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1

Hair Shaft Abnormalities – Clues to Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks

Peter H. Itin; Susanna K. Fistarol

2005-01-01

2

Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures  

SciTech Connect

Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via {beta}-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and {beta}-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/{beta}-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)]. E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Moriya, Kei [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

2007-08-03

3

6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-01-01

4

6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice  

PubMed Central

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-01-01

5

Mylodon darwinii DNA sequences from ancient fecal hair shafts.  

PubMed

Preserved hair has been increasingly used as an ancient DNA source in high throughput sequencing endeavors, and it may actually offer several advantages compared to more traditional ancient DNA substrates like bone. However, cold environments have yielded the most informative ancient hair specimens, while its preservation, and thus utility, in temperate regions is not well documented. Coprolites could represent a previously underutilized preservation substrate for hairs, which, if present therein, represent macroscopic packages of specific cells that are relatively simple to separate, clean and process. In this pilot study, we report amplicons 147-152 base pairs in length (w/primers) from hair shafts preserved in a south Chilean coprolite attributed to Darwin's extinct ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. Our results suggest that hairs preserved in coprolites from temperate cave environments can serve as an effective source of ancient DNA. This bodes well for potential molecular-based population and phylogeographic studies on sloths, several species of which have been understudied despite leaving numerous coprolites in caves across of the Americas. PMID:21640569

Clack, Andrew A; MacPhee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

2012-01-20

6

Utility of hair shafts from study skins for mitochondrial DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The condition of mtDNA in hair shafts preserved in a museum was examined using 30 study skins of masked palm civets, Paguma larvata (Viverridae), collected between 1924 and 2011. Comparisons of extracts from fresh and burnt alum-fixed hair shafts showed that burnt alum, which is commonly used in taxidermy, had no harmful effect on the amount of total DNA and lengths of the mtDNA fragments. Burnt alum-fixed hair shafts had a tendency to develop a small degree of melanin hindering PCR amplification compared with fresh hair shafts, although that observation was not supported statistically (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Z = -0.183, P = 0.855). However, the amount of total DNA decreased after preparation of specimen in an exponential relation (regression of log DNA amount with year, regression analysis, F = 7.065, P = 0.013). Nevertheless, the oldest specimen, collected in 1924, yielded 1341.5 ng of DNA per 100 hair shafts, which was sufficient for PCR amplification. In addition, the mtDNA fragment length and amount of melanin in the hair shaft were not significantly correlated with the passage of time after preparation (F = 0.244, P = 0.625 for mtDNA fragment length; F = 0.039, P = 0.845 for the amount of melanin). Therefore, hair shafts prepared and preserved by chemical treatment in museums are good sources of mtDNA and useful for genetic analysis. PMID:24301912

Kurihara, N

2013-01-01

7

miR-424 levels in hair shaft are increased in psoriatic patients.  

PubMed

Objective diagnostic markers have not been in clinical use for psoriasis. In this study, we investigated the levels of miR-424 in hair roots and hair shafts in psoriatic patients, and evaluated the possibility that miR-424 can be a biomarker of the disease. A single hair root and five pieces of hair shafts (~5 cm in length) were obtained from the non-lesional occiput of each individual of 26 psoriatic patients. Control hair samples were collected from nine normal subjects. Samples from 10 atopic dermatitis patients were also included as the disease control. miR-424 levels were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hair shaft miR-424 levels were significantly upregulated only in patients with psoriasis compared with normal controls and those with atopic dermatitis. By receiver-operator curve analysis of hair shaft miR-424 to distinguish psoriatic patients from normal subjects, the area under the curve was 0.77. However, relative miR-424 levels were not correlated with disease activity markers including disease duration, body surface area and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Hair root miR-424 was not useful for evaluating both diagnosis and severity of the disease. Our results indicated hair shaft miR-424 levels may be useful as a diagnostic marker of psoriasis. PMID:24628460

Tsuru, Yasuo; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Ichihara, Asako; Fujisawa, Akihiko; Moriya, Chikako; Sakai, Keisuke; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

2014-05-01

8

Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis  

PubMed Central

Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

Laatsch, Chelsea N.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B.; Flagler, Michael J.; Davis, Michael G.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.

2014-01-01

9

Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer  

PubMed Central

Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20?), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47?), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61?), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95?). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95? conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

2011-01-01

10

DNA extraction from hair shafts of wild Brazilian felids and canids.  

PubMed

Wild felids and canids are usually the main predators in the food chains where they dwell and are almost invisible to behavior and ecology researchers. Due to their grooming behavior, they tend to swallow shed hair, which shows up in the feces. DNA found in hair shafts can be used in molecular studies that can unravel, for instance, genetic variability, reproductive mode and family structure, and in some species, it is even possible to estimate migration and dispersion rates in given populations. First, however, DNA must be extracted from hair. We extracted successfully and dependably hair shaft DNA from eight wild Brazilian felids, ocelot, margay, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, pampas cat, jaguarundi, puma, and jaguar, as well as the domestic cat and from three wild Brazilian canids, maned wolf, crab-eating fox, and hoary fox, as well as the domestic dog. Hair samples came mostly from feces collected at the São Paulo Zoo and were also gathered from non-sedated pet or from recently dead wild animals and were also collected from museum specimens. Fractions of hair samples were stained before DNA extraction, while most samples were not. Our extraction protocol is based on a feather DNA extraction technique, based in the phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol general method, with proteinase K as digestive enzyme. PMID:21174262

Alberts, C C; Ribeiro-Paes, J T; Aranda-Selverio, G; Cursino-Santos, J R; Moreno-Cotulio, V R; Oliveira, A L D; Porchia, B F M M; Santos, W F; Souza, E B

2010-01-01

11

Massively parallel sequencing of complete mitochondrial genomes from hair shaft samples.  

PubMed

Though shed hairs are one of the most commonly encountered evidence types, they are among the most limited in terms of DNA quantity and quality. As a result, DNA testing has historically focused on the recovery of just about 600 base pairs of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Here, we describe our success in recovering complete mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) data (?16,569bp) from single shed hairs. By employing massively parallel sequencing (MPS), we demonstrate that particular hair samples yield DNA sufficient in quantity and quality to produce 2-3kb mtGenome amplicons and that entire mtGenome data can be recovered from hair extracts even without PCR enrichment. Most importantly, we describe a small amplicon multiplex assay comprised of sixty-two primer sets that can be routinely applied to the compromised hair samples typically encountered in forensic casework. In all samples tested here, the MPS data recovered using any one of the three methods were consistent with the control Sanger sequence data developed from high quality known specimens. Given the recently demonstrated value of complete mtGenome data in terms of discrimination power among randomly sampled individuals, the possibility of recovering mtGenome data from the most compromised and limited evidentiary material is likely to vastly increase the utility of mtDNA testing for hair evidence. PMID:25438934

Parson, Walther; Huber, Gabriela; Moreno, Lilliana; Madel, Maria-Bernadette; Brandhagen, Michael D; Nagl, Simone; Xavier, Catarina; Eduardoff, Mayra; Callaghan, Thomas C; Irwin, Jodi A

2015-03-01

12

A new syndrome of tufting enteropathy and choanal atresia, with ophthalmologic, hematologic and hair abnormalities.  

PubMed

Three siblings are reported with a syndrome of intractable diarrhea of infancy (owing to tufting enteropathy) and choanal atresia/stenosis. Additional components of this condition are a mild shortness of stature, a prominent and broad nasal bridge, micrognathia, single palmar creases, chronic corneal inflammation, episodic cytopenia, and abnormal hair texture. Intelligence is normal, and there is no immunodeficiency distinguishing this syndrome from that reported by Girault et al. (1994). Additional features that might occur in this syndrome include bifid uvula, preauricular pits, and 2/3 toe syndactyly. We compare this syndrome with previously reported intractable diarrhea syndromes and speculate on the developmental mechanisms that could account for many of the features demonstrated by this sibship. PMID:17786112

Bird, Lynne M; Sivagnanam, Mamata; Taylor, Sharon; Newbury, Robert O

2007-10-01

13

Hair cosmetics.  

PubMed

The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products. PMID:23974582

Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

2013-01-01

14

Mutation in xyloglucan 6-xylosytransferase results in abnormal root hair development in Oryza sativa  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are important for nutrient uptake, anchorage, and plant–microbe interactions. From a population of rice (Oryza sativa) mutagenized by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), a short root hair2 (srh2) mutant was identified. In hydroponic culture, srh2 seedlings were significantly reduced in root hair length. Bubble-like extrusions and irregular epidermal cells were observed at the tips of srh2 root hairs when grown under acidic conditions, suggesting the possible reduction of the tensile strength of the cell wall in this mutant. Map-based cloning identified a mutation in the gene encoding xyloglucan (XyG) 6-xylosyltransferase (OsXXT1). OsXXT1 displays more than 70% amino acid sequence identity with the previously characterized Arabidopsis thaliana XYG XYLOSYL TRANSFERASE 1 (AtXXT1) and XYG XYLOSYL TRANSFERASE 2 (AtXXT2), which catalyse the transfer of xylose onto ?-1,4-glucan chains. Furthermore, expression of the full-length coding sequence of OsXXT1 could complement the root hair defect, and slow growth and XyG synthesis in the Arabidopsis xxt1 xxt2 double mutant. Transgenic plants expressing the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter under the control of the OsXXT1 promoter displayed GUS expression in multiple tissues, most prominently in root epidermal cells. These results demonstrate the importance of OsXXT1 in maintaining cell wall structure and tensile strength in rice, a typical grass species that contains relatively low XyG content in cell walls. PMID:24834920

Wang, Chuang; Li, Shuai; Ng, Sophia; Zhang, Baocai; Zhou, Yihua; Whelan, James; Wu, Ping; Shou, Huixia

2014-01-01

15

Absence of plastin 1 causes abnormal maintenance of hair cell stereocilia and a moderate form of hearing loss in mice.  

PubMed

Hearing relies on the mechanosensory inner and outer hair cells (OHCs) of the organ of Corti, which convert mechanical deflections of their actin-rich stereociliary bundles into electrochemical signals. Several actin-associated proteins are essential for stereocilia formation and maintenance, and their absence leads to deafness. One of the most abundant actin-bundling proteins of stereocilia is plastin 1, but its function has never been directly assessed. Here, we found that plastin 1 knock-out (Pls1 KO) mice have a moderate and progressive form of hearing loss across all frequencies. Auditory hair cells developed normally in Pls1 KO, but in young adult animals, the stereocilia of inner hair cells were reduced in width and length. The stereocilia of OHCs were comparatively less affected; however, they also showed signs of degeneration in ageing mice. The hair bundle stiffness and the acquisition of the electrophysiological properties of hair cells were unaffected by the absence of plastin 1, except for a significant change in the adaptation properties, but not the size of the mechanoelectrical transducer currents. These results show that in contrast to other actin-bundling proteins such as espin, harmonin or Eps8, plastin 1 is dispensable for the initial formation of stereocilia. However, the progressive hearing loss and morphological defects of hair cells in adult Pls1 KO mice point at a specific role for plastin 1 in the preservation of adult stereocilia and optimal hearing. Hence, mutations in the human PLS1 gene may be associated with relatively mild and progressive forms of hearing loss. PMID:25124451

Taylor, Ruth; Bullen, Anwen; Johnson, Stuart L; Grimm-Günter, Eva-Maria; Rivero, Francisco; Marcotti, Walter; Forge, Andrew; Daudet, Nicolas

2015-01-01

16

INTRODUCTION The mammalian hair follicle is a representative but highly  

E-print Network

and differentiation, together with concealed skin domains, account for the cyclic alopecia phenotype. Key words: Alopecia, Hair cycle, Hair differentiation, Homeobox genes, Msx2, Foxn1, Ha3, Fgf5, Mouse SUMMARY DEVELOPMENT AND DISEASE `Cyclic alopecia' in Msx2 mutants: defects in hair cycling and hair shaft

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

17

Compound heterozygous desmoplakin mutations result in a phenotype with a combination of myocardial, skin, hair, and enamel abnormalities.  

PubMed

Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the mid- and lower epidermal layers, whereas the heart showed extensive fibrosis and fibrofatty replacement in both ventricles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a reduction in the C-terminal domain of DP in the skin and oral mucosa. Sequencing of the DP gene showed undescribed mutations in the maternal and paternal alleles. Both mutations affected exon 24 encoding the C-terminal domain. The paternal mutation, c.6310delA, leads to a premature stop codon. The maternal mutation, c.7964 C to A, results in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a conserved alanine residue at amino acid 2655 (A2655D). Structural modeling indicated that this mutation changes the electrostatic potential of the mutated region of DP, possibly altering functions that depend on intermolecular interactions. To conclude, we describe a combination of DP mutation phenotypes affecting the skin, heart, hair, and teeth. This patient case emphasizes the importance of heart examination of patients with desmosomal genodermatoses. PMID:19924139

Mahoney, My G; Sadowski, Sara; Brennan, Donna; Pikander, Pekka; Saukko, Pekka; Wahl, James; Aho, Heikki; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fertala, Andrzej; Peltonen, Juha; Uitto, Jouni; Peltonen, Sirkku

2010-04-01

18

Reduced thymic output, cell cycle abnormalities, and increased apoptosis of T lymphocytes in patients with cartilage-hair hypoplasia  

PubMed Central

Background Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is characterized by metaphyseal dysplasia, bone marrow failure, increased risk of malignancies, and a variable degree of immunodeficiency. CHH is caused by mutations in the RNA component of the mitochondrial RNA processing (RMRP) endoribonuclease gene, which is involved in ribosomal assembly, telomere function, and cell cycle control. Objectives We aimed to define thymic output and characterize immune function in a cohort of patients with molecularly defined CHH with and without associated clinical immunodeficiency. Methods We studied the distribution of B and T lymphocytes (including recent thymic emigrants), in vitro lymphocyte proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in 18 patients with CHH compared with controls. Results Patients with CHH have a markedly reduced number of recent thymic emigrants, and their peripheral T cells show defects in cell cycle control and display increased apoptosis, resulting in poor proliferation on activation. Conclusion These data confirm that RMRP mutations result in significant defects of cell-mediated immunity and provide a link between the cellular phenotype and the immunodeficiency in CHH. PMID:21570718

Rider, Nicholas L.; Strauss, Kevin A.; Morton, D. Holmes; Adair, Margaret; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Ochs, Hans D.; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Pessach, Itai M.; Walter, Jolan E.; King, Alejandra; Giliani, Silvia; Pai, Sung-Yun; Notarangelo, Luigi D.

2015-01-01

19

Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

2005-07-01

20

Blind shaft development  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses how Shaft Drillers International (SDI) is breaking new ground in shaft development and ground stabilization. Techniques of blind shaft drilling and raise bore shaft development developed by SDI are briefly explained. An associated company, Coastal Drilling East, deals with all types of ground improvement such as pre-grouting work for shafts, grouting of poor soil and water leaks into the mine. 3 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2009-02-15

21

Hair Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

... to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Hair Transplants What are hair transplants? In punch transplanting, a plug containing hair follicles ... should first be done before considering a hair transplant? Before the procedure, an ASDS doctor will review ...

22

Hair Changes  

MedlinePLUS

... This is because higher hormone levels prevent normal hair loss. During pregnancy: Your hair tends to stay in ... hair. After delivery: The resting phase shortens. Normal hair loss that was delayed by pregnancy tends to take ...

23

Oily hair  

MedlinePLUS

Hair - oily ... are some tips for preventing and treating oily hair: Shampoo your hair every day. Leaving the shampoo on your head ... minutes before rinsing may help. Avoid brushing your hair too often or too vigorously, since the brushing ...

24

Body Hair  

MedlinePLUS

Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you will likely see new hair growing in your pubic area , under your arms, and ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

25

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... Bad Reaction to Cosmetics? Tell FDA Cosmetics Tips Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers En Español Hair dye is used to ... products. If you have a bad reaction to hair dyes and relaxers, you should: Stop using the ...

26

The cell cycle regulator protein 14-3-3? is essential for hair follicle integrity and epidermal homeostasis.  

PubMed

The 14-3-3? (Stratifin; Sfn) is a cell cycle regulator intimately involved in the program of epithelial keratinization. 14-3-3? is unique in that it is expressed primarily in epithelial cells and is frequently silenced in epithelial cancers. Despite its well-documented role as a cell cycle regulator and as a tumor suppressor, the function of 14-3-3? in the intricate balance of proliferation and differentiation in epithelial development is poorly understood. A mutation in 14-3-3? was found to be responsible for the repeated epilation (Er) phenotype. It has previously been shown that Sfn(+/Er) mice are characterized by repeated hair loss and regrowth, whereas Sfn(Er/Er) mice die at birth displaying severe oral fusions and limb abnormalities as a result of defects in keratinizing epithelia. Here we show that mice heterozygous for the 14-3-3? mutation have severe defects in hair shaft differentiation, resulting in destruction of the hair shaft during morphogenesis. Furthermore, we report that the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous glands are hyperproliferative, coincident with expanded nuclear Yap1 (Yes-associated protein 1)--a critical modulator of epidermal stem cell proliferation. We also report that hair follicle stem cells in the bulge cycle abnormally, raising important questions as to the role of 14-3-3? in the bulge. PMID:22377760

Hammond, Nigel L; Headon, Denis J; Dixon, Michael J

2012-06-01

27

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

28

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

Benavides, G.L.

1998-05-05

29

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... hair production and cause hair loss. People with lupus can also lose hair. The hormone imbalance that happens in polycystic ovary syndrome can cause hair loss in teen girls as well as adult women. Medicines. Sometimes doctors prescribe medicines that have hair loss ...

30

Turbine shaft fuel pump  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a turbine engine having a support housing, a shaft rotatably mounted in the support housing, an annular combustion chamber coaxial with the shaft and the support housing, the shaft having an axial passageway, injector nozzles aligned for discharging fuel into the combustion chamber, and means for pumping and metering a supply of fuel to the injector nozzles, the pumping and metering means. It comprises a flow passageway extending from a first end of the shaft axial passageway and to the injector nozzles the flow passageway comprising an annular chamber formed between two axially spaced and radially inwardly extending walls in the shaft, the annular chamber is open to the axial passageway while a periphery of the annular chamber is open to the injector nozzles, and pumping vanes disposed in the annular chamber, the vanes being secured to the shaft so that, upon rotation of the shaft, the vanes provided pressurized fuel from the passageway to the injectors.

Smith, R.

1991-08-27

31

Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... person's hair may look greasy. Time for a shampoo! Continue Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow! You have more ... When you wash your hair, use a gentle shampoo and warm water. Lather up using your fingertips, ...

32

118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) FORWARD LOOKING AFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE SHOWING THE SHAFT, SHAFT PACKING GLAND, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE AND FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN PIPING. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

33

Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases.

Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

2012-03-01

34

Rotary shaft seal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

Langebrake, Clair O. (Waverly, OH)

1984-01-01

35

Rotary shaft seal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

Langebrake, C.O.

1984-01-01

36

Crank shaft support assembly  

DOEpatents

A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

Natkin, Robert J. (Canton, MI); Oltmans, Bret (Stacy, MN); Allison, John E. (Ann Arbor, MI); Heater, Thomas J. (Milford, MI); Hines, Joy Adair (Plymouth, MI); Tappen, Grant K. (Washington, MI); Peiskammer, Dietmar (Rochester, MI)

2007-10-23

37

Poorly growing hair in a child.  

PubMed

A healthy 5-year-old Caucasian girl presented to the pediatric dermatology clinic for poor hair growth. The patient's father described slow hair growth and finely textured hair since birth. The patient had her first haircut 1 month before presentation. The family denied bald areas on the scalp, significant hair shedding, and sores on the scalp. The child did not scratch at her scalp or pull her hair. She are a normal diet and had normal growth and development otherwise. She was not taking any medications or over-the-counter supplements. There was no family history of hair disorders. On physical examination, the patient had short, fine, reddish blond hair that was of different lengths (Figure 1). There were no papules, pustules, scale, or crust on her scalp. Lymphadenopathy was absent. She had normal eyelashes and eyebrows. There were no lesions on her oral mucosa. No tooth or nail abnormalities were present. The rest of the physical examination was normal. The hair pull test resulted in 4 easily pulled hairs (3 anagen and 1 telogen). A hair mount was performed (Figure 2). The hair mount analysis revealed anagen hairs with distorted bulbs and ruffled cuticles extending a short distance distally from the bulb, consistent with loose anagen hair (Figure 2). All of the anagen hairs on the pull test demonstrated the above findings. Based on the patient's clinical presentation and the findings seen on light microscopy of the hair mount preparation, the patient was diagnosed with loose anagen syndrome. PMID:21137616

Bolotin, Diana; Ortel, Bernhard; Stein, Sarah L

2010-01-01

38

Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling  

PubMed Central

Embryonic hair follicle induction and formation are regulated by mesenchymal-epithelial interactions between specialized dermal cells and epidermal stem cells that switch to a hair fate. Similarly, during postnatal hair growth, communication between mesenchymal dermal papilla cells and surrounding epithelial matrix cells coordinates hair shaft production. Adult hair follicle regeneration in the hair cycle again is thought to be controlled by activating signals originating from the mesenchymal compartment and acting on hair follicle stem cells. Although many signaling pathways are implicated in hair follicle formation and growth, the precise nature, timing, and intersection of these inductive and regulatory signals remains elusive. The goal of this review is to summarize our current understanding and to discuss recent new insights into mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling. PMID:22960356

Sennett, Rachel; Rendl, Michael

2012-01-01

39

Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts. PMID:16197431

Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

2005-11-01

40

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

41

Eruptive Vellus Hair Cyst in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of eruptive vellus hair cysts associated with chronic renal failure are reported. Histologically the lesions of both cases showed cystic structures in the dermis lined by squamous epithelium which contained varying amounts of vellus hair shafts. Immunohistochemical studies using monoclonal anti-AGE (advanced glycation end product) antibody demonstrated that keratinous materials within the cystic structures were immunoreactive to the

Hideki Mieno; Norihiro Fujimoto; Shingo Tajima

2004-01-01

42

Fabricated torque shaft  

DOEpatents

A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

Mashey, Thomas Charles (Anderson, SC)

2002-01-01

43

Extraction and Analysis of Cortisol from Human and Monkey Hair  

PubMed Central

The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

2014-01-01

44

Shaft seal system  

DOEpatents

A shaft seal system is disclosed for isolating two regions of different fluid mediums through which a rotatable shaft extends. The seal system includes a seal housing through which the shaft extends and which defines an annular land and an annular labyrinth both of which face on the shaft so that each establishes a corresponding fluid sealing annulus. A collection cavity is formed in communication with the annular sealing spaces, and fluids compatible with the fluids in each of the two regions to be isolated are introduced, respectively, into the annular sealing spaces and collected in the collection cavity from which the fluid mixture is removed and passed to a separator which separates the fluids and returns them to their respective annular sealing spaces in a recycling manner. In the illustrated embodiment, the isolated fluid mediums comprise a liquid region and a gas region. Gas is removed from the gas region and passed through a purifier and a gas pump operative to introduce the purified gas through the labyrinth sealing annulus to the collection cavity. After passing to the separator, the separated gas is passed through a dryer from which the dried gas is caused to pass through the labyrinth sealing annulus into the collection cavity independently of the purified gas so as to insure isolation of the gas region in the event of sealing gas pump malfunction.

Kapich, Davorin D. (Carlsbad, CA)

1985-01-01

45

Polygonal shaft hole rotor  

DOEpatents

A laminated rotor for an induction motor has a plurality of ferro-magnetic laminations mounted axially on a rotor shaft. Each of the plurality of laminations has a central aperture in the shape of a polygon with sides of equal length. The laminations are alternatingly rotated 180.degree. from one another so that the straight sides of the polygon shaped apertures are misaligned. As a circular rotor shaft is press fit into a stack of laminations, the point of maximum interference occurs at the midpoints of the sides of the polygon (i.e., at the smallest radius of the central apertures of the laminations). Because the laminates are alternatingly rotated, the laminate material at the points of maximum interference yields relatively easily into the vertices (i.e., the greatest radius of the central aperture) of the polygonal central aperture of the next lamination as the shaft is inserted into the stack of laminations. Because of this yielding process, the amount of force required to insert the shaft is reduced, and a tighter fit is achieved.

Hussey, John H. (St. Louis, MO); Rose, John Scott (Alton, IL); Meystrik, Jeffrey J. (Webster Groves, MO); White, Kent Lee (Maryland Heights, MO)

2001-01-23

46

Diffuse Partial Woolly Hair in a Patient with Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex with Mottled Pigmentation  

PubMed Central

Diffuse partial woolly hair (DPWH) is an uncommon pilar dysplasia defined by the presence of two hair shaft populations with wooly hairs distributed diffusely among normal hairs throughout the scalp. So far the condition has been reported as an isolated disorder with familial occurrence. We report a case of DPWH in 35-year-old female patient with epidermolysis bullosa with mottled pigmentation. PMID:25191045

Gerkowicz, Agnieszka; Trüeb, Ralph M

2014-01-01

47

Characterization of human scalp hairs by optical low-coherence reflectometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical low-coherence reflectometry is used to investigate the internal structure and optical properties of human scalp hair. Regardless of hair color, the refractive index of the cortical region remains within the range of 1.56-1.59. The amplitude of the backscattered infrared light coupled into different-colored hair confirms the relative melanin content. Discontinuities in the refractive index permit identification of distinct structural layers within the hair shaft.

Wang, X. J.; Milner, T. E.; Dhond, R. P.; Sorin, W. V.; Newton, S. A.; Nelson, J. S.

1995-03-01

48

To grow or not to grow: Hair morphogenesis and human genetic hair disorders  

PubMed Central

Mouse models have greatly helped in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in hair formation and regeneration. Recent publications have reviewed the genes involved in mouse hair development based on the phenotype of transgenic, knockout and mutant animal models. While much of this information has been instrumental in determining molecular aspects of human hair development and cycling, mice exhibit a specific pattern of hair morphogenesis and hair distribution throughout the body that cannot be directly correlated to human hair. In this mini-review, we discuss specific aspects of human hair follicle development and present an up-to-date summary of human genetic disorders associated with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, structure or regeneration. PMID:24361867

Duverger, Olivier; Morasso, Maria I.

2014-01-01

49

Genetics Home Reference: Cartilage-hair hypoplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder of bone growth characterized by short stature (dwarfism) with other skeletal abnormalities; fine, sparse hair (hypotrichosis); ... cartilage ; cell ; cell cycle ; colon ; constipation ; deficiency ; DNA ; dwarfism ; enzyme ; esophagus ; gastrointestinal ; gene ; gluten ; hypopigmentation ; hypoplasia ; hypotrichosis ; ...

50

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

DOEpatents

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

Dietle, Lannie L. (Houston, TX); Schroeder, John E. (Richmond, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Alvarez, Patricio D. (Richmond, TX)

2010-09-21

51

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

DOEpatents

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

2013-08-13

52

Alterations in Hair Follicle Dynamics in Women  

PubMed Central

Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E.

2013-01-01

53

Lornoxicam-induced hair loss: an unusual case.  

PubMed

A patient started on 8 mg lornoxicam twice daily for pain in the hips developed acute-onset scalp hair loss. History and clinical examination revealed no evident abnormalities. Temporal association of the onset of hair loss with the use of lornoxicam, inability to explain hair loss by alternate causes, possibility of hair loss with lornoxicam and resolution on dechallenge placed this reaction as a probable adverse reaction to lornoxicam. PMID:24029201

Keny, M S; Ghodge, R R; Bandekar, S M

2013-01-01

54

Spider joint hair sensilla: adaptation to proprioreceptive stimulation.  

PubMed

Adding to previous efforts towards a better understanding of the remarkable diversity of spider mechanosensitive hair sensilla, this study examines hairs of Cupiennius salei most likely serving a proprioreceptive function. At the tibia-metatarsus joint of all walking legs, there are two opposing groups of hairs ventrally on the tibia (20 hairs) and metatarsus (75 hairs), respectively. These hairs deflect each other when the joint flexes during locomotion, reversibly interlocking by microtrichs on their hair shafts. The torque resisting the hair deflection into the direction of natural stimulation is smaller by up to two powers of ten than that for the other directions. The torsional restoring constant S of the hair suspension is about 10(-10) Nm rad(-1) in the preferred direction, up to a hair deflection angle of 30° (mean of natural deflection angles). Joint movements were imposed in ranges and at rates measured in walking spiders and sensory action potentials recorded. Within the natural step frequencies (0.3-3 Hz) the rate of action potentials follows the velocity of hair deflection. All findings point to the morphological, mechanical, and physiological adaptedness of the joint hair sensilla to their proprioreceptive stimulation during locomotion. PMID:25398577

Schaber, Clemens F; Barth, Friedrich G

2015-02-01

55

The role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals  

E-print Network

. Since various hair and skin abnormalities are not uncommon in genetically modified or drug of genetically modified laboratory mouse and rat strains with abnormal hair makes the swim tests importantThe role of hair in swimming of laboratory mice: implications for behavioural studies in animals

Kalueff, Allan V.

56

Shaft seal assembly and method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

Keba, John E. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

57

Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth  

SciTech Connect

Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

2008-03-07

58

A Case of Eruptive Vellus Hair Cysts That Developed on the Labium Major  

PubMed Central

Eruptive vellus hair cysts are asymptomatic, flesh-colored-to-bluish, 1-to-4 mm-sized papules that are usually located on the chest and extremities of children and young adults. Histologically, small cysts are observed in the mid-dermis and these cysts contain multiple hair shafts and keratinous materials. We report here on a case of eruptive vellus hair cysts that developed on a rare site, the labium major. PMID:20523808

Park, Ju Hyuk; Her, Young; Chun, Bo Mi; Kim, Chul Woo

2009-01-01

59

Fungal tunneling of hair from a buried body.  

PubMed

Tunnels produced in human head hair by fungal hyphae were examined with a light microscope and with a scanning electron microscope. The tunnels had small diameters and exhibited minimal branching. The use of a backscattered electron detector facilitated the locating of the openings of the tunnels in the surfaces of the hairs. In the backscattered electron image, tunnel openings appeared as dark spots. The tunneling hyphae did not show a preference for a particular location for entering the shaft of the hair. Some hyphae penetrated under the free edges of the cuticular scales, while others burrowed through the surfaces of the scales. PMID:1506825

DeGaetano, D H; Kempton, J B; Rowe, W F

1992-07-01

60

[Forensic aspects of thermal changes in human head hair].  

PubMed

Under experimental conditions, head hairs of individuals of different age were exposed to defined increases of temperature up to 450 degrees C and examined by transmitted- and reflected-light microscopy with and without polarization. Preliminary tests had shown that the hair changes alone do not allow conclusions as to the temperature acting on the hair. Especially in the range of 200 to 300 degrees C, the temperature gradient during the heating process and the exposure time were additional influencing factors. Thick hair and hair with a high water content showed more pronounced thermal changes than thin hair. Elasticity and permeability of the cuticle and the cementing substance (cell membrane complex CMC) are also relevant factors. When heating head hairs lacking a medulla, a multiform pseudo-medulla formed under certain conditions. In the presence of thermally induced structural disturbances (e.g. by using hair straighteners), foreign substances can penetrate more easily into the hair shaft from outside. The possibility of such exogenous contamination has to be taken into consideration when performing chemical and toxicological analyses of hair. PMID:25004619

Kijewski, Harald

2014-01-01

61

Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus  

DOEpatents

The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one end to a gear mechanism and at its other end to an adjustable coupling means which is to be connected to a rotatable shaft extending through a wall through which torque and rotary motion are to be transferred.

Griggs, J.E.; Newman, H.J.

1983-06-16

62

Chrysanthemum zawadskii extract induces hair growth by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of hair matrix.  

PubMed

Chrysanthemum zawadskii has been proven to possess hair growth activity and has been used as treatment for hair loss. The aim of this study was to provide a novel explanation of the mechanism by which Chrysanthemum zawadskii extracts (CZe) promote hair growth and to characterize the affected hair follicle (HF) regions and the progression of growth. The n-butanol and water fractions of CZe were used for hair growth induction by topical application to the backs of C57BL/6 mice for up to 30 days. To investigate cell development during HF morphogenesis, bromodeoxyuridine-labeled skin sections were detected using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the water fraction of CZe promoted hair shaft production and induced premature entry of telogen HFs into the anagen. Subsequently, immunohistochemical studies indicated that the water fraction of CZe stimulated the differentiation and proliferation of pluripotent epidermal matrix cells in the matrix region and epithelial stem cells in the basal layer of the epidermis. Additionally, flavonoids were identified as effective constituents. Therefore, the findings of this study suggested that the water fraction of CZe may be developed as a therapeutic agent for the prevention of hair loss. PMID:24807783

Li, Zheng; Li, Jingjie; Gu, Lijuan; Begum, Shahnaz; Wang, Yunbo; Sun, Baishen; Lee, Mira; Sung, Changkeun

2014-07-01

63

Is Propionibacterium Acnes Associated with Hair Casts and Alopecia?  

PubMed Central

We report a series of four patients who presented with complaints of diffuse non-scarring alopecia. They had similar clinical features of alopecia, hyperseborrhea, and distinct keratinaceous hair casts that encircled the hair shafts. Propionibacterium acnes was isolated from two of the patients’ scalp, and Gram-positive, Giemsa-positive bacteria were seen in the hair follicles in the scalp biopsy of one of the patients. The patients’ symptoms did not respond to standard treatment for seborrheic dermatitis, but responded to a course of systemic antibiotics targeting P. acnes. We propose a role for P. acnes colonization of the terminal hair follicles in the pathogenesis of hair casts, and possibly diffuse non-scarring alopecia. Possible mechanisms of pathogenesis are discussed with a literature review. PMID:23180917

Wang, Etienne; Lee, Joyce Siong-See; Hee, Tan Hiok

2012-01-01

64

Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss Share | It is normal to lose up to ... months after the "shock". This sudden increase in hair loss, usually described as the hair coming out in ...

65

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair lightener poisoning ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach. ... al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap ...

66

Dynamic Balancing Of Turbomachinery Shafts And Rotors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method for dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafts and rotors developed with view toward reducing time spent in balancing process. Improved method based on existing dynamic-balancing techniques and equipment, incorporating use of balancing arbor, which is mandrel duplicating mounting geometry and dynamic-balance properties of shaft balanced. Once shaft balanced, not necessary to disassemble machinery and/or shaft completely and rebalance shaft when replacing rotor on shaft. Instead, one balances replacement rotor on balancing arbor, then installs balanced rotor on shaft.

Verhoff, Vincent G.

1993-01-01

67

Case study: ancient sloth DNA recovered from hairs preserved in paleofeces.  

PubMed

Ancient hair, which has proved to be an excellent source of well-preserved ancient DNA, is often preserved in paleofeces. Here, we separate and wash hair shafts preserved in a paleofecal specimen believed to be from a Darwin's ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. After extracting DNA from the recovered and cleaned hair using a protocol optimized for DNA extraction from keratinous substrates, we amplify 12S and 16S rDNA sequences from the DNA extract. As expected, the recovered sequences most closely match previously published sequences of M. darwinii. Our results demonstrate that hair preserved in paleofeces, even from temperate cave environments, is an effective source of ancient DNA. PMID:22237521

Clack, Andrew A; Macphee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

2012-01-01

68

Hair follicle Formation of  

E-print Network

Hair follicle Formation of new follicles Bud Healed skin Hair bulge Open wound Epidermis a b Dermis 1950s and help to explain the controversy. What is the origin of the cells that make up these new hair follicles? Are they derived from existing hair follicles located at the wound edge

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

69

Female Pattern Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Hormonal changes are a common cause of female hair loss. Many women do not realize that hair loss can occur ... available for female pattern hair loss. The other hair loss medication, Propecia, just doesn't work in women at all. Spironolactone pills help many women, especially ...

70

An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan  

SciTech Connect

This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

Not Available

1987-03-01

71

Improved Seal for NTF Fan Shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New seal more effective and lasts longer. Seal consists of five felt rings interspersed with four polytetrafluoroethylene rings having inner diameter slightly larger than shaft. Spaces between polytetrafluoroethylene rings and shaft produce labyrinth effect, which increases degree of sealing.

Crossley, E. A., Jr.; Jones, J. A.; Messier, R.; Johnson, G. W.; Felton, K.

1986-01-01

72

Effects of ultra violet radiation on the soluble proteins of human hair.  

PubMed

Exposure of hair fibers from healthy volunteers to Ultra Violet Radiation (UVR) under laboratory conditions enhanced protein elution from the hair tresses into a buffer solution (pH 10.5). At the same time the UVR decreased the intensity of tryptophan fluorescence in the eluted proteins. After mechanical homogenization of these hair samples, the increase of soluble protein was registered for UVR treated hair as well as the rise in sulfhydryl group content of these proteins. Analysis of soluble proteins from hair samples homogenized before and after protein elution has shown that mainly proteins rich in sulfhydryl groups were eluted and as a result sulfhydryl content of proteins in hair shaft decreased. The hypothesis concerning the effects of environmental factors on the properties of hair shaft proteins was examined, the proximal and distal parts of normal hair (0-5cm and 15-20cm from hair root) were compared. In the distal parts there was a higher quantity of soluble proteins registered after homogenization, with decreased sulfhydryl group content and tryptophan fluorescence. It could be supposed that this difference results from the steady rupture of cystine in sulfur bridges and tryptophan under exposure to environmental factors (mainly, UVR), followed by elution of the resulting peptides. PMID:25282715

Fedorkova, M V; Smolina, N V; Mikhalchik, E V; Balabushevich, N G; Ibragimova, G A; Gadzhigoroeva, A G; Dmitrieva, E I; Dobretsov, G E

2014-11-01

73

The Very Large G-Protein-Coupled Receptor VLGR1: A Component of the Ankle Link Complex Required for the Normal Development of Auditory Hair Bundles  

PubMed Central

Sensory hair bundles in the inner ear are composed of stereocilia that can be interconnected by a variety of different link types, including tip links, horizontal top connectors, shaft connectors, and ankle links. The ankle link antigen is an epitope specifically associated with ankle links and the calycal processes of photoreceptors in chicks. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting were used to identify this antigen as the avian ortholog of the very large G-protein-coupled receptor VLGR1, the product of the Usher syndrome USH2C (Mass1) locus. Like ankle links, Vlgr1 is expressed transiently around the base of developing hair bundles in mice. Ankle links fail to form in the cochleae of mice carrying a targeted mutation in Vlgr1 (Vlgr1/del7TM), and the bundles become disorganized just after birth. FM1-43 [N-(3-triethylammonium)propyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide] dye loading and whole-cell recordings indicate mechanotransduction is impaired in cochlear, but not vestibular, hair cells of early postnatal Vlgr1/del7TM mutant mice. Auditory brainstem recordings and distortion product measurements indicate that these mice are severely deaf by the third week of life. Hair cells from the basal half of the cochlea are lost in 2-month-old Vlgr1/del7TM mice, and retinal function is mildly abnormal in aged mutants. Our results indicate that Vlgr1 is required for formation of the ankle link complex and the normal development of cochlear hair bundles. PMID:16775142

McGee, JoAnn; Goodyear, Richard J.; McMillan, D. Randy; Stauffer, Eric A.; Holt, Jeffrey R.; Locke, Kirsten G.; Birch, David G.; Legan, P. Kevin; White, Perrin C.; Walsh, Edward J.; Richardson, Guy P.

2009-01-01

74

Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its computational and algorithmic  

E-print Network

1 Abstract Hair-to-hair interaction is often ignored in human hair modeling, due to its the complex behavior of long human hair, taking into account the hair-to-hair interactions. For long hair, we propose the thin shell volume (TSV) model for enhancing hair realism by simulating complex hair-hair

Shahabi, Cyrus

75

Hair Loss in New Moms  

MedlinePLUS

... Hair loss in new moms Hair loss in new moms Many new moms see noticeable hair loss ... shedding after having a baby. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ...

76

Hair Restoration (Cosmetic Procedures)  

MedlinePLUS

... stretch hair-bearing areas, which reduces balding. Scalp flaps – A hair-bearing section of the scalp is ... of age. Scalp reduction, scalp expansion, and scalp flaps tend to be limited to treating men who ...

77

Hair transplantation surgery  

PubMed Central

Techniques in hair transplantation have evolved recently which make results look more natural. Hair restoration is one of the most exciting and innovative surgical fields in aesthetic surgery today. A precise appreciation of anatomy has allowed the use of follicular unit grafts. With better methods of harvesting and implantation, hair transplantation results represent a blend of art and science. PMID:20174544

Khanna, Manoj

2008-01-01

78

Common Hair Loss Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, close attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a

KARYN SPRINGER; MATTHEW BROWN; DANIEL L. STULBERG

2003-01-01

79

The structure of people’s hair  

PubMed Central

Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

2014-01-01

80

Securing Bearing Races To Turbopump Shafts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed method of attaching inner race of roller bearing to shaft prevents loosening now caused by difference between coefficients of thermal expansion of race and shaft materials. Intended for cryogenic turbopump in which race made of 440C stainless-steel alloy and shaft made of Inconel(R) 100 nickel alloy. Flanges of race replaced by tension bands that shrink faster as they are cooled. Tension band engages race on slightly sloping surface so axial forces do not dislodge it.

Blount, Dale H.

1990-01-01

81

ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL  

E-print Network

415 ACTIVE HAIR-BUNDLE MOTILITY BY THE VERTEBRATE HAIR CELL J-Y. TINEVEZ , P. MARTIN Laboratoire The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair

Jülicher, Frank

82

Successful direct amplification of nuclear markers from a single hair follicle.  

PubMed

We report on successful amplification of DNA profiles from a single hair. Direct amplification was used on the root tip of both anagen and telogen hairs using a kit to amplify 15 STR loci. All 30 anagen hairs tested from five different people gave full DNA profiles after 29 cycles with no allelic drop-in or heterozygous imbalance. Six of the 30 telogen hairs tested resulted in a full DNA profile, and a further four telogen hair samples tested produced a DNA profile of five or more complete loci that could be up-loaded to the National DNA Database (Australia). A full DNA profile was also obtained from the shaft of an anagen hair. Current practice for many laboratories is that a single hair may not be subjected to DNA testing as there is little chance of success, hence this 100 % success rate from anagen hairs is a significant advancement. A full DNA profile was obtained from a 5 year-old single hair illustrating the success when using direct PCR rather than attempting an extraction prior to the amplification step. The process described deliberately uses current DNA profiling methods with no increase in cycle number, such that the methodology can be incorporated readily into operational practice. For the first time in the field of human identification, single hairs can be analyzed with confidence that a meaningful DNA profile will be generated and the data accepted by the criminal justice system. PMID:23275022

Ottens, Renée; Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Linacre, Adrian

2013-06-01

83

Discussion of flexible shaft versus rigid shaft electric machines for petroleum and chemical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book discusses flexible shaft versus rigid shaft electric machines for petroleum and chemical plants. A user of an electric machine will have a difficult time relating to the rigid bearing critical'' given in this paper as the determining definition for a rigid shaft'' machine. A rotor with an operating speed below its first system resonant speed, while mounted on

Hamer

1992-01-01

84

Mechanism for supporting transmission shafts of automatic transmission apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an automatic transmission for use in a vehicle, the transmission comprising: a transmission case; an extension housing connected to the transmission case; an input shaft; an output shaft disposed coaxially with and in series to the input shaft; a clutch mechanism for connecting the input shaft and the output shaft; and a parking gear mechanism provided in

S. Moroto; K. Sumiya; Y. Kobayashi; T. Kano; A. Hoshino; Y. Ano; K. Watanabe; Y. Taga

1989-01-01

85

Hair Cell Generator Potentials  

PubMed Central

A technique is introduced using a piezoelectric device to stimulate hair cells of a molluscan statocyst while recording their responses intracellularly. Statocyst displacements produced with the technique are calibrated with stroboscopic photography. Properties of the hair cells' response to currents and mechanical stimulation are studied. The hair cell generator potential arises from a conductance increase and, for a certain range, is a logarithmic function of the amplitude of the displacement stimulus. PMID:4705640

Alkon, Daniel L.; Bak, Anthony

1973-01-01

86

UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION (TUNNELS), SHAFTS, AND CAISSONS  

E-print Network

EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 i Section 26 UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION (TUNNELS), SHAFTS, AND CAISSONS Table Compressed Air Work................................................26-26 26.J Underground Blasting...............................................26-27 #12;EM 385-1-1 XX Sep 13 26-1 SECTION 26 UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION (TUNNELS), SHAFTS

US Army Corps of Engineers

87

Hair cell ribbon synapses  

PubMed Central

Hearing and balance rely on the faithful synaptic coding of mechanical input by the auditory and vestibular hair cells of the inner ear. Mechanical deflection of their stereocilia causes the opening of mechanosensitive channels, resulting in hair cell depolarization, which controls the release of glutamate at ribbon-type synapses. Hair cells have a compact shape with strong polarity. Mechanoelectrical transduction and active membrane turnover associated with stereociliar renewal dominate the apical compartment. Transmitter release occurs at several active zones along the basolateral membrane. The astonishing capability of the hair cell ribbon synapse for temporally precise and reliable sensory coding has been the subject of intense investigation over the past few years. This research has been facilitated by the excellent experimental accessibility of the hair cell. For the same reason, the hair cell serves as an important model for studying presynaptic Ca2+ signaling and stimulus-secretion coupling. In addition to common principles, hair cell synapses differ in their anatomical and functional properties among species, among the auditory and vestibular organs, and among hair cell positions within the organ. Here, we briefly review synaptic morphology and connectivity and then focus on stimulus-secretion coupling at hair cell synapses. PMID:16944206

Brandt, Andreas; Lysakowski, Anna

2010-01-01

88

Female hair restoration.  

PubMed

Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

Unger, Robin H

2013-08-01

89

Tarantula hair keratitis.  

PubMed

We describe a 12-year-old boy in England with keratitis secondary to tarantula hairs embedded within the stroma of his cornea. Every attempt must be made to isolate these hairs at the first visit as they have a barbed nature and have a propensity to propagate through ocular tissues. A chronic keratitis requiring long-term steroid use may result if hairs persist in the cornea. Children who keep tarantulas as pets should be instructed on safe handling to prevent the tarantula from adopting defence mechanisms and shedding their hairs. PMID:23242405

Mangat, Simran Singh; Newman, Bill

2012-10-26

90

Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. XVIII. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) disposition in hair roots and use in identification of acute MDMA poisoning.  

PubMed

Disposition of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in hair roots was studied using rats and the hair root samples were evaluated to prove acute MDMA poisoning. The back hair of male pigmented hairy rats (n = 6) was shaved and 5 d later the animals were intraperitoneally administered with acute poisonous doses (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) of MDMA. Roots of the hairs were then plucked out with a hair nipper 5 min and, 0.5, 1, 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. The hair root samples were, directly or after being washed with detergent, extracted with methanol-5 N HCl (20:1) under ultrasonication in ice-cold water for 4 h. After filtration and evaporation, the residue was derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and analyzed by GC/MS. From all samples including the 5 min sample, MDMA was detected at high concentrations (up to 156 ng/mg) accompanied by 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). Some of the animals died within 2 h after administration, but in the surviving rats the MDMA concentrations in the hair roots increased up to 6 h and then slowly decreased until 24 h. The remaining MDMA after washing apparently increased from 13-31% at 0.5 h to 51-83% at 24 h in the surviving rats. These facts show that most of drugs in the hair roots are not yet immobilized in the early stage and are thereafter gradually incorporated into the hair shaft. Increase of the MDMA concentration stopped soon after death of the animal, probably due to the cessation of hair growth. Although the ratios of MDA/MDMA steadily increased over time, those after death plateaued, probably due to the cessation of metabolism after death. It was clearly shown that MDMA is more quickly incorporated into and more firmly retained in hair than methamphetamine (MA) by comparing their disposition in hair roots. PMID:9331978

Nakahara, Y; Kikura, R

1997-09-01

91

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

92

MicroRNAs in hair cell development and deafness  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The identification of transcriptional activators and repressors of hair cell fates has recently been augmented by the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) that can function as post-transcriptional repressors in sensory hair cells. Recent findings miRNAs are ~21 nucleotide single-stranded ribonucleic acids that can each repress protein synthesis of many target genes by interacting with messenger RNA transcripts. A triplet of these miRNAs, the miR-183 family, are highly expressed in vertebrate hair cells, as well as a variety of other peripheral neurosensory cells. Point mutations in one member of this family, miR-96, underlie DFNA50 autosomal deafness in humans and lead to abnormal hair cell development and survival in mice. In zebrafish, overexpression of the miR-183 family induces extra and ectopic hair cells, while knockdown reduces hair cell numbers. Genetically-engineered mice with a block in miRNA biosynthesis during early ear development, or during hair cell differentiation, reveal the necessity of miRNAs at these crucial time points. Summary Because miRNAs can simultaneously down-regulate dozens to perhaps hundreds of transcripts, they will soon be explored as potential therapeutic agents to repair or regenerate hair cells in animal models. PMID:20717030

Li, Haiqiong; Fekete, Donna M.

2010-01-01

93

Congenital Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Ask your pediatrician for a referral to a genetic counseling service . These services have expertise with a variety ... Family Health History & Genetics Detecting Genetic Abnormalities Prenatal Genetic Counseling Children with Down Syndrome: Health Care Information for ...

94

Good Hair Care May Head off Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... the scalp) can develop. Do you let the sun color your hair? Excessive exposure to the sun can cause hair to become weak, dry, rough, ... hair and then expose your hair to the sun. The chemicals often cause unsightly yellowing, fading, and ...

95

iRhom2 Mutation Leads to Aberrant Hair Follicle Differentiation in Mice  

PubMed Central

iRhom1 and iRhom2 are inactive homologues of rhomboid intramembrane serine proteases lacking essential catalytic residues, which are necessary for the maturation of TNF?-converting enzyme (TACE). In addition, iRhoms regulate epidermal growth factor family secretion. The functional significance of iRhom2 during mammalian development is largely unclear. We have identified a spontaneous single gene deletion mutation of iRhom2 in Uncv mice. The iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mice exhibit hairless phenotype in a BALB/c genetic background. In this study, we observed dysplasia hair follicles in iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mice from postnatal day 3. Further examination found decreased hair matrix proliferation and aberrant hair shaft and inner root sheath differentiation in iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mutant hair follicles. iRhom2 is required for the maturation of TACE. Our data demonstrate that iRhom2Uncv cannot induce the maturation of TACE in vitro and the level of mature TACE is also significantly reduced in the skin of iRhom2Uncv/Uncv mice. The activation of Notch1, a substrate of TACE, is disturbed, associated with dramatically down-regulation of Lef1 in iRhom2Uncv/Uncv hair follicle matrix. This study identifies iRhom2 as a novel regulator of hair shaft and inner root sheath differentiation. PMID:25546423

Leilei, Yang; Bing, Liu; Yang, Li; Shaoxia, Wang; Yuan, Xu; Dongping, Wang; Huahu, Ye; Shichen, Shang; Guangzhou, Zhang; Ruiyun, Peng; Lin, Zeng; Wenlong, Li

2014-01-01

96

Hair Follicular Expression and Function of Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 in Mouse Skin*  

PubMed Central

Although perturbed lipid metabolism can often lead to skin abnormality, the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in skin homeostasis is poorly understood. In the present study we found that group X-secreted PLA2 (sPLA2-X) was expressed in the outermost epithelium of hair follicles in synchrony with the anagen phase of hair cycling. Transgenic mice overexpressing sPLA2-X (PLA2G10-Tg) displayed alopecia, which was accompanied by hair follicle distortion with reduced expression of genes related to hair development, during a postnatal hair cycle. Additionally, the epidermis and sebaceous glands of PLA2G10-Tg skin were hyperplasic. Proteolytic activation of sPLA2-X in PLA2G10-Tg skin was accompanied by preferential hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine species with polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as elevated production of some if not all eicosanoids. Importantly, the skin of Pla2g10-deficient mice had abnormal hair follicles with noticeable reduction in a subset of hair genes, a hypoplasic outer root sheath, a reduced number of melanin granules, and unexpected up-regulation of prostanoid synthesis. Collectively, our study highlights the spatiotemporal expression of sPLA2-X in hair follicles, the presence of skin-specific machinery leading to sPLA2-X activation, a functional link of sPLA2-X with hair follicle homeostasis, and compartmentalization of the prostanoid pathway in hair follicles and epidermis. PMID:21266583

Yamamoto, Kei; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Masuda, Seiko; Nishito, Yasumasa; Morioka, Kiyokazu; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Fukami, Kiyoko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Taguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Makoto

2011-01-01

97

Automated Digital Image Analysis (TrichoScan®) for Human Hair Growth Analysis: Ease versus Errors  

PubMed Central

Background: TrichoScan® is considered to be time-saving, easy to perform and consistent for quantifying hair loss/growth. Conflicting results of our study lead us to closely observe the image analysis, and certain repeated errors in the detection of hair were highlighted. Aims: To assess the utility of TrichoScan in quantification of diffuse hair loss in males with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and females with diffuse telogen hair loss, with regard to total hair density (THD), telogen and vellus hair percentages. Materials and Methods: TrichoScan procedure was performed on 77 cases and 20 controls. Results and Discussion: In the cases, THD decreased with increasing severity of alopecia. Surprisingly, more than 85% of the healthy volunteers had an unexplained abnormal telogen hair percentage of more than 20. Also, the telogen hair percentages were not significantly different between cases and controls. Also, 65% of the patients with advanced thinning of hair did not have the expected elevation of vellus hair percentages on TrichoScan evaluation. Multiple errors were highlighted in hair detection by the software. Errors were noted at the exit points of follicular ostia, at places where hair strand thickness was not uniform throughout its length, where there was crossing, overlapping of the neighboring strands, and when more than one hair emerged from a single ostium. Conclusion: TrichoScan is promoted as a validated and precise tool for measurement of hair growth parameters. Under certain conditions, it may seem suitable for clinical trials evaluating treatment response. We provide evidence that this is an overstatement. This study concludes that TrichoScan-analyzed anagen/telogen hair detection is not optimal; moreover, there is overestimation of THD and the vellus hair percentage does not correlate with clinical severity of alopecia. The current form of TrichoScan, though easy to use, is error-prone and awaits refinement. PMID:21188016

Saraogi, Punit P; Dhurat, Rachita S

2010-01-01

98

Dynamic Hair Capture Princeton University  

E-print Network

Dynamic Hair Capture Linjie Luo Princeton University Sylvain Paris Adobe Systems Inc. Hao Li University Figure 1: Our system reconstructs a temporally coherent set of hair fibers for real-world dynamic hair. It accommodates a variety of hair types and styles, as well as nontrivial motion (top: input

99

14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...935 Section 27.935 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting...

2010-01-01

100

14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...935 Section 29.935 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting...

2014-01-01

101

14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...935 Section 29.935 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting...

2013-01-01

102

14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...935 Section 27.935 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting...

2011-01-01

103

14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...935 Section 29.935 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting...

2010-01-01

104

14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...935 Section 27.935 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting...

2012-01-01

105

14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...935 Section 27.935 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting...

2013-01-01

106

14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...935 Section 27.935 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting...

2014-01-01

107

14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...935 Section 29.935 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting...

2012-01-01

108

14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...935 Section 29.935 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting...

2011-01-01

109

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL...Control Ventilation Control Measures § 57.4760 Shaft...

2010-07-01

110

High-pressure seals for rotary shafts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High pressure seals for rotating shafts are machined from a polyimide resin. It is more durable and cheaper than the older seals of plastic coated metal and works at temperatures between - 400 degrees and plus 900 degrees f.

Holden, C. P.

1969-01-01

111

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2014-07-01

112

Flexible shaft and roof drilling system  

DOEpatents

A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

1981-01-01

113

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2013-07-01

114

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2011-07-01

115

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2012-07-01

116

Development of variable-shaft-speed alternator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variable shaft speed alternator (VSSA) consists of an ordinary unmodified 1-1/2 Hp wound-rotor motor, with polyphase excitation controlled by solid state switching and a hybrid of analog and digital circuitry. This circuitry senses both shaft speed and line phase resulting in logic levels which control the current flow in each rotor coil. A first order polynomial was found using the least-squares regression method which accurately expressed the relationship among shaft speed, excitation power, and output power, VSSA torque was inferred from observations to be proportional to output power. Efficiency for converting mechanical power to electrical was inferred over a range of shaft speeds. A break-even speed below which no net power is produced was observed to be 0.375 of the synchronous speed for all output power levels. Similar behavior was observed with power fed to the power network (grid). Additional measurements involved VSSA performance at various power factors.

Rothbart, G.; Fullwood, R.

1982-02-01

117

119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

119. #3 SHAFT ALLEY - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE SHOWING #3 SHAFT COUPLING WITH LOCKING DEVICE INSTALLED, SHAFT SPRING BEARING, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE, FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN AND BALLASTING MANIFOLD. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

118

30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911...Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All...shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development....

2011-07-01

119

30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911...Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All...shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development....

2013-07-01

120

30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911...Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All...shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development....

2012-07-01

121

Detection and analysis of hair.  

PubMed

We develop computational models for measuring hair appearance for comparing different people. The models and methods developed have applications to person recognition and image indexing. An automatic hair detection algorithm is described and results reported. A multidimensional representation of hair appearance is presented and computational algorithms are described. Results on a data set of 524 subjects are reported. Identification of people using hair attributes is compared to eigenface-based recognition along with a joint, eigenface-hair-based identification. PMID:16792104

Yacoob, Yaser; Davis, Larry S

2006-07-01

122

Mechanism for supporting transmission shafts of automatic transmission apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an automatic transmission for use in a vehicle, the transmission comprising: a transmission case; an extension housing connected to the transmission case; an input shaft; an output shaft disposed coaxially with and in series to the input shaft; a clutch mechanism for connecting the input shaft and the output shaft; and a parking gear mechanism provided in the vicinity of an intermediate portion of the output shaft, having a parking gear for retaining the output shaft, the parking gear having a flange with a sleeve-like boss portion splined to the output shaft; an improved transmission shaft supporting mechanism comprising: means supported by the transmission case for supporting the output shaft at the input-side end portion thereof, the output-side end portion thereof being supported by the extension housing.

Moroto, S.; Sumiya, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kano, T.; Hoshino, A.; Ano, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Taga, Y.

1989-02-28

123

Tips for Healthy Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... less oil, so you may not need to shampoo as often. But if you see flakes in ... lead to dandruff and other scalp diseases. Concentrate shampoo on the scalp. When washing your hair, concentrate ...

124

Changing Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... on your own. Back Continue From Curly to Straight Different chemical treatments and styling techniques are used ... you don't burn yourself. Back Continue From Straight to Curly If you have straight hair and ...

125

Hair Treatments and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... of five oxidative hair dyes in the rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 78:163-166. Gallicchio L ... 396-401. Koren G (ed.) 1994. Maternal-Fetal Toxicology: A Clinician’s Guide. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. ...

126

Integrated controls and health monitoring fiberoptic shaft monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent work was performed on development optical technology to provide real time monitoring of shaft speed, shaft axial displacement, and shaft orbit of the OTVE hydrostatic bearing tester. Results show shaft axial displacement can be optically measured (at the same time as shaft orbital motion and speed) to within 0.3 mills by two fiber optic deflectometers. The final results of this condition monitoring development effort are presented.

Coleman, P.; Darejeh, H.; Collins, J. J.

1989-01-01

127

Laser hair removal.  

PubMed

Laser hair removal is a rapidly growing aesthetic procedure requested predominantly by women. At a time of falling reimbursement by payers, gynecologists have an opportunity to improve the fiscal health of their practices while delivering a service valued by their patients. As a result, practicing gynecologists should become acquainted with aesthetic lasers and should know how to incorporate them into their practices. This article introduces the practicing gynecologist to aesthetic lasers and the procedure of laser hair removal. PMID:21093743

Kulkin, Jay M; Flash, Shayna

2010-12-01

128

High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism  

DOEpatents

A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

2001-05-08

129

How to Stop Damaging Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... damage your hair Washing your hair by rubbing shampoo into the length of your hair Changes that can help prevent hair damage: Gently massage shampoo into your scalp. When you rinse the shampoo ...

130

Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk.  

PubMed

Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epithelial hair keratins, which are crucial for maintaining the integrity of the sheaths that support the hair shaft, are expressed in the enamel organ and are essential organic components of mature enamel. Using genetic and intraoral examination data from 386 children and 706 adults, we found that individuals harboring known hair disorder-associated polymorphisms in the gene encoding keratin 75 (KRT75), KRT75(A161T) and KRT75(E337K), are prone to increased dental caries. Analysis of teeth from individuals carrying the KRT75(A161T) variant revealed an altered enamel structure and a marked reduction of enamel hardness, suggesting that a functional keratin network is required for the mechanical stability of tooth enamel. Taken together, our results identify a genetic locus that influences enamel structure and establish a connection between hair disorders and susceptibility to dental caries. PMID:25347471

Duverger, Olivier; Ohara, Takahiro; Shaffer, John R; Donahue, Danielle; Zerfas, Patricia; Dullnig, Andrew; Crecelius, Christopher; Beniash, Elia; Marazita, Mary L; Morasso, Maria I

2014-12-01

131

Coupled shaft-torsion and blade-bending vibrations of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to analyzing the dynamic coupling between shaft torsion and blade bending of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit is introduced. The approach allows the shaft to vibrate freely around its rotation axis instead of assuming a periodic perturbation of the shaft speed that may accommodate the shaft flexibility only to a limited extent. A weighted residual method is applied, and the receptances at the connections of blades and shaft-disk are formulated. Numerical examples are given for cases with between two and six symmetrically arranged blades. The results show not only coupling between the shaft, disk, and blades, but also coupling between individual blades where the shaft acts as a rigid support and experiences no torsional vibration. The blade-coupling modes occurred only in repeated frequencies. Finally, the effect of shaft speed on the modal frequencies was investigated. Plots illustrating the occurrence of critical speeds and flutter instabilities are presented.

Huang, S.C.; Ho, K.B. [National Taiwan Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-01-01

132

Study of turbocharger shaft motion by means of non-invasive optical techniques: Application to the behaviour analysis in turbocharger lubrication failures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel non-invasive technique to estimate the turbocharger shaft whirl motion. The aim of this article is to present a system for monitoring the shaft motion of a turbocharger, which will be used in turbocharger destructive testing. To achieve this, a camera and a light source were installed in a turbocharger test bench with a controlled lubrication circuit. An image recording methodology and a process algorithm have been developed, in order to estimate the shaft motion. This processing consists on differentiating specific zones of the image, in order to obtain their coordinates. Two reference points have been configured on the compressor side, which help to calculate the relative position of the shaft, avoiding the errors due to structural vibrations. Maximum eccentricity of the turbocharger has been determined and it has been compared with shaft motion when it is spinning in different conditions. A luminosity study has been also done, in order to improve the process and to obtain locus of shaft position in a picture exposition time period. The technique has been applied to diagnosis of a lubrication failure test and the main results will be presented in this article: like shaft motion figures; thermodynamic variables and pictures of the shaft while it is spinning at abnormal lubrication conditions. The measuring components used in this technique have the ability to withstand the catastrophic failure of the turbocharger in this type of test.

Pastor, J. V.; Serrano, J. R.; Dolz, V.; López, M. A.; Bouffaud, F.

2012-10-01

133

Taking Care of Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... it may be better to choose a mild shampoo instead of a shampoo designed for oily hair. For some people — especially ... at the crown but dry on the ends) — shampoos for oily hair can be too harsh. If ...

134

Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... hair dye ingredients is available from the National Toxicology Program (NTP), an interagency program of the U.S. ... permanent hair dyes: new insights. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2007; 37(6):521–536. [PubMed Abstract] de ...

135

Hair pulling: a review.  

PubMed

Hair pulling has been reported in humans, six different non-human primate species, mice, guineapigs, rabbits, sheep and muskox, dogs and cats. This behaviour seems to occur only in subjects who are confined in an artificial environment. It has been classified as a mental disorder in humans, as a behavioural pathology in animals. The hair is not only pulled but also, in most species, ingested. Hair pulling can be both self-directed and partner-directed, contains elements of aggression, manifests more often in females than in males, is associated with psychogenic distress, and resists treatment. Research data collected from affected animals are probably not normative, hence scientifically unreliable. The preemptive correction of husbandry deficiencies causing long-term stress may prevent the development of this bizarre behaviour in healthy subjects. PMID:16197702

Reinhardt, Viktor

2005-10-01

136

The Changes of Gene Expression on Human Hair during Long-Spaceflight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair has many advantages as the experimental sample. In a hair follicle, hair matrix cells actively divide and these active changes sensitively reflect physical condition on human body. The hair shaft records the metabolic conditions of mineral elements in our body. From human hairs, we can detect physiological informations about the human health. Therefore, we focused on using hair root analysis to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts. In 2009, we started a research program focusing on the analysis of astronauts’ hairs to examine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the gene expression in the human body. We want to get basic information to invent the effectivly diagnostic methods to detect the health situations of astronauts during space flight by analyzing human hair. We extracted RNA form the collected samples. Then, these extracted RNA was amplified. Amplified RNA was processed and hybridized to the Whole Human Genome (4×44K) Oligo Microarray (Agilent Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Slide scanning was performed using the Agilent DNA Microarray Scanner. Scanning data were normalized with Agilent’s Feature Extraction software. Data preprocessing and analysis were performed using GeneSpring software 11.0.1. Next, Synthesis of cDNA (1 mg) was carried out using the PrimeScript RT reagent Kit (TaKaRa Bio) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The qRT-PCR experiment was performed with SYBR Premix Ex Taq (TaKaRa Bio) using the 7500 Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). We detected the changes of some gene expressions during spaceflight from both microarray and qRT-PCR data. These genes seems to be related with the hair proliferation. We believe that these results will lead to the discovery of the important factor effected during space flight on the hair.

Terada, Masahiro; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Higashibata, Akira; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sudoh, Masamichi; Minamisawa, Susumu

137

Studies on Rat Hair Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of two different quantification techniques the Authors were able to show that the addition of increasing concentrations of testosterone to the medium of hair-cultures simultaneously provokes an increased volume of epidermis as well as of hair-follicles and a better differentiation of hair follicles. The addition of dihydrotestosterone, on the contrary, does not induce any change.

Marcella Guarrera; P. Cardo; G. Moretti; E. Rampini; Carla Divano

1976-01-01

138

Future horizons in hair restoration.  

PubMed

This article reviews the history of hair follicle regeneration from follicular fragments and dissociated cells. The challenges of trichogenic in vitro culture and subsequent delivery into the patient are discussed, as well as cosmetic acceptance, recent achievements on regeneration of human hair follicles, and new potential cell sources for hair regeneration. PMID:24017993

Marshall, Bryan T; Ingraham, Chris A; Wu, Xunwei; Washenik, Ken

2013-08-01

139

The Growth of Human Hair.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a simple technique for collecting and observing human hair roots to compare structure, function, and variation. Students extract their own hair samples and view them using a 40-power microscope objective. Differences between active/inactive phases of hair growth are readily observed. (The activity can be adapted for younger students.) (DH)

Jones, Helen J.

1984-01-01

140

Characteristics and application of 'smart' shaft encoders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of absolute optical shaft encoders has been configured which is based upon an electro-optical multiplexing architecture. When interfaced to a microprocessor, the resulting 'smart' encoder can perform several allied data processing functions and can replace many types of electro-mechanical components. Encoder architecture, interfacing, and several allied signal processing examples are discussed.

Donald H. Breslow

1988-01-01

141

6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, CROSS SHAFT, AND INTERMEDIATE GEAR HOIST ASSEMBLY FOR CONTROL GATE NO. 6, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

142

8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SHAFT AND PUMP IN COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT PUMPHOUSES. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

143

Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1984-01-01

144

The Hair Colour Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This class activity is designed to introduce young learners to the concept of tree diagrams. This class activity requires learners to organize data about the individual student's physical characteristics(gender, hair and eye color) utilizing connecting cubes. The activity includes a follow up activity, questions, tips on getting started, a teacher resource page, and a printable version of the problem.

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

145

Evaluation of steel shafts for magnetostrictive torque sensors (abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the magnetostrictive effect in steel, a robust, noncontacting shaft torque sensor can be obtained. A fundamental problem in this scheme is compatibility between mechanical strength required for a shaft and a magnetic one needed for a torque sensor. In order to find shaft material accommodating these two requirements, we investigated basic characteristics, such as hysteresis, linearity, and zero-level

F. Koga; K. Yoshida; I. Sasada

1997-01-01

146

Friction device damps linear motion of rotating shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Damping device checks the axial motion of a rotating shaft by exerting a controllable, radial frictional load to the outer race of the ball bearing in which the shaft is mounted. The device can be used as a soft bearing mount to damp resonant frequencies at critical shaft speed.

1966-01-01

147

Black Hole's 1/N Hair  

E-print Network

According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

Gia Dvali; Cesar Gomez

2012-03-29

148

1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Modulates the Hair-Inductive Capacity of Dermal Papilla Cells: Therapeutic Potential for Hair Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) have the potential to induce differentiation of epithelial stem cells into hair, and Wnt signaling is deeply involved in the initiation process. The functional limitation of expanded adult DPCs has been a difficult challenge for cell-based hair regrowth therapy. We previously reported that 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) upregulates expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, both features of hair-inducing human DPCs (hDPCs). In this study, we further examined the effects and signaling pathways associated with VD3 actions on DPCs. VD3 suppressed hDPC proliferation in a dose-dependent, noncytotoxic manner. Among the Wnt-related genes investigated, Wnt10b expression was significantly upregulated by VD3 in hDPCs. Wnt10b upregulation, as well as upregulation of ALPL (ALP, liver/bone/kidney) and TGF-?2, by VD3 was specific in hDPCs and not detected in human dermal fibroblasts. Screening of paracrine or endocrine factors in the skin indicated that all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) upregulated Wnt10b gene expression, although synergistic upregulation (combined atRA and VD3) was not seen. RNA interference with vitamin D receptor (VDR) revealed that VD3 upregulation of Wnt10b, ALPL, and TGF-?2 was mediated through the genomic VDR pathway. In a rat model of de novo hair regeneration by murine DPC transplantation, pretreatment with VD3 significantly enhanced hair folliculogenesis. Specifically, a greater number of outgrowing hair shafts and higher maturation of regenerated follicles were observed. Together, these data suggest that VD3 may promote functional differentiation of DPCs and be useful in preserving the hair follicle-inductive capacity of cultured DPCs for hair regeneration therapies. PMID:23197867

Aoi, Noriyuki; Inoue, Keita; Chikanishi, Toshihiro; Fujiki, Ryoji; Yamamoto, Hanako; Kato, Harunosuke; Eto, Hitomi; Doi, Kentaro; Itami, Satoshi; Kato, Shigeaki

2012-01-01

149

Lunar vertical-shaft mining system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

Introne, Steven D. (editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

1994-01-01

150

An applicational process for dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a time-efficient methodology for dynamically balancing turbomachinery shafting. This methodology minimizes costly facility downtime by using a balancing arbor (mandrel) that simulates the turbomachinery (rig) shafting. The need for precision dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafting and for a dynamic balancing methodology is discussed in detail. Additionally, the inherent problems (and their causes and effects) associated with unbalanced turbomachinery shafting as a function of increasing shaft rotational speeds are discussed. Included are the design criteria concerning rotor weight differentials for rotors made of different materials that have similar parameters and shafting. The balancing methodology for applications where rotor replaceability is a requirement is also covered. This report is intended for use as a reference when designing, fabricating, and troubleshooting turbomachinery shafting.

Verhoff, Vincent G.

1990-01-01

151

Laser torquemeter: effects of axial shaft vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser speckle produced from a diffuse object may be used in determining the angular position of a rotating object. When the object rotates the backscattered speckle patterns are sampled by a suitably positioned photodetector. The photodetector output signal is periodic and one period is stored in memory as a reference. Shaft position is then determined by cross-correlating this stored reference signal with the current photodetector output signal. When the shift is axially displaced the back scattered speckle patterns change and the cross-correlation between the reference signal and the current signal is reduced. The Laser Torquemeter is an instrument designed to measure the time- resolved torque transmitted in a rotating shaft and uses two probe laser beams, axially separated on a shaft of known mechanical properties. In order to design a robust Laser Torquemeter it is necessary to determine the cross- correlation of the current photodetector output signal and the stored reference signal as a function of axial shift position because the reduced cross-correlation due to axial motion results in a loss of tracking which is determined to the performance of the Torquemeter. Experiments conducted to measure the photodetector output cross-correlation show that the ratio of decorrelation displacement to beam diameter can achieve a maximum value of 0.7. For a typical axial shaft vibration of 0.6 mm peak to peak, a minimum beam diameter of 1 mm is recommended and further details of the optical configuration necessary to achieve this optimum resistance to decorrelation are suggested.

Tullis, Iain D. C.; Halliwell, Neil A.; Rothberg, Steve J.

1996-08-01

152

Alternative Method for Creating Fine Hairs with Hair Removal Laser in Hair Transplantation for Hairline Correction  

PubMed Central

Background Foremost fine hairs in the frontal hairline region are critical in hair transplantation for hairline correction (HTHC) in women. However, there are few studies on a nonsurgical revisionary method for improving an unnatural foremost hairline with thick donor hairs resulting from a previous HTHC. Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of using a hair removal laser (HRL) system to create fine hairs in Asian women with thick donor hairs. Methods Through a retrospective chart review, the HRL parameters, hair diameter (measured with a micrometer before and after the procedures), subjective results after the procedures, adverse effects, and the number of procedures were investigated. The reduction rate of the hair diameter was calculated. Results Twenty-four women who received long-pulse Neodymium-Doped:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet therapy after HTHC were included. The parameters were as follows: delivered laser energy, 35~36 J/cm2; pulse duration, 6 ms; and spot size, 10 mm. The mean number of laser sessions was 2.6. The mean hair diameter significantly decreased from 80.0±11.5 µm to 58.4±13.2 µm (p=0.00). The mean rate of hair diameter reduction was -25.7% (range, -44.6% to 5.7%). The number of laser sessions and the hair diameter after the procedures showed a negative correlation (r=-0.410, p=0.046). Most of the patients (87.5%) reported subjective improvement of their hairlines. Most complications were transient and mild. Conclusion HRL can be an alternative method for creating fine hairs and revising foremost hairline in Asian women with thick donor hairs. PMID:25673927

Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Jin Yong; Choe, Yun Seon; Han, Wonseok; An, Jee Soo

2015-01-01

153

Oral abnormalities in the Ellis-van Creveld syndrome.  

PubMed

Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, mainly affecting the ectodermal components such as, enamel, nail, and hair. The gene for EvC syndrome is located on chromosome 4p16. Patients with EvC syndrome characteristically presents with congenitally missing teeth, abnormal frenal attachment, microdontia, and hexadactyly. PMID:20427928

Babaji, Prashant

2010-01-01

154

The Promoting Effect of Ishige sinicola on Hair Growth  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs) with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3? level, ?-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of ?-catenin pathway, and the 5?-reductase inhibition. PMID:23708185

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Eun-JI; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Jeon, You-Jin; Kang, Sung-Myung; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2013-01-01

155

Forensic Science: Hair Sample Investigation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into how hairs from a crime scene are matched to suspects. Learners each take a single hair from their own head, then put it directly into the beam of a laser pointer. This projects the unique pattern of each hair onto a piece of paper to be traced, measured, identified and compared with the others. Learners can conclude this activity by setting up a mystery exercise with prepared samples of hair already in frames. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forensics.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

156

Shaft-Angle Sensor Based on Tunnel-Diode Oscillator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed brushless shaft-angle sensor for use in extreme cold would offer significant advantages over prior such sensors: (1) It would be capable of operating in extreme cold; and (2) Its electronic circuitry would be simpler than that of a permanent-magnet/ multiple-Hall-probe shaft-angle sensor that would otherwise ordinarily be used to obtain comparable angular resolution. The principle of operation of the proposed shaft-angle sensor requires that the shaft (or at least the portion of the shaft at the sensor location) be electrically insulating. The affected portion of the shaft would be coated with metal around half of its circumference. Two half-circular-cylinder electrodes having a radius slightly larger than that of the shaft would be mounted on the stator, concentric with the shaft, so that there would be a small radial gap between them and the outer surface of the shaft. Hence, there would be a capacitance between each stationary electrode and the metal coat on the shaft.

Chui, Talso

2008-01-01

157

Monilethrix: One Step More on the Ladder of Cytogenetics  

PubMed Central

Monilethrix is one of the hair shaft abnormalities with increased fragility of hair. Here we describe a ten-year-old girl with a history of hair loss and breakage of hair since three months of age, associated with keratosis pilaris along with an abnormal microscopic finding of a hair shaft. A cytogenetic study of the patient showed an unexpectedly high degree of Acrocentric association. PMID:21188018

Singh, Ashish; Ambujam, S; Srikanth, S; Uma, AN

2010-01-01

158

Biomedical Analyses of Mice Body Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight as a Compliment of Human Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: To understand the effect of space environment characterized by microgravity and radiation on protein and mineral metabolisms is important for developing the countermeasures to the adverse effects happening on the astronauts who stay long-term in space. Thus JAXA has started a human research to study the effects of long-term exposure in space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing astronaut's hair grown in space since December 2009 (Experiment nicknamed "HAIR"). Ten human subjects who are the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will be expected to complete this experiment. Thanks to the tissue sharing program of space-flown mice which is presented and organized by AGI(Italian Space Agency), we can also have an opportunity to analyze rodents samples which will greatly compliment human hair experiment by enable us to conduct more detailed analysis with the expansion of skin analysis which is not include in human experiment. The purpose of this flown-mice experiment is to study the effects of long-term exposure to space environment such as microgravity and space radiation on mineral and protein metabolism, the biological responses to the stress levels, and the initial process of skin carcinogenesis by analyzing hair shaft, its root cells, and skin. Approach and Method In this experiment, we analyzed hair shaft, hair root and skin. Hair samples with skin were taken from 3-month space-flown mice and ground-control mice in the AGI's tissue sharing program in 2009. The sample numbers of space-flown mice and control-mice were three and six, respectively. And they were at the Mice Drawer System (MDS) in ISS and in the laboratory of Geneva University. For the hair shaft, the mineral balance is investi-gated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). For hair root, the extracted RNA undergoes DNA microarray analysis, and will be further examined particular interests of gene-expression by real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. DNA is also extracted from the same samples and mitochondrial DNA copy numbers are ex-amined. For mice skin, the examination of the mutation was performed to investigate whether the space flight will cause the visible mutation which may reflect an evidence of promotion step of carcinogenesis by space radiation. Result: Analysis on the specimen is in progress. A brief results will be introduced during the COSPAR meeting. The mice body hair analysis will give us basic information to understand how space environment such as microgravity and radiation affect on the living organisms.

Mukai, Chiaki

159

Lavender Foal Syndrome Hair Sample Sheet Please tape hair samples within boxed area as illustrated and place in individual envelope.  

E-print Network

Lavender Foal Syndrome Hair Sample Sheet Please tape hair samples within boxed area as illustrated and place in individual envelope. *Pull 50 hairs from the tail or mane (do not use hairs shed on brush) #Hairs must be pulled, not cut #Hairs must contain hair root *Align the "roots" of the hairs and trim

Keinan, Alon

160

Notch Signaling Regulates Late-Stage Epidermal Differentiation and Maintains Postnatal Hair Cycle Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Background Notch signaling involves ligand-receptor interactions through direct cell-cell contact. Multiple Notch receptors and ligands are expressed in the epidermis and hair follicles during embryonic development and the adult stage. Although Notch signaling plays an important role in regulating differentiation of the epidermis and hair follicles, it remains unclear how Notch signaling participates in late-stage epidermal differentiation and postnatal hair cycle homeostasis. Methodology and Principal Findings We applied Cre/loxP system to generate conditional gene targeted mice that allow inactivation of critical components of Notch signaling pathway in the skin. Rbpj, the core component of all four Notch receptors, and Pofut1, an essential factor for ligand-receptor interactions, were inactivated in hair follicle lineages and suprabasal layer of the epidermis using the Tgfb3-Cre mouse line. Rbpj conditional inactivation resulted in granular parakeratosis and reactive epidermal hyperplasia. Pofut1 conditional inactivation led to ultrastructural abnormalities in the granular layer and altered filaggrin processing in the epidermis, suggesting a perturbation of the granular layer differentiation. Disruption of Pofut1 in hair follicle lineages resulted in aberrant telogen morphology, a decrease of bulge stem cell markers, and a concomitant increase of K14-positive keratinocytes in the isthmus of mutant hair follicles. Pofut1-deficent hair follicles displayed a delay in anagen re-entry and dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis during the hair cycle transition. Moreover, increased DNA double stand breaks were detected in Pofut1-deficent hair follicles, and real time PCR analyses on bulge keratinocytes isolated by FACS revealed an induction of DNA damage response and a paucity of DNA repair machinery in mutant bulge keratinocytes. Significance our data reveal a role for Notch signaling in regulating late-stage epidermal differentiation. Notch signaling is required for postnatal hair cycle homeostasis by maintaining proper proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle stem cells. PMID:21267458

Lin, Hsien-Yi; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Lin, Kurt Ming-Chao; Kaartinen, Vesa; Yang, Liang-Tung

2011-01-01

161

Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin  

SciTech Connect

We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)]. E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Shiroi, Akira [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)

2006-06-30

162

Guidelines for laser hair removal.  

PubMed

Requests for removal of unwanted body hair are common in dermatologic and surgical practices. Technology continues to improve the achievement of a more permanent reduction through the use of lasers. Despite the increased use of lasers, to date, few guidelines exist in terms of how to approach laser hair removal. Specifically, one must understand the mechanism of hair growth and how lasers work to target the hair follicle. There is significant variation among practitioners in pre-and post-laser recommendations to patients as well as intervals between treatment sessions. We performed a thorough review of the literature in order to determine evidence for the ideal interval between treatment sessions and the ideal number of sessions. We also sought to establish, based on published reports, the recommendations for shaving, plucking, waxing or other hair removal methods prior to laser hair removal and the guidelines for sun exposure before and after laser treatments. Finally, we searched the literature to find out whether there are areas that should not be treated with laser hair removal. The evidence and recommendations in this article aim to help guide practitioners in their approach to laser hair removal. PMID:18330795

Casey, Angela S; Goldberg, David

2008-03-01

163

"Dissection" of a Hair Dryer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-01-01

164

Human Hair: An Educational Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly describes some of the more recent developments in the use of human hairs for such instructional purposes as observing barr bodies and chromosomes, and for culturing to produce cells of both epithelial and fibroblastic morphology. Three main hair categories are also described. (JN)

Wells, John

1983-01-01

165

Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration  

SciTech Connect

Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

2014-09-01

166

Ventilation shaft to increase effectiveness of natural ventilation.  

E-print Network

??Ventilation shafts can aid natural ventilation in buildings. Natural ventilation provides ventilation for occupants that can provide thermal comfort conditions. This study attempts to increase… (more)

Nagory, Abhay

2012-01-01

167

Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.  

PubMed

Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P>0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P>0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months. PMID:25036348

Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

2014-01-01

168

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

169

Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

2005-06-01

170

STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING  

E-print Network

#12;STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes May 2, 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2 Hair structure and mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3 Oriented Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.4 Parameter values for natural hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 #12;2 Hair Interactions

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

171

Quantum hair on black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A black hole may carry quantum numbers that are not associated with massless gauge fields, contrary to the spirit of the ``no-hair'' theorems. We describe in detail two different types of black-hole hair that decay exponentially at long range. The first type is associated with discrete gauge charge and the screening is due to the Higgs mechanism. The second type is associated with color magnetic charge, and the screening is due to color confinement. In both cases, we perform semiclassical calculations of the effect of the hair on local observables outside the horizon, and on black-hole thermodynamics. These effects are generated by virtual cosmic strings, or virtual electric flux tubes, that sweep around the event horizon. The effects of discrete gauge charge are nonperturbative in h, but the effects of color magnetic charge become h-independent in a suitable limit. We present an alternative treatment of discrete gauge charge using dual variables, and examine the possibility of black-hole hair associated with discrete global symmetry. We draw the distinction between primary hair, which endows a black hole with new quantum numbers, and secondary hair, which does not, and we point out some varieties of secondary hair that occur in the standard model of particle physics. Reserch supported in part by DOE grant DE-FG02-90ER40542.

Coleman, Sidney; Preskill, John; Wilczek, Frank

1992-07-01

172

tmie Is Required for Gentamicin Uptake by the Hair Cells of Mice  

PubMed Central

The circling (cir/cir) mouse is a spontaneous model of deafness due to deletion of a 40-kb genomic region that includes the transmembrane inner ear (tmie) gene. In addition to being deaf, cir/cir mice exhibit abnormal behaviors including circling and hyperactivity. Here we investigated differences between 3-d-old (that is, before hair-cell degeneration) cir/cir and phenotypically normal (+/cir) mice and the reason underlying the degeneration of the inner ear structure of cir/cir mice. To this end, we used gentamicin, gentamicin–Texas red conjugate, and FM1-43 to investigate mechanotransducer channel activity in the hair cells of cir/cir mice; these compounds are presumed to enter hair cells through the mechanotransducer channel. Although the structure of the inner ear of +/cir mice was equivalent to that of cir/cir mice, the hair cells of cir/cir mice (unlike +/cir) did not take up gentamicin, gentamicin–Texas red conjugate, or FM1-43. These findings suggest that hair cells in cir/cir mice demonstrate abnormal maturation and mechanotransduction. In addition, our current results indicate that tmie is required for maturation and maintenance of hair cells. PMID:23582420

Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong-Han; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Kyu-yup; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yun, Byung-Wook; Ryoo, ZaeYoung

2013-01-01

173

[Hormonal interaction and hair growth].  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and women. This continuous process results in a form of alopecia that follows a definite pattern in those individuals who are genetically predisposed. Although clinically different, the pathogenetic pathways leading to this type of hair loss are thought to be similar in both sexes. A genetic predisposition is a feature of AGA, but the predisposing genes are still unknown. Our understanding, however, of the hormonal effects on hair growth is far more advanced. AGA can be defined as a dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-dependent process with continuous miniaturization of sensitive hair follicles. So far, we do not understand the molecular steps involved in androgen-dependent beard growth versus androgen-dependent hair loss. However, the local androgen metabolism plays a central role in the intrafollicular conversion of weak androgens, such as DHEAS, to more potent androgens such as T or DHT within the hair follicle. The dermal papilla plays a central role by exhibiting an array of important steroidogenic isoenzymes. Provided that the dermal papilla (DP) cell triggers and regulates the growth of hair follicles, this physiological role may be reflected by metabolic differences, which could account for differences in androgen sensitivity as observed in hair follicles from different body sites, and in conditions such as male pattern baldness. The observation of STS, 17beta-HSD, 3beta-HSD, 3alpha-HSD and type 2 5alpha-R-activity within the DP could be a clue to understanding the regulation of androgen action in the human hair follicle by local androgen modification on target cell level. Hence, some of the intrafollicular steroidogenic enzymes would be potential pharmaceutical targets for the treatment of AGA or hirsutism. PMID:12223960

Hoffmann, R

2002-05-01

174

No hair theorems for positive ?  

E-print Network

We extend all known black hole no-hair theorems to space-times endowed with a positive cosmological constant $\\Lambda.$ Specifically, we prove that static spherical black holes with $\\Lambda>0$ cannot support scalar fields in convex potentials and Proca-massive vector fields in the region between black hole and cosmic horizons. We also demonstrate the existence of at least one type of quantum hair, and of exactly one charged solution for the Abelian Higgs model. Our method of proof can be applied to investigate other types of quantum or topological hair on black holes in the presence of a positive $\\Lambda.$

Sourav Bhattacharya; Amitabha Lahiri

2007-02-01

175

How Thick is Your Hair?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 13 of the PDF, learners use a laser pointer (with known wavelength of light) to measure the thickness of a human hair. By shining the laser on a hair, analyzing the patterns created, and completing some calculations, learners the thickness of a hair in nanometers. Learners can calibrate the laser to find its wavelength by completing the first activity in the manual entitled, "Spots, Lines and Lasers." This manual contains 4 activities related to the Spectra: The Original Laser Superhero Force comic book published by the American Physical Society.

Thompson-Flagg, Rebecca; Johnson, Kerry G.

2010-01-01

176

Failure analysis of a tool-steel torque shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low design load drive shaft from an experimental diesel truck engine failed unexpectedly during highway testing. The shaft was driven by a turbine used to deliver power from an experimental exhaust heat recovery system to the engine's crankshaft. During design, fatigue was not considered a major problem because of the low operating cyclic stresses. An independent testing laboratory analyzed

Reagan

1981-01-01

177

EXPERIENCE WITH BACKFILLING UNDERGROUND VOIDS AND SHAFTS DURING MINE CLOSURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents case histories of backfilling underground voids, inclined and vertical shafts for mines and pits intended for closure in Ukraine, the USA and the Czech Republic. In order to protect aquifers from the migration of acid mine water and prevent the ground surface from subsidence. the underground voids and shafts are filled with a non-shrink bentonite-cement grout formulated

YURIY N. SPYCHAK

178

29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross over valve. Shaft at left operates main flood valve to admit water into the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

179

10. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DELIVERY CHUTE AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DELIVERY CHUTE AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER, (ORE HAULED FROM THE ADJACENT SHAFT WAS DELIVERED THROUGH THIS CHUTE TO THE OUTSIDE); VIEW TO THE EAST. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

180

BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING TO REDUCTION GEAR SHAFTING. FERREL SPEED REDUCER IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST. NOTE TWO DIAGONAL LINES: TORQUE CONVERTER CABLE (IN PIECE OF WHITE GUTTER), THROTTLE CABLE (IN LOWER STEEL TUBING). - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

181

Convertible turbo-fan, turbo-shaft aircraft propulsion system  

SciTech Connect

A composite gas turbine engine propulsion system for aircraft which includes a propulsion fan for providing forward thrust as a first mode of operation and a turbo-shaft power output for driving an external load as a second mode of operation and means for selectably changing between the modes of operation and combinations thereof comprising: a gas turbine engine mounted to a frame providing power to a drift shaft; first transmission means connected to the drive shaft for providing a power output suitable for driving the external load; second transmission means connected to the drive shaft for providing a variable power output suitable for driving the propulsion fan, the second transmission comprising; a gear reduction system operatively connected to the drive shaft and constructed to provide output power to an output shaft suitable for driving the fan, the gear reduction system comprising a sun gear operatively connected for rotation with the drive shaft; a planet gear carrier fixed to the engine frame; planet gears mounted in the planet gear carrier in operative engagement with the sun gear; a bell gear mounted for rotation in operative engagement with the planet gears and having a shaft extending therefrom to provide the output of the gear reduction system; and a torque converter.

Ossi, R.R.

1987-03-24

182

Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing.  

PubMed

Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

Draelos, Zoe D

2010-01-01

183

Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing  

PubMed Central

Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish? PMID:21188020

Draelos, Zoe D

2010-01-01

184

Reducing torque fluctuation in linkage drive shafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESDU 92016 describes a range of established techniques for reducing the torque fluctuation in shafts that drive, or are driven by, planar linkages. The fluctuations result from inertial and gravitational effects of the moving links or from variable external loads. The peak-to-peak torque fluctuation may be reduced by appropriate techniques, of which six are considered. The design considerations involved in selection are discussed, and the principle underlying each technique is explained. General design guidance is given for each technique together with a table of typical characteristics so that the designer can assess rapidly the potential of each method for a particular application. The techniques covered include mass reduction of the links, dyad addition, addition of springs and dampers, use of a torsional-vibration isolator, and use of the flywheel (which does not reduce peak-to-peak torque fluctuation). A considerable bibliography lists references giving further information on each method.

1992-06-01

185

Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

Haines, Richard F.

1992-01-01

186

Shaft instantaneous angular speed for blade vibration in rotating machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable blade health monitoring (BHM) in rotating machines like steam turbines and gas turbines, is a topic of research since decades to reduce machine down time, maintenance costs and to maintain the overall safety. Transverse blade vibration is often transmitted to the shaft as torsional vibration. The shaft instantaneous angular speed (IAS) is nothing but the representing the shaft torsional vibration. Hence the shaft IAS has been extracted from the measured encoder data during machine run-up to understand the blade vibration and to explore the possibility of reliable assessment of blade health. A number of experiments on an experimental rig with a bladed disk were conducted with healthy but mistuned blades and with different faults simulation in the blades. The measured shaft torsional vibration shows a distinct difference between the healthy and the faulty blade conditions. Hence, the observations are useful for the BHM in future. The paper presents the experimental setup, simulation of blade faults, experiments conducted, observations and results.

Gubran, Ahmed A.; Sinha, Jyoti K.

2014-02-01

187

New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1986-01-01

188

30 CFR 77.1904 - Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communications between slope and shaft bottoms...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...Shaft Sinking § 77.1904 Communications between slope and shaft...

2011-07-01

189

30 CFR 77.1904 - Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Communications between slope and shaft bottoms...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...Shaft Sinking § 77.1904 Communications between slope and shaft...

2012-07-01

190

30 CFR 77.1904 - Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communications between slope and shaft bottoms...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...Shaft Sinking § 77.1904 Communications between slope and shaft...

2010-07-01

191

Simplified Representations for Modeling Hair Abstract: We present a novel framework for modeling hair  

E-print Network

Simplified Representations for Modeling Hair Abstract: We present a novel framework for modeling hair using simplified representations. The set of representations, in- cluding individual strands rendering of hair, and offers flexibility to balance between performance and quality. Furthermore

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

192

Human Scalp Hair Follicles Are Both a Target and a Source of Prolactin, which Serves as an Autocrine and/or Paracrine Promoter of Apoptosis-Driven Hair Follicle Regression  

PubMed Central

The prototypic pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) exerts a wide variety of bioregulatory effects in mammals and is also found in extrapituitary sites, including murine skin. Here, we show by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology that, contrary to a previous report, human skin and normal human scalp hair follicles (HFs), in particular, express both PRL and PRL receptors (PRL-R) at the mRNA and protein level. PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity can be detected in the epithelium of human anagen VI HFs, while the HF mesenchyme is negative. During the HF transformation from growth (anagen) to apoptosis-driven regression (catagen), PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity appear up-regulated. Treatment of organ-cultured human scalp HFs with high-dose PRL (400 ng/ml) results in a significant inhibition of hair shaft elongation and premature catagen development, along with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of hair bulb keratinocytes (Ki-67/terminal dUTP nick-end labeling immunohistomorphometry). This shows that PRL receptors, expressed in HFs, are functional and that human skin and human scalp HFs are both direct targets and sources of PRL. Our data suggest that PRL acts as an autocrine hair growth modulator with catagen-promoting functions and that the hair growth-inhibitory effects of PRL demonstrated here may underlie the as yet ill-understood hair loss in patients with hyperprolactinemia. PMID:16507890

Foitzik, Kerstin; Krause, Karoline; Conrad, Franziska; Nakamura, Motonobu; Funk, Wolfang; Paus, Ralf

2006-01-01

193

Testing human hair for cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To validate information on cannabis use, we investigated human hair and pubic hair for cannabinoids (THC and THC-COOH) by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Samples (100 mg approximately) were decontaminated with methylene chloride, then pulverized and dissolved in 1 ml 1 N NaOH for 10 min at 95 °C in the presence of 200 ng of deuterated standards. After cooling, samples were

V. Cirimele; P. Kintz; P. Mangin

1995-01-01

194

Micronutrients for Hair and Nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As the appearance of hair and nails is a major concern for woman worldwide, we have tried to collect the most reliable therapeutic\\u000a sources with a particular interest for micronutrients. The latter is a term used to include trace elements found in minerals,\\u000a vitamins, amino acids, and herbs. Some of them may be used in both hair and nails, for

E. Haneke; Robert Baran

195

Hair as a long-term retrospective cortisol calendar in orang-utans (Pongo spp.): new perspectives for stress monitoring in captive management and conservation.  

PubMed

This study examined whether the method of hair cortisol analysis is applicable to orang-utans (Pongo spp.) and can help to advance the objective monitoring of stress in non-human primates. Specifically, we examined whether fundamental prerequisites for hair cortisol analysis are given in orang-utans and, subsequently, whether segmental hair analysis may provide a retrospective calendar of long-term cortisol levels. For this, hair samples were examined from 71 zoo-living orang-utans (38 males, mean age=22.5years; 33 females, mean age=24years) for which detailed records of past living conditions were available. Hair samples were cut from defined body regions and were analyzed either in full length or in segments. Results showed that hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) were unrelated to age or sex of the individual animal. HCC were found to be higher in orang-utans, with perceived long-term stressful periods (mean HCC=43.6±26.5pg/mg, n=13) compared to animals without perceived stressful periods (19.3±5.5pg/mg, n=55, P<0.001). In non-stressed animals, segmental hair analyses revealed that HCC was stable along the hair shaft even when hair reached >40cm. The possibility of obtaining a retrospective calendar of stress-related cortisol changes through hair analysis was further supported by data of three case studies showing close correspondence between the segmental HCC results and keeper reports of stress exposure during the respective time periods. Finally, low within-animal variation in HCC from different body regions (CV%: 14.3) suggested that this method may also be applicable to naturally shed hair, e.g., as found in nests of wild orang-utans and other great apes. Therefore, using HCC may provide an ideal non-invasive tool for both captive management as well as conservation in orang-utans and potentially other great apes. PMID:24239791

Carlitz, Esther H D; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Stalder, Tobias; van Schaik, Carolus P

2014-01-01

196

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

197

Computing Operating Characteristics Of Bearing/Shaft Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SHABERTH computer program predicts operating characteristics of bearings in multibearing load-support system. Lubricated and nonlubricated bearings modeled. Calculates loads, torques, temperatures, and fatigue lives of ball and/or roller bearings on single shaft. Provides for analysis of reaction of system to termination of supply of lubricant to bearings and other lubricated mechanical elements. Valuable in design and analysis of shaft/bearing systems. Two versions of SHABERTH available. Cray version (LEW-14860), "Computing Thermal Performances Of Shafts and Bearings". IBM PC version (MFS-28818), written for IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS.

Moore, James D.

1996-01-01

198

ESF (Exploratory Shaft Facility) flexibility analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report directs that uncertainty allowances be included within the ESF facilities. The recommendations herein developed are intended as input to Title II Design criteria. Flexibility is measured first by lineal ft of drift, and then by hoisting rate and capacity of supporting utilities and services. A defined probability of need shows an extra 10,000 ft of drift for the first level of flexibility responding to testing and operations, and over 60,000 ft of drift for the second level of flexibility which recognizes possible need for perimeter drifting to investigate geologic stratigraphy. Observing there will be time constraints, a single shaft muck hoisting rate up to 170 to 250 tons per hour is recommended. The potential hoisting rate recommended for flexibility should be satisfied by a hoist approximately equivalent to, or conveniently upgraded from those being considered for sinking and construction, or 1000 horsepower. The cost of flexibility is limited to engineering planning and design (mostly conceptual) which makes later expansion achievable, and to selected items for initial construction where later upgrading would be impractical, impossible, or very costly. The cost is fixed to the level of flexibility and does not vary with excavated footage. The incremental margin is only a small fraction of the additional footage made available. Flexibility presents a strategy and not a position of design or technology. Examples used in this report are intended to be illustrative only, and not to lead design or cost estimates. 7 tabs.

Brusenback, R.W.

1987-03-01

199

Integral lipid in human hair follicle.  

PubMed

On the hair surface, cells are covered with a thin lipid layer (LL) covalently bonded to hair proteins. This integral hair lipid is different from sebaceus lipid. We conducted this study to examine the lipid distribution in human hair follicle. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to observe the ultrastructure of the LL. Hair follicles were cut and observed longitudinally along the hair axis. For transmission electron microscopy, new fixative (Lee's fixative: composed of OsO4 and RuO4) was designed as the conventional fixatives such as OsO4 or RuO4 alone were not appropriate for staining for hair follicle lipid. In addition, we measured the chemical composition of integral hair lipid by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. From the above experimental procedure, it was discovered that the lipid in the hair follicle was mainly distributed in hair cuticle and keratinized inner root sheath. A multitude of lamellar granule is observed in the vicinity of the above LL. The chemical composition of integral hair lipid was different from those of epidermal or sebaceous lipids. It is assumed that the LL in the hair follicle is similar to the epidermal LL playing an important role as a skin barrier in the stratum corneum. We proposed here the new terminology "hair barrier" from this point of view. PMID:16382672

Lee, Won-Soo; Oh, Tak Heon; Chun, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Soo Young; Lee, Eun Young; Lee, Sanghoon; Park, Won-Seok; Hwang, Sungjoo

2005-12-01

200

Minireview: Hair Cortisol: A Novel Biomarker of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Activity  

PubMed Central

Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is commonly assessed by measuring glucocorticoids such as cortisol (CORT). For many years, CORT was obtained primarily from blood plasma or urine, whereas later approaches added saliva and feces for noninvasive monitoring of HPA functioning. Despite the value of all these sample matrices for answering many research questions, they remain limited in the temporal range of assessment. Plasma and saliva are point samples that vary as a function of circadian rhythmicity and are susceptible to confounding by environmental disturbances. Even urine and feces generally assess HPA activity over a period of only 24 h or less. We and others have recently developed and validated methods for measuring the concentration of CORT in the body hair of animals (e.g. rhesus monkeys) and scalp hair of humans. CORT is constantly deposited in the growing hair shaft, as a consequence of which such deposition can serve as a biomarker of integrated HPA activity over weeks and months instead of minutes or hours. Since the advent of this methodological advance, hair CORT has already been used as an index of chronic HPA activity and stress in human clinical and nonclinical populations, in a variety of laboratory-housed and wild-living animal species, and in archival specimens that are many decades or even centuries old. Moreover, because human hair is known to grow at an average rate of about 1 cm/month, several studies suggest that CORT levels in hair segments that differ in proximity to the scalp can, under certain conditions, be used as a retrospective calendar of HPA activity during specific time periods preceding sample collection. PMID:22778226

Novak, Melinda A.

2012-01-01

201

14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...931 Section 29.931 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.931 Shafting...

2011-01-01

202

14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...931 Section 29.931 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.931 Shafting...

2010-01-01

203

14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...931 Section 27.931 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.931 Shafting...

2014-01-01

204

14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...931 Section 27.931 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.931 Shafting...

2012-01-01

205

14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...931 Section 27.931 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.931 Shafting...

2010-01-01

206

14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...931 Section 27.931 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.931 Shafting...

2013-01-01

207

14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...931 Section 29.931 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.931 Shafting...

2012-01-01

208

14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...931 Section 29.931 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.931 Shafting...

2014-01-01

209

14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...931 Section 27.931 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.931 Shafting...

2011-01-01

210

14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...931 Section 29.931 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.931 Shafting...

2013-01-01

211

Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servomotor and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servo-motor and operating ring (left foreground) and hand wheel for butterfly valve (right background) - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Dam and Powerhouse, Morony Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

212

18. INTERIOR OF WARD ROOM WITH RUDDER QUADRANT AND SHAFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. INTERIOR OF WARD ROOM WITH RUDDER QUADRANT AND SHAFT LOCATED ABOVE. NOTE WIRE ROPE ALONG CEILING WHICH RUNS DIRECT TO WHEEL MECHANISM. - Lightship 116, Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

213

Rotating Internal Damping in the Case of Composite Shafts  

E-print Network

are being made to replace metal shafts by composite ones in many applications: driveshafts for helicopters and cars, centrifugal separators, cylindrical tubes [8-10]. These materials provide advantages in terms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

23. Elevator no. 2: floor 4, with control shafts and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. Elevator no. 2: floor 4, with control shafts and turnhead distributors, east wall of control room (floor 5, elevated) in background, facing southwest - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

215

53. Elevator at bottom of shaft, dirty dishes ready to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

53. Elevator at bottom of shaft, dirty dishes ready to send up, looking north - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

216

52. Elevator shaft, view from the bottom, emergency ladder at ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

52. Elevator shaft, view from the bottom, emergency ladder at left, looking north - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

217

16. BUILDING 312, ROOF TOP AND ELEVATOR SHAFT CONTROL ROOMS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. BUILDING 312, ROOF TOP AND ELEVATOR SHAFT CONTROL ROOMS, FROM LANDING FOR SOUTHEASTERN CONTROL ROOM, LOOKING WEST, WITH BAY BRIDGE BEYOND. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, General Storehouses, Between Third & Fourth Streets, North of A Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

218

31. FREIGHT ELEVATOR SHAFT, MEZZANINE TOILET, AND SWITCHBOARD ROOM (SECOND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. FREIGHT ELEVATOR SHAFT, MEZZANINE TOILET, AND SWITCHBOARD ROOM (SECOND FLOOR), BAYS 44-48/1 NORTH, TO NORTHEAST - Ford Motor Company Edgewater Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 309 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

219

Interior of Right Powerhouse, looking northeast, showing shaft from Francis ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of Right Powerhouse, looking northeast, showing shaft from Francis turbine (below) extending to the generator (above). This is unit G-10. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam Powerplant Complex, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

220

8. Detail of gears, drive shaft and connection at bridgeway ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Detail of gears, drive shaft and connection at bridgeway - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

221

17. Detail view of coupling shaft connection between reduction gear ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Detail view of coupling shaft connection between reduction gear and cane mill drive gears - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

222

8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

223

9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

224

Effect of Dieckol, a Component of Ecklonia cava, on the Promotion of Hair Growth  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Ecklonia cava, a marine alga native to Jeju Island in Korea, on the promotion of hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of E. cava enzymatic extract (which contains more than 35% of dieckol) for 21 days, E. cava enzymatic extract increased hair-fiber length. In addition, after topical application of the 0.5% E. cava enzymatic extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair-shaft was induced. The treatment with E. cava enzymatic extract resulted in the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPC). Especially, dieckol, among the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, showed activity that increased the proliferation of DPC. When NIH3T3 fibroblasts were treated with the E. cava enzymatic extract and the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, the E. cava enzymatic extract increased the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, but the isolated compounds such as eckol, dieckol, phloroglucinol and triphlorethol-A did not affect the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. On the other hand, the E. cava enzymatic extract and dieckol significantly inhibited 5?-reductase activity. These results suggest that dieckol from E. cava can stimulate hair growth by the proliferation of DPC and/or the inhibition of 5?-reductase activity. PMID:22754373

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Boo, Hye-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Sung-Myung; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2012-01-01

225

Association of Hair Manganese Level with Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective The study examined the association between hair manganese level and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Korean children. Methods Forty clinic-referred children with ADHD and 43 normal control children participated in this study. The participants were 6-15 years old and were mainly from the urban area of Seoul, Korea. ADHD was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition and Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version-Korean Version. The severity and symptoms of ADHD was evaluated according to the ADHD Diagnostic System, and parent's Korean ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS). All participants completed intelligence test and hair mineral analysis. We divided the data of hair Mn into two groups to determine whether a deficit or excess of Mn are associated with ADHD. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify hair manganese levels associated with ADHD, controlling for age, sex, and full scale intelligence quotient (IQ). Results The proportion of abnormal range Mn group was significantly high in ADHD compared to controls. However, after statistical control for covariates including age and sex, abnormal range Mn group was significantly associated with ADHD (OR=6.40, 95% CI=1.39-29.41, p=0.017). Conclusion The result of this study suggests that excess exposure or deficiency of Mn were associated with ADHD among children in Korea. Further investigation is needed to evaluate the effects of hair manganese levels on symptoms in ADHD.

Shin, Dong-Won; Kim, Eun-Ji; Lim, Se-Won; Shin, Young-Chul; Oh, Kang-Seob

2015-01-01

226

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTHSOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTH-SOUTH IS IN PLACE; AT RIGHT IS A PRESS FOR WORKING THE ALUMINUM SHEETS; E. W. BLISS CO. OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, MANUFACTURED THE PRESS. MACHINERY ORIGINALLY POWERED BY OVERHEAD BELTS CONNECTED TO CENTRAL LINE SHAFTS; BY ABOUT THE 1940s THE MACHINERY WAS ELECTRICALLY POWERED. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

227

Automatic Tension Adjuster For Flexible-Shaft Grinder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible shaft of grinding tool automatically maintained in tension by air pressure. Probelike tool bent to reach hard-to-reach areas for grinding and polishing. Unless shaft held in tension, however, it rubs against its sheath, overheating and wearing out quickly. By taking up slack in flexible cable, tension adjuster reduces friction and enables tool to operate more efficiently, in addition to lengthening operating life.

Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

1990-01-01

228

DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

229

Blind shaft drilling: The state of the art  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the ``Art`` of blind shaft drilling which has been in a continual state of evolution at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since the start of underground testing in 1957. Emplacement holes for nuclear devices are still being drilled by the rotary drilling process, but almost all the hardware and systems have undergone many changes during the intervening years. Blind shaft drilling and tunnel construction technologies received increased emphasis with the signing of the LTBT in 1963.

Rowe, P.A.

1993-04-20

230

Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)  

MedlinePLUS

... who has experience with performing laser hair removal. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the only hair removal method that permanently ... using slow strokes. Rinse your skin with warm water after you are done shaving and then pat ...

231

Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Women)  

MedlinePLUS

... who has experience with performing laser hair removal. Electrolysis: Electrolysis is the only hair removal method that permanently ... using slow strokes. Rinse your skin with warm water after you are done shaving and then pat ...

232

Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus  

E-print Network

Rapid, Active Hair Bundle Movements in Hair Cells from the Bullfrog's Sacculus Michael E. Benser Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021 Hair bundles, the mechanically sensitive organelles of hair cells in the auditory and vestibular systems, are elastic structures that are deflected

Hudspeth, A. James

233

Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli  

E-print Network

Active hair-bundle movements can amplify a hair cell's response to oscillatory mechanical stimuli, 1999 To enhance their mechanical sensitivity and frequency selectivity, hair cells amplify the mechanical stimuli to which they respond. Although cell-body contractions of outer hair cells are thought

Hudspeth, A. James

234

Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells in the sacculus  

E-print Network

Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells transduction by the inner ear. We present evidence for a single-cell correlate of this phenomenon, hair motion that incorporates the negative stiffness of the hair bundle as well as its two mechanisms

Hudspeth, A. James

235

Short anagen hair with persistent synchronized pattern of scalp hair growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike other mammals that molt hair seasonally, human beings have scalp hair follicles that exhibit an asynchronized pattern of cycling, with the growth and subsequent shedding of each hair being independent of others around it. This mosaic cycling behavior is established early and continues throughout life. We describe a boy who continues to have a synchronized pattern of hair growth

Keng-Ee Thai; Rodney D Sinclair

2003-01-01

236

Seasonality of Hair Shedding in Healthy Women Complaining of Hair Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A number of otherwise healthy women with or without clinical alopecia complain of recurrent hair loss, presumably reflecting seasonality in the growth and shedding of hair. Objective: To test the hypothesis that periodicity in hair shedding reflects seasonal changes in human hair growth. Methods: Retrospective case study over a period of 6 years of apparently healthy women with the

Michael Kunz; Burkhardt Seifert; Ralph M. Trüeb

2009-01-01

237

Author's personal copy On stairwell and elevator shaft pressurization for smoke control  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy On stairwell and elevator shaft pressurization for smoke control in tall Stairwell pressurization Elevator pressurization a b s t r a c t Elevator shaft and stairwell shaft is found to be completely feasible in the absence of elevator shaft pressurization. In contrast, coupled

Miller, Richard S.

238

Mine shaft conveyance load-monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

Technology to enhance safety features for mine shafts and elevators is being investigated by researchers at the US Bureau of Mines. The objective of this research is to prevent injuries and fatalities related to hoist and elevator operations. Mine Safety and Health Administration statistics indicate that several factors contribute to hoisting accidents. A significant number of these factors are related to lack of adequate information on the position of the conveyance coupled with slack or overloaded rope resulting from obstructions or misalignments in the hoistway. Typically, this information is determined from sensors located in the hoist room. Subsequently, hoist and elevator control may be compromised and accidents result. This paper describes development of a slack rope sensor and data-transmission and collection hardware to sense conditions and acquire data directly from the hoisting conveyance. A new type of load cell senses wire rope tension at the conveyance. A new type of load cell senses wire rope tension at the conveyance. A multichannel signal processing board has been designed and fabricated and is undergoing both static testing to evaluate long-term stability and dynamic testing under simulated hoisting conditions. Analog signals from the sensors are sampled at 100-ms intervals. Data transmission between the moving conveyance and the hoistroom is accomplished via a 2,400-baud FM radio modem. Data are acquired at the conveyance or in the hoistroom through a serial communications port on a laptop computer. Software has been written to acquire, analyze, and process the data. The resulting system will allow operating personnel to determine conveyance load, and thus rope tension and slack or overload rope conditions, in relation to conveyance position in the hoistway.

Beus, M.J. [Bureau of Mines, Spokane, WA (United States); McCoy, W.G. [McCoy Engineering Co., Spokane, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

239

On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS) is a rugged, compact, multiple-channel data acquisition computer system that is designed to record data from instrumentation while operating under extreme rotational centrifugal or gravitational acceleration forces. This system, which was developed for the Heritage Fuel Air Turbine Test (HFATT) program, addresses the problem of recording multiple channels of high-sample-rate data on most any rotating test article by mounting the entire acquisition computer onboard with the turbine test article. With the limited availability of slip ring wires for power and communication, OSDAS utilizes its own resources to provide independent power and amplification for each instrument. Since OSDAS utilizes standard PC technology as well as shared code interfaces with the next-generation, real-time health monitoring system (SPARTAA Scalable Parallel Architecture for Real Time Analysis and Acquisition), this system could be expanded beyond its current capabilities, such as providing advanced health monitoring capabilities for the test article. High-conductor-count slip rings are expensive to purchase and maintain, yet only provide a limited number of conductors for routing instrumentation off the article and to a stationary data acquisition system. In addition to being limited to a small number of instruments, slip rings are prone to wear quickly, and introduce noise and other undesirable characteristics to the signal data. This led to the development of a system capable of recording high-density instrumentation, at high sample rates, on the test article itself, all while under extreme rotational stress. OSDAS is a fully functional PC-based system with 48 channels of 24-bit, high-sample-rate input channels, phase synchronized, with an onboard storage capacity of over 1/2-terabyte of solid-state storage. This recording system takes a novel approach to the problem of recording multiple channels of instrumentation, integrated with the test article itself, packaged in a compact/rugged form factor, consuming limited power, all while rotating at high turbine speeds.

Pedings, Marc; DeHart, Shawn; Formby, Jason; Naumann, Charles

2012-01-01

240

Pili annulati with fragility: Electron microscopic findings of a case.  

PubMed

Pili annulati (PA) is typically characterized by shinny beads seen along the hair shaft. PA is accepted to belong to the classification of hair shaft abnormalities without fragility. Herein, we described a 14-year-old, fair skin with dark-haired girl diagnosed as PA with fragility which was demonstrated by weathering features in electron microscopic examinations. The patient had shinny beaded, easily breakable hairs since the age of four. A few broken hairs were observed by a light pull test. Transmitted light microscopy revealed periodic dark bands in the hair shaft. These dark bands disappeared after application of 10% aqueous potassium hydroxide. Multiple cavities within hair shaft and severe cuticular damages representing the weathering pattern were observed in electron microscopic examinations. All these findings were found to be consistent with presence of fragility in PA. This case provides evidences of fragile hair structure of PA which may be due to pathological cavities within hair shafts. PMID:23180916

Akoglu, Gulsen; Emre, Selma; Metin, Ahmet; Erbil, K Mine; Akpolat, Demet; Firat, Aysegul; Hayran, Murvet

2012-04-01

241

COCHLEAR PROPERTIES AND MICROMACHINED HAIR-LIKE  

E-print Network

using MS3110, which eliminate pressure effect on sensor, showed higher sensitivities for the hair showed a bulged sensor membrane under flow due to flow pressure. Differential capacitance measurements sensors than sensors without hairs. The measured single hair sensor sensitivity is 17 0 74 10. Farad / Pa

White, Robert D.

242

STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING  

E-print Network

STRANDS AND HAIR MODELING, ANIMATION, AND RENDERING SIGGRAPH 2007 Course Notes, (Course #33) May 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.2 Hair structure and mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1.3 Oriented Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 1.4.4 Parameter values for natural hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 1 inria-00520193,version1

Boyer, Edmond

243

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2014-07-01

244

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2013-07-01

245

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2012-07-01

246

On Hair Color in France Ellen Gilkerson  

E-print Network

On Hair Color in France Ellen Gilkerson Genentech, Inc. Leslie Lamport Microsoft Research 22 May coloration of the male in many species of birds [2]. Instances of sex-linking of hair color in mammals is found almost exclusively in the female [4]. We report here our discovery of sex-linking of hair

Lamport ,Leslie

247

Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells  

E-print Network

Neurofilament Proteins in Avian Auditory Hair Cells ELIZABETH C. OESTERLE,* DIANA I. LURIE avian inner ear by using immunocytochemical techniques. NF-M was detected in auditory hair cells and VIIIth cranial nerve neurons. NF-M-positive hair cells are first detected at embryonic day 11 (E11

Rubel, Edwin

248

No-hair theorems and black holes with hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical steps leading to the uniqueness theorem for the Kerr-Newman metric are examined in the light of the new black hole solutions with Yang-Mills and scalar hair. Various methods - including scaling techniques, arguments based on energy conditions, conformal transformations and divergence identities - are reviewed, and their range of application to selfgravitating scalar and non-Abelian gauge fields is

Markus Heusler

1996-01-01

249

Signaling Involved in Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Development  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle morphogenesis depends on Wnt, Shh, Notch, BMP and other signaling pathways interplay between epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The Wnt pathway plays an essential role during hair follicle induction, Shh is involved in morphogenesis and late stage differentiation, Notch signaling determines stem cell fate while BMP is involved in cellular differentiation. The Wnt pathway is considered to be the master regulator during hair follicle morphogenesis. Wnt signaling proceeds through EDA/EDAR/NF-?B signaling. NF-?B regulates the Wnt pathway and acts as a signal mediator by upregulating the expression of Shh ligand. Signal crosstalk between epithelial and mesenchymal cells takes place mainly through primary cilia. Primary cilia formation is initiated with epithelial laminin-511 interaction with dermal ?-1 integrin, which also upregulates expression of downstream effectors of Shh pathway in dermal lineage. PDGF signal transduction essential for crosstalk is mediated through epithelial PDGF-A and PDGFR? expressed on the primary cilia. Dermal Shh and PDGF signaling up-regulates dermal noggin expression; noggin is a potent inhibitor of BMP signaling which helps in counteracting BMP mediated ?-catenin inhibition. This interplay of signaling between the epithelial and dermal lineage helps in epithelial Shh signal amplification. The dermal Wnt pathway helps in upregulation of epithelial Notch expression. Dysregulation of these pathways leads to certain abnormalities and in some cases even tumor outgrowth. PMID:24451143

Rishikaysh, Pisal; Dev, Kapil; Diaz, Daniel; Qureshi, Wasay Mohiuddin Shaikh; Filip, Stanislav; Mokry, Jaroslav

2014-01-01

250

Clofazimine-induced Hair Pigmentation.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old man was treated with WHO multibacillary multidrug therapy for borderline leprosy and high dose daily Clofazimine for lepra reaction. Along with the expected side effect of skin pigmentation, the patient also noticed darkening of previously grey hair. This colour persisted eight months after completing multibacillary multidrug therapy. PMID:23180930

Philip, Mariam; Samson, Joan Felicita; Simi, Puthenveedu Salahudeen

2012-07-01

251

Modulation of hair cell efferents  

PubMed Central

Outer hair cells (OHCs) amplify the sound-evoked motion of the basilar membrane to enhance acoustic sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents inhibit OHCs to reduce the sound-evoked response of cochlear afferent neurons. OHC inhibition occurs through the activation of postsynaptic ?9?10 nicotinic receptors tightly coupled to calcium-dependent SK2 channels that hyperpolarize the hair cell. MOC neurons are cholinergic but a number of other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been proposed to participate in efferent transmission, with emerging evidence for both pre- and postsynaptic effects. Cochlear inhibition in vivo is maximized by repetitive activation of the efferents, reflecting facilitation and summation of transmitter release onto outer hair cells. This review summarizes recent studies on cellular and molecular mechanisms of cholinergic inhibition and the regulation of those molecular components, in particular the involvement of intracellular calcium. Facilitation at the efferent synapse is compared in a variety of animals, as well as other possible mechanisms of modulation of ACh release. These results suggest that short-term plasticity contributes to effective cholinergic inhibition of hair cells. PMID:21187136

Wersinger, Eric; Fuchs, Paul Albert

2011-01-01

252

Live imaging of root hairs.  

PubMed

Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients. Growing root hairs requires intensive cell wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip growth. The cell wall of plants is a very rigid structure comprised largely of polysaccharides and hydroxyproline-rich O-glycoproteins. The importance of root hairs stems from their capacity to expand the surface of interaction between the root and the environment, in search for the necessary nutrients and water to allow plant growth. Therefore, it becomes crucial to deepen our knowledge of them, particularly in the light of the applicability in agriculture by allowing the expansion of croplands. Root hair growth is an extremely fast process, reaching growth rates of up to 1 ?m/min and it also is a dynamic process; there can be situations in which the final length might not be affected but the growth rate is. Consequently, in this chapter we focus on a method for studying growth dynamics and rates during a time course. This method is versatile allowing for it to be used in other plant organs such as lateral root, hypocotyl, etc., and also in various conditions. PMID:25408443

Velasquez, Silvia M; Dinneny, Jose R; Estevez, José M

2015-01-01

253

A correlation of breast cancer and calcium levels in hair analyzed by X-ray fluorescence.  

PubMed

Time variations of elemental concentrations and their abnormalities due to breast cancer have been observed along single hair strands by X-ray fluorescence excited by synchrotron radiation. The renal-controlled elements Ca, Sr, S, K, Cl, Br and P have upper and lower levels associated with gating and closing of ion channels in the hair-making cells. The Ca lower level is normal. In cases of Ca deficiency, with a decrease from the normal, store-operated Ca channel gating occurs so as to keep the hair Ca at the normal, and paradoxically high Ca levels near or at the upper level are produced by PTH-operated channel gating of the cells. Chronic Ca deficiency shows a temporal pattern along the hair consisting of a long-term duration of the upper [Ca] level, 10-month long decay to the lower level and abrupt increase to the upper level. The observation for hair from breast-cancer patients also shows the upper Ca level for the time period well before detection, and suggests that cancer is always generated at the long-lasting [Ca] upper level and the hair [Ca] decreases gradually toward the lower level with the cancer growth. This decay of [Ca] is accompanied by those of [Sr] and [K]. Their different decay forms can be explained by parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) in serum secreted from the cancer having 150 times longer dwell time on the PTH receptors than that of PTH. Patient hair has a memory for the entire cancer process from the state before cancer generation, and the pattern can be distinguished from concentration variation due to the chronic Ca deficiency without cancer, leading to a criterion for cancer detection by the ratio of [Sr]/[Ca]. The hair analysis is useful for early detection of cancer. PMID:25265920

Chikawa, Jun-ichi; Mouri, Yoshitaka; Shima, Hiroki; Yamada, Kousaku; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Shingo

2014-01-01

254

Reflectance spectroscopy for evaluating hair follicle cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair follicle, as a mini-organ with perpetually cycling of telogen, anagen and catagen, provides a valuable experimental model for studying hair and organ regeneration. The transition of hair follicle from telogen to anagen is a significant sign for successful regeneration. So far discrimination of the hair follicle stage is mostly based on canonical histological examination and empirical speculation based on skin color. Hardly a method has been proposed to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage. In this work, a commercial optical fiber spectrometer was applied to monitor diffuse reflectance of mouse skin with hair follicle cycling, and then the change of reflectance was obtained. Histological examination was used to verify the hair follicle stage. In comparison with the histological examination, the skin diffuse reflectance was relatively high for mouse with telogen hair follicles; it decreased once hair follicles transited to anagen stage; then it increased reversely at catagen stage. This study provided a new method to quantitatively evaluate the hair follicle stage, and should be valuable for the basic and therapeutic investigations on hair regeneration.

Liu, Caihua; Guan, Yue; Wang, Jianru; Zhu, Dan

2014-02-01

255

Black hole?s 1/N hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

2013-02-01

256

Correction of the cornrow hair transplant and other common problems in surgical hair restoration.  

PubMed

Hair on a man's head is an important emblem of health, youth, and vitality. As in all areas of cosmetic surgery, the refinements of surgical technique and instrumentation have improved the results of hair transplantation. The state of the art in hair grafting today produces a result that is undetectable as being a surgical hair transplant. Many earlier techniques of plug hair transplantation are not aesthetically acceptable by today's standards. This is especially true in the face of progressive hair loss, which can unmask previously camouflaged cornrow plugs. A technique to reduce the plugs and recycle the grafts into smaller grafts is described. The recycled hair grafts can be combined with scalp lifting, scalp reductions, and occipital harvesting of grafts to improve the results of cornrow appearing hair transplants and other problems of surgical hair restoration. PMID:10744248

Vogel, J E

2000-04-01

257

Testing for GHB in hair by GC/MS/MS after a single exposure. Application to document sexual assault.  

PubMed

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, or GHB, is a substance naturally present within mammal species. Properties of neurotransmitter or neuromodulator are generally given to this substance. GHB is therapeutically used as an anesthetic, but can be used for criminal offenses (date-rape drug). It appears that the window of detection of GHB is very short in both blood and urine, and therefore its presence is very difficult to prove after a rape case. In order to document single exposure, we investigated the use of hair. Hair was collected one month after the allegated event in order to sample the corresponding period after regular growing. After rapid (2 min) decontamination with dichloromethane, the hair shaft was cut into 3-mm segments. They were overnight incubated in 0.01 N NaOH in the presence of GHB-d6, followed by neutralization and extraction in ethyl acetate under acidic conditions. GHB (precursor ion m/z 233, product ions m/z 147 and 148) was tested by GC/MS/MS (Finnigan TSQ 700) after derivatization with BSTFA + 1% TMCS. Physiological concentrations (n = 24) were in the range 0.5 to 12.0 ng/mg, with no influence due to hair color. No variation of concentrations was observed along the hair shaft in controlled subjects, except for the proximal segment, due to an incorporation through sweat. This demonstrates that endogenous levels for each single subject are constant during hair growth. A controlled human administration of 25 mg/kg to a volunteer demonstrated that a single exposure to GHB is detectable in hair after segmentation. In a case of rape under influence, a clear increase of the corresponding segment (about 2.4 ng/mg) in time was observed, in comparison with the other segments (0.6 to 0.8 ng/mg). This study demonstrates that a single exposure to GHB in a case of sexual assault can be documented by hair analysis when collected about one month after the crime. PMID:12570228

Kintz, Pascal; Cirimele, Vincent; Jamey, Carole; Ludes, Bertrand

2003-01-01

258

Counter pumping debris excluder and separator. [gas turbine shaft seals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dirt separator and excluder for removing entrained debris from gas turbine shaft seals is described. A helical groove pattern is constructed on the rotating shaft with the pumping pattern such that it tends to pump seal pressurizing gas toward the gas turbine seal. A second helical groove pattern is provided on the stationary housing or counter rotating member coaxial with the shaft, and this pattern is designed to provide pumping in the direction opposite from that of the groove pattern on the shaft. Gas with entrained debris entering this grooved area will be subjected to high centrifugal forces due to the swirl motion induced by the groove pattern and the rotation of the shaft. This debris is centrifuged outwardly into the outer groove pattern on the housing or counter rotating member. Because the outer groove pattern has a pumping direction opposite from that of the seal, dirt is pumped away from the seal and can be collected in a suitable debris trap remote from the seal location.

Ludwig, L. P. (inventor)

1978-01-01

259

Method of lining a vertical mine shaft with concrete  

DOEpatents

The apparatus includes a cylindrical retainer form spaced inwardly of the wall of the shaft by the desired thickness of the liner to be poured and having overlapping edges which seal against concrete flow but permit the form to be contracted to a smaller circumference after the liner has hardened and is self-supporting. A curb ring extends downwardly and outwardly toward the shaft wall from the bottom of the retainer form to define the bottom surface of each poured liner section. An inflatable toroid forms a seal between the curb ring and the shaft wall. A form support gripper ring having gripper shoes laterally extendable under hydraulic power to engage the shaft wall supports the retainer form, curb ring and liner until the newly poured liner section becomes self-supporting. Adjusting hydraulic cylinders permit the curb ring and retainer form to be properly aligned relative to the form support gripper ring. After a liner section is self-supporting, an advancing system advances the retainer form, curb ring and form support gripper ring toward a shaft boring machine above which the liner is being formed. The advancing system also provides correct horizontal alignment of the form support gripper ring.

Eklund, James D. (Mattawa, WA); Halter, Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Spokane, WA); Sullivan, Robert G. (Richland, WA); Moffat, Robert B. (Federal Way, WA)

1981-01-01

260

Developments in the treatment of pediatric long bone shaft fractures.  

PubMed

Shaft fractures of the long bones are among the most common pediatric injuries. They are characterized by a limited potential for spontaneous correction because of the fractures--distance to the physis. Although conservative treatment has been practiced for many years with satisfying results, several aspects have led to an increase in the numbers of surgical procedures including changes of living, sports habits, economics, and patients-request to treatment. We reviewed the literature to describe developments of treatment concepts of pediatric shaft fractures. In shaft fractures of the upper extremities, increasing rates of surgical procedures have been reported preventing functional deficits of forearm prosupination and cosmetic deformities of the humerus. In fractures of the lower extremities maximizing stability shifted into the focus of interest to achieve early mobilization and to compensate heavier body weights of children and adolescents. Consecutively, the current gold standard of pediatric shaft fracture treatment--ESIN (elastic stable intramedullary nailing)--has been modified repeatedly using end caps, prebended nails, and optimized surgical techniques. In addition, new methods such as rigid locking nails and plates have been included in the treatment approaches for femur and tibia shaft fractures. All these methods of pediatric fracture care carry inherent advantages that require consideration for each clinical situation. On the other side, this has enlarged the spectrum of potential complications, which needs continuous evaluation to further improve treatment results. PMID:24327219

Lieber, Justus; Schmittenbecher, Peter

2013-12-01

261

Structurally abnormal human autosomes  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

262

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

263

Design of Energy Scavengers Mounted on Rotating Shafts  

E-print Network

In this paper, a novel energy scavenger is proposed. The scavenger consists of a cantilever beam on which piezoelectric films and a mass are mounted. The mass at the tip of the beam is known as the proof mass and the device is called either an energy scavenger or a beam-mass system. The beam-mass system is mounted on a rotating shaft, where the axis of the shaft is horizontal. A single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) mathematical model is derived for the scavenger and its properties are carefully examined. From the model, it becomes clear that the rotation of the shaft and gravity cause both parametric excitations and exogenous forces which make the beam-mass system vibrate. Guidelines are provided as how to choose the scavenger parameters in order to have it resonate. Examples are given to illustrate the performance of the proposed scavenger.

Shahruz, S M

2008-01-01

264

Failure analysis of a tool steel torque shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low design load drive shaft used to deliver power from an experimental exhaust heat recovery system to the crankshaft of an experimental diesel truck engine failed during highway testing. An independent testing laboratory analyzed the failure by routine metallography and attributed the failure to fatigue induced by a banded microstructure. Visual examination by NASA of the failed shaft plus the knowledge of the torsional load that it carried pointed to a 100 percent ductile failure with no evidence of fatigue. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed this. Torsional test specimens were produced from pieces of the failed shaft and torsional overload testing produced identical failures to that which had occurred in the truck engine. This pointed to a failure caused by a high overload and although the microstructure was defective it was not the cause of the failure.

Reagan, J. R.

1981-01-01

265

Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material  

SciTech Connect

Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

1996-12-01

266

Physiological Maturation of Regenerating Hair Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bullfrog saccule, a sensor of gravity and substrate-borne vibration, is a model system for hair cell transduction. Saccular hair cells also increase in number throughout adult life and rapidly recover after hair cell damage, making this organ an ideal system for studying hair cell development, repair, and regeneration. We have used of hair cell and supporting cell immunocytochemical markers to identify damaged hair cells and hair cell precursors in organotypic cultures of the bullfrog saccule. We then used an innovative combination of confocal, electron, and time-lapse microscopy to study the fate of damaged hair cells and the origin of new hair cells after gentamicin ototoxicity in normal and mitotically blocked saccular cultures. These studies have shown that gentamicin ototoxicity produces both lethal and sublethal hair cell damage. They have also shown that hair cell recovery in this organ takes place by both the repair of sublethally damaged hair cells and by the replacement of lost hair cells by mitotic regeneration. In parallel studies, we have used biophysical and molecular biological techniques to study the differentiation and innervation of developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. More specifically, we have used RT-PCR to obtain the bullfrog homologues of L-type voltage- gated calcium (L-VGCC) and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channel genes. We have then obtained probes for these genes and, using in situ hybridization, begun to examine their expression in the bullfrog saccule and amphibian papilla. We have also used fluorescent-labeled channel toxins and channel toxin derivatives to determine the time of appearance of L-type voltage-gated calcium (L-VGCC) and Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to study dynamic changes in the number, distribution, and co-localization of these proteins in developing, repairing, and regenerating hair cells. Using time-lapse microscopy, we are also studying the dynamic relationship between ion channel clustering and synaptic formation in hair cells and afferent neurons. In future studies, we will determine when hair cell precursors acquire electrical tuning, and, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, identify and characterize their L-VGCC and BK currents. We will also use biophysical techniques to determine the number of L-VGCC and BK channels and the size and gating kinetics of their underlying L-VGCC and BK conductances, correlating these variables with the amplitude and frequency of membrane oscillations produced by intracellular current steps. We expect these studies to determine how hair cells regulate ion channel expression to achieve specific physiological responses.

Baird, Richard A.

2003-01-01

267

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs  

PubMed Central

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

2011-01-01

268

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs  

SciTech Connect

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

2011-12-31

269

Metals in female scalp hair globally and its impact on perceived hair health.  

PubMed

Globally, billions of individuals wash their hair in water, which acts as an exogenous metal source. Many studies which measure the metal levels found on human hair specifically aim to remove exogenous materials prior to analysis. Although this is needed when using hair analysis to probe the impact of the local environment on endogenous metal levels, it is not relevant for understanding exactly what is on hair as a result of contact with its daily environment. Understanding these levels are important, as the presence of redox active metals, such as copper and iron, can impact fibre health, either as a result of UV irradiation, or during the hair colouring process. A global hair sampling study of over 300 individuals from nine countries has been performed, and the combined endogenous and exogenous metals analysed. The levels measured vary widely, even within the narrow geography of each hair sampling location. The levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and iron were not correlated, and within each location, there are expected to be individuals with high metal levels. Levels increased from hair root to tip for calcium, magnesium and copper, attributed to hair contact with the environment showing the impact of exogenous metals in the overall levels on hair. Levels of redox metals were comparable between individuals who coloured or did not colour their hair, although water hardness ions were statistically significantly higher for hair colouring individuals. Individuals who perceived their hair health as poor had higher metal levels on their hair. Controlling metals on hair, either by preventing their binding during environmental contact, or through controlling their ability to cause hair damage, should lead to improved consumer perceived hair health. PMID:23305149

Godfrey, Simon; Staite, William; Bowtell, Philip; Marsh, Jennifer

2013-06-01

270

Skew And Twist Resistant Hydrodynamic Rotary Shaft Seal  

DOEpatents

A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. Compared to prior art, this invention provides a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear in abrasive environments and provides a significant increase in seal life.

Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan Singh (Houston, TX)

2000-03-14

271

Failure analysis of a tool steel torque shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low design load drive shaft used to deliver power from an experimental exhaust heat recovery system to the crankshaft of an experimental diesel truck engine failed during highway testing. An independent testing laboratory analyzed the failure by routine metallography and attributed the failure to fatigue induced by a banded microstructure. Visual examination by NASA of the failed shaft plus the knowledge of the torsional load that it carried pointed to a 100 percent ductile failure with no evidence of fatigue. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed this. Previously announced in STAR as N82-11184

Reagan, J. R.

1983-01-01

272

Three-Wave Gas Journal Bearing Behavior With Shaft Runout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental orbits of a free-mounted, three-wave gas journal bearing housing were recorded and compared to transient predicted orbits. The shaft was mounted eccentric with a fixed runout. Experimental observations for both the absolute bearing housing center orbits and the relative bearing housing center to shaft center orbits are in good agreement with the predictions. The sub-synchronous whirl motion generated by the fluid film was found experimentally and predicted theoretically for certain speeds. A three-wave journal bearing can run stably under dynamic loads with orbits well inside the bearing clearance. Moreover, the orbits are almost circular free of the influence of bearing wave shape.

Dimofte, Florin; Hendricks, Robert C.

1997-01-01

273

Shaft transducer having dc output proportional to angular velocity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brushless dc tachometer is disclosed that includes a high strength toroidal permanent magnet for providing a uniform magnetic field in an air gap, an annular pole piece opposite the magnet, and a pickup coil wound around the pole piece and adapted to rotate about the axis of the pole piece. The pickup coil is rotated by an input shaft to which the coil is coupled with the friction clip. The output of the coil is conducted to circuitry by a twisted wire pair. The input shaft also activates a position transducing potentiometer.

Handlykken, M. B. (inventor)

1984-01-01

274

Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1  

E-print Network

Modeling Hair from Multiple Views Yichen Wei1 Eyal Ofek2 Long Quan1 Heung-Yeung Shum2 1 The Hong; the recovered hair rendered with the recovered diffuse color; a fraction of the longest recovered hair fibers rendered with the recovered diffuse color to show the hair threads; the recovered hair rendered

Quan, Long

275

Human exposure to mercury due to goldmining in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon, Brazil: Speciation of mercury in human hair, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in Amazon, total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeI Ig) were determined for human hair, blood and\\/or urine samples collected from populations living in gold mining area and fishing villages upstream of the Tapajos River basin. Abnormally high levels of T-Hg were observed in hair

H. Akagi; O. Malm; F. J. P. Branches; Y. Kinjo; Y. Kashima; J. R. D. Guimaraes; R. B. Oliveira; K. Haraguchi; W. C. Pfeiffer; Y. Takizawa; H. Kato

1995-01-01

276

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

277

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

278

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... age when teeth are forming Poor oral care Porphyria Severe neonatal jaundice Too much fluoride from environmental ... abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history ...

279

The Challenge of Hair Cell Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Sensory hair cells of the inner ear are responsible for translating auditory or vestibular stimuli into electrical energy that can be perceived by the nervous system. Although hair cells are exquisitely mechanically sensitive, they can be easily damaged by excessive stimulation, by ototoxic drugs and by the effects of aging. In mammals, auditory hair cells are never replaced, such that cumulative damage to the ear causes progressive and permanent deafness. In contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of replacing lost hair cells, which has led to efforts to understand the molecular and cellular basis of regenerative responses in different vertebrate species. In this review, we describe recent progress in understanding the limits to hair cell regeneration in mammals and discuss the obstacles that currently exist for therapeutic approaches to hair cell replacement. PMID:20407075

Groves, Andrew K.

2013-01-01

280

Deadly hairs, lethal feathers--convergent evolution of poisonous integument in mammals and birds.  

PubMed

Hairs and feathers are textbook examples of the convergent evolution of the follicular appendage structure between mammals and birds. While broadly recognized for their convergent thermoregulatory, camouflage and sexual display functions, hairs and feathers are rarely thought of as deadly defence tools. Several recent studies, however, show that in some species of mammals and birds, the integument can, in fact, be a de facto lethal weapon. One mammalian example is provided by African crested rats, which seek for and chew on the bark of plants containing the highly potent toxin, ouabain. These rats then coat their fur with ouabain-containing saliva. For efficient toxin retention, the rodents have evolved highly specialized fenestrated and mostly hollow hair shafts that soak up liquids, which essentially function as wicks. On the avian side of the vertebrate integumental variety spectrum, several species of birds of New Guinea have evolved resistance to highly potent batrachotoxins, which they acquire from their insect diet. While the mechanism of bird toxicity remains obscure, in a recently published issue of the journal, Dumbacher and Menon explore the intriguing idea that to achieve efficient storage of batrachotoxins in their skin, some birds exploit the basic permeability barrier function of their epidermis. Batrachotoxins become preferentially sequestered in their epidermis and are then transferred to feathers, likely through the exploitation of specialized avian lipid-storing multigranular body organelles. Here, we discuss wider implications of this intriguing concept. PMID:24698054

Plikus, Maksim V; Astrowski, Aliaksandr A

2014-07-01

281

Correlation of aluminum and manganese concentration in scalp hair samples of patients having neurological disorders.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative diseases are thought to be multifactorial, while metals (aluminum and manganese) can be involved as cofactors in abnormalities or suspected of being risk factors for this disorder. The aim of our study was to assess the aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) concentrations in scalp hair samples of 397 patients having different types of neurological disorder diseases. For comparative purpose, scalp hair samples of 201 control subjects does not have any neuro-disorders of same age group (30-60 years) and were selected as referents. The Al and Mn in scalp hair samples were assessed by the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity of methodology was checked by the certified human hair reference material (NCS ZC81002). The results of this study showed that the mean values of Al and Mn were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of all types of neurological disorder patients as compared to controls (p?=?0.01-0.001). The high levels of Al and Mn may play a role in the development of neurological disorders. However, further work is suggested to examine the precise correlation between trace elemental level and the degree of disorders in neurological patients. PMID:25618568

Arain, Mariam Shahzadi; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Kazi, Atif; Arain, Salma Aslam; Ali, Jamshed

2015-02-01

282

Alström Syndrome protein ALMS1 localizes to basal bodies of cochlear hair cells and regulates cilium-dependent planar cell polarity.  

PubMed

Alström Syndrome is a life-threatening disease characterized primarily by numerous metabolic abnormalities, retinal degeneration, cardiomyopathy, kidney and liver disease, and sensorineural hearing loss. The cellular localization of the affected protein, ALMS1, has suggested roles in ciliary function and/or ciliogenesis. We have investigated the role of ALMS1 in the cochlea and the pathogenesis of hearing loss in Alström Syndrome. In neonatal rat organ of Corti, ALMS1 was localized to the basal bodies of hair cells and supporting cells. ALMS1 was also evident at the basal bodies of differentiating fibrocytes and marginal cells in the lateral wall. Centriolar ALMS1 expression was retained into maturity. In Alms1-disrupted mice, which recapitulate the neurosensory deficits of human Alström Syndrome, cochleae displayed several cyto-architectural defects including abnormalities in the shape and orientation of hair cell stereociliary bundles. Developing hair cells were ciliated, suggesting that ciliogenesis was largely normal. In adult mice, in addition to bundle abnormalities, there was an accelerated loss of outer hair cells and the progressive appearance of large lesions in stria vascularis. Although the mice progressively lost distortion product otoacoustic emissions, suggesting defects in outer hair cell amplification, their endocochlear potentials were normal, indicating the strial atrophy did not affect its function. These results identify previously unrecognized cochlear histopathologies associated with this ciliopathy that (i) implicate ALMS1 in planar cell polarity signaling and (ii) suggest that the loss of outer hair cells causes the majority of the hearing loss in Alström Syndrome. PMID:21071598

Jagger, Daniel; Collin, Gayle; Kelly, John; Towers, Emily; Nevill, Graham; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Benson, Jennifer; Halsey, Karin; Dolan, David; Marshall, Jan; Naggert, Jürgen; Forge, Andrew

2011-02-01

283

Alström Syndrome protein ALMS1 localizes to basal bodies of cochlear hair cells and regulates cilium-dependent planar cell polarity  

PubMed Central

Alström Syndrome is a life-threatening disease characterized primarily by numerous metabolic abnormalities, retinal degeneration, cardiomyopathy, kidney and liver disease, and sensorineural hearing loss. The cellular localization of the affected protein, ALMS1, has suggested roles in ciliary function and/or ciliogenesis. We have investigated the role of ALMS1 in the cochlea and the pathogenesis of hearing loss in Alström Syndrome. In neonatal rat organ of Corti, ALMS1 was localized to the basal bodies of hair cells and supporting cells. ALMS1 was also evident at the basal bodies of differentiating fibrocytes and marginal cells in the lateral wall. Centriolar ALMS1 expression was retained into maturity. In Alms1-disrupted mice, which recapitulate the neurosensory deficits of human Alström Syndrome, cochleae displayed several cyto-architectural defects including abnormalities in the shape and orientation of hair cell stereociliary bundles. Developing hair cells were ciliated, suggesting that ciliogenesis was largely normal. In adult mice, in addition to bundle abnormalities, there was an accelerated loss of outer hair cells and the progressive appearance of large lesions in stria vascularis. Although the mice progressively lost distortion product otoacoustic emissions, suggesting defects in outer hair cell amplification, their endocochlear potentials were normal, indicating the strial atrophy did not affect its function. These results identify previously unrecognized cochlear histopathologies associated with this ciliopathy that (i) implicate ALMS1 in planar cell polarity signaling and (ii) suggest that the loss of outer hair cells causes the majority of the hearing loss in Alström Syndrome. PMID:21071598

Jagger, Daniel; Collin, Gayle; Kelly, John; Towers, Emily; Nevill, Graham; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Benson, Jennifer; Halsey, Karin; Dolan, David; Marshall, Jan; Naggert, Jürgen; Forge, Andrew

2011-01-01

284

9. VIEW OF FRANCIS TURBINE, GENERATOR DRIVE SHAFT. NOTE ORIGINAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. VIEW OF FRANCIS TURBINE, GENERATOR DRIVE SHAFT. NOTE ORIGINAL EXCITER AND GENERATOR RHEOSTATS ATOP CONTROL PANEL AT REAR. CONTROL PANEL IS ORIGINAL EXCEPT FOR HORIZONTAL TOP PANEL WITH CLOCK AT LEFT AND SYNCHROSCOPE AT RIGHT, LOOKING EAST - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

285

14. DETAIL SHOWING THE STERN TUBE, PROPELLOR SHAFT AND RELATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DETAIL SHOWING THE STERN TUBE, PROPELLOR SHAFT AND RELATED EQUIPMENT IN THE LOWER MOTOR ROOM. NOTE THE WORM-WHEEL TURNING GEAR AT CENTER, AND THE KINGBURY THRUST BEARING IN THE FOREGROUND IMMEDIATELY FOREWORD OF THE WORM-WHEEL GEAR. NOTE ALSO THE 50-POUND IRON BALLAST BLOCKS STACKED BETWEEN FRAMES. - Lightship 116, Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

286

Monitoring the Blind Shaft Borer Project, Oak Grove, Alabama  

SciTech Connect

In 1974, plans of the United States to obtain energy self-sufficiency included a significant increase in coal production, primarily from new underground mines in the Eastern states. The poor condition of coal shaft sinking companies was a major concern. The US Bureau of Mines perceived similarities between shaft sinking and tunnel boring and felt that a machine could be produced for faster, safer shaft sinking. In January 1975, the Robbins Co., a major producer of tunnel boring machines, submitted an unsolicited proposal to the Bureau of Mines to develop, design, build and demonstrate a Blind Shaft Borer (BSB). In June 1975, a contract was initiated to start work on a BSB. After the Department of Energy was formed, the project was transferred to their Department of Fossil Fuel. In late 1978, while the BSB was being assembled for the field trial near Oak Grove, Alabama, the DOE contracted with Williams Brothers Engineering Company to monitor the site activities and provide technical advice to the Technical Project Manager. This report reviews the BSB project prior to the field trial, describes field trial operations as observed by Williams Brothers Engineering Company personnel and provides a summary of daily activities. It also details project problems, interim efforts to resolve them, results obtained and recommendations to preclude their re-occurrence on future BSB projects.

Amstutz, R.; Danowski, T.

1982-03-01

287

Simulating seepage into mine shafts and tunnels with MODFLOW.  

PubMed

In cases when an equivalent porous medium assumption is suitable for simulating groundwater flow in bedrock aquifers, estimation of seepage into underground mine workings (UMWs) can be achieved by specifying MODFLOW drain nodes at the contact between water bearing rock and dewatered mine openings. However, this approach results in significant numerical problems when applied to simulate seepage into an extensive network of UMWs, which often exist at the mine sites. Numerical simulations conducted for individual UMWs, such as a vertical shaft or a horizontal drift, showed that accurate prediction of seepage rates can be achieved by either applying grid spacing that is much finer than the diameter/width of the simulated openings (explicit modeling) or using coarser grid with cell sizes exceeding the characteristic width of shafts or drifts by a factor of 3. Theoretical insight into this phenomenon is presented, based on the so-called well-index theory. It is demonstrated that applying this theory allows to minimize numerical errors associated with MODFLOW simulation of seepage into UMWs on a relatively coarse Cartesian grid. Presented examples include simulated steady-state groundwater flow from homogeneous, heterogeneous, and/or anisotropic rock into a vertical shaft, a horizontal drift/cross-cut, a ramp, two parallel drifts, and a combined system of a vertical shaft connected to a horizontal drift. PMID:20039952

Zaidel, Jacob; Markham, Bradley; Bleiker, David

2010-01-01

288

Interference Assembly and Fretting Wear Analysis of Hollow Shaft  

PubMed Central

Fretting damage phenomenon often appears in the interference fit assembly. The finite element model of hollow shaft and shaft sleeve was established, and the equivalent stress and contact stress were computed after interference assembly. The assembly body of hollow shaft and shaft sleeve was in whirling bending load, and the contact status (sticking, sliding, and opening) and the distribution of stress along one typical contact line were computed under different loads, interferences, hollow degrees, friction coefficient, and wear quantity. Judgment formula of contact state was fixed by introducing the corrected coefficient k. The computation results showed that the “edge effect” appears in the contact surface after interference fit. The size of slip zone is unchanged along with the increase of bending load. The greater the interference value, the bigger the wear range. The hollow degree does not influence the size of stick zone but controls the position of the junction point of slip-open. Tangential contact stress increases with the friction coefficient, which has a little effect on normal contact stress. The relationship between open size and wear capacity is approximately linear. PMID:24955422

2014-01-01

289

A permanent magnet motor drive without a shaft sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a simple control for a permanent motor drive that provides a wide speed range without use of a shaft sensor. Two line-to-line voltages and two stator currents are sensed and processed in analog form to produce the stator flux linkage space vector. The angle of this vector is used in a microcontroller to produce the appropriate stator

Rusong Wu; Gordon R. Slemon

1991-01-01

290

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF THE DEEP SHAFT BIOLOGICAL REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Deep Shaft biological treatment process is essentially a high-rate activated sludge process capable of operating at BOD5 loading ratios (F/M) between 0.5 and 2.0 kg BOD5/kg MLVSS. The hardware consists of a vertical subsurface reactor between 90 and 250 m (300 to 800 ft) deep...

291

63. Cam Shaft Running Egg, Stove and Nut Shakers, date ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

63. Cam Shaft Running Egg, Stove and Nut Shakers, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

292

58. No. 20 Shaft Tower and Rotary Dump House, date ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

58. No. 20 Shaft Tower and Rotary Dump House, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy of Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

293

In vitro methodology, hormonal and nutritional effects and fibre production in isolated ovine and caprine anagen hair follicles.  

PubMed

Mammalian hair follicles are complex multicellular structures in the skin, which produce hair fibre under the influence of locally produced and systemic signalling systems. Investigation to determine mechanisms of regulation, follicular responses and the importance of nutritional supply have utilised a number of in vivo and in vitro approaches. Included in these are studies on isolated intact anagen secondary follicles singly or in groups with incubation in culture medium. These utilise techniques developed for investigation of follicles from human skin. Results from selected studies reviewed here demonstrate differences in capacity for hair growth and protein synthesis between secondary follicles from Angora and cashmere-bearing goats. Mohair follicles were shown to exhibit faster hair shaft elongation both in vivo and in vitro, to have greater DNA content per follicle and to deposit significantly more protein per follicle and per unit of DNA. Incubation of anagen mohair and cashmere follicles in the presence of melatonin or prolactin showed positive responses in hair shaft growth and protein synthesis to both signalling molecules. This result indicated directly acting effects on the follicle in addition to any indirect effects arising at a whole animal level in response to, for example, variation in photoperiod. Similarly, epidermal growth factor was shown to alter elongation and protein synthesis in mohair follicles and to produce, at higher concentration, club hair structures similar to effects observed in other species. The vitamin biotin was shown to be important in maintaining viability of isolated sheep secondary hair follicles where supplementation increased the proportion continuing to grow. Effects on growth and apparent protein synthesis suggested comparatively lesser effects on follicles, which remained viable. Histology on follicles indicated effects of biotin deficiency in reducing proliferation of basal keratinocytes. The final study, included in this review, demonstrated that supply of the essential sulphur-containing amino acid l-methionine was necessary to maintain the viability and growth of mohair follicles. l-cysteine was not required in the presence of l-methionine, although there was evidence of an optimisation when both amino acids were present in adequate concentrations. Consideration is given to the importance of transport mechanisms and capacity to utilise absorbed nutrients when considering optimising nutritional supply to individual follicles. These may then provide targets for attainment in applied nutrition of animals in vivo. PMID:22444695

Galbraith, H

2010-09-01

294

1. AEROVANE FAN FROM NORTHWEST. AIR/MANWAY SHAFT AND LEPLEY VENTILATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. AEROVANE FAN FROM NORTHWEST. AIR/MANWAY SHAFT AND LEPLEY VENTILATOR AT RIGHT, CIRCULAR SHAFT AND SCAFFOLD AT RIGHT REAR. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Aerovane Fan, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

295

1. LEPLEY VENTILATOR FROM WEST. AEROVANE FAN AND AIR/MANWAY SHAFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. LEPLEY VENTILATOR FROM WEST. AEROVANE FAN AND AIR/MANWAY SHAFT AT LEFT, CIRCULAR SHAFT AND SCAFFOLD AT RIGHT REAR. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Lepley Ventilator, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

296

30 CFR 75.1402 - Communication between shaft stations and hoist room.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communication between shaft stations and hoist...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1402 Communication between shaft stations and...

2011-07-01

297

30 CFR 75.1402 - Communication between shaft stations and hoist room.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Communication between shaft stations and hoist...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1402 Communication between shaft stations and...

2012-07-01

298

30 CFR 75.1402 - Communication between shaft stations and hoist room.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Communication between shaft stations and hoist...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1402 Communication between shaft stations and...

2014-07-01

299

30 CFR 75.1402 - Communication between shaft stations and hoist room.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Communication between shaft stations and hoist...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1402 Communication between shaft stations and...

2013-07-01

300

30 CFR 75.1402 - Communication between shaft stations and hoist room.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication between shaft stations and hoist...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...Hoisting and Mantrips § 75.1402 Communication between shaft stations and...

2010-07-01

301

30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and...

2012-07-01

302

30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and...

2014-07-01

303

30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and...

2011-07-01

304

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are surgically removed from one location on the person's...

2014-04-01

305

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2013-01-01

306

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2012-01-01

307

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

2013-04-01

308

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2014-01-01

309

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and...Listing of Banned Devices § 895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation...

2012-04-01

310

Cochlear hair cell regeneration from neonatal mouse supporting cells  

E-print Network

Unlike lower vertebrates, capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration, mammals experience permanent sensorineural hearing loss following hair cell damage. Although low levels of hair cell regeneration have been demonstrated ...

Bramhall, Naomi F

2012-01-01

311

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants,...

2011-04-01

312

Direct shaft torque measurements in a transient turbine facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and implementation of a shaft torque measurement system for the Oxford Turbine Research Facility (formerly the Turbine Test Facility (TTF) at QinetiQ, Farnborough), or OTRF. As part of the recent EU TATEF II programme, the facility was upgraded to allow turbine efficiency measurements to be performed. A shaft torque measurement system was developed as part of this upgrade. The system is unique in that, to the authors' knowledge, it provided the first direct measurement of shaft torque in a transient turbine facility although the system has wider applicability to rotating test facilities in which power measurement is a requirement. The adopted approach removes the requirement to quantify bearing friction, which can be difficult to accurately calibrate under representative operating conditions. The OTRF is a short duration (approximately 0.4 s run time) isentropic light-piston facility capable of matching all of the non-dimensional parameters important for aerodynamic and heat studies, namely Mach number, Reynolds number, non-dimensional speed, stage pressure ratio and gas-to-wall temperature ratio. The single-stage MT1 turbine used for this study is a highly loaded unshrouded design, and as such is relevant to modern military, or future civil aero-engine design. Shaft torque was measured directly using a custom-built strain gauge-based torque measurement system in the rotating frame of reference. This paper describes the development of this measurement system. The system was calibrated, including the effects of temperature, to a traceable primary standard using a purpose-built facility. The bias and precision uncertainties of the measured torque were ±0.117% and ±0.183%, respectively. To accurately determine the shaft torque developed by a turbine in the OTRF, small corrections due to inertial torque (associated with changes in the rotational speed) and aerodynamic drag (windage) are required. The methods for performing these corrections are described.

Beard, Paul F.; Povey, Thomas

2011-03-01

313

Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting and their impact on design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

Leowenthal, S. H.

1986-01-01

314

Dihydrotestosterone-Inducible IL6 Inhibits Elongation of Human Hair Shafts by Suppressing Matrix Cell Proliferation and Promotes Regression of Hair Follicles in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autocrine and paracrine factors are produced by balding dermal papilla (DP) cells following dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-driven alterations and are believed to be key factors involved in male pattern baldness. Herein we report that the IL-6 is upregulated in balding DP cells compared with non-balding DP cells. IL-6 was upregulated 3 hours after 10–100 nM DHT treatment, and ELISA showed that IL-6

Mi Hee Kwack; Ji Sup Ahn; Moon Kyu Kim; Jung Chul Kim; Young Kwan Sung

2012-01-01

315

Failure of a 17-4 PH stainless steel sailboat propeller shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a 17-4 PH precipitation hardening stainless steel propeller shaft failed in use when installed in a sailboat working in a marine environment. Failure analysis was conducted on the propeller shaft. Results indicate that the failure was caused by the fracture of the propeller shaft by torsional fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). SCC progressed transgranulary in the

C. Fahir Arisoy; Gokhan Ba?man; M. Kelami ?e?en

2003-01-01

316

The use of human hair as biodosimeter.  

PubMed

The potential use of human hair samples as biologic dosimeter was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The hair samples were obtained from female volunteers and classified according to the color, age and whether they are natural or dyed. Natural black, brown, red, blonde and dyed black hair samples were irradiated at low doses (5-50Gy) and high doses (75-750Gy) by gamma source giving the dose rate of 0.25Gy/s in The Sarayköy Establishment of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. While the peak heights and g-values (2.0021-2.0023) determined from recorded spectra of hair were color dependent, the peak-to-peak line widths were varied according to natural or dyed hair (?Hpp: 0.522-0.744mT). In all samples, the linear dose-response curves at low doses saturated after ~300Gy. In black hair samples taken from different individuals, differences in the structure of the spectrum and signal intensities were not observed. The EPR signal intensities of samples stored at room temperature for 22 days fell to their half-values in 44h in black hair, 41h in blonde and brown hairs, 35h in dyed black hair and in 17h in red hair. The activation energies of samples annealed at high temperatures for different periods of time were correlated well with those obtained in the literature. In conclusion, hair samples can be used as a biological dosimeter considering the limitations showed in this study. PMID:25255305

Tepe Çam, S; Polat, M; Seyhan, N

2014-12-01

317

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

318

Nonlinear dynamic modeling for a diesel engine propeller shafting used in large marines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal vibration, torsional vibration and their coupled vibration are the main vibration modes of the crankshaft-sliding bearing system. However, these vibrations of the propeller-crankshaft-sliding bearing system generated by the fluid exciting force on the propeller are much more complex. Currently, the torsional and longitudinal vibrations have been studied separately while the research on their coupled vibration is few, and the influence of the propeller structure to dynamic characteristics of a crankshaft has not been studied yet. In order to describe the dynamic properties of a crankshaft accurately, a nonlinear dynamic model is proposed taking the effect of torsional-longitudinal coupling and the variable inertia of propeller, connecting rod and piston into account. Numerical simulation cases are carried out to calculate the response data of the system in time and frequency domains under the working speed and over-speed, respectively. Results of vibration analysis of the propeller and crankshaft system coupled in torsional and longitudinal direction indicate that the system dynamic behaviors are relatively complicated especially in the components of the frequency response. For example, the 4 times of an exciting frequency acting on the propeller by fluid appears at 130 r/min, while not yield at 105 r/min. While the possible abnormal vibration at over-speed just needs to be vigilant. So when designing the propeller shafting used in marine diesel engines, strength calculation and vibration analysis based only on linear model may cause great errors and the proposed research provides some references to design diesel engine propeller shafting used in large marines.

Zhang, Qinglei; Duan, Jianguo; Zhang, Suohuai; Fu, Yumin

2014-09-01

319

Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity in Bengalese nches  

E-print Network

Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity Birds regenerate auditory hair cells when original hair cells are lost. Regenerated hair cells become innervated and restore hearing function. Functional recovery during hair cell regeneration is particularly

Rubel, Edwin

320

Hair Growth Defects in Insig-Deficient Mice Caused by Cholesterol Precursor Accumulation and Reversed by Simvastatin  

PubMed Central

Insig-1 and Insig-2, two closely related proteins, are essential for feedback inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis. Here, we characterized a line of epidermal-specific, Insig-double knockout (Epi-Insig-DKO) mice lacking both Insigs in epidermis. At birth, Epi-Insig-DKO mice were indistinguishable from control littermates, but thereafter they failed to thrive and died before 6 weeks of age. By 14 days of age, 100% of Epi-Insig-DKO mice exhibited defects in hair growth along with other skin abnormalities, including hyperkeratosis. Hair follicles in Epi-Insig-DKO mice developed normally through postnatal day 7, but they failed to progress to later stages and thus exhibited defects in postnatal hair cycling. Insig deficiency caused a marked buildup of cholesterol precursors in skin associated with a marked increase in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase protein. Topical treatment of Epi-Insig-DKO mice with simvastatin, an inhibitor of reductase, reduced sterol precursors in skin and corrected the hair and skin defects. We conclude that Insig deficiency in skin causes accumulation of cholesterol precursors, and this impairs normal hair development. These findings have implications for several human genetic diseases in which mutations in cholesterol biosynthetic enzymes lead to accumulation of sterol precursors and multiple cutaneous abnormalities. PMID:20090767

Evers, Bret M.; Farooqi, Midhat S.; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Brown, Michael S.; Liang, Guosheng

2010-01-01

321

Inflationary Universe with Anisotropic Hair  

E-print Network

We study an inflationary scenario with a vector field coupled with an inflaton field and show that the inflationary universe is endowed with anisotropy for a wide range of coupling functions. This anisotropic inflation is a tracking solution where the energy density of the vector field follows that of the inflaton field irrespective of initial conditions. We find a universal relation between the anisotropy and a slow-roll parameter of inflation. Our finding has observational implications and gives a counter example to the cosmic no-hair conjecture.

Masa-aki Watanabe; Sugumi Kanno; Jiro Soda

2009-02-17

322

Hair braiding method to prevent hair from entering the operating field on the scalp.  

PubMed

In scalp and cranial surgeries, it had been conventional to shave hair for surgical manipulations and prevention of infection. In recent years, it has been conventional to perform surgeries with minimal hair shaving. Such a method has been found to have a low risk of infection, and it takes into account esthetic considerations for patients. However, since long hair can become a hindrance to surgery, it is essential to preoperatively manage such hair and maintain a clear operating field. In this study, we braided patients' long hair to obtain a good operating field during scalp or cranial surgery. The advantages of our method are that it can be performed easily in a short period of time, does not require special instruments, and does not damage hair because rubber bands are used minimally. It is a useful method that minimizes shaving of long-haired patients for surgeries of the head and reduces cumbersome steps. PMID:23714960

Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Kaneshige

2013-05-01

323

Identification of human hair stained with oxidation hair dyes by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis.  

PubMed

This paper describes the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GCMS) analysis of oxidation hair dyes from human hair. Diamines from the dyes were directly extracted from the hair in basic solution and aminophenols were extracted after neutralization. Both extracts were derivatised with trifluoroacetic anhydride and analysed by GCMS. Five components of oxidation hair dyes namely, p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine, o-aminophenol, m-aminophenol and p-aminophenol were clearly identified, whilst no other compounds originating from the hair dyes were detected. The presence and relative amounts of these dye components from hair extracts may assist in the discrimination of human hair especially in cases involving forensic science. PMID:1783337

Tanada, N; Kageura, M; Hara, K; Hieda, Y; Takamoto, M; Kashimura, S

1991-12-01

324

Hair testing and doping control in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard in drug testing for doping control is gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry conducted on a urine sample. For the past 20 years, hair analysis has been proposed for identifying drug abusers in forensic science. Specimens can be collected under close supervision without embarrassment and are not subject to evasive maneuvers. In contrast with urine, hair analysis has a wide window

Pascal Kintz

1998-01-01

325

The nail and hair in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs, chemicals, and biological substances accumulate and are stored in hair and nails where they can be detected and measured. Advantages of analyzing hair and nail samples also include their easy and non-invasive collection, the small sample size required for analysis, and their easy storage at room temperature. We report 3 examples of heavy metal poisoning diagnosed because of the

C Ralph Daniel; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Antonella Tosti

2004-01-01

326

Interpreting hair mercury levels in individual patients.  

PubMed

Evaluation of mercury exposure in an individual patient ideally includes the presenting history, physical examination, consideration of the differential diagnosis, and mercury analysis of blood and urine specimens. Analysis of mercury in hair specimens may supply useful supplemental information about exposure to organic compounds such as methylmercury, particularly to help reconstruct the pattern of prior exposure. The most appropriate specimen is generally terminal-type hair from the occipital-neck junction, clamped to maintain strand alignment, and oriented to the scalp. Hair from the initial 0.5 cm adjacent to the scalp represents on average 1-3 wk before collection, and consideration of the time frame represented by the specimen is an important part of the evaluation. Literature reports describe hair mercury levels as high as 2400 microg/g. Hair mercury level is usually <1 microg/g in individuals who do not eat fish but may be >30 microg/g in those who frequently consume fish with high mercury content. Hair mercury level is often not correlated with blood mercury concentration or symptoms of mercury toxicity, and reports of hair contamination by exogenous mercury are not uncommon. Hair mercury level is notoriously prone to misinterpretation and should be used with an understanding of its limitations. PMID:16951265

Nuttall, Kern L

2006-01-01

327

Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and\\/or

A. K. Geim; S. V. Dubonos; I. V. Grigorieva; K. S. Novoselov; A. A. Zhukov; S. Yu. Shapoval

2003-01-01

328

Species Identification Key of Korean Mammal Hair  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology. PMID:24451929

LEE, Eunok; CHOI, Tae-Young; WOO, Donggul; MIN, Mi-Sook; SUGITA, Shoei; LEE, Hang

2014-01-01

329

Demonstration of oxidation dyes on human hair.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method of selected ion monitoring (SIM) analysis which can demonstrate the staining of human hair with oxidation hair dyes. Hair samples were decomposed with NaOH-Na2S2O4 solution by heating (100 degrees C, 30 min) in a stream of nitrogen. Basic and neutral ether extracts from the reaction mixture were trifluoroacetylated with trifluoroacetic anhydride in ethyl acetate and were then analyzed by SIM. The minimum lengths of a single hair for the detection of the 5 components of oxidation hair dyes acting as indicators were 1 mm for toluene-2,5-diamine, 2 mm for p-phenylenediamine, 20 mm for p-aminophenol, 50 mm for m-aminophenol and 100 mm for o-aminophenol. This method was applied to practical cases and the results were good. PMID:8157226

Tanada, N; Kageura, M; Hara, K; Hieda, Y; Takamoto, M; Kashimura, S

1994-01-01

330

Unconsumed precursors and couplers after formation of oxidative hair dyes.  

PubMed

Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients, especially precursors and couplers, is a well-known entity among consumers having hair colouring done at home or at a hairdresser. The aim of the present investigation was to estimate consumer exposure to some selected precursors (p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine) and couplers (3-aminophenol, 4-aminophenol, resorcinol) of oxidative hair dyes during and after hair dyeing. Concentrations of unconsumed precursors and couplers in 8 hair dye formulations for non-professional use were investigated, under the conditions reflecting hair dyeing. Oxidative hair dye formation in the absence of hair was investigated using 6 products, and 2 products were used for experimental hair dyeing. In both presence and absence of hair, significant amounts of unconsumed precursors and couplers remained in the hair dye formulations after final colour development. Thus, up to 1.1% p-phenylenediamine (PPD), 0.04% toluene-2,5-diamine, 0.02% 3-aminophenol and 0.02% resorcinol were found in the hair dye formulation after the required colour was developed. The consumers are thus exposed to precursors and couplers of oxidative hair dyes, both during and after hair dyeing, when the hair is washed. Furthermore, the consumers are also expected to be exposed to intermediates of oxidative hair dyes. The allergenic potential of oxidative hair dyes as well as the intermediates of these remains unknown. PMID:16930234

Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Søsted, Heidi; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil; Bossi, Rossana

2006-08-01

331

What Is the Use of Elephant Hair?  

PubMed Central

The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own. PMID:23071700

Myhrvold, Conor L.; Stone, Howard A.; Bou-Zeid, Elie

2012-01-01

332

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

1 Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280 1st Summer Session 2013 May 13June 27, 2013 Tuesday" Kalibatseva, M.A. Office: 127B Psychology Building Email: kalibats@msu.edu Phone Psychology PhD program at Michigan State University. I completed my bachelor's dual degree in psychology

Liu, Taosheng

333

Oligodontia and curly hair occur with ectodysplasin-a mutations.  

PubMed

Oligodontia is the developmental absence of more than 5 permanent teeth except for the third molar. Familial oligodontia can occur as an isolated form or as part of a genetic syndrome. Mutations in the MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA, and WNT10A genes have been identified in familial non-syndromic oligodontia. Ectodermal dysplasia is a group of syndromes involving abnormalities of the ectodermal structures and is comprised of more than 150 different forms. Mutations in the ectodysplasin-A (EDA) gene have been associated with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and partial disruption of the EDA signaling pathway has been shown to cause an isolated form of oligodontia. We identified 2 X-linked oligodontia families and performed mutational analysis of the EDA gene. The mutational analysis revealed 2 novel EDA mutations: c.866G>T, p.Arg289Leu and c.1135T>G, p.Phe379Val (reference sequence NM_001399.4). These mutations were perfectly segregated with oligodontia and curly hair within each family and were not found in the 150 control X-chromosomes with the same ethnic background and in the exome variant server. This study broadens the mutational spectrum of the EDA gene and the understanding of X-linked oligodontia with curly hair. PMID:24487376

Lee, K E; Ko, J; Shin, T J; Hyun, H K; Lee, S H; Kim, J W

2014-04-01

334

Bilateral Simultaneous Femoral Neck and Shafts Fractures - A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous fractures of the femoral neck and shaft are not common injuries, though they cannot be considered rare. Herein, we report our experience with a patient with bilateral occurance of this injury. Up to the best of our knowkedge this is the first case reported in literature in which correct diagnosis was made initially. Both femurs were fixed using broad 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate and both necks were fixed using 6.5 mm cannulated screws. Femur fixation on one side was converted to retrograde nailing because of plate failure. Both neck fractures healed uneventfully. In spite of rarity of concomitant fractures of femoral neck and shaft, this injury must be approached carefully demanding especial attention and careful device selection.

Sadeghifar, Amirreza; Saied, Alireza

2014-01-01

335

RELAP/FRAP-T6 analysis of seized and sheared shaft accidents. [PWR  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) performed audit calculations of a Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) seized/sheared shaft transient for the Westinghouse Seabrook Plant using RELAP5/MOD 1.5 (Cycle 32) and FRAP-T6. The objective was to determine the effect of time of loss of offsite power and other single component failures on the peak clad temperature. The RCP shaft seizure event was modeled in RELAP5 by using the pump model shaft stop option. In modeling the sheared shaft failure, the faulted pump was replaced with a branch component having no flow losses. In general, the RELAP5-predicted system response for the seized shaft transient was very comparable to the results presented in the Seabrook FSAR, although the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) pressure response was somewhat different. The RELAP5 sheared-shaft analysis results were very similar to those for the seized shaft.

Bollinger, J.S.; Ito, T.; Peeler, G.B.

1984-01-01

336

Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal  

DOEpatents

A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland.

Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan Singh (Houston, TX)

1999-01-01

337

3. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Shaft and Operating Ring, view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Shaft and Operating Ring, view to the northeast. One of the servo motor housings is visible in the right background of the photograph. Notice the wicket gate linkage greasing tubes along the top of the operating ring. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

338

Plate fixation or intramedullary fixation of humeral shaft fractures  

PubMed Central

Background The optimal approach to operative treatment of humeral shaft fractures remains debatable. Previously published trials have been limited in size and have been inconclusive regarding important patient outcome variables following treatment with either intramedullary nails or plates. We conducted a meta-analysis of available trials comparing treatment of humeral shaft fractures. Methods We performed a literature search from 1967 to November 2007 in the main medical search engines and selected 4 randomized trials that compared nails and plates in patients with humeral shaft fractures and that reported on complications due to surgery. We statistically pooled patient data using standard meta-analytic approaches. Our primary outcome was the total complication rate, comprised of all complications listed in the articles included. Secondary outcomes included non-union, infection, nerve palsy, and reoperation rate. Methodology was assessed using the CLEAR NPT. Results When pooling the data of the 4 trials (n = 203 patients), we did not find a statistically significant difference between implants in the rate of total complications, non-union, infection, nerve-palsy, or the need for reoperation. The studies included were small and had methodological limitations. Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggests stastistically insignificant differences between plates and nails in the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. Small sample sizes, study heterogeneity, and methodological limitations argue strongly for a definitive, large trial. We recommend that this trial should be a randomized controlled trial with appropriate allocation of patients and blinding of patients and care providers and outcome assessors, and that it should include patient-important outcomes. PMID:20170424

Poolman, Rudolf W; Nork, Sean E; Ponsen, Kees-Jan; Bhandari, Mohit

2010-01-01

339

Measurement of Bone Adjacent to Tibial Shaft Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Delayed union and non-union are common complications after fracture of the tibial shaft. Response of the surrounding bone\\u000a as a fracture heals could be monitored using techniques currently used in the study of osteoporosis. The aims of our study\\u000a were to: (1) evaluate the decrement in bone measurements made close to the fracture using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry\\u000a (DXA), quantitative

S. C. Findlay; R. Eastell; B. M. Ingle

2002-01-01

340

Engine having multiple pumps driven by a single shaft  

DOEpatents

An engine comprises an engine housing. A first engine fluid sub-system that includes a first pump and the engine housing defining a first fluid passage is also included in the engine. The engine also includes at least one additional engine fluid sub-system that includes a second pump and the engine housing defining a second fluid passage. A rotating shaft is at least partially positioned in the engine housing, the first pump and the second pump.

Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL)

2001-01-01

341

Interior of Right Powerhouse, looking northeast, showing shaft from Francis ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior of Right Powerhouse, looking northeast, showing shaft from Francis turbine (below) extending to the generator (above). This is unit G-11, a Francis turbine that is identical to the others in the Right Powerhouse: manufactured in 1950 by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Newport News, Virginia; 165,000 horsepower, 330 ft. head, 120 rpm. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam Powerplant Complex, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

342

Coupled vibration response of a shaft with a breathing crack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate and detailed knowledge of the local flexibility which is introduced by a crack into a structure may be used in damage diagnosis. This paper investigates the variation of the local flexibility of cracked shafts under harmonic type of loadings causing tensional as well as compressional stresses around the crack faces in a periodic manner which inevitably lead to the opening and closure of the crack, i.e. the breathing mechanism. Time-dependent nonlinear finite element method (FEM) is adopted to analyze various crack sizes as well as time-dependent axial, bending and torsional types of loading. Special boundary conditions are adopted between crack faces to avoid penetration along the contact area and simultaneously permit the existence of stick or slip contact zones according to Coulomb's law. Deflection differences at the loaded edge between uncracked and cracked shaft are used for the computation of the local flexibilities. Apart from the computation of the diagonal terms of local flexibility matrix intensive emphasis is given to its off-diagonal coefficients which cause the coupling of motion between different degrees of freedom and thus may affect considerably the overall vibrational behavior of the shaft.

Giannopoulos, G. I.; Georgantzinos, S. K.; Anifantis, N. K.

2015-02-01

343

Beyond generalized hair cells: Molecular cues for hair cell types  

PubMed Central

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are crucial for inner ear neurosensory development. The proneural TF Atoh1 regulates the differentiation of hair cells (HCs) whereas Neurog1 and Neurod1 regulate specification and differentiation of neurons, respectively, but also affect HC development. Expression of Delta and Jagged ligands in nascent HCs and Notch receptors in supporting cells induce supporting cell differentiation through the regulation of neurogenic bHLH TFs (such as Hes1, Hes5) and suppression of limited Atoh1 expression. In sensorineural hearing loss, HCs are lost followed by supporting cells and progressive degeneration of neurons, at least in rodents. Regaining complete hearing may require reconstituting the organ of Corti (OC) from scratch, including the two types of HCs, inner (IHC) and outer (OHC) hair cells with the precise sorting of two types of afferent (type I and II) and efferent (lateral, LOC and medial, MOC olivo-cochlear) innervation. We review effects of bHLH TF dosage and their cross-regulation to differentiate HC types in the OC. We categorize findings of specific gene expressions in HCs: 1. as markers without meaning for the regeneration task, 2. as stabilizers who are needed to maintain or complete differentiation, and 3. as decision making genes, expressed and acting early enough to be useful in this process. Only one TF has been characterized that fits the last aspect: Atoh1. We propose that temporal and intensity variations of Atoh1 are naturally modulated to differentiate specific types of HCs. Importantly, the molecular means to modify the Atoh1 expression are at least partially understood and can be readily implemented in the attempts to regenerate specific types of HCs. PMID:23201032

Jahan, Israt; Pan, Ning; Kersigo, Jennifer; Fritzsch, Bernd

2012-01-01

344

[Developmental abnormalities and nevi of the scalp].  

PubMed

Unusual congenital or early-onset skin lesions on the scalp often pose a diagnostic challenge particularly as the clinical evaluation may be hampered by dense hair growth. Thus, this paper provides a concise review on developmental abnormalities and nevi with exclusive or predominant scalp localization. Aplasia cutis congenita occurs as an isolated finding, in association with genetic syndromes, nevi and anomalies or as a consequence of intrauterine trauma and teratogens. A hairless area with a narrow surrounding rim of hypertrichosis (hair collar sign) may point to occult cranial dysraphism, especially if accompanied by further suggestive signs as port-wine stains, large hemangiomas, dimples, congenital dermoid cysts, and sinuses. Many diverse entities may hide behind cutis verticis gyrata with the primary essential form being rare and representing a diagnosis of exclusion. In contrast to former belief, benign adnexal tumors arise in a nevus sebaceus considerably more often than basal cell carcinomas and other malignant epithelial tumors. Provided that tumor development is not suspected, excision of a nevus sebaceus nevus is indicated primarily for aesthetic-psychosocial reasons. However, surgical treatment is considerably easier in small children. Nevus sebaceus may be a cutaneous marker for several complex syndromes whereas nevus psiloliparus presents almost always in connection with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis. Congenital melanocytic nevi of the scalp tend toward clinical regression, so that surgical intervention in large lesions should be carefully considered. In contrast, the threshold for excision of blue nevi and other conspicuous melanocytic nevi on the scalp should be low, especially since they are difficult to monitor. PMID:25298254

Behle, V; Hamm, H

2014-12-01

345

A trigonal prism-based method for hair image generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The difficulties involved in modeling and rendering hair in computer graphics are described. An efficient method using a trigonal prism model to render individual human hairs is presented. A wisp model easily controls hair shape with a few parameters. The method also proves effective for rendering eyebrows, eyelashes, beards, moustaches, clothes and personal ornaments such as earrings and hair accessories.

Yasuhiko Watanabe; Yasuhito Suenaga

1992-01-01

346

Factors Affecting Zinc Content of Bovine Hair1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten experiments were conducted to study the effects of potentially important factors on the zinc content of cattle hair. In Holsteins the order of descending amounts of zinc in hair were white tail, black body, and white body. Jersey fawn had slightly more zinc than black Holstein hair. The distal and proxinml ends of the hair contained the same amounts.

W. J. Miller; G. W. Powell; W. J. Pitts; H. F. Perkins

1965-01-01

347

AJ Hudspeth amplification of stimuli by hair cells  

E-print Network

400 Mechanical AJ Hudspeth amplification of stimuli by hair cells Unlike any other known sensory receptor, the hair cell uses positive feedback to augment the stimulus to which it responds. In the internal ears of many vertebrates, hair cells amplify the inputs to their mechanosensitive hair bundles

Hudspeth, A. James

348

To appear in the ACM SIGGRAPH conference proceedings Hair Meshes  

E-print Network

To appear in the ACM SIGGRAPH conference proceedings Hair Meshes Cem Yuksel Cyber Radiance Scott Schaefer Texas A&M University John Keyser Texas A&M University Figure 1: An example hair mesh model and the final hair model generated using this hair mesh and procedural styling operations. Abstract Despite

Schaefer, Scott

349

A Layered Wisps Model for Simulating Interactions inside Long Hair  

E-print Network

A Layered Wisps Model for Simulating Interactions inside Long Hair Eric Plante Taarna Studios Inc@iro.umontreal.ca Abstract. This paper presents a method for animating long hair while mod­ elling both interactions between the hair and the character's body and between different hair wisps. Our method relies on a layered models

Montréal, Université de

350

Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis Tsinghua University  

E-print Network

Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis Lvdi Wang1 1 Tsinghua University Yizhou Yu2 2 University) (b) (c) (f) (d) (e) (g) (h) Figure 1: Example-based hair geometry synthesis pipeline. (a) input hair) level-2 geometry reconstructed from (e); (g) level-1 of the output hierarchy; (h) final output hair

Zhou, Kun

351

Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells  

E-print Network

Colloquium Two mechanisms for transducer adaptation in vertebrate hair cells Jeffrey R. Holt and Massachusetts General Hospital, Wellman 414, Boston, MA 02114 Deflection of the hair bundle atop a sensory hair deflections, hair cells adapt. Two fundamentally distinct models have been proposed to explain transducer

Corey, David P.

352

A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans in computer graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved, problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make

Kelly Ward; Florence Bertalis; Tae Yong Kim; Stephen R. Marschner; Marie-paule Cani; Ming C. Lin

2007-01-01

353

A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans,in computer,graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved, problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make it

Kelly Ward; Florence Bertails; Tae-yong Kim; Stephen R. Marschner; Marie-paule Cani; Ming C. Lin

2007-01-01

354

Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena  

USGS Publications Warehouse

So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

Neuzil, C.E.

1995-01-01

355

A teenage girl with green hair.  

PubMed

An adolescent girl with blond hair, her family, and classmates noted that her hair was progressively turning green. Initially the green color was thought to be secondary to chlorine from the local swimming pool. This was not the real cause. The chlorotrichosis was actually caused by an excessive amount of dissolved copper from copper pipes in the home plumbing system. Copper had leached from the plumbing and accumulated in the pipes because the rented house had been vacant for many months. Risk factors for chlorotrichosis include light-colored hair, copper plumbing, long periods when the water was not thoroughly flushed out of the copper pipes, and frequent shampooing. PMID:25039704

Schwartz, Richard H; Yasin, Shima K; Yoo, Jinny K

2014-01-01

356

Polar lipid composition of mammalian hair.  

PubMed

The types and amounts of polar lipids from the hair of monkey (Macacca fascicularis), dog (Canis familiaris), pig (Sus scrofa) and porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) have been determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. The polar lipid content of the hair samples ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 wt%. Lipid compositions included ceramides (57-63% of the polar lipid by weight), glycosphingolipids (7-9%) and cholesteryl sulfate (22-29%). Several minor components (4-7%) remain unidentified. The results suggest that cholesteryl sulfate may be an important determinant of the cohesiveness of hair. PMID:3581794

Wix, M A; Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

1987-01-01

357

Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the same techniques to the saccule of Carassius auratus (Teleostei, Otophysi, Cyprinidae) and demonstrates similar types of hair cells to those found in Astronotus. Since Carassius and Astronous are species of extreme taxonomic distance within the Euteteostei, two classes of mechanoreceptive hair cells are likely to represent the primitive condition for sensory receptors in the euteleost inner ear and perhaps in all bony fish ears.

Saidel, William M.; Lanford, Pamela J.; Yan, Hong Y.; Popper, Arthur N.

1995-01-01

358

Hair today, gone tomorrow: a comparison of body hair removal practices in gay and heterosexual men.  

PubMed

Although hairlessness is rapidly becoming a component of the ideal male body, little research has examined men's concerns about their body hair or their hair removal practices. Samples of gay and heterosexual men completed questionnaires that assessed whether they had ever removed their back, buttock or pubic hair, the frequency with which they did so, the methods used and their self-reported reasons for removing this hair, as well as their level of appearance investment. Results indicated that many gay and heterosexual men remove their back, buttock and pubic hair regularly and that their primary reason for doing so is to maintain or improve their appearance. The frequency of hair removal was also associated with the motivational salience component of appearance investment. The findings offer further support to the premise that gay and heterosexual men exhibit similar body image concerns. PMID:18586585

Martins, Yolanda; Tiggemann, Marika; Churchett, Libby

2008-09-01

359

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins are common genetic disorders in Asia. Thalassemia is not only an important public health\\u000a problem but also a socio-economic problem of many countries in the region. The approach to deal with the thalassemic problem\\u000a is to prevent and control birth of new cases. This requires an accurate identification of the couple at high risk for thalassemia.

Suthat Fucharoen; Pranee Winichagoon

2002-01-01

360

Anatomical Abnormalities in Autism?  

PubMed

Substantial controversy exists regarding the presence and significance of anatomical abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The release of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (?1000 participants, age 6-65 years) offers an unprecedented opportunity to conduct large-scale comparisons of anatomical MRI scans across groups and to resolve many of the outstanding questions. Comprehensive univariate analyses using volumetric, thickness, and surface area measures of over 180 anatomically defined brain areas, revealed significantly larger ventricular volumes, smaller corpus callosum volume (central segment only), and several cortical areas with increased thickness in the ASD group. Previously reported anatomical abnormalities in ASD including larger intracranial volumes, smaller cerebellar volumes, and larger amygdala volumes were not substantiated by the current study. In addition, multivariate classification analyses yielded modest decoding accuracies of individuals' group identity (<60%), suggesting that the examined anatomical measures are of limited diagnostic utility for ASD. While anatomical abnormalities may be present in distinct subgroups of ASD individuals, the current findings show that many previously reported anatomical measures are likely to be of low clinical and scientific significance for understanding ASD neuropathology as a whole in individuals 6-35 years old. PMID:25316335

Haar, Shlomi; Berman, Sigal; Behrmann, Marlene; Dinstein, Ilan

2014-10-14

361

A Review of Surgical Methods (Excluding Hair Transplantation) and Their Role in Hair Loss Management Today  

PubMed Central

There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today. PMID:21976899

Sattur, Sandeep S

2011-01-01

362

Women with Red Hair Report A Slightly Increased Rate of Bruising, but Have Normal Coagulation Tests  

PubMed Central

There is an anecdotal impression that redheads experience more perioperative bleeding complications than those with other hair colors. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that perceived problems with hemostasis could be detected with commonly used coagulation tests. Se studied healthy female Caucasian volunteers, 18 to 40 years, comparable in terms of height, weight, and age, with natural bright red (n = 25) or black or dark brown (n = 26) hair. Volunteers were questioned about their bleeding history and the following tests were performed: complete blood count, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet function analysis (PFA-100), and platelet aggregation using standard turbidimetric methodology. Agonists for aggregation were adenosine diphosphate, arachidonic acid, collagen, epinephrine, and two concentrations of ristocetin. The red-haired volunteers reported significantly more bruising, but there were no significant differences between the red- and dark-haired groups in hemoglobin concentration, platelet numbers, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, or activated partial thromboplastin time. Furthermore, no significant differences in platelet function, as measured with the PFA-100 or with platelet aggregometry, were observed. We conclude that if redheads have hemostasis abnormalities, they are subtle. PMID:16368849

Liem, Edwin B.; Hollensead, Sandra C.; Joiner, Teresa V.

2005-01-01

363

Mutations in the Cholesterol Transporter Gene ABCA5 Are Associated with Excessive Hair Overgrowth  

PubMed Central

Inherited hypertrichoses are rare syndromes characterized by excessive hair growth that does not result from androgen stimulation, and are often associated with additional congenital abnormalities. In this study, we investigated the genetic defect in a case of autosomal recessive congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis (CGHT) (OMIM135400) using whole-exome sequencing. We identified a single base pair substitution in the 5? donor splice site of intron 32 in the ABC lipid transporter gene ABCA5 that leads to aberrant splicing of the transcript and a decrease in protein levels throughout patient hair follicles. The homozygous recessive disruption of ABCA5 leads to reduced lysosome function, which results in an accumulation of autophagosomes, autophagosomal cargos as well as increased endolysosomal cholesterol in CGHT keratinocytes. In an unrelated sporadic case of CGHT, we identified a 1.3 Mb cryptic deletion of chr17q24.2-q24.3 encompassing ABCA5 and found that ABCA5 levels are dramatically reduced throughout patient hair follicles. Collectively, our findings support ABCA5 as a gene underlying the CGHT phenotype and suggest a novel, previously unrecognized role for this gene in regulating hair growth. PMID:24831815

DeStefano, Gina M.; Kurban, Mazen; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Dall'Armi, Claudia; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Feenstra, Heather; Silverberg, Nanette; Rohena, Luis; López-Cepeda, Larissa D.; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Fantauzzo, Katherine A.; Kiuru, Maija; Tadin-Strapps, Marija; Sobrino, Antonio; Vitebsky, Anna; Warburton, Dorothy; Levy, Brynn; Salas-Alanis, Julio C.; Christiano, Angela M.

2014-01-01

364

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

365

Activated Hair Follicle Stem Cells and Wnt/?-catenin Signaling Involve in Pathnogenesis of Sebaceous Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Sebaceous glands (SGs) undergo cyclic renewal independent of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) activation while HFSCs have the potential to differentiate into sebaceous gland cells, hair follicle and epidermal keratinocytes. Abnormalities of sebaceous gland progenitor cells contribute to the development of sebaceous neoplasms, but little is known about the role of HFSCs during sebaceous neoplasm development. Here, using dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) plus 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) treatment developing sebaceous neoplasms (SNs) were identified with H&E and Oil red O staining. And then the molecular expression and activation of HFSCs and was characterized by immunostaining. Wnt10b/?-catenin signaling molecular which is important for activation of HFSCs were detected by immunostaining. We found hair follicle and epidermal cell markers were expressed in sebaceous neoplasms. Furthermore, SOX-9 and CD34-positive HFSCs were located in the basal layer of sebaceous lobules within the sebaceous neoplasms. Many appear to be in an active state. Finally, Wnt10b/?-catenin signaling was activated within the basal cells of sebaceous lobules in the sebaceous neoplasms. Collectively, our findings suggest that the abnormal activation of both HFSCs and Wnt10b/?-catenin signaling involves in the development of sebaceous neoplasms. PMID:25076848

Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Li, Jin; Wang, Ning; Lian, Xiaohua

2014-01-01

366

Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... Home About Goals Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

367

Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

368

Shapes of a Suspended Curly Hair  

E-print Network

We investigate how natural curvature affects the configuration of a thin elastic rod suspended under its own weight, as when a single strand of hair hangs under gravity. We combine precision desktop experiments, numerics, ...

Miller, J.?T.

369

Tips for Removing Gum without Cutting Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... a jar of creamy style peanut butter or vegetable oil, such as olive oil. Cover the gum completely ... to work. Remove the gum from the hair. Vegetable oil is especially useful when removing gum from eyebrows ...

370

Root hair defective4 encodes a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate phosphatase required for proper root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarized expansion of root hair cells in Arabidopsis thaliana is improperly controlled in root hair–defective rhd4-1 mutant plants, resulting in root hairs that are shorter and randomly form bulges along their length. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in rhd4-1 root hairs, we analyzed membrane dynamics after labeling with RabA4b, a marker for polarized membrane trafficking in root hairs. This revealed stochastic

Julie M. Thole; Joop E. M. Vermeer; Yanling Zhang; Theodorus W. J. Gadella; E. Nielsen

2008-01-01

371

Management of advanced hair loss patterns.  

PubMed

This article covers how to manage patients with extensive hair loss in whom complete, dense coverage is not possible. In addition to discussing planning a transplant pattern for already bald men, I discuss a conservative approach for recognizing and transplanting younger patients who have telltale warning signs that may evolve to extensive hair loss. For both groups, a variant of a frontal forelock-type pattern is usually the best course to follow. PMID:24017980

Beehner, Michael L

2013-08-01

372

Chemical characterization of hair using ion beams  

E-print Network

cata) va!c. ? p of hair. Qui f'irst obj cc tive t, o ?xami?e &. h=- nuc ear an&dr atom ic ac tive t; ion ' ?due ed Jy d if n ere?". ion be" r. . s in hair . Thi s will be f'olio?red c&t. th a st?el~ on test cases t;o illustrate t, he scope nf...

Yulo, Ma. Melinda S

1979-01-01

373

Mapping gene activity of Arabidopsis root hairs  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative information on gene activity at single cell-type resolution is essential for the understanding of how cells work and interact. Root hairs, or trichoblasts, tubular-shaped outgrowths of specialized cells in the epidermis, represent an ideal model for cell fate acquisition and differentiation in plants. Results Here, we provide an atlas of gene and protein expression in Arabidopsis root hair cells, generated by paired-end RNA sequencing and LC/MS-MS analysis of protoplasts from plants containing a pEXP7-GFP reporter construct. In total, transcripts of 23,034 genes were detected in root hairs. High-resolution proteome analysis led to the reliable identification of 2,447 proteins, 129 of which were differentially expressed between root hairs and non-root hair tissue. Dissection of pre-mRNA splicing patterns showed that all types of alternative splicing were cell type-dependent, and less complex in EXP7-expressing cells when compared to non-root hair cells. Intron retention was repressed in several transcripts functionally related to root hair morphogenesis, indicative of a cell type-specific control of gene expression by alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. Concordance between mRNA and protein expression was generally high, but in many cases mRNA expression was not predictive for protein abundance. Conclusions The integrated analysis shows that gene activity in root hairs is dictated by orchestrated, multilayered regulatory mechanisms that allow for a cell type-specific composition of functional components. PMID:23800126

2013-01-01

374

New black hole solutions with hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new black hole solutions which provide counter examples to the ``no hair'' conjecture for non-linear matter fields. These have been found numerically for the non-linear sigma-model of Skyrme coupled to gravity. They are static and approach asymptotically the Schwarzschild solution, but have ``Skyrme hair''. We also describe self-gravitating generalizations of the well-known Skyrme solitons in flat spacetime. Both

Serge Droz; Markus Heusler; Norbert Straumann

1991-01-01

375

Prenatal screening for chromosome abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

An abnormal chromosome complement (aneuploidy) contributes significantly to fetal loss during pregnancy, as well as to perinatal morbidity and mortality. The contribution of chromosomal abnormalities to fetal loss decreases as pregnancy continues with an estimated 50% of first trimester spontaneous abortions due to chromosomal abnormalities, but only 5% of stillbirths (after 28 weeks). Prenatal screening for aneuploidy (in particular Down

Lyn Chitty

376

SHABERTH - ANALYSIS OF A SHAFT BEARING SYSTEM (CRAY VERSION)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SHABERTH computer program was developed to predict operating characteristics of bearings in a multibearing load support system. Lubricated and non-lubricated bearings can be modeled. SHABERTH calculates the loads, torques, temperatures, and fatigue life for ball and/or roller bearings on a single shaft. The program also allows for an analysis of the system reaction to the termination of lubricant supply to the bearings and other lubricated mechanical elements. SHABERTH has proven to be a valuable tool in the design and analysis of shaft bearing systems. The SHABERTH program is structured with four nested calculation schemes. The thermal scheme performs steady state and transient temperature calculations which predict system temperatures for a given operating state. The bearing dimensional equilibrium scheme uses the bearing temperatures, predicted by the temperature mapping subprograms, and the rolling element raceway load distribution, predicted by the bearing subprogram, to calculate bearing diametral clearance for a given operating state. The shaft-bearing system load equilibrium scheme calculates bearing inner ring positions relative to the respective outer rings such that the external loading applied to the shaft is brought into equilibrium by the rolling element loads which develop at each bearing inner ring for a given operating state. The bearing rolling element and cage load equilibrium scheme calculates the rolling element and cage equilibrium positions and rotational speeds based on the relative inner-outer ring positions, inertia effects, and friction conditions. The ball bearing subprograms in the current SHABERTH program have several model enhancements over similar programs. These enhancements include an elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness model that accounts for thermal heating in the contact area and lubricant film starvation; a new model for traction combined with an asperity load sharing model; a model for the hydrodynamic rolling and shear forces in the inlet zone of lubricated contacts, which accounts for the degree of lubricant film starvation; modeling normal and friction forces between a ball and a cage pocket, which account for the transition between the hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic regimes of lubrication; and a model of the effect on fatigue life of the ratio of the EHD plateau film thickness to the composite surface roughness. SHABERTH is intended to be as general as possible. The models in SHABERTH allow for the complete mathematical simulation of real physical systems. Systems are limited to a maximum of five bearings supporting the shaft, a maximum of thirty rolling elements per bearing, and a maximum of one hundred temperature nodes. The SHABERTH program structure is modular and has been designed to permit refinement and replacement of various component models as the need and opportunities develop. A preprocessor is included in the IBM PC version of SHABERTH to provide a user friendly means of developing SHABERTH models and executing the resulting code. The preprocessor allows the user to create and modify data files with minimal effort and a reduced chance for errors. Data is utilized as it is entered; the preprocessor then decides what additional data is required to complete the model. Only this required information is requested. The preprocessor can accommodate data input for any SHABERTH compatible shaft bearing system model. The system may include ball bearings, roller bearings, and/or tapered roller bearings. SHABERTH is written in FORTRAN 77, and two machine versions are available from COSMIC. The CRAY version (LEW-14860) has a RAM requirement of 176K of 64 bit words. The IBM PC version (MFS-28818) is written for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS, and includes a sample MS-DOS executable. For execution, the PC version requires at least 1Mb of RAM and an 80386 or 486 processor machine with an 80x87 math co-processor. The standard distribution medium for the IBM PC version is a set of two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The contents of the diske

Coe, H. H.

1994-01-01

377

Content of heavy metals in the hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of our investigation was to determine of HM content in the hair of people and animals. Two of the main essential elements-Zn and Cu and two of the supertoxical heavy metals- Pb and Cd were chosen. The investigations were conducted in Russian Federation and Belarus Republic in 2001-2002. About 500 hair samples of people, dogs, cats, cattle, horses, yaks, pigs, sheep goats and rabbits were studied by the stripping voltammetric analysis (SVA) method with TA- 2 analyzer to determine Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd concentrations. The hair samples were prepared according to the methods developed in Tomsk University (Russia) and improved by the authors. The essence of the methods is the multiconsecutive burning of hair samples to ashes and boiling them in concentrated acids to dissolve chemical combinations and transform their metals into ion forms. The zinc concentration was the highest in all hair samples (58.65 ... 195.15 mg/kg). The copper content was several times less (5.49 ... 22.63 mg/kg). Lead and cadmium were detected in relatively low amounts (0.32 ... 2.42 mg/kg and 0.04 ... 0.92 mg/kg respectively). The highest Pb and Cd levels were detected in cats and people hair.

Patrashkov, S. A.; Petukhov, V. L.; Korotkevich, O. S.; Petukhov, I. V.

2003-05-01

378

Mode Identification for Rotating Rigid Shaft with Flexible Disks by Mode Splits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the mode splits of the bending coupled modes of a rotating shaft with multiple flexible disks, in which the disks are rigidly attached to the rigid shaft supported by bearings. The bending coupled modes, in which shaft bending modes are coupled with one nodal diameter disk modes, are classified as the balanced and unbalanced modes. The mode splits of the balanced modes are the same as those of pure disk modes since the shaft does not experience any motion. On the other hand, the mode splits between pairs of the forward and backward unbalanced modes are found to be dependent upon the disk/shaft configuration and the shaft support stiffness, as well as the rotational speed and the ratio of polar to diametrical moment of inertia.

LEE, CHONG-WON; HAM, JONG-SEOK

1999-08-01

379

Red Ginseng Extract Promotes the Hair Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles.  

PubMed

Abstract Ginseng has been shown to promote hair growth in several recent studies. However, its effects on human hair follicles and its mechanisms of action have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the hair growth-promoting effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and its ginsenosides. The proliferative activities of cultured human hair follicles treated with RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 were assessed using Ki-67 immunostaining. Their effects on isolated human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) were evaluated using cytotoxicity assays, immunoblot analysis of signaling proteins, and the determination of associated growth factors. We examined the ability of RGE and ginsenosides to protect hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation against dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced suppression and their effects on the expression of androgen receptor. The in vivo hair growth-promoting effect of RGE was also investigated in C57BL/6 mice. Both RGE and ginsenoside-Rb1 enhanced the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes. hDPCs treated with RGE or ginsenoside-Rb1 exhibited substantial cell proliferation and the associated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Moreover, RGE, ginsenoside-Rb1, and ginsenoside-Rg3 abrogated the DHT-induced suppression of hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and the DHT-induced upregulation of the mRNA expression of androgen receptor in hDPCs. Murine experiments revealed that the subcutaneous injection of 3% RGE resulted in more rapid hair growth than the negative control. In conclusion, RGE and its ginsenosides may enhance hDPC proliferation, activate ERK and AKT signaling pathways in hDPCs, upregulate hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation, and inhibit the DHT-induced androgen receptor transcription. These results suggest that red ginseng may promote hair growth in humans. PMID:25396716

Park, Gyeong-Hun; Park, Ki-Young; Cho, Hong-Il; Lee, Sang-Min; Han, Ji Su; Won, Chong Hyun; Chang, Sung Eun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Shin, Hyoseung; Kang, Yong Jung; Lee, Dong Hun

2014-11-14

380

Traction spica cast for femoral-shaft fractures in children.  

PubMed

We treated 20 children for an isolated femoral shaft fracture using distal tibial traction incorporated into a spica cast with the knee in full extension. Patients were discharged from the hospital at a mean of 5.1 days following injury. All fractures healed, and there were four minor complications. At a mean follow-up of 35 (13-72) months, all patients were asymptomatic with normal function. All but one fracture healed in acceptable alignment, and there was no clinically significant leg-length discrepancy. The method is relatively simple to employ and may be advantageous in a setting of limited resources. PMID:12799757

Gracilla, Ranulfo V; Diaz, Hilario M; Penaranda, Noel R; Pagsisilgan, Jose M; Spiegel, David A; Quirapas, Dante; Reyes, Espiridion R

2003-01-01

381

Optical Shaft-Angle Encoder For Helicopter Rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Angular position of helicopter rotor blade determined precisely. Accomplished by use of optical shaft-angle encoder called "256 Ring" on rotor swashplate. Each 360 degree rotation of helicopter main rotor broken down into 256 reflective segments. As rotor rotates, beam of light reflected in turn from each segment into optoelectronic system. One of 256 segments reflects larger pulse than others do. Position of rotor determined by counting number of pulses after this reference pulse. While swashplate mounting requirements unique to each type of helicopter, concept applicable to all types of rotorcraft.

Golub, Robert A.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Dennis, Dale V.; Taylor, Bryant D.

1993-01-01

382

Full-thickness skin with mature hair follicles generated from tissue culture expanded human cells.  

PubMed

The goal of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct fully functional organs from tissue culture expanded human cells. In this study, we report a method for human reconstructed skin (hRSK) when starting with human cells. We implanted tissue culture expanded human epidermal and dermal cells into an excision wound on the back of immunodeficient mice. Pigmented skin covered the wound 4 weeks after implantation. Hair shafts were visible at 12 weeks and prominent at 14 weeks. Histologically, the hRSK comprises an intact epidermis and dermis with mature hair follicles, sebaceous glands and most notably, and unique to this system, subcutis. Morphogenesis, differentiation, and maturation of the hRSK mirror the human fetal process. Human antigen markers demonstrate that the constituent cells are of human origin for at least 6 months. The degree of new skin formation is most complete when using tissue culture expanded cells from fetal skin, but it also occurs with expanded newborn and adult cells; however, no appendages formed when we grafted both adult dermal and epidermal cells. The hRSK system promises to be valuable as a laboratory model for studying biological, pathological, and pharmaceutical problems of human skin. PMID:25074625

Wu, Xunwei; Scott, Larry; Washenik, Ken; Stenn, Kurt

2014-12-01

383

Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

1972-01-01

384

a Modified Approach Based on Influence Coefficient Method for Balancing Crank-Shafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional balancing machines utilize two-plane separation for the determination of equivalent imbalances. However, the imbalance masses of a crank-shaft cannot be corrected at arbitrary locations of the balancing planes. This study has presented a modified method for balancing crank-shafts by using the soft-pedestal machines. The modified influence coefficient method for asymmetrical rotor-bearing systems has been applied to balance crank-shafts. Also, the decomposition method for irremovable masses has been replaced by an iteration method based on an influence coefficient approach. Furthermore, the validity and accuracy of the modified approach are verified in balancing practical crank-shafts.

KANG, Y.; CHANG, Y.-P.; TSENG, M.-H.; TANG, P.-H.; CHANG, Y.-F.

2000-07-01

385

Field tests and new design procedure for laterally loaded drilled shafts in clay  

E-print Network

- 1977) Precast Panel Retaining Wall Boring - Sl . . . . . Boring - S2 . Boring - 53 . Texas Cone Penetrometer Test Boring - S4 . Boring - SS Boring - S6 . Location of Borings and Test Shafts Lateral Loading System Drilled Shaft Reinforcing... ca1sson, a bored-pile, or a cast-in-place pile. A drilled shaft obta1ns its axial bear1ng capacity from a combina- tion of frictional resistance on the side of the shaft and end bearing res1stance. The ratio of frictional to end bearing resistance...

Bierschwale, Mark W.

1980-01-01

386

A fiber optic sensor for noncontact measurement of shaft speed, torque, and power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fiber optic sensor which enables noncontact measurement of the speed, torque and power of a rotating shaft was fabricated and tested. The sensor provides a direct measurement of shaft rotational speed and shaft angular twist, from which torque and power can be determined. Angles of twist between 0.005 and 10 degrees were measured. Sensor resolution is limited by the sampling rate of the analog to digital converter, while accuracy is dependent on the spot size of the focused beam on the shaft. Increasing the sampling rate improves measurement resolution, and decreasing the focused spot size increases accuracy. Digital processing allows for enhancement of an electronically or optically degraded signal.

Madzsar, George C.

1990-01-01

387

Hydrodynamically Lubricated Rotary Shaft Having Twist Resistant Geometry  

DOEpatents

A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft with a cross-sectional geometry suitable for pressurized lubricant retention is provided which, in the preferred embodiment, incorporates a protuberant static sealing interface that, compared to prior art, dramatically improves the exclusionary action of the dynamic sealing interface in low pressure and unpressurized applications by achieving symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. In abrasive environments, the improved exclusionary action results in a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear, compared to prior art, and provides a significant increase in seal life. The invention also increases seal life by making higher levels of initial compression possible, compared to prior art, without compromising hydrodynamic lubrication; this added compression makes the seal more tolerant of compression set, abrasive wear, mechanical misalignment, dynamic runout, and manufacturing tolerances, and also makes hydrodynamic seals with smaller cross-sections more practical. In alternate embodiments, the benefits enumerated above are achieved by cooperative configurations of the seal and the gland which achieve symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. The seal may also be configured such that predetermined radial compression deforms it to a desired operative configuration, even through symmetrical deformation is lacking.

Dietle, Lannie (Houston, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

1993-07-27

388

Humeral shaft fracture management, a prospective study; nailing or plating  

PubMed Central

Introduction In this fast moving & advancing era no body want to remain handicapped in immobilization by cast with limited movement. As our knowledge is growing, orthopedic implants and appliances also advancing, and creating a very potential options to manage fracture shaft of humerus by internal fixation either by plate osteosynthesis or interlocking nailing. We are here to evaluate the options of internal fixation; nailing and plating. Material and method We prospectively evaluated the results of 30 patients having humeral Shaft fracture. Who were internally fixed by antegrade interlocking nailing (15) and DCP plate (15). Patients are followed up on average of 16–19 months and results were evaluated with standard protocol. Results All fractures united uneventfully with usual complication. However we need 2 reoperation in nailing and 1 case of plating for bone grafting. Conclusion Internal fixation have immense use in providing better results in form of less deformity, early mobilization and good union. Plating is better option for fixation in terms of less union time, better joint function and lesser reoperation However Nailing is good alternative as minimal invasive approach, less infection, less nerve injury, less chance of implant failure.

Kumar, Rupesh; Singh, Pankaj; Chaudhary, Lal Jee; Singh, Shailendra

2012-01-01

389

Pathomorphological peculiarities of damage to hair cells of the organ of corti in experimental sensorineural hearing loss.  

PubMed

Pathomorphology of the organ of Corti was studied on models of acute and chronic sensorineural damage to the acoustic analyzer. Peculiarities of hair cell degeneration, necrosis, and apoptosis in the organ were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The type of pathomorphological substrate in abnormalities of the organ of Corti depends on the intensity of the destructive exposure, but not on the nature of otopathological factors. PMID:17073165

Zhuravskii, S G; Borodulin, V G; Tomson, V V; Lopotko, A I

2006-03-01

390

Hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women  

PubMed Central

In the literature of the past 30 years there are only some publications concerned with hair loss and hyperprolactinemia in women. Therefore, the relevance of hyperprolactinemia was evaluated in 40 women with diffuse alopecia. Hair loss was assessed by clinical appearance and the pluck trichogram. 82.5% of the female patients had diffuse hair loss and 17.5% had androgenetic alopecia. The highest prolactin values measured were 1390 ng/ml and 255 ng/ml. Six patients had values between 150–80.4 ng/ml and 10 between 79.1–51.7 ng/ml. All others had prolactin values below 50 ng/ml. Fifteen untreated patients with elevated prolactin levels could be followed up. Without any prolactin-inhibiting drugs, reductions and normalizations beside moderate fluctuations could be detected. Thyroid-specific diagnostics showed in 95% of the patients a normal thyroid function. 2.5% had a slight hyperthyreoidism and 2.5% had a slight hypothyreoidism. No female patient had clinical signs of androgenization and the determined androgens testosterone, androstendione and dihydroepiandrostendione were in the normal range. According to these results, moderate elevated prolactin levels in association with diffuse or androgenetic hair loss can be neglected as causative for the hair loss, because there is no evidence that they have an influence to the pattern, the extent or the duration of the hair loss. These results are supported by investigations of other authors who described only in high doses of prolactin an inhibiting effect on human hair follicles in vitro. Nevertheless, moderate constantly elevated prolactin levels should induce further diagnostics to exclude a prolactin-producing tumor of the pituitary gland. PMID:22870355

2012-01-01

391

Unifying the various incarnations of active hair-bundle motility by the vertebrate hair cell.  

PubMed

The dazzling sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the vertebrate ear rely on mechanical amplification of the hair cells' responsiveness to small stimuli. As revealed by spontaneous oscillations and forms of mechanical excitability in response to force steps, the hair bundle that adorns each hair cell is both a mechanosensory antenna and a force generator that might participate in the amplificatory process. To study the various incarnations of active hair-bundle motility, we combined Ca(2+) iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. We identified three classes of active hair-bundle movements: a hair bundle could be quiescent but display nonmonotonic twitches in response to either excitatory or inhibitory force steps, or oscillate spontaneously. Extracellular Ca(2+) changes could affect the kinetics of motion and, when large enough, evoke transitions between the three classes of motility. We found that the Ca(2+)-dependent location of a bundle's operating point within its force-displacement relation controlled the type of movement observed. In response to an iontophoretic pulse of Ca(2+) or of a Ca(2+) chelator, a hair bundle displayed a movement whose polarity could be reversed by applying a static bias to the bundle's position at rest. Moreover, such polarity reversal was accompanied by a 10-fold change in the kinetics of the Ca(2+)-evoked hair-bundle movement. A unified theoretical description, in which mechanical activity stems solely from myosin-based adaptation, could account for the fast and slow manifestations of active hair-bundle motility observed in frog, as well as in auditory organs of the turtle and the rat. PMID:17704173

Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Jülicher, Frank; Martin, Pascal

2007-12-01

392

A Rare Stapes Abnormality  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

393

A rare stapes abnormality.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50?dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

2015-01-01

394

Contribution of in utero drug exposure when interpreting hair results in young children.  

PubMed

Hair specimen is necessary to complement blood and/or urine analyses as it permits differentiation of a single exposure from chronic use of a drug by segmentation of the hair for a stated growth period. Moreover, due to a frequent long delay between event and police declaration, hair can be the only solution for lack of corroborative evidence of a committed crime. With the exception of lower amount of biological material in children versus adults, there is no specific analytical problem when processing samples from children. The issue is the interpretation of the findings, with respect to the different pharmacological parameters. In some very young children, the interpretation can be complicated by potential in utero exposure. Twenty-four cases from daily practice have been reviewed. Children were less than 1 year old, hair was always longer than 4cm and the corresponding mothers admitted having used drugs during pregnancy. Drugs involved include methadone, tramadol, diphenhydramine, diazepam, cannabis, heroin, amitriptyline and bromazepam. Analyses were achieved by hyphenated chromatographic validated procedures after hair decontamination and segmentation. The concentrations measured in the hair of children were lower than those observed in subjects using therapeutically (or illegally) these drugs. In that sense, the frequency of exposures appears as un-frequent (low level of exposure), with marked decrease in the more recent period. However, the parents denied any administration in all cases and there was no reason to suspect re-exposure after delivery and no clinical problem during the period between delivery and hair collection during regular visits to the physician was noticed. The pattern of drug distribution was similar in all these cases, low concentrations in the proximal segments and highest concentration in the distal segment (last segment). When considering the concentration in the distal segment as the 100% of the response (highest concentration), after analysis of 4 segments (irrespective of the length of the segment but longer than 1cm), it was observed the following pattern: proximal segment, 5-35% of the response; segment 2, 15-50% of the response; segment 3, 25-60% of the response; and distal segment, 100% of the response. It is proposed to consider 100% in utero contribution to the final interpretation when the ratio concentration of the proximal segment to the concentration of the distal segment is lower than 0.5. This can be applied only when the child is under 1 year old and the hair shaft length is at least 4cm (to achieve suitable segmentation). It is important, when using this cut-off to have at least 3 or 4 segments to be able to observe the variation in drug concentrations, whatever the length of each segment (>1cm). PMID:25450508

Kintz, P

2014-09-28

395

Premature hair graying and bone mineral density.  

PubMed

In a recent case-control study, premature hair graying was found to be associated with osteopenia, suggesting that this might be a clinically useful risk factor for osteoporosis. We report a reexamination of this possibility in 293 healthy postmenopausal women. Subjects experiencing onset of hair graying in their 20s tended to have lower bone mineral density throughout the skeleton (adjusted for age and weight) than those with onset of graying later in life. The same was true for those in whom the majority of their hair was gray by the age of 40 yr (n = 16), in whom bone density was reduced by 7% in the femoral neck, 8% in the femoral trochanter, and 4% in the total body (P < 0.05) when compared with those not prematurely gray. Bone density at the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle showed similar trends that were not significant. However, premature hair graying explained only 0.6-1.3% of the variance in bone mineral density within the population. We conclude that premature hair graying is associated with low bone density, but that its infrequency in the normal postmenopausal population leads to its accounting for only a tiny fraction of the variance of bone density. PMID:9360510

Orr-Walker, B J; Evans, M C; Ames, R W; Clearwater, J M; Reid, I R

1997-11-01

396

Black Holes with Flavors of Quantum Hair?  

E-print Network

We show that black holes can posses a long-range quantum hair of super-massive tensor fields, which can be detected by Aharonov-Bohm tabletop interference experiments, in which a quantum-hairy black hole, or a remnant particle, passes through the loop of a magnetic solenoid. The long distance effect does not decouple for an arbitrarily high mass of the hair-providing field. Because Kaluza-Klein and String theories contain infinite number of massive tensor fields, we study black holes with quantum Kaluza-Klein hair. We show that in five dimensions such a black hole can be interpreted as a string of `combed' generalized magnetic monopoles, with their fluxes confined along it. For the compactification on a translation-invariant circle, this substructure uncovers hidden flux conservation and quantization of the monopole charges, which constrain the quantum hair of the resulting four-dimensional black hole. For the spin-2 quantum hair this result is somewhat unexpected, since the constituent `magnetic' charges have no `electric' counterparts. Nevertheless, the information about their quantization is encoded in singularity.

Gia Dvali

2006-07-20

397

Oxidative Stress in Ageing of Hair  

PubMed Central

Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a major role in the ageing process. Reactive oxygen species are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage cellular structural membranes, lipids, proteins, and DNA. The body possesses endogenous defence mechanisms, such as antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidative molecules, protecting it from free radicals by reducing and neutralizing them. With age, the production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defence mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to the progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the ageing phenotype. Ageing of hair manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production or alopecia. There is circumstantial evidence that oxidative stress may be a pivotal mechanism contributing to hair graying and hair loss. New insights into the role and prevention of oxidative stress could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process and age-dependent alopecia. PMID:20805969

Trüeb, Ralph M

2009-01-01

398

Positioning of Nuclei in Arabidopsis Root Hairs  

PubMed Central

In growing Arabidopsis root hairs, the nucleus locates at a fixed distance from the apex, migrates to a random position during growth arrest, and moves from branch to branch in a mutant with branched hairs. Consistently, an artificial increase of the distance between the nucleus and the apex, achieved by entrapment of the nucleus in a laser beam, stops cell growth. Drug studies show that microtubules are not involved in the positioning of the nucleus but that subapical fine F-actin between the nucleus and the hair apex is required to maintain the nuclear position with respect to the growing apex. Injection of an antibody against plant villin, an actin filament-bundling protein, leads to actin filament unbundling and movement of the nucleus closer to the apex. Thus, the bundled actin at the tip side of the nucleus prevents the nucleus from approaching the apex. In addition, we show that the basipetal movement of the nucleus at root hair growth arrest requires protein synthesis and a functional actin cytoskeleton in the root hair tube. PMID:12417712

Ketelaar, Tijs; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Esseling, John J.; de Ruijter, Norbert C. A.; Grierson, Claire S.; Dogterom, Marileen; Emons, Anne Mie C.

2002-01-01

399

De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Differential Gene Expression Profiling of Three Capra hircus Skin Types during Anagen of the Hair Growth Cycle  

PubMed Central

Despite that goat is one of the best nonmodel systems for villus growth studies and hair biology, limited gene resources associated with skin or hair follicles are available. In the present study, using Illumina/Solexa sequencing technology, we de novo assembled 130 million mRNA-Seq reads into a total of 49,115 contigs. Searching public databases revealed that about 45% of the total contigs can be annotated as known proteins, indicating that some of the assembled contigs may have previously uncharacterized functions. Functional classification by KOG and GO showed that activities associated with metabolism are predominant in goat skin during anagen phase. Many signaling pathways was also created based on the mapping of assembled contigs to the KEGG pathway database, some of which have been previously demonstrated to have diverse roles in hair follicle and hair shaft formation. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of three skin types identified ~6,300 transcript-derived contigs that are differentially expressed. These genes mainly enriched in the functional cluster associated with cell cycle and cell division. The large contig catalogue as well as the genes which were differentially expressed in different skin types provide valuable candidates for further characterization of gene functions. PMID:23762818

Guo, Xudong; Wang, Hui; Du, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Liu, Dongjun

2013-01-01

400

Hair cycle-specific immunolocalization of retinoic acid synthesizing enzymes Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3 indicate complex regulation.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid has long been known to alter skin and hair growth but an exact mechanism is unclear. This study was performed to examine the sites of endogenous retinoic acid synthesis in the cycling hair follicle to better understand the role retinoic acid plays in this process. Retinal dehydrogenases (Aldh1a1, 2, and 3, formerly Raldh 1, 2, and 3) are the enzymes responsible for the last step in retinoic acid synthesis. Immunohistochemistry was performed on adult C57BL/6J mouse skin sections with antibodies against Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3. Aldh1a2 expression was seen primarily in the outer root sheath and basal/spinous layer during all stages of the hair cycle, and in the bulge during anagen and early catagen, whereas Aldh1a3 expression was primarily in the dermal papilla, pre-cortex, and hair shaft during mid-late anagen. The expression patterns of these two similar retinoic acid synthesizing enzymes at specific follicular sites suggest that they mediate and are regulated by different epithelial proliferation and differentiation signaling pathways. PMID:15245423

Everts, Helen B; King, Lloyd E; Sundberg, John P; Ong, David E

2004-08-01

401

Analysis of Dermal Papilla Cell Interactome Using STRING Database to Profile the ex Vivo Hair Growth Inhibition Effect of a Vinca Alkaloid Drug, Colchicine.  

PubMed

Dermal papillae (DPs) control the formation of hair shafts. In clinical settings, colchicine (CLC) induces patients' hair shedding. Compared to the control, the ex vivo hair fiber elongation of organ cultured vibrissa hair follicles (HFs) declined significantly after seven days of CLC treatment. The cultured DP cells (DPCs) were used as the experimental model to study the influence of CLC on the protein dynamics of DPs. CLC could alter the morphology and down-regulate the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the marker of DPC activity, and induce I?B? phosphorylation of DPCs. The proteomic results showed that CLC modulated the expression patterns (fold > 2) of 24 identified proteins, seven down-regulated and 17 up-regulated. Most of these proteins were presumably associated with protein turnover, metabolism, structure and signal transduction. Protein-protein interactions (PPI) among these proteins, established by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) database, revealed that they participate in protein metabolic process, translation, and energy production. Furthermore, ubiquitin C (UbC) was predicted to be the controlling hub, suggesting the involvement of ubiquitin-proteasome system in modulating the pathogenic effect of CLC on DPC. PMID:25664862

Hsia, Ching-Wu; Ho, Ming-Yi; Shui, Hao-Ai; Tsai, Chong-Bin; Tseng, Min-Jen

2015-01-01

402

A Survey of the Awareness, Knowledge and Behavior of Hair Dye Use in a Korean Population with Gray Hair  

PubMed Central

Background Gray hair naturally develops in the process of human aging. Many people with gray hair periodically dye their hair. Hair dyeing products are widely used and they can cause adverse effects. Therefore, the user's knowledge and recognition about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. Objective The goal of this study was to lay the foundation for understanding, preventing and treating side effects caused by hair coloring products. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey for adult males and females aged over 20 who had gray hair. A total of 500 subjects were included in this study and statistical analysis was performed. Results Large numbers of the people who had experience with hair dye (233 out of 319 people, 73.0%) did not know about the exact brand name of the hair dye product that they were using. Of 319 hair dye users, 23.8% (76 out of 319) people stated that they experienced side effects. Despite the occurrence of side effects from hair dyeing products, it seems they did not realize the seriousness of the side effects or the need for treatment. Conclusion It is advisable to introduce a system that enables users to become aware of the ingredients and side effects of hair coloring products and give opportunities for users to become aware of the side effects of hair coloring through education, publicity and publication of an informational booklet. PMID:22879710

Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Hee Dam

2012-01-01

403

A computational approach for understanding adaptation in vertebrate hair cells  

E-print Network

Vertebrate hair cells respond to mechanical stimuli with an inward current that is carried by extracellular cations through mechanically-gated transmembrane ion channels called transduction channels, located in the hair ...

Niksch, Paul D

2012-01-01

404

Correcting problems in hair restoration surgery: an update.  

PubMed

Hair is an important emblem of health, youth, vigor, and vitality. The state of the art in hair restoration today is to create a result that is undetectable as a surgical hair transplant. Most procedures performed using previous techniques of plug hair trans-plantation are not aesthetically acceptable by today's standards, especially in the face of progressive hair loss, which can unmask previously camouflaged corn row plugs. A technique to reduce the plugs and recycle the grafts into smaller grafts is described. The recycled hair grafts can be combined with scalp lifting, scalp reductions, and occipital harvesting of grafts to improve the results of corn row-appearing hair trans-plants and other problems of surgical hair restoration. PMID:15135137

Vogel, James E

2004-05-01

405

Best Rx Options for Hair Loss in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... By parting this woman's hair in the center, the dermatologist can see that this woman does not have visible hair loss. This woman’s part reveals a Christmas-tree pattern, which is an early sign of hereditary ...

406

Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction  

DOEpatents

Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

2014-11-11

407

1. AIR/MANWAY SHAFT WALL AND FAN HOUSE FOUNDATION WALL FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. AIR/MANWAY SHAFT WALL AND FAN HOUSE FOUNDATION WALL FROM NORTHWEST. AEROVANE FAN AT UPPER LEFT, SCAFFOLD AND LEPLEY VENTILATOR AT UPPER RIGHT. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Air-Manway Shaft, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

408

Turbine-Generator Shaft Torques and Fatigue: Part I - Simulation Methods and Fatigue Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first of two papers concerned with the effects of power system disturbances and operating practices upon turbine-generator shafts. The paper presents techniques for the analysis of shaft fatigue damage due to torsional oscillations. The detailed development of a fatigue model is presented. An example illustrates the use of the techniques for calculation of the loss of

M. C. Jackson; S. D. Umans; R. D. Dunlop; S. H. Horowitz; A. C. Parikh

1979-01-01

409

Process and shaft kiln for the burning of lime or similar bulk materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proces is disclosed for the burning of lime, cement or other lumpy bulk materials in a shaft kiln using coal. Coal dust or particulated dry coal is continuously fed into a gasification chamber positioned in the center of the shaft kiln and is therein partially or fully gasified by the addition of air in substoichiometric proportions. The partially or

Von Z. H

1981-01-01

410

Research of the risk management system for large-scale mining shaft construction projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the engineering practice of the large-scale mining shaft construction projects and at owner's comprehensive risk management, we have successfully developed a practical and operational risk management system for the large mining shaft construction projects, including risk identification and risk analysis, risk assessment, risk response, risk monitoring and controlling. After that, combined theory with practice, we have analyzed indemnificatory

Wang Wenshun; Li Hualong; Li Xiaohua

2011-01-01

411

Mine shafts in Nord -Pas-de-Calais coalfield (France) Risk assessment and Treatment technique  

E-print Network

Mine shafts in Nord - Pas-de-Calais coalfield (France) Risk assessment and Treatment technique for the identification and the assessment of residual risks associated with underground mine workings. If necessary for the population and future land planning. The multiplicity of mine shafts in coal mining areas have created many

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

412

Accidental neutron dosimetry with human hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human hair contains sulfur, which can be activated by fast neutrons. The 32S(n,p)32P reaction with a threshold of 2.5 MeV was used for fast neutron dose estimation. It is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the human body. Samples of human hair were irradiated in a radial channel of a training reactor VR-1. 32P activity in hair was measured both, directly by means of a proportional counter, and as ash dispersed in a liquid scintillator. Based on neutron spectrum estimation, a relationship between the neutron dose and induced activity was derived. The experiment verified the practical feasibility of this dosimetry method in cases of criticality accidents or malevolent acts with nuclear materials.

Ekendahl, Daniela; Be?ková, V?ra; Zdychová, Vlasta; Bulánek, Boris; Prouza, Zden?k; Štefánik, Milan

2014-11-01

413

Scalp hair patterns in mental subnormality.  

PubMed Central

Scalp hair patterns have been examined in 1901 healthy subjects and 1789 severely subnormal patients. Patients with Down's syndrome had a highly significant excess of midline occipital whorls and a deficit of right-sided occipital whorls. Five out of 44 patients with microcephaly had a distinct 'up-sweep' of the frontal hair, a much lower proportion than found previously. Patients with unspecified mental subnormality had a highly significant deficit of multiple occipital whorls. Cutis verticis gyrata was noted incidentally in 15 subnormal patients, 13 of whom were males. Observation of hair patterns in individual patients with mental subnormality is of theoretical interest but is unlikely to be of great practical value. PMID:132531

David, T J; Osborne, C M

1976-01-01

414

The Mechanotransduction Machinery of Hair Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical force into an electrochemical signal, allows living organisms to detect touch, hear, register movement and gravity, and sense changes in cell volume and shape. Hair cells in the vertebrate inner ear are mechanoreceptor cells specialized for the detection of sound and head movement. Each hair cell contains, at the apical surface, rows of stereocilia that are connected by extracellular filaments to form an exquisitely organized bundle. Mechanotransduction channels, localized near the tips of the stereocilia, are gated by the gating spring, an elastic element that is stretched upon stereocilia deflection and mediates rapid channel opening. Components of the mechanotransduction machinery in hair cells have been identified and several are encoded by genes linked to deafness in humans, which indicates that defects in the mechanotransduction machinery are the underlying cause of some forms of hearing impairment.

Nicolas Grillet (La Jolla; Scripps Research Institute REV)

2009-08-25

415

Red hair may increase melanoma risk  

Cancer.gov

A person’s skin pigment, which determines hair color and skin tone, is influenced by the melanocortin-1 (MC1R) gene receptor. For the population’s 1 to 2 percent of redheads, a mutation in MC1R accounts for their red hair color and typical light skin. Now researchers from Harvard Medical School (a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) have discovered that the same MC1R mutation responsible for the red-hair phenotype also promotes an important cancer-causing pathway. The new findings, reported online August 22 in the journal Molecular Cell, help to explain the molecular mechanisms that underlie redheads’ well-known risk of developing melanoma, providing new insights for treating and preventing this dangerous type of skin cancer.

416

Leg hammock for closed reduction of tibial shaft fractures.  

PubMed

Tibial shaft fractures are common injuries in emergency departments (EDs). Although many of these fractures require surgery, nearly all are stabilized in the ED with a long leg splint or bivalved cast. Long leg splinting is often challenging for a single health care provider. Further, even with assistance or previously described techniques for fracture reduction and stabilization, fracture angulation may occur, potentially leading to pain for the patient, fracture displacement, or further soft tissue injury. The authors propose a method for splinting tibial fractures that avoids fracture angulation, is cost-effective and quick, and can be easily performed by a single health care provider. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(2):113-116.]. PMID:25665109

Watkins, Colyn; Todd, Dane; Jamieson, Sarah; Mansour, Ashton

2015-02-01

417

Pityriasis Versicolor on Penile Shaft in a Renal Transplant Recipient  

PubMed Central

Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area. PMID:22879720

Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We

2012-01-01

418

Pityriasis versicolor on penile shaft in a renal transplant recipient.  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area. PMID:22879720

Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We; Lee, Kyu-Suk

2012-08-01

419

3D-Measuring for Head Shape Covering Hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D-Measuring is paid to attention because 3D-Display is making rapid spread. Especially, face and head are required to be measured because of necessary or contents production. However, it is a present problem that it is difficult to measure hair. Then, in this research, it is a purpose to measure face and hair with phase shift method. By using sine images arranged for hair measuring, the problems on hair measuring, dark color and reflection, are settled.

Kato, Tsukasa; Hattori, Koosuke; Nomura, Takuya; Taguchi, Ryo; Hoguro, Masahiro; Umezaki, Taizo

420

Load along the femur shaft during activities of daily living.  

PubMed

A comprehensive knowledge of the loads applied during activities of daily living to the femur shaft is necessary to the design of direct attachments of relevant prostheses. A motion analysis system was used together with an established protocol with skin markers to estimate the three components of the forces and moments acting on ten equidistant points along the full femur shaft. Twenty healthy young volunteers were analyzed while performing three repetitions of the following tasks: level walking at three different speeds, straight-line and with sudden changes of direction to the right and to the left, stairs ascending and descending, squat, rising from a chair and sitting down. Average load patterns, after normalisation for body weight and height, were calculated over subjects for each point, about the three anatomical axes, and for each motor task. These patterns were found consistent over subjects, but different among the anatomical axes and tasks. In general, the moments were observed limitedly influenced by the progression speed, and higher for more proximal points. The moments were also higher in abd/adduction (8.1% body weight*height on average), nearly three times larger than those in flex/extension (2.6) during stair descending. The largest value over all moments was 164.8 N m, abd/adduction in level walking at high speed. The present results should be of value also for a most suitable level for amputation in transfemoral amputation, for in-vitro mechanical tests and for finite element models of the femur. PMID:23845727

D'Angeli, V; Belvedere, C; Ortolani, M; Giannini, S; Leardini, A

2013-08-01

421

A history of metal shaft/portal closures in Utah  

SciTech Connect

Over the last twelve years the Utah Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program has utilized metal shaft and portal closures when physical constraints required an alternative method of closure to backfill or masonry seals. Eight types of metal closures have been installed with varying degrees of success. Relative advantages/disadvantages of these closures are discussed. The eight closure types are (1) A-frame {open_quotes}bird cages{close_quotes}, (2) large diameter cyclone fence-type grid, (3) bar grates, (4) rebar grates, (5) cable nets, (6) steel doors, (7) angle iron bat grates, and (8) {open_quotes}jail bar{close_quotes} steel bat grates. The primary application of the fabricated metal closures has been in non-coal mines. Only the angle iron bat grate has been installed in abandoned coal mines to date. Bird cages placed in avalanche zones failed and the shafts were later backfilled. Large cyclone fence-type grids were placed in the Wasatch and Tintic mountains in 1985. Rebar grates have been used in the Wasatch and Tintic mountains as an alternative to backfill. Bar grating was used in the Tintic mountains when the aesthetics of an historical headframe dictated a less visible closure. Cable nets have been installed in Canyonlands National Park utilizing a design pioneered in Death Valley National Monument. Steel doors have been utilized where the landowner requests access or a need to access the adit exists. Two types of bat grates have been utilized in both coal and non-coal mines where sensitive or endangered bat species have been identified. The bird cage design has not been as effective as the others. Indications are the rebar grates, angle iron bar grates, and steel doors excel in giving long term protection to the public, with the second generation bat grate giving the maximum protection to the public.

Amodt, L.A. [Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-12-31

422

Effects of hair treatment on hair mercury—The best biomarker of methylmercury exposure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Exposure misclassification is a major obstacle to obtain accurate dose-response relationships. In order to solve this problem,\\u000a the impact of hair treatment on total mercury in hair was assessed in Japanese women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross-sectional study was carried out among 327 women at age 24–49 years to determine hair mercury levels and estimate daily\\u000a mercury intakes from seafood by using a

Miwako Dakeishi; Kunihiko Nakai; Mineshi Sakamoto; Toyoto Iwata; Keita Suzuki; Xiao-Jie Liu; Tomoko Ohno; Tomoko Kurosawa; Hiroshi Satoh; Katsuyuki Murata

2005-01-01

423

Controlling Hair Follicle Signaling Pathways through Polyubiquitination  

PubMed Central

Hair follicle development and maintenance require precise reciprocal signaling interactions between the epithelium and underlying dermis. Three major developmental signaling pathways, Wnt, Sonic hedgehog, and NF-?B/Edar, are indispensable for this process and, when aberrantly activated, can lead to skin and appendage neoplasms. Recent data point to protein polyubiquitination as playing a central role in regulating the timing, duration, and location of signaling. Here we review how polyubiquitination regulates the stability and interaction of key signaling components that control hair follicle development and regeneration. PMID:18408747

Huntzicker, Erik G.; Oro, Anthony E.

2009-01-01

424

Spherical Black Holes cannot Support Scalar Hair  

E-print Network

The static spherically symmetric ``black hole solution" of the Einstein - conformally invariant massless scalar field equations known as the BBMB ( Bocharova, , Bronikov, Melinkov, Bekenstein) black hole is critically examined. It is shown that the stress energy tensor is ill-defined at the horizon, and that its evaluation through suitable regularization yields ambiguous results. Consequently, the configuration fails to represent a genuine black hole solution. With the removal of this solution as a counterexample to the no hair conjecture, we argue that the following appears to be true: Spherical black holes cannot carry any kind of classical scalar hair.

D. Sudarsky; T. Zannias

1997-12-19

425

The Micromachinery of Mechanotransduction in Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Mechanical stimuli generated by head movements and changes in sound pressure are detected by hair cells with amazing speed and sensitivity. The mechanosensitive organelle, the hair bundle, is a highly elaborated structure of actin-based stereocilia arranged in precise rows of increasing height. Extracellular linkages contribute to its cohesion and convey forces to mechanically gated channels. Channel opening is nearly instantaneous and is followed by a process of sensory adaptation that keeps the channels poised in their most sensitive range. This process is served by motors, scaffolds, and homeostatic mechanisms. The molecular constituents of this process are rapidly being elucidated, especially by the discovery of deafness genes and antibody targets. PMID:17428178

Vollrath, Melissa A.; Kwan, Kelvin Y.; Corey, David P.

2010-01-01

426

Fabrication of a Microneedle Using Human Hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we developed a novel microneedle design to inject medication into the skin and to remove blood from a blood vessel. A drilling machine and chemicals were used to drill a hollow needle bore into the center of a strand of human hair. Our results demonstrate that a pen-shaped microneedle has been fabricated at a length of 1.1 mm, a base diameter of 80 µm, and a tip diameter of 40 µm. The hair microneedle was sufficiently strong to insert into the meat of a chicken leg.

Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Takei, Tamotsu

2009-09-01

427

Black hole hair in Lovelock gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to analyze black hole hair in the spherical symmetric sector of the Lovelock theory in arbitrary dimensions that is an alternative to solving the equations of motion in their complete form. We explicitly show that the method matches with the known black hole solutions for the vacuum and electro-vacuum spacetimes in Lovelock gravity theories. We further apply the method to the case of minimally coupled non-self-interacting massless scalar field and prove that there is no (non-self-interacting) massless scalar hair for the spherically symmetric Lovelock black holes.

Skákala, Jozef; Shankaranarayanan, S.

2014-05-01

428

Black hole hair in Lovelock gravity  

E-print Network

We present a method to analyse black hole hair in the spherical symmetric sector of the Lovelock theory in arbitrary dimensions that is an alternative to solving the equations of motion in their complete form. We explicitly show that the method matches with the known black hole solutions for the vacuum and electro-vacuum spacetimes in Lovelock gravity theories. We further apply the method to the case of minimally coupled non-self-interacting massless scalar field and prove that there is no (non-self-interacting) massless scalar hair for the spherically symmetric Lovelock black holes.

Jozef Skakala; S. Shankaranarayanan

2014-04-22

429

Black hole hair in Lovelock gravity  

E-print Network

We present an efficient and robust method to analyse black hole hair in the spherical symmetric sector of the Lovelock theory in arbitrary dimensions that is an alternative to solving the equations of motion in their complete form. We explicitly show that the method matches with the known black hole solutions for the vacuum and electro-vacuum spacetimes in Lovelock gravity theories. We further apply the method to the case of minimally coupled massless scalar field and prove that there is no massless scalar hair for the spherically symmetric Lovelock black holes.

Skakala, Jozef

2013-01-01

430

Many Paths to Alopecia via Compromised Regeneration of Hair  

E-print Network

Many Paths to Alopecia via Compromised Regeneration of Hair Follicle Stem Cells Ji Li1,2,3,4 , Ting morphogens in modulating hair follicle stem cell activities. Recent studies have revealed novel molecular events within the nucleus, which are required for the activation and progression of hair stem cells

Chuong, Cheng-Ming

431

Gender classification by combining clothing, hair and facial component classifiers  

E-print Network

design feature extraction methods for hair and clothing; these features have seldom been used in previousGender classification by combining clothing, hair and facial component classifiers Bing Li a , Xiao classification Facial components Clothing feature Hair feature Classifier combination Local binary pattern

Lu, Bao-Liang

432

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2014-07-01

433

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2013-07-01

434

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2011-07-01

435

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2012-07-01

436

36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13.1114 Section 13.1114 Parks...General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is authorized in accordance with...

2010-07-01

437

Modeling Hair Influenced by Water and Styling Products  

E-print Network

Modeling Hair Influenced by Water and Styling Products Kelly Ward Nico Galoppo Ming C. Lin for capturing the key characteristics of hair influenced by water and styling products. Our approach includes a dynamics system that adaptively accounts for changing stiffness and weight of the hair, a ge- ometric

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

438

Outer hair cell active force generation in the cochlear environment  

E-print Network

Outer hair cell active force generation in the cochlear environment Zhijie Liao, Shengran Feng Outer hair cells are critical to the amplification and frequency selectivity of the mammalian ear acting hair cells are electromotile, and they are strategically located in the cochlea to generate an active

Popel, Aleksander S.

439

Title: Realistic Hair Simulation animation and rendering Submission Format & Area  

E-print Network

Title: Realistic Hair Simulation ­ animation and rendering Submission Format & Area Class SIGGRAPH of the most challenging tasks in character synthesis: hair simulation. This class covers both recent and novel research ideas in hair animation and rendering, and presents time tested industrial practices

440

Research paper Fast cochlear amplification with slow outer hair cells  

E-print Network

Research paper Fast cochlear amplification with slow outer hair cells Timothy K. Lu a,b , Serhii hair cells (OHCs) produce mechanical amplification over the entire audio-frequency range (up to 100 k reserved. Keywords: Cochlear amplifier; Outer hair cell; Receptor potential; Membrane time constant low

Sarpeshkar, Rahul

441

Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis: Supplemental Material Tsinghua University  

E-print Network

Example-Based Hair Geometry Synthesis: Supplemental Material Lvdi Wang1 1 Tsinghua University Microsoft Research Asia A Correcting Reversed Strands All existing image-based hair acquisition methods and then trace individual hair strands from this field. However, it is difficult for an algorithm to confidently

Yu, Yizhou

442

RESEARCH Open Access Trans-cranial focused ultrasound without hair  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Trans-cranial focused ultrasound without hair shaving: feasibility study made of human hair was sonicated using 220- and 710-kHz head transducers to evaluate the feasibility. Results showed that the hair had a negligible effect on focal spot thermal rise at 220 kHz and a 17% drop

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

443

Image-Based Hair Capture by Inverse Lighting Stephane Grabli  

E-print Network

Image-Based Hair Capture by Inverse Lighting St´ephane Grabli iMAGIS -GRAVIR Franc¸ois X. Sillion i introduce an image-based method for modeling a specific subject's hair. The principle of the approach is to study the variations of hair illumination under controlled illumination. The use of a stationary

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

444

Hair Depigmentation and Dermatitis – An Unexpected Presentation of Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Hair depigmentation is very rare presentation of cystic fibrosis (CF). We present 3.5-month-old female patient who had dermatitis and depigmentation of hair and eye lashes, malnutrition, edema and anemia as presenting symptoms of CF. After pancreatic enzyme and vitamin supplementation therapy, skin changes gradually disappeared, and her hair regained its normal brown colour. PMID:24778569

Milankov, O; Savic, R; Tosic, J

2013-01-01

445

78 FR 66071 - Proposed Information Collection; Slope and Shaft Sinking Plans (Pertains to Surface Work Areas of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection; Slope and Shaft Sinking Plans (Pertains to Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and...slope or shaft that is commenced or extended from the surface to the underground coal mine. Each slope or...

2013-11-04

446

Overview of raise boring and blind shaft drilling with practical applications and particular reference to design limits for accuracy  

SciTech Connect

The current excavation technology of raise boring and blind shaft drilling operations is reviewed. Examples are presented of recent applications of both downhole boring machines and surface-mounted rotary shaft drilling equipment, with comparisons made of operational characteristics, shaft sizes, and accuracy limits of each system. Raise-boring and box-drilling machines are described and current operating practices of these systems are reviewed. The increased interest in slant hole or inclined shaft construction is noted, and techniques and equipment for these special shafts are presented. Practical accuracy limits are discussed for each shaft drilling technique and trade-offs between accuracy, drilling rates, and shaft utilization factors are noted. Finally, the current status of ongoing research and development efforts will be described, and some predictions made regarding worthwhile improvement trends in shaft construction methods.

Neudecker, J.W. Jr.

1984-04-18

447

Aqueous Extract of Red Deer Antler Promotes Hair Growth by Regulating the Hair Cycle and Cell Proliferation in Hair Follicles  

PubMed Central

Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendage capable of regeneration. We aimed to investigate the effect of red deer antler extract in regulating hair growth, using a mouse model. The backs of male mice were shaved at eight weeks of age. Crude aqueous extracts of deer antler were prepared at either 4°C or 100°C and injected subcutaneously to two separate groups of mice (n = 9) at 1?mL/day for 10 consecutive days, with water as a vehicle control group. The mice skin quantitative hair growth parameters were measured and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine was used to identify label-retaining cells. We found that, in both the 4°C and the 100°C deer antler aqueous extract-injection groups, the anagen phase was extended, while the number of BrdU-incorporated cells was dramatically increased. These results indicate that deer antler aqueous extract promotes hair growth by extending the anagen phase and regulating cell proliferation in the hair follicle region. PMID:24695964

Li, Jing-jie; Li, Zheng; Gu, Li-juan; Wang, Yun-bo; Lee, Mi-ra; Sung, Chang-keun

2014-01-01

448

An overview of chemical straightening of human hair: technical aspects, potential risks to hair fibre and health and legal issues.  

PubMed

Personal image, as it relates to external beauty, has attracted much attention from the cosmetic industry, and capillary aesthetics is a leader in consumption in this area. There is a great diversity of products targeting both the treatment and beautification of hair. Among them, hair straighteners stand out with a high demand by costumers aiming at beauty, social acceptance and ease of daily hair maintenance. However, this kind of treatment affects the chemical structure of keratin and of the hair fibre, bringing up some safety concerns. Moreover, the development of hair is a dynamic and cyclic process, where the duration of growth cycles depends not only on where hair grows, but also on issues such as the individual's age, dietary habits and hormonal factors. Thus, although hair fibres are composed of dead epidermal cells, when they emerge from the scalp, there is a huge variation in natural wave and the response to hair cosmetics. Although it is possible to give the hair a cosmetically favourable appearance through the use of cosmetic products, for good results in any hair treatment, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of the process. Important information, such as the composition and structure of the hair fibres, and the composition of products and techniques available for hair straightening, must be taken into account so that the straightening process can be designed appropriately, avoiding undesirable side effects for hair fibre and for health. This review aims to address the morphology, chemical composition and molecular structure of hair fibres, as well as the products and techniques used for chemical hair relaxing, their potential risk to hair fibre and to health and the legal aspects of their use. PMID:24102549

Miranda-Vilela, A L; Botelho, A J; Muehlmann, L A

2013-09-19

449

Organic components in hair-ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for the analysis of complex samples due to its outstanding mass resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (? 1 ppm), simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds. The characteristics of the FTICR-MS hair-ice spectra with as many as ten or more peaks at each nominal mass are discussed together with highly resolved spectra from water and soil samples different sources, respectively. Complete manual formula assignment for structure elucidation would be extremely time consuming, therefore, we used an automated post processing based on SciLab for exploitation of the data with the aim of an unambiguous assignment of as many peaks as possible. Once the formulae had been assigned, the obtained mass lists were first checked randomly and afterwards transformed into Excel format for further post-processing and description. Most important is the van Krevelen diagram, usually two-dimensional as atomic ratio H/C versus atomic ratio O/C, widely used to classify samples regarding polarity and aromaticity. By comparison with two references (Hockaday 2007, Sleighter 2007), which arranged various biopolymer substance classes in such Van Krevelen plots, lignin could be detected as the main hair-ice component.

Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

2013-04-01

450

Students' reactions to abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

W. S. Taylor

1932-01-01

451

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

452

Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

1998-01-01

453

A simple fluorimetric microassay for DNA in hair follicles or fractions of hair follicles.  

PubMed

Human hair follicles may be useful for determining individual differences in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in epithelial tissues. for quantitative measurements of carcinogen metabolism, determination of the amount of DNA in the hair follicles is necessary in order to correct for individual size variation. A simple method for DNa determination in hair follicles is described, based on the use of a hypotonic pronase solution to solubilise DNA which is then available for complex formation with mithramycin or 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. 2HCI (DAPI). The mithramycin method permits the measurement of DNA in a small number of hair follicles, while the DAPI method is sensitive for as little as one single bulb. PMID:6212022

Hukkelhoven, M W; Vromans, E; Markslag, A M; Vermorken, A J

1981-01-01

454

A generative sketch model for human hair analysis and synthesis.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a generative sketch model for human hair analysis and synthesis. We treat hair images as 2D piecewise smooth vector (flow) fields and, thus, our representation is view-based in contrast to the physically-based 3D hair models in graphics. The generative model has three levels. The bottom level is the high-frequency band of the hair image. The middle level is a piecewise smooth vector field for the hair orientation, gradient strength, and growth directions. The top level is an attribute sketch graph for representing the discontinuities in the vector field. A sketch graph typically has a number of sketch curves which are divided into 11 types of directed primitives. Each primitive is a small window (say 5 x 7 pixels) where the orientations and growth directions are defined in parametric forms, for example, hair boundaries, occluding lines between hair strands, dividing lines on top of the hair, etc. In addition to the three level representation, we model the shading effects, i.e., the low-frequency band of the hair image, by a linear superposition of some Gaussian image bases and we encode the hair color by a color map. The inference algorithm is divided into two stages: 1) We compute the undirected orientation field and sketch graph from an input image and 2) we compute the hair growth direction forthe sketch curves and the orientation field using a Swendsen-Wang cut algorithm. Both steps maximize a joint Bayesian posterior probability. The generative model provides a straightforward way for synthesizing realistic hair images and stylistic drawings (rendering) from a sketch graph and a few Gaussian bases. The latter can be either inferred from a real hair image or input (edited) manually using a simple sketching interface. We test our algorithm on a large data set of hair images with diverse hair styles. Analysis, synthesis, and rendering results are reported in the experiments. PMID:16792093

Chen, Hong; Zhu, Song-Chun

2006-07-01

455

A new Gsdma3 mutation affecting anagen phase of first hair cycle  

SciTech Connect

Recombination-induced mutation 3 (Rim3) is a spontaneous mouse mutation that exhibits dominant phenotype of hyperkeratosis and hair loss. Fine linkage analysis of Rim3 and sequencing revealed a novel single point mutation, G1124A leading to Ala348Thr, in Gsdma3 in chromosome 11. Transgenesis with BAC DNA harboring the Rim3-type Gsdma3 recaptured the Rim3 phenotype, providing direct evidence that Gsdma3 is the causative gene of Rim3. We examined the spatial expression of Gsdma3 and characterized the Rim3 phenotype in detail. Gsdma3 is expressed in differentiated epidermal cells in the skin, but not in the proliferating epidermal cells. Histological analysis of Rim3 mutant showed hyperplasia of the epidermal cells in the upper hair follicles and abnormal anagen phase at the first hair cycle. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed hyperproliferation and misdifferentiation of the upper follicular epidermis in Rim3 mutant. These results suggest that Gsdma3 is involved in the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal stem cells.

Tanaka, Shigekazu [Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, Genetic Strains Research Center, National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Department of Genetics, School of Life Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Tamura, Masaru [Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, Genetic Strains Research Center, National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Department of Genetics, School of Life Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Aoki, Aya [Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, Genetic Strains Research Center, National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Shizuoka Hospital, 1129 Nagaoka, Izunagaoka-chou, Izunokuni, Shizuoka 410-2295 (Japan); Fujii, Tomoaki [Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, Genetic Strains Research Center, National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Department of Genetics, School of Life Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Komiyama, Hiromitsu [Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, Genetic Strains Research Center, National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Department of Coloproctological Surgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Sagai, Tomoko [Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, Genetic Strains Research Center, National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Shiroishi, Toshihiko [Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, Genetic Strains Research Center, National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan) and Department of Genetics, School of Life Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan)]. E-mail: tshirois@lab.nig.ac.jp

2007-08-10

456

Polycystin-1 is required for stereocilia structure but not for mechanotransduction in inner ear hair cells  

PubMed Central

The polycystic kidney disease-1 (Pkd1) gene encodes a large transmembrane protein (polycystin-1 or PC-1) that is reported to function as a fluid flow-sensor in the kidney. As a member of the transient receptor potential family, PC-1 has also been hypothesized to play a role in the elusive mechanoelectrical transduction (MET) channel in inner ear hair cells. Here, we analyzed two independent mouse models of PC-1, a knockin (KI) mutant line and a hair cell specific inducible Cre mediated knockout line. Both models exhibit normal MET channel function at neonatal ages despite hearing loss and ultra-structural abnormalities of stereocilia that remain properly polarized at adult ages. These findings demonstrate that PC-1 plays an essential role in stereocilia structure and maintenance but not directly in MET channel function or planar cell polarity. We also demonstrate that PC-1 is co-localized with F-actin in hair cell stereocilia in vivo, using a haemagglutinin (HA)-tagged PC-1KI mouse model, and in renal epithelial cell microvilli in vitro. These results not only demonstrate a novel role for PC-1 in the cochlea, but also suggest insight into the development of polycystic kidney disease. PMID:21865467

Steigelman, Katherine A.; Lelli, Andrea; Wu, XuDong; Gao, Jiangang; Lin, Susan; Piontek, Klaus; Wodarczyk, Claas; Boletta, Alessandra; Kim, Hyunko; Qian, Feng; Germino, Gregory; Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S.G.; Holt, Jeffrey R.; Zuo, Jian

2011-01-01

457

Turbine-Generator Shaft Torques and Fatigue: Part II - Impact of System Distribances and High Speed Reclosure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the second of two papers concerned with the effects of power system disturbances and operating practices upon turbine-generator shafts. This paper presents the results of various simulations for which the type of disturbance and the resulting generator shaft torsional oscillations are correlated with potential loss of life to the shaft system, using techniques described in the companion

R. D. Dunlop; S. H. Horowitz; A. C. Parikh; M. C. Jackson; S. D. Umans

1979-01-01

458

Early warning of developing problems in rotating Machinery as provided by monitoring shaft Voltages and grounding currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique and independent unit condition monitoring technology for rotating machinery, called Shaft Condition Monitoring (SCM) provides early warning of developing problems by monitoring and analyzing shaft voltage and grounding current profiles. The process begins with capturing and trending of critical information inherent in raw signals derived from reliable shaft-riding brushes. Through analysis of this critical information, problems in rotating

Paul I. Nippes

2004-01-01

459

Menkes kinky hair disease: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

An eight month old male infant with protein energy malnutrition was admitted in the hospital with the history of repeated attacks of convulsion since four months of age. He was also suffering from frequent attacks of cough and cold since 6 months of age which was marked prior to admission. The infant had fair complexion, sparse fuzzy wooly hair with

Asok K Datta; Taraknath Ghosh; Kaustav Nayak; Mrinalkanti Ghosh

2008-01-01

460

Toe hair-thread tourniquet syndrome.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old boy presented with swelling and discoloration of the right third toe because of hair-thread tourniquet syndrome. This was treated by urgent surgical release of the constricting band, with a successful outcome. The authors stress the importance of recognizing this rare condition and of prompt, complete, surgical release. PMID:19434041

Unlü, Ca?da?; Gundlach, Udo; Vrouenraets, Bart C

2009-06-01

461

Endovascular Treatment of AVF after Hair Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the scalp is a very rare complication of hair transplantation. Only 9 cases have been reported in nearly half a century. The diagnosis is clinical but angiography is necessary for defining the angioarchitecture of the lesion. Due to technical developments, endovascular embolization has become the primary treatment for AVF of the scalp.

Dogan, Sozen; Cinar, Celal; Demirpolat, Gulen; Memis, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmemis@yahoo.co [Ege University, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2008-07-15

462

Unwanted Facial Hair: Affects, Effects and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following is a review of a satellite symposium held at the EHRS Meeting in June 2006. U.B.P. reminded the audience that unwanted facial hair (UFH) is an important issue; over 40% of the women in the general population have some degree of UFH, and its psychological and psychosocial impact should not be underestimated. The treatment of UFH involves many

U. Blume-Peytavi; U. Gieler; R. Hoffmann; S. Lavery; J. Shapiro

2007-01-01

463

Hair Element Content in Learning Disabled Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hair samples from 31 learning disabled and 22 normal children were analyzed. Significant group differences were determined and a discriminant function was computed which separated the groups with 98 percent accuracy. Elevated lead and cadmium content in the learning disabled group is viewed as being of particular importance. (Author/SL)

Pihl, R. O.; Parkes, M.

1977-01-01

464

Human hair as a pollutant dosimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair has been proved to be a better dosimeter than even blood for tracing most of the heavy metal toxins when they penetrate the biosphere. The high precision of the neutron activation analysis (NAA) enabled researchers to elegantly differentiate between endogenous and exogenous contamination and to thoroughly study poisonings caused by these physiologically-unimportant elements. An extensive amount of bench-scale

A. Al-Hashimi; S. S. Krishnan; R. E. Jervis

1992-01-01

465

Aetiology and Pathophysiology of Hair Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of androgenetic alopecia has not been accurately recorded but it is probably true that, at least in caucasoid races, some degree of transformation of terminal to vellus hair follicles on the vertex from puberty onwards is a universal phenomenon in both sexes, although androgenetic alopecia in women more often assumes a diffuse form. Our knowledge of the pathogenesis

R. P. R. Dawber

1987-01-01

466

HAIR-BUNDLE DEFECTS AND LOSS OF FUNCTION IN THE VESTIBULAR END ORGANS OF MICE LACKING THE RECEPTOR-LIKE INOSITOL LIPID PHOSPHATASE, PTPRQ  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that mutations in PTPRQ, a gene encoding a receptor-like inositol lipid phosphatase, cause recessive, non-syndromic, hereditary hearing loss with associated vestibular dysfunction. Although null mutations in Ptprq cause the loss of high-frequency auditory hair cells and deafness in mice, a loss of vestibular hair cells and overt behavioural defects characteristic of vestibular dysfunction have not been described. Hair-bundle structure and vestibular function were therefore examined in Ptprq mutant mice. Between postnatal days 5 and 16, hair bundles in the extrastriolar regions of the utricle in Ptprq?/? mice become significantly longer than those in heterozygous controls. This increase in length (up to 50%) is accompanied by the loss and fusion of stereocilia. Loss and fusion of stereocilia also occurs in the striolar region of the utricle in Ptprq?/? mice, but is not accompanied by hair-bundle elongation. These abnormalities persist until 12 months of age but are not accompanied by significant hair-cell loss. Hair-bundle defects are also observed in the saccule and ampullae of Ptprq?/? mice. At ~3 months of age, vestibular evoked potentials were absent from the majority (12/15) of Ptprq?/? mice examined, and could only be detected at high stimulus levels in the other 3 mutants. Subtle but distinct defects in swimming behaviour were detected in most (7/8) mutants tested. The results reveal a distinct phenotype in the vestibular system of Ptprq?/? mice, and suggest similar hair-bundle defects may underlie the vestibular dysfunction reported in humans with mutations in PTPRQ. PMID:22357859

Goodyear, Richard J.; Jones, Sherri M.; Sharifi, Louise; Forge, Andy; Richardson, Guy P.

2012-01-01

467

Hair bundle defects and loss of function in the vestibular end organs of mice lacking the receptor-like inositol lipid phosphatase PTPRQ.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that mutations in PTPRQ, a gene encoding a receptor-like inositol lipid phosphatase, cause recessive, nonsyndromic, hereditary hearing loss with associated vestibular dysfunction. Although null mutations in Ptprq cause the loss of high-frequency auditory hair cells and deafness in mice, a loss of vestibular hair cells and overt behavioral defects characteristic of vestibular dysfunction have not been described. Hair bundle structure and vestibular function were therefore examined in Ptprq mutant mice. Between postnatal days 5 and 16, hair bundles in the extrastriolar regions of the utricle in Ptprq(-/-) mice become significantly longer than those in heterozygous controls. This increase in length (up to 50%) is accompanied by the loss and fusion of stereocilia. Loss and fusion of stereocilia also occurs in the striolar region of the utricle in Ptprq(-/-) mice, but is not accompanied by hair bundle elongation. These abnormalities persist until 12 months of age but are not accompanied by significant hair cell loss. Hair bundle defects are also observed in the saccule and ampullae of Ptprq(-/-) mice. At ?3 months of age, vestibular evoked potentials were absent from the majority (12 of 15) of Ptprq(-/-) mice examined, and could only be detected at high stimulus levels in the other 3 mutants. Subtle but distinct defects in swimming behavior were detected in most (seven of eight) mutants tested. The results reveal a distinct phenotype in the vestibular system of Ptprq(-/-) mice and suggest similar hair bundle defects may underlie the vestibular dysfunction reported in humans with mutations in PTPRQ. PMID:22357859

Goodyear, Richard J; Jones, Sherri M; Sharifi, Louise; Forge, Andy; Richardson, Guy P

2012-02-22

468

To let hair be, or to not let hair be? Gender and body hair removal practices in Aotearoa/New Zealand.  

PubMed

Research and anecdotal evidence suggest women continue to remove body hair, and there is some evidence for cultural changes in men's hair removal practices. This paper reports on data collected using an online mix-methods survey from 584 New Zealanders between the ages of 18-35 (mean age 26, 48.9% male, 50.6% female). The data demonstrated that substantial proportions of both women and men in Aotearoa/New Zealand remove body hair from many sites. However, gendered differences remain, and a key dimension of gendered difference appears in the concept of flexible choice around body hair removal or retention. This was seen in the difference between perceived acceptability of having body hair (81% for men, 11% for women). These findings suggest that although men, like women, are now coming under some pressure to remove body hair, there is still a great difference in men and women's capacity to choose whether to bow to it. PMID:23932408

Terry, Gareth; Braun, Virginia

2013-09-01

469

Coupling effects of disc flexibility on the dynamic behaviour of multi disc-shaft systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic behaviour of a rotor consisting of multidiscs on a solid or hollow shaft, as used in gas or steam turbines, is considered. The effect of shaft flexibility on the dynamic characteristics of the discs and the coupling effects between the shaft and disc modes are investigated. The influence of the disc flexibility on the shaft system is also investigated. A new, thick, three-dimensional, cylindrical element is developed for the dynamic analysis and applied to various geometry of the discs-shaft system. Advantage is fully taken in the analysis of the rotational periodicity of the wave propagation. Results presented for various cases with differing flexibility and geometry show clearly the coupling effects in a multi disc-shaft system. Inference diagrams are developed, from which the dynamic behaviour of a system can be predicted for differing flexibility relationships between the solid or hollow shafts and the discs. The effect of various fixing conditions and boundary conditions on the coupling characteristics are also presented. The theoretical results show very close agreement with the experimental results.

Shahab, A. A. S.; Thomas, J.

1987-05-01

470

A field trail for sealing abandoned mine shafts and adits with lightweight concrete  

SciTech Connect

An abandoned mine shaft near Omar, in Logan County, WV, was permanently sealed through a cooperative agreement between the West Virginia Department of Commerce, Labor, and Environmental Resources, Division of Environmental Protection, and the US Bureau of Mines (USBM), Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Program. An engineered shaft seal design was developed and demonstrated that featured lightweight concrete as a key material component at a wet density of about 45 lb/ft[sup 3]. A reinforced concrete cap designed for 5 psi live load was placed over the shaft seal. Applicable new concrete technologies relating to a 100-yr design life were utilized to assure future integrity of the shaft seal. Waterproofing methods were included in the shaft seal design to provide protection from ambient moisture and corrosive mine waters and to increase the long-term durability of the shaft seal. All construction methods used in the field trial are fully adaptable for the mine-reclamation contractor. The USBM research objectives were to develop a broad generic design that will be widely applicable to other adit-sealing and shaft-sealing problems throughout the mining industry.

Skinner, E.H.; Beckett, L.A.

1994-01-01

471

Assessing seal performance and parameter sensitivity with a full-shaft model  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a planned geologic repository for permanent disposal of transuranic waste generated by US government defense programs. Located near Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico, the facility`s disposal regions are mined from the bedded salt of the Salado Formation at a depth of approximately 652 m. Four shafts service the operational needs of the facility for air intake, exhaust, waste handling and salt handling. These shafts range in diameter from 3.5 to 6.1 m and extend from the ground surface to the repository. During repository closure, following an operational life of approximately 50 years, these shafts will be sealed in accordance with an acceptable design. Under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Repository Isolation Systems Department (RISD) of Sandia National Laboratories has developed a design for the WIPP shaft sealing system. This design has been reviewed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of the 1996 WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA). An effective shaft sealing system for the WIPP will limit liquid and gas flows, and permanently prevent the migration of radiological or other hazardous constituents through the sealed shafts from repository to accessible environment. Because of these performance objectives, a significant effort has been directed toward evaluation of the seal design. Whereas RISD (1996) provides a comprehensive discussion, this paper focuses on only one aspect of the evaluation effort, namely a full shaft, fluid flow model.

Reeves, M.; Fryar, D.G.; Statham, W.H. [Duke Engineering and Services, Austin, TX (United States); Knowles, M.K. [Sandia National Labs., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

1998-05-01

472

The evolution of root hairs and rhizoids  

PubMed Central

Background Almost all land plants develop tip-growing filamentous cells at the interface between the plant and substrate (the soil). Root hairs form on the surface of roots of sporophytes (the multicellular diploid phase of the life cycle) in vascular plants. Rhizoids develop on the free-living gametophytes of vascular and non-vascular plants and on both gametophytes and sporophytes of the extinct rhyniophytes. Extant lycophytes (clubmosses and quillworts) and monilophytes (ferns and horsetails) develop both free-living gametophytes and free-living sporophytes. These gametophytes and sporophytes grow in close contact with the soil and develop rhizoids and root hairs, respectively. Scope Here we review the development and function of rhizoids and root hairs in extant groups of land plants. Root hairs are important for the uptake of nutrients with limited mobility in the soil such as phosphate. Rhizoids have a variety of functions including water transport and adhesion to surfaces in some mosses and liverworts. Conclusions A similar gene regulatory network controls the development of rhizoids in moss gametophytes and root hairs on the roots of vascular plant sporophytes. It is likely that this gene regulatory network first operated in the gametophyte of the earliest land plants. We propose that later it functioned in sporophytes as the diploid phase evolved a free-living habit and developed an interface with the soil. This transference of gene function from gametophyte to sporophyte could provide a mechanism that, at least in part, explains the increase in morphological diversity of sporophytes that occurred during the radiation of land plants in the Devonian Period. PMID:22730024

Jones, Victor A.S.; Dolan, Liam

2012-01-01

473

Kinocilia mediate mechanosensitivity in developing zebrafish hair cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Mechanosensitive cilia are vital to signaling and development across many species. In sensory hair cells, sound and movement are transduced by apical hair bundles. Each bundle is comprised of a single primary cilium (kinocilium) flanked by multiple rows of actin-filled projections (stereocilia). Extracellular tip links that interconnect stereocilia are thought to gate mechanosensitive channels. In contrast to stereocilia, kinocilia are not critical for hair-cell mechanotransduction. However, by sequentially imaging the structure of hair bundles and mechanosensitivity of individual lateral-line hair cells in vivo, we uncovered a central role for kinocilia in mechanosensation during development. Our data demonstrate that nascent hair cells require kinocilia and kinocilial links for mechanosensitivity. Although nascent hair bundles have correct planar polarity, the polarity of their responses to mechanical stimuli is initially reversed. Later in development, a switch to correctly polarized mechanosensitivity coincides with the formation of tip links and the onset of tip link-dependent mechanotransduction. PMID:22898777

Kindt, Katie S.; Finch, Gabriel; Nicolson, Teresa

2012-01-01

474

Leptin of dermal adipose tissue is differentially expressed during the hair cycle and contributes to adipocyte-mediated growth inhibition of anagen-phase vibrissa hair.  

PubMed

Adipose tissue encircles the lower portion of anagen hair follicles and may regulate hair cycle progression. As leptin is a major adipokine, its level of expression from the dermal white adipose tissue during hair cycle progression was studied. The result shows that leptin level is differentially expressed during hair cycle, the lowest in early anagen phase, upregulated in late anagen phase and the highest in the telogen phase. On the other hand, leptin receptor is detected in keratin 15-positive hair bulge epithelium of both anagen- and telogen-phase hair follicles of mice pelage and vibrissa hair, and hair from human scalp. Leptin contributes to adipocyte-mediated growth inhibition of anagen-phase vibrissa hair as demonstrated in organ culture and coculture system. Our data suggest that leptin of dermal white adipose tissue might regulate hair growth and, therefore, hair cycle progression via leptin receptor on the hair follicle epithelium. PMID:25313970

Yang, Chao-Chun; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Chung, Pei-Lun; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Hughes, Michael W; Tuan, Tai-Lan; Huang, Lynn L H

2015-01-01

475

A study on the concentrations of 11-nor-?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in hair root and whole hair.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the patterns of cannabis users (n=412) according to their sex, age, and the results of urinalysis and hair analysis, and classified the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair into three categories to examine the levels of cannabis use. We also compared the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair root, hair without the hair root and whole hair and examined the relationship among them according to the results of urinalysis. The hair samples were washed, digested with 1ml of 1M NaOH at 85°C for 30min and extracted with 2ml of n-hexane:ethyl acetate (9:1) two times after adding 1ml of 0.1N sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.5) and 200?l of acetic acid. The final mixture was derivatized with 50?l of PFPA and 25?l of PFPOH for 30min at 70°C. The solution was evaporated, and the residue was reconstituted in 40?l of ethyl acetate and transferred to an autosampler vial. One microlitre was injected into the GC/MS/MS-NCI system. The concentrations of THCCOOH ranged from 0.06 to 33.44pg/mg (mean 2.96; median 1.32) in hair from cannabis users who had positive urine results and ranged from 0.05 to 7.24pg/mg (mean 1.35; median 0.37) in hair from cannabis users who had negative urine results. The average concentration of THCCOOH in hair from cannabis users who had positive urine results was higher than that from cannabis users who had negative urine results. Male cannabis users in their forties were predominant. We classified the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair into three groups (low, medium and high), and could use the grouping of THCCOOH in hair as a guide for determining the level of use. The low, medium and high concentration ranges for THCCOOH in hair were 0.05-0.24, 0.25-2.60 and 2.63-33.44pg/mg, respectively. We also investigated 28 hair samples with the root. The highest concentrations of THCCOOH were seen in the hair root from 18 out of the 28 hair samples. The average concentrations of THCCOOH in hair root, hair without hair root and whole hair from cannabis users who had positive urine results were higher than those who had negative urine results. PMID:21497466

Han, Eunyoung; Choi, Hwakyung; Lee, Sangki; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

2011-07-15

476

Crisp1 and alopecia areata in C3H/HeJ mice.  

PubMed

Alopecia areata (AA), a cell mediated autoimmune disease, is the second most common form of hair loss in humans. While the autoimmune disease is responsible for the underlying pathogenesis, the alopecia phenotype is ultimately due to hair shaft fragility and breakage associated with structural deficits. Quantitative trait genetic analyses using the C3H/HeJ mouse AA model identified cysteine-rich secretory protein 1 (Crisp1), a hair shaft structural protein, as a candidate gene within the major AA locus. Crisp1 transcripts in the skin at various times during disease development were barely detectable. In situ hybridization identified Crisp1 expression within the medulla of hair shafts from clinically normal strains of mice but not C3H/HeJ mice with AA. Follow-up work with 5-day-old C3H/HeJ mice with normal hair also had essentially no expression of Crisp1. Other non-inflammatory based follicular dystrophy mouse models with similar hair shaft abnormalities also have little or no Crisp1 expression. Shotgun proteomics, used to determine strain difference in hair proteins, confirmed that there was very little CRISP1 within normal C3H/HeJ mouse hair in comparison to 11 other strains. However, mutant mice with hair medulla defects also had undetectable levels of CRISP1 in their hair. Crisp1 null mice had normal skin, hair follicles, and hair shafts indicating that the lack of the CRISP1 protein does not translate directly into defects in the hair shaft or hair follicle. These results suggest that CRISP1 may be an important structural component of mouse hair and that its strain-specific dysregulation may indicate a predisposition to hair shaft disease such as AA. PMID:25446841

Sundberg, John P; Awgulewitsch, Alexander; Pruett, Nathan D; Potter, Christopher S; Silva, Kathleen A; Stearns, Timothy M; Sundberg, Beth A; Muñoz, Mariana Weigel; Cuasnicu, Patricia S; King, Lloyd E; Rice, Robert H

2014-12-01

477

Field trial for sealing abandoned mine shafts and adits with lightweight concrete. Report of investigations/1994  

SciTech Connect

An abandoned mine shaft near Omar, in Logan County, WV, was permanently sealed through a cooperative agreement between the West Virginia Department of Commerce, Labor, and Environmental Research, Division of Environmental Protection, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines, Abandoned Mine Lands (AML). An engineered shaft seal design was developed and demonstrated that featured lightweight concrete as a key material component at a wet density of about 45 lb/cu ft. A reinforced concrete cap designed for 5 psi live load was placed over the shaft seal.

Skinner, E.H.; Beckett, L.A.

1993-10-01

478

Numerical analysis on the action of centrifuge force in magnetic fluid rotating shaft seals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetic fluid seal is suitable for high-speed rotating shaft seal applications. Centrifuge force will have evident influence on magnetic fluid rotating shaft seals. The seal capacity of the rotating shaft seal can be improved or increased by some measures. Through hydrodynamic analysis the moving status of the magnetic fluid is worked out. By numerical method, the magnetic field and the isobars in the magnetic fluid of a seal device are computed. Then the influence of the centrifuge force on the magnetic fluid seal is calculated quantitatively.

Zou, Jibin; Li, Xuehui; Lu, Yongping; Hu, Jianhui

2002-11-01

479

Design and application of a test rig for super-critical power transmission shafts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, assembly, operational check-out and application of a test facility for testing supercritical power transmission shafts under realistic conditions of size, speed and torque are described. Alternative balancing methods and alternative damping mechanisms are demonstrated and compared. The influence of torque upon the unbalance distribution is studied, and its effect on synchronous vibrations is investigated. The feasibility of operating supercritical power transmission shafting is demonstrated, but the need for careful control, by balancing and damping, of synchronous and nonsynchronous vibrations is made clear. The facility was demonstrated to be valuable for shaft system development programs and studies for both advanced and current-production hardware.

Darlow, M.; Smalley, A.

1979-01-01

480

Correlation of theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of damage around a shaft in salt  

SciTech Connect

Cross-hole ultrasonic measurements were made in the immediate wall of the Air Intake Shaft of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant facility. These measurements show that compressional wave speed markedly decreases at the shaft wall and then increases with radial distance from the shaft to eventually become that of solid or undamaged salt. This behavior is indicative of deformation damage or microfractures in the salt. These in situ data are compared to both laboratory measurements of wave speed as a function of volume dilatancy and to calculations based on the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture model, with reasonable agreement.

Munson, D.E.; Holcomb, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeVries, K.L.; Brodsky, N.S. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, K.S. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

481

Proteomic tools for the investigation of human hair structural proteins and evidence of weakness sites on hair keratin coil segments.  

PubMed

Human hair is principally composed of hair keratins and keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) that form a complex network giving the hair its rigidity and mechanical properties. However, during their growth, hairs are subject to various treatments that can induce irreversible damage. For a better understanding of the human hair protein structures, proteomic mass spectrometry (MS)-based strategies could assist in characterizing numerous isoforms and posttranslational modifications of human hair fiber proteins. However, due to their physicochemical properties, characterization of human hair proteins using classical proteomic approaches is still a challenge. To address this issue, we have used two complementary approaches to analyze proteins from the human hair cortex. The multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPit) approach allowed identifying all keratins and the major KAPs present in the hair as well as posttranslational modifications in keratins such as cysteine trioxidation, lysine, and histidine methylation. Then two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with MS (2-DE gel MS) allowed us to obtain the most complete 2-DE gel pattern of human hair proteins, revealing an unexpected heterogeneity of keratin structures. Analyses of these structures by differential peptide mapping have brought evidence of cleaved species in hair keratins and suggest a preferential breaking zone in ?-helical segments. PMID:22056946

Barthélemy, Nicolas R; Bednarczyk, Audrey; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Jullien, Dominique; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Cavusoglu, Nükhet

2012-02-01

482

Dynamic stability analysis of torsional vibrations of a shaft system connected by a Hooke's joint through a continuous system model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stability of parametrically excited torsional vibrations of a shaft system composed of two torsionally elastic shafts interconnected through a Hooke's joint is studied. The shafts are considered to be continuous (distributed-parameter) systems and an approximate discrete model for the torsional vibrations of the shaft system is derived via a finite element scheme. The stability of the solutions of the linearized equations of motion, consisting of a set of Mathieu-Hill type equations, is examined by means of a monodromy matrix method and the results are presented in the form of a Strutt-Ince diagram visualizing the effects of the system parameters on the stability of the shaft system.

Bulut, Gökhan

2014-08-01

483

WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system.

Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1997-12-01

484

Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsion (DSEP) Technology Development Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background, progress, and current state of the DOE-sponsored Advanced Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsion Technology Development are presented. Three electric-drive vehicles were build as conversions of a commercial gasoline-powered van, using program-designed components and systems as required. The vehicles were tested primarily on dynamometer or test tract. Component and system testing represented a major portion of the development effort. Test data are summarized in this report, and an Appendix contains the final component design specifications. This major programmatic concerns were the traction battery, the battery management system, the dc-to-ac inverter, the drive motor, the transaxle and its ancillary equipment, and the vehicle controller. Additional effort was devoted to vehicle-related equipment: gear selector, power steering, power brakes, accelerator, dashboard instrumentation, and heater. Design, development, and test activities are reported for each of these items, together with an appraisal (lessons learned) and recommendations for possible further work. Other programmatic results include a Cost and Commercialization Analysis, a Reliability and Hazards Analysis Study, Technical Recommendations for Next-Generation Development, and an assessment of overall program efforts.

1992-08-01

485

Overlapping and divergent signaling pathways for ARK1 and AGD1 in the control of root hair polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

We previously showed that seedlings harboring mutations in genes encoding ARK1, an armadillo repeat-containing kinesin, or AGD1, a class 1 ARF-GAP, have root hairs that exhibit wavy/spiral growth and two tips originating from one initiation site. These root hair defects were accompanied by bundling of endoplasmic microtubules and filamentous actin (F-actin) that extended to the extreme root hair apex. The similar phenotypes of ark1 and agd1 mutants suggest a tight coordination between the cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking in the control of root hair polarity. Indeed, cell biological and genetic studies of the agd1 mutant provided evidence that AGD1's involvement in root hair development involves cross-talk among phosphoinositides (PIs), the actin cytoskeleton and other small GTPases such as ROP2 and RABA4b. Here we show that ark1 root hairs mirror those of agd1 with regard to altered targeting of ROP2 and RABA4b, as well as abnormal tonoplast organization. Furthermore, like agd1, enhanced root hair defects in double mutants in ARK1 and genes encoding a type B phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 3 (PIP5K3), a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI-4P) phosphatase (RHD4), a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (COW1), and a vegetative actin isoform (ACT2), were observed. However, root hair shape of some ark1 double mutant combinations, particularly those with act2, pip5k3 and rhd4 (ark1 act2, ark1 pip5k3, ark1 rhd4), differed in some respects from agd1 act2, agd1 pip5k3, and agd1 rhd4. Taken together our results continue to point to commonalities between ARK1 and AGD1 in specifying root hair polarity, but that these two modulators of tip-growth can also regulate root hair development through divergent signaling routes with AGD1 acting predominantly during root hair initiation and ARK1 functioning primarily in sustained tip growth. PMID:24400013

Yoo, Cheol-Min; Blancaflor, Elison B.

2013-01-01

486

Expression of CD1d in human scalp skin and hair follicles: hair cycle related alterations  

PubMed Central

Background: CD1d belongs to a family of antigen presenting molecules that are structurally and distantly related to the classic major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) proteins. However, unlike MHC I molecules, which bind protein antigens, CD1d binds to lipid and glycolipid antigens. CD1d is expressed by cells of lymphoid and myeloid origin, and by cells outside of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages, such as human keratinocytes of psoriatic skin. Aims: To investigate whether CD1d is also expressed in sun exposed skin and in the immunoprivileged anagen hair follicle. Materials/Methods: CD1d immunoreactivity was studied in human scalp skin and hair follicles of healthy women in situ by immunofluorescent and light microscopic immunohistology. Skin biopsies were obtained from normal human scalp containing mainly anagen VI hair follicles from women (age, 53–57 years) undergoing elective plastic surgery. Results: CD1d showed strong immunostaining in human scalp skin epidermis, pilosebaceous units, and eccrine glands. In the epidermis, CD1d was strongly expressed by basal and granular keratinocytes. In hair follicles, CD1d was expressed in the epithelial compartment and showed hair cycle related alterations, with an increase in the anagen and a reduction in the catagen and telogen phases. Conclusions: These results suggest that CD1d plays a role in human scalp skin immunology and protection against lipid antigen rich infectious microbes. They also raise the question of whether keratinocytes of the immunoprivileged anagen hair follicle can present lipid antigens to natural killer T cells. These data could help provide new strategies for the manipulation of hair related disorders. PMID:16311347

Adley, M A; Assaf, H A; Hussein, M

2005-01-01

487

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in paired human hair and serum from e-waste recycling workers: source apportionment of hair PBDEs and relationship between hair and serum.  

PubMed

Human hair has been widely used as a bioindicator for human persistent organic pollutants (POPs) exposure, but studies on the sources of hair POPs and the relationship between hair and body burden are limited. This study analyzed the possible source apportionment of hair PBDEs and examined the relationship between PBDE concentrations in paired hair and serum from e-waste recycling workers. Using the ratio of BDE 99/47 and BDE 209/207 as indices, we calculated that only 15% of the highly brominated congeners (nona- and deca-BDE congeners) comes from exogenous (external) exposure for both female and male hair, but an average of 64% and 55% of the lower-brominated congeners (tetra- to penta-BDE congeners) come from exogenous exposure for female and male hair, respectively. The higher contribution of exogenous exposure for less-brominated congeners could be related to their relatively lower log KOW and higher volatility than higher-brominated congeners, which make them more readily to evaporate from dust and then to be adsorbed on hair. Higher hair PBDE levels and higher exogenous exposure of less-brominated congeners in females than in males can be attributed to a longer exogenous exposure time for females than males. Significant positive relationships were found in tri- to hepta-BDE congeners (BDE 28, 47, 66, 85, 100, 153, 154, and 183) (R = 0.36-0.55, p < 0.05) between hair and serum, but this relationship was not found for octa- to deca-BDE. Difference in the half-lives between highly brominated congeners and less-brominated congeners could be a reason. This result also implied that we should treat the results of correlation analyses between hair and other organs cautiously. PMID:24320081

Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ke-Hui; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Yan, Xiao; He, Chun-Tao; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Peng, Xiao-Wu; Ren, Ming-Zhong; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

2014-01-01

488