woo; Wu, Eleanor; Morgan, Bruce A

2013-04-01

136

Shaft mount for data coupler system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for mounting a data transmission apparatus to a rotating, tapered, and instrumented shaft is provided. This device permits attachment without interfering with shaft rotation or the accuracy of data output, and prevents both radial and axial slippage of the data transmission apparatus. The mounting device consists of a sleeve assembly which is attached to the shaft by means of clamps that are situated at some distance removed from the instrumented area of the shaft. The data transmission device is secured to the sleeve such that the entire assembly rotates with the shaft. Shim adjustments between sleeve sections assure that a minimum compressive load is transferred to the instrumented area of the shaft and a rubber lining is affixed to a large portion of the interior surface of the sleeve to absorb vibration.

Elliott, James R., Jr. (inventor); Lord, Mark T. (inventor)

1993-01-01

137

Securing Bearing Races To Turbopump Shafts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed method of attaching inner race of roller bearing to shaft prevents loosening now caused by difference between coefficients of thermal expansion of race and shaft materials. Intended for cryogenic turbopump in which race made of 440C stainless-steel alloy and shaft made of Inconel(R) 100 nickel alloy. Flanges of race replaced by tension bands that shrink faster as they are cooled. Tension band engages race on slightly sloping surface so axial forces do not dislodge it.

Blount, Dale H.

1990-01-01

138

Activation of beta-catenin signaling programs embryonic epidermis to hair follicle fate  

PubMed Central

?-catenin signaling is required for hair follicle development, but it is unknown whether its activation is sufficient to globally program embryonic epidermis to hair follicle fate. To address this we mutated endogenous epithelial ?-catenin to a dominant active form in vivo. Hair follicle placodes were expanded and induced prematurely in activated ?-catenin mutant embryos, but failed to invaginate or form multilayered structures. Eventually, the entire epidermis adopted hair follicle fate, broadly expressing hair shaft keratins in place of epidermal stratification proteins. Mutant embryonic skin was precociously innervated, and displayed prenatal pigmentation, a phenomenon never observed in wild-type controls. Thus ?-catenin signaling programs the epidermis towards placode and hair shaft fate at the expense of epidermal differentiation, and activates signals directing pigmentation and innervation. In transcript profiling experiments we identified elevated expression of Sp5, a direct ?-catenin target and transcriptional repressor. We show that Sp5 normally localizes to hair follicle placodes and can suppress epidermal differentiation gene expression. We identified the pigmentation regulators Foxn1, Adamsts20 and Kitl, and the neural guidance genes Sema4c, Sema3c, Unc5b and Unc5c, as potential mediators of the effects of ?-catenin signaling on pigmentation and innervation. Our data provide evidence for a new paradigm in which, in addition to promoting hair follicle placode and hair shaft fate, ?-catenin signaling actively suppresses epidermal differentiation and directs pigmentation and nerve fiber growth. Controlled downregulation of ?-catenin signaling is required for normal placode patterning within embryonic ectoderm, hair follicle downgrowth, and adoption of the full range of follicular fates. PMID:18480165

Zhang, Yuhang; Andl, Thomas; Yang, Steven H.; Teta, Monica; Liu, Fei; Seykora, John T.; Tobias, John W.; Piccolo, Stefano; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Nagy, Andras; Taketo, Makoto M.; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.; Millar, Sarah E.

2008-01-01

139

Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its computational and algorithmic  

E-print Network

1 Abstract Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its the complex behavior of long human hair, taking into account the hair-to-hair interactions. For long hair, we propose the thin shell volume (TSV) model for enhancing hair realism by simulating complex hair-hair

Shahabi, Cyrus

140

Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: part II. Trichoscopic and laboratory evaluations.  

PubMed

The use of trichoscopy for evaluating a number of hair and scalp disorders is gaining popularity. It is a simple and noninvasive in vivo tool for visualizing hair shafts and the scalp. Recently, alopecias have been classified according to their trichoscopic findings. The second part of this 2-part continuing medical education article reviews recent advances in this field and describes a systematic approach for using the differential diagnostic findings of trichoscopy in alopecia. PMID:25128119

Mubki, Thamer; Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Shapiro, Jerry

2014-09-01

141

Defining BMP functions in the hair follicle byconditional ablation of BMP receptor IA  

Microsoft Academic Search

sing conditional gene targeting in mice, we show that BMP receptor IA is essential for the differentiation of progenitor cells of the inner root sheath and hair shaft. Without BMPRIA activation, GATA-3 is down-regulated and its regulated control of IRS differentiation is compro- mised. In contrast, Lef1 is up-regulated, but its regulated control of hair differentiation is still blocked, and

Krzysztof Kobielak; H. Amalia Pasolli; Laura Alonso; Lisa Polak; Elaine Fuchs

142

A Hot New Twist to Hair Biology  

PubMed Central

The vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1, or transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor, TRPV1) is activated by capsaicin, the key ingredient of hot peppers. TRPV1 was originally described on sensory neurons as a central integrator of various nociceptive stimuli. However, several human skin cell populations are also now recognized to express TRPV1, but with unknown function. Exploiting the human hair follicle (HF) as a prototypic epithelial-mesenchymal interaction system, we have characterized the HF expression of TRPV1 in situ and have examined TRPV1 signaling in organ-cultured human scalp HF and outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes in vitro. TRPV1 immunoreactivity was confined to distinct epithelial compartments of the human HF, mainly to the ORS and hair matrix. In organ culture, TRPV1 activation by capsaicin resulted in a dose-dependent and TRPV1-specific inhibition of hair shaft elongation, suppression of proliferation, induction of apoptosis, premature HF regression (catagen), and up-regulation of intrafollicular transforming growth factor-?2. Cultured human ORS keratinocytes also expressed functional TRPV1, whose stimulation inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, elevated intracellular calcium concentration, up-regulated known endogenous hair growth inhibitors (interleukin-1?, transforming growth factor-?2), and down-regulated known hair growth promoters (hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I, stem cell factor). These findings strongly support TRPV1 as a significant novel player in human hair growth control, underscore the physiological importance of TRPV1 in human skin beyond nociception, and identify TRPV1 as a promising, novel target for pharmacological manipulations of epithelial growth disorders. PMID:15793280

Bodó, Enik?; Bíró, Tamás; Telek, Andrea; Czifra, Gabriella; Griger, Zoltán; Tóth, Balázs I.; Mescalchin, Alessandra; Ito, Taisuke; Bettermann, Albrecht; Kovács, László; Paus, Ralf

2005-01-01

143

Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle.  

PubMed

Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine, ceramide in decreasing order. Minor constituents of IHL are cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate and cholesterol oleate. Cuticle or cortical cell surface in hair are abundant in fatty acids unlike the keratinized area of epidermis or sebaceous gland, and about 30-40% of such fatty acids are composed of 18-methyl-eicosanoic acid which is known to be bound to proteins by ester or thioester bond. Various factors including moisture, solvent, oxidative damage during bleaching or permanent waving affect IHL. Photochemical changes also can occur in IHL as well as in hair protein and hair pigment. Lipid metabolism is thought to play an essential role in lipid envelope of hair, but also involvement in hair development and function. PMID:21906914

Lee, Won-Soo

2011-12-01

144

Hair Loss in New Moms  

MedlinePLUS

... Hair loss in new moms Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... shedding after having a baby. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

145

Laser-assisted hair removal: Side effects of Q-switched Nd:YAG, long-pulsed ruby, and alexandrite lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laser-assisted hair removal has become popularized using wavelengths in both the red and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These photoepilation devices target follicular melanin or an exogenous pigment placed within the follicle resulting in thermal damage to the hair follicle and shaft. However, melanocytes and keratinocytes located within the superficial layers of the skin also absorb red and

Christopher A. Nanni; Tina S. Alster

1999-01-01

146

An analysis of shaft/shaft seal interaction of a multiple disk centrifugal blood pump  

E-print Network

the most appropriate course to limit these effects. Teflon and Nylon were analyzed as potential shaft seal candidates with both a stainless steel shaft and a Melonite 9 coated shaft, the latter provided by Houston Unlimited Inc. Metal Processing in Chappell...

Manning, Keefe Baird

1997-01-01

147

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

148

Unitary Shaft-Angle and Shaft-Speed Sensor Assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure depicts a unit that contains a rotary-position or a rotary-speed sensor, plus electronic circuitry necessary for its operation, all enclosed in a single housing with a shaft for coupling to an external rotary machine. This rotation sensor unit is complete: when its shaft is mechanically connected to that of the rotary machine and it is supplied with electric power, it generates an output signal directly indicative of the rotary position or speed, without need for additional processing by other circuitry. The incorporation of all of the necessary excitatory and readout circuitry into the housing (in contradistinction to using externally located excitatory and/or readout circuitry) in a compact arrangement is the major difference between this unit and prior rotation-sensor units. The sensor assembly inside the housing includes excitatory and readout integrated circuits mounted on a circular printed-circuit board. In a typical case in which the angle or speed transducer(s) utilize electromagnetic induction, the assembly also includes another circular printed-circuit board on which the transducer windings are mounted. A sheet of high-magnetic permeability metal ("mu metal") is placed between the winding board and the electronic-circuit board to prevent spurious coupling of excitatory signals from the transducer windings to the readout circuits. The housing and most of the other mechanical hardware can be common to a variety of different sensor designs. Hence, the unit can be configured to generate any of variety of outputs by changing the interior sensor assembly. For example, the sensor assembly could contain an analog tachometer circuit that generates an output proportional (in both magnitude and sign or in magnitude only) to the speed of rotation.

Alhorn, Dean C.; Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

2006-01-01

149

Diagnosis of Hair Loss  

PubMed Central

Common causes of hair loss include androgenic hair loss, alopecia areata, trichotillomania, tinea capitis, telogen effluvium, and traction alopecia. The author discusses their distinguishing clinical features and those of less common alopecias. ImagesFigures 1-4 PMID:21221382

Coupe, Robert L.M.

1992-01-01

150

Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata) Information for adults A A A This image displays a close-up of the scalp with a round area of non-scarring hair loss typical of alopecia areata. Overview Alopecia areata ...

151

The diaphanous Gene of Drosophila Interacts Antagonistically with multiple wing hairs and Plays a Key Role in Wing Hair Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

The Drosophila wing is covered by an array of distally pointing hairs that has served as a key model system for studying planar cell polarity (PCP). The adult cuticular hairs are formed in the pupae from cell extensions that contain extensive actin filaments and microtubules. The importance of the actin cytoskeleton for hair growth and morphogenesis is clear from the wide range of phenotypes seen in mutations in well-known actin regulators. Formin proteins promote the formation of long actin filaments of the sort thought to be important for hair growth. We report here that the formin encoding diaphanous (dia) gene plays a key role in hair morphogenesis. Both loss of function mutations and the expression of a constitutively active Dia led to cells forming both morphologically abnormal hairs and multiple hairs. The conserved frizzled (fz)/starry night (stan) PCP pathway functions to restrict hair initiation and activation of the cytoskeleton to the distal most part of wing cells. It also ensures the formation of a single hair per cell. Our data suggest that the localized inhibition of Dia activity may be part of this mechanism. We found the expression of constitutively active Dia greatly expands the region for activation of the cytoskeleton and that dia functions antagonistically with multiple wing hairs (mwh), the most downstream member of the fz/stan pathway. Further we established that purified fragments of Dia and Mwh could be co-immunoprecipitated suggesting the genetic interaction could reflect a direct physical interaction. PMID:25730111

Lu, Qiuheng; Adler, Paul N.

2015-01-01

152

The diaphanous Gene of Drosophila Interacts Antagonistically with multiple wing hairs and Plays a Key Role in Wing Hair Morphogenesis.  

PubMed

The Drosophila wing is covered by an array of distally pointing hairs that has served as a key model system for studying planar cell polarity (PCP). The adult cuticular hairs are formed in the pupae from cell extensions that contain extensive actin filaments and microtubules. The importance of the actin cytoskeleton for hair growth and morphogenesis is clear from the wide range of phenotypes seen in mutations in well-known actin regulators. Formin proteins promote the formation of long actin filaments of the sort thought to be important for hair growth. We report here that the formin encoding diaphanous (dia) gene plays a key role in hair morphogenesis. Both loss of function mutations and the expression of a constitutively active Dia led to cells forming both morphologically abnormal hairs and multiple hairs. The conserved frizzled (fz)/starry night (stan) PCP pathway functions to restrict hair initiation and activation of the cytoskeleton to the distal most part of wing cells. It also ensures the formation of a single hair per cell. Our data suggest that the localized inhibition of Dia activity may be part of this mechanism. We found the expression of constitutively active Dia greatly expands the region for activation of the cytoskeleton and that dia functions antagonistically with multiple wing hairs (mwh), the most downstream member of the fz/stan pathway. Further we established that purified fragments of Dia and Mwh could be co-immunoprecipitated suggesting the genetic interaction could reflect a direct physical interaction. PMID:25730111

Lu, Qiuheng; Adler, Paul N

2015-01-01

153

Hair Loss (Alopecia)  

Cancer.gov

Some types of chemotherapy cause the hair on your head, and other parts of your body, to fall out. Radiation therapy can also cause hair loss on the part of the body radiation therapy. Hair loss is called alopecia. Talk with your health care team to learn if the cancer treatment you will be receiving causes hair loss. Your doctor or nurse will share strategies that have worked for others, including those listed below.

154

Dynamic analysis of a rotating composite shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the dynamic instability of an internally damped rotating composite shaft. A homogenized finite element beam model, which takes into account internal damping, is introduced and then used to evaluate natural frequencies and instability thresholds. The influence of laminate parameters: stacking sequences, fiber orientation, transversal shear effect on natural frequencies and instability thresholds of the shaft

R. Sino; T. N. Baranger; E. Chatelet; G. Jacquet

2008-01-01

155

The structure of people’s hair  

PubMed Central

Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

2014-01-01

156

Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft  

DOEpatents

A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

Post, Richard F.

2003-12-02

157

Instabilities and bifurcations in a rotating shaft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flexural vibrations of a slender, balanced rotating shaft are considered. The shaft is of circular cross-section, it rotates at a constant rate about its longitudinal axis of symmetry, and is made of a viscoelastic material. The effects of large transverse displacements and external sources of dissipation are also included. The resulting non-linear model is analyzed for stability and bifurcations of the trivial shaft configuration (the undeformed, straight position). The instabilities are predicted by using the linearized shaft model and the post-critical behaviors are determined by applying center manifold theory to the full non-linear equations of motion. The bifurcations encountered are simple Hopf, double Hopf, and double zero eigenvalues. It is determined that synchronous whirl, non-synchronous whirl, and competing-mode types of behavior are possible for various ranges of the parameter values. The results obtained prove that the modal truncations typically used when analyzing continuous shaft instabilities are mathematically justifiable.

Shaw, J.; Shaw, S. W.

1989-07-01

158

Shaft Sinking at the Nevada Test Site, U1h Shaft Project  

SciTech Connect

The U1h Shaft Project is a design/build subcontract to construct one 6.1 meter (m) (20 feet (ft)) finished diameter shaft to a depth of 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) at the Nevada Test Site. Atkinson Construction was subcontracted by Bechtel Nevada to construct the U1h Shaft for the U.S. Department of Energy. The project consists of furnishing and installing the sinking plant, construction of the 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) of concrete lined shaft, development of a shaft station at a depth of 297.5 m (976 ft.), and construction of a loading pocket at the station. The outfitting of the shaft and installation of a new hoist may be incorporated into the project at a later date. This paper will describe the design phase, the excavation and lining operation, shaft station construction and the contractual challenges encountered on this project.

B. Briggs; R. Musick

2001-03-01

159

Nonunion of the humeral shaft.  

PubMed

Retrospective review of records of 26 patients with nonunion of the humeral shaft revealed several factors frequently associated with the development of nonunion. The fractures were transverse and short oblique and treated per primam with hanging casts or open reduction. Surgical fixation was unstable. The types of nonunion were atrophic in 19 patients, hypertrophic in five patients, and synovial pseudarthrosis in two patients. Twenty-four of 26 nonunions (92%) treated with bone grafts and rigid internal fixation healed in an average of 5.6 months. Overall, 47 surgical procedures, including prior procedures, were performed on these 26 nonunions. The average number of operations per patient was 1.8. Successful platings produced immobilization, consisting of an average of 6.8 points of cortical fixation above the nonunion and 7.1 cortices below. Rigid fixation was not obtained in the unsuccessful procedures. Unsuccessful platings were noted to have unstable fixation, with an average of 2.7 points of cortical fixation above the nonunion and 3.0 cortices below. Bone grafting was performed in only 55% of the unsuccessful platings. Optimal treatment of nonunions of the humeral shaft consists of resecting atrophic nonunions, shortening the bones, drilling sclerotic areas, and apposing bleeding diaphyseal surfaces; open reduction with internal fixation with a broad compression plate, including at least six points of cortical fixation above and below the nonunion; compression of the nonunion by means of interfragmentary lag screws, prestressing of the plate, dynamic compression by the plate, or direct compression by the external compression device; and autogeneic cancellous iliac bone grafts. PMID:3555925

Healy, W L; White, G M; Mick, C A; Brooker, A F; Weiland, A J

1987-06-01

160

Nail abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Nail abnormalities are problems with the color, shape, texture, or thickness of the fingernails or toenails. ... Infection: Fungus or yeast cause changes in the color, texture, and shape of the nails. Bacterial infection may cause a ...

161

Chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome

K. Goh; R. F. Jacox; F. W. Anderson

1980-01-01

162

A new approach to the study of human hair by means of FT-IR microspectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

(FT-IR-M) using a high-pressure diamond cell. Microareas of the order of one hundred microns in diameter were analyzed, proceeding from bulb to shaft, for hairs in anagen, catagen, and telogen phases. The trends of the ratio values of integrated areas of the bands at 1080 and 1540 cm-  and at 1080 and 1238 cm-  in the three different

EMILIA BRAMANTI; FRANCESCA RONCA; LAURA TEODORI; MARIA LUISA TRINCA; FEDERICO PAPINESCHI; EDOARDO BENEDETTI; GIULIANO SPREMOLLA; PIERGIORGIO VERGAMINI

1992-01-01

163

The measurement of ofloxacin in hair as an index of exposure.  

PubMed

Several strands of hair were collected from each of patients who had been taking ofloxacin against bacterial infections some time in the past. In 10 out of total 14 subjects studied the drug was detected only in the hair portions corresponding to the administration period with the assumption of the hair growth rate of about 1 cm/month. Even in a subject who had received 300 mg/day of ofloxacin only for two days the drug could be detected in the corresponding portion. In 3 subjects the drug was detected in some other portion(s) than the corresponding ones. This might be due to the uncertainty of having used the drug on the other occasion. Only in one subject the dosage history could not be deduced from the drug distribution along hair length. In 3 subjects, who had taken the drug within 1 month, hair samples were collected every month for 3 or 4 consecutive months. The front of drug appearance in hair was clearly shown to move outwards along hair shaft every month at a pace of 1-1.5 cm/month. These results suggest that ofloxacin is excreted into human scalp hair, captured there and moves outwards along the hair shaft at its own growth rate. This leads to the concept that the distribution of ofloxacin along hair length can be used for knowing the individual exposure or non-exposure to the drug, and even for knowing hair growth rate when the innoculation(s) of the drug is strictly supervised and recorded. PMID:1884739

Uematsu, T; Miyazawa, N; Nakashima, M

1991-01-01

164

A Guide to Assessing Damage Response Pathways of the Hair Follicle: Lessons From Cyclophosphamide-Induced Alopecia in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

After chemical, biological, or physical damage, growing (i.e. anagen) hair follicles develop abnormalities that are collectively called hair follicle dystrophy. Comparatively lower follicular damage induces the “dystrophic anagen” response pathway (=prolonged, dystrophic anagen, followed by severely retarded follicular recovery). More severe follicular damage induces the dystrophic catagen pathway (=immediate anagen termination, followed by a dystrophic, abnormally shortened telogen and maximally

Sven Hendrix; Bori Handjiski; Eva M. J. Peters; Ralf Paus

2005-01-01

165

Evaluation of the ruby 694 Chromos for hair removal in various skin sites.  

PubMed

Lasers have been established as effective treatment for hair removal, with possible long-term suppression of hair growth in treated areas. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term hair regrowth after treatment with the ruby laser. Volunteers recruited into the 1997-99 study were divided between three treatment groups, each having left and right treatment sides. Two treatments were given on both sides at monthly intervals. A third treatment was given randomly to one side. Hair counts of the experimental sites were made at monthly intervals for 1 year. The three patient groups were: top lip (25), axillae (25) and legs (19). Long-term hair reduction was achieved in all patients. A single treatment reduced hair counts by up to 75. Three treatments had an impact for 2 additional months, but not long term. Unexpected spontaneous hair reduction was found 5 months following treatment and lasted 2 months. This ruby laser produced a persistent two-thirds reduction in hair count over 8 months of follow-up. Extension of the follow-up to 12 months did not show significant regrowth. Existing experimental data, together with the results of this study, suggest that hair shaft damage is the key feature in achieving damage to the hair-producing mechanism. The correlation of treatment success and anagen growth phase is less likely. PMID:14505201

Allison, K P; Kiernan, M N; Waters, R A; Clement, R M

2003-01-01

166

COW PLACENTA EXTRACT PROMOTES MURINE HAIR GROWTH THROUGH ENHANCING THE INSULIN - LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-1  

PubMed Central

Background: Hair loss is seen as an irreversible process. Most research concentrates on how to elongate the anagen, reduce the negative factors of obstructing hair growth and improve the hair number and size. Aim: In our experiment, we tried to prove that the cow placenta extract can promote hair growth by elongating hair shaft and increasing hair follicle number. Materials and Methods: Cow placenta extract (CPE), water and minoxidil applied separately on the back of depilated B57CL/6 mice for the case, negative and positive control respectively. We checked the proliferation of cells which are resident in hair sheath, and the expression of a few growth factors which stimulate hair growth. Results: Result shows that placenta extract more efficiently accelerates cell division and growth factor expression, by raising the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) mRNA and protein level to increase HF size and hair length. Conclusions: The extract is not a purified product; so, it is less effective than minoxidil, which is approved by the US FDA for the treatment of male pattern baldness. If refinement is done, the placenta extract would be a good candidate medicine for hair loss. PMID:21572784

Zhang, Dongliang; Lijuan, Gu; Jingjie, Li; Zheng, Li; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Lei; Mira, Li; Sung, Changkeun

2011-01-01

167

Black hair follicular dysplasia in Large Münsterländer dogs: clinical, histological and ultrastructural features.  

PubMed

Four Large Münsterländer cross-bred dogs affected with black hair follicular dysplasia (BHFD) and one unaffected control littermate were observed, and skin was sampled weekly over the first 19 weeks of life. Affected dogs were born with silvery grey hair, a consequence of melanin clumping in the hair shafts. Hair bulb melanocytes were densely pigmented, and contained abundant stage IV melanosomes but adjacent matrix keratinocytes lacked melanosomes. Melanin clumping was not prominent in epidermal melanocytes in the haired skin but occurred in the foot pads. Follicular changes progressed from bulbar clumping, clumping in the isthmus/infundibulum and finally to dysplastic hair shafts. Alopecia developed progressively in pigmented areas. Silver-grey hair, melanin clumping, accumulation of stage IV melanosomes within melanocytes and insufficient melanin transfer to adjacent keratinocytes are also classic features of human Griscelli syndrome. The underlying cause in Griscelli syndrome is a defect of melanocytic intracellular transport proteins leading to inadequate and disorganized melanosome transfer to keratinocytes with resultant melanin clumping. In view of the correlation in the phenotype, histology and ultrastructure between both disorders, a defect in intracellular melanosome transport is postulated as the pathogenic mechanism in BHFD. PMID:16674733

von Bomhard, Wolf; Mauldin, Elizabeth A; Schmutz, Sheila M; Leeb, Tosso; Casal, Margret L

2006-06-01

168

ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL  

E-print Network

415 ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL J-Y. TINEVEZ , P. MARTIN Laboratoire The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair

Jülicher, Frank

169

Measuring deflections in a rotating shaft  

E-print Network

was low, the de f1 ecti ons due to static 1 oads were sufficiently large to measure with a dial indicator, Furthermore, the low modulus of elasticity afforded a relatively low critical speed. This decreased the possibility of shaft or bearing failure... fixed in the bearing by two set screws. On the other end, however, the shaft was free to move in the axial direction. This was accomplished by sliding a keyed collar 3. 4 inches long onto the end of the shaft. The collar was then clamped...

Bailey, Edmond Ira

1968-01-01

170

Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle  

PubMed Central

The hair follicle is a cyclic biological system that progresses through stages of growth, regression, and quiescence, which involves dynamic changes in a program of gene regulation. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are critically important for the control of gene expression and silencing. Here, we show that global miRNA expression in the skin markedly changes during distinct stages of the hair cycle in mice. Furthermore, we show that expression of miR-31 markedly increases during anagen and decreases during catagen and telogen. Administration of antisense miR-31 inhibitor into mouse skin during the early- and midanagen phases of the hair cycle results in accelerated anagen development, and altered differentiation of hair matrix keratinocytes and hair shaft formation. Microarray, qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that miR-31 negatively regulates expression of Fgf10, the components of Wnt and BMP signaling pathways Sclerostin and BAMBI, and Dlx3 transcription factor, as well as selected keratin genes, both in vitro and in vivo. Using luciferase reporter assay, we show that Krt16, Krt17, Dlx3, and Fgf10 serve as direct miR-31 targets. Thus, by targeting a number of growth regulatory molecules and cytoskeletal proteins, miR-31 is involved in establishing an optimal balance of gene expression in the hair follicle required for its proper growth and hair fiber formation.—Mardaryev, A. N., Ahmed, M. I., Vlahov, N. V., Fessing, M. Y., Gill, J. H., Sharov, A. A., and Botchkareva, N. V. Micro-RNA-31 controls hair cycle-associated changes in gene expression programs of the skin and hair follicle. PMID:20522784

Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Ahmed, Mohammed I.; Vlahov, Nikola V.; Fessing, Michael Y.; Gill, Jason H.; Sharov, Andrey A.; Botchkareva, Natalia V.

2010-01-01

171

Cosmetics and hair loss.  

PubMed

Cosmetic hair care products are often implicated by the user or the clinician in cases of hair loss. Yet, these products are used ad lib, in a wide variety of home conditions and on a wide variety of hair types, by millions of consumers every day with no adverse effects. Based on this extensive data set, the absence of literature reports, and a detailed understanding of the mode of action of cosmetic hair care products, we can conclude that they do not cause hair loss. Clinicians investigating cases of hair loss must fully appreciate the hair cycle, the length of time a single fibre may be present on the head, and its biological and cosmetic history in order to understand the causes of hair loss and make the correct diagnosis. With a better understanding of the cosmetic practices used by everyday consumers, the clinician will be in a strong position to help patients re-grow their hair and guide them through a high quality hair care regime. PMID:12190643

Gummer, C L

2002-07-01

172

Chromosomal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

1980-09-01

173

Taking Care of Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... or pulling them out without professional help can cause hair and scalp damage or even hair loss. Sometimes hair breakage and dry, brittle hair are signs of a medical problem, such as hypothyroidism or an eating disorder. If your hair is breaking even though you ...

174

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2014-07-01

175

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2011-07-01

176

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2013-07-01

177

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2012-07-01

178

Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure  

SciTech Connect

The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

179

Flexible shaft and roof drilling system  

DOEpatents

A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

1981-01-01

180

Hair phenotype in non-syndromic deafness.  

PubMed

The GJB2 gene is located on chromosome 13q12 and it encodes the connexin 26, a transmembrane protein involved in cell-cell attachment of almost all tissues. GJB2 mutations cause autosomal recessive (DFNB1) and sometimes dominant (DFNA3) non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that connexins are involved in regulation of growth and differentiation of epidermal tissues. Hence, mutations in GJB2 gene, which is responsible for non-syndromic deafness, may be associated with an abnormal skin and hair phenotype. We analyzed hair samples from 96 subjects: a study group of 42 patients with hearing impairments of genetic origin (38 with a non-syndromic form, 4 with a syndromic form), and a control group including 54 people, i.e. 43 patients with other, non-genetic hearing impairments and 11 healthy volunteers aged up to 10 years old. The surface structure of 49 hair samples was normal, whereas in 45 cases it was altered, with a damaged appearance. Two hair samples were considered unclassifiable: one from the patient heterozygotic for the pendrin mutation (Fig. 2C), the other from a patient from Ghana with a R134W mutation (Fig. 2D). Among the 43 altered hair samples, 31 belonged to patients with connexin mutations and the other 12 came from patients without connexin mutations. PMID:23751281

Volo, T; Sathiyaseelan, T; Astolfi, L; Guaran, V; Trevisi, P; Emanuelli, E; Martini, A

2013-08-01

181

30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911...Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All...shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development....

2011-07-01

182

30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911...Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All...shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development....

2012-07-01

183

30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911...Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All...shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development....

2014-07-01

184

30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911...Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All...shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development....

2013-07-01

185

Advances and challenges in hair restoration of curly Afrocentric hair.  

PubMed

Although the biochemical composition of hair is similar among racial and ethnic groups, the hair structure between them varies, and individuals with curly hair pose specific challenges and special considerations when a surgical option for alopecia is considered. Hair restoration in this population should therefore be approached with knowledge on the clinical characteristics of curly hair, hair grooming techniques that may influence the management, unique indications for the procedure, surgical instrumentation used, and the complications that may arise. PMID:24680003

Rogers, Nicole E; Callender, Valerie D

2014-04-01

186

[Green hair: clinical, chemical and epidemiologic study. Apropos of a case].  

PubMed

A 36-year-old blond woman suddenly developed green tinted hair following exposure to swimming pool water. This was the first green discoloration she noticed, although she had been an active swimmer for several years. Clinical examination showed green tinting toward the distal ends of the most superficial strands of hair. The copper content of plucked green hair measured by atomic absorption was elevated to 3,900 ppm and the copper concentration in water from the swimming pool implicated was 9.94 ppm. Following renewal, the latter value decreased to 107 ppb. Hair examination under polarizing light was normal, and a scanning electronmicroscopic study of hair samples showed a total loss of cuticle with micropits scattered over the hair shaft surface mimicking a "dead tree trunk". Epidemiological investigations showed that the increased copper content of swimming pool water was due to added algaecides without adequate replacement of the water. Hair damage resulting from repeated waving and/or bleaching of the hair turns out to be an important factor in the deposition of copper by inducing an increase in keratin content of cysteic acid and related anionic sulfonate groups which participate in copper adsorption. On the ocassion of this case-report, epidemiological data published by others, together with the chemical and therapeutic aspects of green hair are reviewed. PMID:3202580

Blanc, D; Zultak, M; Rochefort, A; Faivre, B; Claudet, M H; Drobacheff, C

1988-01-01

187

Integrated controls and health monitoring fiberoptic shaft monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent work was performed on development optical technology to provide real time monitoring of shaft speed, shaft axial displacement, and shaft orbit of the OTVE hydrostatic bearing tester. Results show shaft axial displacement can be optically measured (at the same time as shaft orbital motion and speed) to within 0.3 mills by two fiber optic deflectometers. The final results of this condition monitoring development effort are presented.

Coleman, P.; Darejeh, H.; Collins, J. J.

1989-01-01

188

Sequences and differential expression of three novel human type-II hair keratins.  

PubMed

As part of a program designed to characterize human hair keratin genes and their expression, we present the cDNA sequences and deduced amino acid sequences of three type-II hair keratins hHb3, hHb5, and hHb6, which by virtue of their amino acid homologies are the orthologs of the previously described sheep wool keratins, K2.10, K2.12, and K.211 [29]. Amino acid sequences comparisons of these keratins, including the previously characterized human K2.9 ortholog hHb1, show extreme conservation not only in the alpha-helices but also in the aminoterminal and proximal carboxyterminal domains. They also demonstrate higher sequence relationships between hHb1, hHb3, and hHb6 as compared to hHb5, which exhibits chain-specific sequences in both the head and tail domains. In situ hybridization studies using specific 3'-probes for the four type-II hair keratins reveal sequential patterns of gene expression in human anagen follicles. Remarkably the onset of hHb5 mRNA synthesis occurs immediately above a small population of matrix cells at the base of the hair bulb and the trichocytes lining the dermal papilla. hHb5 mRNA synthesis extends upward through the matrix and ends in the lower part of the cortex of the hair shaft. In contrast, both hHb1 and hHb3 mRNA synthesis begins simultaneously in the cortex 10-15 cell layers above the apex of the dermal papilla, thus partially overlapping that of hHb5 but continuing to a point well beyond hHb5 in the upper cortex. Synthesis of hHb6 mRNA starts slightly higher than either hHb1 or hHb3 mRNA and proceeds much farther up into the keratogenous zone of the hair shaft. Our study demonstrates that the differentiation of human hair in terms of hair keratin expression begins much earlier than previously assumed, i.e. in lower matrix cells of the hair bulb. This early phase of hair differentiation is followed by a late cortical phase of terminal differentiation which comprises at least three type-II hair keratins in the zone of elongation and the keratogenous zone of the hair shaft. PMID:9084137

Rogers, M A; Langbein, L; Praetzel, S; Moll, I; Krieg, T; Winter, H; Schweizer, J

1997-02-01

189

Numerical simulation and experimental study of shaft pumping by laser structured shafts with rotary lip seals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation model to predict pumping by shafts with various surface finishes, in combination with a rotary lip seal, has been developed and validated by experiment. The model consists of a fluid mechanics analysis of the flow in the sealing zone coupled with a deformation analysis of the seal. The experimental validation consists of pumping rate measurements with shafts whose

Xiaohong Jia; Steffen Jung; Werner Haas; Richard F. Salant

2011-01-01

190

iRhom2 Mutation Leads to Aberrant Hair Follicle Differentiation in Mice  

PubMed Central

iRhom1 and iRhom2 are inactive homologues of rhomboid intramembrane serine proteases lacking essential catalytic residues, which are necessary for the maturation of TNF?-converting enzyme (TACE). In addition, iRhoms regulate epidermal growth factor family secretion. The functional significance of iRhom2 during mammalian development is largely unclear. We have identified a spontaneous single gene deletion mutation of iRhom2 in Uncv mice. The iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mice exhibit hairless phenotype in a BALB/c genetic background. In this study, we observed dysplasia hair follicles in iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mice from postnatal day 3. Further examination found decreased hair matrix proliferation and aberrant hair shaft and inner root sheath differentiation in iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mutant hair follicles. iRhom2 is required for the maturation of TACE. Our data demonstrate that iRhom2Uncv cannot induce the maturation of TACE in vitro and the level of mature TACE is also significantly reduced in the skin of iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mice. The activation of Notch1, a substrate of TACE, is disturbed, associated with dramatically down-regulation of Lef1 in iRhom2Uncv/Uncv hair follicle matrix. This study identifies iRhom2 as a novel regulator of hair shaft and inner root sheath differentiation. PMID:25546423

Leilei, Yang; Bing, Liu; Yang, Li; Shaoxia, Wang; Yuan, Xu; Dongping, Wang; Huahu, Ye; Shichen, Shang; Guangzhou, Zhang; Ruiyun, Peng; Lin, Zeng; Wenlong, Li

2014-01-01

191

Hair Cycle and Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male pattern alopecia is the outcome of profound modifications in the duration, succession and frequency of hair cycles. These phenomena were studied by phototrichogram in 10 male subjects, with or without alopecia, over a period of 15 years. Almost 10,000 hair cycles were accounted for, yielding a detailed picture of the alopecia condition: (1) A decrease in the duration of

Monique Courtois; Genevičve Loussouarn; Colette Hourseau; Jean François Grollier

1994-01-01

192

Hair Follicle Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The workshop on Hair Follicle Stem Cells brought together investigators who have used a variety of approaches to try to understand the biology of follicular epithelial stem cells, and the role that these cells play in regulating the hair cycle. One of the main concepts to emerge from this workshop is that follicular epithelial stem cells are multipotent, capable of

Robert M. Lavker; Tung-Tien Sun; Hideo Oshima; Yann Barrandon; Masashi Akiyama; Corinne Ferraris; Genevieve Chevalier; Bertrand Favier; Colin A. B. Jahoda; Danielle Dhouailly; Andrei A. Panteleyev; Angela M. Christiano

2003-01-01

193

Laser Hair Removal  

MedlinePLUS

... skin and dark, coarse hair. With the latest technology, all skin types can be treated; however, more treatments may be required for patients with darker skin. Removing hairs that are white, gray, blond, or that are fine is a challenge. Expected Results Success is determined by multiple variables. ...

194

Laser hair removal.  

PubMed

The extended theory of selective photothermolysis enables the laser surgeon to target and destroy hair follicles, thereby leading to hair removal. Today, laser hair removal (LHR) is the most commonly requested cosmetic procedure in the world and is routinely performed by dermatologists, other physicians, and non-physician personnel with variable efficacy. The ideal candidate for LHR is fair skinned with dark terminal hair; however, LHR can today be successfully performed in all skin types. Knowledge of hair follicle anatomy and physiology, proper patient selection and preoperative preparation, principles of laser safety, familiarity with the various laser/light devices, and a thorough understanding of laser-tissue interactions are vital to optimizing treatment efficacy while minimizing complications and side effects. PMID:21276162

Ibrahimi, Omar A; Avram, Mathew M; Hanke, C William; Kilmer, Suzanne L; Anderson, R Rox

2011-01-01

195

High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism  

DOEpatents

A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

2001-05-08

196

Constant-mesh, multiple-shaft transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a multiple-shaft, constant-mesh transmission adapted to establish selectively a reverse torque delivery path and a forward drive torque delivery path and having a torque input means including a torque input shaft, a mainshaft aligned with the input shaft, a countershaft geared to the input shaft in spaced, parallel relationship with respect to the mainshaft, a torque output shaft joined to the mainshaft; multiple mainshaft gear elements journalled on the main airshaft, multiple cluster gear elements carried by the countershaft in meshing engagement with the mainshaft gear elements, one of the cluster gear elements being rotatably journalled on the countershaft; a reverse idle gear, a reverse gear journalled on the countershaft, the reverse idler gear being in constant mesh with the reverse gear and one of the mainshaft gear elements; first clutch means for connecting selectively the reverse gear and the countershaft; second synchronizer clutch means for connecting selectively the one of the mainshaft gear elements to the mainshaft; and third synchronizer clutch means for selectively connecting another of the mainshaft gear elements to the mainshaft; the first clutch means being a double-acting clutch with a first common axially movable clutch element adapted upon movement in one axial direction to drivably connected the reverse gear to the countershaft and adapted upon movement in the opposite axial direction to connect the one cluster gear element to the countershaft.

Rea, J.E.; Mills, D.D.; Sewell, J.S.

1992-04-21

197

Automated Digital Image Analysis (TrichoScan®) for Human Hair Growth Analysis: Ease versus Errors  

PubMed Central

Background: TrichoScan® is considered to be time-saving, easy to perform and consistent for quantifying hair loss/growth. Conflicting results of our study lead us to closely observe the image analysis, and certain repeated errors in the detection of hair were highlighted. Aims: To assess the utility of TrichoScan in quantification of diffuse hair loss in males with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and females with diffuse telogen hair loss, with regard to total hair density (THD), telogen and vellus hair percentages. Materials and Methods: TrichoScan procedure was performed on 77 cases and 20 controls. Results and Discussion: In the cases, THD decreased with increasing severity of alopecia. Surprisingly, more than 85% of the healthy volunteers had an unexplained abnormal telogen hair percentage of more than 20. Also, the telogen hair percentages were not significantly different between cases and controls. Also, 65% of the patients with advanced thinning of hair did not have the expected elevation of vellus hair percentages on TrichoScan evaluation. Multiple errors were highlighted in hair detection by the software. Errors were noted at the exit points of follicular ostia, at places where hair strand thickness was not uniform throughout its length, where there was crossing, overlapping of the neighboring strands, and when more than one hair emerged from a single ostium. Conclusion: TrichoScan is promoted as a validated and precise tool for measurement of hair growth parameters. Under certain conditions, it may seem suitable for clinical trials evaluating treatment response. We provide evidence that this is an overstatement. This study concludes that TrichoScan-analyzed anagen/telogen hair detection is not optimal; moreover, there is overestimation of THD and the vellus hair percentage does not correlate with clinical severity of alopecia. The current form of TrichoScan, though easy to use, is error-prone and awaits refinement. PMID:21188016

Saraogi, Punit P; Dhurat, Rachita S

2010-01-01

198

Dynamic Hair Capture Princeton University  

E-print Network

Dynamic Hair Capture Linjie Luo Princeton University Sylvain Paris Adobe Systems Inc. Hao Li University Figure 1: Our system reconstructs a temporally coherent set of hair fibers for real-world dynamic hair. It accommodates a variety of hair types and styles, as well as nontrivial motion (top: input

199

Photo yellowing of human hair.  

PubMed

In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white, dark-brown, blond and red hair. All hair types showed a substantial change in yellowness after irradiation, which is dependent on the hair type and radiation wavelength. Surprisingly, white hair turns less yellow after both full and UVB-filtered radiation exposure. This effect is more pronounced when UVB is filtered from the radiation system. The only radiation that shows a photo-yellowing effect on white hair is infrared. As the yellowness of white hair is commonly related to tryptophan degradation, fluorescence experiments with hair solutions were performed to identify the natural degradation of tryptophan which occurs in hair after light irradiation. Pigmented hairs were also studied, as well as hair treated with a bleaching solution. Although we observe a decrease in tryptophan content of hair after lamp radiation, a direct correlation with hair yellowness was not achieved. Results are discussed in terms of hair type, composition and melanin content. PMID:17627835

Nogueira, A C S; Richena, M; Dicelio, L E; Joekes, I

2007-09-25

200

Ectodysplasin regulates the lymphotoxin-? pathway for hair differentiation  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the EDA gene cause anhidrotic/hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, a disorder characterized by defective formation of hair, sweat glands, and teeth in humans and in a mouse model, “Tabby” (Ta). The gene encodes ectodysplasin, a TNF ligand family member that activates the NF-?B-signaling pathway, but downstream targets and the mechanism of skin appendage formation have been only partially analyzed. Comparative transcription profiling of embryonic skin during hair follicle development in WT and Ta mice identified critical anhidrotic/hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) effectors in four pathways, three already implicated in follicle formation. They included Shh and its effectors, as well as antagonists for the Wnt (Dkk4) and BMP (Sostdc1) pathways. The fourth pathway was unexpected, a variant NF-?B-signaling cascade based on lymphotoxin-? (LT?)/RelB. Previously known to participate only in lymphoid organogenesis, LT? was enriched in developing hair follicles of WT but not in Ta mice. Furthermore, in mice lacking LT?, all three types of mouse hair were still formed, but all were structurally abnormal. Guard hairs became wavy and irregular, zigzag/auchen hairs lost their kinks, and in a phenocopy of features of Ta animals, the awl hairs doubled in number and were characteristically distorted and pinched. LT?-null mice that received WT bone marrow transplants maintained mutant hair phenotypes, consistent with autonomous LT? action in skin independent of its expression in lymphoid cells. Thus, as an EDA target, LT? regulates the form of hair in developing hair follicles; and when EDA is defective, failure of LT? activation can account for part of the Ta phenotype. PMID:16738056

Cui, Chang-Yi; Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi; Grivennikov, Sergei I.; Piao, Yulan; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; Schlessinger, David

2006-01-01

201

Microtubules in root hairs.  

PubMed

The microtubules of root hairs of Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum, Equisetum hyemale, Limnobium stoloniferum, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Allium sativum and Urtica dioica were investigated using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Arrays of cortical microtubules were observed in all hairs. The microtubules in the hairs show net axial orientations, but in Allium and Urtica helical microtubule patterns are also present. Numerical parameters of microtubules in Raphanus, Equisetum and Limnobium were determined from dry-cleave preparations. The results are discussed with respect to cell wall deposition and cell morphogenesis. PMID:4066793

Traas, J A; Braat, P; Emons, A M; Meekes, H; Derksen, J

1985-06-01

202

[Methods of hair loss evaluation in patients with endocrine disorders].  

PubMed

Hair loss may accompany several endocrine disorders, including hypopituitarism, hypothyreosis, hyperthyreosis, hypoparathyroidism, diabetes mellitus, growth hormone deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, polycystic ovary syndrome, SAHA syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing syndrome, or virilising tumours. Most patients with endocrine disorders present with diffuse non-scarring alopecia, such as anagen effluvium, telogen effluvium or androgenetic alopecia. Focal non-scarring alopecia, such as alopecia areata coexisting with autoimmune thyroiditis, is less frequent and scarring alopecia is a rare finding in patients with endocrine abnormalities. In some cases an endocrine disorder may be suspected based on dermatological findings during hair loss evaluation. Classic methods of hair evaluation include hair weighing, pull test, wash test, the trichogram, and histopathological examination. Newly developed non-invasive diagnostic techniques include the phototrichogram, trichoscan, trichoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy. PMID:22125108

Olszewska, Ma?gorzata; Warszawik, Olga; Rakowska, Adriana; S?owi?ska, Monika; Rudnicka, Lidia

2011-01-01

203

Methods of hair loss evaluation in patients with endocrine disorders.  

PubMed

Hair loss may accompany several endocrine disorders, including hypopituitarism, hypothyreosis, hyperthyreosis, hypoparathyroidism, diabetes mellitus, growth hormone deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, polycystic ovary syndrome, SAHA syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing syndrome, or virilising tumours. Most patients with endocrine disorders present with diffuse non-scarring alopecia, such as anagen effluvium, telogen effluvium or androgenetic alopecia. Focal non-scarring alopecia, such as alopecia areata coexisting with autoimmune thyroiditis, is less frequent and scarring alopecia is a rare finding in patients with endocrine abnormalities. In some cases an endocrine disorder may be suspected based on dermatological findings during hair loss evaluation. Classic methods of hair evaluation include hair weighing, pull test, wash test, the trichogram, and histopathological examination. Newly developed non-invasive diagnostic techniques include the phototrichogram, trichoscan, trichoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy. PMID:20806187

Olszewska, Ma?gorzata; Warszawik, Olga; Rakowska, Adriana; S?owi?ska, Monika; Rudnicka, Lidia

2010-01-01

204

Analysis of human hair cross sections from two different population groups by Nuclear Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace element analysis of hair is used as a screening technique to assess body-nutrient levels and/or toxicity due to environmental pollutants. With the aim to compare element content and spatial distribution within scalp hair-shaft cross sections of two distinct human population groups, and to assess possible similarities and/or differences, hair samples from Sudan and South Africa were collected. Proton backscattering and Micro-PIXE were used to determine the matrix composition and content of light and middle transition elements, with beam energies of 1.5 and 3.0 MeV. Mapping analysis showed a relatively similar content distribution for S, Cl, K and Ca within each group. However significant differences, particularly for heavier metals, such as Fe and Zn were also found. Correspondence Analysis of the data showed a clear separation between the two groups when the total content over the hair cross section was considered.

Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Eisa, M. E. M.

2010-06-01

205

Modeling Drilled Shafts in MSE Block Walls  

E-print Network

-in-place shafts contained within and solely supported by the reinforced fill. The finite difference numerical modeling program FLAC3D was used for analysis. A parametric study was conducted to determine how the various constituents of the physical wall as well...

Pierson, Matthew Charles

2010-09-01

206

8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SHAFT AND PUMP IN COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT PUMPHOUSES. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

207

14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.931 Shafting critical speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by...

2010-01-01

208

14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.931 Shafting critical speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by...

2010-01-01

209

6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, CROSS SHAFT, AND INTERMEDIATE GEAR HOIST ASSEMBLY FOR CONTROL GATE NO. 6, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

210

Tips for Healthy Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... acne Acne treatment Media and retouching Our skin self-esteem Skin health Introduction Daily habits Hair care: Introduction ... truths Acne treatment Media and retouching Our skin self-esteem Skin health Skin: Introduction Skin: Skin types Skin: ...

211

Transmission with two parallel driving shafts bearing two driving gears each meshed with same driven gear on parallel driven shaft  

SciTech Connect

A transmission mechanism for a vehicle is described for receiving input of rotational power from a power supply member which rotates in a particular rotational direction and for outputting rotational power to a power receiving member which includes: an input member connected to the power supply member and which is rotatably mounted and receives supplying of the rotational power from the power supply member; a first driving gear wheel shaft; a second driving gear wheel shaft mounted generally parallel to the first driving gear wheel shaft; a driven gear wheel shaft mounted generally parallel to the first and second driving gear wheel shafts, the driven gear wheel shaft being rotationally connected to the power receiving member; a first driven gear wheel fixedly mounted on the driven gear wheel shaft; a first driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the first driving gear wheel shaft and is constant mesh with the driven gear wheel, the first driving and driven gear wheels providing a first reduction gear ratio from the first driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft; a second driven gear wheel fixedly mounted on the driven gear wheel shaft; a second driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the second driving gear wheel shaft and is in constant mesh with the first driven gear wheel, the second driving and the first driven gear wheels providing a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio from the second driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft; a third driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the first driving gear wheel shaft and is in constant mesh with the second driven gear wheel, the third driving and the second driven gear wheels providing a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio from the first driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft.

Akashi, T.; Ito, H.; Yamada, S.

1986-06-17

212

Leptomeningeal angiomatosis accompanied by hair follicle nevus.  

PubMed

A 5-day-old male infant with leptomeningeal angiomatosis accompanied by hair follicle nevus and congenital alopecia is reported. Admitted for frequent left hemiconvulsions, he had three small papular lesions around his right eye and ipsilateral alopecia from the frontal to parietal areas. Histopathological examination of the papular lesions revealed crowding of hair follicles. There were no other skin lesions and no ophthalmic abnormalities. Ictal EEG showed a theta burst in the right parietal area. Computed tomography of the brain revealed cerebral atrophy and a slightly high intensity lesion in the right parietal and occipital lobes with calcification. Gyriform enhancement was demonstrated by contrast MRI in these areas. The pathogenesis is discussed. This case may represent a previously unknown neurocutaneous syndrome. PMID:9660127

Okada, Y; Hamano, K; Iwasaki, N; Iijima, S; Anno, I

1998-01-01

213

Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1984-01-01

214

Connect-disconnect coupling for preadjusted rigid shafts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coupling device enables a rigid shaft to be connected to or disconnected from a fixed base without disturbing the point of adjustment of the shaft in a socket or causing the shaft to rotate. The coupling consists of an externally threaded, internally slotted boss extending from the fixed base.

Bajkowski, F. W.; Holmberg, A.

1969-01-01

215

Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents viewgraphs of The Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs. The topics include: 1) Rocket Turbomachinery Shaft Seals (Inter-Propellant-Seal (IPS) Systems, Lift-off Seal Systems, and Technology Development Needs); 2) Rocket Engine Characteristics (Engine cycles, propellants, missions, etc., Influence on shaft sealing requirements); and 3) Conclusions.

Keba, John E.

1999-01-01

216

High temperature corrosion fatigue of duplex stainless steel shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the result of a study on fatigue corrosion failure presented by a duplex stainless steel shaft from an agrochemical plant atomization system. The 25 mm diameter shaft was driven by a 30 kW electrical motor and was running at 14,000 rpm. The shaft presented a complete section fracture near a surface bearing. In order to determine the

H. Maury; J. Bris; A. Pacheco; J. Torres; J. Wilches

2003-01-01

217

Hair melanin content and photodamage.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility of hair with different melanin content (virgin white, blond and dark-brown) to photodegradation, evaluating changes on hair color and mechanical properties. Light exposure was carried out with a mercury-vapor lamp for up to 1800h. It was observed that color changes are different for each hair type and dependent on the wavelength range. Breaking elongation and breaking strength were affected in all hair types, mainly by UVB radiation. Results show that the melanin type and content of each hair is not the only parameter related to hair damages caused by sun exposure. PMID:17728939

Santos Nogueira, Ana Carolina; Joekes, Inés

2007-01-01

218

Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk  

PubMed Central

Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epithelial hair keratins, which are crucial for maintaining the integrity of the sheaths that support the hair shaft, are expressed in the enamel organ and are essential organic components of mature enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 386 children and 706 adults, we found that individuals harboring known hair disorder–associated polymorphisms in the gene encoding keratin 75 (KRT75), KRT75A161T and KRT75E337K, are prone to increased dental caries. Analysis of teeth from individuals carrying the KRT75A161T variant revealed an altered enamel structure and a marked reduction of enamel hardness, suggesting that a functional keratin network is required for the mechanical stability of tooth enamel. Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries. PMID:25347471

Duverger, Olivier; Ohara, Takahiro; Shaffer, John R.; Donahue, Danielle; Zerfas, Patricia; Dullnig, Andrew; Crecelius, Christopher; Beniash, Elia; Marazita, Mary L.; Morasso, Maria I.

2014-01-01

219

Excessive or unwanted hair in women  

MedlinePLUS

Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... much of this hormone, you may have unwanted hair growth. In most cases, the exact cause is ...

220

Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits  

MedlinePLUS

... healthy hair care Teaching your child healthy hair care habits Many common hair care practices can lead ... a conditioner. Teaching your child other healthy hair care habits Many things that we do to style ...

221

Aging changes in hair and nails  

MedlinePLUS

... Hair color is due to a pigment called melanin , which is produced by hair follicles. These are ... grow hair. With aging, the follicle makes less melanin. Graying often begins in the 30s. Scalp hair ...

222

Fiber-Optic Sensor Would Detect Movements Of Shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fiber-optic sensor senses both rotational speed and axial displacement of shaft in motor, pump, or other rotating machine. Does not require magnetic materials, notches, or grooves in shaft. Required modification of shaft is etching or plating surface to make ring black around half circumference and reflective around other half along short length at one end or some other convenient location. Triangular bundle of sending and receiving optical fibers aimed at black/reflective ring on shaft. Frequency and amplitude of output pulses of fiber-optic probe indicates rotational frequency and axial position of shaft.

Roschak, Edmund J.

1989-01-01

223

Localization of myosin and actin in the pelage and whisker hair follicles of rat.  

PubMed

The combined effects of myosin II and actin enable muscle and nonmuscle cells to generate forces required for muscle contraction, cell division, cell migration, cellular morphological changes, the maintenance of cellular tension and polarity, and so on. However, except for the case of muscle contraction, the details are poorly understood. We focus on nonmuscle myosin and actin in the formation and maintenance of hair and skin, which include highly active processes in mammalian life with respect to the cellular proliferation, differentiation, and movement. The localization of nonmuscle myosin II and actin in neonatal rat dorsal skin, mystacial pad, hair follicles, and vibrissal follicles was studied by immunohistochemical technique to provide the basis for the elucidation of the roles of these proteins. Specificities of the antibodies were verified by using samples from the relevant tissues and subjecting them to immunoblotting test prior to morphological analyses. The myosin and actin were abundant and colocalized in the spinous and granular layers but scarce in the basal layer of the dorsal and mystacial epidermis. In hair and vibrissal follicles, nonmuscle myosin and actin were colocalized in the outer root sheath and some hair matrix cells adjoining dermal papillae. In contrast, most areas of the inner root sheath and hair matrix appeared to comprise very small amounts of myosin and actin. Hair shaft may comprise significant myosin during the course of its keratinization. These results suggest that the actin-myosin system plays a part in cell movement, differentiation, protection and other key functions of skin and hair cells. PMID:17327898

Morioka, Kiyokazu; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Takata, Kuniaki

2006-08-30

224

The biology of hair diversity.  

PubMed

Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

2013-08-01

225

Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu) Mice  

PubMed Central

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P > 0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md. Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

2014-01-01

226

Comparative hair restorer efficacy of medicinal herb on nude (Foxn1nu) mice.  

PubMed

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P>0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

2014-01-01

227

Lunar vertical-shaft mining system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

Introne, Steven D. (editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

1994-01-01

228

An applicational process for dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a time-efficient methodology for dynamically balancing turbomachinery shafting. This methodology minimizes costly facility downtime by using a balancing arbor (mandrel) that simulates the turbomachinery (rig) shafting. The need for precision dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafting and for a dynamic balancing methodology is discussed in detail. Additionally, the inherent problems (and their causes and effects) associated with unbalanced turbomachinery shafting as a function of increasing shaft rotational speeds are discussed. Included are the design criteria concerning rotor weight differentials for rotors made of different materials that have similar parameters and shafting. The balancing methodology for applications where rotor replaceability is a requirement is also covered. This report is intended for use as a reference when designing, fabricating, and troubleshooting turbomachinery shafting.

Verhoff, Vincent G.

1990-01-01

229

A 3-Month, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Ability of an Extra-Strength Marine Protein Supplement to Promote Hair Growth and Decrease Shedding in Women with Self-Perceived Thinning Hair  

PubMed Central

An oral marine protein supplement (MPS) is designed to promote hair growth in women with temporary thinning hair (Viviscal Extra Strength; Lifes2good, Inc., Chicago, IL). This double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the ability of MPS to promote terminal hair growth in adult women with self-perceived thinning hair associated with poor diet, stress, hormonal influences, or abnormal menstrual cycles. Adult women with thinning hair were randomized to receive MPS (N = 30) or placebo (N = 30) twice daily for 90 days. Digital images were obtained from a 4?cm2 area scalp target area. Each subject's hair was washed and shed hairs were collected and counted. After 90 days, these measures were repeated and subjects completed Quality of Life and Self-Assessment Questionnaires. MPS-treated subjects achieved a significant increase in the number of terminal hairs within the target area (P < 0.0001) which was significantly greater than placebo (P < 0.0001). MPS use also resulted in significantly less hair shedding (P = 0.002) and higher total Self-Assessment (P = 0.006) and Quality of Life Questionnaires scores (P = 0.035). There were no reported adverse events. MPS promotes hair growth and decreases hair loss in women suffering from temporary thinning hair. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02297360.

Ablon, Glynis

2015-01-01

230

Evaluation of hair humidity resistance/moisturization from hair elasticity.  

PubMed

Average water regain and hair elasticity (Young's modulus) of virgin dark brown and bleached hair fibers under different relative humidity (RH) were determined. It is observed that hair water regain increases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 40-85%; and the remaining percent of hair elasticity decreases linearly with an increase in RH in the range of 50-80%. Therefore, measurements of average hair elasticity at 50% and 80% RH, respectively, under various equilibrium times before and after cosmetic treatments can be used to evaluate effects of cosmetic treatments on water adsorption behavior of hair-improvement in hair humidity resistance or enhancement in hair moisture uptake. A Hair Humidity Resistance Factor (H(2)RF) has been defined. If R(2)HF > 1, the product improves hair humidity resistance-anti-frizz; if R(2)HF < 1, the product enhances hair water adsorption; when R(2)HF approximately 1, the product has no significant effect on hair water adsorption behavior. This method was applied to evaluate anti-frizz performance of several shampoo formulations containing Polyquaternium-10, or Polyquaternium-70, or Polyquaternium-67, or Guar Hydroxypropyltrimonium Chloride. It was found PQ-70 shampoo showed the highest H(2)RF value and the best anti-frizz performance among these tested shampoos. The results were consistent with those obtained from Image Analysis. PMID:17728940

Gao, Timothy

2007-01-01

231

The Changes of Gene Expression on Human Hair during Long-Spaceflight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair has many advantages as the experimental sample. In a hair follicle, hair matrix cells actively divide and these active changes sensitively reflect physical condition on human body. The hair shaft records the metabolic conditions of mineral elements in our body. From human hairs, we can detect physiological informations about the human health. Therefore, we focused on using hair root analysis to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts. In 2009, we started a research program focusing on the analysis of astronauts’ hairs to examine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the gene expression in the human body. We want to get basic information to invent the effectivly diagnostic methods to detect the health situations of astronauts during space flight by analyzing human hair. We extracted RNA form the collected samples. Then, these extracted RNA was amplified. Amplified RNA was processed and hybridized to the Whole Human Genome (4×44K) Oligo Microarray (Agilent Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Slide scanning was performed using the Agilent DNA Microarray Scanner. Scanning data were normalized with Agilent’s Feature Extraction software. Data preprocessing and analysis were performed using GeneSpring software 11.0.1. Next, Synthesis of cDNA (1 mg) was carried out using the PrimeScript RT reagent Kit (TaKaRa Bio) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The qRT-PCR experiment was performed with SYBR Premix Ex Taq (TaKaRa Bio) using the 7500 Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). We detected the changes of some gene expressions during spaceflight from both microarray and qRT-PCR data. These genes seems to be related with the hair proliferation. We believe that these results will lead to the discovery of the important factor effected during space flight on the hair.

Terada, Masahiro; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Higashibata, Akira; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sudoh, Masamichi; Minamisawa, Susumu

232

European hair and eye color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair and eye color is unusually diverse in northern and eastern Europe. The many alleles involved (at least seven for hair color) and their independent origin over a short span of evolutionary time indicate some kind of selection. Sexual selection is particularly indicated because it is known to favor color traits and color polymorphisms. In addition, hair and eye

Peter Frost

2006-01-01

233

Shaft-Angle Sensor Based on Tunnel-Diode Oscillator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed brushless shaft-angle sensor for use in extreme cold would offer significant advantages over prior such sensors: (1) It would be capable of operating in extreme cold; and (2) Its electronic circuitry would be simpler than that of a permanent-magnet/ multiple-Hall-probe shaft-angle sensor that would otherwise ordinarily be used to obtain comparable angular resolution. The principle of operation of the proposed shaft-angle sensor requires that the shaft (or at least the portion of the shaft at the sensor location) be electrically insulating. The affected portion of the shaft would be coated with metal around half of its circumference. Two half-circular-cylinder electrodes having a radius slightly larger than that of the shaft would be mounted on the stator, concentric with the shaft, so that there would be a small radial gap between them and the outer surface of the shaft. Hence, there would be a capacitance between each stationary electrode and the metal coat on the shaft.

Chui, Talso

2008-01-01

234

Hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation  

PubMed Central

Organ regenerative therapy aims to reproduce fully functional organs to replace organs that have been lost or damaged as a result of disease, injury, or aging. For the fully functional regeneration of ectodermal organs, a concept has been proposed in which a bioengineered organ is developed by reproducing the embryonic processes of organogenesis. Here, we show that a bioengineered hair follicle germ, which was reconstituted with embryonic skin-derived epithelial and mesenchymal cells and ectopically transplanted, was able to develop histologically correct hair follicles. The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. The bioengineered hair follicles also autonomously connected with nerves and the arrector pili muscle at the permanent region and exhibited piloerection ability. Our findings indicate that the bioengineered hair follicles could restore physiological hair functions and could be applicable to surgical treatments for alopecia. PMID:22645640

Asakawa, Kyosuke; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishibashi, Naoko; Tobe, Hirofumi; Iwadate, Ayako; Kanayama, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Toki, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Shotaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sato, Akio; Tsuji, Takashi

2012-01-01

235

Microrefined microfollicular hair transplant: a new modification in hair transplant.  

PubMed

: Hair transplant is the most common cosmetic surgery procedure in men; at our center, we perform nearly 40 transplants a month, with nearly 450 procedures in a year. Current techniques of hair transplant are well established and several authors have had remarkable results using the current techniques of microfollicular hair transplant. Orentreich described hair transplant, Shiell has reviewed current techniques in his paper, whereas Rose reviews the latest innovations in hair transplant including Neograft and robotic procedures. We present our modifications to the process based on our experience of more than 1000 cases in the last 3 years.Microrefined microfollicular hair transplant is a procedure with innovations at each step of the standard microfollicular hair transplant procedure to improve results.The steps of the procedure are as follows: PMID:24374401

Gupta, Amit

2014-09-01

236

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position ...

237

Common Hair Disorders  

PubMed Central

Four of the commonest hair conditions seen by family practitioners are: seborrheic dermatitis, physiologic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and alopecia areata. This article summarizes the clinical findings in each of these disorders and suggests methods of treatment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:20469068

Unger, Walter P.

1974-01-01

238

The Hair Colour Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class activity is designed to introduce young learners to the concept of tree diagrams. This class activity requires learners to organize data about the individual student's physical characteristics(gender, hair and eye color) utilizing connecting cubes. The activity includes a follow up activity, questions, tips on getting started, a teacher resource page, and a printable version of the problem.

NRICH team

2012-01-01

239

Black Hole's 1/N Hair  

E-print Network

According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

Gia Dvali; Cesar Gomez

2012-03-29

240

1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates the hair-inductive capacity of dermal papilla cells: therapeutic potential for hair regeneration.  

PubMed

Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) have the potential to induce differentiation of epithelial stem cells into hair, and Wnt signaling is deeply involved in the initiation process. The functional limitation of expanded adult DPCs has been a difficult challenge for cell-based hair regrowth therapy. We previously reported that 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (VD(3)) upregulates expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, both features of hair-inducing human DPCs (hDPCs). In this study, we further examined the effects and signaling pathways associated with VD(3) actions on DPCs. VD(3) suppressed hDPC proliferation in a dose-dependent, noncytotoxic manner. Among the Wnt-related genes investigated, Wnt10b expression was significantly upregulated by VD(3) in hDPCs. Wnt10b upregulation, as well as upregulation of ALPL (ALP, liver/bone/kidney) and TGF-?2, by VD(3) was specific in hDPCs and not detected in human dermal fibroblasts. Screening of paracrine or endocrine factors in the skin indicated that all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) upregulated Wnt10b gene expression, although synergistic upregulation (combined atRA and VD(3)) was not seen. RNA interference with vitamin D receptor (VDR) revealed that VD(3) upregulation of Wnt10b, ALPL, and TGF-?2 was mediated through the genomic VDR pathway. In a rat model of de novo hair regeneration by murine DPC transplantation, pretreatment with VD(3) significantly enhanced hair folliculogenesis. Specifically, a greater number of outgrowing hair shafts and higher maturation of regenerated follicles were observed. Together, these data suggest that VD(3) may promote functional differentiation of DPCs and be useful in preserving the hair follicle-inductive capacity of cultured DPCs for hair regeneration therapies. PMID:23197867

Aoi, Noriyuki; Inoue, Keita; Chikanishi, Toshihiro; Fujiki, Ryoji; Yamamoto, Hanako; Kato, Harunosuke; Eto, Hitomi; Doi, Kentaro; Itami, Satoshi; Kato, Shigeaki; Yoshimura, Kotaro

2012-08-01

241

Twin-capacitive shaft angle encoder with analog output signal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A precision capacitive shaft encoder providing a dc signal corresponding to the angular position of a shaft is described. Two variable capacitances are coupled in tandem by a rotatable shaft. Each capacitor has a capacitance that varies linearly with a change in the angular position of the shaft. The sum of the two capacitances is always constant for any angular position of the shaft. Each capacitance is alternately coupled to a reference dc voltage and a discharge circuit. The capacitances are electrically coupled in series and the charge periodically acquired at the junction of the capacitance is a function of the position of the shaft. An error-compensating voltage is imposed on the junction when the capacitances are coupled to the reference voltages. The junction is coupled to sample-and-hold apparatus provided with a error-correcting circuit.

Hruby, R. J.; Wilson, R. L. (inventors)

1977-01-01

242

Determination of trace elements in hair of Wilson's disease patients using PIXE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contents of nine elements (P, S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Se, Sr) in the hair of 52 patients with Wilson's disease (HLD) and 52 well matched healthy controls were determined by the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method and they were in good agreement with published data. The apparently abnormal contents of Ca and Cu in the patient's hair were not observed. The Zn content of hair in Wilson's disease patients with splenomegaly was obviously higher than that in the matched controls ( P < 0.025). The abnormal content of Zn seems to indicate that Wilson's disease is a disease with a multielemental metabolic disturbance. Our results provide a proper ground for treatment of Wilson's disease patients with zinc sulphate. In contrast to reports from western countries, the content of Cu in the hair of healthy females was lower than that of healthy males.

Sha, Yin; Liu, Pingsheng; Zhang, Runhua; Liu, Guilin; Zhang, Zhengxin; Feng, Yinkun; Liu, Guodong; Sun, Guiqin; Wang, Shizhen

1987-03-01

243

Locked intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures.  

PubMed

One hundred twenty-three femoral shaft fractures were treated with Grosse-Kempf slotted, locked nails and followed for a median 20 (range, 12-60) months. There were eight intraoperative and 11 postoperative complications, among them two superficial and two deep infections. Most of the intraoperative complications and some postoperatively lost reductions could have been prevented by a better operative technique and judgment of stability. Seventy-eight results were graded as excellent, 24 as good, 19 as fair, and two as poor (one 9-cm shortening and one 40 degrees external malrotation). All fractures united without further procedures during the first year. PMID:1986133

Alho, A; Strřmsře, K; Ekeland, A

1991-01-01

244

Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration  

SciTech Connect

Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

2014-09-01

245

Control of a viscoelastic shaft with attached tip-mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider an optimal control problem for the torsional vibrations of a viscoelastic shaft with attached tip-mass at the free end of the shaft. The control is an external torque applied to the tip-mass. The continuous sub-system (the shaft) is assumed to be composed of a Boltzmann-type material. We apply a combination of finite elements and averaging

J. A. Burns; R. E. Miller; E. M. Cliff

1987-01-01

246

5. SPARE SHIPPER SHAFT IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE PINION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SPARE SHIPPER SHAFT IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE PINION GEARS ON SHAFT. END OF DIPPER STICK IN FOREGROUND, NOTE RACK IRON ON BOTTOM OF STICK, WHICH MESHES WITH GEARS ON SHIPPER SHAFT. LIVING QUARTERS IN BACKGROUND. CYLINDER AND SHEAVES FOR OPERATING BULL WHEEL (FOR SWINGING BOOM) ON LOWER RIGHT. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

247

Proposed design procedure for transmission shafting under fatigue loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new standard for the design of transmission shafting is reported. Computed was the diameter of rotating solid steel shafts under combined cyclic bending and steady torsion is presented. The formula is based on an elliptical variation of endurance strength with torque exhibited by combined stress fatigue data. Fatigue factors are cited to correct specimen bending endurance strength data for use in the shaft formula. A design example illustrates how the method is to be applied.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1978-01-01

248

Lateral load test of a drilled shaft in clay  

E-print Network

of shallow drilled shaft foundations. These machines had originally been used as post hole diggers by utility companies (41). It was not until truck-mounted rotary drilling machines became cemaercially available after World War II that drilled shafts...LATERAL LOAD TEST OF A DRILLED SHAFT IN CLAY A Thesis by VERNON RAY KASCH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject...

Kasch, Vernon R

1977-01-01

249

Silvery Hair Syndrome in Two Cousins: Chediak-Higashi Syndrome vs Griscelli Syndrome, with Rare Associations  

PubMed Central

Silvery hair is a rare clinical manifestation which is a common presentation in a group of rare syndromes which usually present in the pediatric age group together termed as “silvery hair syndrome,” consisting of Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), Griscelli syndrome (GS), and Elejalde disease. CHS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterized by mild pigment dilution (partial oculocutaneous albinism), silvery blond hair, severe phagocytic immunodeficiency, bleeding tendencies, recurrent pyogenic infections, progressive sensory or motor neurological defects. GS is also a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by reduced skin pigmentation, often regarded as partial albinism and silvery grey hair combined with immunodeficiency. To make correct diagnosis and to differentiate between CHS and GS, it requires light microscopic examination of skin and hair shafts, immunological and peripheral blood smear evaluation. They have been reported to be associated with some common clinical association as a part of the syndrome due to pigmentary delusion, neurological dysfunction, and severe life-threatening infections due to neutrophil phagocytosis dysfunction. There are reports of few rare associations and varied presentations and variable mean survival age. We report two cases with common presentation of silvery hair but varied systemic and clinical manifestations and survival in two cousin brothers from the same family. PMID:22223973

Reddy, R Raghunatha; Babu, Balaji M; Venkateshwaramma, B; Hymavathi, CH

2011-01-01

250

Stress-linked cortisol concentrations in hair: what we know and what we need to know.  

PubMed

Cortisol has major impacts upon a range of physiological homeostatic mechanisms and plays an important role in stress, anxiety and depression. Although traditionally described as being solely synthesised via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, recent animal and human studies indicate that cortisol may also be synthesised via a functionally-equivalent 'peripheral' HPA-like process within the skin, principally within hair follicles, melanocytes, epidermal melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Current data indicate that basal levels of cortisol within hair vary across body regions, show diurnal variation effects, respond to the onset and cessation of environmental stressors, and may demonstrate some degree of localisation in those responses. There are conflicting data regarding the presence of variability in cortisol concentrations across the length of the hair shaft, thus challenging the suggestion that hair cortisol may be used as a historical biomarker of stress and questioning the primary origin of cortisol in hair. The need to comprehensively 'map' the hair cortisol response for age, gender, diurnal rhythm and responsivity to stressor type is discussed, plus the major issue of if, and how, the peripheral and central HPA systems communicate. PMID:22150070

Sharpley, Christopher F; McFarlane, James R; Slominski, Andrzej

2012-01-01

251

Stress-linked cortisol concentrations in hair: what we know and what we need to know  

PubMed Central

Cortisol has major impacts upon a range of physiological homeostatic mechanisms and plays an important role in stress, anxiety and depression. Although traditionally described as being solely synthesised via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, recent animal and human studies indicate that cortisol may also be synthesised via a functionally-equivalent ‘peripheral’ HPA-like process within the skin, principally within hair follicles, melanocytes, epidermal melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Current data indicate that basal levels of cortisol within hair vary across body regions, show diurnal variation effects, respond to the onset and cessation of environmental stressors, and may demonstrate some degree of localisation in those responses. There are conflicting data regarding the presence of variability in cortisol concentrations across the length of the hair shaft, thus challenging the suggestion that hair cortisol may be used as a historical biomarker of stress and questioning the primary origin of cortisol in hair. The need to comprehensively ‘map’ the hair cortisol response for age, gender, diurnal rhythm and responsivity to stressor type is discussed, plus the major issue of if, and how, the peripheral and central HPA systems communicate. PMID:22150070

Sharpley, Christopher F.; McFarlane, James R.; Slominski, Andrzej

2012-01-01

252

Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but display non-monotonic movements in response to abrupt force steps. Extracellular calcium changes or static biases to the bundle's position at rest could affect the kinetics of bundle motion and evoke transitions between the different classes of motility. The calcium-dependent location of a bundle's operating point within its nonlinear force-displacement relation controlled the type of movements observed. A unified theoretical description, in which mechanical activity stems from myosin-based adaptation and electro-mechanical feedback by Ca2+, could account for the fast and slow manifestations of active hair-bundle motility.

Tinevez, J.-Y.; Martin, P.; Jülicher, F.

2009-02-01

253

Hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on basic aspects and recent studies of hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs and is discussed with 164 references. Firstly, biology of hair and sampling of hair specimens have been commented for the sake of correct interpretation of the results from hair analysis. Then the usual washing methods of hair samples and the extraction methods for

Yuji Nakahara

1999-01-01

254

Induction of Hair Growth by Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in 1,763 MHz Radiofrequency-Irradiated Hair Follicle Cells  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency (RF) radiation does not transfer high energy to break the covalent bonds of macromolecules, but these low energy stimuli might be sufficient to induce molecular responses in a specific manner. We monitored the effect of 1,763 MHz RF radiation on cultured human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) by evaluating changes in the expression of cytokines related to hair growth. The expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA in hDPCs was significantly induced upon RF radiation at the specific absorption rate of 10 W/kg, which resulted in increased expression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) proteins and increased phosphorylation of MAPK1 protein. Exposure to 10 W/kg RF radiation 1 h per day for 7 days significantly enhanced hair shaft elongation in ex vivo hair organ cultures. In RF-exposed follicular matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, the expression of Ki-67 was increased, while the signal for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling was reduced. From these results, we suggest that 1,763 MHz RF exposure stimulates hair growth in vitro through the induction of IGF-1 in hDPCs. PMID:22164296

Jo, Seong Jin; Cho, A-Ri; Jeon, Soon-Ik; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Kyu Han; Park, Gun-Sik; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Oh Sang; Park, Woong-Yang

2011-01-01

255

Hair Styling Appliances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

1984-01-01

256

Biomedical Analyses of Mice Body Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight as a Compliment of Human Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: To understand the effect of space environment characterized by microgravity and radiation on protein and mineral metabolisms is important for developing the countermeasures to the adverse effects happening on the astronauts who stay long-term in space. Thus JAXA has started a human research to study the effects of long-term exposure in space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing astronaut's hair grown in space since December 2009 (Experiment nicknamed "HAIR"). Ten human subjects who are the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will be expected to complete this experiment. Thanks to the tissue sharing program of space-flown mice which is presented and organized by AGI(Italian Space Agency), we can also have an opportunity to analyze rodents samples which will greatly compliment human hair experiment by enable us to conduct more detailed analysis with the expansion of skin analysis which is not include in human experiment. The purpose of this flown-mice experiment is to study the effects of long-term exposure to space environment such as microgravity and space radiation on mineral and protein metabolism, the biological responses to the stress levels, and the initial process of skin carcinogenesis by analyzing hair shaft, its root cells, and skin. Approach and Method In this experiment, we analyzed hair shaft, hair root and skin. Hair samples with skin were taken from 3-month space-flown mice and ground-control mice in the AGI's tissue sharing program in 2009. The sample numbers of space-flown mice and control-mice were three and six, respectively. And they were at the Mice Drawer System (MDS) in ISS and in the laboratory of Geneva University. For the hair shaft, the mineral balance is investi-gated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). For hair root, the extracted RNA undergoes DNA microarray analysis, and will be further examined particular interests of gene-expression by real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. DNA is also extracted from the same samples and mitochondrial DNA copy numbers are ex-amined. For mice skin, the examination of the mutation was performed to investigate whether the space flight will cause the visible mutation which may reflect an evidence of promotion step of carcinogenesis by space radiation. Result: Analysis on the specimen is in progress. A brief results will be introduced during the COSPAR meeting. The mice body hair analysis will give us basic information to understand how space environment such as microgravity and radiation affect on the living organisms.

Mukai, Chiaki

257

Alternative Method for Creating Fine Hairs with Hair Removal Laser in Hair Transplantation for Hairline Correction  

PubMed Central

Background Foremost fine hairs in the frontal hairline region are critical in hair transplantation for hairline correction (HTHC) in women. However, there are few studies on a nonsurgical revisionary method for improving an unnatural foremost hairline with thick donor hairs resulting from a previous HTHC. Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of using a hair removal laser (HRL) system to create fine hairs in Asian women with thick donor hairs. Methods Through a retrospective chart review, the HRL parameters, hair diameter (measured with a micrometer before and after the procedures), subjective results after the procedures, adverse effects, and the number of procedures were investigated. The reduction rate of the hair diameter was calculated. Results Twenty-four women who received long-pulse Neodymium-Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet therapy after HTHC were included. The parameters were as follows: delivered laser energy, 35~36 J/cm2; pulse duration, 6 ms; and spot size, 10 mm. The mean number of laser sessions was 2.6. The mean hair diameter significantly decreased from 80.0±11.5 µm to 58.4±13.2 µm (p=0.00). The mean rate of hair diameter reduction was -25.7% (range, -44.6% to 5.7%). The number of laser sessions and the hair diameter after the procedures showed a negative correlation (r=-0.410, p=0.046). Most of the patients (87.5%) reported subjective improvement of their hairlines. Most complications were transient and mild. Conclusion HRL can be an alternative method for creating fine hairs and revising foremost hairline in Asian women with thick donor hairs. PMID:25673927

Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Jin Yong; Choe, Yun Seon; Han, Wonseok; An, Jee Soo

2015-01-01

258

Segmental hair analysis can demonstrate external contamination in postmortem cases.  

PubMed

Excluding laboratory mistakes, a false positive hair result can be observed in case of contamination from environmental pollution (external contamination) or after drug incorporation into the hair from the individual body fluids, such as sweat or putrefactive fluid (post mortem artifact). From our 20 years experience of hair testing, it appears that artifact(s) cannot be excluded in some post mortem cases, despite a decontamination procedure. As a consequence, interpretation of the results is a challenge that deserves particular attention. Our strategy will be reviewed in this paper, based on six cases. In all cases, a decontamination procedure with two washes of 5 ml of dichloromethane for 5 min was performed and the last dichloromethane wash was negative for each target drug. From the histories, there was no suspicion of chronic drug use. In all six cases, the concentrations detected were similar along the hair shaft, irrespective of the tested segment. We have considered this as indicative of external contamination and suggested to the forces or the judges that it is not possible to indicate exposure before death. In contrast to smoke, it seems that contamination due to aqueous matrices (sweat, putrefactive fluid, blood) is much more difficult to remove. To explain potential incorporation of 7-aminoflunitrazepam via putrefactive material, the author incubated negative hair strands in blood spiked at 100 ng/ml and stored at +4°C, room temperature and +40 °C for 7, 14 and 28 days. After routine decontamination, 7-aminoflunitrazepam tested positive in hair, irrespective of the incubation temperature, as early as after 7 days (233-401 pg/mg). In all periods, maximum concentrations were observed after incubation at room temperature. The highest concentration (742 pg/mg) was observed after 28 days incubation at room temperature. It is concluded that a standard decontamination procedure is not able to completely remove external contamination in case of post mortem specimens. Homogenous segmental analyses can be probably indicative of external contamination and therefore a single hair result should not be used to discriminate long-term exposure to a drug. Nor should the presence of a metabolite be considered as a discrimination tool, as it can also be present in putrefactive material. PMID:21354729

Kintz, Pascal

2012-02-10

259

Vibration of rotating-shaft design spindles with flexible bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an accurate mathematical model predicting forced vibration of rotating-shaft HDD spindle motors with flexible stationary parts. The mathematical model consists of three parts: a rotating part, a stationary part, and bearings. The rotating part includes a flexible hub, a flexible shaft press-fit into the hub, and N elastic disks mounted on the

Chaw-Wu Tseng

2002-01-01

260

Improved Rotary Transformer For Shaft-Position Indicator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved rotary transformer for Inductosyn (or equivalent) shaft-position-indicating circuit has pair of ferrite cores instead of the solid-iron cores. Designed with view toward decreasing excitation power (to maximum allowable 2 W) supplied to shaft-position-indicating circuit to increase its output signal and make tracking system less vulnerable to electromagnetic interference.

Mclyman, W. T.

1991-01-01

261

10. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DELIVERY CHUTE AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DELIVERY CHUTE AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER, (ORE HAULED FROM THE ADJACENT SHAFT WAS DELIVERED THROUGH THIS CHUTE TO THE OUTSIDE); VIEW TO THE EAST. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

262

Digital Measuring System for Monitoring Motor Shaft Parameters on Ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The robust measuring system for continuous monitoring of the ship motor shaft average torque, power and rotational speed was developed and tested. The system was designed for permanent installation in ships under realistic working conditions. The strain gage sensor is employed to measure the torque, while the shaft rotational speed is measured by the inductive proximity switch. Contactless power transmission

H. Dzapo; Z. Stare; N. Bobanac

2008-01-01

263

Digital Measuring System for Monitoring Motor Shaft Parameters on Ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The robust measuring system for the continuous monitoring of the ship motor shaft average torque, power, and rotational speed was developed and tested. The system was designed for permanent installation in ships under realistic working conditions. The strain gage sensor is employed to measure the torque, whereas the shaft rotational speed is measured by the inductive proximity switch. The strain

H. Dzapo; Zoran Stare; Nenad Bobanac

2009-01-01

264

Bending fatigue behavior of hybrid aluminum\\/composite drive shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through out this experimental study, a bending fatigue analysis was carried out for hybrid aluminum\\/composite drive shafts. The hybrid shafts used were fabricated using filament winding technique. Glass fiber with a matrix of epoxy resin and hardener were used to construct the external composite layers needed. Four cases were studied using aluminum tube wounded by different layers of composite materials

Y. A. Khalid; S. A. Mutasher; B. B. Sahari; A. M. S. Hamouda

2007-01-01

265

29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross over valve. Shaft at left operates main flood valve to admit water into the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

266

Forensic Science: Hair Sample Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into how hairs from a crime scene are matched to suspects. Learners each take a single hair from their own head, then put it directly into the beam of a laser pointer. This projects the unique pattern of each hair onto a piece of paper to be traced, measured, identified and compared with the others. Learners can conclude this activity by setting up a mystery exercise with prepared samples of hair already in frames. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forensics.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

267

Nonlinear amplification by active sensory hair bundles  

E-print Network

vulnerable mechanism. In the cochlea, sensory hair bundles transduce sound-induced vibrations into neural on a hair bundle from the sacculus of the bullfrog with real-time stochastic simulations of hair

JĂĽlicher, Frank

268

Shaft instantaneous angular speed for blade vibration in rotating machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable blade health monitoring (BHM) in rotating machines like steam turbines and gas turbines, is a topic of research since decades to reduce machine down time, maintenance costs and to maintain the overall safety. Transverse blade vibration is often transmitted to the shaft as torsional vibration. The shaft instantaneous angular speed (IAS) is nothing but the representing the shaft torsional vibration. Hence the shaft IAS has been extracted from the measured encoder data during machine run-up to understand the blade vibration and to explore the possibility of reliable assessment of blade health. A number of experiments on an experimental rig with a bladed disk were conducted with healthy but mistuned blades and with different faults simulation in the blades. The measured shaft torsional vibration shows a distinct difference between the healthy and the faulty blade conditions. Hence, the observations are useful for the BHM in future. The paper presents the experimental setup, simulation of blade faults, experiments conducted, observations and results.

Gubran, Ahmed A.; Sinha, Jyoti K.

2014-02-01

269

New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1986-01-01

270

Hair growth activity of Crataegus pinnatifida on C57BL/6 mouse model.  

PubMed

Crataegus pinnatifida has a long history of use in traditional oriental herbal medicine to stimulating digestion and improving blood circulation. Based on nutrition of hair, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of C. pinnatifida extract on hair growth using mouse model and its mechanisms of action. The C. pinnatifida extract containing the contents of total polyphenol of 5.88?0.82?g gallic acid/100?g extract and proanthocyanidin of 9.15?1.58?mg cyaniding chloride/100?g extract was orally administered daily at a dosage of 50?mg/kg weight to the 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice in telogen. The C. pinnatifida extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in mice in telogen, reflected by color of skin, thickness of hair shaft, and density of hair. The ratio of anagento telogen was determined by shape of hair follicles in vertically sectioned slide and increased by oral administration of C. pinnatifida extract. The number and the size of hair follicles were also enlarged, indicating anagen phase induction. The proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPC) was accelerated by addition of C. pinnatifida extract, which activated the signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk, p-38, and JNK) and Akt. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax as the determinant of cell fate was also raised in skin. These results suggest that the C. pinnatifida extract promotes hair growth by inducing anagen phase, which might be mediated by the activation of cellular signalings that enhance the survival of cultured hDPC and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax that protects cells against cell death. PMID:23148028

Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Sang-Yong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ju-Han; Yi, Tae-Hoo

2013-09-01

271

Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.  

PubMed Central

Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

1997-01-01

272

Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin  

SciTech Connect

We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)]. E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Shiroi, Akira [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)

2006-06-30

273

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by a hormone imbalance. When hormones are the problem, doctors call the ... bleeding, or DUB. Abnormal bleeding caused by hormone imbalance is more common in teenagers or in women ...

274

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

275

Myosin XVa and whirlin, two deafness gene products required for hair bundle growth, are located at the stereocilia tips and interact directly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defects in myosin XVa and the PDZ domain-containing protein, whirlin, underlie deafness in humans and mice. Hair bundles of mutant mice defective for either protein have abnormally short stereocilia. Here, we show that whirlin, like myosin XVa, is present at the very tip of each stereocilium in the developing and mature hair bundles of the cochlear and vestibular system. We

Benjamin Delprat; Vincent Michel; Richard Goodyear; Yasuhiro Yamasaki; Nicolas Michalski; Aziz El-Amraoui; Isabelle Perfettini; Pierre Legrain; Guy Richardson; Jean-Pierre Hardelin; Christine Petit

2005-01-01

276

Lavender Foal Syndrome Hair Sample Sheet Please tape hair samples within boxed area as illustrated and place in individual envelope.  

E-print Network

Lavender Foal Syndrome Hair Sample Sheet Please tape hair samples within boxed area as illustrated and place in individual envelope. *Pull 50 hairs from the tail or mane (do not use hairs shed on brush) #Hairs must be pulled, not cut #Hairs must contain hair root *Align the "roots" of the hairs and trim

Keinan, Alon

277

Hair loss in women.  

PubMed

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a clinical problem that is becoming more common in women. Female alopecia with androgen increase is called female androgenetic alopecia (FAGA) and without androgen increase is called female pattern hair loss. The clinical picture of typical FAGA begins with a specific "diffuse loss of hair from the parietal or frontovertical areas with an intact frontal hairline." Ludwig called this process "rarefaction." In Ludwig's classification of hair loss in women, progressive type of FAGA, 3 patterns were described: grade I or minimal, grade II or moderate, and grade III or severe. Ludwig also described female androgenetic alopecia with male pattern (FAGA.M) that should be subclassified according to Ebling's or Hamilton-Norwood's classification. FAGA.M may be present in 4 conditions: persistent adrenarche syndrome, alopecia caused by an adrenal or an ovarian tumor, posthysterectomy, and as an involutive alopecia. A more recent classification (Olsen's classification of FPHL) proposes 2 types: early- and late-onset with or without excess of androgens in each. The diagnosis of FPHL is made by clinical history, clinical examination, wash test, dermoscopy, trichoscan, trichograms and laboratory test, especially androgenic determinations. Topical treatment of FPHL is with minoxidil, 2-5% twice daily. When FPHL is associated with high levels of androgens, systemic antiandrogenic therapy is needed. Persistent adrenarche syndrome (adrenal SAHA) and alopecia of adrenal hyperandrogenism is treated with adrenal suppression and antiandrogens. Adrenal suppression is achieved with glucocorticosteroids. Antiandrogens therapy includes cyproterone acetate, drospirenone, spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride. Excess release of ovarian androgens (ovarian SAHA) and alopecia of ovarian hyperandrogenism is treated with ovarian suppression and antiandrogens. Ovarian suppression includes the use of contraceptives containing an estrogen, ethinylestradiol, and a progestogen. Antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate, always accompanied by tricyclic contraceptives, are the best choice of antiandrogens to use in patients with FPHL. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists such as leuprolide acetate suppress pituitary and gonadal function through a reduction in luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Subsequently, ovarian steroid levels also will be reduced, especially in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. When polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, metformin must be considered as treatment. Hyperprolactinemic SAHA and alopecia of pituitary hyperandrogenism should be treated with bromocriptine or cabergoline. Postmenopausal alopecia, with previous high levels of androgens or with prostatic-specific antigen greater than 0.04 ng/mL, improves with finasteride or dutasteride. Although we do not know the reason, postmenopausal alopecia in normoandrogenic women also improves with finasteride or dutasteride at a dose of 2.5 mg per day. Dermatocosmetic concealment with a hairpiece, hair prosthesis as extensions, or partial hairpieces can be useful. Lastly, weight loss undoubtedly improves hair loss in hyperandrogenic women. PMID:19341939

Camacho-Martínez, Francisco M

2009-03-01

278

Hair cortex comedo: a series of 34 cases.  

PubMed

Hair cortex comedo was described originally in an article detailing 2 cases of a comedo-like clinical lesion that was histologically a keratinous plug with cornification similar to the cortex of the hair shaft. We have collected retro- and prospectively a series of 34 cases of hair cortex comedo. In our series, there was a slight female predominance (Male:Female of 1:1.4), and the mean patient age was 28.8 years. All lesions were solitary, distributed mainly on the head and neck or trunk, and were described clinically as a blue subcutaneous papule or nodule with "cyst" as the most common clinical differential diagnosis. Histologic examination showed a solitary, vertically oriented, uniformly sized oval nodule of compact laminated corneocytes sitting in a patulous invagination lined by epithelium similar to the infundibulum, isthmus, or combinations of them; rarely matrical epithelium was identified. Entrapped melanin (30/34 cases), shadow cells (16/34 cases), and calcification (12/34 cases) were identified commonly. Remnants of a surrounding follicle were noted in 15 cases, with infundibular epithelium in 9 of the cases, isthmic epithelium in 3, and matrical or supramatrical epithelium (or both) in 3. There was an associated dense granulomatous infiltrate in the majority of the cases (25/34). Although hair cortex comedo was thought originally to be a variant of dilated pore of Winer, we believe that these distinctive lesions, which are characterized histopathologically by a uniformly sized vertically oriented dermal plug of laminated corneocytes with entrapped melanin and surrounding granulomatous inflammation, are likely derived from matrical or supramatrical cells (or both). PMID:20885284

Walsh, Sarah N; Cruz, Daniel J Santa; Hurt, Mark A

2010-12-01

279

Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Martinez A. Personal use of hair dyes and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association ... Buffler PA. Personal use of hair dyes and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic data. Cancer Causes and Control 2008; ...

280

"Dissection" of a Hair Dryer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-01-01

281

Eyebrow threading: a popular hair-removal procedure and its seldom-discussed complications.  

PubMed

Removal of eyebrow and facial hair by 'threading' has gained popularity worldwide. Threading is an ancient Eastern method of removing unwanted facial and eyebrow hair by a technique whereby one end of a cotton thread is held in the mouth of the technician and the other end looped around individual hair shafts, which are then pulled out. This is repeated in quick, successive movements. In India, this is used extensively for shaping and removing eyebrow hair. Threading now enjoys immense popularity with women worldwide, irrespective of race or colour, and is an accepted method for removing eyebrow hair and shaping the eyebrows. However, this popular cosmetic procedure has some significant dermatological side-effects and is not familiar to many dermatologists. To our knowledge, this is the first report of verrucae occurring in threaded eyebrows. Other complications include erythema, folliculitis, pseudofolliculitis, hyperpigmentation, and depigmentation, including koebnerization of vitiligo. This report should alert dermatologists to the possible complications that may arise from this popular aesthetic epilatory procedure. PMID:19021633

Verma, S B

2009-04-01

282

Cyclosporine A stimulated hair growth from mouse vibrissae follicles in an organ culture model  

PubMed Central

Hypertrichosis is one of the most common side effects of systemic cyclosporine A therapy. It has been previously shown that cyclosporine A induces anagen and inhibits catagen development in mice. In the present study, to explore the mechanisms of cyclosporine A, we investigated the effects of cyclosporine A on hair shaft elongation, hair follicle cell proliferation, apoptosis, and mRNA expression of selected growth factors using an organ culture model of mouse vibrissae. In this model, cyclosporine A stimulated hair growth of normal mouse vibrissae follicles by inhibiting catagen-like development and promoting matrix cell proliferation. In addition, cyclosporine A caused an increase in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and nerve growth factor (NGF), and inhibited follistatin expression. Our findings provide an explanation for the clinically observed effects of cyclosporine A on hair growth. The mouse vibrissae organ culture offers an attractive model for identifying factors involved in the modulation of hair growth. PMID:23554774

Xu, Wenrong; Fan, Weixin; Yao, Kun

2012-01-01

283

GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPID ANALYSIS OF EASTERN RED BAT (Lasiurus borealis) HAIR BY ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION TANDEM MASS SPECTROMET  

PubMed Central

Pilosebaceous units found in the mammalian integument are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle. Pilosebaceous units release protective oils, or sebum, by holocrine secretion onto skin and hair through rupturing of sebocytes. Sebum is largely composed of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids, free fatty acids, sterols, wax esters, sterol esters, and squalene. In addition to these lipid classes, there is a small proportion of ionic/anionic glycerophospholipids (GPs). Composition of GPs on hair is rarely addressed despite their broad biological activities as signaling molecules and membrane stability. Furthermore, knowledge on GP composition in bats is lacking. Bat GP composition is important to document due to GP roles ranging from decreasing drag during migration to interaction with the integumentary microbiome. In this study, we analyzed GP molecular composition with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and compared GP content to previous literature. A total of 152 GPs were detected. Broad GP classes identified include lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylglycerol, with PC being the most abundant class. The acyl components were consistent with fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglyceride moieties found in Eastern red bat sebum. GP proportions of the hair surface were different from a previous study on bat lung surfactants. This study determined the broad class and molecular species of bat sebum GPs that may be used in future ecological studies in vespertilionid bats. PMID:24532214

Pannkuk, Evan L.; McGuire, Liam P.; Gilmore, David F.; Savary, Brett J.; Risch, Thomas S.

2014-01-01

284

Glycerophospholipid analysis of Eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) hair by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Pilosebaceous units found in the mammalian integument are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle. Pilosebaceous units release protective oils, or sebum, by holocrine secretion onto skin and hair through rupturing of sebocytes. Sebum is composed largely of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids, free fatty acids, sterols, wax esters, sterol esters, and squalene. In addition to these lipid classes, there is a small proportion of ionic/anionic glycerophospholipids (GPs). Composition of GPs on hair is rarely addressed despite their broad biological activities as signaling molecules and membrane stability. Furthermore, knowledge on GP composition in bats is lacking. Bat GP composition is important to document due to GP roles ranging from decreasing drag during migration to interaction with the integumentary microbiome. In this study, we analyzed GP molecular composition with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and compared GP content to previous literature. A total of 152 GPs were detected. Broad GP classes identified include lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylglycerol, with PC being the most abundant class. The acyl components were consistent with fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglyceride moieties found in Eastern red bat sebum. Glycerophospholipid proportions of the hair surface were different from a previous study on bat lung surfactants. This study determined the broad class and molecular species of bat sebum GPs that may be used in future ecological studies in vespertilionid bats. PMID:24532214

Pannkuk, Evan L; McGuire, Liam P; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

2014-03-01

285

Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States); Bethmann, H.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-31

286

Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. (Bechtel National, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)); Bethmann, H.K. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

1991-01-01

287

Hair as Race: Why “Good Hair” May Be Bad for Black Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically examining the relationship between race, Black female beauty, and hair texture, this qualitative study used narratives from 38 Black females between the ages of 19 and 81, to determine messages that communicate hair valuations to Black females, definitions of good and bad hair, and motivations for desiring good hair. A legacy of slavery, hair valuations reflect racially motivated beauty

Cynthia L. Robinson

2011-01-01

288

Unifying the Various Incarnations of Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell  

E-print Network

Unifying the Various Incarnations of Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell Jean of the hair cells' responsiveness to small stimuli. As revealed by spontaneous oscillations and forms of mechanical excitability in response to force steps, the hair bundle that adorns each hair cell is both

Jülicher, Frank

289

Hair cycle and hair pigmentation: dynamic interactions and changes associated with aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tight coupling of hair follicle melanogenesis to the hair growth cycle dramatically distinguishes follicular melanogenesis from the continuous melanogenesis of the epidermis. Cyclic re-construction of an intact hair follicle pigmentary unit occurs optimally in all scalp hair follicles during only the first 10 hair cycles, i.e. by approximately 40 years of age. Thereafter there appears to be a genetically

Dominique Van Neste; Desmond J Tobin

2004-01-01

290

The color(s) of human hair—Forensic hair analysis with SpectraCube ®  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is among the most common kind of evidence secured at crime scenes. Although DNA analysis through STR-typing is possible in principle, it is not very promising for telogenic hair or single hairs. For the mixed traces frequently found in practice, composed of different hair from an unknown number of individuals, mtDNA sequencing of each individual hair seems to

Christoph Birngruber; Frank Ramsthaler; Marcel A. Verhoff

2009-01-01

291

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Hair Follicle Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical conditions causing hair loss, such as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, and scarring alopecia, can be psychologically devastating to individuals and are the target of a multimillion dollar pharmaceutical industry. The importance of the hair follicle in skin biology, however, does not rest solely with its ability to produce hair. Hair follicles are self-renewing and contain reservoirs of multipotent stem

Sarah E. Millar

2002-01-01

292

STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING  

E-print Network

#12;STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes May 2, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2 Hair structure and mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3 Oriented Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.4 Parameter values for natural hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 #12;2 Hair Interactions

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

293

Hair-color modeling and head detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method based on hair-color modeling to detect human head in color images was proposed. The presented algorithm compared the performance of four different chrominance spaces for the distribution of hair color and built a human hair color model in YCbCr space. A Gaussian mixture density model was used to describe the distribution of hair color and segmentation threshold value

Min Zhao; Dihua Sun; Hengpan He

2008-01-01

294

Simulating Rapunzel's hair in Disney's Tangled  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair simulation is known to be a complex problem in animation. In Tangled we have the extreme task of simulating 70 feet of hair for the film's main character, Rapunzel. The excessive hair length in addition to the loose style and intricate structure of the hair present many unique challenges in simulation. Moreover, the specific art direction of the film

Kelly Ward; Maryann Simmons; Andy Milne; Hidetaka Yosumi; Xinmin Zhao

2010-01-01

295

A hot new twist to hair biology: involvement of vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1/TRPV1) signaling in human hair growth control.  

PubMed

The vanilloid receptor-1 (VR1, or transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor, TRPV1) is activated by capsaicin, the key ingredient of hot peppers. TRPV1 was originally described on sensory neurons as a central integrator of various nociceptive stimuli. However, several human skin cell populations are also now recognized to express TRPV1, but with unknown function. Exploiting the human hair follicle (HF) as a prototypic epithelial-mesenchymal interaction system, we have characterized the HF expression of TRPV1 in situ and have examined TRPV1 signaling in organ-cultured human scalp HF and outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes in vitro. TRPV1 immunoreactivity was confined to distinct epithelial compartments of the human HF, mainly to the ORS and hair matrix. In organ culture, TRPV1 activation by capsaicin resulted in a dose-dependent and TRPV1-specific inhibition of hair shaft elongation, suppression of proliferation, induction of apoptosis, premature HF regression (catagen), and up-regulation of intrafollicular transforming growth factor-beta(2). Cultured human ORS keratinocytes also expressed functional TRPV1, whose stimulation inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, elevated intracellular calcium concentration, up-regulated known endogenous hair growth inhibitors (interleukin-1beta, transforming growth factor-beta(2)), and down-regulated known hair growth promoters (hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I, stem cell factor). These findings strongly support TRPV1 as a significant novel player in human hair growth control, underscore the physiological importance of TRPV1 in human skin beyond nociception, and identify TRPV1 as a promising, novel target for pharmacological manipulations of epithelial growth disorders. PMID:15793280

Bodó, Eniko; Bíró, Tamás; Telek, Andrea; Czifra, Gabriella; Griger, Zoltán; Tóth, Balázs I; Mescalchin, Alessandra; Ito, Taisuke; Bettermann, Albrecht; Kovács, László; Paus, Ralf

2005-04-01

296

1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM AND FURNACE). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Steel Skimmer Salt Roaster, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

297

5. SHAFT HOUSE, EAST ELEVATION; VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST; (WASTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SHAFT HOUSE, EAST ELEVATION; VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST; (WASTE ROCK/SPOIL PILE IN THE FOREGROUND). - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

298

1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE AS THE PROJECTING SUPERSTRUCTURE). - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

299

11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME SUPPORT LOGS; VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

300

15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

301

13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

302

Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servomotor and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servo-motor and operating ring (left foreground) and hand wheel for butterfly valve (right background) - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Dam and Powerhouse, Morony Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

303

13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

304

17. Detail view of coupling shaft connection between reduction gear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Detail view of coupling shaft connection between reduction gear and cane mill drive gears - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

305

17. TOP OF TURBINE LOOKING NORTHWEST. SHAFT TO GENERATOR IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. TOP OF TURBINE LOOKING NORTHWEST. SHAFT TO GENERATOR IN CENTER. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

306

5. AEROVANE FAN HOOD FROM NORTHWEST. MANWAY SHAFT DOORS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. AEROVANE FAN HOOD FROM NORTHWEST. MANWAY SHAFT DOORS AND METAL FRAGMENT AT RIGHT REAR. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Aerovane Fan, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

307

No hair theorems for positive ?  

E-print Network

We extend all known black hole no-hair theorems to space-times endowed with a positive cosmological constant $\\Lambda.$ Specifically, we prove that static spherical black holes with $\\Lambda>0$ cannot support scalar fields in convex potentials and Proca-massive vector fields in the region between black hole and cosmic horizons. We also demonstrate the existence of at least one type of quantum hair, and of exactly one charged solution for the Abelian Higgs model. Our method of proof can be applied to investigate other types of quantum or topological hair on black holes in the presence of a positive $\\Lambda.$

Sourav Bhattacharya; Amitabha Lahiri

2007-11-19

308

How Thick is Your Hair?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 13 of the PDF, learners use a laser pointer (with known wavelength of light) to measure the thickness of a human hair. By shining the laser on a hair, analyzing the patterns created, and completing some calculations, learners the thickness of a hair in nanometers. Learners can calibrate the laser to find its wavelength by completing the first activity in the manual entitled, "Spots, Lines and Lasers." This manual contains 4 activities related to the Spectra: The Original Laser Superhero Force comic book published by the American Physical Society.

Rebecca Thompson-Flagg

2010-01-01

309

11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the south, with operating ring at base of shaft and servo motor arms in foreground and in left background recess. Turbine monitoring and auxiliary equipment is located in the rightbackground recess. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

310

Obtaining One-Degree Accuracy With Shaft Encoders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circuit converts output of 1-pulse-per-revolution shaft encoder to precise 360-pulses-per-revolution output. Circuit allows shaft angular position to be measured with 1-degree accuracy. With simple modifications, circuit provides higher or lower resolution from single- or multiple-pulse-perrevolution sources. Circuit used to synchronize aircraft beacon transponder-based plan-position indicator (PPI) display to remote host interrogator search antenna. Constructed using standard, commercially available components.

Franke, J. M.; Clemmons, J., Jamesi.; Jones, S. B.

1986-01-01

311

Balancing of high speed, flexible rotating shafts across critical speeds  

E-print Network

BALANCING OF HIGH SPEED, FLEXIBLE ROTATING SHAFTS ACROSS CRITICAL SPEEDS A Thesis by Gary Paul White Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1977 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering Gary Paul White 1977 BALANCING OF HIGH SPEED, FLEXIBLE ROTATING SHAFTS ACROSS CRITICAL SPEEDS A Thesis by GARY PAUL WHITE Approved as to style and content by: Head of Department Member August...

White, Gary Paul

1977-01-01

312

Automatic Tension Adjuster For Flexible-Shaft Grinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible shaft of grinding tool automatically maintained in tension by air pressure. Probelike tool bent to reach hard-to-reach areas for grinding and polishing. Unless shaft held in tension, however, it rubs against its sheath, overheating and wearing out quickly. By taking up slack in flexible cable, tension adjuster reduces friction and enables tool to operate more efficiently, in addition to lengthening operating life.

Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

1990-01-01

313

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTHSOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTH-SOUTH IS IN PLACE; AT RIGHT IS A PRESS FOR WORKING THE ALUMINUM SHEETS; E. W. BLISS CO. OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, MANUFACTURED THE PRESS. MACHINERY ORIGINALLY POWERED BY OVERHEAD BELTS CONNECTED TO CENTRAL LINE SHAFTS; BY ABOUT THE 1940s THE MACHINERY WAS ELECTRICALLY POWERED. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

314

Co-factors of LIM domains (Clims/Ldb/Nli) regulate corneal homeostasis and maintenance of hair follicle stem cells  

PubMed Central

The homeostasis of both cornea and hair follicles depends on a constant supply of progeny cells produced by populations of keratin (K) 14-expressing stem cells localized in specific niches. To investigate the potential role of Co-factors of LIM domains (Clims) in epithelial tissues, we generated transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative Clim molecule (DN-Clim) under the control of the K14 promoter. As expected, the K14 promoter directed high level expression of the transgene to the basal cells of cornea and epidermis, as well as the outer root sheath of hair follicles. In corneal epithelium, the transgene expression causes decreased expression of adhesion molecule BP180 and defective hemidesmosomes, leading to detachment of corneal epithelium from the underlying stroma, which in turn causes blisters, wounds and an inflammatory response. After a period of epithelial thinning, the corneal epithelium undergoes differentiation to an epidermis-like structure. The K14-DN-Clim mice also develop progressive hair loss due to dysfunctional hair follicles that fail to generate hair shafts. The number of hair follicle stem cells is decreased by at least 60% in K14-DN-Clim mice, indicating that Clims are required for hair follicle stem cell maintenance. In addition, Clim2 interacts with Lhx2 in vivo, suggesting that Clim2 is an essential co-factor for the LIM homeodomain factor Lhx2, which was previously shown to play a role in hair follicle stem cell maintenance. Together, these data indicate that Clim proteins play important roles in the homeostasis of corneal epithelium and hair follicles. PMID:17991461

Xu, Xiaoman; Mannik, Jaana; Kudryavtseva, Elena; Lin, Kevin K.; Flanagan, Lisa A.; Spencer, Joel; Soto, Amelia; Wang, Ning; Lu, Zhongxian; Yu, Zhengquan; Monuki, Edwin S.; Andersen, Bogi

2007-01-01

315

Cartilage-hair hypoplasia caused by novel compound heterozygous RMRP mutations.  

PubMed

Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a rare, autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, caused by mutations in the RMRP gene. The skeletal abnormalities include irregular metaphyses and cone shaped epiphyses of the hands. Molecular diagnosis confirmed two novel RMRP mutations in a compound heterozygous state in two siblings with this condition. PMID:21813924

Reicherter, Kerstin; Veeramani, Amithkumar Iynapillai; Jagadeesh, Sujatha

2011-07-01

316

Manufacture of one-piece automotive drive shafts with aluminum and composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural bending frequency of a torque transmission shaft can be increased without reducing the torque transmission capability if the shaft is made using both carbon fiber composite and aluminum: the former increases the natural bending frequency and the latter sustains the applied torque. The high natural bending frequency of a shaft makes it possible to manufacture the drive shaft

Jin Ho Choi

1997-01-01

317

Ethanol affects the development of sensory hair cells in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%-1.75% by volume) from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS. PMID:24324841

Uribe, Phillip M; Asuncion, James D; Matsui, Jonathan I

2013-01-01

318

Salt Repository Project shaft design guide: Revision 0  

SciTech Connect

The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Shaft Design Guide (SDG) and the accompanying SRP Input to Seismic Design define the basic approach for developing appropriate shaft designs for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The SDG is based on current mining industry standards and practices enhanced to meet the special needs of an underground nuclear waste repository. It provides a common approach for design of both the exploratory and repository shafts. The SDG defines shaft lining and material concepts and presents methods for calculating the loads and displacements that will be imposed on lining structures. It also presents the methodology and formulae for sizing lining components. The SDG directs the shaft designer to sources of geoscience and seismic design data for the Deaf Smith County, Texas repository site. In addition, the SDG describes methods for confirming shaft lining design by means of computer analysis, and it discusses performance monitoring needs that must be considered in the design. 113 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

Not Available

1987-12-01

319

Determination of physicochemical properties of delipidized hair.  

PubMed

Using various physicochemical methods of analysis, we examined human hair in its virgin and delipidized state. Free lipids were removed by a solvent extraction technique (covalently bound lipids were not removed) using a series of solvents with varying polarity. We analyzed the surface properties of hair by conducting mechanical combing and dynamic contact angle analysis. In addition, we used inverse gas chromatography surface energy analysis to explore the chemical composition of the hair surface based on interactions of various nonpolar and polar probes with biological molecules residing on the hair surface. Further, we investigated the importance that free lipids play in the internal structural properties of hair using dynamic scanning calorimetry and tensile strength measurements. The microstructure of the hair surface was probed by atomic force microscopy, whereas the lipid content of hair's morphological components was determined by infrared spectroscopic imaging. We also monitored the water management properties of virgin and delipidized hair by dynamic vapor sorption, which yielded unique water sorption isotherms for each hair type. Using all these techniques, differences were found in the chemical composition and physical behavior of virgin and delipidized hair. To better understand the influence of hair lipid composition on hair styling treatments, we conducted mechanical analyses of hair shaped into omega loops to determine the stiffness, elasticity, and flexibility of hair-polymer assemblies. Although there were no discernible differences between untreated virgin and delipidized hair, in terms of stiffness and elasticity, we found that treatment with hair styling agents produced different effects depending on the hair type used. Likewise, streaming potential measurements were carried out to monitor the binding capacity of rinse-off treatments on virgin and delipidized hair. Using this technique, we monitored the surface potential of hair and found significant differences in the binding behavior of cationic polymers and surfactants (polyquaternium-55 and quaternium-26) on both hair types. PMID:24139434

McMullen, Roger L; Laura, Donna; Chen, Susan; Koelmel, Donald; Zhang, Guojin; Gillece, Timothy

2013-01-01

320

Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

Haines, Richard F.

1992-01-01

321

Atoh1 directs hair cell differentiation and survival in the late embryonic mouse inner ear?  

PubMed Central

Atoh1 function is required for the earliest stages of inner ear hair cell development, which begins during the second week of gestation. Atoh1 expression in developing hair cells continues until early postnatal ages, but the function of this late expression is unknown. To test the role of continued Atoh1 expression in hair cell maturation we conditionally deleted the gene in the inner ear at various embryonic and postnatal ages. In the organ of Corti, deletion of Atoh1 at E15.5 led to the death of all hair cells. In contrast, deletion at E16.5 caused death only in apical regions, but abnormalities of stereocilia formation were present throughout the cochlea. In the utricle, deletion at E14.5 or E16.5 did not cause cell death but led to decreased expression of myosin VIIa and failure of stereocilia formation. Furthermore, we show that maintained expression of Barhl1 and Gfi1, two transcription factors implicated in cochlear hair cell survival, depends upon continued Atoh1 expression. However, maintained expression of Pou4f3 and several hair cell-specific markers is independent of Atoh1 expression. These data reveal novel late roles for Atoh1 that are separable from its initial role in hair cell development. PMID:23796904

Chonko, Kurt T.; Jahan, Israt; Stone, Jennifer; Wright, Margaret C.; Fujiyama, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Mikio; Fritzsch, Bernd; Maricich, Stephen M.

2013-01-01

322

On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS) is a rugged, compact, multiple-channel data acquisition computer system that is designed to record data from instrumentation while operating under extreme rotational centrifugal or gravitational acceleration forces. This system, which was developed for the Heritage Fuel Air Turbine Test (HFATT) program, addresses the problem of recording multiple channels of high-sample-rate data on most any rotating test article by mounting the entire acquisition computer onboard with the turbine test article. With the limited availability of slip ring wires for power and communication, OSDAS utilizes its own resources to provide independent power and amplification for each instrument. Since OSDAS utilizes standard PC technology as well as shared code interfaces with the next-generation, real-time health monitoring system (SPARTAA Scalable Parallel Architecture for Real Time Analysis and Acquisition), this system could be expanded beyond its current capabilities, such as providing advanced health monitoring capabilities for the test article. High-conductor-count slip rings are expensive to purchase and maintain, yet only provide a limited number of conductors for routing instrumentation off the article and to a stationary data acquisition system. In addition to being limited to a small number of instruments, slip rings are prone to wear quickly, and introduce noise and other undesirable characteristics to the signal data. This led to the development of a system capable of recording high-density instrumentation, at high sample rates, on the test article itself, all while under extreme rotational stress. OSDAS is a fully functional PC-based system with 48 channels of 24-bit, high-sample-rate input channels, phase synchronized, with an onboard storage capacity of over 1/2-terabyte of solid-state storage. This recording system takes a novel approach to the problem of recording multiple channels of instrumentation, integrated with the test article itself, packaged in a compact/rugged form factor, consuming limited power, all while rotating at high turbine speeds.

Pedings, Marc; DeHart, Shawn; Formby, Jason; Naumann, Charles

2012-01-01

323

Exploratory Shaft Facility hoist recommendation: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report develops a project position and recommendation on the manner to provide hoisting capability at the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) site during development, test support and decommissioning. The hoist study shows a clear preference for purchasing hoists over any option involving lease or rental costs. Given the planned duration of site characterization, government purchase will yield significantly lower total costs for the project. A decision analysis ranked this option on a relative 0 to 10 scale as a 7.6 versus 605 for the next best option. Double drum-double clutch, 1000 HP hoists are clearly preferable to single drum configurations and somewhat better than double drum-single clutch. While the purchase cost for this option is somewhat higher than the others, the benefits from increased versatility, minimum project schedule impact, and improved productivity favor the double clutch. This choice is favored for both construction and operations phases of the project. On a 0 to 10 scale the double drum-double clutch ranked 9.4 overall versus 8.68 for the double drum-single clutch option. Newly fabricated or suitable unused available hoists are favored over used hoists based on the reduced risks of breakdown, easier maintenance, warranty and start-up assistance availability and quality assurance. While new hoists will cost more to purchase and will require longer to procure, new hoists ranked 8.5 versus 7.3 for used hoists on the same 0 to 10 scale. Current project milestones provide adequate time for procurement.

Not Available

1987-07-01

324

Speed control device for a heavy duty shaft. [solar sails for spacecraft propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A speed control device is characterized by a reference speed shaft spatially related to a heavy duty shaft, a drive train for driving the reference speed shaft at a constant angular velocity, a drive train for driving the heavy duty shaft at a variable angular velocity and a speed control assembly for continuously comparing the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft with the angular velocity of the reference speed shaft. A brake assembly is connected to the heavy duty shaft and is adapted to respond to errors in the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft in order to reduce the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft to that of the reference speed shaft.

Ford, A. G. (inventor)

1980-01-01

325

Simplified Representations for Modeling Hair Abstract: We present a novel framework for modeling hair  

E-print Network

Simplified Representations for Modeling Hair Abstract: We present a novel framework for modeling hair using simplified representations. The set of representations, in- cluding individual strands rendering of hair, and offers flexibility to balance between performance and quality. Furthermore

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

326

Blood, brain, and hair GHB concentrations following fatal ingestion.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing incidence of illicit use of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), little information is available documenting levels of the drug in GHB fatalities. We measured GHB levels in postmortem blood, brain and hair specimens from a suspected overdose case by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) following solid phase extraction (SPE) and derivatization with bis(trimethyl-silyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). Examination found 330 microg/mL GHB in femoral blood and 221 ng/mg GHB in frontal cortex brain tissue, values higher than those typically reported in the literature. The hair shaft was negative for GHB whereas the plucked root bulbs with outer root sheath attached (2,221 ng/mg) and root bulbs after washing and removal of the outer root sheath (47 ng/mg) contained the drug. Our results are consistent with an acute single dose of GHB and, as the toxicology screen was negative for other drugs of abuse, emphasize the significant danger of this drug. PMID:11373018

Kalasinsky, K S; Dixon, M M; Schmunk, G A; Kish, S J

2001-05-01

327

Hair as a long-term retrospective cortisol calendar in orang-utans (Pongo spp.): new perspectives for stress monitoring in captive management and conservation.  

PubMed

This study examined whether the method of hair cortisol analysis is applicable to orang-utans (Pongo spp.) and can help to advance the objective monitoring of stress in non-human primates. Specifically, we examined whether fundamental prerequisites for hair cortisol analysis are given in orang-utans and, subsequently, whether segmental hair analysis may provide a retrospective calendar of long-term cortisol levels. For this, hair samples were examined from 71 zoo-living orang-utans (38 males, mean age=22.5years; 33 females, mean age=24years) for which detailed records of past living conditions were available. Hair samples were cut from defined body regions and were analyzed either in full length or in segments. Results showed that hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were unrelated to age or sex of the individual animal. HCC were found to be higher in orang-utans, with perceived long-term stressful periods (mean HCC=43.6±26.5pg/mg, n=13) compared to animals without perceived stressful periods (19.3±5.5pg/mg, n=55, P<0.001). In non-stressed animals, segmental hair analyses revealed that HCC was stable along the hair shaft even when hair reached >40cm. The possibility of obtaining a retrospective calendar of stress-related cortisol changes through hair analysis was further supported by data of three case studies showing close correspondence between the segmental HCC results and keeper reports of stress exposure during the respective time periods. Finally, low within-animal variation in HCC from different body regions (CV%: 14.3) suggested that this method may also be applicable to naturally shed hair, e.g., as found in nests of wild orang-utans and other great apes. Therefore, using HCC may provide an ideal non-invasive tool for both captive management as well as conservation in orang-utans and potentially other great apes. PMID:24239791

Carlitz, Esther H D; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Stalder, Tobias; van Schaik, Carolus P

2014-01-01

328

Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.  

PubMed

Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting in no favorable impact on protein loss. PMID:12715094

Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

2003-01-01

329

Urine - abnormal color  

MedlinePLUS

The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

330

Female Pattern Hair Loss: Clinico-Laboratory Findings and Trichoscopy Depending on Disease Severity  

PubMed Central

Background: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a progressive hair loss disorder with unclear triggering and supporting factors. Trichoscopic features of each stage of FPHL have not been specifically elaborated previously. Aims: To analyze characteristics and investigate associations of clinico-laboratory and trichoscopic features of female patients in regard to the severity of hair loss in FPHL and to facilitate its diagnosis using noninvasive scalp dermoscopy (trichoscopy) in Fitzpatrick skin type III patients. Materials and Methods: Clinico-laboratory and trichoscopic data from 60 patients with FPHL were analyzed using Spearman's correlation test. Results: Patients had mean age of 34.4±10.6 years and mean duration of hair loss of 4.49±3.76 years. Of all, 45% (27/60) had a family history of pattern hair loss (PHL) and had an earlier onset of hair loss. Stage of hair loss positively correlated with duration and age at presentation. No association was found between the severity of FPHL and laboratory values including anemic and gonadal hormone profiles. Characteristic trichoscopic features (at 10-fold magnification) of FPHL were peripilar signs (PPS) (brown, BPPS and white, WPPS), white dots, scalp pigmentation, and focal atrichia. WPPS, scalp pigmentation, and focal atrichia positively correlated with the stage and duration of hair loss. Conclusions: Family history of PHL causes an earlier onset of hair loss but does not influence its course or severity. The latter is also not affected by abnormal anemic profile or hormonal levels. PPS, scalp pigmentation, focal atrichia, and white dots are characteristic of PHL. WPPS, scalp pigmentation, and focal atrichia reflect advanced PHL. PMID:22628986

Zhang, Xingqi; Caulloo, Sillani; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Bin; Cai, Zeming; Yang, Jian

2012-01-01

331

Effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hairs.  

PubMed

The effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in hair samples of MA addicts were studied. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples collected from male (n = 24, 24-51 yrs) and female abusers (n = 7, 17-46 yrs) were evaluated for MA and AM concentration's changes after repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples, no additional treatment hair sample group (NAT), were treated in vitro with liquid soap or three kinds of hair dyes which were black, brown and yellow color hair dye, respectively. Quantitation of AM and MA in hair samples was utilized GC-MS using selected ion monitoring. MA and AM concentrations in NAT were 10.41 ± 8.91 ng/mg (range 1.50-30.0 ng/mg) and 2.24 ± 2.75 ng/mg (range 0.41-12.90 ng/mg). And, their concentrations were decreased about 23.3 ± 4.5% (range 16.7-32.8%) in hair repeated washing group (WAS) and 32.6 ± 4.82 (22.2-41.9) in three kinds of a single hair dyeing groups in comparison to original concentrations of MA and AM in NAT. A statistically significant difference was found between NAT and WAS or three hair dyeing groups (p < 0.01), but not between WAS and three hair dyeing groups, and not between each hair dyeing groups with each three kinds of hair dyes (p > 0.05). PMID:20650577

Baeck, SeungKyung; Han, EunYoung; Chung, HeeSun; Pyo, MyoungYun

2011-03-20

332

Menkes's steely hair syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Three unrelated cases of Menkes's syndrome are described. In addition to the typical features these cases all showed abnormalities of the urinary tract characterized by hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and bladder diverticula. There was no organic obstruction in the urinary tract and the changes are presumed to be due to disturbed innervation. The 3 patients showed no overall clinical response to parenteral copper therapy administered for periods of 1 to 8 months. Necropsy studies showed structural changes in veins as well as arteries together with aneurysm formation in both, and one case showed a polypoid lesion in the stomach. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:1275538

Wheeler, E M; Roberts, P F

1976-01-01

333

?-catenin activity in the dermal papilla regulates morphogenesis and regeneration of hair  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The activity of keratinocytes in the hair follicle is regulated by signals from a specialized mesenchymal niche, the dermal papilla. Here, mice expressing cre recombinase in the dermal papilla were developed to probe the interaction between follicular keratinocyte populations and the dermal papilla in vivo. Inactivation of the ?-catenin gene within the dermal papilla of fully developed hair follicles results in dramatically reduced proliferation of the progenitors and their immediate progeny that generate the hair shaft and, subsequently, premature induction of the destructive phase of the hair cycle (catagen). It also prevents regeneration of the cycling follicle from stem cells resident in the permanent portion of the follicle. Gene expression analysis reveals that ?-catenin activity in the dermal papilla regulates at least two signaling pathways, FGF and IGF, that can mediate the inductive effects of the DP on keratinocytes. This study reveals a reciprocal signaling loop that employs Wnt/?-catenin signaling in both epithelial progenitor cells and their mesenchymal niche to govern and coordinate the interactions that are essential for the function of these two compartments. PMID:20412777

Enshell-Seijffers, David; Lindon, Catherine; Kashiwagi, Mariko; Morgan, Bruce A.

2010-01-01

334

Distribution and chemical speciation of arsenic in ancient human hair using synchrotron radiation.  

PubMed

Pre-Columbian populations that inhabited the Tarapacá mid river valley in the Atacama Desert in Chile during the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period (AD 500-1450) show patterns of chronic poisoning due to exposure to geogenic arsenic. Exposure of these people to arsenic was assessed using synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy measurements on ancient human hair. These combined techniques of high sensitivity and specificity enabled the discrimination between endogenous and exogenous processes that has been an analytical challenge for archeological studies and criminal investigations in which hair is used as a proxy of premortem metabolism. The high concentration of arsenic mainly in the form of inorganic As(III) and As(V) detected in the hair suggests chronic arsenicism through ingestion of As-polluted water rather than external contamination by the deposition of heavy metals due to metallophilic soil microbes or diffusion of arsenic from the soil. A decrease in arsenic concentration from the proximal to the distal end of the hair shaft analyzed may indicate a change in the diet due to mobility, though chemical or microbiologically induced processes during burial cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:24320096

Kakoulli, Ioanna; Prikhodko, Sergey V; Fischer, Christian; Cilluffo, Marianne; Uribe, Mauricio; Bechtel, Hans A; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A

2014-01-01

335

Method of lining a vertical mine shaft with concrete  

DOEpatents

The apparatus includes a cylindrical retainer form spaced inwardly of the wall of the shaft by the desired thickness of the liner to be poured and having overlapping edges which seal against concrete flow but permit the form to be contracted to a smaller circumference after the liner has hardened and is self-supporting. A curb ring extends downwardly and outwardly toward the shaft wall from the bottom of the retainer form to define the bottom surface of each poured liner section. An inflatable toroid forms a seal between the curb ring and the shaft wall. A form support gripper ring having gripper shoes laterally extendable under hydraulic power to engage the shaft wall supports the retainer form, curb ring and liner until the newly poured liner section becomes self-supporting. Adjusting hydraulic cylinders permit the curb ring and retainer form to be properly aligned relative to the form support gripper ring. After a liner section is self-supporting, an advancing system advances the retainer form, curb ring and form support gripper ring toward a shaft boring machine above which the liner is being formed. The advancing system also provides correct horizontal alignment of the form support gripper ring.

Eklund, James D. (Mattawa, WA); Halter, Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Spokane, WA); Sullivan, Robert G. (Richland, WA); Moffat, Robert B. (Federal Way, WA)

1981-01-01

336

Minireview: Hair Cortisol: A Novel Biomarker of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Activity  

PubMed Central

Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is commonly assessed by measuring glucocorticoids such as cortisol (CORT). For many years, CORT was obtained primarily from blood plasma or urine, whereas later approaches added saliva and feces for noninvasive monitoring of HPA functioning. Despite the value of all these sample matrices for answering many research questions, they remain limited in the temporal range of assessment. Plasma and saliva are point samples that vary as a function of circadian rhythmicity and are susceptible to confounding by environmental disturbances. Even urine and feces generally assess HPA activity over a period of only 24 h or less. We and others have recently developed and validated methods for measuring the concentration of CORT in the body hair of animals (e.g. rhesus monkeys) and scalp hair of humans. CORT is constantly deposited in the growing hair shaft, as a consequence of which such deposition can serve as a biomarker of integrated HPA activity over weeks and months instead of minutes or hours. Since the advent of this methodological advance, hair CORT has already been used as an index of chronic HPA activity and stress in human clinical and nonclinical populations, in a variety of laboratory-housed and wild-living animal species, and in archival specimens that are many decades or even centuries old. Moreover, because human hair is known to grow at an average rate of about 1 cm/month, several studies suggest that CORT levels in hair segments that differ in proximity to the scalp can, under certain conditions, be used as a retrospective calendar of HPA activity during specific time periods preceding sample collection. PMID:22778226

Novak, Melinda A.

2012-01-01

337

Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material  

SciTech Connect

Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1996-12-01

338

Design of Energy Scavengers Mounted on Rotating Shafts  

E-print Network

In this paper, a novel energy scavenger is proposed. The scavenger consists of a cantilever beam on which piezoelectric films and a mass are mounted. The mass at the tip of the beam is known as the proof mass and the device is called either an energy scavenger or a beam-mass system. The beam-mass system is mounted on a rotating shaft, where the axis of the shaft is horizontal. A single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) mathematical model is derived for the scavenger and its properties are carefully examined. From the model, it becomes clear that the rotation of the shaft and gravity cause both parametric excitations and exogenous forces which make the beam-mass system vibrate. Guidelines are provided as how to choose the scavenger parameters in order to have it resonate. Examples are given to illustrate the performance of the proposed scavenger.

Shahruz, S M

2008-01-01

339

Shear Load Transfer Characteristics of Drilled Shafts Socketed in Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a shear load transfer function and an analytical method for estimating the load transfer characteristics of rock-socketed drilled shafts subjected to axial loads. A shear load transfer ( f-w) function of rock-socketed drilled shafts is proposed based on the constant normal stiffness (CNS) direct shear tests. It is presented in terms of the borehole roughness and the geological strength index (GSI) so that the structural discontinuities and the surface conditions of the rock mass can be considered. An analytical method that takes into account the coupled soil resistance effects is proposed using a modified Mindlin’s point load solution. Through comparisons with load test results, the proposed methodology is in good agreement with the general trend observed in in situ measurements and represents an improvement in the prediction of the shear behavior of rock-socketed drilled shafts.

Jeong, Sangseom; Ahn, Sangyong; Seol, Hoonil

2010-02-01

340

Tooth - abnormal shape  

MedlinePLUS

... many different conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth color, time of appearance, or absence of teeth. ... any medical conditions that may cause abnormal tooth shape? At what age ... spacing)? What other symptoms are also present? Fillings, ...

341

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

342

1. Introduction: current issues in hair loss-related disorders  

E-print Network

1. Introduction: current issues in hair loss-related disorders 2. Basic biology of hair follicles 3 in hair loss-related disorders Hair loss or alopecia can result either from a failure to regrow hair therapeutic strategies are required for each condition. Hair loss is most frequently caused by a failure

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

343

A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching Hong Chen and Song Chun Zhu  

E-print Network

human animation, as well as in human recognition. For example, it is evident that hair style has and wisps which create diverse hair styles. Hair appearance plays an important role in graphics, digital and vision. In graphics, hair acquisition, modeling and animation have attracted increasing attention

Zhu, Song Chun

344

Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli  

E-print Network

Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli, 1999 To enhance their mechanical sensitivity and frequency selectivity, hair cells amplify the mechanical stimuli to which they respond. Although cell-body contractions of outer hair cells are thought

Hudspeth, A. James

345

Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus  

E-print Network

Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus Michael E. Benser Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021 Hair bundles, the mechanically sensitive organelles of hair cells in the auditory and vestibular systems, are elastic structures that are deflected

Hudspeth, A. James

346

Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells in the sacculus  

E-print Network

Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells transduction by the inner ear. We present evidence for a single-cell correlate of this phenomenon, hair motion that incorporates the negative stiffness of the hair bundle as well as its two mechanisms

Hudspeth, A. James

347

Negative hair-bundle stiffness betrays a mechanism for mechanical amplification by the hair cell  

E-print Network

Negative hair-bundle stiffness betrays a mechanism for mechanical amplification by the hair cell P. Hudspeth, August 15, 2000 Hearing and balance rely on the ability of hair cells in the inner ear to sense miniscule mechanical stimuli. In each cell, sound or acceleration deflects the mechanosensitive hair bundle

Hudspeth, A. James

348

Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)  

MedlinePLUS

... National Institutes of Health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) It may help to join a support group to talk with others whose hair has fallen out during cancer treatment. Questions other ...

349

Shaft transducer having dc output proportional to angular velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brushless dc tachometer is disclosed that includes a high strength toroidal permanent magnet for providing a uniform magnetic field in an air gap, an annular pole piece opposite the magnet, and a pickup coil wound around the pole piece and adapted to rotate about the axis of the pole piece. The pickup coil is rotated by an input shaft to which the coil is coupled with the friction clip. The output of the coil is conducted to circuitry by a twisted wire pair. The input shaft also activates a position transducing potentiometer.

Handlykken, M. B. (inventor)

1984-01-01

350

Double crush syndrome due to plating of humeral shaft fracture  

PubMed Central

Median nerve injury is rarely associated with the humeral shaft fracture. A Sixty two year old woman with a displaced humeral shaft fracture, developed a symptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome after plating with a screw protruding medially. 16 months later, the implants were removed and the symptoms gradually improved without carpal tunnel release surgery. A double crush syndrome resulted due to the proximal compression by the medially protruding screw and the distal compression by carpal tunnel. The proximal decompression produced by removal of the screw led to relief of the symptoms. PMID:24741148

Huang, Yi-Gang; Chang, Shi-Min

2014-01-01

351

Anterior Shoulder Dislocation and Ipsilateral Humeral Shaft Fracture  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous dislocation of shoulder and humeral shaft fracture is a rare injury, and there is no clear protocol for its treatment. Herein we present a case of a 15-year-old boy, who suffered from a job-related accident and sustained fracture of humeral shaft associated with ipsilateral anterior shoulder dislocation and fracture of greater tuberosity 15 years ago. He received closed reduction of both injuries and coaptation plaster splint for four weeks, followed by Sarmiento splint at that time. Fifteen years after the injury, he has no problem related to the previous injury, and does not experience any episode of shoulder instability. PMID:23115454

Karimi-Nasab, Mohammad Hossein; Shayesteh-Azar, Masoud; Sajjadi–Saravi, Majid; Mehdi Daneshpoor, Seyed Mohamad

2012-01-01

352

Improved circumferential shaft seal for aircraft gear transmissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operation under simulated aircraft transmission conditions of speeds to 2850 m/min (9350 ft/min), lubricant temperatures to 394 K (250 F), shaft radial runouts to 0.254 mm (0.010 in.) F.I.R. (full indicator reading), and pressure differentials to 1.03 N/cm2 (1.5 psi) revealed that conventional circumferential seals leaked excessively. Modifying the conventional seal by adding helical grooves to the seal bore reduced leakage rates to within the acceptable level of 10 cm3/hr. The leakage rate of this modified seal was not significantly affected by lubricant flooding or by shaft radial runout.

Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

1973-01-01

353

[Interrelations between physician, hairdresser and mass media in management of hair loss].  

PubMed

Hair problems are attacked at the levels of information supply, trichological competence and evidence based medical treatment. The alopecias represent a major health care challenge, and the psychological significance of hair loss has only recently found appreciation in the medical community. They may pose a vexing problem for non-specialized physicians, who tend to trivialize such complaints, although the patient's perception of abnormality determines whether or not advice is sought. Perception of a hair problem is subject to sociocultural standards; films and advertisements help determine the threshold for "normality" and what is "healthy" and "beautiful", and the media provide an abundance of undiscriminating information with respect to hair care. Patients with hair problems frequently consult the hairdresser prior to the medical specialist. Thus additional areas of competence should be incorporated into the hairdresser's training qualifications. Besides manual, creative and psychological aptitudes, "trichological competence" relating to the recognition of most important hair disorders, recognition of personal limitations and cooperation with the medical specialist are required. To optimize the interaction between the physician, hairdressers and the media, more effective communication and public activities from the medical profession are desirable, with success depending on full identification of the set goals, qualification and adherence to the standards determined by the medical speciality. PMID:11153357

Trüeb, R M

2000-10-01

354

Human hair: A unique physicochemical composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

All hair is ethnic. Categorizing diverse hair types into 3 major groups—African, Asian, and Caucasian—makes it easier to recognize characteristics specific to each hair type, such as curliness, color, and cross-sectional parameters. All hair, however, regardless of its ethnic origin, exhibits common characteristics of morphology, chemical makeup, and molecular structure. This article provides a brief review of the salient elements

Leszek J. Wolfram

2003-01-01

355

Safety and Efficacy Study of Hairstetics' ANCHORING SYSTEM For Hair Extensions For Subjects Affected With Hair Thinning  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Post Radiation/Chemotherapy Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Post-burn Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Cicatricial Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning.; Androgenetic Alopecia Presents With Hair Thinning; Alopecia Due to Traumatic Injuries Presents With Hair Thinning.; Alopecia Due to Skin Disease Presents With Hair Thinning.

2014-12-10

356

New syndrome of skeletal, dental and hair anomalies.  

PubMed

A Brother and sister are presented with the following abnormalities: dolichocephaly with tendency toward premature closure of the sagittal suture; antimongoloid slant of the eyes with epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lip, multiple oral frenula, mildly high-arched palate, and microdontia with possible enamel defect; posteriorly rotated low-set pinnae with deficient cartilage; a small short thorax with pectus excavatum; unusual dermatoglyphics, and abnormal hair growth and stucture; disproportionate shortening of the fibulae and the middle and distal phalanges of the toes and fingers; and somewhat flattened epiphyses. A paternal aunt gave birth to a stillborn dwarfed male with some of the same clinical features. Although an autopsy was obtained, unfortunately no roentgenograms were made. PMID:1227553

Sensenbrenner, J A; Dorst, J P; Owens, R P

1975-01-01

357

Review of hair follicle dermal cells  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle stem cells in the epithelial bulge are responsible for the continual regeneration of the hair follicle during cycling. The bulge cells reside in a niche composed of dermal cells. The dermal compartment of the hair follicle consists of the dermal papilla and dermal sheath. Interactions between hair follicle epithelial and dermal cells are necessary for hair follicle morphogenesis during development and in hair reconstitution assays. Dermal papilla and dermal sheath cells express specific markers and possess distinctive morphology and behavior in culture. These cells can induce hair follicle differentiation in epithelial cells and are required in hair reconstitution assays either in the form of intact tissue, dissociated freshly-prepared cells or cultured cells. This review will focus on hair follicle dermal cells since most therapeutic efforts to date have concentrated on this aspect of the hair follicle, with the idea that enriching hair-inductive dermal cell populations and expanding their number by culture while maintaining their properties, will establish an efficient hair reconstitution assay that could eventually have therapeutic implications. PMID:20022473

Yang, Chao-Chun; Cotsarelis, George

2010-01-01

358

STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING  

E-print Network

STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes, (Course #33) May 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2 Hair structure and mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3 Oriented Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.4 Parameter values for natural hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 inria-00520193,version1

Boyer, Edmond

359

COCHLEAR PROPERTIES AND MICROMACHINED HAIR-LIKE  

E-print Network

COCHLEAR PROPERTIES AND MICROMACHINED HAIR-LIKE SHEAR SENSORS by Shuangqin Liu A dissertation. A novel hair-like sensor using capacitive sensing scheme for direct shear measurement is designed, fabricated and tested. The capacitive sensor base is fabricated using PolyMUMPsTM foundry process and hair

White, Robert D.

360

On Hair Color in France Ellen Gilkerson  

E-print Network

On Hair Color in France Ellen Gilkerson Genentech, Inc. Leslie Lamport Microsoft Research 22 May coloration of the male in many species of birds [2]. Instances of sex-linking of hair color in mammals is found almost exclusively in the female [4]. We report here our discovery of sex-linking of hair

Lamport ,Leslie

361

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2013-07-01

362

Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells  

E-print Network

Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells ELIZABETH C. OESTERLE,* DIANA I. LURIE avian inner ear by using immunocytochemical techniques. NF-M was detected in auditory hair cells and VIIIth cranial nerve neurons. NF-M-positive hair cells are first detected at embryonic day 11 (E11

Rubel, Edwin

363

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2012-07-01

364

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2014-07-01

365

Effect of hair color on luster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of color on instrumentally evaluated luster of hair dyed to different colors and depths of shades is studied. For natural hair colors, such as blond, brown, and black, the increase in luster with increasing color is associated with a decrease in diffusely scattered light as a result of light absorption by melanin granules. On dyed hair the interpretation

K. KEIS; K. R. RAMAPRASAD; Y. K. KAMATH

2004-01-01

366

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2010-07-01

367

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2011-07-01

368

Theoretical considerations in laser hair removal.  

PubMed

A systematic and logical approach for laser hair removal demands an understanding of its biologic and physical bases. This article presents an overview of hair anatomy and physiology followed by a mathematically nonrigorous review of tissue optics and thermal responses to laser irradiation. The reader is provided with a step by step approach to laser hair removal. PMID:10327301

Ross, E V; Ladin, Z; Kreindel, M; Dierickx, C

1999-04-01

369

Modelling and Animating 3D Cartoon Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a technique for the modelling and animation of cartoon hair based on its tendency to be drawn and animated in clumps. In our approach the primary shape and motion of the hair is defined by an animated NURBS surface, thus allowing animators greater artistic control. The basis of the hair clumps is formed by key

Paul Noble; Wen Tang; Alex Parkinson; Ciaran Wills

2004-01-01

370

Hair Melanins and Hair Color: Ultrastructural and Biochemical Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The color variants of mammalian hair, including spotting and albinism, are the result of melanocyte activity and have been shown to be determined by the action of multiple genes, some of which operate through the milieu in which the pigment cell resides; others appear to act intracellularly to control the type of melanogenesis. Although there has been much descriptive work

Jean-Paul Ortonne; Giuseppe Prota

1993-01-01

371

Desmoplakin mutations with palmoplantar keratoderma, woolly hair and cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Mutations in genes encoding for desmosomal components are associated with a broad spectrum of phenotypes comprising skin and hair abnormalities and account for 45-50% of cases of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Today, more than 120 dominant and recessive desmoplakin (DSP) gene mutations have been reported to be associated with skin, hair and/or heart defects. Here we report on 3 cases with yet unreported DSP mutations, c.7566_7567delAAinsC, p.R2522Sfs*39, c.7756C>T, p.R2586*, c.2131_2132delAG and c.1067C>A, p.T356K, that were associated with variable woolly hair or hypotrichosis, palmoplantar keratoderma, and cardiac manifestations. In addition, we review and summarise the clinical features and DSP mutations of the patients described in the literature, which illustrates the complexity of this group of disorders and of their genotype-phenotype correlations, which cannot be easily predicted. Early diagnosis is crucial and cardiac examinations have to be performed on a regular basis. PMID:25227139

Pigors, Manuela; Schwieger-Briel, Agnes; Cosgarea, Rodica; Diaconeasa, Adriana; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fleck, Thilo; Has, Cristina

2015-03-01

372

Signaling Involved in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Development  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle morphogenesis depends on Wnt, Shh, Notch, BMP and other signaling pathways interplay between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The Wnt pathway plays an essential role during hair follicle induction, Shh is involved in morphogenesis and late stage differentiation, Notch signaling determines stem cell fate while BMP is involved in cellular differentiation. The Wnt pathway is considered to be the master regulator during hair follicle morphogenesis. Wnt signaling proceeds through EDA/EDAR/NF-?B signaling. NF-?B regulates the Wnt pathway and acts as a signal mediator by upregulating the expression of Shh ligand. Signal crosstalk between epithelial and mesenchymal cells takes place mainly through primary cilia. Primary cilia formation is initiated with epithelial laminin-511 interaction with dermal ?-1 integrin, which also upregulates expression of downstream effectors of Shh pathway in dermal lineage. PDGF signal transduction essential for crosstalk is mediated through epithelial PDGF-A and PDGFR? expressed on the primary cilia. Dermal Shh and PDGF signaling up-regulates dermal noggin expression; noggin is a potent inhibitor of BMP signaling which helps in counteracting BMP mediated ?-catenin inhibition. This interplay of signaling between the epithelial and dermal lineage helps in epithelial Shh signal amplification. The dermal Wnt pathway helps in upregulation of epithelial Notch expression. Dysregulation of these pathways leads to certain abnormalities and in some cases even tumor outgrowth. PMID:24451143

Rishikaysh, Pisal; Dev, Kapil; Diaz, Daniel; Qureshi, Wasay Mohiuddin Shaikh; Filip, Stanislav; Mokry, Jaroslav

2014-01-01

373

A correlation of breast cancer and calcium levels in hair analyzed by X-ray fluorescence.  

PubMed

Time variations of elemental concentrations and their abnormalities due to breast cancer have been observed along single hair strands by X-ray fluorescence excited by synchrotron radiation. The renal-controlled elements Ca, Sr, S, K, Cl, Br and P have upper and lower levels associated with gating and closing of ion channels in the hair-making cells. The Ca lower level is normal. In cases of Ca deficiency, with a decrease from the normal, store-operated Ca channel gating occurs so as to keep the hair Ca at the normal, and paradoxically high Ca levels near or at the upper level are produced by PTH-operated channel gating of the cells. Chronic Ca deficiency shows a temporal pattern along the hair consisting of a long-term duration of the upper [Ca] level, 10-month long decay to the lower level and abrupt increase to the upper level. The observation for hair from breast-cancer patients also shows the upper Ca level for the time period well before detection, and suggests that cancer is always generated at the long-lasting [Ca] upper level and the hair [Ca] decreases gradually toward the lower level with the cancer growth. This decay of [Ca] is accompanied by those of [Sr] and [K]. Their different decay forms can be explained by parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) in serum secreted from the cancer having 150 times longer dwell time on the PTH receptors than that of PTH. Patient hair has a memory for the entire cancer process from the state before cancer generation, and the pattern can be distinguished from concentration variation due to the chronic Ca deficiency without cancer, leading to a criterion for cancer detection by the ratio of [Sr]/[Ca]. The hair analysis is useful for early detection of cancer. PMID:25265920

Chikawa, Jun-ichi; Mouri, Yoshitaka; Shima, Hiroki; Yamada, Kousaku; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo

2014-01-01

374

Dynamic stability of a shaft-disk system with flaws  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic stability behavior of a cantilever shaft-disk system with flaws and subjected to axial periodic forces is studied by the finite element method. In the present analysis the effects of translational and rotatory inertia, gyroscopic moments, bending and shear deformation have been taken into consideration. Four parameters are employed to characterize the damaged zone: location, size, effective bending and

Der-Ming Ku; Lien-Wen Chen

1992-01-01

375

The Shaft Torque of a Tandem Axial-Piston Pump  

E-print Network

The Shaft Torque of a Tandem Axial- Piston Pump Noah D. Manring Viral S. Mehta Mechanical of this study is to identify the best indexed position of two rotating groups within a tandem axial-piston pump rotating group within an axial piston machine. From this analysis, an equation is pro- duced that describes

Manring, Noah D.

376

Vector control of induction motors without shaft transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field oriented control scheme is proposed, not requiring any shaft transducer. The flux-estimation problems in such conditions are considered. A suitable method is proposed and its theoretical limits are outlined. A prototype system has been implemented, on this basis, and the experimental results are given, confirming the practical feasibility for a wide field of applications.

A. Fratta; A. Vagati; F. Villata

1988-01-01

377

Vector control of induction motor without shaft encoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of torque control in induction motor drives that requires not shaft encoder is presented. Both the torque control and the speed control are based on vector control. The proposed scheme of vector control is based on the self-control of rotor flux velocity, which is controlled with the torque-producing current and the rotor flux derived from the stator voltages

T. Ohtani; N. Takada; K. Tanaka

1989-01-01

378

9. VIEW OF FRANCIS TURBINE, GENERATOR DRIVE SHAFT. NOTE ORIGINAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF FRANCIS TURBINE, GENERATOR DRIVE SHAFT. NOTE ORIGINAL EXCITER AND GENERATOR RHEOSTATS ATOP CONTROL PANEL AT REAR. CONTROL PANEL IS ORIGINAL EXCEPT FOR HORIZONTAL TOP PANEL WITH CLOCK AT LEFT AND SYNCHROSCOPE AT RIGHT, LOOKING EAST - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

379

14. DETAIL SHOWING THE STERN TUBE, PROPELLOR SHAFT AND RELATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DETAIL SHOWING THE STERN TUBE, PROPELLOR SHAFT AND RELATED EQUIPMENT IN THE LOWER MOTOR ROOM. NOTE THE WORM-WHEEL TURNING GEAR AT CENTER, AND THE KINGBURY THRUST BEARING IN THE FOREGROUND IMMEDIATELY FOREWORD OF THE WORM-WHEEL GEAR. NOTE ALSO THE 50-POUND IRON BALLAST BLOCKS STACKED BETWEEN FRAMES. - Lightship 116, Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

380

Hydrodynamically Lubricated Rotary Shaft Having Twist Resistant Geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft with a cross-sectional geometry suitable for pressurized lubricant retention is provided which, in the preferred embodiment, incorporates a protuberant static sealing interface that, compared to prior art, dramatically improves the exclusionary action of the dynamic sealing interface in low pressure and unpressurized applications by achieving symmetrical deformation of the seal at the

Lannie Dietle; Jeffrey D. Gobeli

1993-01-01

381

New designs of cuff seals for rotating shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability of hydraulic machine tools, automatic lines, industrial robots, and other machines and mechanisms largely depends on the safe operation of seals for rotary joints (in rotating shafts). In such cases, cuff seals (cuffs), usually made of rubber, plastic, and other rubbery materials are widely used as contact seals [1, 2]. The quality requirements on seals are rising sharply,

V. V. Burenin

2008-01-01

382

Interference Assembly and Fretting Wear Analysis of Hollow Shaft  

PubMed Central

Fretting damage phenomenon often appears in the interference fit assembly. The finite element model of hollow shaft and shaft sleeve was established, and the equivalent stress and contact stress were computed after interference assembly. The assembly body of hollow shaft and shaft sleeve was in whirling bending load, and the contact status (sticking, sliding, and opening) and the distribution of stress along one typical contact line were computed under different loads, interferences, hollow degrees, friction coefficient, and wear quantity. Judgment formula of contact state was fixed by introducing the corrected coefficient k. The computation results showed that the “edge effect” appears in the contact surface after interference fit. The size of slip zone is unchanged along with the increase of bending load. The greater the interference value, the bigger the wear range. The hollow degree does not influence the size of stick zone but controls the position of the junction point of slip-open. Tangential contact stress increases with the friction coefficient, which has a little effect on normal contact stress. The relationship between open size and wear capacity is approximately linear. PMID:24955422

2014-01-01

383

A permanent magnet motor drive without a shaft sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a simple control for a permanent motor drive that provides a wide speed range without use of a shaft sensor. Two line-to-line voltages and two stator currents are sensed and processed in analog form to produce the stator flux linkage space vector. The angle of this vector is used in a microcontroller to produce the appropriate stator

Rusong Wu; Gordon R. Slemon

1991-01-01

384

Neural estimators for shaft sensorless FOC control of induction motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with a problem of speed estimation in a shaft sensorless field oriented control structure with induction motor that is based on neural modelling approach. Two different neural estimators were developed; one for observing the magnetic flux and the other one for observing motor angular speed. Structures of the artificial neural network estimators are based on measurable motor

Peter Girovský; Jaroslav Timko; J. Z?ilkova?; V. Feda?k

2010-01-01

385

53. Drive shaft, motors, eddie currents, brakes, and differential gears ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. Drive shaft, motors, eddie currents, brakes, and differential gears in south machinery room (interior of both machinery rooms is identical). Facing east. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

386

30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...quantity of air in the slope or shaft measured daily by a certified person and the results of such examinations and tests recorded in a book approved by the Secretary. (b) Ventilation fans shall be: (1) Installed on the surface; (2)...

2010-07-01

387

30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and...

2011-07-01

388

30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and...

2014-07-01

389

30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and...

2012-07-01

390

1. AEROVANE FAN FROM NORTHWEST. AIR/MANWAY SHAFT AND LEPLEY VENTILATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. AEROVANE FAN FROM NORTHWEST. AIR/MANWAY SHAFT AND LEPLEY VENTILATOR AT RIGHT, CIRCULAR SHAFT AND SCAFFOLD AT RIGHT REAR. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Aerovane Fan, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

391

1. LEPLEY VENTILATOR FROM WEST. AEROVANE FAN AND AIR/MANWAY SHAFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. LEPLEY VENTILATOR FROM WEST. AEROVANE FAN AND AIR/MANWAY SHAFT AT LEFT, CIRCULAR SHAFT AND SCAFFOLD AT RIGHT REAR. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Lepley Ventilator, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

392

Testing for GHB in hair by GC/MS/MS after a single exposure. Application to document sexual assault.  

PubMed

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, or GHB, is a substance naturally present within mammal species. Properties of neurotransmitter or neuromodulator are generally given to this substance. GHB is therapeutically used as an anesthetic, but can be used for criminal offenses (date-rape drug). It appears that the window of detection of GHB is very short in both blood and urine, and therefore its presence is very difficult to prove after a rape case. In order to document single exposure, we investigated the use of hair. Hair was collected one month after the allegated event in order to sample the corresponding period after regular growing. After rapid (2 min) decontamination with dichloromethane, the hair shaft was cut into 3-mm segments. They were overnight incubated in 0.01 N NaOH in the presence of GHB-d6, followed by neutralization and extraction in ethyl acetate under acidic conditions. GHB (precursor ion m/z 233, product ions m/z 147 and 148) was tested by GC/MS/MS (Finnigan TSQ 700) after derivatization with BSTFA + 1% TMCS. Physiological concentrations (n = 24) were in the range 0.5 to 12.0 ng/mg, with no influence due to hair color. No variation of concentrations was observed along the hair shaft in controlled subjects, except for the proximal segment, due to an incorporation through sweat. This demonstrates that endogenous levels for each single subject are constant during hair growth. A controlled human administration of 25 mg/kg to a volunteer demonstrated that a single exposure to GHB is detectable in hair after segmentation. In a case of rape under influence, a clear increase of the corresponding segment (about 2.4 ng/mg) in time was observed, in comparison with the other segments (0.6 to 0.8 ng/mg). This study demonstrates that a single exposure to GHB in a case of sexual assault can be documented by hair analysis when collected about one month after the crime. PMID:12570228

Kintz, Pascal; Cirimele, Vincent; Jamey, Carole; Ludes, Bertrand

2003-01-01

393

Hair loss in women: medical and cosmetic approaches to increase scalp hair fullness.  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia affects both men and women. In men it produces male pattern hair loss with bitemporal recession and vertex baldness. In women it produces female pattern hair loss (FPHL) with diffuse alopecia over the mid-frontal scalp. FPHL occurs as a result of nonuniform hair follicle miniaturization within follicular units. Diffuse alopecia is produced by a reduction in the number of terminal fibres per follicular unit. Baldness occurs only when all hairs within the follicular units are miniaturized and is a relatively late event in women. The concepts of follicular units and primary and secondary hair follicles within follicular units are well established in comparative mammalian studies, particularly in sheep. However, discovery of these structures in the human scalp hair and investigation of the changes in follicular unit anatomy during the development of androgenetic alopecia have provided a clearer understanding of the early stages of androgenetic alopecia and how the male and female patterns of hair loss are related. FPHL is the most common cause of alopecia in women and approximately one-third of adult caucasian women experience hair loss. The impact of FPHL is predominantly psychological. While men anticipate age-related hair loss, hair loss in women is usually unexpected and unwelcome at any age. Treatment options to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate partial hair regrowth for FPHL include the androgen receptor antagonists spironolactone and cyproterone acetate, the 5?-reductase inhibitor finasteride and the androgen-independent hair growth stimulator minoxidil. These treatments appear to work best when initiated early. Hair transplantation should be considered in advanced FPHL that is resistant to medical treatments. Hair transplantation requires well-preserved hair growth over the occipital donor area. The psychological impact of FPHL may also be reduced by cosmetic products that improve the appearance of the hair. These agents work to minimize hair fibre breakage, improve hair volume or conceal visible bald scalp. PMID:22171680

Sinclair, R; Patel, M; Dawson, T L; Yazdabadi, A; Yip, L; Perez, A; Rufaut, N W

2011-12-01

394

Nonsurgical therapy for hair loss.  

PubMed

This article is an update of the currently available options for medical therapies to treat androgenetic alopecia in men and women. Emerging novel therapeutic modalities with potential for treating these patients are discussed. Because androgenetic alopecia is progressive in nature, stabilization of the process using medical therapy is an important adjunct to any surgical hair-restoration plan. PMID:24017975

Nusbaum, Aron G; Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard P

2013-08-01

395

Science Shorts: Tangling With Hair  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You're probably familiar with the fairy tale of Rapunzel and how her prince climbed her golden locks to her tower. In this month's activity, your students will be surprised to find that--though not suitable as a ladder--hair is a lot stronger than they might think.

Barbara Adams

2006-03-01

396

[[Hair zinc levels in children].  

PubMed

Study with the objective to assess the capillary zinc concentrations in children, considering differences according to sex, age, growth, and socioeconomic status and hair characteristics. A random sample comprised of 282 children. Capillary zinc concentrations were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique. The capillary level of zinc less than 70 ?g/g was considered as deficient. Reference curves of the World Health Organization were used to rate children with height deficit. Domiciliary characteristics and benefit of government assistance were considered as socioeconomic condition. Color, type and size were considered as characteristics of hair. Zinc deficiency was observed in 9.1% of 276 children studied, with mean of 306.06 ?g/g ± 245.13. Lower capillary zinc concentrations were found in children whose households had fewer rooms, fewer individuals and were rented. Children 37-72 months showed higher zinc concentrations than children aged 6-12 and 13-3 6 months. Capillary zinc concentrations showed no statistical difference according to sex and growth, unlike that found for some hair characteristics that showed variations. Zinc deficiency is a health problem in the population studied with more vulnerability in children of lower age; socioeconomic conditions and hair characteristics can affect the capillary zinc concentration. PMID:25362824

Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis

2013-09-01

397

Modulation of hair cell efferents  

PubMed Central

Outer hair cells (OHCs) amplify the sound-evoked motion of the basilar membrane to enhance acoustic sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents inhibit OHCs to reduce the sound-evoked response of cochlear afferent neurons. OHC inhibition occurs through the activation of postsynaptic ?9?10 nicotinic receptors tightly coupled to calcium-dependent SK2 channels that hyperpolarize the hair cell. MOC neurons are cholinergic but a number of other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been proposed to participate in efferent transmission, with emerging evidence for both pre- and postsynaptic effects. Cochlear inhibition in vivo is maximized by repetitive activation of the efferents, reflecting facilitation and summation of transmitter release onto outer hair cells. This review summarizes recent studies on cellular and molecular mechanisms of cholinergic inhibition and the regulation of those molecular components, in particular the involvement of intracellular calcium. Facilitation at the efferent synapse is compared in a variety of animals, as well as other possible mechanisms of modulation of ACh release. These results suggest that short-term plasticity contributes to effective cholinergic inhibition of hair cells. PMID:21187136

Wersinger, Eric; Fuchs, Paul Albert

2011-01-01

398

Prediction of Mechanical Shaft Failures Due to Pulsating Torques of Variable-Frequency Drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical damage of rotating shafts has been reported for several years from various high-power applications. This paper shows that the variable frequency drive incorporated in a rotating shaft is one of the main root causes of mechanical-shaft failures. Simple analytical relationships show that the frequencies of the motor air-gap torque have a more significant impact on the mechanical-shaft failure than

Joseph Song-Manguelle; Stefan Schröder; Tobias Geyer; Gabriel Ekemb; Jean-Maurice Nyobe-Yome

2010-01-01

399

Direct shaft torque measurements in a transient turbine facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and implementation of a shaft torque measurement system for the Oxford Turbine Research Facility (formerly the Turbine Test Facility (TTF) at QinetiQ, Farnborough), or OTRF. As part of the recent EU TATEF II programme, the facility was upgraded to allow turbine efficiency measurements to be performed. A shaft torque measurement system was developed as part of this upgrade. The system is unique in that, to the authors' knowledge, it provided the first direct measurement of shaft torque in a transient turbine facility although the system has wider applicability to rotating test facilities in which power measurement is a requirement. The adopted approach removes the requirement to quantify bearing friction, which can be difficult to accurately calibrate under representative operating conditions. The OTRF is a short duration (approximately 0.4 s run time) isentropic light-piston facility capable of matching all of the non-dimensional parameters important for aerodynamic and heat studies, namely Mach number, Reynolds number, non-dimensional speed, stage pressure ratio and gas-to-wall temperature ratio. The single-stage MT1 turbine used for this study is a highly loaded unshrouded design, and as such is relevant to modern military, or future civil aero-engine design. Shaft torque was measured directly using a custom-built strain gauge-based torque measurement system in the rotating frame of reference. This paper describes the development of this measurement system. The system was calibrated, including the effects of temperature, to a traceable primary standard using a purpose-built facility. The bias and precision uncertainties of the measured torque were ±0.117% and ±0.183%, respectively. To accurately determine the shaft torque developed by a turbine in the OTRF, small corrections due to inertial torque (associated with changes in the rotational speed) and aerodynamic drag (windage) are required. The methods for performing these corrections are described.

Beard, Paul F.; Povey, Thomas

2011-03-01

400

Simultaneous quantification of morphine and cocaine in hair samples from drug addicts by GC-EI/MS.  

PubMed

The development of analytical techniques that enable the use of hair as an alternative matrix for the analysis of drugs of abuse is useful for confirming the exposure in a larger time window (weeks to months, depending on the length of the hair shaft). In the present study a methodology aimed at the simultaneous quantification of cocaine and morphine in human hair was developed and validated. After decontamination, hair samples (20?mg) were incubated with a mixture of methanol/hydrochloric acid (2:1) at 65?°C overnight (~16?h) in order to extract the drugs of the matrix. Purification was performed by solid-phase extraction using mixed-mode extraction cartridges. After derivatization with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide, blank, standards and samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/electron impact-mass spectrometry (GC-EI/MS). The method proved to be selective, as there were no interferences of endogenous compounds with the same retention time as cocaine, morphine and ethylmorphine (internal standard). The regression analysis for both analytes showed linearity in the range 0.25-10.00?ng/mg with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9989 to 0.9991. The coefficients of variation oscillated between 0.83 and 14.60%. The limits of detection were 0.01 and 0.02?ng/mg, and the limits of quantification were 0.03 and 0.06?ng/mg for cocaine and morphine, respectively. The proposed GC-EI/MS method provided an accurate and simple assay with adequate precision and recovery for the quantification of cocaine and morphine in hair samples. The proof of applicability was performed in hair samples obtained from drug addicts enrolled in a Regional Detoxification Treatment Center. The importance of hair samples is highlighted, since positives results were obtained when urine immunoassay analyses were negative. PMID:22753238

Gouveia, Carla Alexandra; Oliveira, Ana; Pinho, Sandra; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Carvalho, Félix; Moreira, Roxana Falcăo; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

2012-08-01

401

The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates hair cell planar polarity and cellular patterning in the developing cochlea  

PubMed Central

Hair cells of the organ of Corti (OC) of the cochlea exhibit distinct planar polarity, both at the tissue and cellular level. Planar polarity at tissue level is manifested as uniform orientation of the hair cell stereociliary bundles. Hair cell intrinsic polarity is defined as structural hair bundle asymmetry; positioning of the kinocilium/basal body complex at the vertex of the V-shaped bundle. Consistent with strong apical polarity, the hair cell apex displays prominent actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The Rho GTPase Cdc42 regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and polarization of various cell types, and, thus, serves as a candidate regulator of hair cell polarity. We have here induced Cdc42 inactivation in the late-embryonic OC. We show the role of Cdc42 in the establishment of planar polarity of hair cells and in cellular patterning. Abnormal planar polarity was displayed as disturbances in hair bundle orientation and morphology and in kinocilium/basal body positioning. These defects were accompanied by a disorganized cell-surface microtubule network. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), a putative Cdc42 effector, colocalized with Cdc42 at the hair cell apex, and aPKC expression was altered upon Cdc42 depletion. Our data suggest that Cdc42 together with aPKC is part of the machinery establishing hair cell planar polarity and that Cdc42 acts on polarity through the cell-surface microtubule network. The data also suggest that defects in apical polarization are influenced by disturbed cellular patterning in the OC. In addition, our data demonstrates that Cdc42 is required for stereociliogenesis in the immature cochlea. PMID:25770185

Kirjavainen, Anna; Laos, Maarja; Anttonen, Tommi; Pirvola, Ulla

2015-01-01

402

Tribological aspects for the shafts and bearings of sugar cane mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high rate of wear on top roll shaft journals is an important problem for the Colombian sugar cane mills and it has shown a marked influence in the shaft reliability. The presence of mineral extraneous matter (MEM) added to a low hardness ratio between the shaft and bronze bearing (it was found to range between 1.27 and 4.29) causes

J. S. Rivas; J. J. Coronado; A. L. Gómez

2006-01-01

403

Monitoring techniques for the X-29A aircraft's high-speed rotating power takeoff shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental X-29A forward swept-wing aircraft has many unique and critical systems that require constant monitoring during ground or flight operation. One such system is the power takeoff shaft, which is the mechanical link between the engine and the aircraft-mounted accessory drive. The X-29A power takeoff shaft opertes in a range between 0 and 16,810 rpm, is longer than most jet engine power takeoff shafts, and is made of graphite epoxy material. Since the X-29A aircraft operates on a single engine, failure of the shaft during flight could lead to loss of the aircraft. The monitoring techniques and test methods used during power takeoff shaft ground and flight operations are discussed. Test data are presented in two case studies where monitoring and testing of the shaft dynamics proved instrumental in discovering and isolating X-29A power takeoff shaft problems. The first study concerns the installation of an unbalanced shaft. The effect of the unbalance on the shaft vibration data and the procedure used to correct the problem are discussed. The second study deals with the shaft exceeding the established vibration limits during flight. This case study found that the vibration of connected rotating machinery unbalances contributed to the excessive vibration level of the shaft. The procedures used to identify the contributions of other rotating machinery unbalances to the power takeoff shaft unbalance are discussed.

Voracek, David F.

1990-01-01

404

A proposed concrete shaft liner design method for an underground nuclear waste repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

General requirements and performance objectives for nuclear waste repository shafts (operational safety and waste retrievability) are defined in 10 CFR 60.133 (NRC, 1988). The Generic Requirements Document (DOE, 1986) interprets and expands these requirements into more specific functional requirements for liners of these shafts, including structural integrity, provisions for attaching shaft fittings, and water control. These requirements also apply to

A. M. Richardson; B. Schmidt; C. M. St. John; R. E. Stinebaugh

1989-01-01

405

10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134...Operations Area § 60.134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and boreholes shall...

2010-01-01

406

Failure of a 17-4 PH stainless steel sailboat propeller shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a 17-4 PH precipitation hardening stainless steel propeller shaft failed in use when installed in a sailboat working in a marine environment. Failure analysis was conducted on the propeller shaft. Results indicate that the failure was caused by the fracture of the propeller shaft by torsional fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). SCC progressed transgranulary in the

C. Fahir Arisoy; Gokhan Ba?man; M. Kelami ?e?en

2003-01-01

407

The processing and fracture analysis on transmission shafts of a peanut harvester  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the lifespan of the transmission shafts is discussed from the view of microstructure. The transmission shafts are made by the processes of hot rolling, machining, heat treatment and grinding. It shows a great difference of lifespan varied from 2 months to 12 months under the same using condition, with the three transmission shafts made by different hot

Chun-Feng Tseng; Wei-Shin Lin

2008-01-01

408

Robust design optimization of the vibrating rotor-shaft system subjected to selected dynamic constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commonly observed nowadays tendency to weight minimization of rotor-shafts of the rotating machinery leads to a decrease of shaft bending rigidity making a risk of dangerous stress concentrations and rubbing effects more probable. Thus, a determination of the optimal balance between reducing the rotor-shaft weight and assuring its admissible bending flexibility is a major goal of this study. The

R. Stocki; T. Szolc; P. Tauzowski; J. Knabel

409

DYNAMIC INSTABILITY OF A ROTATING ASYMMETRIC SHAFT WITH INTERNAL VISCOUS DAMPING SUPPORTED IN ANISOTROPIC BEARINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is concerned with a horizontal rotor with a flexible shaft supported in flexible bearings. Shaft and bearings may have damping and asymmetric\\/anisotropic stiffnesses. Major instabilities appear near the imbalance resonance. These instabilities can often be avoided with the right combination of damping and asymmetric stiffnesses of the shaft and the damping and anisotropic stiffnesses of the bearings. The

H. L. Wettergren; K.-O. Olsson

1996-01-01

410

Modal analysis of rotor-shaft system under the influence of rotor-shaft material damping and fluid film forces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work attempts to study the influences of internal rotor material damping and the fluid film forces (generated as a result of hydrodynamic action in journal bearings) on the modal behaviour of a flexible rotor-shaft system. This is relevant as both journal bearing and the internal material damping introduce tangential forces increasing with the rotor spin speed. Such forces

M. Chouksey; J. K. Dutt; S. V. Modak

411

Spermidine Promotes Human Hair Growth and Is a Novel Modulator of Human Epithelial Stem Cell Functions  

PubMed Central

Background Rapidly regenerating tissues need sufficient polyamine synthesis. Since the hair follicle (HF) is a highly proliferative mini-organ, polyamines may also be important for normal hair growth. However, the role of polyamines in human HF biology and their effect on HF epithelial stem cells in situ remains largely unknown. Methods and Findings We have studied the effects of the prototypic polyamine, spermidine (0.1–1 µM), on human scalp HFs and human HF epithelial stem cells in serum-free organ culture. Under these conditions, spermidine promoted hair shaft elongation and prolonged hair growth (anagen). Spermidine also upregulated expression of the epithelial stem cell-associated keratins K15 and K19, and dose-dependently modulated K15 promoter activity in situ and the colony forming efficiency, proliferation and K15 expression of isolated human K15-GFP+ cells in vitro. Inhibiting the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboyxlase (ODC), downregulated intrafollicular K15 expression. In primary human epidermal keratinocytes, spermidine slightly promoted entry into the S/G2-M phases of the cell cycle. By microarray analysis of human HF mRNA extracts, spermidine upregulated several key target genes implicated e.g. in the control of cell adherence and migration (POP3), or endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial functions (SYVN1, NACA and SLC25A3). Excess spermidine may restrict further intrafollicular polyamine synthesis by inhibiting ODC gene and protein expression in the HF's companion layer in situ. Conclusions These physiologically and clinically relevant data provide the first direct evidence that spermidine is a potent stimulator of human hair growth and a previously unknown modulator of human epithelial stem cell biology. PMID:21818338

Bíró, Tamás; Abu Bakar, Mohd Hilmi; Sugawara, Koji; Philpott, Michael P.; Harrison, Wesley; Pietilä, Marko; Paus, Ralf

2011-01-01

412

Nonlinear dynamic modeling for a diesel engine propeller shafting used in large marines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal vibration, torsional vibration and their coupled vibration are the main vibration modes of the crankshaft-sliding bearing system. However, these vibrations of the propeller-crankshaft-sliding bearing system generated by the fluid exciting force on the propeller are much more complex. Currently, the torsional and longitudinal vibrations have been studied separately while the research on their coupled vibration is few, and the influence of the propeller structure to dynamic characteristics of a crankshaft has not been studied yet. In order to describe the dynamic properties of a crankshaft accurately, a nonlinear dynamic model is proposed taking the effect of torsional-longitudinal coupling and the variable inertia of propeller, connecting rod and piston into account. Numerical simulation cases are carried out to calculate the response data of the system in time and frequency domains under the working speed and over-speed, respectively. Results of vibration analysis of the propeller and crankshaft system coupled in torsional and longitudinal direction indicate that the system dynamic behaviors are relatively complicated especially in the components of the frequency response. For example, the 4 times of an exciting frequency acting on the propeller by fluid appears at 130 r/min, while not yield at 105 r/min. While the possible abnormal vibration at over-speed just needs to be vigilant. So when designing the propeller shafting used in marine diesel engines, strength calculation and vibration analysis based only on linear model may cause great errors and the proposed research provides some references to design diesel engine propeller shafting used in large marines.

Zhang, Qinglei; Duan, Jianguo; Zhang, Suohuai; Fu, Yumin

2014-09-01

413

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

Liu, Taosheng

414

Abnormal Cats' Paws  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABNORMITIES in cats' paws occur rather frequently in Massachusetts. They are called mitten cats, and are much in demand because they are considered to be good mousers. The first I ever saw was a male yellow tiger, whose four paws had two extra toes strongly developed. A little stray female kitten which was brought up at my house had two

H. A. Hagen

1887-01-01

415

Abnormal Morphology Within Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semen from 15 healthy volunteers was assessed for basic semen measures every 2 weeks over a 6-month period to determine the relative stability of these factors. The parameters were: sperm count, semen volume, sperm motility, and normal morphology, along with the type of abnormal morphologic forms. Basic semen measures were generally more stable than the morphologic forms. Using three samples,

MARILYN L. POLAND; KAMRAN S. MOGHISSI; PAUL T. GIBLIN; JOEL W. AGER; JANE M. OLSON

416

Oxidative stress and substance P mediate psychological stress-induced autophagy and delay of hair growth in mice.  

PubMed

Neuropeptide substance P (SP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to play an important role in psychological stress-induced alteration of hair cycle, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The present study aims to investigate possible contribution of SP and ROS in chronic restraint stress (CRS, a chronic psychological stress model) induced abnormal of hair cycle and induction of autophagy. Mouse CRS model was applied for 18 days with or without treatment antioxidant Tempol (a free radical scavenger) or SP receptor (NK1) antagonist (RP67580). After CRS procedure, hair growth cycle, oxidative stress markers and skin tissue autophagy levels were analyzed by ELISA or western blot. Our results revealed that CRS reduced body weight gain, distance of movement and times of standing, affected hair cycle by prolonging the telogen stage and delaying subsequent anagen and catagen stage. In addition, CRS resulted in increase of lipid peroxidation levels and reduction of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and increase of autophagy markers (microtubule-associated proteins, light chain 3-II, LC3-II, and Beclin-1) in mice skin. Treatment with Tempol restored GSH-Px activity, and significantly reduced increases of lipid peroxidation levels and LC3-II and Beclin-1 expressions, as well as normalized hair cycle. In addition; RP67580 also restored SOD and GSH-Px activities, and markedly reduced increases of lipid peroxidation levels and LC3-II and Beclin-1 expressions, and normalized hair cycle. Our study provides the first strong evidence for SP and ROS play a role not only in alteration of hair cycle but also in induction of autophagy in psychological stress model, suggesting autophagy may contribute to psychological stress-induced abnormal of hair cycle. PMID:25501647

Wang, Lei; Guo, Ling-Ling; Wang, Lin-Hui; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Shang, Jing; Murao, Koji; Chen, Deng-Feng; Fan, Xiang-Hua; Fu, Wen-Qing

2015-03-01

417

Human exposure to mercury due to goldmining in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon, Brazil: Speciation of mercury in human hair, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in Amazon, total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeI Ig) were determined for human hair, blood and\\/or urine samples collected from populations living in gold mining area and fishing villages upstream of the Tapajos River basin. Abnormally high levels of T-Hg were observed in hair

H. Akagi; O. Malm; F. J. P. Branches; Y. Kinjo; Y. Kashima; J. R. D. Guimaraes; R. B. Oliveira; K. Haraguchi; W. C. Pfeiffer; Y. Takizawa; H. Kato

1995-01-01

418

Shaft sealing issue in CO2 storage sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon capture and storage is an innovating approach to tackle climate changes through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs and unmineable coal seams are among the most studied reservoirs. However other types of reservoir, such as abandonned coal mines, could also be used for the storage of carbon dioxide. In this case, the problem of shaft sealing appears to be particularly critical regarding to the economic, ecologic and health aspects of geological storage. The purpose of the work is to study shaft sealing in the framework of CO2 storage projects in abandoned coal mines. The problem of gas transfers around a sealing system is studied numerically using the finite elements code LAGAMINE, which has been developped for 30 years at the University of Liege. A coupled hydro-mechanical model of unsaturated geomaterials is used for the analyses. The response of the two-phase flow model is first studied through a simple synthetic problem consisting in the injection of gas in a concrete-made column. It stands out of this first modeling that the advection of the gas phase represents the main transfer mechanism of CO2 in highly unsaturated materials. Furthermore the setting of a bentonite barrier seal limits considerably the gas influx into the biosphere. A 2D axisymetric hydromechanical modeling of the Anderlues natural gas storage site is then performed. The geological and hydrogeological contexts of the site are used to define the problem, for the initial and boundary conditions, as well as the material properties. In order to reproduce stress and water saturation states in the shale before CO2 injection in the mine, different phases corresponding to the shaft sinking, the mining and the set up of the sealing system are simulated. The system efficiency is then evaluated by simulating the CO2 injection with the imposed pressure at the shaft wall. According to the modeling, the low water saturation of concrete and its higher intrinsic permeability give the concrete a higher gas permeability than the one of the rock. Thus, the major part of CO2 fluxes flows through concrete elements. Moreover, the hydraulic seal of bentonite doesn't contribute to the reduction of CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere since it is in contact with the concrete shaft support. Indeed, in the present case, CO2 fluxes bypass the seal, going through the more permeable concrete. Consequently, the design of the shaft sealing system contributes significantly to a loss in performance and appears to be a significant parameter to evaluate the risks of CO2 leakage.

Dieudonné, A.-C.; Charlier, R.; Collin, F.

2012-04-01

419

Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship between ion channel clustering and synaptic formation in hair cells and afferent neurons. In future studies, we will determine when hair cell precursors acquire electrical tuning, and, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, identify and characterize their L-VGCC and BK currents. We will also use biophysical techniques to determine the number of L-VGCC and BK channels and the size and gating kinetics of their underlying L-VGCC and BK conductances, correlating these variables with the amplitude and frequency of membrane oscillations produced by intracellular current steps. We expect these studies to determine how hair cells regulate ion channel expression to achieve specific physiological responses.

Baird, Richard A.

2003-01-01

420

Shaft Voltage and Life of Bearing electric-erosion for the Brushless DC Motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the life of noise of bearing electro-erosion in the shaft voltage of brushless DC motors. We confirmed that shaft voltage is suppressed to equal to or less than the dielectric breakdown voltage of bearing lubricant in the insulated rotor proposed for suppression of shaft voltage. However, since bearing electro-erosion appears over time along with the deterioration of noise performance, the threshold of the shaft voltage to secure noise performance over long periods of time is necessary. Therefore, the threshold of the shaft voltage that influences the life of noise was obtained in acceleration tests.

Maetani, Tatsuo; Isomura, Yoshinori; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Shigeo

421

Mesenchymal stem cells with modification of junctional adhesion molecule a induce hair formation.  

PubMed

The junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) has been shown to serve a crucial role in the proliferation, differentiation, and tube-like formation of epithelial cells during angiogenesis. The role of JAM-A in hair follicle (HF) regeneration has not yet been reported. In this study, we used human JAM-A-modified human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to repair HF abnormalities in BALB/c nu/nu mice. The JAM-A gene and JAM-A short hairpin RNA were transfected into cultured human MSCs to generate the JAM-A overexpression MSCs (JAM-A(ov) MSCs) and JAM-A knockdown MSCs (JAM-A(kd) MSCs), respectively. These cells were injected intradermally into the skin of nude mice during the first telogen phase of the HF that occurs 21 days postnatally. We found that JAM-A(ov) MSCs migrated into the HF sheath and remodeled HF structure effectively. The HF abnormalities such as HF curve and HF zigzag were remodeled, and hair formation was improved 7 days following injection in both the JAM-A(ov) MSC and MSC groups, compared with the JAM-A(kd) MSC group or negative control group. Furthermore, the JAM-A(ov) MSC group showed enhanced hair formation in contrast to the MSC group, and the number of curved and zigzagged HFs was reduced by 80% (p < .05). These results indicated that JAM-A(ov) MSCs improved hair formation in nude mice through HF structure remodeling. PMID:24558164

Wu, Minjuan; Guo, Xiaocan; Yang, Ling; Wang, Yue; Tang, Ying; Yang, Yongji; Liu, Houqi

2014-04-01

422

Hair analysis for ketamine and its metabolites.  

PubMed

A rapid and sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of ketamine (K) and its major metabolite, norketamine (NK) in hair. After decontamination, the hair sample was incubated and extracted, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Limits of quantitation were found to be 0.05 ng/mg. Hair segments in black color were collected from 15 K abusers. Based on an experiment with 15 cavies with black, white, and brown hair, the mechanism of incorporation of K into hair was investigated. After shaving hair on the back of the cavies (8 cm x 4 cm), they were separated into three groups and administered intraperitoneally once a day for 7 successive days with high, medium, and low doses of K, respectively. Two days after this, hair segments with different colors were shaved. There was a direct correlation between the concentration of K in cavy hair and the dose and DHNK was detected only in high dosage group. The concentration of K increased in the order of white, brown, and black hair. The possible factors responsible for the incorporation of K and its metabolites in hair were discussed. PMID:16844332

Xiang, Ping; Shen, Min; Zhuo, Xianyi

2006-10-16

423

Female pattern hair loss: Current treatment concepts  

PubMed Central

Fewer than 45% of women go through life with a full head of hair. Female pattern hair loss is the commonest cause of hair loss in women and prevalence increases with advancing age. Affected women may experience psychological distress and impaired social functioning. In most cases the diagnosis can be made clinically and the condition treated medically. While many women using oral antiandrogens and topical minoxidil will regrow some hair, early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is desirable as these treatments are more effective at arresting progression of hair loss than stimulating regrowth. Adjunctive nonpharmacological treatment modalities such as counseling, cosmetic camouflage and hair transplantation are important measures for some patients. The histology of female pattern hair loss is identical to that of male androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical pattern of the hair loss differs between men, the response to oral antiandrogens suggests that female pattern hair loss is an androgen dependant condition, at least in the majority of cases. Female pattern hair loss is a chronic progressive condition. All treatments need to be continued to maintain the effect. An initial therapeutic response often takes 12 or even 24 months. Given this delay, monitoring for treatment effect through clinical photography or standardized clinical severity scales is helpful. PMID:18044135

Dinh, Quan Q; Sinclair, Rodney

2007-01-01

424

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs  

SciTech Connect

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

2011-12-31

425

Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.  

PubMed

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

2011-01-01

426

Metals in female scalp hair globally and its impact on perceived hair health.  

PubMed

Globally, billions of individuals wash their hair in water, which acts as an exogenous metal source. Many studies which measure the metal levels found on human hair specifically aim to remove exogenous materials prior to analysis. Although this is needed when using hair analysis to probe the impact of the local environment on endogenous metal levels, it is not relevant for understanding exactly what is on hair as a result of contact with its daily environment. Understanding these levels are important, as the presence of redox active metals, such as copper and iron, can impact fibre health, either as a result of UV irradiation, or during the hair colouring process. A global hair sampling study of over 300 individuals from nine countries has been performed, and the combined endogenous and exogenous metals analysed. The levels measured vary widely, even within the narrow geography of each hair sampling location. The levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and iron were not correlated, and within each location, there are expected to be individuals with high metal levels. Levels increased from hair root to tip for calcium, magnesium and copper, attributed to hair contact with the environment showing the impact of exogenous metals in the overall levels on hair. Levels of redox metals were comparable between individuals who coloured or did not colour their hair, although water hardness ions were statistically significantly higher for hair colouring individuals. Individuals who perceived their hair health as poor had higher metal levels on their hair. Controlling metals on hair, either by preventing their binding during environmental contact, or through controlling their ability to cause hair damage, should lead to improved consumer perceived hair health. PMID:23305149

Godfrey, Simon; Staite, William; Bowtell, Philip; Marsh, Jennifer

2013-06-01

427

Active Hair-Bundle Movements Can Amplify a Hair Cell's Response to Oscillatory Mechanical Stimuli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enhance their mechanical sensitivity and frequency selectivity, hair cells amplify the mechanical stimuli to which they respond. Although cell-body contractions of outer hair cells are thought to mediate the active process in the mammalian cochlea, vertebrates without outer hair cells display highly sensitive, sharply tuned hearing and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. In these animals the amplifier must reside elsewhere. We report physiological evidence that amplification can stem from active movement of the hair bundle, the hair cell's mechanosensitive organelle. We performed experiments on hair cells from the sacculus of the bullfrog. Using a two-compartment recording chamber that permits exposure of the hair cell's apical and basolateral surfaces to different solutions, we examined active hair-bundle motion in circumstances similar to those in vivo. When the apical surface was bathed in artificial endolymph, many hair bundles exhibited spontaneous oscillations of amplitudes as great as 50 nm and frequencies in the range 5 to 40 Hz. We stimulated hair bundles with a flexible glass probe and recorded their mechanical responses with a photometric system. When the stimulus frequency lay within a band enclosing a hair cell's frequency of spontaneous oscillation, mechanical stimuli as small as ± \\ 5 nm entrained the hair-bundle oscillations. For small stimuli, the bundle movement was larger than the stimulus. Because the energy dissipated by viscous drag exceeded the work provided by the stimulus probe, the hair bundles powered their motion and therefore amplified it.

Martin, Pascal; Hudspeth, A. J.

1999-12-01

428

Deadly hairs, lethal feathers--convergent evolution of poisonous integument in mammals and birds.  

PubMed

Hairs and feathers are textbook examples of the convergent evolution of the follicular appendage structure between mammals and birds. While broadly recognized for their convergent thermoregulatory, camouflage and sexual display functions, hairs and feathers are rarely thought of as deadly defence tools. Several recent studies, however, show that in some species of mammals and birds, the integument can, in fact, be a de facto lethal weapon. One mammalian example is provided by African crested rats, which seek for and chew on the bark of plants containing the highly potent toxin, ouabain. These rats then coat their fur with ouabain-containing saliva. For efficient toxin retention, the rodents have evolved highly specialized fenestrated and mostly hollow hair shafts that soak up liquids, which essentially function as wicks. On the avian side of the vertebrate integumental variety spectrum, several species of birds of New Guinea have evolved resistance to highly potent batrachotoxins, which they acquire from their insect diet. While the mechanism of bird toxicity remains obscure, in a recently published issue of the journal, Dumbacher and Menon explore the intriguing idea that to achieve efficient storage of batrachotoxins in their skin, some birds exploit the basic permeability barrier function of their epidermis. Batrachotoxins become preferentially sequestered in their epidermis and are then transferred to feathers, likely through the exploitation of specialized avian lipid-storing multigranular body organelles. Here, we discuss wider implications of this intriguing concept. PMID:24698054

Plikus, Maksim V; Astrowski, Aliaksandr A

2014-07-01

429

Sliding adhesion confers coherent motion to hair cell stereocilia and parallel gating to transduction channels  

PubMed Central

When the tip of a hair bundle is deflected by a sensory stimulus, the stereocilia pivot as a unit, producing a shearing displacement between adjacent tips. It is not clear how stereocilia can stick together laterally but still shear. We used dissociated hair cells from the bullfrog saccule and high-speed video imaging to characterize this sliding adhesion. Movement of individual stereocilia was proportional to height, indicating that stereocilia pivot at their basal insertion points. All stereocilia moved by approximately the same angular deflection, and the same motion was observed at 1, 20 and 700 Hz stimulus frequency. Motions were consistent with a geometric model that assumes the stiffness of lateral links holding stereocilia together is >1000 times the pivot stiffness of stereocilia and that these links can slide in the plane of the membrane—in essence, that stereocilia shear without separation. The same motion was observed when bundles were moved perpendicular to the tip links, or when tip links, ankle links and shaft connectors were cut, ruling out these links as the basis for sliding adhesion. Stereocilia rootlets are angled towards the center of the bundle, tending to push stereocilia tips together for small deflections. However, stereocilia remained cohesive for deflections of up to ±35°, ruling out rootlet prestressing as the basis for sliding adhesion. These observations suggest that horizontal top connectors mediate a sliding adhesion. They also indicate that all transduction channels of a hair cell are mechanically in parallel, an arrangement that may enhance amplification in the inner ear. PMID:20610739

Karavitaki, K. Domenica; Corey, David P.

2010-01-01

430

Horizontal Top Connectors Mediate a Sliding Adhesion to Hair Cell Stereocilia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the tip of a hair bundle is deflected, the stereocilia pivot as a unit, producing a shearing displacement between adjacent tips. It is not clear how stereocilia can stick together laterally but still shear. We used dissociated hair cells from the bullfrog saccule and high-speed video imaging to characterize this sliding adhesion. Movement of individual stereocilia was proportional to height, indicating that stereocilia pivot at their basal insertion points. All stereocilia moved by approximately the same angular deflection, and the same motion was observed at 1, 20 and 700 Hz stimulus frequency. Motions were consistent with a geometric model that assumes the stiffness of lateral links holding stereocilia together is >1000 times the pivot stiffness of stereocilia and that these links can slide in the membrane—in essence, that stereocilia shear without separation. The same motion was observed when bundles were moved perpendicular to the tip links, or when tip links, ankle links and shaft connectors were cut, ruling out these links as the basis for sliding adhesion. Stereocilia rootlet angles tend to push stereocilia tips together. However, stereocilia remained cohesive for large deflections, ruling out rootlet prestressing as the basis for sliding adhesion. The horizontal top connectors apparently mediate a sliding adhesion. Consequently, all transduction channels of a hair cell are mechanically in parallel, an arrangement that may enhance amplification in the inner ear.

Karavitaki, K. D.; Corey, D. P.

2011-11-01

431

A Generative Sketch Model for Human Hair Analysis and Synthesis  

E-print Network

in graphics, digital human animation, and nonphotorealistic rendering. It is evident that hair style also test our algorithm on a large data set of hair images with diverse hair styles. Analysis, synthesis into strands and wisps in diverse hair styles. Modeling hair appearance is an important and challenging problem

Zhu, Song Chun

432

Using the Web as a Resource on Hair Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of hair (alopecia) is one of the most common symptoms of aging in men. The most common cause of hair loss in men is androgenic or androgenetic alopecia, often referred to as male-pattern baldness. Current treatments include two drugs, Rogaine and Propecia, which have been shown effective for hair regrowth and prevention of further hair loss; surgical hair transplantation;

Deborah G. Lovett

2002-01-01

433

Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1  

E-print Network

Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1 Eyal Ofek2 Long Quan1 Heung-Yeung Shum2 1 The Hong; the recovered hair rendered with the recovered diffuse color; a fraction of the longest recovered hair fibers rendered with the recovered diffuse color to show the hair threads; the recovered hair rendered

Quan, Long

434

A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering  

E-print Network

1 A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering Kelly Ward Florence Bertails Tae-Yong Kim Stephen R. Marschner Marie-Paule Cani Ming C. Lin Abstract-- Realistic hair modeling in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

435

Two-state approach to stochastic hair bundle dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair cells perform the mechanoelectrical transduction of sound signals in the auditory and vestibular systems of vertebrates. The part of the hair cell essential for this transduction is the so-called hair bundle. In vitro experiments on hair cells from the sacculus of the American bullfrog have shown that the hair bundle comprises active elements capable of producing periodic deflections like

Diana Clausznitzer; Benjamin Lindner; Frank Jülicher; Pascal Martin

2008-01-01

436

Modelling and Animating Cartoon Hair with NURBS Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a technique for the modelling and animation of cartoon hair. In our approach the primary shape and motion of the hair is defined by an animated NURBS volume, along whose surface are generated clumps of hair geometry. The basis of these hair clumps is formed by key hair curves that are grown along the isocurves

Paul Noble; Wen Tang

2004-01-01

437

Accumulative fatigue life expenditure of turbine/generator shafts following worst-case system disturbances  

SciTech Connect

The paper reviews phenomena which influence accumulative fatigue life expenditure of turbine/generator exciter shafts following severe disturbances on the electrical supply. Fatigue models for estimating cumulative fatigue of Machine shafts are discussed. The importance of allowing for mean stress and of simulating steam and electrical damping is examined for both worst-case 3-phase fault clearance and bad synchronising. The effect of auto-reclosure on fatigue life expenditure of shafts is also considered. The effect of variation of stress concentration factor (or shaft diameter) on cumulative fatigue is illustrated as is the effectiveness of torque limiting shearing couplings in protecting shaft systems from damage following a severe switching event. The effect of machine disconnection following a severe electrical disturbance is examined. Shaft torsional monitors for estimating fatigue life expenditure of shafts are also discussed. It is concluded that fatigue life expenditure at shaft couplings following worst-case 3-phase fault clearance may be up to double that corresponding to worst-case synchronising although peak shaft torques are only marginally higher. Cumulative fatigue will quite often be higher at couplings along the shaft than at the turbine/generator coupling on account of electrical damping although peak torque is generally highest at the turbine/generator coupling and reduces progressively along the turbine shaft.

Hammons, T.J.

1982-07-01

438

Methods of evaluating hair growth.  

PubMed

For decades, scientists and clinicians have examined methods of measuring scalp hair growth. With the development of drugs that stem or even reverse the miniaturization of androgenetic alopecia, there has been a greater need for reliable, economical and minimally invasive means of measuring hair growth and, specifically, response to therapy. We review the various methods of measurement described to date, their limitations and value to the clinician. In our opinion, the potential of computer-assisted technology in this field is yet to be maximized and the currently available tools are less than ideal. The most valuable means of measurement at the present time are global photography and phototrichogram-based techniques (with digital image analysis) such as the 'TrichoScan'. Subjective scoring systems are also of value in the overall assessment of response to therapy and these are under-utilized and merit further refinement. PMID:12581076

Chamberlain, Alexander J; Dawber, Rodney P R

2003-02-01

439

Magnetic actuation of hair cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bullfrog sacculus contains mechanically sensitive hair cells whose stereociliary bundles oscillate spontaneously when decoupled from the overlying membrane. Steady-state offsets on the resting position of a hair bundle can suppress or modulate this native motility. To probe the dynamics of spontaneous oscillation in the proximity of the critical point, we describe here a method for mechanical actuation that avoids loading the bundles or contributing to the viscous drag. Magnetite beads were attached to the tips of the stereocilia, and a magnetic probe was used to impose deflections. This technique allowed us to observe the transition from multi-mode to single-mode state in freely oscillating bundles, as well as the crossover from the oscillatory to the quiescent state.

Rowland, David; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Cheon, Jinwoo; Bozovic, Dolores

2011-11-01

440

Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site  

SciTech Connect

In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

1990-02-01

441

Bilateral Simultaneous Femoral Neck and Shafts Fractures - A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous fractures of the femoral neck and shaft are not common injuries, though they cannot be considered rare. Herein, we report our experience with a patient with bilateral occurance of this injury. Up to the best of our knowkedge this is the first case reported in literature in which correct diagnosis was made initially. Both femurs were fixed using broad 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate and both necks were fixed using 6.5 mm cannulated screws. Femur fixation on one side was converted to retrograde nailing because of plate failure. Both neck fractures healed uneventfully. In spite of rarity of concomitant fractures of femoral neck and shaft, this injury must be approached carefully demanding especial attention and careful device selection. PMID:25692158

Sadeghifar, Amirreza; Saied, Alireza

2014-01-01

442

Degasification study from an air shaft in the Beckley coalbed  

SciTech Connect

During 514 days of degasification, the Beckley coalbed produced 18.7 million CF (0.5 million m/sup 3/) of gas, which reduced methane mine-face emissions by about 77%. The gas flowed through eight horizontal boreholes drilled at depths of 418-910 ft (127-277 m) in a radial pattern from the bottom of a ventilation air shaft. An in situ pressure hole was also drilled at 205 ft (65 m). Because the shaft was in a water-saturated basin, gas flows were low, an average of 94,100 CF/day for all eight holes, along with 13 gal (49.3 liters)/min of water. At 200 ft (61 m), the in situ pressure into the coalbed was 79 psig (545 kN/m/sup 2/).

Goodman, T.W.; Cervik, J.; Aul, G.N.

1982-01-01

443

Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C.E.

1995-01-01

444

Engine having multiple pumps driven by a single shaft  

SciTech Connect

An engine comprises an engine housing. A first engine fluid sub-system that includes a first pump and the engine housing defining a first fluid passage is also included in the engine. The engine also includes at least one additional engine fluid sub-system that includes a second pump and the engine housing defining a second fluid passage. A rotating shaft is at least partially positioned in the engine housing, the first pump and the second pump.

Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL)

2001-01-01

445

Dynamics of a supercritical composite shaft mounted on viscoelastic supports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The damping in a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate is greater than that which occurs in most metallic materials. In the supercritical regime, the damping can trigger unstable whirl oscillations, which can have catastrophic effects. The vibrations occurring in a supercritical composite drive shaft are investigated here in order to predict instabilities of this kind. A simply supported carbon/epoxy composite tube mounted on viscoelastic supports is studied, using an approximation of the Rayleigh-Timoshenko equation. The damping process is assumed to be hysteretic. The composite behavior is described in terms of modulus and loss factor, taking homogenized values. The critical speeds are obtained in several analytical forms in order to determine the effects of factors such as the rotatory inertia, the gyroscopic forces, the transverse shear and the supports stiffness. Assuming that the hysteretic damping can be expressed in terms of the equivalent viscous model, the threshold speed is obtained in the form of an analytical criterion. The influence of the various factors involved is quantified at the first critical speed of a subcritical composite shaft previously described in the literature. The influence of the coupling mechanisms on the unsymmetrical composite laminate and the end fittings is also investigated using a finite element model. None of these parameters were found to have a decisive influence in this case. Those having the greatest effects were the transverse shear and the supports stiffness. The effects of the composite stacking sequence, the shaft length and the supports stiffness on the threshold speed were then investigated. In particular, drive shafts consisting only of ±45° or ±30° plies can be said to be generally unstable in the supercritical regime due to their very high loss factors.

Montagnier, O.; Hochard, C.

2014-01-01

446

Vector control of induction motor without shaft encoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of introduction motor drive that requires no shaft encoder is presented. This system has both torque and speed controls that are performed by vector control. The vector-control scheme is based on a rotor-flux speed control, which is performed by torque-producing current and rotor flux, derived from the stator voltages and currents. If it is possible to obtain both

Tsugutoshi Ohtani; Noriyuki Takada; Koji Tanaka

1992-01-01

447

Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal  

DOEpatents

A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. 14 figs.

Dietle, L.; Kalsi, M.S.

1999-02-23

448

Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal  

DOEpatents

A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland.

Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan Singh (Houston, TX)

1999-01-01

449

Titanium elastic nails for pediatric tibial shaft fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of our study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of elastic stable intramedullary nailing for unstable pediatric tibial shaft fractures using titanium elastic nails (TENs). To our knowledge, this is the largest series reported in the literature of this specific fixation technique. Methods We reviewed all children with tibial shaft fractures treated operatively at our tertiary care children's hospital to find those patients who underwent fixation with TENs. Between 1998 and 2005, we identified 19 consecutive patients who satisfied inclusion criteria. The average age of the patients in our series was 12.2 years (range 7.2–16 years), and mean follow-up was 15.7 months (range 6–28 months). Patient charts and radiographs were retrospectively reviewed to gather the clinical data. Outcomes were classified as excellent, satisfactory, or poor according to the Flynn classification for flexible nail fixation. Results All patients achieved complete healing at a mean of 11.0 weeks (range 6–18 weeks). At final follow-up, mean angulation was 2° (range 0°–6°) in the sagittal plane and 3° in the coronal plane (range 0°–9°). Five patients (26%) complained of irritation at the nail entry site; there were no leg length discrepancies or physeal arrests as a result of treatment. Two patients required remanipulation after the index procedure to maintain adequate alignment. According to the Flynn classification, we had 12 excellent, six satisfactory, and one poor result. Conclusion Although the indications for operative fixation of pediatric tibial shaft fractures are rare, occasionally surgical treatment is warranted. Based on our results, elastic stable intramedullary nailing with titanium elastic nails is an effective surgical technique which allows rapid healing of tibial shaft fractures with an acceptable rate of complications. PMID:19308521

Sankar, Wudbhav N.; Jones, Kristofer J.; David Horn, B.

2007-01-01

450

Current Concepts: Aseptic Nonunion of Femoral Shaft Diaphysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of increased understanding of biomechanics and improvements of implant design, nonunion of femoral shaft fractures\\u000a continues to hinder the treatment of these injuries. Femoral nonunion presents a difficult treatment challenge for the surgeon\\u000a and a formidable personal and economic hardship for the patient. In most series of femoral fractures treated with intramedullary\\u000a nailing techniques, the incidence of this

Elias Lambiris; Andreas Panagopoulos; Panagiotis Zouboulis; Efrosini Sourgiadaki

2007-01-01

451

Half-flat quantum hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By wrapping D3-branes over 3-cycles on a half-flat manifold, we construct an effective supersymmetric black hole in the N=2 low-energy theory in four dimensions. Specifically, we find that the torsion cycles present in a half-flat compactification, corresponding to the mirror symmetric image of electric Neveu-Schwarz flux on a Calabi-Yau manifold, manifest in the half-flat black hole as quantum hair. We compute the electric and magnetic charges related to the quantum hair and also the mass contribution to the effective black hole. We find that by wrapping a number of D3-branes equal to the order of the discrete group associated to the torsional part of the half-flat homology, the effective charge and mass terms vanish. We compute the variation of entropy and the corresponding temperature associated with the loss of quantum hair. We also comment on the equivalence between canceling Freed-Witten anomaly and the assumption of self-duality for the 5-form field strength. Finally from a K-theoretical perspective, we compute the presence of discrete Ramond-Ramond charge of D-branes wrapping torsional cycles in a half-flat manifold.

García-Compeán, Hugo; Loaiza-Brito, Oscar; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Santos-Silva, Roberto

2014-02-01

452

[Congenital foot abnormalities].  

PubMed

The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

2015-03-01

453

Coupled vibration response of a shaft with a breathing crack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate and detailed knowledge of the local flexibility which is introduced by a crack into a structure may be used in damage diagnosis. This paper investigates the variation of the local flexibility of cracked shafts under harmonic type of loadings causing tensional as well as compressional stresses around the crack faces in a periodic manner which inevitably lead to the opening and closure of the crack, i.e. the breathing mechanism. Time-dependent nonlinear finite element method (FEM) is adopted to analyze various crack sizes as well as time-dependent axial, bending and torsional types of loading. Special boundary conditions are adopted between crack faces to avoid penetration along the contact area and simultaneously permit the existence of stick or slip contact zones according to Coulomb's law. Deflection differences at the loaded edge between uncracked and cracked shaft are used for the computation of the local flexibilities. Apart from the computation of the diagonal terms of local flexibility matrix intensive emphasis is given to its off-diagonal coefficients which cause the coupling of motion between different degrees of freedom and thus may affect considerably the overall vibrational behavior of the shaft.

Giannopoulos, G. I.; Georgantzinos, S. K.; Anifantis, N. K.

2015-02-01

454

Dissecting the bulge in hair regeneration  

PubMed Central

The adult hair follicle houses stem cells that govern the cyclical growth and differentiation of multiple cell types that collectively produce a pigmented hair. Recent studies have revealed that hair follicle stem cells are heterogeneous and dynamic throughout the hair cycle. Moreover, interactions between heterologous stem cells, including both epithelial and melanocyte stem cells, within the hair follicle are just now being explored. This review will describe how recent findings have expanded our understanding of the development, organization, and regeneration of hair follicle stem cells. At a basic level, this review is intended to help construct a reference point to integrate the surge of studies on the molecular mechanisms that regulate these cells. PMID:22293183

Ito, Mayumi; Myung, Peggy

2012-01-01

455

Hair cycle and hair pigmentation: dynamic interactions and changes associated with aging.  

PubMed

The tight coupling of hair follicle melanogenesis to the hair growth cycle dramatically distinguishes follicular melanogenesis from the continuous melanogenesis of the epidermis. Cyclic re-construction of an intact hair follicle pigmentary unit occurs optimally in all scalp hair follicles during only the first 10 hair cycles, i.e. by approximately 40 years of age. Thereafter there appears to be a genetically regulated exhaustion of the pigmentary potential of each individual hair follicle leading to the formation of true gray and white hair. Pigment dilution results primarily from a reduction in tyrosinase activity within hair bulbar melanocytes. Thereafter, sub-optimal melanocyte-cortical keratinocyte interactions, and defective migration of melanocytes from a reservoir in the upper outer root sheath to the pigment-permitting microenvironment close to the follicular papilla of the hair bulb, will all disrupt normal function of the pigmentary unit. Evidence from studies on epidermal melanocyte aging suggest that reactive oxygen species-mediated damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA may lead to mutation accumulation in bulbar melanocytes. Parallel dysregulation of anti-oxidant mechanisms or pro/anti-apoptotic factors is also likely to occur within the cells. Pigment loss in canities may also affect keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, providing the tantalizing suggestion that melanocytes in the hair follicle contribute far more that packages of pigment alone. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of the development, regulation and control of the aging human hair follicle pigmentary system in relation with hair cycling. The exploitation of recently available methodologies to manipulate hair follicle melanocytes in vitro, and the observations that melanocytes remain in senile white hair follicles that can be induced to pigment in culture, raises the possibility of someday reversing canities. The perspective of rejuvenation of the whole hair follicle apparatus are still part of the dream but optimising its functional properties is clinically relevant and is close to reality. Finally as hair color influences its visibility when optical methods such as scalp photography are used to count hair fibers, the attention is drawn to possible interpretations of statistically significant changes in visible hair. Such changes may not exclusively be related to improved hair growth itself but also to changes in natural hair color that makes the hair more visible with the method used to count hairs. PMID:15036274

Van Neste, Dominique; Tobin, Desmond J

2004-01-01

456

[Developmental abnormalities and nevi of the scalp].  

PubMed

Unusual congenital or early-onset skin lesions on the scalp often pose a diagnostic challenge particularly as the clinical evaluation may be hampered by dense hair growth. Thus, this paper provides a concise review on developmental abnormalities and nevi with exclusive or predominant scalp localization. Aplasia cutis congenita occurs as an isolated finding, in association with genetic syndromes, nevi and anomalies or as a consequence of intrauterine trauma and teratogens. A hairless area with a narrow surrounding rim of hypertrichosis (hair collar sign) may point to occult cranial dysraphism, especially if accompanied by further suggestive signs as port-wine stains, large hemangiomas, dimples, congenital dermoid cysts, and sinuses. Many diverse entities may hide behind cutis verticis gyrata with the primary essential form being rare and representing a diagnosis of exclusion. In contrast to former belief, benign adnexal tumors arise in a nevus sebaceus considerably more often than basal cell carcinomas and other malignant epithelial tumors. Provided that tumor development is not suspected, excision of a nevus sebaceus nevus is indicated primarily for aesthetic-psychosocial reasons. However, surgical treatment is considerably easier in small children. Nevus sebaceus may be a cutaneous marker for several complex syndromes whereas nevus psiloliparus presents almost always in connection with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis. Congenital melanocytic nevi of the scalp tend toward clinical regression, so that surgical intervention in large lesions should be carefully considered. In contrast, the threshold for excision of blue nevi and other conspicuous melanocytic nevi on the scalp should be low, especially since they are difficult to monitor. PMID:25298254

Behle, V; Hamm, H

2014-12-01

457

The Actions of Calcium on Hair Bundle Mechanics in Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound stimuli excite cochlear hair cells by vibration of each hair bundle, which opens mechanotransducer (MT) channels. We have measured hair-bundle mechanics in isolated rat cochleas by stimulation with flexible glass fibers and simultaneous recording of the MT current. Both inner and outer hair-cell bundles exhibited force-displacement relationships with a nonlinearity that reflects a time-dependent reduction in stiffness. The nonlinearity

Maryline Beurg; Jong-Hoon Nam; Andrew Crawford; Robert Fettiplacey

2008-01-01

458

Regrowth of black hair in two red-haired alopecia areata patients.  

PubMed

The occurrence of alopecia areata (AA) in a red-haired individual is considered to be rare. We report two cases of red-haired men who were afflicted with patch-type AA. Astonishingly, the hair regrowth was coloured black, in contrast to the surrounding red hair, an event which has been reported only once in the past after cyclophosphamide administration. This phenomenon raises some interesting questions regarding the significance of pigmentation and the melanocortin-1 receptor in AA pathogenesis. PMID:23157795

Ramot, Yuval; Sinclair, Rodney D; Zlotogorski, Abraham

2012-11-01

459

Hair Cycle-Dependent Changes in Adrenergic Skin Innervation, and Hair Growth Modulation by Adrenergic Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin nerves may exert ‘‘trophic’’ functions during hair follicle development, growth, and\\/or cycling. Here, we demonstrate hair cycle-related plasticity in the sympathetic innervation of skin and hair follicle in C57BL\\/6 mice. Compared with telogen skin, the number of nerve fibers containing norepinephrine or immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase increased during the early growth phase of the hair cycle (anagen) in dermis

Vladimir A. Botchkarev; Eva M. J. Peters; Natalia V. Botchkareva; Marcus Maurer; Ralf Paus

1999-01-01

460

Active Hair-Bundle Motility of the Hair Cells of Vestibular and Auditory Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair bundle is the mechanosensitive organelle that protrudes from the hair cell’s apical surface. Sound in hearing organs, head acceleration in vestibular organs and water flow in the lateral line of fish and amphibians ultimately evoke hair-bundle deflections, to which the hair cell responds by generating an electrical signal. Mechanical-to-electrical transduction, a process that is fast enough to enable

Pascal Martin

461

Ethnic considerations in hair restoration surgery.  

PubMed

Patients of different ethnicities have specific characteristics that are essential for hair transplant surgeons to understand so that aesthetic results can be achieved. In this article, the approaches of follicular unit extraction and follicular unit grafting or strip hair transplants for pattern hair loss are reviewed, along with the procedures of eyebrow and beard transplants and surgical hairline advancement/forehead reduction surgeries, within various ethnic groups. PMID:25049126

Epstein, Jeffrey; Bared, Anthony; Kuka, Gorana

2014-08-01

462

Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

463

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

2013-04-01

464

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2013-01-01

465

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2012-01-01

466

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

2014-04-01

467

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2014-01-01

468

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

2012-04-01

469

Cochlear hair cell regeneration from neonatal mouse supporting cells  

E-print Network

Unlike lower vertebrates, capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration, mammals experience permanent sensorineural hearing loss following hair cell damage. Although low levels of hair cell regeneration have been demonstrated ...

Bramhall, Naomi F

2012-01-01

470

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

2011-04-01

471

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

2010-04-01