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1

Novel compound heterozygous mutations in the desmoplakin gene cause hair shaft abnormalities and culminate in lethal cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

A 2-month-old white girl born to nonconsanguineous parents presented to the dermatology department with hair loss that had commenced a few months after birth. Although her hair loss later stabilized, it remained sparse. By the age of 2 years, she was noted to have developed focal keratoderma over pressure points of the soles. Aged 5 years, she was admitted to hospital with a chest infection, and investigations at that point revealed that she had a dilated cardiomyopathy. Subsequent genetic investigations identified compound heterozygous mutations in the 3' end of the desmoplakin (DSP) gene (7567delAAGA and 6577G>A), explaining the cardiocutaneous phenotype. PMID:24825141

Yesudian, P D; Cabral, R M; Ladusans, E; Spinty, S; Gibbs, J; Fryer, A; Christiano, A M; Mendelsohn, S S

2014-06-01

2

Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research  

PubMed Central

The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm). The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future. PMID:24302865

Schembri, Kevin; Scerri, Christian

2013-01-01

3

6-Gingerol Inhibits Hair Shaft Growth in Cultured Human Hair Follicles and Modulates Hair Growth in Mice  

PubMed Central

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-01-01

4

Purification of nuclear DNA from single hair shafts for DNA analysis in forensic sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The typing of nuclear DNA from hair shafts has often been unsuccessful to date. We tried to type one of the nuclear DNA loci, HLA-DQA1, from hair shafts, using an efficient cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) precipitation for DNA purification and a sensitive semi-nested PCR. After thorough washing with ethanol and water, hair shafts were digested by proteinase K in the

Hideki Nozawa; Toshimichi Yamamoto; Rieko Uchihi; Takashi Yoshimoto; Keiji Tamaki; Seiji Hayashi; Tomowo Ozawa; Yoshinao Katsumata

1999-01-01

5

Transglutaminase3 Enzyme: A Putative Actor in Human Hair Shaft Scaffolding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family of transglutaminases (TGase) is known to be involved in terminal differentiation processes in the epidermis. These enzymes contribute also to the physical resistance and the preservation of the hair follicle structure. Our particular interest in hair fiber keratinization led us to focus on the TGase 3, exclusively expressed in the hair shaft. To date its function is still

Sébastien Thibaut; Nükhet Cavusoglu; Emmanuelle de Becker; Franck Zerbib; Audrey Bednarczyk; Christine Schaeffer; Alain van Dorsselaer; Bruno A Bernard

2009-01-01

6

Reduction of regrowing hair shaft size and pigmentation after ruby and diode laser treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract Laser pulses which selectively damage pigmented hair follicles are a useful treatment for hypertrichosis. Clinically, regrowing\\u000a hairs are often thinner and lighter after treatment. In this study, hair shaft diameter and optical transmission (700 nm)\\u000a were measured before and after ruby (694 nm) and diode (800 nm) laser irradiation. Hair was collected from 47 and 41 subjects\\u000a treated with

Tai-Yuan David Lin; Christine C. Dierickx; Valeria B. Campos; William A. Farinelli; Joshua Rosenthal; R. Rox Anderson

2000-01-01

7

Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis  

PubMed Central

Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

Laatsch, Chelsea N.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B.; Flagler, Michael J.; Davis, Michael G.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.

2014-01-01

8

Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis.  

PubMed

Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African-American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3), accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals. PMID:25165623

Laatsch, Chelsea N; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Rocke, David M; Mukwana, Sophie; Newland, Abby B; Flagler, Michael J; Davis, Michael G; Eigenheer, Richard A; Phinney, Brett S; Rice, Robert H

2014-01-01

9

A Simple Method to Extract DNA from Hair Shafts Using Enzymatic Laundry Powder  

PubMed Central

A simple method to extract DNA from hair shafts was developed by using enzymatic laundry powder at the first step of the process. The whole extraction can be finished in less than 2 hours. The simple extraction reagent proposed here contains only two cheap components: ordinary enzymatic laundry powder and PCR buffer. After extraction, an ultra sensitive fluorescent nucleic acid stain, PicoGreen, was used for quantifying trace amount of double-stranded DNA in the solution extracted. For further validation of DNA extraction, four primers were employed to amplify DNA microsatellite loci. Both fluorescence spectroscopy and PCR results suggested that this method can extract DNA from hair shafts with good efficiency and repeatability. The study will greatly facilitate the use of hair shafts in future for DNA analyses on genome-wide scale. PMID:23922747

Liu, Jinchuan; Jiang, Xiaoling; Li, Sicong; Yang, Shuming; Chen, Ailiang

2013-01-01

10

Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer  

PubMed Central

Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20?), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47?), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61?), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95?). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95? conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

2011-01-01

11

DNA extraction from hair shafts of wild Brazilian felids and canids.  

PubMed

Wild felids and canids are usually the main predators in the food chains where they dwell and are almost invisible to behavior and ecology researchers. Due to their grooming behavior, they tend to swallow shed hair, which shows up in the feces. DNA found in hair shafts can be used in molecular studies that can unravel, for instance, genetic variability, reproductive mode and family structure, and in some species, it is even possible to estimate migration and dispersion rates in given populations. First, however, DNA must be extracted from hair. We extracted successfully and dependably hair shaft DNA from eight wild Brazilian felids, ocelot, margay, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, pampas cat, jaguarundi, puma, and jaguar, as well as the domestic cat and from three wild Brazilian canids, maned wolf, crab-eating fox, and hoary fox, as well as the domestic dog. Hair samples came mostly from feces collected at the Săo Paulo Zoo and were also gathered from non-sedated pet or from recently dead wild animals and were also collected from museum specimens. Fractions of hair samples were stained before DNA extraction, while most samples were not. Our extraction protocol is based on a feather DNA extraction technique, based in the phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol general method, with proteinase K as digestive enzyme. PMID:21174262

Alberts, C C; Ribeiro-Paes, J T; Aranda-Selverio, G; Cursino-Santos, J R; Moreno-Cotulio, V R; Oliveira, A L D; Porchia, B F M M; Santos, W F; Souza, E B

2010-01-01

12

A new method for DNA extraction from feces and hair shafts of the South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis).  

PubMed

It is commonly known that tigers (Panthera tigris) groom themselves by licking their coats, which leads to an abundance of hairs in their feces. These hairs are designated specially as "fecal hairs". In our study, in order to explore fecal hairs potential as a DNA source for genetic analysis, 55 fecal hair samples were collected from 23 captive South China tigers (P. t. amoyensis). According to the amplification of mitochondrial primers loop F and loop R, DNA quality of noninvasive samples were grouped into three grades: grade I-the highest-quality DNA, grade II--high-quality DNA, and grade III--poor-quality DNA. No failed amplifications on microsatellite primers and only 0.27% genotyping errors occurred with grade I fecal hair DNA, as compared with 9.4% failed amplifications on microsatellite primers and 9.5% genotyping errors with grade II fecal hair DNA. It was found that 25.45% of fecal hair DNA was grade I and 65.45 and 10.00% of fecal hair DNA were grades II and III, respectively, as compared with 4.35% grade I fecal DNA and 34.78 and 60.87% grades II and III fecal DNA, respectively. Thus, higher-quality DNA can be extracted from fecal hairs than feces. In addition, DNA could be extracted from hair shafts of tigers and a minimum of 2000 hair shafts were required for visible DNA bands on a 1% agarose gel. These findings demonstrate that fecal hairs may serve as a convenient and reliable genomic DNA source for genotype analysis. PMID:19358318

Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhihe; Xu, Xiao; Wei, Kun; Wang, Xiaofang; Liang, Xu; Zhang, Liang; Shen, Fujun; Hou, Rong; Yue, Bisong

2009-01-01

13

Light microscopic hair abnormalities in children: retrospective review of 119 cases in a 10-year period.  

PubMed

Abnormalities in the hair can be congenital or acquired conditions. Examples of genetic disorders with associated hair abnormalities include Menkes syndrome, Netherton syndrome, uncombable hair syndrome, trichothiodystrophy, and loose anagen hair syndrome. Acquired hair abnormalities can be associated with grooming or use of various hair products. There are many patterns of hair abnormalities that can be readily identified under a light microscope. We performed a retrospective review of 129 hair mount samples from 119 patients submitted to the pathology department for microscopic examination over a 10-year span (from January 2002 to December 2011). Of the 119 patients, 63 (53%) had morphologic changes in the hair samples. Thirty-seven patients (31%) showed morphologic changes compatible with specific diagnoses of various genetic conditions, including 25 cases of loose anagen hair syndrome, 6 cases of uncombable hair syndrome, 2 cases of Netherton syndrome, 3 cases of Menkes syndrome, and 1 case of trichothiodystrophy. The other changes were considered nonspecific or nondiagnostic, with trichorrhexis nodosa in 13 patients, presence of loose anagen hairs in 12 patients, and pili torti in 1 patient. We describe the light microscopic patterns of hair abnormalities, clinical findings, and molecular defects related to those genetic conditions. Our study indicates that hair examination can be a 1st-line investigation on various pediatric conditions. PMID:24251687

Shao, Lei; Newell, Brandon

2014-01-01

14

Determination of Triazolam Involving Its Hydroxy Metabolites in Hair Shaft and Hair Root by Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Application to Human Hair Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive method using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for simultaneous determination of triazolam and its hydroxy metabolites in hair. After the addition of deuterium-labeled 1-hydroxymethyltriazolam as an internal standard, the analytes in hair shaft and hair root samples were extracted with a basic medium, CH2Cl2:MeOH:28% NH4OH (20:80:2) at room temperature overnight. The

Toshimasa Toyo'oka; Masayoshi Kanbori; Yusuke Kumaki; Yuji Nakahara

2001-01-01

15

A Nonrandomized Study of Trichoscopy Patterns Using Nonpolarized (Contact) and Polarized (Noncontact) Dermatoscopy in Hair and Shaft Disorders  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim was to study the trichoscopy features of selected hair and scalp conditions by two dermoscopic devices with different modes that is, polarized (noncontact) and nonpolarized (contact) mode. Materials And Methods: The present study included 11 clinical varieties of cases with total 112 patients, attending Sir Takhtasinh Hospital, Bhavnagar in the last 2 years. The clinical history was recorded for each case, and images were taken in both the Heine and DermLite II pro dermatoscope. We used polarized mode of the noncontact device (DermLite II) and the nonpolarized mode of the contact device (Heine) for our study. Statistical Analysis Used: Fisher's exact test to study dermoscopic observations for each mode. Results: We observed different nonscarring alopecia cases such as alopecia areata, androgenetic alopecia, trichotillomania, and tinea capitis. Scarring alopecia included discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, pseudopelade of Brocq, systemic lupus erythematosus. Scaling disorders included the psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. Furthermore, infestations like pediculosis capitis were included in the study. Various features were divided into follicular, interfollicular, pigmentary, vascular and hair shaft patterns. Each of the features was correlated in both the Heine (nonpolarized) and DermLite II (polarized) dermoscope, and observational finding was put forward accordingly. Conclusions: Various variations were observed in the documentation of dermoscopic patterns of the two dermatoscopes with certain features such as vascular patterns, scaling, and reticular pigmentation being better appreciated in polarized mode, while certain features were better documented in nonpolarized mode that is, black dots and tapered hair.

Nikam, Vivek V; Mehta, Hita H

2014-01-01

16

[Etiologic diagnosis and behaviour when confronted with abnormal hair growth in a child].  

PubMed

Knowledge of the physiology of hair follicle growth and its relationship to the endocrine and the metabolic system is essential in understanding abnormalities in hair development or hirsutism. Although there is no sexual dysmorphism in the distribution of hair follicles, there are many factors that induce hair growth. The first clinical measure is to differentiate all the intrinsic causes from auxologic and normal psychomotor development related to ethnic, racial and hereditary differences (generalized congenital or idiopathic hypertrichosis) and congenital causes within the context of a multi-malformation syndrome in which hirsutism is associated with mental retardation (Cornélia de Lange's syndrome), major hypotrophy (leprechaunism) or with abnormalities of the limbs (Rubinstein Taybi's syndrome or mucopolysaccharidosis). In these cases, the hormone balance is normal and genetic and/or metabolic explorations are required. Secondly, virilism may occur with hirsutism combining pubis and axillary hair growth, hypertrophy of the clitoris, and android characteristics. This results from hyperandrogenia with increased circulation of plasma androgens. Dynamic hormone tests (ACTH test and dectanyl suppression test), together with sonography help to determine the adrenal (hyperplasia, more frequent than tumors), gonadic (tumors, cysts or gonadic dysgenesis) or paraneoplastic origins (choriocarcinoma). In practice, most hirsutism is considered as idiopathic. PMID:12223965

Pienkowski, C; Gayrard-Cros, M

2002-05-01

17

A new syndrome of tufting enteropathy and choanal atresia, with ophthalmologic, hematologic and hair abnormalities.  

PubMed

Three siblings are reported with a syndrome of intractable diarrhea of infancy (owing to tufting enteropathy) and choanal atresia/stenosis. Additional components of this condition are a mild shortness of stature, a prominent and broad nasal bridge, micrognathia, single palmar creases, chronic corneal inflammation, episodic cytopenia, and abnormal hair texture. Intelligence is normal, and there is no immunodeficiency distinguishing this syndrome from that reported by Girault et al. (1994). Additional features that might occur in this syndrome include bifid uvula, preauricular pits, and 2/3 toe syndactyly. We compare this syndrome with previously reported intractable diarrhea syndromes and speculate on the developmental mechanisms that could account for many of the features demonstrated by this sibship. PMID:17786112

Bird, Lynne M; Sivagnanam, Mamata; Taylor, Sharon; Newbury, Robert O

2007-10-01

18

Hair casts  

PubMed Central

Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis.

Parmar, Sweta S.; Parmar, Kirti S.; Shah, Bela J.

2014-01-01

19

Hair casts.  

PubMed

Hair casts or pseudonits are circumferential concretions, which cover the hair shaft in such a way that, it could be easily removed. They are thin, cylindrical, and elongated in length. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old girl presenting with hair casts. Occurrence of these is unusual, and they may have varied associations. This patient was suffering from developmental delay. It is commonly misdiagnosed as and very important to differentiate from pediculosis capitis. PMID:25396168

Parmar, Sweta S; Parmar, Kirti S; Shah, Bela J

2014-10-01

20

Detection of Loxosceles venom in lesional hair shafts and skin: application of a specific immunoassay to identify dermonecrotic arachnidism.  

PubMed

Loxosceles spiders, of which the brown recluse is the best known, are indigenous to southcentral and southwestern regions of the United States. Loxosceles spider envenomation frequently results in painful, centrally necrotic, erythematous skin lesions that evolve over 24 to 48 hours and may take several weeks to completely heal. The diagnosis of loxoscelism is typically is based on the presence of the characteristic dermal lesion, because no definitive clinical diagnostic assay exists, and the spider is generally not available for identification. We used a rapid Loxosceles-specific enzyme immunoassay to detect spider venom in a dermal biopsy and hairs plucked from a suspicious skin lesion on the lower extremity of a 52-year-old man. This report indicates that in using a novel Loxosceles-specific immunoassay, venom can be detected in dermonecrotic skin and hair specimens for up to 4 days after envenomation. PMID:10999583

Miller, M J; Gomez, H F; Snider, R J; Stephens, E L; Czop, R M; Warren, J S

2000-09-01

21

Practical management of hair loss.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe an organized diagnostic approach for both nonscarring and scarring alopecias to help family physicians establish an accurate in-office diagnosis. To explain when ancillary laboratory workup is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for hair loss are based on randomized controlled studies, uncontrolled studies, and case series. MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to December 1998 with the MeSH words alopecia, hair, and alopecia areata. Articles were selected on the basis of experimental design, with priority given to the most current large multicentre controlled studies. Overall global evidence for therapeutic intervention for hair loss is quite strong. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common forms of nonscarring alopecias are androgenic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and alopecia areata. Other disorders include trichotillomania, traction alopecia, tinea capitis, and hair shaft abnormalities. Scarring alopecia is caused by trauma, infections, discoid lupus erythematosus, or lichen planus. Key to establishing an accurate diagnosis is a detailed history, including medication use, systemic illnesses, endocrine dysfunction, hair-care practices, and family history. All hair-bearing sites should be examined. A 4-mm punch biopsy of the scalp is useful, particularly to diagnose scarring alopecias. Once a diagnosis has been established, specific therapy can be initiated. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis and management of hair loss is an interesting challenge for family physicians. An organized approach to recognizing characteristic differential features of hair loss disorders is key to diagnosis and management. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10925761

Shapiro, J.; Wiseman, M.; Lui, H.

2000-01-01

22

Uncombable hair  

PubMed Central

Uncombable hair is a familial abnormality of scalp hair structure which affects children and lessens as they grow older. It is suggested that the mode of inheritance of the condition is autosomal dominant. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:7125692

Garty, B; Metzker, A; Mimouni, M; Varsano, I

1982-01-01

23

Nodules on the Hair: A Rare Case of Mixed Piedra  

PubMed Central

Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair. PMID:24778538

Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

2013-01-01

24

Nodules on the hair: a rare case of mixed piedra.  

PubMed

Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by nodules along the hair shaft. Black piedra affects the scalp hair more frequently than white piedra. Occurrence of both types of piedra simultaneously in a patient is extremely rare. We describe here a rare case of mixed piedra of scalp hair. PMID:24778538

Khatu, Swapna S; Poojary, Shital Amin; Nagpur, Niranjan G

2013-10-01

25

Shaft adjuster  

DOEpatents

Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

Harry, H.H.

1988-03-11

26

Acquired Hair Fragility in Pili anulati: Causal Relationship with Androgenetic Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pili anulati are defined by characteristic alternating light and dark banding in the hair shaft, due to air-filled spaces between the macrofibrillar units of the hair cortex, and are regarded as a congenital hair shaft disorder without increased hair fragility. Two cases of pili anulati are presented, in which fragility of hair developed in a causal relationship with the onset

Günther F. L. Hofbauer; Dionysios Tsambaos; Max A. Spycher; Ralph M. Trüeb

2001-01-01

27

Compound Heterozygous Desmoplakin Mutations Result in a Phenotype with a Combination of Myocardial, Skin, Hair, and Enamel Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the

Sara Sadowski; Donna Brennan; Pekka Pikander; Pekka Saukko; James Wahl; Heikki Aho; Kristiina Heikinheimo; Leena Bruckner-Tuderman; Andrzej Fertala; Juha Peltonen; Jouni Uitto; Sirkku Peltonen

2010-01-01

28

Compound Heterozygous Desmoplakin Mutations Result in a Phenotype with a Combination of Myocardial, Skin, Hair, and Enamel Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Desmoplakin (DP) anchors the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to the desmosomal cadherins and thereby confers structural stability to tissues. In this study, we present a patient with extensive mucocutaneous blisters, epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, enamel dysplasia, and sparse woolly hair. The patient died at the age of 14 years from undiagnosed cardiomyopathy. The skin showed hyperplasia and acantholysis in the mid- and lower epidermal layers, whereas the heart showed extensive fibrosis and fibrofatty replacement in both ventricles. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a reduction in the C-terminal domain of DP in the skin and oral mucosa. Sequencing of the DP gene showed undescribed mutations in the maternal and paternal alleles. Both mutations affected exon 24 encoding the C-terminal domain. The paternal mutation, c.6310delA, leads to a premature stop codon. The maternal mutation, c.7964 C to A, results in a substitution of an aspartic acid for a conserved alanine residue at amino acid 2655 (A2655D). Structural modeling indicated that this mutation changes the electrostatic potential of the mutated region of DP, possibly altering functions that depend on intermolecular interactions. To conclude, we describe a combination of DP mutation phenotypes affecting the skin, heart, hair, and teeth. This patient case emphasizes the importance of heart examination of patients with desmosomal genodermatoses. PMID:19924139

Mahoney, M? G.; Sadowski, Sara; Brennan, Donna; Pikander, Pekka; Saukko, Pekka; Wahl, James; Aho, Heikki; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Fertala, Andrzej; Peltonen, Juha; Uitto, Jouni; Peltonen, Sirkku

2014-01-01

29

A Comprehensive Guide for the Accurate Classification of Murine Hair Follicles in Distinct Hair Cycle Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous strains of mice with defined mutations display pronounced abnormalities of hair follicle cycling, even in the absence of overt alterations of the skin and hair phenotype; however, in order to recognize even subtle, hair cycle-related abnormalities, it is critically important to be able to determine accurately and classify the major stages of the normal murine hair cycle. In this

Sven Müller-Röver; Bori Handjiski; Carina van der Veen; Stefan Eichmüller; Kerstin Foitzik; Ian A. McKay; Kurt S. Stenn; Ralf Paus

2001-01-01

30

Hair Follicle Pigmentation  

PubMed Central

Hair shaft melanin components (eu- or/and pheomelanin) are a long-lived record of precise interactions in the hair follicle pigmentary unit, e.g., between follicular melanocytes, keratinocytes, and dermal papilla fibroblasts. Follicular melanogenesis (FM) involves sequentially the melanogenic activity of follicular melanocytes, the transfer of melanin granules into cortical and medulla keratinocytes, and the formation of pigmented hair shafts. This activity is in turn regulated by an array of enzymes, structural and regulatory proteins, transporters, and receptors and their ligands, acting on the developmental stages, cellular, and hair follicle levels. FM is stringently coupled to the anagen stage of the hair cycle, being switched-off in catagen to remain absent through telogen. At the organ level FM is precisely coupled to the life cycle of melanocytes with changes in their compartmental distribution and accelerated melanoblast/melanocyte differentiation with enhanced secretory activity. The melanocyte compartments in the upper hair follicle also provides a reservoir for the repigmentation of epidermis and, for the cyclic formation of new anagen hair bulbs. Melanin synthesis and pigment transfer to bulb keratinocytes are dependent on the availability of melanin precursors, and regulation by signal transduction pathways intrinsic to skin and hair follicle, which are both receptor dependent and independent, act through auto-, para- or intracrine mechanisms and can be modified by hormonal signals. The important regulators are MC1 receptor its and adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte stimulating hormone, agouti protein ligands (in rodents), c-Kit, and the endothelin receptors with their ligands. Melanin itself has a wide range of bioactivities that extend far beyond its determination of hair color. PMID:15654948

Slominski, Andrzej; Wortsman, Jacobo; Plonka, Przemyslaw M.; Schallreuter, Karin U.; Paus, Ralf; Tobin, Desmond J.

2005-01-01

31

Changes in hair morphology of mucopolysaccharidosis I patients treated with recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase (laronidase, Aldurazyme).  

PubMed

Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are heritable, metabolic diseases caused by accumulation of mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans, GAGs) in lysosomes. This accumulation is due to a deficiency in one of several specific enzymes involved in the degradation of GAGs. MPS type I (MPS I) is caused by low or undetectable activity of alpha-L-iduronidase, an enzyme involved in removing the terminal iduronic acid residues from heparan and dermatan sulfate. Recently, an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for MPS I, based on administration of recombinant human alpha-L-iduronidase (laronidase, Aldurazyme), became available. The assessment of efficacy of ERT is especially important because MPS I is a highly variable and very rare disease, and the clinical trials involved relatively low number of patients. Among various significant clinical improvements during ERT, remarkable changes in hair morphology were noted. Detailed studies of hair samples from one patient, who did not have a hair cut from the beginning of ERT to the end of this study, and supported by results obtained for two other patients, revealed hair shaft structural abnormalities in MPS I hair. These hair abnormalities disappeared upon treatment with Aldurazyme. Although hair morphology is of limited clinical importance, the data suggest that changes in this parameter could be a useful, additional tool for a rapid, non-invasive, preliminary assessment of ERT efficacy. PMID:16283671

Kloska, Anna; Bohdanowicz, Jerzy; Konopa, Grazyna; Tylki-Szym?ska, Anna; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Czartoryska, Barbara; Liberek, Anna; Wegrzyn, Alicja; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz

2005-12-15

32

Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

2005-07-01

33

Blind shaft development  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses how Shaft Drillers International (SDI) is breaking new ground in shaft development and ground stabilization. Techniques of blind shaft drilling and raise bore shaft development developed by SDI are briefly explained. An associated company, Coastal Drilling East, deals with all types of ground improvement such as pre-grouting work for shafts, grouting of poor soil and water leaks into the mine. 3 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2009-02-15

34

Generalized hair casts due to traction.  

PubMed

Peripilar keratin casts, also called pseudonits or hair casts, are thin, elongated, greyish-white, cylindrical, sleeve-like structures that encircle the hair shaft and can easily be slid along the hair. They may be clinically misdiagnosed as nits. In addition to physical removal, keratolytic lotions or shampoos are helpful. We report an 11-year-old girl with pseudonits. Although it is not a rare condition, underdiagnosis is common. PMID:23909653

Ozuguz, Pinar; Kacar, Seval; Takci, Zennure; Ekiz, Ozlem; Kalkan, Goknur; Bulbul Sen, Bilge

2013-01-01

35

SHAFT79 user's manual  

SciTech Connect

SHAFT79 (Simultaneous Heat And Fluid Transport) is an integrated finite difference program for computing two-phase non-isothermal flow in porous media. The principal application for which SHAFT79 is designed is in geothermal reservoir simulation. SHAFT79 solves the same equations as an earlier version, called SHAFT78, but uses much more efficient mathematical and numerical methods. The present SHAFT79 user's manual gives a brief account of equations and numerical methods and then describes in detail how to set up input decks for running the program. The application of SHAFT79 is illustrated by means of a few sample problems. (MHR)

Pruess, K.; Schroeder, R.C.

1980-03-01

36

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

37

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

Benavides, G.L.

1998-05-05

38

Failure Analysis of High-Speed Pinion Gear Shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure of a high-speed pinion gear shaft was investigated. The pinion gear was an integral part of a system used to compress\\u000a the natural gas. It was a high-speed gear mounted on two roller bearings. An abnormal wear pattern was observed on the shaft\\u000a surface, beneath the inner race of the bearing. The material from shaft was observed to

W. Muhammad; N. Ejaz; S. A. Rizvi

2009-01-01

39

Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... and being replaced helps to maintain just the right number of hairs on your head. Hair Comes in Many Colors What kind of hair do you have — black and curly, blond and straight, or some other combination? Hair color comes from melanin (say: MEL-uh- ...

40

Cartilage Hair Hypoplasia: First report from Iran.  

PubMed

Cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH), is a rare cause of metaphyseal chondrodysplasia and short stature. Other featuresincluded hair abnormality, immunodeficiency, anemia, gastrointestinal disorders (Hirschsprung disease,celiac, …) and increased risk of cancer. The disease is an autosomal recessive disorder and previously has notbeen reported in Iran. We report a 9-year-old boy diagnosed as cartilage hair hypoplasia, with severe short stature,metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, hair hypoplasia, Hirschsprung disease, hypothyroidism, vesicouretral refluxand renal stone. Renal stone and hypothyroidism have been reported in cartilage hair hypoplasia with lower frequencies.This is the first report of cartilage hair hypoplasia in Iran. PMID:24791127

Shiasi Arani, Kobra

2013-08-01

41

Hair Cycle-Dependent Changes in Skin Immune Functions: Anagen-Associated Depression of Sensitization for Contact Hypersensitivity in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess whether hair follicle cycling influences skin immunity, we examined the association between highly synchronized hair follicle cycling and experimental contact hypersensitivity in C57BL\\/6 mice. Hair cycle synchronization was performed by depilation of hair shafts on the back with telogen skin. Mice were sensitized on the lower back skin with picryl chloride between 0 and 25 d, after anagen

Udo Hofmann; Yoshiki Tokura; Takafumi Nishijima; Masahiro Takigawa; Ralf Paus

1996-01-01

42

Hair Transplants  

MedlinePLUS

... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ... damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkled Skin Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory Phlebectomy Blepharoplasty ...

43

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... be more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Disruption of the hair growth cycle. Some major events ... to grow, a person might not notice any disruption of the hair growth cycle until months after ...

44

Hair loss  

MedlinePLUS

... continual hair pulling or scalp rubbing Radiation therapy Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) Tumor of the ovary or ... a plucked hair Skin biopsy If you have ringworm on the scalp, your doctor may prescribe an ...

45

Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Sim?i?, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.

2007-07-01

46

Hair Follicles – A Long-Term Reservoir for Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticles represent an important drug carrier system. Recently, we have reported on the penetration and storage behavior of particular and non-particular substances revealing the superiority of particular substances in the range of 300–400 nm. In this regard, it was assumed that the rigid hair shaft acts as a geared pump, moving the particles deeper into the hair follicle. In the

J. Lademann; H. Richter; U. F. Schaefer; U. Blume-Peytavi; A. Teichmann; N. Otberg; W. Sterry

2006-01-01

47

Fabricated torque shaft  

DOEpatents

A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

Mashey, Thomas Charles (Anderson, SC)

2002-01-01

48

Flexible Coupling Corrects Shaft Misalinements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed flexible coupling provides nearly error free measurements of shaft rotation in presence of misalinements between shaft and position sensing transducer. Intended to be used in situations in which input or output shaft is mounted on flexible joint. Its function is to insure equal input and output angular velocities by forcing input and output shafts to remain parallel.

Mayo, R. A.

1983-01-01

49

Root hairs.  

PubMed

Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

2014-01-01

50

Chromosomal Abnormalities Chromosomal abnormalities  

E-print Network

Lecture 6 Chromosomal Abnormalities #12;Chromosomal abnormalities Numeric Polyploidy- abnormal # of chromosome sets Aneuploidy- abnormal chromosome number Structural Deletion syndromes Duplications Ring chromosomes Centromeric fusions (Robertsonian translocations) Insertion Inversion Paracentric Pericentric

Dellaire, Graham

51

9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DOUBLE COMPARTMENT SHAFT, (NOTE PIVOTING SAFETY BARS); VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

52

Shaft seal system  

DOEpatents

A shaft seal system is disclosed for isolating two regions of different fluid mediums through which a rotatable shaft extends. The seal system includes a seal housing through which the shaft extends and which defines an annular land and an annular labyrinth both of which face on the shaft so that each establishes a corresponding fluid sealing annulus. A collection cavity is formed in communication with the annular sealing spaces, and fluids compatible with the fluids in each of the two regions to be isolated are introduced, respectively, into the annular sealing spaces and collected in the collection cavity from which the fluid mixture is removed and passed to a separator which separates the fluids and returns them to their respective annular sealing spaces in a recycling manner. In the illustrated embodiment, the isolated fluid mediums comprise a liquid region and a gas region. Gas is removed from the gas region and passed through a purifier and a gas pump operative to introduce the purified gas through the labyrinth sealing annulus to the collection cavity. After passing to the separator, the separated gas is passed through a dryer from which the dried gas is caused to pass through the labyrinth sealing annulus into the collection cavity independently of the purified gas so as to insure isolation of the gas region in the event of sealing gas pump malfunction.

Kapich, Davorin D. (Carlsbad, CA)

1985-01-01

53

Polygonal shaft hole rotor  

DOEpatents

A laminated rotor for an induction motor has a plurality of ferro-magnetic laminations mounted axially on a rotor shaft. Each of the plurality of laminations has a central aperture in the shape of a polygon with sides of equal length. The laminations are alternatingly rotated 180.degree. from one another so that the straight sides of the polygon shaped apertures are misaligned. As a circular rotor shaft is press fit into a stack of laminations, the point of maximum interference occurs at the midpoints of the sides of the polygon (i.e., at the smallest radius of the central apertures of the laminations). Because the laminates are alternatingly rotated, the laminate material at the points of maximum interference yields relatively easily into the vertices (i.e., the greatest radius of the central aperture) of the polygonal central aperture of the next lamination as the shaft is inserted into the stack of laminations. Because of this yielding process, the amount of force required to insert the shaft is reduced, and a tighter fit is achieved.

Hussey, John H. (St. Louis, MO); Rose, John Scott (Alton, IL); Meystrik, Jeffrey J. (Webster Groves, MO); White, Kent Lee (Maryland Heights, MO)

2001-01-23

54

Gravity in a Mine Shaft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

1995-01-01

55

Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: part I. History and clinical examination.  

PubMed

Hair loss (alopecia) is a common problem and is often a major source of distress for patients. The differential diagnosis of alopecia includes both scarring and nonscarring alopecias. In addition, many hair shaft disorders can produce hair shaft fragility, resulting in different patterns of alopecia. Therefore, an organized and systematic approach is needed to accurately address patients' complaints to achieve the correct diagnosis. Part 1 of this 2-part continuing medical education article on alopecia describes history taking and the clinical examination of different hair loss disorders. It also provides an algorithmic diagnostic approach based on the most recent knowledge about different types of alopecia. PMID:25128118

Mubki, Thamer; Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Shapiro, Jerry

2014-09-01

56

Shaft Currents in Electric Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the causes of, and remedies for, the existence of ``shaft currents'' or ``bearing currents'' which sometimes flow across the rubbing surfaces of the bearings of electric machinery, thereby gradually damaging the shaft and bearings. Up to the present time the only cause of shaft currents that has attracted any particular attention has been the use of sectionalized

P. L. Alger; H. W Samson

1924-01-01

57

Hair restoration.  

PubMed

The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome. PMID:18620980

Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

2008-08-01

58

Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Sřsted

59

Alterations in hair follicle dynamics in women.  

PubMed

Endocrine changes supervening after parturition and menopause participate in the control of sebum production and hair growth modulation. The ensuing conditions include some peculiar aspects of hair loss (effluvium), alopecia, and facial hirsutism. The hair cycling is of major clinical relevance because most hair growth disorders result from disturbances in this chronobiological feature. Of note, any correlation between a biologic abnormality and hair cycling disturbance does not prove a relationship of causality. The proportion of postmenopausal women is rising in the overall population. Therefore, the prevalence of these hair follicle disturbances is globally on the rise. Current therapies aim at correcting the underlying hormonal imbalances, and at improving the overall cosmetic appearance. However, in absence of pathogenic diagnosis and causality criteria, chances are low that a treatment given by the whims of fate will adequately control hair effluvium. The risk and frequency of therapeutic inertia are further increased. When the hair loss is not controlled and/or compensated by growth of new hairs, several clinical aspects of alopecia inexorably develop. Currently, there is little evidence supporting any specific treatment for these endocrine hair disorders in post-partum and postmenopausal women. Current hair treatment strategies are symptomatic and nonspecific so current researchers aim at developing new, targeted methods. PMID:24455742

Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Piérard, Gérald E

2013-01-01

60

Deflection of stepped shafts  

E-print Network

. 7850 0. 7850 0. 2485 0. 2485 9. 5 Q 4. SQ 4. 5 Q 3. 62Q 1. 148Q 2. 42Q 1. 148Q 3. 62Q Note: E = 500, 000 ? '2 lb. in. 61 Brg Brg I 5 20' 5+ (al Dne-st peed shaft d a to scale (H. S. ): I I . 10 In. 2 9 ?? 5, 6 7 ? ? ?? ? 3 8 I 10.... 7850 0. 7850 0. 2485 0. 2485 9. 5 Q 4. SQ 4. 5 Q 3. 62Q 1. 148Q 2. 42Q 1. 148Q 3. 62Q Note: E = 500, 000 ? '2 lb. in. 61 Brg Brg I 5 20' 5+ (al Dne-st peed shaft d a to scale (H. S. ): I I . 10 In. 2 9 ?? 5, 6 7 ? ? ?? ? 3 8 I 10...

Alexander, Richard Marvin

2012-06-07

61

Tufted hair folliculitis: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Tufted hair folliculitis is a rare folliculitis of the scalp that resolves with patches of scarring alopecia within multiple hair tufts emerging from dilated follicular orifices. Tufting of hair is caused by clustering of adjacent follicular units due to a fibrosing process and to retention of telogen hairs within a dilated follicular orifice. Various pathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed including nevoid abnormalities, recurrent infections of the follicles, and retention of telogen hair in the tufts. We present a patient with tufted hair folliculitis who was effectively treated with antibacterial medications, verifying the infectious nature of the disease. PMID:21879202

Broshtilova, V; Bardarov, E; Kazandjieva, J; Marina, S

2011-01-01

62

U1h shaft project  

SciTech Connect

The U1h shaft project is a design/build subcontract to construct one 20 foot (ft) finished diameter shaft to a depth of 1,045 ft at the Nevada Test Site. Atkinson Construction was subcontracted by Bechtel Nevada to construct the U1h Shaft for the Department of Energy. The project consists of furnishing and installing the sinking plant, construction of the 1,045 ft of concrete lined shaft, development of a shaft station at a depth of 976 ft, and construction of a loading pocket at the station. The outfitting of the shaft and installation of a new hoist may be incorporated into the project at a later date. This paper should be of interest to those involved with the construction of relatively deep shafts and underground excavations.

Brian Briggs; R. G. Musick

2000-06-30

63

Predicting shaft torque amplification  

SciTech Connect

Shaft Torque Amplification (STA) is the form of SSR characterized by the higher system-model complexity and computational requirements its simulation, normally in a time-domain environment, demands. A multi-modal approach drawing the turbogenerator torsional response to electrical torque impulses applied to the machine air-gap is introduced in this article as an alternative STA analysis frame. Peak torque results from the proposed algorithm are compared with similar ones obtained from EMTP runs. Loss-of-life calculations and a capacitor-reinsertion application as STA control means, are included.

Achilles, R.A. [Achilles (R.A.), Neuquen (Argentina)] [Achilles (R.A.), Neuquen (Argentina)

1995-02-01

64

The structure of people's hair  

PubMed Central

Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen

2014-01-01

65

The structure of people's hair.  

PubMed

Hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting mainly of proteins in particular keratin. The structure of human hair is well known: the medulla is a loosely packed, disordered region near the centre of the hair surrounded by the cortex, which contains the major part of the fibre mass, mainly consisting of keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cortex is surrounded by the cuticle, a layer of dead, overlapping cells forming a protective layer around the hair. The corresponding structures have been studied extensively using a variety of different techniques, such as light, electron and atomic force microscopes, and also X-ray diffraction. We were interested in the question how much the molecular hair structure differs from person to person, between male and female hair, hair of different appearances such as colour and waviness. We included hair from parent and child, identical and fraternal twins in the study to see if genetically similar hair would show similar structural features. The molecular structure of the hair samples was studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction, which covers length scales from molecules up to the organization of secondary structures. Signals due to the coiled-coil phase of ?-helical keratin proteins, intermediate keratin filaments in the cortex and from the lipid layers in the cell membrane complex were observed in the specimen of all individuals, with very small deviations. Despite the relatively small number of individuals (12) included in this study, some conclusions can be drawn. While the general features were observed in all individuals and the corresponding molecular structures were almost identical, additional signals were observed in some specimen and assigned to different types of lipids in the cell membrane complex. Genetics seem to play a role in this composition as identical patterns were observed in hair from father and daughter and identical twins, however, not for fraternal twins. Identification and characterization of these features is an important step towards the detection of abnormalities in the molecular structure of hair as a potential diagnostic tool for certain diseases. PMID:25332846

Yang, Fei-Chi; Zhang, Yuchen; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

2014-01-01

66

The Post-Apoptotic Fate of RNAs Identified Through High-Throughput Sequencing of Human Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair of all mammals consists of terminally differentiated cells that undergo a specialized form of apoptosis called cornification. While DNA is destroyed during cornification, the extent to which RNA is lost is unknown. Here we find that multiple types of RNA are incompletely degraded after hair shaft formation in both mouse and human. Notably, mRNAs and short regulatory microRNAs

Gloria K. Lefkowitz; Anandaroop Mukhopadhyay; Christopher Cowing-Zitron; Benjamin D. Yu

2011-01-01

67

Integral hair lipid in human hair follicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integral hair lipid (IHL) is bound to the keratinized cell surface to make an environmentally resistant lipid envelope. It is mainly positioned on the hair cuticle and inner root sheath. IHL in the hair follicle may regard as hair barrier to be similar to the epidermal lipid layer functioning as skin barrier. Major constituents of IHL are fatty acid, phytosphingosine,

Won-Soo Lee

2011-01-01

68

Preliminary Studies for “Biomedical Analysis of Human Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight (Hair)” Project: An Analysis of Trace Elements in the Hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of biospecimens from astronauts reveals considerable important information about their healthcare, but transportation of such samples will become difficult after the retirement of the Space Shuttles. We focused on hair, which is one of the easiest specimens to obtain, store and return, and planned this "Biomedical Analysis of Human Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight (Hair)" study. The main objective of the present part is to verify whether changes in mineral metabolism can be detected through analysis of hair shafts from astronauts on the International Space Station.Ground-based studies were performed to establish an optimum methodology for analyzing trace elements (e.g., calcium, sulfur and chlorine) on the cross-sectional surface of a hair shaft. By using Electron Prove Micro Analyzer (EPMA), we could identify the distribution of minerals in human scalp hairs. In another animal study, a centrally distributed concentration of calcium was observed in hairs from the mice exposed to microgravity. In this paper, we will report on the overall research plan and the progress we have made to date.

Yamanaka, Riyo; Yamada, Shin; Terada, Masahiro; Aiba, Tatsuya; Ishida, Satoru; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Majima, Hideyuki; Mukai, Chiaki

69

Structural scaling and functional design of the cercal wind-receptor hairs of cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have estimated the intrinsic mechanical parameters of cricket cercal wind-receptor hairs. The hairs were modeled as an\\u000a inverted pendulum, and mechanical parameters of the equation of motion were determined from data given by a systematic measurement\\u000a of mobility by the least-square error method. The theoretical torque which turns the hair shaft is given by the drag force\\u000a due to

T. Shimozawa; T. Kumagai; Y. Baba

1998-01-01

70

[Forensic aspects of thermal changes in human head hair].  

PubMed

Under experimental conditions, head hairs of individuals of different age were exposed to defined increases of temperature up to 450 degrees C and examined by transmitted- and reflected-light microscopy with and without polarization. Preliminary tests had shown that the hair changes alone do not allow conclusions as to the temperature acting on the hair. Especially in the range of 200 to 300 degrees C, the temperature gradient during the heating process and the exposure time were additional influencing factors. Thick hair and hair with a high water content showed more pronounced thermal changes than thin hair. Elasticity and permeability of the cuticle and the cementing substance (cell membrane complex CMC) are also relevant factors. When heating head hairs lacking a medulla, a multiform pseudo-medulla formed under certain conditions. In the presence of thermally induced structural disturbances (e.g. by using hair straighteners), foreign substances can penetrate more easily into the hair shaft from outside. The possibility of such exogenous contamination has to be taken into consideration when performing chemical and toxicological analyses of hair. PMID:25004619

Kijewski, Harald

2014-01-01

71

A model system to analyse the ability of human keratinocytes to form hair follicles.  

PubMed

Earlier studies showed that dermal cells lose trichogenic capacity with passage, but studies on the effect of keratinocyte passage on human hair follicle neogenesis and graft quality have been hampered by the lack of a suitable model system. We recently documented human hair follicle neogenesis in grafted dermal-epidermal composites, and in the present study, we determined the effects of keratinocyte passage on hair follicle neogenesis. Dermal equivalents were made with cultured human dermal papilla cells and were overlaid with either primary or passaged human keratinocytes to form dermal-epidermal composites; these were then grafted onto immunodeficient mice. Superior hair follicle neogenesis was observed using early keratinocyte cultures. Characteristics such as formation of hair shafts and sebaceous glands, presence of hair follicles with features of anagen or telogen follicles, and reproducible hair and skin function parameters make this model a tool to study human hair follicle neogenesis and development. PMID:24758480

Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Klover, Peter; Li, Shaowei; Wang, Ji-An; Sperling, Leonard; Darling, Thomas N

2014-06-01

72

Paraphenylenediamine: Blackening more than just hair  

PubMed Central

Paraphenylenediamine is an important constituent of hair dye toxicity of which one could herald fatal complications such as rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, angioneurotic edema, and respiratory failure. We present a case of hair dye poisoning that presented with respiratory distress due to laryngeal edema and later developed trismus, subclinical tetany, apnea, and conduction abnormality on electrocardiogram. This case report highlights the need for a thorough toxicological review of the components of any ingested substance. PMID:23626641

Gude, Dilip; Bansal, Dharam Pal; Ambegaonkar, Rahul; Prajapati, Jayaram

2012-01-01

73

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows or splashes this substance on their skin or in their eyes. This ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.

74

Is Propionibacterium Acnes Associated with Hair Casts and Alopecia?  

PubMed Central

We report a series of four patients who presented with complaints of diffuse non-scarring alopecia. They had similar clinical features of alopecia, hyperseborrhea, and distinct keratinaceous hair casts that encircled the hair shafts. Propionibacterium acnes was isolated from two of the patients’ scalp, and Gram-positive, Giemsa-positive bacteria were seen in the hair follicles in the scalp biopsy of one of the patients. The patients’ symptoms did not respond to standard treatment for seborrheic dermatitis, but responded to a course of systemic antibiotics targeting P. acnes. We propose a role for P. acnes colonization of the terminal hair follicles in the pathogenesis of hair casts, and possibly diffuse non-scarring alopecia. Possible mechanisms of pathogenesis are discussed with a literature review. PMID:23180917

Wang, Etienne; Lee, Joyce Siong-See; Hee, Tan Hiok

2012-01-01

75

Metallurgical analysis on a bending failed pump-shaft made of 17-7PH precipitation-hardening stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal jump and bending occurred on a shaft used in an erect multiple-grades pump when performing a trial run. The failed shaft is made of 17-7PH stainless steel. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the failed pump-shaft material were examined. Two different microstructural zones were exhibited. One is composed of the tempered martensite coexisting the retained austenite, which is the normal

X. L. Xu; Z. W. Yu

2008-01-01

76

Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observation of the parasitic form of Trichophyton violaceum in the infected hair from tinea capitis.  

PubMed

Trichophyton violaceum is a pathogen of tinea capitis and usually cause infection of scalp and hair in children. To investigate the parasitic form of T. violaceum in the human hair tissue, the infected hair strands were collected from a 9-year-old boy with tinea capitis due to T. violaceum and observed under both the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The SEM and TEM findings revealed that T. violaceum parasitically lives in the hair shaft in various forms and the morphological transformation of the fungus from hyphae into arthrospores was noted. The involved hair shaft was damaged to the great extent and its ultrastructural changes were evident. Those morphological characteristics of T. violaceum and the three-dimensional ultastructure changes of infected hairs give a better knowledge about the host-fungus relationship in tinea capitis. PMID:24752787

Zhuang, Kaiwen; Ran, Xin; Lei, Song; Zhang, Chaoliang; Lama, Jebina; Ran, Yuping

2014-01-01

77

A Comprehensive Guide for the Recognition and Classification of Distinct Stages of Hair Follicle Morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous spontaneous and experimentally induced mouse mutations develop a hair phenotype, which is often associated with more or less discrete abnormalities in hair follicle development. In order to recognize these, it is critically important to be able to determine and to classify accurately the major stages of normal murine hair follicle morphogenesis. As an aid, we propose a pragmatic and

Ralf Paus; Sven Müller-Röver; Carina van der Veen; Marcus Maurer; Stefan Eichmüller; Gao Ling; Udo Hofmann; Kerstin Foitzik; Lars Mecklenburg; Bori Handjiski

1999-01-01

78

The absorption of mercuric ion into single human head hairs  

SciTech Connect

The concentration patterns of radioactive Hg++, Cu++, and I- in individual hair shafts, after soaking in aqueous solutions of these tracers, were measured nondestructively to permit repeated experiments on a given shaft. The mercury concentrations generally increased from the root end to the distal end of a given shaft less steeply than those of copper, while iodide concentrations generally decreased. Concentration peaks and other pattern features for mercury were also relatively less intense, but there was some correlation of the position of such areas of increased mercury, copper, and iodine adsorption in a given shaft. At equilibrium after more than 100 h of soaking, the amount of mercury taken up at pH 8 by the hair was three to four times that at pH 3. The rate of absorption of mercury was higher at low pH values, and that of desorption higher at high pH values. The relative intensity of pattern features remained constant during absorption or desorption at a given pH, but changed if the pH was changed. These data are discussed in terms of the chemistry of the hair binding sites for cations and anions.

Mackintosh, J.; Pate, B.D.

1982-07-01

79

Clutchless multiple drive source for output shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A first shaft is connected to a source of rotational power and has a gear fixedly mounted on the shaft. A second gear is fixedly mounted on a gear shaft that is parallel to the first shaft. A third gear, also fixedly mounted on gear shaft, meshes with a fourth gear fixedly mounted on the output shaft. The first input shaft and output shaft are rotatably mounted through a housing that is itself rotatable with respect to a support. Both shafts are coaxial and in end-to-end relationship. A second input shaft is connected to a second source of rotational power. A fifth gear, fixedly mounted on second input shaft, meshes with a sixth gear, which is fixedly mounted on rotatable housing and in coaxial relationship with first input shaft. In operation, the first drive source and gear train provide rotational power in a first direction to drive the output shaft in a given direction of rotation. The second source of rotational power may be operated either to decrease the rate of rotation imparted to the output shaft by the first source of rotational power, or to increase that rate of rotation, depending on which direction the housing is rotated by the second source of rotational power.

Webster, L. D. (inventor)

1982-01-01

80

New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.  

PubMed

Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

2014-05-01

81

Multiple hair whorls in a child with normal cranial and neurologic development.  

PubMed

Hair whorls are a normal characteristic of the human scalp and abnormally placed or absent whorls have been associated with cranial or neurologic abnormalities. We report a case of multiple whorls in a child with normal neurologic development. We also include a brief review of the literature on the development of hair whorls and their associations. PMID:24016289

Malathi, Munisamy; Chandrasekhar, Laxmisha; Thappa, Devinder M

2013-01-01

82

Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts  

SciTech Connect

The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts.

Lentell, R.L. [AWD Technologies, Inc., Boise, ID (US); Byrne, J. [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, WA (US)

1993-09-01

83

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

... SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Ventilation Control Measures § 57.4760 Shaft mines. (a) Shaft mines shall be provided with at least one of the following means...

2014-07-01

84

Changing Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... bad result — like orange hair, when you wanted blonde! See a professional. After talking with your mom ... out or be hopelessly frizzy! Curling irons or hot or cold rollers also make straight hair curly. ...

85

Healthy Hair: What Is it?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shiny hair with a smooth texture and clean-cut ends or tapered tips is generally perceived to be healthy. Hair texture and shine relate to hair surface properties, whereas the integrity of hair ends relates to the hair cortex. Hair can be straight, wavy or curly, blonde, black, brown, red, gray white, and its natural variations are important to our identity.

Rodney D Sinclair

2007-01-01

86

30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100 ...Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2010-07-01

87

30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100 ...Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2010-07-01

88

30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100 ...Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2011-07-01

89

30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100 ...Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2012-07-01

90

30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100 ...Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2011-07-01

91

30 CFR 57.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 57.19100 Section 57.19100 ...Shafts § 57.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2013-07-01

92

30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100 ...Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2013-07-01

93

30 CFR 56.19100 - Shaft landing gates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Shaft landing gates. 56.19100 Section 56.19100 ...Shafts § 56.19100 Shaft landing gates. Shaft landings shall be equipped with substantial safety gates so constructed that materials will...

2012-07-01

94

Oscillation of cricket sensory hairs in a low-frequency sound field  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Filiform hairs of various lengths on the cerci of adult crickets vibrate in a sound field. These movements were measured with a photodetector for sound frequencies from 10 Hz to 200 Hz in the species Acheta domestica, Gryllus bimaculatus and Phaeophilacris spectrum.2.With low air-particle velocities, the hair shafts were deflected sinusoidally from their resting position, without bending or secondary oscillations

Günter Kämper; Hans-Ulrich Kleindienst

1990-01-01

95

Evaluation and diagnosis of the hair loss patient: part II. Trichoscopic and laboratory evaluations.  

PubMed

The use of trichoscopy for evaluating a number of hair and scalp disorders is gaining popularity. It is a simple and noninvasive in vivo tool for visualizing hair shafts and the scalp. Recently, alopecias have been classified according to their trichoscopic findings. The second part of this 2-part continuing medical education article reviews recent advances in this field and describes a systematic approach for using the differential diagnostic findings of trichoscopy in alopecia. PMID:25128119

Mubki, Thamer; Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Shapiro, Jerry

2014-09-01

96

Laser-assisted hair removal: Side effects of Q-switched Nd:YAG, long-pulsed ruby, and alexandrite lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laser-assisted hair removal has become popularized using wavelengths in both the red and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These photoepilation devices target follicular melanin or an exogenous pigment placed within the follicle resulting in thermal damage to the hair follicle and shaft. However, melanocytes and keratinocytes located within the superficial layers of the skin also absorb red and

Christopher A. Nanni; Tina S. Alster

1999-01-01

97

Taking Care of Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... straight hair better than curly hair, which is why straight hair can appear shinier. Depending how long a person's hair is or how fast it grows, the ... more vulnerable to breakage or cuticle damage. That's why using a hot ... to break easily. Some people find that their hair gets oily in their ...

98

Comparison of hair from rectum cancer patients and from healthy persons by Raman microspectroscopy and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, Raman microspectroscopy and imaging was employed to analyze cancer patients' hair tissue. The comparison between the hair from rectum cancer patients and the hair from healthy people reveals some remarkable differences, such as for the rectum cancer patients, there are more lipids but less content of ?-helix proteins in the hair medulla section. Though more statistic data are required to establish universary rules for practical and accurate diagnosis, this work based on case study demonstrates the possibility of applying Raman microspectroscopy to reveal abnormality in non-cancer tissues such as hair in order to predict and diagnose cancers.

Wei, Xiaoli; Wang, Xin; Fang, Yusheng; Huang, Qing

2013-09-01

99

Hair Cell Generator Potentials  

PubMed Central

A technique is introduced using a piezoelectric device to stimulate hair cells of a molluscan statocyst while recording their responses intracellularly. Statocyst displacements produced with the technique are calibrated with stroboscopic photography. Properties of the hair cells' response to currents and mechanical stimulation are studied. The hair cell generator potential arises from a conductance increase and, for a certain range, is a logarithmic function of the amplitude of the displacement stimulus. PMID:4705640

Alkon, Daniel L.; Bak, Anthony

1973-01-01

100

MRI of human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Hair care for humans is a major world industry with specialised tools, chemicals and techniques. Studying the effect of hair\\u000a care products has become a considerable field of research, and besides mechanical and optical testing numerous advanced analytical\\u000a techniques have been employed in this area. In the present work, another means of studying the properties of hair is added\\u000a by

Eveline Mattle; Markus Weiger; Daniel Schmidig; Peter Boesiger; Michael Fey

2009-01-01

101

Photoaggravation of Hair Aging  

PubMed Central

Photoaggravation of hair aging includes various chemical and physical changes in fiber properties which lead to an increase in fiber porosity, loss of mechanical strength and an increase in surface roughness. These changes come from lipid oxidation, disulfide bond cleavage, tryptophan degradation and cysteic acid formation. Hair exposed to sunlight is claimed to be more brittle, stiffer and drier than before irradiation and exhibits a reduced water-absorption capacity. Hair pigments function to provide photochemical protection to hair proteins. Hair pigments accomplish this protection by absorbing and filtering the impinging radiation and subsequently dissipating this energy as heat. However, in the process of protecting the hair proteins from light, the pigments are degraded or bleached. Dark hair is more resistant to photodegradation than light hair, because of the higher photostability of eumelanin compared to pheomelanin. Integral lipids of hair fibers are degraded by ultraviolet light, as well as by visible light, helping to explain the weakening of the cell membrane complex exposed to light radiation. PMID:20927230

Lee, Won-Soo

2009-01-01

102

Age-Related Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... where hair is needed. Medication for Hair Restoration Finasteride – Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( ... hair re-growth in about 66% of men. Finasteride works by blocking the formation of the active ...

103

Designing a better hair straightener  

E-print Network

The Simply Straight Hair Brush was designed and built. The aim of the Simply Straight Hair Brush was to straighten hair faster and better than any product currently on the market. The current products were studied and the ...

Read, Melissa B. (Melissa Beth), 1982-

2004-01-01

104

Frictional Contact Analysis of Turbocharger Compressor-Shaft Sleeve-Shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impeller mounted onto the compressor shaft assembly via interference fit is one of the key components of a centrifugal compressor stage. The assembly creates a complicated frictional contact problem the interface of the mating parts when the rotational speed is high. So it is quite necessary to investigate the contact situation of compressor-shaft sleeve-shaft for running safely. The FE

Liao Ai-hua

2009-01-01

105

Unitary Shaft-Angle and Shaft-Speed Sensor Assemblies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure depicts a unit that contains a rotary-position or a rotary-speed sensor, plus electronic circuitry necessary for its operation, all enclosed in a single housing with a shaft for coupling to an external rotary machine. This rotation sensor unit is complete: when its shaft is mechanically connected to that of the rotary machine and it is supplied with electric power, it generates an output signal directly indicative of the rotary position or speed, without need for additional processing by other circuitry. The incorporation of all of the necessary excitatory and readout circuitry into the housing (in contradistinction to using externally located excitatory and/or readout circuitry) in a compact arrangement is the major difference between this unit and prior rotation-sensor units. The sensor assembly inside the housing includes excitatory and readout integrated circuits mounted on a circular printed-circuit board. In a typical case in which the angle or speed transducer(s) utilize electromagnetic induction, the assembly also includes another circular printed-circuit board on which the transducer windings are mounted. A sheet of high-magnetic permeability metal ("mu metal") is placed between the winding board and the electronic-circuit board to prevent spurious coupling of excitatory signals from the transducer windings to the readout circuits. The housing and most of the other mechanical hardware can be common to a variety of different sensor designs. Hence, the unit can be configured to generate any of variety of outputs by changing the interior sensor assembly. For example, the sensor assembly could contain an analog tachometer circuit that generates an output proportional (in both magnitude and sign or in magnitude only) to the speed of rotation.

Alhorn, Dean C.; Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

2006-01-01

106

Meiotic abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

107

Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata) Information for adults A A A This image displays a close-up of the scalp with a round area of non-scarring hair loss typical of alopecia areata. Overview Alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition resulting ...

108

[Green hair: clinical, chemical and epidemiologic study. Apropos of a case].  

PubMed

A 36-year-old blond woman suddenly developed green tinted hair following exposure to swimming pool water. This was the first green discoloration she noticed, although she had been an active swimmer for several years. Clinical examination showed green tinting toward the distal ends of the most superficial strands of hair. The copper content of plucked green hair measured by atomic absorption was elevated to 3,900 ppm and the copper concentration in water from the swimming pool implicated was 9.94 ppm. Following renewal, the latter value decreased to 107 ppb. Hair examination under polarizing light was normal, and a scanning electronmicroscopic study of hair samples showed a total loss of cuticle with micropits scattered over the hair shaft surface mimicking a "dead tree trunk". Epidemiological investigations showed that the increased copper content of swimming pool water was due to added algaecides without adequate replacement of the water. Hair damage resulting from repeated waving and/or bleaching of the hair turns out to be an important factor in the deposition of copper by inducing an increase in keratin content of cysteic acid and related anionic sulfonate groups which participate in copper adsorption. On the ocassion of this case-report, epidemiological data published by others, together with the chemical and therapeutic aspects of green hair are reviewed. PMID:3202580

Blanc, D; Zultak, M; Rochefort, A; Faivre, B; Claudet, M H; Drobacheff, C

1988-01-01

109

Removable control rod drive shaft guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A removable control rod drive shaft guide is described for a control rod ''guide'' structure card, comprising: a. a substantially annular shaped main body portion having a central axial bore for receiving a control rod drive shaft and an upper exterior groove for receiving removal tooling; b. the main body portion having a reduced outer diameter at its lower section;

M. W. Ales; S. K. Brown; L. D. Dixon

1988-01-01

110

A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is a very complex visual pattern whose rep- resentation is rarely studied in the vision literature despite its important role in human recognition. In this paper, we propose a generative model for hair representation and hair sketching, which is far more compact than the physically based models in graphics. We decompose a color hair im- age into three

Hong Chen; Song Chun Zhu

2005-01-01

111

Good Hair Care May Head off Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... the scalp) can develop. Do you let the sun color your hair? Excessive exposure to the sun can cause hair to become weak, dry, rough, ... hair and then expose your hair to the sun. The chemicals often cause unsightly yellowing, fading, and ...

112

Exogenous Factors in Hair Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and beauty of human hair have immeasurable psychological importance. Hair structure and its cycle are influenced by intentionally or nonintentionally delivered factors such as grooming, heat styling, chemical agents and climatic exposure. All of these factors are capable of causing loss of hair color and luster, harshness, stiffness, weakness, brittleness and flyaway, transient loss of hair or scarring

Liran Horev

2004-01-01

113

Microtubules in root hairs.  

PubMed

The microtubules of root hairs of Raphanus sativus, Lepidium sativum, Equisetum hyemale, Limnobium stoloniferum, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Allium sativum and Urtica dioica were investigated using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Arrays of cortical microtubules were observed in all hairs. The microtubules in the hairs show net axial orientations, but in Allium and Urtica helical microtubule patterns are also present. Numerical parameters of microtubules in Raphanus, Equisetum and Limnobium were determined from dry-cleave preparations. The results are discussed with respect to cell wall deposition and cell morphogenesis. PMID:4066793

Traas, J A; Braat, P; Emons, A M; Meekes, H; Derksen, J

1985-06-01

114

Animating Hair with Loosely Connected Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a practical approach to the animation of hair at an interactive frame rate. In our approach, we model the hair as a set of particles that serve as sampling points for the volume of the hair, which covers the whole region where hair is present. The dynamics of the hair, including hair-hair interactions, is simulated using the

Yosuke Bando; Bing-Yu Chen; Tomoyuki Nishita

115

How to Stop Damaging Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... Wrap your hair in a towel to absorb the water. Let your hair air dry. Brushing your hair while it is wet Changes that can help prevent hair damage: Do you have straight hair? Let your hair dry a bit before you gently comb it with a wide-tooth comb. Do you have textured hair or ...

116

Computing Thermal Performances Of Shafts And Bearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SHABERTH computer program developed to predict steady-state and transient thermal performance of multi-bearing shaft system operating with either wet or dry friction. Calculates loads, torques, temperatures, and fatigue lives for ball and/or roller bearings on single shaft. Enables study of many causes of instabilities in bearings. Also provides for analysis of reaction of system to termination of supply of lubricant to bearings and other lubricated mechanical elements. Valuable software tool in design and analysis of shaft bearing systems. Written in FORTRAN IV.

Woods, Claudia M.

1992-01-01

117

Ectodysplasin regulates the lymphotoxin-? pathway for hair differentiation  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the EDA gene cause anhidrotic/hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, a disorder characterized by defective formation of hair, sweat glands, and teeth in humans and in a mouse model, “Tabby” (Ta). The gene encodes ectodysplasin, a TNF ligand family member that activates the NF-?B-signaling pathway, but downstream targets and the mechanism of skin appendage formation have been only partially analyzed. Comparative transcription profiling of embryonic skin during hair follicle development in WT and Ta mice identified critical anhidrotic/hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) effectors in four pathways, three already implicated in follicle formation. They included Shh and its effectors, as well as antagonists for the Wnt (Dkk4) and BMP (Sostdc1) pathways. The fourth pathway was unexpected, a variant NF-?B-signaling cascade based on lymphotoxin-? (LT?)/RelB. Previously known to participate only in lymphoid organogenesis, LT? was enriched in developing hair follicles of WT but not in Ta mice. Furthermore, in mice lacking LT?, all three types of mouse hair were still formed, but all were structurally abnormal. Guard hairs became wavy and irregular, zigzag/auchen hairs lost their kinks, and in a phenocopy of features of Ta animals, the awl hairs doubled in number and were characteristically distorted and pinched. LT?-null mice that received WT bone marrow transplants maintained mutant hair phenotypes, consistent with autonomous LT? action in skin independent of its expression in lymphoid cells. Thus, as an EDA target, LT? regulates the form of hair in developing hair follicles; and when EDA is defective, failure of LT? activation can account for part of the Ta phenotype. PMID:16738056

Cui, Chang-Yi; Hashimoto, Tsuyoshi; Grivennikov, Sergei I.; Piao, Yulan; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; Schlessinger, David

2006-01-01

118

Telogen Effluvium Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... the cause is not obvious, such as mild iron deficiency. If the telogen effluvium is caused by a medication, the medication needs to be stopped. When the cause of the hair loss is something like giving birth, a transient illness, ...

119

Hair Restoration (Cosmetic Procedures)  

MedlinePLUS

... MS, Dover JS, Arndt KA, editors. Atlas of Cosmetic Surgery . United States of America, W. B. Saunders Company; ... of Dermatology Dermatologists have invented or refined several cosmetic procedures. Hair replacement and transplant surgery was pioneered by an American dermatologist.

120

Methods of hair removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods of hair removal vary between simple inexpensive means of home treatment (shaving, plucking, depilatories) to expensive and potentially time-consuming means used by paraprofessionals, nurses, and\\/or physicians (electrolysis, lasers, x-ray). The ways in which these different methods induce hair removal, the duration of such removal, and the nuances between devices within the same category of methods are discussed. (J

Elise A. Olsen

1999-01-01

121

Chromosomal abnormalities  

SciTech Connect

Cytogenetic studies from the peripheral blood of a patient with malignant lymphoma and rhematoid arthritis who was treated with intra-articular gold Au 198 revealed mosaicism with a normal female metaphase and a 43-chromosome metaphase. The abnormal cell line showed six missing normal chromosomes and three morphologically abnormal chromosomes. The trypsin-digested G-banding metaphases showed that the marker chromosomes were an isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 17, a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 16, and a translocated chromosome that involved the long arm of chromosome 4 and a chromosome 5. It is tempting to conclude that these abnormalities were due to the gold Au 198 treatment, but we cannot exclude other possibilities.

Goh, K.; Jacox, R.F.; Anderson, F.W.

1980-09-01

122

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2010-07-01

123

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2012-07-01

124

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2013-07-01

125

30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH...

2011-07-01

126

Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure  

SciTech Connect

The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

127

Flexible shaft and roof drilling system  

DOEpatents

A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

Blanz, John H. (Carlisle, MA)

1981-01-01

128

Maintenance of stereocilia and apical junctional complexes by Cdc42 in cochlear hair cells.  

PubMed

Cdc42 is a key regulator of dynamic actin organization. However, little is known about how Cdc42-dependent actin regulation influences steady-state actin structures in differentiated epithelia. We employed inner ear hair-cell-specific conditional knockout to analyze the role of Cdc42 in hair cells possessing highly elaborate stable actin protrusions (stereocilia). Hair cells of Atoh1-Cre;Cdc42(flox/flox) mice developed normally but progressively degenerated after maturation, resulting in progressive hearing loss particularly at high frequencies. Cochlear hair cell degeneration was more robust in inner hair cells than in outer hair cells, and began as stereocilia fusion and depletion, accompanied by a thinning and waving circumferential actin belt at apical junctional complexes (AJCs). Adenovirus-encoded GFP-Cdc42 expression in hair cells and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging of hair cells from transgenic mice expressing a Cdc42-FRET biosensor indicated Cdc42 presence and activation at stereociliary membranes and AJCs in cochlear hair cells. Cdc42-knockdown in MDCK cells produced phenotypes similar to those of Cdc42-deleted hair cells, including abnormal microvilli and disrupted AJCs, and downregulated actin turnover represented by enhanced levels of phosphorylated cofilin. Thus, Cdc42 influenced the maintenance of stable actin structures through elaborate tuning of actin turnover, and maintained function and viability of cochlear hair cells. PMID:24610943

Ueyama, Takehiko; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Takashi; Goto, Akihiro; Morioka, Shigefumi; Shimizu, Aya; Nakao, Kazuki; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Ninoyu, Yuzuru; Kassai, Hidetoshi; Suetsugu, Shiro; Koji, Takehiko; Fritzsch, Bernd; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Hisa, Yasuo; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Aiba, Atsu; Saito, Naoaki

2014-05-01

129

Analysis of human hair cross sections from two different population groups by Nuclear Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace element analysis of hair is used as a screening technique to assess body-nutrient levels and/or toxicity due to environmental pollutants. With the aim to compare element content and spatial distribution within scalp hair-shaft cross sections of two distinct human population groups, and to assess possible similarities and/or differences, hair samples from Sudan and South Africa were collected. Proton backscattering and Micro-PIXE were used to determine the matrix composition and content of light and middle transition elements, with beam energies of 1.5 and 3.0 MeV. Mapping analysis showed a relatively similar content distribution for S, Cl, K and Ca within each group. However significant differences, particularly for heavier metals, such as Fe and Zn were also found. Correspondence Analysis of the data showed a clear separation between the two groups when the total content over the hair cross section was considered.

Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Eisa, M. E. M.

2010-06-01

130

The Mercedes incision in hair restoration.  

PubMed

Standard technique for hair transplantation includes plug composite grafts placed in circular recipient defects of smaller diameter. The plugs can also be placed in slit incisions that are temporarily dilated to accommodate grafts. Two drawbacks of these techniques are the appearance of row cropping resulting from the regular pattern and compression of individual grafts caused by scar contracture. These drawbacks result in tufting and a "doll's head" appearance. The expansile Mercedes incision as described here camouflages these failings. Donor minigrafts are taken with a biopsy punch knife or as strips in a standard fashion. A Mercedes logo-shaped defect is then made at the recipient site using a no. 11 scalpel to create a three-armed stellate incision. The incisions are rapidly made with the axis oriented parallel to the direction of the native hair shafts. The graft is then pushed in flush with the skin. The triangulation eliminates compression of grafts because they are spread in three directions rather than squeezing in a tight circular or slit configuration. The use of the stellate incision along with altering its rotational orientation in a haphazard pattern also prevents row cropping. Thus, the Mercedes incision is quicker and yields an overall improved result. PMID:7793784

Bernard, S L; Smith, J K

1995-04-01

131

[Tufted hair folliculitis].  

PubMed

A case of tufted hair folliculutis presenting as circumscribed, tender and inflamed areas in the occiput with residual tufted follicles in a 28-year old man is reported. Tufted hair folliculitis is a characteristic localized scarring bacterial folliculitis of the scalp due to Staphylococcus aureus. Histopathological studies reveal perifollicular inflammation around the upper portions of the follicles sparing the hair root level. Within areas of inflammation, several follicles converge toward a common follicular duct with a widely dilated opening. Currently, tufted hair folliculitis is considered a variant of folliculitis decalvans of Quinquaud. Staphylococcal infection is believed to be an initial causative factor, and underlying differences in follicular anatomy or host response may be important in determining which reaction pattern occurs in an affected individual. The development of atrophy with loss of adnexal structures (in folliculitis decalvans) or of hair tufts (in tufting folliculitis) may depend upon the depth and destructive potential of the inflammatory process. The therapeutic approach is problematic; prolonged treatment with oral antibiotics may stabilize the disease, but good and at times more definitive results (as in the presented case) have been reported after radical surgical excision of the involved areas. PMID:9206717

Trüeb, R M; Pericin, M; Hafner, J; Burg, G

1997-04-01

132

Causes of hair loss and the developments in hair rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Hair is considered to be a major component of an individual's general appearance. The psychological impact of hair loss results in a measurably detrimental change in self-esteem and is associated with images of reduced worth. It is not surprising that both men and women find hair loss a stressful experience. Genetic hair loss is the major problem affecting men and by the age of 50, up to 50% will be affected. Initial attempts to regenerate the lost hair have centred on applying a topical solution of between 2% to 5% minoxidil; however, the results proved disappointing. Recently, finasteride, a type II 5alpha reductase inhibitor has been found to regrow a noticeable amount of hair in about 40% of balding men. Further developments in treatments have lead to the use of a dual type I and type II inhibitor where 90% of those treated regrow a noticeable amount of hair. In women the major cause of hair loss before the age of 50 is nutritional, with 30% affected. Increased and persistent hair shedding (chronic telogen effluvium) and reduced hair volume are the principle changes occurring. The main cause appears to be depleted iron stores, compromised by a suboptimal intake of the essential amino acid l-lysine. Correction of these imbalances stops the excessive hair loss and returns the hair back to its former glory. However, it can take many months to redress the situation. PMID:18498491

Rushton, D H; Norris, M J; Dover, R; Busuttil, Nina

2002-02-01

133

Immunolocalization of myosin I? in the hair cell's hair bundle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair bundle, the hair cell's sensory organelle, transduces acoustical or vestibular stimulation into a change in membrane potential. The actin-based stereociliary processes of the hair bundle contain a number of myosin isoforms that may be important to the bundle's function. One of these isoforms, myosin I b, has been proposed to constitute an adaptation motor controling sensitivity of the

Anne B. Metcalf

1998-01-01

134

Over the shaft fuel pumping system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a gas turbine engine apparatus. It comprises: a compressor adapted to compress air inducted into the engine; a combustor adapted to receive and burn a mixture of fuel and compressed air to produce motive gas, a metering valve adapted to receive fuel and deliver the fuel to the combustor; a turbine adapted to receive the motive gas and produce rotary motion in response thereto; a shaft connected to the turbine and the compressor for transmitting the rotary motion to the compressor; and a vortex pump having an impeller girdling the shaft intermediate the compressor and the turbine rotating therewith, a pump inlet adjacent the shaft in fluid communication with a source of the fuel, a pump outlet in fluid communication with the metering valve, and means for defining a flow path between the fuel source and the inlet whereby the fuel is directed into the inlet in an axial direction which is substantially parallel to the shaft while preventing substantial fuel contact with the shaft so that circumferential fuel swirl at the inlet is minimized.

Hoopes, J.N.; Eick, C.D.; Williamson, J.R.

1991-02-05

135

High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism  

DOEpatents

A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

2001-05-08

136

Photo yellowing of human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, human hair is claimed to turn yellower after sun exposure. This is particularly affirmed for white hair. However, quantitative data relating yellowness to hair type and to the radiation wavelength are missing. This work shows results of the effect of full or UVB-filtered radiation of a mercury vapor or a xenon-arc lamp on the yellowness of virgin white,

A. C. S. Nogueira; M. Richena; L. E. Dicelio; I. Joekes

2007-01-01

137

Short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping of keratinised hair Part 2. An optimised genomic DNA extraction procedure reveals donor dependence of STR profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feasibility study of short tandem repeat (STR) genotyping of telogen phase hairs in particular, and hair shaft in general, is presented. A number of extraction procedures in common use were investigated and the quantities of nuclear DNA (nuDNA) delivered were quantified via a real-time PCR assay. The extracts were subjected to two variations on AmpF?STR® Profiler Plus™ PCR amplification

Dennis McNevin; Linzi Wilson-Wilde; James Robertson; Jennelle Kyd; Chris Lennard

2005-01-01

138

The Changes of Gene Expression on Human Hair during Long-Spaceflight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair has many advantages as the experimental sample. In a hair follicle, hair matrix cells actively divide and these active changes sensitively reflect physical condition on human body. The hair shaft records the metabolic conditions of mineral elements in our body. From human hairs, we can detect physiological informations about the human health. Therefore, we focused on using hair root analysis to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts. In 2009, we started a research program focusing on the analysis of astronauts’ hairs to examine the effects of long-term spaceflight on the gene expression in the human body. We want to get basic information to invent the effectivly diagnostic methods to detect the health situations of astronauts during space flight by analyzing human hair. We extracted RNA form the collected samples. Then, these extracted RNA was amplified. Amplified RNA was processed and hybridized to the Whole Human Genome (4×44K) Oligo Microarray (Agilent Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Slide scanning was performed using the Agilent DNA Microarray Scanner. Scanning data were normalized with Agilent’s Feature Extraction software. Data preprocessing and analysis were performed using GeneSpring software 11.0.1. Next, Synthesis of cDNA (1 mg) was carried out using the PrimeScript RT reagent Kit (TaKaRa Bio) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The qRT-PCR experiment was performed with SYBR Premix Ex Taq (TaKaRa Bio) using the 7500 Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems). We detected the changes of some gene expressions during spaceflight from both microarray and qRT-PCR data. These genes seems to be related with the hair proliferation. We believe that these results will lead to the discovery of the important factor effected during space flight on the hair.

Terada, Masahiro; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamada, Shin; Seki, Masaya; Takahashi, Rika; Higashibata, Akira; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sudoh, Masamichi; Minamisawa, Susumu

139

Confocal microscopy of hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confocal microscopy is an excellent method for studying the localization of fluorescent stains. Used in this way, superior 3D images can be obtained from multiple optical sections with very shallow depth of field. The main advantage of this technique is that the sample is not damaged. We have taken serial confocal sections of hair and via specific image enhancement routines

J. M. Lagarde; P. Peyre; D. Redoules; D. Black; M. Briot; Y. Gall

1994-01-01

140

Help! It's Hair Loss!  

MedlinePLUS

... will be back to normal within 6 months. Ringworm. Kids who have a fungus called ringworm on their scalp might lose their hair. This ... what to do next. For a fungal infection (ringworm), the doctor will probably prescribe some medicine to ...

141

Study of turbocharger shaft motion by means of non-invasive optical techniques: Application to the behaviour analysis in turbocharger lubrication failures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel non-invasive technique to estimate the turbocharger shaft whirl motion. The aim of this article is to present a system for monitoring the shaft motion of a turbocharger, which will be used in turbocharger destructive testing. To achieve this, a camera and a light source were installed in a turbocharger test bench with a controlled lubrication circuit. An image recording methodology and a process algorithm have been developed, in order to estimate the shaft motion. This processing consists on differentiating specific zones of the image, in order to obtain their coordinates. Two reference points have been configured on the compressor side, which help to calculate the relative position of the shaft, avoiding the errors due to structural vibrations. Maximum eccentricity of the turbocharger has been determined and it has been compared with shaft motion when it is spinning in different conditions. A luminosity study has been also done, in order to improve the process and to obtain locus of shaft position in a picture exposition time period. The technique has been applied to diagnosis of a lubrication failure test and the main results will be presented in this article: like shaft motion figures; thermodynamic variables and pictures of the shaft while it is spinning at abnormal lubrication conditions. The measuring components used in this technique have the ability to withstand the catastrophic failure of the turbocharger in this type of test.

Pastor, J. V.; Serrano, J. R.; Dolz, V.; López, M. A.; Bouffaud, F.

2012-10-01

142

iRootHair: a comprehensive root hair genomics database.  

PubMed

The specialized root epidermis cells of higher plants produce long, tubular outgrowths called root hairs. Root hairs play an important role in nutrient and water uptake, and they serve as a valuable model in studies of plant cell morphogenesis. More than 1,300 articles that describe the biological processes of these unique cells have been published to date. As new fields of root hair research are emerging, the number of new papers published each year and the volumes of new relevant data are continuously increasing. Therefore, there is a general need to facilitate studies on root hair biology by collecting, presenting, and sharing the available information in a systematic, curated manner. Consequently, in this paper, we present a comprehensive database of root hair genomics, iRootHair, which is accessible as a Web-based service. The current version of the database includes information about 153 root hair-related genes that have been identified to date in dicots and monocots along with their putative orthologs in higher plants with sequenced genomes. In order to facilitate the use of the iRootHair database, it is subdivided into interrelated, searchable sections that describe genes, processes of root hair formation, root hair mutants, and available references. The database integrates bioinformatics tools with a focus on sequence identification and annotation. iRootHair is a unique resource for root hair research that integrates the large volume of data related to root hair genomics in a single, curated, and expandable database that is freely available at www.iroothair.org. PMID:23129204

Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Nowakowska, Urszula; Szumera, Jakub; Chwialkowska, Karolina; Szarejko, Iwona

2013-01-01

143

Traumatic Fibular Shaft Fractures in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct blow to the leg resulted in fibular shaft fractures in three elite college athletes participating in contact sports. None of the athletes had prior symptoms sug gestive of a stress fracture. All three athletes had benign-appearing fractures and were treated nonopera tively. Ultimate healing was delayed, occurring on av erage at 23 weeks, and each case was complicated

James R. Slauterbeck; Matthew S. Shapiro; Stephen Liu; Gerald A. M. Finerman

1995-01-01

144

Fracture characteristics of steering gear sector shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sector shaft is a critical component of an automotive power assisted recirculating ball steering gear and one that is\\u000a vulnerable to fracture due to loads transmitted through the steering linkage under certain conditions. This paper describes\\u000a conditions under which such fractures can occur and the characteristics that distinguish the most frequently observed fractures.

J. D. Varin

2002-01-01

145

Characteristics and application of 'smart' shaft encoders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A family of absolute optical shaft encoders has been configured which is based upon an electro-optical multiplexing architecture. When interfaced to a microprocessor, the resulting 'smart' encoder can perform several allied data processing functions and can replace many types of electro-mechanical components. Encoder architecture, interfacing, and several allied signal processing examples are discussed.

Breslow, Donald H.

146

6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, CROSS SHAFT, AND INTERMEDIATE GEAR HOIST ASSEMBLY FOR CONTROL GATE NO. 6, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

147

Hair Cell Afferent Synapses  

PubMed Central

This review will cover advances in the study of hair cell afferent synaptic function occurring between 2005 and 2008. During this time capacitance measurements of vesicular fusion have continued to be refined, optical methods have added insights regarding vesicle trafficking, and paired intracellular recordings have established the transfer function of the afferent synapse at high resolution. Further, genes have been identified with forms of deafness known as auditory neuropathy, and their role in afferent signaling explored in mouse models. With these advances, our view of the hair cell afferent synapse has continued to be refined, and surprising properties have been revealed that emphasize the unique role of this structure in neural function. PMID:18824101

Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Grant, Lisa; Fuchs, Paul

2008-01-01

148

Polymerization into Human Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis-THIOGLYCOLIC ACID (TGA)-CUMENE HYDROPEROXIDE (CHP) and BISULFITE--CHP systems are described for po)ymerizing METHYL METHACRYLATE (MMA) in HUMAN HAIR. An ethanol-water solvent system was employed. Diffusion rate control appears to predominate over a variety of reaction conditions. The influence of reagent concentrations and so)vent effects on the reaction is also describe:). POLY- MERIZATION is shown to occur more rapidly into either

CLARENCE ROBBINS; RICHARD CRAWFORD; D. W. McNEIL; JULIUS NACHTIGAL

149

Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents viewgraphs of The Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs. The topics include: 1) Rocket Turbomachinery Shaft Seals (Inter-Propellant-Seal (IPS) Systems, Lift-off Seal Systems, and Technology Development Needs); 2) Rocket Engine Characteristics (Engine cycles, propellants, missions, etc., Influence on shaft sealing requirements); and 3) Conclusions.

Keba, John E.

1999-01-01

150

Synchronous Control Effort Minimized for Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various disturbances that are synchronous with the shaft speed can complicate radial magnetic bearing control. These include position sensor target irregularities (runout) and shaft imbalance. The method presented here allows the controller to ignore all synchronous harmonics of the shaft position input (within the closed-loop bandwidth) and to respond only to asynchronous motions. The result is reduced control effort.

Brown, Gerald V.

2001-01-01

151

14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29.931 Aeronautics and...Rotor Drive System § 29.931 Shafting critical speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by...

2010-01-01

152

Human hair growth ex vivo is correlated with in vivo hair growth: selective categorization of hair follicles for more reliable hair follicle organ culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the numerous assays used to assess hair growth, hair follicle organ culture model is one of the most popular and powerful in vitro systems. Changes in hair growth are commonly employed as a measurement of follicular activity. Hair cycle stage of mouse vibrissa follicles in vivo is known to determine subsequent hair growth and follicle behavior in vitro and

Oh Sang Kwon; Jun Kyu Oh; Mi Hyang Kim; So Hyun Park; Hyun Keol Pyo; Kyu Han Kim; Kwang Hyun Cho; Hee Chul Eun

2006-01-01

153

Age-induced hair greying - the multiple effects of oxidative stress.  

PubMed

An obvious sign of ageing is hair greying, or the loss of pigment production and deposition within the hair shafts. Numerous mechanisms, acting at different levels and follicular locations, contribute to hair greying, ranging from melanocyte stem cells defects to follicular melanocyte death. One key issue that is in common to these processes is oxidative damage. At the hair follicle stem cells niche, oxidative stress, accelerated by B-cell lymphoma 2 gene (BCL-2) depletion, leads to selective apoptosis and diminution of melanocyte stem cells, reducing the repopulation of newly formed anagen follicles. Melanotic bulbar melanocytes express high levels of BCL-2 to enable survival from melanogenesis- and ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) attacks. With ageing, the bulbar melanocyte expression of anti-oxidant proteins such as BCL-2, and possibly TRP-2, is reduced, and the dedicated enzymatic anti-oxidant defence system throughout the follicle weakens, resulting in enhanced oxidative stress. A marked reduction in catalase expression and activity results in millimolar accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, contributing to bulbar melanocyte malfunction and death. Interestingly, amelanotic melanocytes at the outer root sheath (ORS) are somewhat less affected by these processes and survive for longer time even within the white, ageing hair follicles. Better understanding of the overtime susceptibility of melanocytes to oxidative stress at the different follicular locations might yield clues to possible therapies for the prevention and reversal of hair greying. PMID:24033376

Seiberg, M

2013-12-01

154

Cytoskeleton and Root Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Root hairs are long tubular outgrowths of root epidermis cell that form to increase the root surface in order to assist in\\u000a the uptake of water and nutrients from soil. Root hair development consists of two distinct processes: root hair initiation\\u000a and tip growth. During both events, the dynamic organization of the cytoskeleton translates local signaling events into a\\u000a focused

Eunsook Park; Andreas Nebenführ

155

Evolution of Sensory Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ears of all vertebrate species use sensory hair cells (Fig. 3.1) to convert mechanical energy to electrical signals compatible with the nervous system. However, although the basic structure\\u000a of hair cells is ubiquitous among the vertebrates and hair cells are also found in the lateral line of fishes and aquatic\\u000a amphibians, a growing body of literature has demonstrated considerable

Allison Coffin; Matthew Kelley; Geoffrey A. Manley; Arthur N. Popper

156

Effect of different human hair bleaching conditions on the hair coloration with hair boosting shampoo as colorant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, detailed simulation of human hair bleaching was conducted. The materials and chemical used as well as the hair\\u000a bleaching procedures were described. After bleaching, the colour change of the hair was evaluated in accordance with CIE Lab\\u000a system and the hair bleaching results was analysed. Following the hair bleaching process, hair coloration was employed with\\u000a the use

C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; K. W. Lau; Y. L. Chow

2009-01-01

157

The Promoting Effect of Ishige sinicola on Hair Growth  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the promoting effect of Ishige sinicola, an alga native to Jeju Island, Korea, on hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of I. sinicola extract for 21 days, I. sinicola extract increased hair-fiber length. After topical application of I. sinicola extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair shaft was induced. The I. sinicola extract significantly inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase. Treatment of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPCs) with I. sinicola extract resulted in increase of cell proliferation, which was accompanied by the increase of phospho-GSK3? level, ?-catenin, Cyclin E and CDK2, whereas p27kip1 was down-regulated. In particular, octaphlorethol A, an isolated component from the I. sinicola extract, inhibited the activity of 5?-reductase and increased the proliferation of DPCs. These results suggest that I. sinicola extract and octaphlorethol A, a principal of I. sinicola, have the potential to treat alopecia via the proliferation of DPCs followed by the activation of ?-catenin pathway, and the 5?-reductase inhibition. PMID:23708185

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Eun-JI; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Jeon, You-Jin; Kang, Sung-Myung; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2013-01-01

158

Excessive or unwanted hair in women  

MedlinePLUS

Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... Women normally produce low levels of male hormones (androgens). If your body makes too much of this ...

159

Induction of Hair Growth by Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in 1,763 MHz Radiofrequency-Irradiated Hair Follicle Cells  

PubMed Central

Radiofrequency (RF) radiation does not transfer high energy to break the covalent bonds of macromolecules, but these low energy stimuli might be sufficient to induce molecular responses in a specific manner. We monitored the effect of 1,763 MHz RF radiation on cultured human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) by evaluating changes in the expression of cytokines related to hair growth. The expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA in hDPCs was significantly induced upon RF radiation at the specific absorption rate of 10 W/kg, which resulted in increased expression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and cyclin D1 (CCND1) proteins and increased phosphorylation of MAPK1 protein. Exposure to 10 W/kg RF radiation 1 h per day for 7 days significantly enhanced hair shaft elongation in ex vivo hair organ cultures. In RF-exposed follicular matrix keratinocytes in the hair bulb, the expression of Ki-67 was increased, while the signal for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling was reduced. From these results, we suggest that 1,763 MHz RF exposure stimulates hair growth in vitro through the induction of IGF-1 in hDPCs. PMID:22164296

Jo, Seong Jin; Cho, A-Ri; Jeon, Soon-Ik; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Kyu Han; Park, Gun-Sik; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kwon, Oh Sang; Park, Woong-Yang

2011-01-01

160

Lunar vertical-shaft mining system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

Introne, Steven D. (editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

1994-01-01

161

Lowest critical velocity of rotating shafts.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of the gyroscopic moment on the appearance of a first imaginary critical velocity (minimum negative value of lambda) is investigated and shown to have an important effect on the computation of the first critical velocity. A numerical procedure is developed which can be used for overcoming the difficulties arising when the first real and the first imaginary roots are similar in modulus. As an example, a real shaft with two supports was analyzed. For the computation the real shaft was subdivided into ten sections, and for two of them (representing compressor and turbine) the gyroscopic moment was taken into account. The present method is especially useful when high speed computational facilities are not available.

Atzori, B.; Curti, G.

1973-01-01

162

Biomedical Analyses of Mice Body Hair Exposed to Long-term Space Flight as a Compliment of Human Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: To understand the effect of space environment characterized by microgravity and radiation on protein and mineral metabolisms is important for developing the countermeasures to the adverse effects happening on the astronauts who stay long-term in space. Thus JAXA has started a human research to study the effects of long-term exposure in space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing astronaut's hair grown in space since December 2009 (Experiment nicknamed "HAIR"). Ten human subjects who are the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) will be expected to complete this experiment. Thanks to the tissue sharing program of space-flown mice which is presented and organized by AGI(Italian Space Agency), we can also have an opportunity to analyze rodents samples which will greatly compliment human hair experiment by enable us to conduct more detailed analysis with the expansion of skin analysis which is not include in human experiment. The purpose of this flown-mice experiment is to study the effects of long-term exposure to space environment such as microgravity and space radiation on mineral and protein metabolism, the biological responses to the stress levels, and the initial process of skin carcinogenesis by analyzing hair shaft, its root cells, and skin. Approach and Method In this experiment, we analyzed hair shaft, hair root and skin. Hair samples with skin were taken from 3-month space-flown mice and ground-control mice in the AGI's tissue sharing program in 2009. The sample numbers of space-flown mice and control-mice were three and six, respectively. And they were at the Mice Drawer System (MDS) in ISS and in the laboratory of Geneva University. For the hair shaft, the mineral balance is investi-gated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). For hair root, the extracted RNA undergoes DNA microarray analysis, and will be further examined particular interests of gene-expression by real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. DNA is also extracted from the same samples and mitochondrial DNA copy numbers are ex-amined. For mice skin, the examination of the mutation was performed to investigate whether the space flight will cause the visible mutation which may reflect an evidence of promotion step of carcinogenesis by space radiation. Result: Analysis on the specimen is in progress. A brief results will be introduced during the COSPAR meeting. The mice body hair analysis will give us basic information to understand how space environment such as microgravity and radiation affect on the living organisms.

Mukai, Chiaki

163

Robotic hair restoration.  

PubMed

The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

2014-01-01

164

Genetically null mice reveal a central role for epidermal growth factor receptor in the differentiation of the hair follicle and normal hair development.  

PubMed Central

Mice harboring a targeted disruption of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) allele exhibit a severely disorganized hair follicle phenotype, fuzzy coat, and systemic disease resulting in death before 3 weeks. This skin phenotype was reproduced in whole skin grafts and in grafts of EGFR null hair follicle buds onto nude mice, providing a model to evaluate the natural evolution of skin lacking the EGFR. Hair follicles in grafts of null skin did not progress from anagen to telogen and scanning electron micrografts revealed wavy, flattened hair fibers with cuticular abnormalities. Many of the EGFR null hair follicles in the grafted skin were consumed by an inflammatory reaction resulting in complete hair loss in 67% of the grafts by 10 weeks. Localization of follicular differentiation markers including keratin 6, transglutaminase, and the hair keratins mHa2 and hacl-1 revealed a pattern of premature differentiation within the null hair follicles. In intact EGFR null mice, proliferation in the interfollicular epidermis, but not hair follicles, was greatly decreased in the absence of EGFR. In contrast, grafting of EGFR null skin resulted in a hyperplastic response in the epidermis that did not resolve even after 10 weeks, although the wound-induced hyperplasia in EGFR wild-type grafts had resolved within 3 to 4 weeks. Thus, epithelial expression of the EGFR has complex functions in the skin. It is important in delaying follicular differentiation, may serve to protect the hair follicle from immunological reactions, and modifies both normal and wound-induced epidermal proliferation but seems dispensable for follicular proliferation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9176390

Hansen, L. A.; Alexander, N.; Hogan, M. E.; Sundberg, J. P.; Dlugosz, A.; Threadgill, D. W.; Magnuson, T.; Yuspa, S. H.

1997-01-01

165

"Dissection" of a Hair Dryer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-01-01

166

Photodamage determination of human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunlight on human hair causes photo-degradation. This results in bleaching due to melanin oxidation through free radicals, and induces keratin impairment. Protein degradation, tryptophan degradation, lipidic peroxidation and electron paramagnetic resonance can be used to evaluate proteic and lipidic photodecomposition and free radical formation in hair fibres subjected to antioxidant action and different UV intensities. All these methodologies have been

Estibalitz Fernández; Clara Barba; Cristina Alonso; Meritxell Martí; José Luis Parra; Luisa Coderch

167

Effect of sun protection agent on preventing hair colour fading and hair damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the effect of sun protection agent on different hair samples including, (i) unbleached hair sample, (ii) bleached\\u000a hair sample and (iii) bleached hair sample with subsequent hair coloration, were studied. This paper was aimed at evaluating\\u000a the effectiveness of sun protection agent on the different hair conditions. The hair samples were divided into two sets; one\\u000a was

C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; Y. L. Chow

2010-01-01

168

Growth and viability of Liaoning Cashmere goat hair follicles during the annual hair follicle cycle.  

PubMed

Here, we studied hair follicle development of Liaoning Cashmere goats. Every month for 1 year, skin samples were collected from five 1.5-year-old female goats, and made into paraffin sections. A number of parameters were measured of primary and secondary hair follicles via microscopic observation including follicle depth, hair bulb width, dermis and epidermis thickness, changes in follicle activity, and histology. The results showed the presence of three phases in the annual hair cycle: anagen, catagen, and telogen. Primary and secondary hair follicle depth varied across the months; however, no significant difference was obtained between adjacent months (P>0.05). Primary hair follicles had a bigger hair bulb width compared to secondary hair follicles; however, this difference declined during hair follicle developed in anagen. As hair follicle growth slowed, the hair bulb broadened, and hair root depth became shallower. During the entire hair cycle, hair follicle depth and dermis thickness were positively correlated; however, this relationship was not significant (P>0.05) for primary and secondary hair follicle density and the ratio of secondary hair follicle density and primary hair follicle density (S/P ratio). In addition, new and old primary hair follicles coexisted with secondary hair follicles. Finally, secondary hair follicles had a higher activity rate compared to primary hair follicle in adult Liaoning Cashmere goats in certain months. PMID:25036348

Zhang, Q L; Li, J P; Chen, Y; Chang, Q; Li, Y M; Yao, J Y; Jiang, H Z; Zhao, Z H; Guo, D

2014-01-01

169

An analysis of shaft/shaft seal interaction of a multiple disk centrifugal blood pump  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1997 Major Subject: Bioengineering AN ANALYSIS OF SHAFT/SHAFT SEAL INTERACTION OF A MULTIPLE DISK CENTRIFUGAL BLOOD PUMP A Thesis by KEEFE BAIRD MANNING Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Sohi Rastegar (Co-Chair of Committee) Gerald E. Miller Co-Chair of Committee) L. Dale Webb (Member) uo (Head Department) May 1997 Major Subject: Bioengineering...

Manning, Keefe Baird

2012-06-07

170

Evaluation of steel shafts for magnetostrictive torque sensors (abstract)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the magnetostrictive effect in steel, a robust, noncontacting shaft torque sensor can be obtained. A fundamental problem in this scheme is compatibility between mechanical strength required for a shaft and a magnetic one needed for a torque sensor. In order to find shaft material accommodating these two requirements, we investigated basic characteristics, such as hysteresis, linearity, and zero-level fluctuation associated with shaft rotation, of the magnetostrictive torque sensor for various nickel chromium molybdenum steel shafts (SNCM in Japanese Industrial Standard) subjected to case hardening. We prepared three kinds of shafts of 25 mm in diameter: SNCM 420 (Ni=1.69%, C=0.2%), SNCM 616 (Ni=2.91%, C=0.15%), and SNCM 447 (Ni=1.67%, C=0.49%). Shafts of the first two materials were carburized, whereas those of the last one were quenched. We used a magnetic head-type torque sensor consisting of a pair of cross-coupled figure-eight coils (14 turn), which has been already proposed by us.1 The hysteresis in the input-output relationship was measured for the excitation current from 0.1 to 1.0 A at the excitation frequency of 60 kHz. The hysteresis of the SNCM 420 shaft changes sign from negative to positive with the increase in excitation current and that of the SNCM 616 shaft decreases monotonically but never reaches zero, whereas that of the SNCM 447 shaft exhibits minimum. The smallest values obtained are nearly zero for the SNCM 420 shaft at 0.3 A, 1.5%/(full scale (FS)=400 Nm) for the SNCM 616 shaft at 1.0 A and 0.7%/FS for the SNCM 447 shaft at 0.8 A, respectively. The linearity measured for the SNCM 420 shaft, which has the smallest hysteresis of the three, at 0.3 A and 60 kHz was virtually straight for the applied torque range -400-400 Nm and 0.8% of nonlinearity error for the range -1000-1000 Nm. The zero-level fluctuation was measured for the SNCM 420 shaft by rotating the shaft without applying torque. The level of the fluctuation was as small as ±1.8%/FS (FS=1000 Nm). It is interesting to consider the effect of carburization on the performance of the shaft seen from the torque sensor. The sensitivity of the as-ground SNCM 420 shaft is approximately ten times larger than that of carburized shafts, however, the input-output relationship measured for the as-ground shaft was saturated completely at the applied torque of 400 Nm. The zero-level fluctuation for the as-ground shaft was about the same in terms of %/FS as that of carburized shaft. Considering that the reduction of the sensitivity by carburization is a factor of 10, magnetic inhomogeneities at the surface are well improved by the carburizing process. We measured the two-dimensional pattern of magnetic anisotropy distribution by scanning the shaft surface using a 6.5 mm square eddy current probe that is sensitive to magnetic anisotropy.2 We found that the as-ground shaft has a peculiar magnetic anisotropy pattern, which is probably induced during manufacturing steel bars. The pattern was erased by the heat treatment at 920 °C for 4 h, which is a main course of carburization treatment.

Koga, F.; Yoshida, K.; Sasada, I.

1997-04-01

171

Hair as Race: Why “Good Hair” May Be Bad for Black Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critically examining the relationship between race, Black female beauty, and hair texture, this qualitative study used narratives from 38 Black females between the ages of 19 and 81, to determine messages that communicate hair valuations to Black females, definitions of good and bad hair, and motivations for desiring good hair. A legacy of slavery, hair valuations reflect racially motivated beauty

Cynthia L. Robinson

2011-01-01

172

Amino Acid Analysis of Cosmetically Altered Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis--Bleached and permanent waved hair, treated on the head by consumers, as well as unaltered hair, were hydrolyzed and examined by automatic amino acid analysis. The hydrolyzates of severely bleached hair were found to contain substantially less cystine and smaller quantities of tyrosine and methionine as compared to hydrolyzates from unaltered hair. Relatively large amounts of cysteic acid were also

CLARENCE R. ROBBINS; CHARLES KELLY

173

Glycerophospholipid analysis of Eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) hair by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Pilosebaceous units found in the mammalian integument are composed of a hair follicle, the proximal portion of the hair shaft, a sebaceous gland, and the erector pili muscle. Pilosebaceous units release protective oils, or sebum, by holocrine secretion onto skin and hair through rupturing of sebocytes. Sebum is composed largely of polar and neutral lipids including glycerolipids, free fatty acids, sterols, wax esters, sterol esters, and squalene. In addition to these lipid classes, there is a small proportion of ionic/anionic glycerophospholipids (GPs). Composition of GPs on hair is rarely addressed despite their broad biological activities as signaling molecules and membrane stability. Furthermore, knowledge on GP composition in bats is lacking. Bat GP composition is important to document due to GP roles ranging from decreasing drag during migration to interaction with the integumentary microbiome. In this study, we analyzed GP molecular composition with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and compared GP content to previous literature. A total of 152 GPs were detected. Broad GP classes identified include lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylglycerol, with PC being the most abundant class. The acyl components were consistent with fatty acid methyl esters and triacylglyceride moieties found in Eastern red bat sebum. Glycerophospholipid proportions of the hair surface were different from a previous study on bat lung surfactants. This study determined the broad class and molecular species of bat sebum GPs that may be used in future ecological studies in vespertilionid bats. PMID:24532214

Pannkuk, Evan L; McGuire, Liam P; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

2014-03-01

174

Progressive Hair Loss and Myocardial Degeneration in Rough Coat Mice: Reduced Lysyl Oxidase-Like (LOXL) in the Skin and Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rough coat (rc) is a spontaneous recessive mutation in mice. To identify the mutated gene, we have characterized the rc phenotype and initiated linkage mapping. The rc mice show growth retardation, cyclic and progressive hair loss, hyperplastic epidermis, abnormal hair follicles, cardiac muscle degeneration, and reduced amount of collagen and elastin in the skin and heart. The rc locus

Kimiko Hayashi; Tongyu Cao; Howard Passmore; Claude Jourdan-Le Saux; Ben Fogelgren; Subarna Khan; Ian Hornstra; Youngho Kim; Masando Hayashi; Katalin Csiszar

2004-01-01

175

Proposed design procedure for transmission shafting under fatigue loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new standard for the design of transmission shafting is reported. Computed was the diameter of rotating solid steel shafts under combined cyclic bending and steady torsion is presented. The formula is based on an elliptical variation of endurance strength with torque exhibited by combined stress fatigue data. Fatigue factors are cited to correct specimen bending endurance strength data for use in the shaft formula. A design example illustrates how the method is to be applied.

Loewenthal, S. H.

1978-01-01

176

Black Hole Hair Removal  

E-print Network

Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

2009-01-01

177

Black Hole Hair Removal  

E-print Network

Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

Nabamita Banerjee; Ipsita Mandal; Ashoke Sen

2009-01-05

178

Journal of Abnormal Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is reprinted from the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1965, 70, 1. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology will give priority to articles on problems related to abnormal behavior, broadly defined. The Journal's interests thus include the following: (a) psychopathology--its development or acquisition, its treatment or remission, and its symptomatology and course; (b) normal processes in abnormal individuals; (c) pathological

Howard F. Hunt; William N. Thetford

1965-01-01

179

Micronutrients for Hair and Nails  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As the appearance of hair and nails is a major concern for woman worldwide, we have tried to collect the most reliable therapeutic\\u000a sources with a particular interest for micronutrients. The latter is a term used to include trace elements found in minerals,\\u000a vitamins, amino acids, and herbs. Some of them may be used in both hair and nails, for

E. Haneke; Robert Baran

180

Human Scalp Hair Follicles Are Both a Target and a Source of Prolactin, which Serves as an Autocrine and/or Paracrine Promoter of Apoptosis-Driven Hair Follicle Regression  

PubMed Central

The prototypic pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) exerts a wide variety of bioregulatory effects in mammals and is also found in extrapituitary sites, including murine skin. Here, we show by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology that, contrary to a previous report, human skin and normal human scalp hair follicles (HFs), in particular, express both PRL and PRL receptors (PRL-R) at the mRNA and protein level. PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity can be detected in the epithelium of human anagen VI HFs, while the HF mesenchyme is negative. During the HF transformation from growth (anagen) to apoptosis-driven regression (catagen), PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity appear up-regulated. Treatment of organ-cultured human scalp HFs with high-dose PRL (400 ng/ml) results in a significant inhibition of hair shaft elongation and premature catagen development, along with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of hair bulb keratinocytes (Ki-67/terminal dUTP nick-end labeling immunohistomorphometry). This shows that PRL receptors, expressed in HFs, are functional and that human skin and human scalp HFs are both direct targets and sources of PRL. Our data suggest that PRL acts as an autocrine hair growth modulator with catagen-promoting functions and that the hair growth-inhibitory effects of PRL demonstrated here may underlie the as yet ill-understood hair loss in patients with hyperprolactinemia. PMID:16507890

Foitzik, Kerstin; Krause, Karoline; Conrad, Franziska; Nakamura, Motonobu; Funk, Wolfang; Paus, Ralf

2006-01-01

181

Improved Rotary Transformer For Shaft-Position Indicator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved rotary transformer for Inductosyn (or equivalent) shaft-position-indicating circuit has pair of ferrite cores instead of the solid-iron cores. Designed with view toward decreasing excitation power (to maximum allowable 2 W) supplied to shaft-position-indicating circuit to increase its output signal and make tracking system less vulnerable to electromagnetic interference.

Mclyman, W. T.

1991-01-01

182

A GAS SHAFT SEAL FOR THE HNPF SODIUM PUMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lip type, oil labyrinth gas shaft seals were tested for use on Hallam ;\\u000a Power Reactor sodium pumps with a 5-in.diameter rotating shaft. The seals were ;\\u000a not recommended for use owing to excess helium leakage and short life. (C.J.G.)

B. W. Admire; F. S. Nayor

1958-01-01

183

Thermo-plastic analysis of a bowed sodium pump shaft  

SciTech Connect

A hollow sodium pump shaft was found to have a residual bow sufficient to cause unacceptable vibrations. Investigations suggested that the bow was caused by a sodium overfill event while the pump was shut down and the shaft was not turning. A rising sodium level with natural convection effects could result in local heating of the shaft. Even though the shaft may be essentially free, a local one-sided thermal loading may cause thermal stresses and plastic stains sufficient to give a residual bow when the thermal load is removed. A series of elastic-plastic analyses were carried out to assess the likelihood of the proposed mechanism's causing the residual bow. A special purpose computer program modelled the shaft as a Bernoulli beam. Isotropic hardening was evaluated by successive approximation. For each case studied, a loading sequence was followed by an assumed elastic unloading step, and the thermal loading zone was assumed small compared to the shaft length. These simplifying assumptions allowed parameterization of several variables--yield stress, thermal loading magnitude, extent of the heated zone around the shaft circumference, temperature distribution around the circumference, and shaft unrestrained/restrained conditions. Although the magnitude of the residual bow is not centered with the solution using mean parameters of this study, it is possible that a one-sided combination of parameter values did exist and that such a condition caused the bow under the proposed mechanism. 4 refs., 12 figs.

Weiner, E.O.

1989-03-01

184

29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross over valve. Shaft at left operates main flood valve to admit water into the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

185

10. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DELIVERY CHUTE AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: DELIVERY CHUTE AT THE SOUTHEAST CORNER, (ORE HAULED FROM THE ADJACENT SHAFT WAS DELIVERED THROUGH THIS CHUTE TO THE OUTSIDE); VIEW TO THE EAST. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

186

Construction features of the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Exploratory Shaft (ES) at Yucca Mountain is planned to be constructed during 1985 and 1986 as part of the detailed site characterization for one of three sites which may be selected as candidates for location of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Conventional mining methods will be used for the shaft sinking phase of the ES project. The ES will

G. W. Adair; J. N. Fiore

1984-01-01

187

8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the northwest, with turbine shaft and thrust bearing visible in upper center of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

188

7. DETAIL VIEW NORTH OF TURBINE OUTPUT SHAFT, FLYWHEEL (RIGHT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL VIEW NORTH OF TURBINE OUTPUT SHAFT, FLYWHEEL (RIGHT CENTER), VERTICAL SHAFT TO GOVERNOR WITH RACK-AND-PINION GEARING (LEFT), AND BELTS - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

189

Exposure to nickel by hair mineral analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to nickel from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from subjects, including 87 males and 178 females (22 ± 2 years). The samples of hair were analyzed by ICP-OES. The effect of several factors on nickel content in hair was examined: lifestyle habits (e.g. hair coloring, hair spray, hair straighteners, hair drier, drugs); dietary factors (e.g. yoghurts, blue cheese, lettuce, lemon, mushroom, egg, butter); other (e.g. solarium, cigarette smoking, tap water pipes, tinned food, PVC foil, photocopier, amalgam filling). These outcomes were reached by linking the results of nickel level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. Basing on the results it can be concluded that exposure to nickel ions can occur from different sources: lifestyle, eating habits and environmental exposure. PMID:23121872

Michalak, Izabela; Mikulewicz, Marcin; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Wo?owiec, Paulina; Saeid, Agnieszka; Górecki, Henryk

2012-11-01

190

Navigated femoral shaft fracture treatment: current status.  

PubMed

Femoral malrotation is a common complication after internal fixation of a femoral shaft fracture. The only valid, objective monitoring method is computer tomography-assisted torsion measurement between the proximal and distal femur; unfortunately, this can only be carried out postoperatively. A difference of 15° compared to the contralateral femur is seen as an indication for revision. With the development of computer-assisted surgery, new possibilities for performing torsion control and correction intraoperatively has been introduced. These methods also allow for navigation-assisted definition of the optimal incision site, intramedullary access, femoral nail and interlocking. The main problem lies in the extra time of surgery, which is due to performing all the steps of the surgery navigated. The solution for this problem is "hybrid navigation", in which the surgeon can select the steps he needs from the navigation system, depending on his experience or surgical technique. PMID:22297715

Hawi, Nael; Haentjes, Jonas; Suero, Eduardo M; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Krettek, Christian; Stübig, Timo; Hüfner, Tobias; Citak, Musa

2012-01-01

191

Shaft instantaneous angular speed for blade vibration in rotating machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable blade health monitoring (BHM) in rotating machines like steam turbines and gas turbines, is a topic of research since decades to reduce machine down time, maintenance costs and to maintain the overall safety. Transverse blade vibration is often transmitted to the shaft as torsional vibration. The shaft instantaneous angular speed (IAS) is nothing but the representing the shaft torsional vibration. Hence the shaft IAS has been extracted from the measured encoder data during machine run-up to understand the blade vibration and to explore the possibility of reliable assessment of blade health. A number of experiments on an experimental rig with a bladed disk were conducted with healthy but mistuned blades and with different faults simulation in the blades. The measured shaft torsional vibration shows a distinct difference between the healthy and the faulty blade conditions. Hence, the observations are useful for the BHM in future. The paper presents the experimental setup, simulation of blade faults, experiments conducted, observations and results.

Gubran, Ahmed A.; Sinha, Jyoti K.

2014-02-01

192

Validity of hair mineral testing.  

PubMed

The variance of testing was compared between the College of American Pathologists clinical survey and that of a recent review about hair mineral testing. The review suggested that the accuracy of hair mineral testing was unreliable. In general, there was a greater range of variance in the College of American Pathologists testing results. These latter results are based on laboratory testing and are used as a "yardstick" to determine if a laboratory passes or fails that analyte and are considered a "gold standard." An extract, which resulted from a method that avoided the washing step, was compared among five laboratories. Very good precision resulted, indicating that the varied washing steps used by the laboratories in a recent review were probably the source of much variance. Analysis of hair analysis seemed to yield important information in several historical or forensic cases involving Ludwig von Beethoven, Napoleon Bonaparte, ex-US-presidents Zachary Taylor and Andrew Jackson, and Charles Hall, an Arctic explorer. Several elements that were reviewed, including arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, germanium, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, and thallium, showed relationships between body burden, dosage, and exposure or toxicity. Evidence of toxicity could not be found by measuring hair aluminum or vanadium. Chromium, selenium, and zinc seemed to have nutritional value. Ratios of hair elements with clinical importance could not be found. PMID:12117220

Shamberger, R J

2002-01-01

193

Skeletal limb abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Skeletal limb abnormalities may be due to: Cancer Genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome , Down syndrome, Apert syndrome , Basal cell nevus syndrome Improper position in the womb Infections during pregnancy ...

194

Congenital and Developmental Abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital and developmental abnormalities influencing life are rare. They mainly consist of pectus deformities, sternal fusion\\u000a abnormalities and clavicular pseudoarthrosis. The most life-threatening abnormality is cleft sternum which may leave the heart\\u000a and great vessels unprotected.

Anne Grethe Jurik

195

Measuring Abnormal Bond Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the empirical power and specification of test statistics designed to detect abnormal bond returns in corporate event studies, using monthly and daily data. We find that test statistics based on frequently used methods of calculating abnormal monthly bond returns are biased. Most methods implemented in monthly data also lack power to detect abnormal returns. We also consider unique

Hendrik Bessembinder; Kathleen M. Kahle; William F. Maxwell; Danielle Xu

2009-01-01

196

Thermal equivalency study for steel propulsion shafting and flat plate  

SciTech Connect

The electroslag strip surfacing (ESS) process despite its advantage of high deposition rates, low base metal dilutions, and uniform penetrations, over unknown in the United States and has only recently started to gain acceptance as a feasible process for surfacing on large components, e.g., propulsion shafting. Electroslag strip surfacing was made on service scale shaft and on various flat plates using the same surfacing materials and parameters. Thermal history measurements were made by chromel-alumel thermocouples mounted on the shaft and the flat plates. The data were collected by a computer-controlled data acquisition system and subsequently postprocessed using commercial spreadsheet/graphics software programs. The t{sub 8-5} cooling times for the shaft and the flat plates showed a strong dependence on the interpass preheat temperature, but was independent of the maximum temperature. The t{sub 8-5} cooling times for the shaft and flat plate of the same thickness, and for the 76 and 127 mm thick flat plates were found to match very closely. This led to the conclusion that the thermal history results for 127 mm thick shaft and 127 to 67 mm thick flat plates made from similar steels show thermal equivalence for ESS and provide the justification for using 67 to 127 mm thick plates instead of 127 mm thick service scale shafting for process characterization.

Dikshit, V.A.; Atteridge, D.G.

1994-12-31

197

Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series.  

PubMed

Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata. PMID:25097478

Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-Xing; Li, Cheng-Rang

2014-05-01

198

Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series  

PubMed Central

Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata. PMID:25097478

Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-Xing

2014-01-01

199

A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching Hong Chen and Song Chun Zhu  

E-print Network

and wisps which create diverse hair styles. Hair appearance plays an important role in graphics, digital of artist hair draw- ings. The sketches are concise and grasp the essences of hair perception. tions- tion cannot perceive or may not care about many details, as it was demonstrated in texture perception[1

Zhu, Song Chun

200

THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HAIR II. CHEMICAL MODIFICATIONS AND PATHOLOGICAL HAIRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct measurement of the ultrasonically determined modulus of elasticity (UME) has been extended to chemically modified hair and to pathological hairs. Single hairs are equilibrated at 75% relative humidity and studied with simultaneous stress-strain tests and direct measurements of the UME. Disulfide reduction with IM dithiothreitol produced more extensible hairs in which the UME retains its characteristic relationship to

Lowell A. Goldsmith; Howard P. Baden

1971-01-01

201

Dynamic ultrastructural changes of the connective tissue sheath of human hair follicles during hair cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural changes of the connective tissue sheath (CTS), including the hyaline membrane, of human hair follicles during the hair cycle, were studied in normal scalp skin specimens. In early anagen, the CTS was composed of a thin basal lamina and surrounding collagen tissue. The collagen tissue gradually thickened during the development of the hair and hair follicle. In mature anagen

M. Ito; Y. Sato

1990-01-01

202

Construction features of the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain  

SciTech Connect

The Exploratory Shaft (ES) at Yucca Mountain is planned to be constructed during 1985 and 1986 as part of the detailed site characterization for one of three sites which may be selected as candidates for location of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Conventional mining methods will be used for the shaft sinking phase of the ES project. The ES will be comprised of surface support facilities, a 1480-ft-deep circular shaft lined with concrete to a finished inside diameter of 12 ft, lateral excavations and test installations extending up to 200 ft from the shaft, and long lateral borings extending up to 2300 ft from the shaft. The estimated time for sinking the shaft to a total depth of about 1480 ft and completing the lateral excavations and borings is about two years. The major underground development planned for the primary test level at a depth of 1200 ft consists of the equivalent of 1150 ft of 15- by 15-ft drift. The total volume of rock to be removed from the shaft proper and the lateral excavations totals about 1/2 million cubic feet. Construction equipment for the shaft and underground excavation phases consists of conventional mine hoisting equipment, shot hole and rock bolt drilling jumbos, mucking machines, and hauling machines. The desire to maintain relatively uniform and even walls in selected shaft and drift intervals will require that controlled blasting techniques be employed. Certain lateral boring operations associated with tests to be conducted in the underground development may pose some unusual problems or require specialized equipment. One of the operations is boring and lining a 30-in.-diam by 600-ft-long horizontal hole with a boring machine being developed under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories. Another special operation is coring long lateral holes (500 to 2000 ft) with minimum use of liquid circulating fluids. 8 figures.

Adair, G.W.; Fiore, J.N.

1984-12-31

203

Distribution and chemical speciation of arsenic in ancient human hair using synchrotron radiation.  

PubMed

Pre-Columbian populations that inhabited the Tarapacá mid river valley in the Atacama Desert in Chile during the Middle Horizon and Late Intermediate Period (AD 500-1450) show patterns of chronic poisoning due to exposure to geogenic arsenic. Exposure of these people to arsenic was assessed using synchrotron-based elemental X-ray fluorescence mapping, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy measurements on ancient human hair. These combined techniques of high sensitivity and specificity enabled the discrimination between endogenous and exogenous processes that has been an analytical challenge for archeological studies and criminal investigations in which hair is used as a proxy of premortem metabolism. The high concentration of arsenic mainly in the form of inorganic As(III) and As(V) detected in the hair suggests chronic arsenicism through ingestion of As-polluted water rather than external contamination by the deposition of heavy metals due to metallophilic soil microbes or diffusion of arsenic from the soil. A decrease in arsenic concentration from the proximal to the distal end of the hair shaft analyzed may indicate a change in the diet due to mobility, though chemical or microbiologically induced processes during burial cannot be entirely ruled out. PMID:24320096

Kakoulli, Ioanna; Prikhodko, Sergey V; Fischer, Christian; Cilluffo, Marianne; Uribe, Mauricio; Bechtel, Hans A; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A

2014-01-01

204

Effect of Dieckol, a Component of Ecklonia cava, on the Promotion of Hair Growth  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Ecklonia cava, a marine alga native to Jeju Island in Korea, on the promotion of hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of E. cava enzymatic extract (which contains more than 35% of dieckol) for 21 days, E. cava enzymatic extract increased hair-fiber length. In addition, after topical application of the 0.5% E. cava enzymatic extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair-shaft was induced. The treatment with E. cava enzymatic extract resulted in the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPC). Especially, dieckol, among the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, showed activity that increased the proliferation of DPC. When NIH3T3 fibroblasts were treated with the E. cava enzymatic extract and the isolated compounds from the E. cava enzymatic extract, the E. cava enzymatic extract increased the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, but the isolated compounds such as eckol, dieckol, phloroglucinol and triphlorethol-A did not affect the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. On the other hand, the E. cava enzymatic extract and dieckol significantly inhibited 5?-reductase activity. These results suggest that dieckol from E. cava can stimulate hair growth by the proliferation of DPC and/or the inhibition of 5?-reductase activity. PMID:22754373

Kang, Jung-Il; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Boo, Hye-Jin; Jeon, You-Jin; Koh, Young-Sang; Yoo, Eun-Sook; Kang, Sung-Myung; Kang, Hee-Kyoung

2012-01-01

205

Human hair follicles display a functional equivalent of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and synthesize cortisol.  

PubMed

The skin and its major appendages are prominent target organs and potent sources of key players along the classical hypothalamic-pituitary axis, such as corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), and even express key steroidogenic enzymes. Therefore, it may have established local stress response systems that resemble the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, functional evidence that this is indeed the case in normal human skin in situ has still been missing. We show that microdissected, organ-cultured human scalp hair follicles respond to CRH stimulation by up-regulating proopiomelanocortin (POMC) transcription and immunoreactivity (IR) for ACTH and alpha-MSH, which must have been processed from POMC. CRH, alpha-MSH, and ACTH also modulate expression of their cognate receptors (CRH-R1, MC1-R, MC2-R). In addition, the strongest stimulus for adrenal cortisol production, ACTH, also up-regulates cortisol-IR in the hair follicles. Isolated human hair follicles secrete substantial levels of cortisol into the culture medium, and this activity is further up-regulated by CRH. CRH also modulates important functional hair growth parameters in vitro (hair shaft elongation, catagen induction, hair keratinocyte proliferation, melanin production). Finally, human hair follicles display HPA axis-like regulatory feedback systems, since the glucocorticoid receptor agonist hydrocortisone down-regulates follicular CRH expression. Thus, even in the absence of endocrine, neural, or vascular systemic connections, normal human scalp hair follicles directly respond to CRH stimulation in a strikingly similar manner to what is seen in the classical HPA axis, including synthesis and secretion of cortisol and activation of prototypic neuroendocrine feedback loops. PMID:15946990

Ito, Natsuho; Ito, Taisuke; Kromminga, Arno; Bettermann, Albrecht; Takigawa, Masahiro; Kees, Frieder; Straub, Rainer H; Paus, Ralf

2005-08-01

206

Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States); Bethmann, H.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-31

207

Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. (Bechtel National, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)); Bethmann, H.K. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

1991-01-01

208

Computing Operating Characteristics Of Bearing/Shaft Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SHABERTH computer program predicts operating characteristics of bearings in multibearing load-support system. Lubricated and nonlubricated bearings modeled. Calculates loads, torques, temperatures, and fatigue lives of ball and/or roller bearings on single shaft. Provides for analysis of reaction of system to termination of supply of lubricant to bearings and other lubricated mechanical elements. Valuable in design and analysis of shaft/bearing systems. Two versions of SHABERTH available. Cray version (LEW-14860), "Computing Thermal Performances Of Shafts and Bearings". IBM PC version (MFS-28818), written for IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS.

Moore, James D.

1996-01-01

209

Noncontact Measurement Of Shaft Speed, Torque, And Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noncontact fiber-optic sensor and associated electronic equipment measure twist and speed of rotation of shaft. Measurements determine torque and power. Response of sensor remains linear even at cryogenic temperatures. Reflective strips on rotating shaft reflect two series of light pulses back into optical system. Bidirectional coupler in each of two optical fiber paths separates reflected light from incident light, sending it to photodiode for output to analog-to-digital converter and computer. Sensor requires no slip rings or telemetry to transfer signals from shaft. Well suited for providing data on performances of turbopumps for such cryogenic fluids as liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.

Madzsar, George C.

1993-01-01

210

Effect of hair color on luster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of color on instrumentally evaluated luster of hair dyed to different colors and depths of shades is studied. For natural hair colors, such as blond, brown, and black, the increase in luster with increasing color is associated with a decrease in diffusely scattered light as a result of light absorption by melanin granules. On dyed hair the interpretation

K. KEIS; K. R. RAMAPRASAD; Y. K. KAMATH

2004-01-01

211

Hair cycle regulation of Hedgehog signal reception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper patterning of self-renewing organs, like the hair follicle, requires exquisite regulation of growth signals. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in skin controls the growth and morphogenesis of hair follicle epithelium in part through regulating the Gli transcription factors. While ectopic induction of Shh target genes leads to hair follicle tumors, such as basal cell carcinomas, how Shh signaling normally functions

Anthony E Oro; Kay Higgins

2003-01-01

212

Time course of cocaine in rabbit hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate interpretation of analytical results from hair testing for drugs of abuse continues to be a complex and difficult problem since many questions still remain unanswered. In this paper an animal model was developed to ascertain the time course for the appearance and disappearance of cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) in hair. Female Fauve Bourgogne red-haired rabbits (n

C. Jurado; C. Rodriguez-Vicente; M. Menéndez; M. Repetto

1997-01-01

213

Woolly Hair Nevus: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Woolly hair nevus is a rare non-hereditary focal condition characterized by unruly and tightly coiled hair. It can appear in childhood or adolescence and may be associated with epidermal or melanocytic nevus. Patients presenting with woolly hair must be examined completely to rule out cardiofaciocutaneous and Noonan syndrome. PMID:22628991

Venugopal, V; Karthikeyan, Subashini; Gnanaraj, Pushpa; Narasimhan, Murali

2012-01-01

214

Woolly hair nevus: a rare entity.  

PubMed

Woolly hair nevus is a rare non-hereditary focal condition characterized by unruly and tightly coiled hair. It can appear in childhood or adolescence and may be associated with epidermal or melanocytic nevus. Patients presenting with woolly hair must be examined completely to rule out cardiofaciocutaneous and Noonan syndrome. PMID:22628991

Venugopal, V; Karthikeyan, Subashini; Gnanaraj, Pushpa; Narasimhan, Murali

2012-01-01

215

A glossary of plant hair terminology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a compilation of English terms having to do with hairs and hairy surfaces of plants. The glossary is divided into\\u000a two sections. Part I includes terms for types and attributes of individual hair kinds and hair clusters. Part II deals with\\u000a kinds and characteristics of induments.

Willard W. Payne

1978-01-01

216

15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

217

13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot Springs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

218

1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE AS THE PROJECTING SUPERSTRUCTURE). - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

219

11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. SHAFT HOUSE, INTERIOR: COLLAPSED AND DETERIORATED ROOFING AND HEADFRAME SUPPORT LOGS; VIEW TO THE SOUTH. - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

220

5. SHAFT HOUSE, EAST ELEVATION; VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST; (WASTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. SHAFT HOUSE, EAST ELEVATION; VIEW TO THE NORTHWEST; (WASTE ROCK/SPOIL PILE IN THE FOREGROUND). - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

221

13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

222

5. AEROVANE FAN HOOD FROM NORTHWEST. MANWAY SHAFT DOORS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. AEROVANE FAN HOOD FROM NORTHWEST. MANWAY SHAFT DOORS AND METAL FRAGMENT AT RIGHT REAR. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Aerovane Fan, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

223

18. VIEW NORTHEAST, SHAFT, CAM, AND OPERATING ARM FOR NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. VIEW NORTHEAST, SHAFT, CAM, AND OPERATING ARM FOR NORTH END LOCK, INBOARD SIDE OF WEST BASCULE GIRDER - Grand Street Bridge, Spanning Pequonnock River at Grand Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

224

On the Balancing of Shafts With Axial Asymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is proposed for balancing rotating shafts that are not axially symmetric. The effects of axial asymmetry on the modal interpretation of the vibration caused by mass unbalance are also examined.

A. G. Parkinson

1966-01-01

225

8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

226

9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

227

80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 UNIT IN POSITION. OVERVIEW LOOKING EAST IN THE POWERHOUSE, Print No. 234, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

228

Clinically applicable transplantation procedure of dermal papilla cells for hair follicle regeneration.  

PubMed

Dermal papilla cells (DPCs) interact with epithelial stem cells and induce hair folliculogenesis. Cell-based therapies using expanded DPCs for hair regeneration have been unsuccessful in humans. Two major challenges remain: first, expanded DPCs obtained from adult hair follicles have functional limitations; second, a clinically applicable method is needed for transplanting DPCs. This study aimed to identify an efficient, minimally invasive and economical DPC transplantation procedure for use in clinical settings. Five clinically applicable transplantation procedures were tested, termed the Pinhole, Laser, Slit, Non-vascularized sandwich (NVS) and Hemi-vascularized sandwich (HVS) methods. Labelled rat dermal papilla tissue was transplanted into rat sole skin, and hair follicle regeneration was evaluated histologically. Regenerated follicles and labelled DPCs were detected for all methods, although some follicles showed abnormal growth, i.e. a cystic or inverted appearance. The HVS method, pioneered here, resulted in significantly larger number of regenerated follicles that were more mature and regular than those observed using the other methods. Moreover, hair growth was detected after expanded adult-derived DPC transplantation using the HVS method. These results suggest that direct contact of epithelial and dermal components and better vascularization/oxygenation of the recipient site are critical for hair regeneration in cell-based therapies. PMID:21305700

Aoi, Noriyuki; Inoue, Keita; Kato, Harunosuke; Suga, Hirotaka; Higashino, Takuya; Eto, Hitomi; Doi, Kentaro; Araki, Jun; Iida, Takuya; Katsuta, Tomoya; Yoshimura, Kotaro

2012-02-01

229

Nonsurgical therapy for hair loss.  

PubMed

This article is an update of the currently available options for medical therapies to treat androgenetic alopecia in men and women. Emerging novel therapeutic modalities with potential for treating these patients are discussed. Because androgenetic alopecia is progressive in nature, stabilization of the process using medical therapy is an important adjunct to any surgical hair-restoration plan. PMID:24017975

Nusbaum, Aron G; Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard P

2013-08-01

230

Mitochondrial profiling of dog hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to make greater use of dog hairs as forensic evidence, we have developed a robust method for duplex amplification of adjacent 306 and 332bp amplicons within the 5? hypervariable region (5? HVR) of the canine mitochondrial control region. In support of this, a 595bp region covering 35 polymorphic sites has been sequenced from the blood of 105 UK

Jon H. Wetton; Jenny E. Higgs; Adrian C. Spriggs; Chris A. Roney; Carol S. F. Tsang; Aiden P. Foster

2003-01-01

231

Modulation of hair cell efferents  

PubMed Central

Outer hair cells (OHCs) amplify the sound-evoked motion of the basilar membrane to enhance acoustic sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents inhibit OHCs to reduce the sound-evoked response of cochlear afferent neurons. OHC inhibition occurs through the activation of postsynaptic ?9?10 nicotinic receptors tightly coupled to calcium-dependent SK2 channels that hyperpolarize the hair cell. MOC neurons are cholinergic but a number of other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been proposed to participate in efferent transmission, with emerging evidence for both pre- and postsynaptic effects. Cochlear inhibition in vivo is maximized by repetitive activation of the efferents, reflecting facilitation and summation of transmitter release onto outer hair cells. This review summarizes recent studies on cellular and molecular mechanisms of cholinergic inhibition and the regulation of those molecular components, in particular the involvement of intracellular calcium. Facilitation at the efferent synapse is compared in a variety of animals, as well as other possible mechanisms of modulation of ACh release. These results suggest that short-term plasticity contributes to effective cholinergic inhibition of hair cells. PMID:21187136

Wersinger, Eric; Fuchs, Paul Albert

2011-01-01

232

The Mechanism of Hair Bleaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis--The color of mammalian HAIRS is due mainly to the inclusion of discrete, darkly colored MELANIN granules in the keratinized cytoplasmic protein of the fiber-forming cells. During BLEACHING the melanin pigment undergoes irreversible physicochemical changes which result either in the toning down or complete elimination of the original fiber color. The modification of the fiber protein (KERATIN) attendant upon bleaching

LESZEK J. WOLFRAM; I. HUI

233

[[Hair zinc levels in children].  

PubMed

Study with the objective to assess the capillary zinc concentrations in children, considering differences according to sex, age, growth, and socioeconomic status and hair characteristics. A random sample comprised of 282 children. Capillary zinc concentrations were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique. The capillary level of zinc less than 70 ?g/g was considered as deficient. Reference curves of the World Health Organization were used to rate children with height deficit. Domiciliary characteristics and benefit of government assistance were considered as socioeconomic condition. Color, type and size were considered as characteristics of hair. Zinc deficiency was observed in 9.1% of 276 children studied, with mean of 306.06 ?g/g ± 245.13. Lower capillary zinc concentrations were found in children whose households had fewer rooms, fewer individuals and were rented. Children 37-72 months showed higher zinc concentrations than children aged 6-12 and 13-3 6 months. Capillary zinc concentrations showed no statistical difference according to sex and growth, unlike that found for some hair characteristics that showed variations. Zinc deficiency is a health problem in the population studied with more vulnerability in children of lower age; socioeconomic conditions and hair characteristics can affect the capillary zinc concentration. PMID:25362824

Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis

2013-09-01

234

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTHSOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTH-SOUTH IS IN PLACE; AT RIGHT IS A PRESS FOR WORKING THE ALUMINUM SHEETS; E. W. BLISS CO. OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, MANUFACTURED THE PRESS. MACHINERY ORIGINALLY POWERED BY OVERHEAD BELTS CONNECTED TO CENTRAL LINE SHAFTS; BY ABOUT THE 1940s THE MACHINERY WAS ELECTRICALLY POWERED. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

235

Design considerations for rotating laminated metal-matrix-composite shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A logical step in the application of fiber-reinforced composites is to take advantage of their light-weight\\/high-strength potential and replace traditional monolithic shaft designs with composite materials. In the case of aircraft engine shafts where the high-temperature environment excludes the use of most traditional materials, a high-strength titanium alloy is recommended. The focus of this paper is the evaluation of Ti-21S

Robert S. Salzar

1999-01-01

236

Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection  

PubMed Central

Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection. PMID:22171023

Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

2012-01-01

237

[Histophysiology of hair follicles: current concept].  

PubMed

Hair follicle histophysiology importance isn't limited by hair role in psychosocial consequences. More scientists consider the hair follicle as an attractive system for studying major biological phenomena because the hair follicle is a regenerating system. In this review we revisit the current information about histophysiology and control of hair follicle cycling. All mature follicles undergo a growth cycle consisting of following phases: growth (anagen), regression (catagen) and rest (telogen). We attempt to integrate the morphology with the physiology and molecular biology. Hair follicles are influenced by environmental, systemic and local factors. The most interesting point of this problem is discussed--an integral regulation of hair follicle cycle by systemic, intertissue and intercellular interactions. PMID:15573887

Barinov, E F; Sulaeva, O N

2004-01-01

238

On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS) is a rugged, compact, multiple-channel data acquisition computer system that is designed to record data from instrumentation while operating under extreme rotational centrifugal or gravitational acceleration forces. This system, which was developed for the Heritage Fuel Air Turbine Test (HFATT) program, addresses the problem of recording multiple channels of high-sample-rate data on most any rotating test article by mounting the entire acquisition computer onboard with the turbine test article. With the limited availability of slip ring wires for power and communication, OSDAS utilizes its own resources to provide independent power and amplification for each instrument. Since OSDAS utilizes standard PC technology as well as shared code interfaces with the next-generation, real-time health monitoring system (SPARTAA Scalable Parallel Architecture for Real Time Analysis and Acquisition), this system could be expanded beyond its current capabilities, such as providing advanced health monitoring capabilities for the test article. High-conductor-count slip rings are expensive to purchase and maintain, yet only provide a limited number of conductors for routing instrumentation off the article and to a stationary data acquisition system. In addition to being limited to a small number of instruments, slip rings are prone to wear quickly, and introduce noise and other undesirable characteristics to the signal data. This led to the development of a system capable of recording high-density instrumentation, at high sample rates, on the test article itself, all while under extreme rotational stress. OSDAS is a fully functional PC-based system with 48 channels of 24-bit, high-sample-rate input channels, phase synchronized, with an onboard storage capacity of over 1/2-terabyte of solid-state storage. This recording system takes a novel approach to the problem of recording multiple channels of instrumentation, integrated with the test article itself, packaged in a compact/rugged form factor, consuming limited power, all while rotating at high turbine speeds.

Pedings, Marc; DeHart, Shawn; Formby, Jason; Naumann, Charles

2012-01-01

239

Hair Cell Replacement in Adult Mouse Utricles after Targeted Ablation of Hair Cells with Diphtheria Toxin  

PubMed Central

We developed a transgenic mouse to permit conditional and selective ablation of hair cells in the adult mouse utricle by inserting the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) gene into the Pou4f3 gene, which encodes a hair cell-specific transcription factor. In adult wild-type mice, administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) caused no significant hair cell loss. In adult Pou4f3 +/DTR mice, DT treatment reduced hair cell numbers to 6% of normal by 14 days post-DT. Remaining hair cells were located primarily in the lateral extrastriola. Over time, hair cell numbers increased in these regions, reaching 17% of untreated Pou4f3 +/DTR mice by 60 days post-DT. Replacement hair cells were morphologically distinct, with multiple cytoplasmic processes, and displayed evidence for active mechanotransduction channels and synapses characteristic of type II hair cells. Three lines of evidence suggest replacement hair cells were derived via direct (nonmitotic) transdifferentiation of supporting cells: new hair cells did not incorporate BrdU, supporting cells upregulated the pro-hair cell gene Atoh1, and supporting cell numbers decreased over time. This study introduces a new method for efficient conditional hair cell ablation in adult mouse utricles and demonstrates that hair cells are spontaneously regenerated in vivo in regions where there may be ongoing hair cell turnover. PMID:23100430

Golub, Justin S.; Tong, Ling; Ngyuen, Tot B.; Hume, Cliff R.; Palmiter, Richard D.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Stone, Jennifer S.

2012-01-01

240

Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.  

PubMed

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

2011-01-01

241

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs  

SciTech Connect

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

2011-12-31

242

Quo vadis, hair cell regeneration?  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss is a global health problem with profound socioeconomic impact. We contend that acquired hearing loss is mainly a modern disorder caused by man-made noise and modern drugs, among other causes. These factors, combined with increasing lifespan, have exposed a deficit in cochlear self-regeneration that was irrelevant for most of mammalian evolution. Nevertheless, the mammalian cochlea has evolved from phylogenetically older structures, which do have the capacity for self-repair. Moreover, nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate auditory hair cells that restore sensory function. We will offer a critical perspective on recent advances in stem cell biology, gene therapy, cell cycle regulation and pharmacotherapeutics to define and validate regenerative medical interventions for mammalian hair cell loss. Although these advances are promising, we are only beginning to fully appreciate the complexity of the many challenges that lie ahead. PMID:19471265

Brigande, John V; Heller, Stefan

2010-01-01

243

Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair: a new syndrome?  

PubMed

We present three children with short stature, the same facial phenotype, macrocephaly, enlarged cerebral spinal fluid spaces, short neck with redundant skin, severe GH deficiency, mild psychomotor delay with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mild dilatation of the pulmonary root in two of them, and a unique combination of ectodermal abnormalities. Their appearance, not completely typical of Noonan syndrome, the behavioral phenotype, GH deficiency, darkly pigmented and hairless skin, and the unusual aspect of the hair, defined as loose anagen hair syndrome did not fit any known condition. We postulate that these children may represent a distinct, previously unreported syndrome that we would name "Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair". PMID:12673660

Mazzanti, Laura; Cacciari, Emanuele; Cicognani, Alessandro; Bergamaschi, Rosalba; Scarano, Emanuela; Forabosco, Antonino

2003-04-30

244

Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome with low expression of TRPS1 on epidermal and hair follicle epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is an autosomal-dominant congenital hair loss disease characterized by sparse and slow-growing scalp hair, craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, pear-shaped nose, thin upper lip, brittle and thin toenails, and bilateral brachydactyly of the big toes. We report a case of TRPS1 exhibiting these clinical features with a novel heterozygous single nucleotide substitution in exon 3 of the TRPS1 gene. By immunohistochemical analysis of a biopsied specimen of the patient's alopecia lesion, we found for the first time that the expression level of TRPS1 was markedly reduced in the epidermis and the outer root sheath of hair follicles as compared to a normal subject. In addition, higher expression of phospho-Stat3 was found consequent to the loss of TRPS1 in the outer root sheath. PMID:23451857

Ito, Taisuke; Shimomura, Yutaka; Farooq, Muhammad; Suzuki, Noriko; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Tokura, Yoshiki

2013-05-01

245

Black Holes with Skyrme Hair  

E-print Network

This paper is intended to give a review of the recent developments on black holes with Skyrme hair. The Einstein-Skyrme system is known to possess black hole solutions with Skyrme hair. The spherically symmetric black hole skyrmion with B=1 was the first discovered counter example of the no-hair conjecture for black holes. Recently we found the B=2 axially symmetric black hole skyrmion. In this system, the black hole at the center of the skyrmion absorbs the baryon number partially, leaving fractional charge outside the horizon. Therefore the baryon number is no longer conserved. We examine the B=1, 2 black hole solutions in detail in this paper. The model has a natural extension to the gauged version which can describe monopole black hole skyrmions. Callan and Witten discussed the monopole catalysis of proton decay within the Skyrme model. We apply the idea to the Einstein-Maxwell-Skyrme system and obtain monopole black hole skyrmions. Remarkably there exist multi-black hole skyrmion solutions in which the gravitational, electromagnetic, and strong forces between the monopoles are all in balance. The solutions turn out to be stable under spherically symmetric linear perturbations.

Noriko Shiiki; Nobuyuki Sawado

2005-01-09

246

Counter pumping debris excluder and separator. [gas turbine shaft seals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dirt separator and excluder for removing entrained debris from gas turbine shaft seals is described. A helical groove pattern is constructed on the rotating shaft with the pumping pattern such that it tends to pump seal pressurizing gas toward the gas turbine seal. A second helical groove pattern is provided on the stationary housing or counter rotating member coaxial with the shaft, and this pattern is designed to provide pumping in the direction opposite from that of the groove pattern on the shaft. Gas with entrained debris entering this grooved area will be subjected to high centrifugal forces due to the swirl motion induced by the groove pattern and the rotation of the shaft. This debris is centrifuged outwardly into the outer groove pattern on the housing or counter rotating member. Because the outer groove pattern has a pumping direction opposite from that of the seal, dirt is pumped away from the seal and can be collected in a suitable debris trap remote from the seal location.

Ludwig, L. P. (inventor)

1978-01-01

247

Method of lining a vertical mine shaft with concrete  

DOEpatents

The apparatus includes a cylindrical retainer form spaced inwardly of the wall of the shaft by the desired thickness of the liner to be poured and having overlapping edges which seal against concrete flow but permit the form to be contracted to a smaller circumference after the liner has hardened and is self-supporting. A curb ring extends downwardly and outwardly toward the shaft wall from the bottom of the retainer form to define the bottom surface of each poured liner section. An inflatable toroid forms a seal between the curb ring and the shaft wall. A form support gripper ring having gripper shoes laterally extendable under hydraulic power to engage the shaft wall supports the retainer form, curb ring and liner until the newly poured liner section becomes self-supporting. Adjusting hydraulic cylinders permit the curb ring and retainer form to be properly aligned relative to the form support gripper ring. After a liner section is self-supporting, an advancing system advances the retainer form, curb ring and form support gripper ring toward a shaft boring machine above which the liner is being formed. The advancing system also provides correct horizontal alignment of the form support gripper ring.

Eklund, James D. (Mattawa, WA); Halter, Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Spokane, WA); Sullivan, Robert G. (Richland, WA); Moffat, Robert B. (Federal Way, WA)

1981-01-01

248

Lining considerations for a circular vertical shaft in generic tuff  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes some to the classical formulas used in the design of concrete linings for vertical, circular bored shafts and applies them to a generic shaft in tuff. The lining requirements are shown to be highly dependent on the rock mass strength and in situ stress field. For a given stress field, the required lining thickness is analyzed as a function of rock mass strength, which is approximated by various fractions of the laboratory strength. For the cases considered, if the rock mass strength is equal to the laboratory compressive strength, then no lining would be required. If the strength reduction factor is 2, a concrete lining (compressive strength = 35 MPa) having a thickness of 0.3 m would provide a safety factor of at least 1.5. For larger strength reduction factors, the required lining thickness in the different formations is quite variable. An analysis of measured lining pressures for the conventionally sunk (excavated with explosives) Mt. Taylor shaft (Grants, New Mexico) has been included. The results suggest that a substantial damaged (relaxed) zone was created during the excavation process. The lining pressures are much less than would be predicted under the assumption of no damage. Therefore, the recommendations presented sunk, rather than bored, shafts. The approach described and the equations presented may, it is believed, be used with care to analyze different generic shaft scenarios. However, high priority should be placed on obtaining the best estimates possible for rock mass strength and an in situ stress field.

Hustrulid, W.

1984-12-01

249

Eddy Current Sensing of Torque in Rotating Shafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noncontact torque sensing in machine shafts is addressed based on the stress induced in a press-fitted magnetoelastic sleeve on the shaft and eddy current sensing of the changes of electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability due to the presence of stress. The eddy current probe uses dual drive, dual sensing coils whose purpose is increased sensitivity to torque and decreased sensitivity to variations in distance between probe and shaft (liftoff). A mechanism of keeping the distance constant is also employed. Both the probe and the magnetoelastic sleeve are evaluated for performance using a standard eddy current instrument. An eddy current instrument is also used to drive the coils and analyze the torque data. The method and sensor described are general and adaptable to a variety of applications. The sensor is suitable for static and rotating shafts, is independent of shaft diameter and operational over a large range of torques. The torque sensor uses a differential eddy current measurement resulting in cancellation of common mode effects including temperature and vibrations.

Varonis, Orestes J.; Ida, Nathan

2013-12-01

250

Dissecting the bulge in hair regeneration  

PubMed Central

The adult hair follicle houses stem cells that govern the cyclical growth and differentiation of multiple cell types that collectively produce a pigmented hair. Recent studies have revealed that hair follicle stem cells are heterogeneous and dynamic throughout the hair cycle. Moreover, interactions between heterologous stem cells, including both epithelial and melanocyte stem cells, within the hair follicle are just now being explored. This review will describe how recent findings have expanded our understanding of the development, organization, and regeneration of hair follicle stem cells. At a basic level, this review is intended to help construct a reference point to integrate the surge of studies on the molecular mechanisms that regulate these cells. PMID:22293183

Ito, Mayumi; Myung, Peggy

2012-01-01

251

Active Hair-Bundle Motility of the Hair Cells of Vestibular and Auditory Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair bundle is the mechanosensitive organelle that protrudes from the hair cell’s apical surface. Sound in hearing organs, head acceleration in vestibular organs and water flow in the lateral line of fish and amphibians ultimately evoke hair-bundle deflections, to which the hair cell responds by generating an electrical signal. Mechanical-to-electrical transduction, a process that is fast enough to enable

Pascal Martin

252

Hair Cycle-Dependent Changes in Adrenergic Skin Innervation, and Hair Growth Modulation by Adrenergic Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin nerves may exert ‘‘trophic’’ functions during hair follicle development, growth, and\\/or cycling. Here, we demonstrate hair cycle-related plasticity in the sympathetic innervation of skin and hair follicle in C57BL\\/6 mice. Compared with telogen skin, the number of nerve fibers containing norepinephrine or immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase increased during the early growth phase of the hair cycle (anagen) in dermis

Vladimir A. Botchkarev; Eva M. J. Peters; Natalia V. Botchkareva; Marcus Maurer; Ralf Paus

1999-01-01

253

The normal trichogram of pubic hair.  

PubMed

The parameters of the trichogram of the pubic hair were studied with a previously described technique. Measurements were made on males and on non-pregnant, pregnant and post-partum females. In males and non-pregnant females denisty and rate of growth steadily decrease with age. There was a higher percentage of telogens in women. Hair thickness was not modified. The most important findings are related to pregnancy and post-partum which did not induce any change in the parameters of the trichogram of the public area. These findings indicate a behaviour of the pubic hair different from the scalp and axillary hair. PMID:508610

Astore, I P; Pecoraro, V; Pecoraro, E G

1979-10-01

254

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HAIRS FROM PATIENTS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF HAIR DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following mechanical properties of hair have been studied: tensile strength, strain at break, and elastic modulus. The determinations were made at constant temperature and humidity on fifty separate hairs from each patient. The mechanical properties of the fibrous material were similar for thick and thin hair. The elastic modulus and tensile strength showed a good correlation. Five patients with

Gunnar Swanbeck; Jan Nyren; Lennart Juhlin

1970-01-01

255

Hair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells in the sacculus  

E-print Network

transduction by the inner ear. We present evidence for a single-cell correlate of this phenomenon, hair-bundleHair-bundle movements elicited by transepithelial electrical stimulation of hair cells treatments allow us to distinguish two mechanisms that mediate the electrical responses: myosin-based

Hudspeth, A. James

256

Human exposure to mercury due to goldmining in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon, Brazil: Speciation of mercury in human hair, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in Amazon, total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeI Ig) were determined for human hair, blood and\\/or urine samples collected from populations living in gold mining area and fishing villages upstream of the Tapajos River basin. Abnormally high levels of T-Hg were observed in hair

H. Akagi; O. Malm; F. J. P. Branches; Y. Kinjo; Y. Kashima; J. R. D. Guimaraes; R. B. Oliveira; K. Haraguchi; W. C. Pfeiffer; Y. Takizawa; H. Kato

1995-01-01

257

Abnormal haemoglobins: detection & characterization  

PubMed Central

Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques. PMID:22089618

Wajcman, Henri; Moradkhani, Kamran

2011-01-01

258

Tooth - abnormal colors  

MedlinePLUS

... Questions may involve: When the abnormal coloration began Foods you have been eating Medications you are taking Personal and family health history Exposure to fluoride Oral care habits Other symptoms ...

259

"Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

Keutzer, Carolin S.

1993-01-01

260

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic, polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants,...

2011-04-01

261

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Prosthetic hair fibers. 895.101 Section 895.101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...895.101 Prosthetic hair fibers. Prosthetic hair...

2010-04-01

262

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

...polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are surgically removed from one location on the person's...

2014-04-01

263

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...polyacrylic, and polyester; and natural fibers, such as processed human hair. Excluded from the banned device are natural hair transplants, in which a person's hair and its surrounding tissue are surgically removed from one location on the person's...

2013-04-01

264

Cochlear hair cell regeneration from neonatal mouse supporting cells  

E-print Network

Unlike lower vertebrates, capable of spontaneous hair cell regeneration, mammals experience permanent sensorineural hearing loss following hair cell damage. Although low levels of hair cell regeneration have been demonstrated ...

Bramhall, Naomi F

2012-01-01

265

Improved circumferential shaft seal for aircraft gear transmissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operation under simulated aircraft transmission conditions of speeds to 2850 m/min (9350 ft/min), lubricant temperatures to 394 K (250 F), shaft radial runouts to 0.254 mm (0.010 in.) F.I.R. (full indicator reading), and pressure differentials to 1.03 N/cm2 (1.5 psi) revealed that conventional circumferential seals leaked excessively. Modifying the conventional seal by adding helical grooves to the seal bore reduced leakage rates to within the acceptable level of 10 cm3/hr. The leakage rate of this modified seal was not significantly affected by lubricant flooding or by shaft radial runout.

Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

1973-01-01

266

Three-Wave Gas Journal Bearing Behavior With Shaft Runout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental orbits of a free-mounted, three-wave gas journal bearing housing were recorded and compared to transient predicted orbits. The shaft was mounted eccentric with a fixed runout. Experimental observations for both the absolute bearing housing center orbits and the relative bearing housing center to shaft center orbits are in good agreement with the predictions. The sub-synchronous whirl motion generated by the fluid film was found experimentally and predicted theoretically for certain speeds. A three-wave journal bearing can run stably under dynamic loads with orbits well inside the bearing clearance. Moreover, the orbits are almost circular free of the influence of bearing wave shape.

Dimofte, Florin; Hendricks, Robert C.

1997-01-01

267

Balancing of high speed, flexible rotating shafts across critical speeds  

E-print Network

. , "Effect of Residual Shaft Bow on Unbalance Response and Balancing of a Single Mass Flexible Rotor, " ASME paper no. 75-GT-48. 5. Tessarzik, J. M. , Badgley, R. H. , Anderson, W. J. , "Flexible Rotor Balancing by the Exact Point-Speed Influence.... , "Effect of Residual Shaft Bow on Unbalance Response and Balancing of a Single Mass Flexible Rotor, " ASME paper no. 75-GT-48. 5. Tessarzik, J. M. , Badgley, R. H. , Anderson, W. J. , "Flexible Rotor Balancing by the Exact Point-Speed Influence...

White, Gary Paul

2012-06-07

268

Blade mistuning coupled with shaft flexibility effects in rotor aeroelasticity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of bladed-disk polar dissymmetry, resulting from variations in mass from one blade to another, on aeroelastic stability boundaries for a fan stage is presented. In addition to both in-plane and out-of-plane deformations of the bladed-disk, bending of the supporting shaft in two planes is considered, and the resulting Coriolis forces and gyroscopic moments are included in the analysis. A quasi-steady aerodynamics approach is combined with the Lagrangian method to develop the governing equations of motion for the flexible bladed-disk-shaft assembly. Calculations are performed for an actual fan stage.

Khader, Naim; Loewy, Robert G.

1989-01-01

269

Radial nerve lesions associated with fractures of the humeral shaft.  

PubMed

Radial nerve palsy associated with a fracture of the shaft of the humerus is a relatively common injury. Out of 91 radial nerve injuries, operated upon in the Neurosurgical University Clinic in Belgrade from 1979 to 1988, 37 were associated with fractures of the humeral shaft or their surgical treatment. These fractures were previously treated in other medical units. In all cases a microsurgical reconstruction of the radial nerve was done: an interfascicular neurolysis in 24 cases and interfascicular grafting in 13 cases. A useful functional recovery was obtained in 91.9 per cent of the cases. Timing of nerve exploration and repair, as a main problem, is discussed. PMID:2228192

Samardzi?, M; Grujici?, D; Milinkovi?, Z B

1990-07-01

270

In vitro methodology, hormonal and nutritional effects and fibre production in isolated ovine and caprine anagen hair follicles.  

PubMed

Mammalian hair follicles are complex multicellular structures in the skin, which produce hair fibre under the influence of locally produced and systemic signalling systems. Investigation to determine mechanisms of regulation, follicular responses and the importance of nutritional supply have utilised a number of in vivo and in vitro approaches. Included in these are studies on isolated intact anagen secondary follicles singly or in groups with incubation in culture medium. These utilise techniques developed for investigation of follicles from human skin. Results from selected studies reviewed here demonstrate differences in capacity for hair growth and protein synthesis between secondary follicles from Angora and cashmere-bearing goats. Mohair follicles were shown to exhibit faster hair shaft elongation both in vivo and in vitro, to have greater DNA content per follicle and to deposit significantly more protein per follicle and per unit of DNA. Incubation of anagen mohair and cashmere follicles in the presence of melatonin or prolactin showed positive responses in hair shaft growth and protein synthesis to both signalling molecules. This result indicated directly acting effects on the follicle in addition to any indirect effects arising at a whole animal level in response to, for example, variation in photoperiod. Similarly, epidermal growth factor was shown to alter elongation and protein synthesis in mohair follicles and to produce, at higher concentration, club hair structures similar to effects observed in other species. The vitamin biotin was shown to be important in maintaining viability of isolated sheep secondary hair follicles where supplementation increased the proportion continuing to grow. Effects on growth and apparent protein synthesis suggested comparatively lesser effects on follicles, which remained viable. Histology on follicles indicated effects of biotin deficiency in reducing proliferation of basal keratinocytes. The final study, included in this review, demonstrated that supply of the essential sulphur-containing amino acid l-methionine was necessary to maintain the viability and growth of mohair follicles. l-cysteine was not required in the presence of l-methionine, although there was evidence of an optimisation when both amino acids were present in adequate concentrations. Consideration is given to the importance of transport mechanisms and capacity to utilise absorbed nutrients when considering optimising nutritional supply to individual follicles. These may then provide targets for attainment in applied nutrition of animals in vivo. PMID:22444695

Galbraith, H

2010-09-01

271

Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.  

PubMed

Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways, and others, can explain many alternatives and specific variations of hair bending phenotypes. Mechanisms for hair papilla budding or its division by bisection or fission can explain MPC formation. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) and mesenchymal-to-epithelial (MET) transitions, acting in collaboration with epithelial-mesenchymal communications are also considered as mechanisms affecting hair growth and its bending and twisting. These may be treated as sub-mechanisms of an overall development from neural-crest stem cell (NCSC) lineages to differentiated hair follicle (HF) cell types, thus providing a unified framework for hair growth and development. PMID:24617997

Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran

2014-08-01

272

Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and

Sven Hartwig; Volker Auwärter; Fritz Pragst

2003-01-01

273

Hair: what is new in diagnosis and management? Female pattern hair loss update: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common cause of alopecia in women. FPHL is characterized histologically with increased numbers of miniaturized, velluslike hair follicles. The goal of treatment of FPHL is to arrest hair loss progression and stimulate hair regrowth. The treatments for FPHL can be divided into androgen-dependent and androgen-independent. There is an important adjuvant role for nutritional supplements, light therapy, and hair transplants. All treatments work best when initiated early. Combinations of treatments tend to be more efficacious. PMID:23159181

Atanaskova Mesinkovska, Natasha; Bergfeld, Wilma F

2013-01-01

274

Hair bleaching and skin burning  

PubMed Central

Summary Hairdressing-related burns are preventable and therefore each case is one too many. We report a unique case of a 16-yr-old girl who suffered full-thickness chemical and thermal burns to the nape of her neck and superficial burns to the occiput after her hair had been dyed blond and placed under a dryer to accelerate the highlighting procedure. The wound on the nape of the neck required surgical debridement and skin grafting. The grafted area resulted in subsequent scar formation. PMID:23766754

Forster, K.; Lingitz, R.; Prattes, G.; Schneider, G.; Sutter, S.; Schintler, M.; Trop, M.

2012-01-01

275

Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity in Bengalese nches  

E-print Network

Hair cell regeneration and recovery of auditory thresholds following aminoglycoside ototoxicity Birds regenerate auditory hair cells when original hair cells are lost. Regenerated hair cells become innervated and restore hearing function. Functional recovery during hair cell regeneration is particularly

Rubel, Edwin

276

THE INCORPORATION AND FATE OF H3-TYROSINE IN THE HAIR CORTEX OF RATS OBSERVED BY RADIOAUTOGRAPHY  

PubMed Central

The incorporation of H3-tyrosine into the protein of the cells in the cortex of rat hair has been investigated by radioautography. In growing hairs, radioactivity is found in the matrix, the upper bulb, and the whole of the keratogenous zone up to the fully keratinized part of the shaft, 10 and 30 minutes after an injection of labelled tyrosine. This is unequivocal evidence of protein synthesis at these sites. There is a very precise relationship between the end of protein synthesis and the hardening of the cortical cells at the top of the keratogenous zone. The way in which the silver grains of the radioautographs are clustered indicates that at 30 minutes after the injection the isotope is distributed more evenly in the matrix and upper bulb than in the top of the keratogenous zone. Possibly this reflects a difference, at these sites, in the cell components engaged in protein synthesis, or in the proteins being synthesized. The fully keratinized and hardened part of the hair was not radioactive at 10 and 30 minutes after the injection of H3-tyrosine. The rate at which the radioactivity moves into this region shows that the hair of rats grows 0.9 mm/24 hours. Comparison of the degree of radioactivity along the growing hair in the 30-minute, 12-hour, and 36-hour materials shows conclusively that protein accumulates in the cortical cells during their keratinization. An injection of a labelled amino acid does not behave as an ideal pulse dose; consequently, the grain density over the hair cortex at 36 hours is 100 per cent larger than would be expected if an ideal pulse dose situation existed. PMID:14203388

Sims, R. T.

1964-01-01

277

Hair braiding method to prevent hair from entering the operating field on the scalp.  

PubMed

In scalp and cranial surgeries, it had been conventional to shave hair for surgical manipulations and prevention of infection. In recent years, it has been conventional to perform surgeries with minimal hair shaving. Such a method has been found to have a low risk of infection, and it takes into account esthetic considerations for patients. However, since long hair can become a hindrance to surgery, it is essential to preoperatively manage such hair and maintain a clear operating field. In this study, we braided patients' long hair to obtain a good operating field during scalp or cranial surgery. The advantages of our method are that it can be performed easily in a short period of time, does not require special instruments, and does not damage hair because rubber bands are used minimally. It is a useful method that minimizes shaving of long-haired patients for surgeries of the head and reduces cumbersome steps. PMID:23714960

Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Kaneshige

2013-05-01

278

An artist friendly hair shading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rendering hair in motion pictures is an important and challenging task. Despite much research on physically based hair rendering, it is currently difficult to benefit from this work because physically based shading models do not offer artist friendly controls. As a consequence much production work so far has used ad hoc shaders that are easier to control, but often lack

Iman Sadeghi; Heather Pritchett; Henrik Wann Jensen; Rasmus Tamstorf

2010-01-01

279

Photoageing of Hair Fiber and Photoprotection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination by transmission electron microscopy of hair exposed to sunlight has revealed important damage. Findings indicate an alteration of various cell components. Damage occurs in the cuticle and leads to its loss. Separation of macro-fibrils and destruction of melanin pigments result in cortex damage. Some of the chemical and physical changes which occur in hair exposed to sunlight were studied:

Damarys Braida; Claude Dubief; Gérard Lang

1994-01-01

280

Hair tourniquet syndrome in the dental patient.  

PubMed

Hair tourniquet syndrome is a condition where a hair becomes entangled around an appendage. In some cases a knot will form and the resulting tightened noose will slowly strangulate the appendage. Rarely, this condition will affect the oral cavity, but even more rarely, this condition will affect a dental structure. PMID:25191985

Flores, Jason R

2014-01-01

281

Cochlear implantation: Minimal hair removal technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and patient acceptance of minimal hair removal during cochlear implantation. Forty-six consecutive patients (17 adults, 29 children; age range 13 months to 84 years) received cochlear implantation with a minimal hair removal technique. A questionnaire was used to evaluate acceptance and value of this technique among the first 15 patients and

JOSEPH B. ROBERSON; KATRINA R. STIDHAM; KENNETH M. SCOTT; LISA TONOKAWA

2000-01-01

282

Algorithm of hair restoration surgery in children.  

PubMed

Hair is an inseparable element of external appearance of every human being. Although various fashion trends come and go, the lack of hair is for many a major aesthetic and psychological problem. Even if men's balding can be accepted as a natural phenomenon, hair loss in children is considered to be a condition demanding correction. During an 18-year period, 8440 hair restoration operations were performed at the Hair Clinic Poznan, in Poznan, Poland. Most patients were men treated for androgenic alopecia. Among the patients were 57 children in whom hair loss resulted from hereditary factors, perinatal traumas, radiotherapy, and mechanical, thermal, and chemical damage. Methods of restoration were adjusted to type of hair loss, patient age, and ability to cooperate with the surgeon. In cases of single massive scars, skin flap correction was usually used. The flaps were prepared with the use of expanders. In cases of numerous scattered defects or considerable thinning of the scalp, the method of choice was hair transplantation. The "four-hand stick-and-place" technique developed by the authors enabled the surgeon to quickly and precisely carry out the procedure. Application of varied surgery techniques in scalp reconstruction procedures in children gave very good aesthetic results with a minimal complication rate. PMID:12900598

Kolasiński, Jerzy; Kolenda, Ma?gorzata

2003-08-01

283

The Value of Hair Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

As early as can be traced, written documents testify endeavors shown by humanity to please by means of the hair. Hair care, color and style play an important role in people’s physical appearance and self-perception. Dermatologists should be knowledgeable about the procedures people follow to look their best and should have the competence to provide patients with information on the

R. M. Trüeb

2001-01-01

284

Fouriertransform Raman spectroscopic study of human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier-transform Raman microscopic spectra of normal, untreated and bleached hair fibres are presented. Vibrational assignments are made and differences are ascribed to the production of cysteic acid from cysteine. Changes in conformation associated with the disulphide bond in the keratotic component are noted from the ?(CSSC) vibrational modes at wave numbers near 500 cm?1. Raman spectra of hair root ends

W. Akhtar; H. G. M. Edwards; D. W. Farwell; M. Nutbrown

1997-01-01

285

The characterisation of treated and dyed hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have been undertaken to evaluate some of the factors that influence the dyeing of hair with dyes from the Arianor series. Dyed, bleached and untreated hair was examined by differential thermal analysis, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and surface potential assessment. It has been found that marked changes in surface potentials arise on relatively mild treatment of

J. T. Guthrie; A. Kazlauciunas; L. Rongong; S. Rush

1995-01-01

286

Hair testing and doping control in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standard in drug testing for doping control is gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry conducted on a urine sample. For the past 20 years, hair analysis has been proposed for identifying drug abusers in forensic science. Specimens can be collected under close supervision without embarrassment and are not subject to evasive maneuvers. In contrast with urine, hair analysis has a wide window

Pascal Kintz

1998-01-01

287

Analysis, Calculation and Reduction of Shaft Voltage in Induction Generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents analysis of shaft voltage in different configurations of a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) and an Induction Generator (IG) with a back-to-back inverter in wind turbine applications. Detailed high frequency model of the proposed systems have been developed based on existing capacitive couplings in IG & DFIG structures and common mode voltage sources. In this research work,

Jafar Adabi; Firuz Zare

288

11. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM IN BASEMENT BELOW SHAFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM IN BASEMENT BELOW SHAFT SHOWING LOW CABINET THAT HOUSES HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND CLOSET THAT HOUSES TRAVELING SHEAVES AT RIGHT, WITH CABINET AND CLOSET DOORS OPEN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

289

10. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM IN BASEMENT BELOW SHAFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM IN BASEMENT BELOW SHAFT, SHOWING LOW CABINET THAT HOUSES HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND CLOSET THAT HOUSES TRAVELING SHEAVES AT RIGHT; OPERATING CABLE SHEAVE AT TOP OF PICTURE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

290

Rotating Internal Damping in the Case of Composite Shafts  

E-print Network

. For composite shafts, equivalent modulus beam theory (EMBT) based on classical laminate theory, has many developed to reduce the previous limitations [15]. The equivalent flexural moduli are in this case evaluated using the Young's modulus, shear modulus and specific damping capacity of each layer. The distance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

291

A permanent magnet motor drive without a shaft sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a simple control for a permanent motor drive that provides a wide speed range without use of a shaft sensor. Two line-to-line voltages and two stator currents are sensed and processed in analog form to produce the stator flux linkage space vector. The angle of this vector is used in a microcontroller to produce the appropriate stator

Rusong Wu; Gordon R. Slemon

1991-01-01

292

Posterior minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for humeral shaft fractures.  

PubMed

Fractures of the humeral shaft are common. Most of them can be successfully treated without surgery. In some cases, an operative intervention may offer faster and better functional results. One of the major problems with the open plating osteosynthesis is the extensive soft tissue stripping and disruption of periosteal circulation, caused by extensive surgical exposure, resulting in a relatively high rate of nonunion. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) techniques were developed to achieve a biologic fixation, although minimizing the complications of an open reduction. The incisions are small and remote from the fracture site to avoid direct fracture exposure. Thereby, MIPO technique obtains, theoretically, higher rates of union, lower infection risk, and decreases the need for bone graft. In the last years, MIPO has gained popularity with satisfactory clinical outcomes in the treatment of long bone fractures, especially in lower extremity. MIPO for humeral shaft fractures, however, could be a surgically dangerous procedure because of the risk of radial nerve injury. It was described by anterior and lateral approach. Humeral middle shaft fractures are possible to treat with a MIPO technique through an anterior, lateral, or a posterior approach. However, when the fracture is near the olecranon fossa, anterior approach is not possible as there is not enough space in the distal fragment to insert the amount of screws required to achieve stability. In this case, the posterior approach may be a good option for treatment. This article describes the MIPO technique through a posterior approach for the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. PMID:24458002

Gallucci, Gerardo; Boretto, Jorge; Vujovich, Andrea; Alfie, Verónica; Donndorff, Agustín; De Carli, Pablo

2014-03-01

293

Simulating seepage into mine shafts and tunnels with MODFLOW.  

PubMed

In cases when an equivalent porous medium assumption is suitable for simulating groundwater flow in bedrock aquifers, estimation of seepage into underground mine workings (UMWs) can be achieved by specifying MODFLOW drain nodes at the contact between water bearing rock and dewatered mine openings. However, this approach results in significant numerical problems when applied to simulate seepage into an extensive network of UMWs, which often exist at the mine sites. Numerical simulations conducted for individual UMWs, such as a vertical shaft or a horizontal drift, showed that accurate prediction of seepage rates can be achieved by either applying grid spacing that is much finer than the diameter/width of the simulated openings (explicit modeling) or using coarser grid with cell sizes exceeding the characteristic width of shafts or drifts by a factor of 3. Theoretical insight into this phenomenon is presented, based on the so-called well-index theory. It is demonstrated that applying this theory allows to minimize numerical errors associated with MODFLOW simulation of seepage into UMWs on a relatively coarse Cartesian grid. Presented examples include simulated steady-state groundwater flow from homogeneous, heterogeneous, and/or anisotropic rock into a vertical shaft, a horizontal drift/cross-cut, a ramp, two parallel drifts, and a combined system of a vertical shaft connected to a horizontal drift. PMID:20039952

Zaidel, Jacob; Markham, Bradley; Bleiker, David

2010-01-01

294

14. DETAIL SHOWING THE STERN TUBE, PROPELLOR SHAFT AND RELATED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. DETAIL SHOWING THE STERN TUBE, PROPELLOR SHAFT AND RELATED EQUIPMENT IN THE LOWER MOTOR ROOM. NOTE THE WORM-WHEEL TURNING GEAR AT CENTER, AND THE KINGBURY THRUST BEARING IN THE FOREGROUND IMMEDIATELY FOREWORD OF THE WORM-WHEEL GEAR. NOTE ALSO THE 50-POUND IRON BALLAST BLOCKS STACKED BETWEEN FRAMES. - Lightship 116, Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

295

TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF THE DEEP SHAFT BIOLOGICAL REACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The Deep Shaft biological treatment process is essentially a high-rate activated sludge process capable of operating at BOD5 loading ratios (F/M) between 0.5 and 2.0 kg BOD5/kg MLVSS. The hardware consists of a vertical subsurface reactor between 90 and 250 m (300 to 800 ft) deep...

296

Fracture shaft of clavicle, an indirect injury from bench pressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injuries related to weight training are becoming increasingly common as the trend for body resistance training grows. There have been numerous injuries related to repeated stress, but this appears to be the first reported case of a fracture of the shaft of clavicle related to violent muscular contraction. It occurred in a 28 year old man during bench pressing. He

I P S Gill; Chima Mbubaegbu

2004-01-01

297

Investigation of Adhesively Bonded Joints for Composite Propeller Shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substituting composite structures for conventional metallic structures has many advantages because of higher specific stiffness and specific strength of composite materials. In this work, one-piece propeller shafts composed of carbon\\/epoxy composites were designed and manufactured for a rear wheel drive automobile satisfying three design specifications, such as static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling and the fundamental natural bending frequency. Single

Jin Kook Kim; Dai Gil Lee; Durk Hyun Cho

2001-01-01

298

Failure analysis of an automobile differential pinion shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential is used to decrease the speed and to provide moment increase for transmitting the movement coming from the engine to the wheels by turning it according to the suitable angle in vehicles and to provide that inner and outer wheels turn differently. Pinion gear and shaft at the entrance are manufactured as a single part whereas they are in

H. Bayrakceken

2006-01-01

299

9. Detail of Stoney gates, showing shaft that drives rack ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Detail of Stoney gates, showing shaft that drives rack and pinion gears to raise and lower gates, looking south. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

300

1. AEROVANE FAN FROM NORTHWEST. AIR/MANWAY SHAFT AND LEPLEY VENTILATOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. AEROVANE FAN FROM NORTHWEST. AIR/MANWAY SHAFT AND LEPLEY VENTILATOR AT RIGHT, CIRCULAR SHAFT AND SCAFFOLD AT RIGHT REAR. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Aerovane Fan, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

301

Is one hair lock really representative?  

PubMed

When investigating someone's hair a single lock is cut, washed, extracted and analysed. The forensic institutes in Switzerland agreed to retain a second lock for a possible reassessment. We were interested in the reproducibility of the concentrations of analytes in hair locks taken from different areas of the head of the same person covering the same time period. Therefore we analysed ethyl glucuronide and caffeine as model substances in 10 hair locks from three individuals categorised as social drinkers. The individual coefficients of variation varied between 14% and 28% for ethyl glucuronide and between 13% and 62% for caffeine corresponding to factors of 1.6 to 4.2 for the highest to the lowest concentrations between the hair locks. This finding has a significant importance both when the second hair lock has to be analysed in a forensic case and if the interpretation of the result is depending on a cut-off value. PMID:24817042

Dussy, Franz; Carson, Nicholas; Hangartner, Sarah; Briellmann, Thomas

2014-06-01

302

Mybs in mouse hair follicle development.  

PubMed

The Myb transcription factors are involved in essential cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death. Biological functions carried out by specific Myb proteins are distinct. Hair follicles are ectodermal-derived organs with cycling character of the growth resulting from the presence of somatic stem cells. In this study, we followed the expression of the Myb proteins in developing hair follicles and in the hair follicle stem cell niche by immunofluorescence staining. During hair follicle development, B-Myb was present in a few cells located in the area of cell division; c-Myb was abundant postanally in dividing cells but also in keratinizing zone. In addition, c-Myb was also detected in cells under the hair follicle bulge. These findings indicate possible involvement of c-Myb in regulation of activated stem cells leaving the niche. PMID:25064514

Veselá, B; Svandová, E; Smarda, J; Matalová, E

2014-10-01

303

Studies on abnormal moulting in the farm-raised blue fox (Alopex lagopus).  

PubMed

In a farm-raised, adult female blue fox (Alopex lagopus) it was observed that apparently the winter coat was shed abnormally. Furthermore, the individual was never recorded as being on heat. Comparative histological and clinical-chemical examinations showed that the winter coat cycle was postponed approximately 6 months, and that the hair growth therefore took place in the spring. At first a kind of biological summer coat was produced, and then a biological mature winter coat. This was compared with and partly documented by changes in plasma estradiol and cortisol profiles. It could be concluded that the hair growth cycle and the plasma estradiol profile showed an abnormal seasonal variation in the abnormal fox. The two variables seemed, however, to be correlated as in a normal animal. PMID:1455916

Rasmussen, P V; Damgaard, B M

1992-09-01

304

Intraindividual stability of hair cortisol concentrations.  

PubMed

The analysis of cortisol in human hair constitutes a promising method for the retrospective assessment of cumulative cortisol secretion over extended periods of time. An implicit assumption underlying the use of this method is that in the absence of major life changes hair cortisol concentrations show a high level of intraindividual stability, i.e. single hair cortisol assessments exhibit considerable trait-specificity and are only to a smaller extent influenced by state-dependent factors. Here, we present data from two independent studies examining patterns of intraindividual stability in hair cortisol levels. In study I, 45 participants were examined at two sampling points carried out one year apart from each other. In study II, 64 individuals provided data at three sampling points which occurred at two-month intervals. In both studies, at each time point hair was sampled and relevant psychosocial and hair-related variables were assessed. Results of both studies consistently revealed strong test-retest associations for repeated hair cortisol measurements ('r's between 0.68 and 0.79, 'p's <0.0001). Findings of structural equation modelling applied to data of study II showed that single hair cortisol assessments comprise a strong trait component, explaining between 59 and 82% of variance, and are only to a lesser extent influenced by state-related factors. Only inconsistent evidence for covariation of changes in hair cortisol concentrations and simultaneous changes in perceived stress or other relevant variables was seen across the two studies. The current findings suggest a considerable degree of intraindividual stability in hair cortisol levels which highlights the utility of this method for obtaining trait estimates of long-term cortisol secretion in psychoneuroendocrinological research. PMID:21917384

Stalder, Tobias; Steudte, Susann; Miller, Robert; Skoluda, Nadine; Dettenborn, Lucia; Kirschbaum, Clemens

2012-05-01

305

What Is the Use of Elephant Hair?  

PubMed Central

The idea that low surface densities of hairs could be a heat loss mechanism is understood in engineering and has been postulated in some thermal studies of animals. However, its biological implications, both for thermoregulation as well as for the evolution of epidermal structures, have not yet been noted. Since early epidermal structures are poorly preserved in the fossil record, we study modern elephants to infer not only the heat transfer effect of present-day sparse hair, but also its potential evolutionary origins. Here we use a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches, and a range of hair densities determined from photographs, to test whether sparse hairs increase convective heat loss from elephant skin, thus serving an intentional evolutionary purpose. Our conclusion is that elephants are covered with hair that significantly enhances their thermoregulation ability by over 5% under all scenarios considered, and by up to 23% at low wind speeds where their thermoregulation needs are greatest. The broader biological significance of this finding suggests that maintaining a low-density hair cover can be evolutionary purposeful and beneficial, which is consistent with the fact that elephants have the greatest need for heat loss of any modern terrestrial animal because of their high body-volume to skin-surface ratio. Elephant hair is the first documented example in nature where increasing heat transfer due to a low hair density covering may be a desirable effect, and therefore raises the possibility of such a covering for similarly sized animals in the past. This elephant example dispels the widely-held assumption that in modern endotherms body hair functions exclusively as an insulator and could therefore be a first step to resolving the prior paradox of why hair was able to evolve in a world much warmer than our own. PMID:23071700

Myhrvold, Conor L.; Stone, Howard A.; Bou-Zeid, Elie

2012-01-01

306

EmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations  

E-print Network

SituationsAbnormal Situations Neil Johnston Aerospace Psychology Research Group Trinity College DublinEmergencyEmergency and Abnormal Situationsand Abnormal Situations in Aviation Symposiumin Aviation Symposium Santa Clara, June 2003 #12;Responding toResponding to Emergencies andEmergencies and Abnormal

307

Biomedical analysis of rat body hair after hindlimb suspension for 14 days  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The levels of 26 minerals in rat body hair were analyzed in control and hindlimb-suspended Wistar Hannover rats (n=5 each). We quantified the levels of 22 minerals in this experiment. However, we were unable to measure the levels of 4 minerals (Be, V, Cd, and Hg) quantitatively because they were below the limit of detection. Of the 22 quantified, the levels of 19 minerals were not significantly different between control and hindlimb-suspended groups. The levels of 3 minerals (Pb, Cr, and Al) tended to be higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group; however, this difference was not significant. The concentrations of 3 other minerals (I, K, and Mg) were significantly different between the 2 groups. The iodine (I) level was 58.2% higher in the hindlimb-suspended group than in the control group (P<0.05). Potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) levels were 55.2% and 20.4% lower, respectively, in the experimental group (P<0.05 in both cases). These results indicate that a physiological change in mineral metabolism resulting from physical or mental stress, such as hindlimb suspension, is reflected in body hair. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples of astronauts who stayed in the International Space Station (ISS) for 6 months. We believe that hindlimb suspension for 14 days can simulate the effects of an extremely severe environment, such as space flight, because the hindlimb suspension model elicits a rapid physiological change in skeletal muscle, bone, and fluid shift even in the short term. These results also suggest that we can detect various effects on the body by analyzing the human scalp hair shaft.

Terada, Masahiro; Kawano, Fuminori; Ishioka, Noriaki; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Yamazaki, Takashi; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Niihori, Maki; Nakao, Reiko; Yamada, Shin; Mukai, Chiaki; Ohira, Yoshinobu

2012-04-01

308

Models of Abnormal Scarring  

PubMed Central

Keloids and hypertrophic scars are thick, raised dermal scars, caused by derailing of the normal scarring process. Extensive research on such abnormal scarring has been done; however, these being refractory disorders specific to humans, it has been difficult to establish a universal animal model. A wide variety of animal models have been used. These include the athymic mouse, rats, rabbits, and pigs. Although these models have provided valuable insight into abnormal scarring, there is currently still no ideal model. This paper reviews the models that have been developed. PMID:24078916

Seo, Bommie F.; Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No

2013-01-01

309

Controlled blasting and its implications for the NNWSI project exploratory shaft  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews controlled blasting techniques for shaft sinking. Presplitting and smooth blasting are the techniques of principal interest. Smooth blasting is preferred for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations exploratory shaft. Shaft damage can be monitored visually or by peak velocity measurements and refractive techniques. Damage into the rock should be limited to 3 ft. 40 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Van Eeckhout, E.M.

1987-09-01

310

Dynamic analysis of rotor–shaft systems with viscoelastically supported bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the dynamic analysis of a rotating disk–shaft system with linear elastic bearings at the ends mounted on viscoelastic suspensions is investigated. The flexibility of the shaft is incorporated utilizing the Timoshenko shaft model and the rotor is considered rigid having a mass and moment of inertia. The viscoelastic support of the linear bearing is modeled as Kelvin–Voigt

N. H. Shabaneh; Jean W. Zu

2000-01-01

311

Vibration Suppression of a Flexible Shaft With a Simplified Bearingless Induction Motor Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present new strategies of vibration suppression in flexible shaft of a motor with active and passive magnetic forces. Shaft magnetic damping originates from the principle of a bearingless motor having a radial magnetic force generation. Radial force is used for shaft vibration suppression to go through the first critical speed. Simplifications are described in a suppression

Akira Chiba; Tadashi Fukao; M. Azizur Rahman

2008-01-01

312

Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2010 Turbine Shaft Shoulder Piloted Shim  

E-print Network

compressor coupling shaft to reach its full life expectancy of 20,000 cycles: · Pratt & Whitney will recover repair, a plasma carbide spray, limits the life of the shaft to 11,000-13,000 cycles. The repair design enhancement was to allow the shaft to reach its projected 20,000 cycle life. Objectives Develop a shim

Demirel, Melik C.

313

Monitoring techniques for the X-29A aircraft's high-speed rotating power takeoff shaft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental X-29A forward swept-wing aircraft has many unique and critical systems that require constant monitoring during ground or flight operation. One such system is the power takeoff shaft, which is the mechanical link between the engine and the aircraft-mounted accessory drive. The X-29A power takeoff shaft opertes in a range between 0 and 16,810 rpm, is longer than most jet engine power takeoff shafts, and is made of graphite epoxy material. Since the X-29A aircraft operates on a single engine, failure of the shaft during flight could lead to loss of the aircraft. The monitoring techniques and test methods used during power takeoff shaft ground and flight operations are discussed. Test data are presented in two case studies where monitoring and testing of the shaft dynamics proved instrumental in discovering and isolating X-29A power takeoff shaft problems. The first study concerns the installation of an unbalanced shaft. The effect of the unbalance on the shaft vibration data and the procedure used to correct the problem are discussed. The second study deals with the shaft exceeding the established vibration limits during flight. This case study found that the vibration of connected rotating machinery unbalances contributed to the excessive vibration level of the shaft. The procedures used to identify the contributions of other rotating machinery unbalances to the power takeoff shaft unbalance are discussed.

Voracek, David F.

1990-01-01

314

iRootHair: A Comprehensive Root Hair Genomics Database1[W  

PubMed Central

The specialized root epidermis cells of higher plants produce long, tubular outgrowths called root hairs. Root hairs play an important role in nutrient and water uptake, and they serve as a valuable model in studies of plant cell morphogenesis. More than 1,300 articles that describe the biological processes of these unique cells have been published to date. As new fields of root hair research are emerging, the number of new papers published each year and the volumes of new relevant data are continuously increasing. Therefore, there is a general need to facilitate studies on root hair biology by collecting, presenting, and sharing the available information in a systematic, curated manner. Consequently, in this paper, we present a comprehensive database of root hair genomics, iRootHair, which is accessible as a Web-based service. The current version of the database includes information about 153 root hair-related genes that have been identified to date in dicots and monocots along with their putative orthologs in higher plants with sequenced genomes. In order to facilitate the use of the iRootHair database, it is subdivided into interrelated, searchable sections that describe genes, processes of root hair formation, root hair mutants, and available references. The database integrates bioinformatics tools with a focus on sequence identification and annotation. iRootHair is a unique resource for root hair research that integrates the large volume of data related to root hair genomics in a single, curated, and expandable database that is freely available at www.iroothair.org. PMID:23129204

Kwasniewski, Miroslaw; Nowakowska, Urszula; Szumera, Jakub; Chwialkowska, Karolina; Szarejko, Iwona

2013-01-01

315

Nonlinear dynamic modeling for a diesel engine propeller shafting used in large marines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal vibration, torsional vibration and their coupled vibration are the main vibration modes of the crankshaft-sliding bearing system. However, these vibrations of the propeller-crankshaft-sliding bearing system generated by the fluid exciting force on the propeller are much more complex. Currently, the torsional and longitudinal vibrations have been studied separately while the research on their coupled vibration is few, and the influence of the propeller structure to dynamic characteristics of a crankshaft has not been studied yet. In order to describe the dynamic properties of a crankshaft accurately, a nonlinear dynamic model is proposed taking the effect of torsional-longitudinal coupling and the variable inertia of propeller, connecting rod and piston into account. Numerical simulation cases are carried out to calculate the response data of the system in time and frequency domains under the working speed and over-speed, respectively. Results of vibration analysis of the propeller and crankshaft system coupled in torsional and longitudinal direction indicate that the system dynamic behaviors are relatively complicated especially in the components of the frequency response. For example, the 4 times of an exciting frequency acting on the propeller by fluid appears at 130 r/min, while not yield at 105 r/min. While the possible abnormal vibration at over-speed just needs to be vigilant. So when designing the propeller shafting used in marine diesel engines, strength calculation and vibration analysis based only on linear model may cause great errors and the proposed research provides some references to design diesel engine propeller shafting used in large marines.

Zhang, Qinglei; Duan, Jianguo; Zhang, Suohuai; Fu, Yumin

2014-08-01

316

Detection of Abnormal Hemoglobins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An intensive literature survey was performed to review the methods and products used to detect, identify and/or quantitate abnormal or variant hemoglobins in human erythrocytes. The report consists of a bibliography (198 citations, 1968-1979) and a summar...

J. Atwater, B. E. Hindman, K. Joseph

1979-01-01

317

Abnormal Psychology Psychology 280  

E-print Network

psychopathology perspective to understand: 2.1. risk and protective factors influencing the etiology abnormal behavior in everyday life and we need to gain a better understanding of the etiology, social worker, therapist, etc.) directly rely on having extensive knowledge of psychopathology. #12

Liu, Taosheng

318

Hair Evaluation Methods: Merits and Demerits  

PubMed Central

Various methods are available for evaluation (for diagnosis and/or quantification) of a patient presenting with hair loss. Hair evaluation methods are grouped into three main categories: Non-invasive methods (e.g., questionnaire, daily hair counts, standardized wash test, 60-s hair count, global photographs, dermoscopy, hair weight, contrasting felt examination, phototrichogram, TrichoScan and polarizing and surface electron microscopy), semi-invasive methods (e.g., trichogram and unit area trichogram) and invasive methods (e.g., scalp biopsy). Any single method is neither 'ideal' nor feasible. However, when interpreted with caution, these are valuable tools for patient diagnosis and monitoring. Daily hair counts, wash test, etc. are good methods for primary evaluation of the patient and to get an approximate assessment of the amount of shedding. Some methods like global photography form an important part of any hair clinic. Analytical methods like phototrichogram are usually possible only in the setting of a clinical trial. Many of these methods (like the scalp biopsy) require expertise for both processing and interpreting. We reviewed the available literature in detail in light of merits and demerits of each method. A plethora of newer methods is being introduced, which are relevant to the cosmetic industry/research. Such methods as well as metabolic/hormonal evaluation are not included in this review. PMID:20927232

Dhurat, Rachita; Saraogi, Punit

2009-01-01

319

A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans,in computer,graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved, problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make it

Kelly Ward; Florence Bertails; Tae-yong Kim; Stephen R. Marschner; Marie-paule Cani; Ming C. Lin

2007-01-01

320

A Survey on Hair Modeling: Styling, Simulation, and Rendering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans in computer graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved, problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make

Kelly Ward; Florence Bertalis; Tae Yong Kim; Stephen R. Marschner; Marie-paule Cani; Ming C. Lin

2007-01-01

321

Morphological analysis of hair follicles in alopecia areata  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterizes hair follicles from early alopecia areata lesions at both the light and electron microscopic levels and describes how affected hair follicles differ from normal hair growth. The study focuses on acute and active lesions where hair follicles show greatest divergence from the normal growth pattern and are most likely to display features of primary pathology. Morphologic analysis

Desmond J. Tobin

1997-01-01

322

Elasticity and Tensile Properties Human Hair. I. Single  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis To evaluate hair products properly, the cosmetic chemist needs a quantitative method for the evaluation of hair condition that will yield statistically significant results using relatively small samples. The procedure must also be sensitive to minor changes in hair condition. The method described here is based on measuring the yield point of a single hair fiber and correlating changes

323

Influence of bleaching on stability of benzodiazepines in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the influence of hair bleaching on benzodiazepines concentrations, hair was treated with a bleaching product (Poly Blonde, Schwarzkopf & Henkel) for 20 min. The treated hair specimen was obtained from a person who died after an overdose of several illicit drugs associated with benzodiazepines. Bleached and non bleached hair were washed (acetone and water), pulverised and

M. Yegles; Y. Marson; R. Wennig

2000-01-01

324

Regenerated hair cells exhibit a transient resistance to aminoglycoside toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have demonstrated that sensory hair cells in the avian inner ear are reproduced by cell proliferation in response to the death of the original hair cell population. The regenerated hair cells appear to construct functional synaptic contacts, thereby transmitting acoustic signals to the peripheral nervous system. One of the most extraordinary, but overlooked characteristics of these regenerated hair

Eri Hashino; Richard J. Salvi

1996-01-01

325

The Shampoo pH can Affect the Hair: Myth or Reality?  

PubMed Central

Aim: Dermatologists most frequently prescribe shampoos for the treatment of hair shed and scalp disorders. Prescription of hair care products is often focused on improving scalp hair density, whereas the over-the-counter products focus on hair damage prevention. Little is taught in medical schools about the hair cosmetics, so that the prescriptions are based only on the treatment of the scalp and usually disregards the hair fiber health. Materials and Methods: In this work, we review the current literature about the mode of action of a low-pH shampoo regarding the hair shaft's health and analyze the pH of 123 shampoos of international brands. Results: All shampoo pH values ranged from 3.5 to 9.0. 38.21% of all 123 shampoos presented a pH ? 5.5 (IC: 29.9–47%) and 61.78% presented a pH > 5.5. 26 anti-dandruff shampoos were analyzed. About 19.23% presented pH ? 5.5.(IC: 7.4–37.6%). 80.77% of all anti-dandruffs shampoos presented a pH > 5.5. The dermatological shampoo group (n = 19) presented 42.10% with pH ? 5.5 (IC: 21.8–64.6%), and 57.90% with pH > 5.5. Among the commercial (popular) products (n = 96), 34.37% presented pH ? 5.5 (IC: 25.4–44.3%) and 65.62% presented pH > 5.5. 15 professional products (used in hair salons) were analyzed, of which 75% had a pH ? 5.5 (IC: 18–65, 4%), and 25% had a pH > 5.5. 100% of the children's shampoos presented a pH > 5.5. Conclusions: Alkaline pH may increase the negative electrical charge of the hair fiber surface and, therefore, increase friction between the fibers. This may lead to cuticle damage and fiber breakage. It is a reality and not a myth that lower pH of shampoos may cause less frizzing for generating less negative static electricity on the fiber surface. Interestingly, only 38% of the popular brand shampoos against 75% of the salons shampoos presented a pH ? 5.0. Pediatric shampoos had the pH of 7.0 because of the “no-tear” concept. There is no standardized value for the final pH. The authors believe that it is important to reveal the pH value on the shampoo label, but studies are needed to establish the best pH range for both the scalp and the hair fiber's health.

Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis; de Almeida, Andreia Munck; Cecato, Patricia Makino Rezende; Adriano, Andre Ricardo; Pichler, Janine

2014-01-01

326

Aging of the Hair Follicle Pigmentation System  

PubMed Central

Skin and hair phenotypes are powerful cues in human communication. They impart much information, not least about our racial, ethnic, health, gender and age status. In the case of the latter parameter, we experience significant change in pigmentation in our journey from birth to puberty and through to young adulthood, middle age and beyond. The hair follicle pigmentary unit is perhaps one of our most visible, accessible and potent aging sensors, with marked dilution of pigment intensity occurring long before even subtle changes are seen in the epidermis. This dichotomy is of interest as both skin compartments contain melanocyte subpopulations of similar embryologic (i.e., neural crest) origin. Research groups are actively pursuing the study of the differential aging of melanocytes in the hair bulb versus the epidermis and in particular are examining whether this is in part linked to the stringent coupling of follicular melanocytes to the hair growth cycle. Whether some follicular melanocyte subpopulations are affected, like epidermal melanocytes, by UV irradiation is not yet clear. A particular target of research into hair graying or canities is the nature of the melanocyte stem compartment and whether this is depleted due to reactive oxygen species-associated damage, coupled with an impaired antioxidant status, and a failure of melanocyte stem cell renewal. Over the last few years, we and others have developed advanced in vitro models and assay systems for isolated hair follicle melanocytes and for intact anagen hair follicle organ culture which may provide research tools to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of hair follicle pigmentation. Long term, it may be feasible to develop strategies to modulate some of these aging-associated changes in the hair follicle that impinge particularly on the melanocyte populations. PMID:20927229

Tobin, Desmond J

2009-01-01

327

Polar lipid composition of mammalian hair.  

PubMed

The types and amounts of polar lipids from the hair of monkey (Macacca fascicularis), dog (Canis familiaris), pig (Sus scrofa) and porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) have been determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography. The polar lipid content of the hair samples ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 wt%. Lipid compositions included ceramides (57-63% of the polar lipid by weight), glycosphingolipids (7-9%) and cholesteryl sulfate (22-29%). Several minor components (4-7%) remain unidentified. The results suggest that cholesteryl sulfate may be an important determinant of the cohesiveness of hair. PMID:3581794

Wix, M A; Wertz, P W; Downing, D T

1987-01-01

328

A teenage girl with green hair.  

PubMed

An adolescent girl with blond hair, her family, and classmates noted that her hair was progressively turning green. Initially the green color was thought to be secondary to chlorine from the local swimming pool. This was not the real cause. The chlorotrichosis was actually caused by an excessive amount of dissolved copper from copper pipes in the home plumbing system. Copper had leached from the plumbing and accumulated in the pipes because the rented house had been vacant for many months. Risk factors for chlorotrichosis include light-colored hair, copper plumbing, long periods when the water was not thoroughly flushed out of the copper pipes, and frequent shampooing. PMID:25039704

Schwartz, Richard H; Yasin, Shima K; Yoo, Jinny K

2014-01-01

329

Hair Cell Heterogeneity in the Goldfish Saccule  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of cytological studies performed in the utricle and saccule of Astronotus ocellatus (Teleostei, Percomorphi, Cichlidae) identified two basic types of hair cells and others with some intermediate characteristics. This paper reports on applying the same techniques to the saccule of Carassius auratus (Teleostei, Otophysi, Cyprinidae) and demonstrates similar types of hair cells to those found in Astronotus. Since Carassius and Astronous are species of extreme taxonomic distance within the Euteteostei, two classes of mechanoreceptive hair cells are likely to represent the primitive condition for sensory receptors in the euteleost inner ear and perhaps in all bony fish ears.

Saidel, William M.; Lanford, Pamela J.; Yan, Hong Y.; Popper, Arthur N.

1995-01-01

330

Comparative Transduction Mechanisms of Vestibular Otolith Hair Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hair cells in the bullfrog vestibular otolith organs regenerate following aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Hair cells in these organs are differentially sensitive to gentamicin, with saccular hair cells and hair cells in the utricular striola being damaged at lower gentamicin concentrations than hair cells in the utricular extrastriola. Regenerating hair cells in these organs have short hair bundles and can be classified into a number of phenotypes using the same morphological criteria used to identify their mature counterparts. Our studies suggest that some supporting cells can convert, or transdifferentiate,into hair cells without an intervening cell division. By stimulating these processes in humans, clinicians may be able to alleviate human deafness and peripheral vestibular disorders by regenerating and replacing lost hair cells. In vivo and in vitro studies were done on cell proliferation and hair cell regeneration.

Baird, Richard A.

1994-01-01

331

Comparative transduction mechanisms of hair cells in the bullfrog uticulus. 2: Sensitivity and response dynamics to hair bundle displacement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present study was motivated by an interest in seeing whether hair cell types in the bullfrog utriculus might differ in their voltage responses to hair bundle displacement. Particular interest was in assessing the contributions of two factors to the responses of utricular hair cells. First, interest in examining the effect of hair bundle morphology on the sensitivity of hair cells to natural stimulation was motivated by the observation that vestibular hair cells, unlike many auditory hair cells, are not free-standing but rather linked to an accessory cupular or otolithic membrane via the tip of their kinocilium. Interest also laid in examining the contribution, if any, of adaptation to the response properties of utricular hair cells. Hair cells in auditory and vibratory inner ear endorgans adapt to maintained displacements of their hair bundles, sharply limiting their low frequency sensitivity. This adaptation is mediated by a shift in the displacement-response curve (DRC) of the hair cell along the displacement axis. Observations suggest that the adaptation process occurs within the hair bundle and precedes mechanoelectric transduction. Recent observations of time-dependent changes in hair bundle stiffness are consistent with this conclusion. Adaptation would be expected to be most useful in inner ear endorgans in which hair cells are subject to large static displacements that could potentially saturate their instantaneous response and compromise their sensitivity to high frequency stimulation. The adaptation process also permits hair cells to maintain their sensory hair bundle in the most sensitive portion of their DRC. In vestibular otolith organs in which static sensitivity is desirable, any adaptation process in the hair cells may be undesirable. The rate and extent of the decline of the voltage responses was measured of utricular hair cells to step and sinusoidal hair bundle displacements. Then for similar resting potentials and response amplitudes, the voltage responses of individual hair cells were compared to both hair bundle displacement and intracellular current.

Baird, Richard A.

1994-01-01

332

Hair analysis for drugs of abuse XIX. Determination of ephedrine and its homologs in rat hair and human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive GC-MS method was developed for the quantitative analysis of ephedrine (EP), phenylpropanolamine (PPA) and methylephedrine (ME) in animal and human hair. After washing with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, hair samples (10 mg) were added with deuterated internal standards, extracted by 1-h sonication and over night soaking in 2 ml of 5 M HCl-methanol (1:20) at room temperature. Following

Yuji Nakahara; Ruri Kikura

1997-01-01

333

African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. Setting: The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Participants: Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. Measurements: The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. Results: More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Conclusion: Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population. PMID:25276273

Mahan, Meredith Grace

2014-01-01

334

Vector control of induction motor without shaft encoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of introduction motor drive that requires no shaft encoder is presented. This system has both torque and speed controls that are performed by vector control. The vector-control scheme is based on a rotor-flux speed control, which is performed by torque-producing current and rotor flux, derived from the stator voltages and currents. If it is possible to obtain both

Tsugutoshi Ohtani; Noriyuki Takada; Koji Tanaka

1992-01-01

335

New warm forming processes to produce hollow shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to maintain their competitiveness, the producers constantly have to reduce their costs and to improve the quality of their products. The trend towards lightweight construction in vehicle manufacturing results in an increased use of hollow shafts in vehicle gear boxes. The publication focuses on near-net-shape and net-shape forming of rotation-symmetrical workpieces by incremental rolling processes. Two methods, cross

R. Neugebauer; M. Kolbe; R. Glass

2001-01-01

336

Studies on Closed-Loop Control for Shaft Generator Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shaft generator system is widely used in a ship to provide sufficient power for the electric apparatus by using a part of the power produced by the main engine. We have already analyzed the steady-state characteristics and open-loop transient performances of the system. In this system, the output voltage and frequency should be kept constant. Hence, the closed-loop control

Ken-Ichiro Yamashita; Shoji Nishikata

2006-01-01

337

Biological fixation of fracture shaft femur in children.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to assess the results of biological fixation of fracture shaft femur in children with locked plates. Twenty-eight fractures in 26 children with closed fractures of the shaft of the femur were managed with biological plating using locked plates bridging the fracture site applied submuscularly through two small incisions above and below the fracture site. The mean age of the patients was 11.2 years; all patients had radiological union within a mean time of 11.9 weeks (8-14 weeks); the average follow-up was 31 months (14-40 months). No patient had frontal or sagittal plane deformity more than 10° or limb length discrepancy more than 1.5 cm. There was no infection, delayed union, nonunion or clinically evident malrotation. A significant positive correlation between the age and the time to healing (p = 0.03) was detected, whereas there was no significant correlation between time to healing and patient sex, fracture level, fracture type, mechanism of injury. Also there was no significant correlation between limb length discrepancy and patient age, sex, fracture level, fracture type, and mechanism of injury. Biological fixation of fractures of the femoral shaft in children with locked plates is a reliable method of fixation with excellent healing potential and fixation mechanics without complications. PMID:23412246

Elgohary, Hatem S A

2014-01-01

338

Measurement of vibratory motions of gears supported by compliant shafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an improved accelerometer-based method is proposed for measurement of motions of parallel-axis gears in torsional, translational and rotational directions. This method uses a family of triaxial accelerometers that are mounted on a shaft flange next to the gears at a given radius. Acceleration signals from the accelerometers are processed using a novel formulation to quantify the motions of a gear in the torsional, rotational (rocking), transverse (line-of-action and off-line-of-action) and axial directions. This measurement system is applied to example spur and helical gear pairs held by shafts having different bending compliances. The experimental results indicate that the proposed accelerometer-based measurement methodology is effective in measuring not only the torsional motions but also the other types of translational, rotational and axial motions of a gear as well as the dynamic transmission error. They also point to the influence of the shaft flexibility on gear vibration amplitudes in these directions.

Kang, Ma Ru; Kahraman, Ahmet

2012-05-01

339

Adequately address abnormal operations  

SciTech Connect

Abnormal situation management (ASM) is a safety issue, and safety long has been a top priority for companies in the chemical process industries (CPI). To investigate and identify root causes of abnormal operations and to pinpoint best practices for preventing these situations or at least handling them most effectively, the author formed a team and conducted surveys around the world, including the US, Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Japan. The author visited a variety of facilities, including gas processing plants, oil refineries, a coker, ethylene plant, polyethylene units, steam-generating stations, as well as transportation and storage facilities. The team identified eight key issues: lack of management leadership; the significant role of human errors; inadequate design of the work environment; absence of procedures for dealing with abnormal operations (as opposed to emergencies); loss of valuable information from earlier minor incidents; the potential economic return; transferability of good ASM performance to other plants; and the importance of teamwork and job design. The paper looks at each of these in more detail, as well as what`s involved in assessing the ASM at a site.

Nimmo, I. [Honeywell Industrial Automation and Control, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

1995-09-01

340

Point-based hair global illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A point-based representation was extensively used on Tangled to generate occlusion and indirect illumination involving the characters' hair. We describe how this was achieved in reasonable rendering times. 1 Motivation

Ramón Montoya-Vozmediano; Walt Disney; Animation Studios

2010-01-01

341

Women with Red Hair Report A Slightly Increased Rate of Bruising, but Have Normal Coagulation Tests  

PubMed Central

There is an anecdotal impression that redheads experience more perioperative bleeding complications than those with other hair colors. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that perceived problems with hemostasis could be detected with commonly used coagulation tests. Se studied healthy female Caucasian volunteers, 18 to 40 years, comparable in terms of height, weight, and age, with natural bright red (n = 25) or black or dark brown (n = 26) hair. Volunteers were questioned about their bleeding history and the following tests were performed: complete blood count, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet function analysis (PFA-100), and platelet aggregation using standard turbidimetric methodology. Agonists for aggregation were adenosine diphosphate, arachidonic acid, collagen, epinephrine, and two concentrations of ristocetin. The red-haired volunteers reported significantly more bruising, but there were no significant differences between the red- and dark-haired groups in hemoglobin concentration, platelet numbers, prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, or activated partial thromboplastin time. Furthermore, no significant differences in platelet function, as measured with the PFA-100 or with platelet aggregometry, were observed. We conclude that if redheads have hemostasis abnormalities, they are subtle. PMID:16368849

Liem, Edwin B.; Hollensead, Sandra C.; Joiner, Teresa V.

2005-01-01

342

Mutations in the Cholesterol Transporter Gene ABCA5 Are Associated with Excessive Hair Overgrowth  

PubMed Central

Inherited hypertrichoses are rare syndromes characterized by excessive hair growth that does not result from androgen stimulation, and are often associated with additional congenital abnormalities. In this study, we investigated the genetic defect in a case of autosomal recessive congenital generalized hypertrichosis terminalis (CGHT) (OMIM135400) using whole-exome sequencing. We identified a single base pair substitution in the 5? donor splice site of intron 32 in the ABC lipid transporter gene ABCA5 that leads to aberrant splicing of the transcript and a decrease in protein levels throughout patient hair follicles. The homozygous recessive disruption of ABCA5 leads to reduced lysosome function, which results in an accumulation of autophagosomes, autophagosomal cargos as well as increased endolysosomal cholesterol in CGHT keratinocytes. In an unrelated sporadic case of CGHT, we identified a 1.3 Mb cryptic deletion of chr17q24.2-q24.3 encompassing ABCA5 and found that ABCA5 levels are dramatically reduced throughout patient hair follicles. Collectively, our findings support ABCA5 as a gene underlying the CGHT phenotype and suggest a novel, previously unrecognized role for this gene in regulating hair growth. PMID:24831815

DeStefano, Gina M.; Kurban, Mazen; Anyane-Yeboa, Kwame; Dall'Armi, Claudia; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Feenstra, Heather; Silverberg, Nanette; Rohena, Luis; López-Cepeda, Larissa D.; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Fantauzzo, Katherine A.; Kiuru, Maija; Tadin-Strapps, Marija; Sobrino, Antonio; Vitebsky, Anna; Warburton, Dorothy; Levy, Brynn; Salas-Alanis, Julio C.; Christiano, Angela M.

2014-01-01

343

Molecular Remodeling of Tip Links Underlies Mechanosensory Regeneration in Auditory Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Sound detection by inner ear hair cells requires tip links that interconnect mechanosensory stereocilia and convey force to yet unidentified transduction channels. Current models postulate a static composition of the tip link, with protocadherin 15 (PCDH15) at the lower and cadherin 23 (CDH23) at the upper end of the link. In terminally differentiated mammalian auditory hair cells, tip links are subjected to sound-induced forces throughout an organism's life. Although hair cells can regenerate disrupted tip links and restore hearing, the molecular details of this process are unknown. We developed a novel implementation of backscatter electron scanning microscopy to visualize simultaneously immuno-gold particles and stereocilia links, both of only a few nanometers in diameter. We show that functional, mechanotransduction-mediating tip links have at least two molecular compositions, containing either PCDH15/CDH23 or PCDH15/PCDH15. During regeneration, shorter tip links containing nearly equal amounts of PCDH15 at both ends appear first. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that these transient PCDH15/PCDH15 links mediate mechanotransduction currents of normal amplitude but abnormal Ca2+-dependent decay (adaptation). The mature PCDH15/CDH23 tip link composition is re-established later, concomitant with complete recovery of adaptation. Thus, our findings provide a molecular mechanism for regeneration and maintenance of mechanosensory function in postmitotic auditory hair cells and could help identify elusive components of the mechanotransduction machinery. PMID:23776407

Indzhykulian, Artur A.; Stepanyan, Ruben; Nelina, Anastasiia; Spinelli, Kateri J.; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Belyantseva, Inna A.; Friedman, Thomas B.; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.; Frolenkov, Gregory I.

2013-01-01

344

[Decorative forms of hamsters Phodopus (Mammalia, Cricetinae): an analysis of genetic lines distribution and peculiarities of hair changes].  

PubMed

Three species of dwarf hamsters (genus Phodopus, family Cricetidae) inhabit some regions of Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China, each having quite extensive range. In recent decades, the dwarf hamsters became widely spread all over the world, initially as laboratory animals and later as popular pets. By now, there is lot of decorative breed lines and colored forms of these animals. Comparison of mtDNA nucleotide sequences of dwarf hamsters acquired in pet shops of some countries in Europe, South-East Asia and North America with distribution of mtDNA haplotypes within natural ranges showed the limitation of decorative line founders' points of origin by one region for each of the species. All haplotypes found in decorative Dzungarian hamsters (Ph. sungorus) purchased ounside Russia coincide with or are significantly close to haplotypes spread in the southern part of West Siberia (Russia) and adjacent regions of Kazakhstan; haplotypes of decorative Campbell's hamster (Ph. campbelli) belong to haplogroup of this species natural populations inhabiting South Tyva (Russia); and all studied decorative Desert hamsters (Ph. roborovskii) had one hapotype specific for South-Eastern Kazakhstan. The review of the history of researches on dwarf hamsters biology allows to determine delivery of hamsters from mentioned regions to scientific laboratories and zoos by certain expeditions and/or researchers. Unlike hamsters with natural hair color, the colored hamsters have no normal hair. Their hair is dull and straggly. The hair differentiation (presence of different hair types and their size characteristics) gets broken and results in deformation, bending, and splitting of the shaft, cracks in cuticle, change of configuration and location of medulla, uneven development of cortex. It is assumed that these destructive changes are associated with genetic characteristics of these hamsters' colored forms. PMID:22590908

Feoktistova, N Iu; Chernova, O F; Meshcherski?, I G

2012-01-01

345

Activated Hair Follicle Stem Cells and Wnt/?-catenin Signaling Involve in Pathnogenesis of Sebaceous Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Sebaceous glands (SGs) undergo cyclic renewal independent of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) activation while HFSCs have the potential to differentiate into sebaceous gland cells, hair follicle and epidermal keratinocytes. Abnormalities of sebaceous gland progenitor cells contribute to the development of sebaceous neoplasms, but little is known about the role of HFSCs during sebaceous neoplasm development. Here, using dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) plus 12-o-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) treatment developing sebaceous neoplasms (SNs) were identified with H&E and Oil red O staining. And then the molecular expression and activation of HFSCs and was characterized by immunostaining. Wnt10b/?-catenin signaling molecular which is important for activation of HFSCs were detected by immunostaining. We found hair follicle and epidermal cell markers were expressed in sebaceous neoplasms. Furthermore, SOX-9 and CD34-positive HFSCs were located in the basal layer of sebaceous lobules within the sebaceous neoplasms. Many appear to be in an active state. Finally, Wnt10b/?-catenin signaling was activated within the basal cells of sebaceous lobules in the sebaceous neoplasms. Collectively, our findings suggest that the abnormal activation of both HFSCs and Wnt10b/?-catenin signaling involves in the development of sebaceous neoplasms. PMID:25076848

Qiu, Weiming; Lei, Mingxing; Li, Jin; Wang, Ning; Lian, Xiaohua

2014-01-01

346

Restoration of the eyebrows by hair transplantation.  

PubMed

Partial loss of the eyebrows can be the result of epilation, scars, and inflammatory diseases. Facial hair and eyebrows play a major role in our mimetic expression and interaction. Therefore, facial hair restoration of the eyebrows can improve the appearance and psychological well-being of patients. We report the use of partial longitudinal follicular unit transplantation (PLFUT) to restore eyebrows. A total of 10 patients (age between 18 and 59 years; mean, 39 years) have been treated with PLFUT to restore the eyebrows. The grafts were harvested from the occipital area of the scalp. Suitable grafts were impregnated with a preservative solution and implanted into the eyebrows areas. Hair growth in the donor area as well as the eyebrows was observed before treatment and at intervals of 1?week, 3 months, and 1?year after treatment. Evaluation of the donor area reveals no visible scars with almost all hair follicles in the donor site reproducing hairs after 1 year. All treated patients were satisfied or very satisfied with their cosmetic results. PLFUT is a reliable, patient friendly method suitable for hair restoration of eyebrows in healthy persons as well as in burn scar tissue. PMID:24810133

Gho, Coen; Neumann, Martino

2014-04-01

347

EFFERENT MODULATION OF HAIR CELL FUNCTION  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review This review covers papers published between 2010 and early 2011 that presented new findings on inner ear-efferents and their ability to modulate hair cell function. Recent findings Studies published within the review period have increased our understanding of efferent mechanisms on hair cells in the cochlear and vestibular sensory epithelium and provide insights on efferent contributions to the plasticity of bilateral auditory processing. The central nervous system controls the sensitivity of hair cells to physiological stimuli by regulating the gain of hair cell electromechanical amplification and modulating the efficiency of hair cell-8th nerve transmission. A notable advance in the past year has been animal and human studies that have examined the contribution of the olivocochlear efferents to sound localization particularly in a noisy environment. Summary Acoustic activation of olivocochlear fibers provides a clinical test for the integrity of the peripheral auditory system and has provided new understanding about the function and limitations of the cochlear amplifier. While similar tests may be possible in the efferent vestibular system they have not yet been developed. The structural and functional similarities of the sensory epithelia in the inner ear offer hope that testing procedures may be developed that will allow reliable testing of the vestibular hair cell function. PMID:22552698

RABBITT, RICHARD D.; BROWNELL, WILLIAM E.

2012-01-01

348

Notch signaling in mammalian hair cell regeneration  

PubMed Central

In the inner ear, Notch signaling has been shown to have two key developmental roles. The first occurs early in otic development and defines the prosensory domains that will develop into the six sensory organs of the inner ear. The second role occurs later in development and establishes the mosaic-like pattern of the mechanosensory hair cells and their surrounding support cells through the more well-characterized process of lateral inhibition. These dual developmental roles have inspired several different strategies to regenerate hair cells in the mature inner ear organs. These strategies include (1) modulation of Notch signaling in inner ear stem cells in order to increase hair cell yield, (2) activation of Notch signaling in order to promote the formation of ectopic sensory regions in normally non-sensory regions within the inner ear, and (3) inhibition of Notch signaling to disrupt lateral inhibition and allow support cells to transdifferentiate into hair cells. In this review, we summarize some of the promising studies that have used these various strategies for hair cell regeneration through modulation of Notch signaling and some of the challenges that remain in developing therapies based on hair cell regeneration.

Slowik, Amber D.; Bermingham-McDonogh, Olivia

2014-01-01

349

Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

Fernald, Charles D.

1980-01-01

350

Phospholipase C-delta1 is an essential molecule downstream of Foxn1, the gene responsible for the nude mutation, in normal hair development.  

PubMed

Nude mice exhibit athymia and hairlessness by a loss-of-function mutation in the transcription factor Foxn1 gene. Although the immunological functions of Foxn1 have been studied intensively, there have been relatively few studies of its functions in skin. Foxn1 regulates expression of hair keratins, which is essential for normal hair structure; however, how Foxn1 regulates hair keratin expression and hair formation is largely unknown. In the present study, we found that mice lacking phospholipase C (PLC)-delta1, a key molecule in the phosphoinositide signaling pathway, and nude mice show similar hair abnormalities, such as lack of cuticle and bending. We also found that expression of hair keratins was remarkably decreased in skin of PLC-delta1 knockout mice. Furthermore, expression of PLC-delta1 was induced in Foxn1-transfected U2OS cells. In addition, we showed that PLC-delta1 expression was remarkably decreased in skin of nude mice. In skin and keratinocytes of nude mice as well as PLC-delta1 KO mice, activation of PLC downstream effectors, such as PKC and nuclear factor of activated T cells, was impaired. These results indicate that PLC-delta1 is an essential molecule downstream of Foxn1 in normal hair formation, and strongly suggest that hairlessness in nude mice is caused by insufficient expression of PLC-delta1. PMID:17938256

Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Ichinohe, Manabu; Hirata, Masayuki; Matsuura, Hirokazu; Fujiwara, Takashi; Igarashi, Takahiro; Nakahara, Masamichi; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Yasugi, Sadao; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Fukami, Kiyoko

2008-03-01

351

Roentgenologic Abnormalities in Down's Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Roentgenograms of 28 patients with Down's syndrome were reviewed with emphasis on all previously reported abnormalities and any possible additional ones. Most of the abnormalities occurred with the same frequency as previously reported, but some less freq...

T. Higuchi, W. J. Russell, M. Komatsuda, S. Neriishi

1968-01-01

352

Epilepsy and chromosomal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations and other neurological alterations,\\u000a among which seizures and epilepsy. Some of these show a peculiar epileptic and EEG pattern. We describe some epileptic syndromes\\u000a frequently reported in chromosomal disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Detailed clinical assessment, electrophysiological studies, survey of the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  In some of these congenital syndromes the clinical presentation and EEG

Giovanni Sorge; Anna Sorge

2010-01-01

353

Spirometric abnormalities among welders  

SciTech Connect

A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India))

1991-10-01

354

Pattern hair loss in men: diagnosis and medical treatment.  

PubMed

Androgenetic alopecia is a common cause of hair loss in both men and women. The exact pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia is not well understood. As the name implies, the role of androgens and genetic susceptibility predisposes to pattern hair loss due to gradual conversion of terminal hair into vellus hair. Male and female pattern hair loss are clinically distinct entities but histologically indistinguishable. The role of sex hormones in females is less understood. This article discusses current understanding of the etiopathogenesis of hair loss in men, diagnostic tests available, and its medical management. PMID:23159182

Banka, Nusrat; Bunagan, M J Kristine; Shapiro, Jerry

2013-01-01

355

Correct Timing of Proliferation and Differentiation is Necessary for Normal Inner Ear Development and Auditory Hair Cell Viability  

PubMed Central

Background Hearing restoration through hair cell regeneration will require revealing the dynamic interactions between proliferation and differentiation during development to avoid the limited viability of regenerated hair cells. Pax2-Cre N-Myc conditional knockout (CKO) mice highlighted the need of N-Myc for proper neurosensory development and possible redundancy with L-Myc. The late-onset hair cell death in the absence of early N-Myc expression could be due to mis-regulation of genes necessary for neurosensory formation and maintenance, such as Neurod1, Atoh1, Pou4f3, and Barhl1. Results Pax2-Cre N-Myc L-Myc double CKO mice show that proliferation and differentiation are linked together through Myc and in the absence of both Mycs, altered proliferation and differentiation results in morphologically abnormal ears. In particular, the organ of Corti apex is re-patterned into a vestibular-like organization and the base is truncated and fused with the saccule. Conclusions These data indicate that therapeutic approaches to restore hair cells must take into account a dynamic interaction of proliferation and differentiation regulation of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors in attempts to stably replace lost cochlear hair cells. In addition, our data indicate that Myc is an integral component of the evolutionary transformation process that resulted in the organ of Corti development. PMID:23193000

Kopecky, Benjamin J.; Jahan, Israt; Fritzsch, Bernd

2013-01-01

356

Analysis of flexural vibration of a composite drive shaft with a cylindrical constrained layer damping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model, based on Timoshenko beam assumption and the energy approach, for a rotating cylindrical shaft with cylindrical constrained layer damping treatment is developed. The model is developed for a shaft made from composite materials, and treated with a cylindrical constrained layer damping partially covering the length of the shaft. The discrete equations of motion are developed using the assumed mode method. The developed equations are applied to study the effect of the constraining cylinder's material and some geometric parameters on enhancing the dynamic characteristic of the shaft; more specifically, on the bending stiffness and damping of the shaft. The results, in general, indicate that the proposed treatment can be effective in enhancing the dynamic performance of the shaft. Also, results indicate that for best (bending stiffness and damping) performance, optimized parameters (length, thickness, material properties) are needed.

Ghoneim, Hany A.; Lawrie, Duncan J.

2004-07-01

357

Sensorineural Deafness, Distinctive Facial Features and Abnormal Cranial Bones  

PubMed Central

The Waardenburg syndromes (WS) account for approximately 2% of congenital sensorineural deafness. This heterogeneous group of diseases currently can be categorized into four major subtypes (WS types 1-4) on the basis of characteristic clinical features. Multiple genes have been implicated in WS, and mutations in some genes can cause more than one WS subtype. In addition to eye, hair and skin pigmentary abnormalities, dystopia canthorum and broad nasal bridge are seen in WS type 1. Mutations in the PAX3 gene are responsible for the condition in the majority of these patients. In addition, mutations in PAX3 have been found in WS type 3 that is distinguished by musculoskeletal abnormalities, and in a family with a rare subtype of WS, craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome (CDHS), characterized by dysmorphic facial features, hand abnormalities, and absent or hypoplastic nasal and wrist bones. Here we describe a woman who shares some, but not all features of WS type 3 and CDHS, and who also has abnormal cranial bones. All sinuses were hypoplastic, and the cochlea were small. No sequence alteration in PAX3 was found. These observations broaden the clinical range of WS and suggest there may be genetic heterogeneity even within the CDHS subtype. PMID:18553554

Gad, Alona; Laurino, Mercy; Maravilla, Kenneth R.; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

2008-01-01

358

Rare case of recurrent angiokeratoma of Fordyce on penile shaft.  

PubMed

Angiokeratomas are benign cutaneous vascular lesions characterized by dilated thin-walled blood vessels lying in the upper part of the dermis, mostly associated with an epidermal reaction such as acanthosis and/or hyperkeratosis. Angiokeratomas of Fordyce are predominantly located on the scrotum and are only rarely found on the penis and then usually on the glans penis. We report a rare case of angiokeratoma of Fordyce located on the shaft of the penis and associated with two recurrences after appropriate surgical excision. PMID:17070385

Pianezza, Michael L; Singh, Dharm; Van der Kwast, Theodore; Jarvi, Keith

2006-10-01

359

The operative treatment of diaphyseal humeral shaft fractures.  

PubMed

Fractures of the humeral shaft comprise 1% to 3% of all fractures. Incidence rates reveal a bimodal distribution in which there is one small peak during adolescence, followed by a larger spike during the fifth and sixth decades of life. Most humeral diaphysis fractures are simple patterns of the mid-diaphysis. This article emphasizes surgical approaches to humeral fractures, providing a review of the surgical spectrum of treatment inclusive of intramedullary nailing and plating, but also includes a brief discussion of the conservative approach. PMID:18054671

Cole, Peter A; Wijdicks, Coen A

2007-11-01

360

Abnormal uterine bleeding in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menarche is an important event during adolescence. For most girls, it marks completion of puberty and the onset of reproductive capability. Menarche usually occurs when both breast and pubic hair development are at Tanner stage 4. Menstrual problems are common during adolescence due to slow maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and can last 2 to 5 years after menarche. Although

Elisabeth H Quint; Yolanda R Smith

2003-01-01

361

Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape.  

PubMed

Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application. PMID:20157224

Dickinson, B T

2010-03-01

362

Inhibition of caspases prevents ototoxic and ongoing hair cell death  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensory hair cells die after acoustic trauma or ototoxic insults, but the signal transduction pathways that mediate hair cell death are not known. Here we identify several important signaling events that regulate the death of vestibular hair cells. Chick utricles were cultured in media supplemented with the ototoxic antibiotic neomycin and selected pharmacological agents that influence signaling molecules in cell death pathways. Hair cells that were treated with neomycin exhibited classically defined apoptotic morphologies such as condensed nuclei and fragmented DNA. Inhibition of protein synthesis (via treatment with cycloheximide) increased hair cell survival after treatment with neomycin, suggesting that hair cell death requires de novo protein synthesis. Finally, the inhibition of caspases promoted hair cell survival after neomycin treatment. Sensory hair cells in avian vestibular organs also undergo continual cell death and replacement throughout mature life. It is unclear whether the loss of hair cells stimulates the proliferation of supporting cells or whether the production of new cells triggers the death of hair cells. We examined the effects of caspase inhibition on spontaneous hair cell death in the chick utricle. Caspase inhibitors reduced the amount of ongoing hair cell death and ongoing supporting cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated sensory epithelia, however, caspase inhibitors did not affect supporting cell proliferation directly. Our data indicate that ongoing hair cell death stimulates supporting cell proliferation in the mature utricle.

Matsui, Jonathan I.; Ogilvie, Judith M.; Warchol, Mark E.

2002-01-01

363

Hair medulla morphology and mechanical properties.  

PubMed

The morphology of human hair was extensively discussed in the last century, except for hair medulla, mainly because it was believed to have little or no influence on any useful hair property. Early SEM results showed that medulla is formed by unorganized fibrilar material that could be macrofibrils randomly located in the fiber center. The present paper aims to correlate the fibrilar structures with the macrofibrils using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and to evaluate the influence of medulla on the mechanical properties of hair. TEM micrographs show that the interface between cortex and medulla is surrounded by a CMC layer and that there is less electronically dense material between cortical cells. Cortical cells in medulla give the usual microfibril crystalline arrangement. The cells become scarce and less organized in the center of the medulla, which also shows air filled granules. Average values of the mechanical properties are similar for unmedullated and medullated fibers. However higher dispersion in data for medullated fibers is observed. Unmedulated fibers are more uniform and show smaller diameters. These data indicate that the air cavities in medulla do not interfere with the mechanical properties, but leave hair strength less uniform. PMID:17728936

Wagner, Rita; Joekes, Inés

2007-01-01

364

40. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON THE MAIN POWER SHAFT/CAM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON THE MAIN POWER SHAFT/CAM LEVEL. THE STAMP BATTERIES ARE TOWARD THE LEFT OF THE IMAGE. NOTE THE CAMS THAT ARE USED TO LIFT AND RELEASE THE STAMPS. THE MAIN POWER SHAFT IS TOWARD THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE IMAGE. THE MAIN DRIVE WHEEL THAT IS CONNECTED TO THE POWER SOURCE IS THE LARGE WHEEL IN THE EXTREME BACKGROUND ALONG THE SHAFT. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

365

Numerical simulation on shaft lining stresses analysis of operating mine with seasonal temperature change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on monitored axial strain data of a double-layer shaft lining, space axial-symmetrical FEM model of the shaft lining was built by ABAQUS to simulate its strain and stress developing laws in 2 years (start at summer). The model considers 4 main kinds of external forces acting on shaft lining, i.e. its self-weight, horizontal ground pressure, vertical additional force, as

Zhou Jie; Zhou Guo-qing; Shang Xiang-yu; Li Ting

2009-01-01

366

Hall effect transducer gives electrical output proportional to meter shaft rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrical output transducer for measuring angular displacements does not introduce frictional contact between stationary and moving parts. It produces output voltages directly proportional to small rotary shaft displacements.

Smith, D.

1970-01-01

367

A fiber optic sensor for noncontact measurement of shaft speed, torque and power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fiber optic sensor which enables noncontact measurement of the speed, torque and power of a rotating shaft was fabricated and tested. The sensor provides a direct measurement of shaft rotational speed and shaft angular twist, from which torque and power can be determined. Angles of twist between 0.005 and 10 degrees were measured. Sensor resolution is limited by the sampling rate of the analog to digital converter, while accuracy is dependent on the spot size of the focused beam on the shaft. Increasing the sampling rate improves measurement resolution, and decreasing the focused spot size increases accuracy. Digital processing allows for enhancement of an electronically or optically degraded signal.

Madzsar, George C.

1990-01-01

368

A fiber optic sensor for noncontact measurement of shaft speed, torque, and power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber optic sensor which enables noncontact measurement of the speed, torque and power of a rotating shaft was fabricated and tested. The sensor provides a direct measurement of shaft rotational speed and shaft angular twist, from which torque and power can be determined. Angles of twist between 0.005 and 10 degrees were measured. Sensor resolution is limited by the sampling rate of the analog to digital converter, while accuracy is dependent on the spot size of the focused beam on the shaft. Increasing the sampling rate improves measurement resolution, and decreasing the focused spot size increases accuracy. Digital processing allows for enhancement of an electronically or optically degraded signal.

Madzsar, George C.

1990-03-01

369

A fiber optic sensor for noncontact measurement of shaft speed, torque and power  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber optic sensor which enables noncontact measurement of the speed, torque and power of a rotating shaft was fabricated and tested. The sensor provides a direct measurement of shaft rotational speed and shaft angular twist, from which torque and power can be determined. Angles of twist between 0.005 and 10 degrees were measured. Sensor resolution is limited by the sampling rate of the analog to digital converter, while accuracy is dependent on the spot size of the focused beam on the shaft. Increasing the sampling rate improves measurement resolution, and decreasing the focused spot size increases accuracy. Digital processing allows for enhancement of an electronically or optically degraded signal.

Madzsar, George C.

370

Digital holographic interferometry for simultaneous orthogonal radial vibration measurements along rotating shafts  

SciTech Connect

A digital holographic interferometry setup used to measure radial vibrations along a rotating shaft is presented. A continuous Nd:YAG laser and a high-speed digital camera are used for recording the holograms. The shaft was polished optically smooth to avoid speckle noise from the rotating surface. The light reflected from the shaft was directed onto a diffuser which in turn was imaged by the holographic system. Simultaneous measurements with a laser vibrometer were performed at one point and comparisons between the signals showed good agreement. It is shown that different vibration components of a rotating shaft can be simultaneously measured with this technique.

Tatar, Kourosh; Gren, Per; Lycksam, Henrik

2008-06-20

371

A fiber optic sensor for noncontact measurement of shaft speed, torque, and power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fiber optic sensor which enables noncontact measurement of the speed, torque and power of a rotating shaft was fabricated and tested. The sensor provides a direct measurement of shaft rotational speed and shaft angular twist, from which torque and power can be determined. Angles of twist between 0.005 and 10 degrees were measured. Sensor resolution is limited by the sampling rate of the analog to digital converter, while accuracy is dependent on the spot size of the focused beam on the shaft. Increasing the sampling rate improves measurement resolution, and decreasing the focused spot size increases accuracy. Digital processing allows for enhancement of an electronically or optically degraded signal.

Madzsar, George C.

1990-01-01

372

a Modified Approach Based on Influence Coefficient Method for Balancing Crank-Shafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional balancing machines utilize two-plane separation for the determination of equivalent imbalances. However, the imbalance masses of a crank-shaft cannot be corrected at arbitrary locations of the balancing planes. This study has presented a modified method for balancing crank-shafts by using the soft-pedestal machines. The modified influence coefficient method for asymmetrical rotor-bearing systems has been applied to balance crank-shafts. Also, the decomposition method for irremovable masses has been replaced by an iteration method based on an influence coefficient approach. Furthermore, the validity and accuracy of the modified approach are verified in balancing practical crank-shafts.

KANG, Y.; CHANG, Y.-P.; TSENG, M.-H.; TANG, P.-H.; CHANG, Y.-F.

2000-07-01

373

A computational approach for understanding adaptation in vertebrate hair cells  

E-print Network

Vertebrate hair cells respond to mechanical stimuli with an inward current that is carried by extracellular cations through mechanically-gated transmembrane ion channels called transduction channels, located in the hair ...

Niksch, Paul D

2012-01-01

374

Blue Eyes, Red Hair and Skin Cancer Risk  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... of the player. Blue Eyes, Red Hair and Skin Cancer Risk HealthDay November 20, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Children's Health Moles Skin Cancer Transcript Children with blue eyes or red hair ...

375

Trichoscopy for common hair loss diseases: algorithmic method for diagnosis.  

PubMed

In recent years, the usefulness of trichoscopy (scalp dermoscopy) has been reported for hair loss diseases. Here, characteristic trichoscopic features of common hair loss diseases are described using a DermLite II pro or Epilight eight. Characteristic trichoscopic features of alopecia areata are black dots, tapering hairs (exclamation mark hairs), broken hairs, yellow dots and short vellus hairs. In androgenetic alopecia (AGA), hair diameter diversity (HDD), perifollicular pigmentation/peripilar sign and yellow dots are trichoscopically observed. In all cases of AGA and female AGA, HDD more than 20%, which corresponds to vellus transformation, can be seen. In cicatricial alopecia (CA), the loss of orifices, a hallmark of CA, and the associated changes including perifollicular erythema or scale and hair tufting were observed. Finally, an algorithmic method for trichoscopic diagnosing is proposed. PMID:21175759

Inui, Shigeki

2011-01-01

376

Accidental neutron dosimetry with human hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human hair contains sulfur, which can be activated by fast neutrons. The 32S(n,p)32P reaction with a threshold of 2.5 MeV was used for fast neutron dose estimation. It is a very important parameter for individual dose reconstruction with regards to the heterogeneity of the neutron transfer to the human body. Samples of human hair were irradiated in a radial channel of a training reactor VR-1. 32P activity in hair was measured both, directly by means of a proportional counter, and as ash dispersed in a liquid scintillator. Based on neutron spectrum estimation, a relationship between the neutron dose and induced activity was derived. The experiment verified the practical feasibility of this dosimetry method in cases of criticality accidents or malevolent acts with nuclear materials.

Ekendahl, Daniela; Be?ková, V?ra; Zdychová, Vlasta; Bulánek, Boris; Prouza, Zden?k; Štefánik, Milan

2014-11-01

377

Red hair may increase melanoma risk  

Cancer.gov

A person’s skin pigment, which determines hair color and skin tone, is influenced by the melanocortin-1 (MC1R) gene receptor. For the population’s 1 to 2 percent of redheads, a mutation in MC1R accounts for their red hair color and typical light skin. Now researchers from Harvard Medical School (a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) have discovered that the same MC1R mutation responsible for the red-hair phenotype also promotes an important cancer-causing pathway. The new findings, reported online August 22 in the journal Molecular Cell, help to explain the molecular mechanisms that underlie redheads’ well-known risk of developing melanoma, providing new insights for treating and preventing this dangerous type of skin cancer.

378

The hair cycle and Vitamin D receptor.  

PubMed

The Vitamin D receptor (VDR) plays a critical role in epidermal homeostasis. The ligand-dependent actions of the VDR attenuate epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and promote keratinocyte differentiation. Calcium can compensate for the absence of the VDR in maintaining a normal program of epidermal keratinocyte differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, the effects of VDR ablation on the hair follicle cannot be prevented by maintaining normal calcium levels and are independent of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. These actions of the VDR are critical in the keratinocyte stem cell population that resides in the bulge region of the hair follicle. Absence of a functional VDR leads to a self-renewal and lineage progression defect in this population of stem cells, resulting in the absence of post-morphogenic hair cycles. The molecular partners and downstream target genes of the VDR in this unique population of cells have not yet been identified. PMID:22008469

Demay, Marie B

2012-07-01

379

Hair loss in autoimmune systemic diseases.  

PubMed

Hair loss is commonly seen in autoimmune diseases. In pemphigus, although scalp involvement is common, hair loss is rarely reported. In classical bullous pemphigoid, alopecia is not reported while it is described in the Brusting-Perry variant of bullous pemphigoid and in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. In these two diseases alopecia is cicatricial. In connective tissue diseases, in lupus erythematosus (LE) hair loss is frequent; in particular in LE there are two types of alopecia: non scarring and scarring alopecia. The non scarring form is a finding of acute systemic LE and the scarring form develops when a typical discoid lesion is located on the scalp. In dermatomyositis alopecia is usually non scarring and generalized. In scleroderma, alopecia is associated with en coupe de sabre morphea. PMID:24566567

Parodi, A; Cozzani, E

2014-02-01

380

The Mechanotransduction Machinery of Hair Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical force into an electrochemical signal, allows living organisms to detect touch, hear, register movement and gravity, and sense changes in cell volume and shape. Hair cells in the vertebrate inner ear are mechanoreceptor cells specialized for the detection of sound and head movement. Each hair cell contains, at the apical surface, rows of stereocilia that are connected by extracellular filaments to form an exquisitely organized bundle. Mechanotransduction channels, localized near the tips of the stereocilia, are gated by the gating spring, an elastic element that is stretched upon stereocilia deflection and mediates rapid channel opening. Components of the mechanotransduction machinery in hair cells have been identified and several are encoded by genes linked to deafness in humans, which indicates that defects in the mechanotransduction machinery are the underlying cause of some forms of hearing impairment.

Nicolas Grillet (La Jolla;Scripps Research Institute REV); Piotr Kazmierczak (La Jolla;Scripps Research Institute REV); Wei Xiong (La Jolla;Scripps Research Institute REV); Martin Schwander (La Jolla;Scripps Research Institute REV); Anna Reynolds (La Jolla;Scripps Research Institute REV); Hirofumi Sakaguchi (National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders;Laboratory of Cell Structure and Dynamics REV)

2009-08-25

381

De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Differential Gene Expression Profiling of Three Capra hircus Skin Types during Anagen of the Hair Growth Cycle  

PubMed Central

Despite that goat is one of the best nonmodel systems for villus growth studies and hair biology, limited gene resources associated with skin or hair follicles are available. In the present study, using Illumina/Solexa sequencing technology, we de novo assembled 130 million mRNA-Seq reads into a total of 49,115 contigs. Searching public databases revealed that about 45% of the total contigs can be annotated as known proteins, indicating that some of the assembled contigs may have previously uncharacterized functions. Functional classification by KOG and GO showed that activities associated with metabolism are predominant in goat skin during anagen phase. Many signaling pathways was also created based on the mapping of assembled contigs to the KEGG pathway database, some of which have been previously demonstrated to have diverse roles in hair follicle and hair shaft formation. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of three skin types identified ~6,300 transcript-derived contigs that are differentially expressed. These genes mainly enriched in the functional cluster associated with cell cycle and cell division. The large contig catalogue as well as the genes which were differentially expressed in different skin types provide valuable candidates for further characterization of gene functions. PMID:23762818

Guo, Xudong; Wang, Hui; Du, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Xiaoyu; Liu, Dongjun

2013-01-01

382

Influence of the cosmetic treatment of hair on drug testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important issue of concern for drug analysis in hair is the change in the drug concentration induced by the cosmetic treatment\\u000a of hair. The products used for this treatment are strong bases and they are expected to cause hair damage. As a result drugs\\u000a may be lost from the hair matrix or, under conditions of environmental contamination, be more

C. Jurado; P. Kintz; M. Menéndez; M. Repetto

1997-01-01

383

Helicoidal cell-wall texture in root hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that root hairs of most aquatic plants have a helicoidal cell-wall texture. Cell walls of root hairs of the aquatic\\/marshland plant Ranunculus lingua, however, have an axial microfibril alignment. The occurrence of a helicoidal wall texture is not limited to root hairs of aquatic plants: the terrestrial plant Zebrina purpusii has a helicoidal root-hair wall texture, too.

Anne Mie C. Emons; Niek Maaren

1987-01-01

384

Black hole hair in Lovelock gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to analyze black hole hair in the spherical symmetric sector of the Lovelock theory in arbitrary dimensions that is an alternative to solving the equations of motion in their complete form. We explicitly show that the method matches with the known black hole solutions for the vacuum and electro-vacuum spacetimes in Lovelock gravity theories. We further apply the method to the case of minimally coupled non-self-interacting massless scalar field and prove that there is no (non-self-interacting) massless scalar hair for the spherically symmetric Lovelock black holes.

Skákala, Jozef; Shankaranarayanan, S.

2014-05-01

385

Complications in hair-restoration surgery.  

PubMed

Most complications associated with hair restoration are completely preventable and arise from variables that are directly controlled by the surgeon and the patient. Physicians who thoroughly grasp the nuances of modern surgical techniques and fully understand the physiologic dynamics of the balding process are least likely to generate a physician-controlled error. Highly motivated, well-educated patients who carefully follow instructions and take an active role in the postoperative recovery process minimize the chance of patient-controlled errors. This article discusses potential complications associated with surgical hair restoration, and the roles of the patient and physician in minimizing the risk of complications. PMID:24017992

Konior, Raymond J

2013-08-01

386

Unilateral straight hair and congenital horner syndrome.  

PubMed

Congenital Horner syndrome is a rare disorder that accounts for less than 5% of all cases of Horner syndrome. Like Horner syndrome in general, it consists primarily of ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis. Congenital Horner syndrome may manifest some special features such as iris heterochromia since the sympathetic nervous system is an essential component for the development and maintenance of eye color. We present 3 cases of unilateral straight hair in association with congenital Horner syndrome in which the patients had straight hair ipsilateral to the Horner syndrome, whereas on the contralateral side, it was curly, and we discuss possible mechanisms for this phenomenon. PMID:22622362

Wang, Frederick M; Wertenbaker, Christian; Cho, Hyung; Marmor, Maury A; Ahn-Lee, Sandra S; Bernard, Bruno A

2012-06-01

387

Hair Digestion by a Keratinase of Trichophyton Mentagbophytes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracellular keratinase of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. granulosum readily digests unautoclaved white guinea pig hair. Incubation with the enzyme for only three hours results in the release of 10.3% of the hair protein into the reaction fluid. Incubation with the keratinase removes the medulla of the hair and results in the appearance of many fissures in the cortex. The keratinase

Ruey J Yu; S R Harmon; F Blank

1969-01-01

388

Modeling Hair Influenced by Water and Styling Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present novel methods for capturing the key characteristics of hair influenced by water and styling products. Our approach includes a dynamics system that adaptively accounts for changing stiffness and weight of the hair, a ge- ometric representation that can alter the physi- cal depiction of hair based on the substance(s) present on it, and a rendering approach to ac-

Kelly Ward; Nico Galoppo; Ming C. Lin

2004-01-01

389

Attitudes toward Women's Body Hair: Relationship with Disgust Sensitivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We aimed to further investigate the "hairlessness" norm that is the common practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 198 undergraduate students (91 men, 107 women) completed questionnaires asking about attitudes toward women's body hair and the reasons women remove this hair, as well as a measure of disgust sensitivity. It was found…

Tiggemann, Marika; Lewis, Christine

2004-01-01

390

Temporal, Spatial, and Morphologic Features of Hair Cell Regeneration in  

E-print Network

Temporal, Spatial, and Morphologic Features of Hair Cell Regeneration in the Avian Basilar Papilla regeneration in chicks after a single gentamicin injection. New hair cells are first identifiable days after gentamicin, in the base, and the emergence and maturation of regenerating hair cells spreads

Rubel, Edwin

391

Clinical comparison of four hair removal lasers and light sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective: There are few clinical studies directly comparing the efficacy of multiple hair removal systems in the same individual. This study evaluates the efficacy of four highly popular systems for laser hair removal. Methods: In this prospective comparison study, 10 subjects underwent treatment of unwanted hair on the back or thigh. Subjects were skin types I-III, aged 18-55

Snehal P. Amin; David J. Goldberg

2006-01-01

392

Simulation-Based Cartoon Hair Animation Eiji Sugisaki  

E-print Network

impressive, hair simulation for cartoon animation is a challenging task because the human eyes discern images ABSTRACT This paper describes a new hybrid technique for cartoon hair animation, one that allowsSimulation-Based Cartoon Hair Animation Eiji Sugisaki Waseda University 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku

Yu, Yizhou

393

New source of evidence: explosive traces in hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the sorption of explosives [TNT, RDX, PETN, TATP] to hair during exposure to their vapors. In each test, three colors of hair were simultaneously exposed to explosive vapor. Washing, extracting, and gas chromatographic quantification protocols were developed, and replication of quantitative data was confirmed. Results show that sorption of explosives, via vapor diffusion, to black hair is

Jimmie C. Oxley; James L. Smith; Louis Kirschenbaum; Kajal P. Shinde; Suvarnakishore Marimganti

2004-01-01

394

In Vitro Contamination of Hair by Marijuana Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The deposition of cannabinoids on\\/into hair from environmental smoke can be considered as a potential source of drug findings in hair. We studied external uptake of cannabinoids from marijuana smoke, investigating possible influencing factors on drug up- take and the efficiency of decontamination procedures. Methods: Strands of a natural hair sample were moist- ened with water, greased with sebum

Jana Thorspecken; Gisela Skopp; Lucia Potsch

395

Analysis of hair by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

as sulfate-containing surfactants. A primary reaction in the weathering of human hair involves degradation of disulfide sulfur, and ultraviolet radiation is a principal cause of this degradation. This reaction occurs primarily at or near the hair surface and appears to involve degradation of cystine residues via the C-S fission mechanism. Chemical bleaching of disulfide in hair by alkaline hydrogen peroxide

C. R. ROBBINS; M. K. BAHL

396

Root hairs confer a competitive advantage under low phosphorus availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root hairs are presumably important in the acquisition of immobile soil resources such as phosphorus. The density and length of root hairs vary substantially within and between species, and are highly regulated by soil phosphorus availability, which suggests that at high nutrient availability, root hairs may have a neutral or negative impact on fitness. We used a root-hairless mutant of

Terence R. Bates; Jonathan P. Lynch

2001-01-01

397

Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection  

E-print Network

degeneration and to regenerate new hair cells, replacing those that are lost due to aging, disease information for hearing and balance, respectively, to the brain. The mechanosensory hair cells of the innerChemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection in the Zebrafish Lateral Line

Rubel, Edwin

398

New methods of developing sensors for hair hygrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration is given to the linearization of length change of hygrometer hair through the use of an inductive displacement transducer and by applying new hair hygrometric sensors with analog output of the voltage. The measuring technology is reviewed with regard to function, construction, calibration, and scaling. In conclusion it is shown that the hygrometer hairs developed are sufficient for measuring

A. Lang

1979-01-01

399

Aqueous Extract of Red Deer Antler Promotes Hair Growth by Regulating the Hair Cycle and Cell Proliferation in Hair Follicles  

PubMed Central

Deer antlers are the only mammalian appendage capable of regeneration. We aimed to investigate the effect of red deer antler extract in regulating hair growth, using a mouse model. The backs of male mice were shaved at eight weeks of age. Crude aqueous extracts of deer antler were prepared at either 4°C or 100°C and injected subcutaneously to two separate groups of mice (n = 9) at 1?mL/day for 10 consecutive days, with water as a vehicle control group. The mice skin quantitative hair growth parameters were measured and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine was used to identify label-retaining cells. We found that, in both the 4°C and the 100°C deer antler aqueous extract-injection groups, the anagen phase was extended, while the number of BrdU-incorporated cells was dramatically increased. These results indicate that deer antler aqueous extract promotes hair growth by extending the anagen phase and regulating cell proliferation in the hair follicle region. PMID:24695964

Li, Jing-jie; Li, Zheng; Gu, Li-juan; Wang, Yun-bo; Lee, Mi-ra; Sung, Chang-keun

2014-01-01

400

Organic components in hair-ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for the analysis of complex samples due to its outstanding mass resolution (used 400.000 at m/z 400 Da) and mass accuracy (? 1 ppm), simultaneously providing molecular level details of thousands of compounds. The characteristics of the FTICR-MS hair-ice spectra with as many as ten or more peaks at each nominal mass are discussed together with highly resolved spectra from water and soil samples different sources, respectively. Complete manual formula assignment for structure elucidation would be extremely time consuming, therefore, we used an automated post processing based on SciLab for exploitation of the data with the aim of an unambiguous assignment of as many peaks as possible. Once the formulae had been assigned, the obtained mass lists were first checked randomly and afterwards transformed into Excel format for further post-processing and description. Most important is the van Krevelen diagram, usually two-dimensional as atomic ratio H/C versus atomic ratio O/C, widely used to classify samples regarding polarity and aromaticity. By comparison with two references (Hockaday 2007, Sleighter 2007), which arranged various biopolymer substance classes in such Van Krevelen plots, lignin could be detected as the main hair-ice component.

Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

2013-04-01

401

Feasibility of rat hair as a quality control material for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quality control material (QCM) is a necessity in hair drug analysis, but it is not always easy to have an authentic hair\\u000a sample containing various target drugs and metabolites. In the present study, the feasibility of rat hair as a QCM was examined\\u000a for its application in the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AP) in human hair. MA

Sooyeun Lee; Jihyun Kim; Hwakyung Choi; Heesun Chung; Seung Min Oh; Kyu Hyuck Chung

2011-01-01

402

Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program  

SciTech Connect

Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991.

Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.; Hoag, D.L.; Ball, J.R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baird, G.T.; Jones, R.L. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-07-01

403

An approach to cleaner production: from hair burning to hair saving using a lime-free unhairing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the methods to decrease the pollution of tanneries' wastewater is hair saving unhairing of hides. An investigation of proteolytic activity of enzymatic preparation (EP) has shown that some EPs have high stability in strong alkaline solutions and can be used for the hair saving process.Based on this investigation, a new hair saving unhairing method using a system containing

Virgilijus Valeika; K?stutis Beleška; Violeta Valeikien?; Vytautas Kolodzeiskis

2009-01-01

404

Radioimmunoassay of drugs of abuse in hair Part 2: The determination of methadone in the hair of known drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication addresses the analytical problems associated with the analysis of hair specimens from known users and misusers of the synthetic opioid methadone. An adapted radioimmunoassay and a previously developed preanalytical decontamination procedure have been applied to samples from known drug users. The removal of drugs from the hair surface by washing and the effect of proprietary hair treatments on

A. Marsh; M. B. Evans; J. Strang

1995-01-01

405

Distribution of Two Basement Membrane Proteoglycans Through Hair Follicle Development and the Hair Growth Cycle in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction of embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin

John R. Couchman; Jeffrey L. King; Kevin J. McCarthy

1990-01-01

406

Compensation for encoder geometry and shaft speed variation in time interval torsional vibration measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital time interval techniques for the measurement of torsional vibrations in rotating shafts have been used in a variety of applications. The techniques use high-speed timers to detect the passage times (often referred to as “zero crossings”) in a carrier signal from a multiple pulse per revolution encoder on the shaft. Next, a reference array is created by computing the

Brian R. Resor; Martin W. Trethewey; Kenneth P. Maynard

2005-01-01

407

1. AIR/MANWAY SHAFT WALL AND FAN HOUSE FOUNDATION WALL FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. AIR/MANWAY SHAFT WALL AND FAN HOUSE FOUNDATION WALL FROM NORTHWEST. AEROVANE FAN AT UPPER LEFT, SCAFFOLD AND LEPLEY VENTILATOR AT UPPER RIGHT. - Consolidation Coal Company Mine No. 11, Air-Manway Shaft, East side of State Route 936, Midlothian, Allegany County, MD

408

Support of a vertical-shaft collar under complex geocryological conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory documents on the design and calculation of bracing for vertical shafts in the collar section, and also foundations for their superstructures are devoid of sections accounting for the specific operating characteristics of such structures placed in permanently frozen rock. The greatest clanger is heavily iced frozen deposits prevailing at a great depth, as are the sites of vertical shafts

V. Yu. Izakson; A. V. Samokhin; V. I. Sleptsov

1994-01-01

409

Exploratory Shaft Seismic Design Basis Working Group report; Yucca Mountain Project  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), which is managed by the US Department of Energy. The participants in the YMP are investigating the suitability of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste. An exploratory shaft facility (ESF) will be constructed to permit site characterization. The major components of the ESF are two shafts that will be used to provide access to the underground test areas for men, utilities, and ventilation. If a repository is constructed at the site, the exploratory shafts will be converted for use as intake ventilation shafts. In the context of both underground nuclear explosions (conducted at the nearby Nevada Test Site) and earthquakes, the report contains discussions of faulting potential at the site, control motions at depth, material properties of the different rock layers relevant to seismic design, the strain tensor for each of the waveforms along the shaft liners, and the method for combining the different strain components along the shaft liners. The report also describes analytic methods, assumptions used to ensure conservatism, and uncertainties in the data. The analyses show that none of the shafts` structures, systems, or components are important to public radiological safety; therefore, the shafts need only be designed to ensure worker safety, and the report recommends seismic design parameters appropriate for this purpose. 31 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Subramanian, C.V. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA); King, J.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA); Perkins, D.M. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA); Mudd, R.W. [Fenix and Scisson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (USA); Richardson, A.M. [Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade and Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA); Calovini, J.C. [Holmes and Narver, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA); Van Eeckhout, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Emerson, D.O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)

1990-08-01

410

Shaft currents in electric machines fed by solid-state drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses the generation of shaft voltages and currents in electric rotating machinery. Those mechanisms of shaft voltage generation that are susceptible to being intensified by solid-state drives are identified. Harmonic generation by solid-state drives is reviewed and categorized for its severity for the most commonly used types of circuit topologies and commutation techniques. Both elements are integrated to

Isidor Kerszenbaum

1992-01-01

411

Optimal design of the press fit joint for a hybrid aluminum\\/composite drive shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a one-piece hybrid drive shaft composed of aluminum and carbon\\/epoxy composite was designed for a rear wheel drive automobile. The aluminum yoke was joined to the hybrid shaft by the press fit joining method using a steel ring which has many small teeth to increase reliability and to reduce manufacturing cost. To obtain high strength of the

Hak Sung Kim; Dai Gil Lee

2005-01-01

412

Children's Preferences for Clothing and Hair Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes (1) the development and reliability and validity evaluation of the Person Preference Test; and (2) the utilization of the instrument to determine whether clothing style, hair style, global appearance, and part-whole perception influence children's preference for persons represented by stimulus figures. (SDH)

Haley, Elizabeth G.; Hendrickson, Norejane J.

1974-01-01

413

Children's Preferences for Clothing and Hair Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research two forms of the Person Preference Test were developed, an individual and a group form. The test consists of stimulus figures in 4-part sets representing 8-year-old girls. Sixteen stimulus figures were selected by child development and clothing specialists to represent four distinct types of clothing and hair styles that might be worn by second grade girls. As

Elizabeth G. Haley; Norejane J. Hendrickson

1974-01-01

414

Hair Element Content in Learning Disabled Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hair samples from 31 learning disabled and 22 normal children were analyzed. Significant group differences were determined and a discriminant function was computed which separated the groups with 98 percent accuracy. Elevated lead and cadmium content in the learning disabled group is viewed as being of particular importance. (Author/SL)

Pihl, R. O.; Parkes, M.

1977-01-01

415

Black holes cannot support conformal scalar hair  

E-print Network

It is shown that the only static asymptotically flat non-extrema black hole solution of the Einstein-conformally invariant scalar field equations having the scalar field bounded on the horizon, is the Schwarzschild one. Thus black holes cannot be endowed with conformal scalar hair of finite length.

T. Zannias

1994-09-14

416

Endovascular Treatment of AVF after Hair Transplantation  

SciTech Connect

Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the scalp is a very rare complication of hair transplantation. Only 9 cases have been reported in nearly half a century. The diagnosis is clinical but angiography is necessary for defining the angioarchitecture of the lesion. Due to technical developments, endovascular embolization has become the primary treatment for AVF of the scalp.

Dogan, Sozen; Cinar, Celal; Demirpolat, Gulen; Memis, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmemis@yahoo.co [Ege University, Department of Radiology (Turkey)

2008-07-15

417

Mutations in Protocadherin 15 and Cadherin 23 Affect Tip Links and Mechanotransduction in Mammalian Sensory Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Immunocytochemical studies have shown that protocadherin-15 (PCDH15) and cadherin-23 (CDH23) are associated with tip links, structures thought to gate the mechanotransducer channels of hair cells in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. The present report describes functional and structural analyses of hair cells from Pcdh15av3J (av3J), Pcdh15av6J (av6J) and Cdh23v2J (v2J) mice. The av3J and v2J mice carry point mutations that are predicted to introduce premature stop codons in the transcripts for Pcdh15 and Cdh23, respectively, and av6J mice have an in-frame deletion predicted to remove most of the 9th cadherin ectodomain from PCDH15. Severe disruption of hair-bundle morphology is observed throughout the early-postnatal cochlea in av3J/av3J and v2J/v2J mice. In contrast, only mild-to-moderate bundle disruption is evident in the av6J/av6J mice. Hair cells from av3J/av3J mice are unaffected by aminoglycosides and fail to load with [3H]-gentamicin or FM1-43, compounds that permeate the hair cell's mechanotransducer channels. In contrast, hair cells from av6J/av6J mice load with both FM1-43 and [3H]-gentamicin, and are aminoglycoside sensitive. Transducer currents can be recorded from hair cells of all three mutants but are reduced in amplitude in all mutants and have abnormal directional sensitivity in the av3J/av3J and v2J/v2J mutants. Scanning electron microscopy of early postnatal cochlear hair cells reveals tip-link like links in av6J/av6J mice, substantially reduced numbers of links in the av3J/av3J mice and virtually none in the v2J/v2J mice. Analysis of mature vestibular hair bundles reveals an absence of tip links in the av3J/av3J and v2J/v2J mice and a reduction in av6J/av6J mice. These results therefore provide genetic evidence consistent with PCDH15 and CDH23 being part of the tip-link complex and necessary for normal mechanotransduction. PMID:21532990

Alagramam, Kumar N.; Goodyear, Richard J.; Geng, Ruishuang; Furness, David N.; van Aken, Alexander F. J.; Marcotti, Walter; Kros, Corne J.; Richardson, Guy P.

2011-01-01

418

A survey on hair modeling: styling, simulation, and rendering.  

PubMed

Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans in computer graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make it appropriate for particular applications. We discuss each of these major topics in turn, presenting the unique challenges facing each area and describing solutions that have been presented over the years to handle these complex issues. Finally, we outline some of the remaining computational challenges in hair modeling. PMID:17218740

Ward, Kelly; Bertails, Florence; Kim, Tae-Yong; Marschner, Stephen R; Cani, Marie-Paule; Lin, Ming C

2007-01-01

419

Femoral shaft fractures in adults: treatment options and controversies.  

PubMed

Antegrade reamed femoral nailing via the piriformis entry point is the technique of choice in treating femoral shaft fractures, with retrograde nailing as an alternative. The supine position is favored to reduce complications, especially rotational malalignment. With navigation and robotic assistance fracture reduction can be supported and the rate of rotational, axis and length malalignement can potentially further reduced. Careful reaming is the procedure of choice to optimize bony healing and reduce systemic and local complications. In multiply injured patients reamed nailing can be safely integrated in the DCO- or ETC-concept and can be performed in the majority of patients, even when additional severe chest and head injuries are present. Initial resuscitation should focus on general stabilization before definitive femur fixation. Plate osteosynthesis of the femur can be an option in selected patients. PMID:25105784

Gänsslen, A; Gösling, T; Hildebrand, F; Pape, H C; Oestern, H J

2014-01-01

420

[Osteoid osteoma after an old femoral shaft fracture].  

PubMed

An osteoid osteoma was discovered at the site of fusion of a mid-third femoral shaft fracture in an 18-year-old girl. This unusual localization was revealed by persistent pain after ablation of the material after fracture healing. Postoperatively, a discharge from the skin wound that persisted for a few days, raised the differential diagnosis between low-grade bone infection and an osteoid osteoma suggested by the patient's age and the clinical presentation. Computed tomography and leukocyte-labeled bone scintigraphy provided the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma that was confirmed at pathology examination after resection. Isotopic mapping of this very small intraosseous lesion that exhibited strong isotope uptake was particularly contributive. PMID:11547238

Grenard, N; Duparc, F; Roussignol, X; Chomant, J; Muller, J M; Dujardin, F; Biga, N

2001-09-01

421

On dynamic loads in parallel shaft transmissions. 2: Parameter study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solutions to the governing equations of a spur gear transmission model, developed in NASA TM-100180 (AVSCOM TM-87-C-2), are presented. Factors affecting the dynamic load are identified. It is found that the dynamic load increases with operating speed up to a system natural frequency. At operating speeds beyond the natural frequency the dynamic load decreases dramatically. Also. it is found that the applied load and shaft inertia have little effect on the dynamic load. Damping and friction decrease the dynamic load. Finally, tooth stiffness has a significant effect on dynamic loading; the higher the stiffness, the lower the dynamic loading. Also, the higher the stiffness the higher the rotating speed required for dynamic response.

Lin, Edward Hsiang-Hsi; Huston, Ronald L.; Coy, John J.

1987-01-01

422

Pityriasis versicolor on penile shaft in a renal transplant recipient.  

PubMed

Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area. PMID:22879720

Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We; Lee, Kyu-Suk

2012-08-01

423

Pityriasis Versicolor on Penile Shaft in a Renal Transplant Recipient  

PubMed Central

Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area. PMID:22879720

Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We

2012-01-01

424

Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

Davies, Christopher S.

1988-07-01

425

A history of metal shaft/portal closures in Utah  

SciTech Connect

Over the last twelve years the Utah Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program has utilized metal shaft and portal closures when physical constraints required an alternative method of closure to backfill or masonry seals. Eight types of metal closures have been installed with varying degrees of success. Relative advantages/disadvantages of these closures are discussed. The eight closure types are (1) A-frame {open_quotes}bird cages{close_quotes}, (2) large diameter cyclone fence-type grid, (3) bar grates, (4) rebar grates, (5) cable nets, (6) steel doors, (7) angle iron bat grates, and (8) {open_quotes}jail bar{close_quotes} steel bat grates. The primary application of the fabricated metal closures has been in non-coal mines. Only the angle iron bat grate has been installed in abandoned coal mines to date. Bird cages placed in avalanche zones failed and the shafts were later backfilled. Large cyclone fence-type grids were placed in the Wasatch and Tintic mountains in 1985. Rebar grates have been used in the Wasatch and Tintic mountains as an alternative to backfill. Bar grating was used in the Tintic mountains when the aesthetics of an historical headframe dictated a less visible closure. Cable nets have been installed in Canyonlands National Park utilizing a design pioneered in Death Valley National Monument. Steel doors have been utilized where the landowner requests access or a need to access the adit exists. Two types of bat grates have been utilized in both coal and non-coal mines where sensitive or endangered bat species have been identified. The bird cage design has not been as effective as the others. Indications are the rebar grates, angle iron bar grates, and steel doors excel in giving long term protection to the public, with the second generation bat grate giving the maximum protection to the public.

Amodt, L.A. [Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

1996-12-31

426

Systemic abnormalities in liver disease  

PubMed Central

Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

2009-01-01

427

TMI abnormal waste project plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses plans for the TMI Abnormal Waste Project, which is part of the EPICOR and Waste Research and Disposition Program and funded by the US Department of Energy. The sequence proposed for disposition of Three Mile Island (TMI) abnormal wastes includes: (a) packaging at TMI, (b) shipment to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), (c) storage at INEL

Ayers; A. L. Jr

1984-01-01

428

Students' reactions to abnormal psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of some concern about the effect of courses in abnormal psychology on students, a questionnaire was presented to several classes at the close of the course. The majority answering the questionnaire felt the course to be beneficial, giving evidence that the study of abnormal psychology need not be generally harmful, and may have a significant place in

W. S. Taylor

1932-01-01

429

abnormalities in infants and toddlers  

E-print Network

, Akshoomoff 2000). Similarly, patients with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) have decreased cerebellar volumesCerebellar abnormalities in infants and toddlers with Williams syndrome Wendy Jones* PhD, The Salk-mail: jones@crl.ucsd.edu One commonly observed neuroanatomical abnormality in adults with Williams syndrome

Bellugi, Ursula

430

The evolution of root hairs and rhizoids  

PubMed Central

Background Almost all land plants develop tip-growing filamentous cells at the interface between the plant and substrate (the soil). Root hairs form on the surface of roots of sporophytes (the multicellular diploid phase of the life cycle) in vascular plants. Rhizoids develop on the free-living gametophytes of vascular and non-vascular plants and on both gametophytes and sporophytes of the extinct rhyniophytes. Extant lycophytes (clubmosses and quillworts) and monilophytes (ferns and horsetails) develop both free-living gametophytes and free-living sporophytes. These gametophytes and sporophytes grow in close contact with the soil and develop rhizoids and root hairs, respectively. Scope Here we review the development and function of rhizoids and root hairs in extant groups of land plants. Root hairs are important for the uptake of nutrients with limited mobility in the soil such as phosphate. Rhizoids have a variety of functions including water transport and adhesion to surfaces in some mosses and liverworts. Conclusions A similar gene regulatory network controls the development of rhizoids in moss gametophytes and root hairs on the roots of vascular plant sporophytes. It is likely that this gene regulatory network first operated in the gametophyte of the earliest land plants. We propose that later it functioned in sporophytes as the diploid phase evolved a free-living habit and developed an interface with the soil. This transference of gene function from gametophyte to sporophyte could provide a mechanism that, at least in part, explains the increase in morphological diversity of sporophytes that occurred during the radiation of land plants in the Devonian Period. PMID:22730024

Jones, Victor A.S.; Dolan, Liam

2012-01-01

431

Stiffness of hair bundles in the chick cochlea.  

PubMed

The stiffness of hair bundles from isolated chick cochlear hair cells was measured in tissue culture medium. A water jet was used to deflect fiberglass fibers, quartz fibers, and hair bundles of isolated hair cells. A voltage-displacement curve was generated for a water jet ramp stimulus applied to miniature fiberglass and quartz fibers. Fiber displacements were measured using video image subtraction techniques. A force-voltage calibration curve was then derived for the fibers by modelling them as cantilever beams subjected to point forces at the tips. A voltage-displacement curve was then generated for isolated hair cell stereociliary bundles using the same procedure as for the fibers. A corresponding force-displacement curve was derived for isolated hair cells under water jet stimulation by correlating maximum ramp voltage from the hair cell's voltage-displacement curve to a corresponding force applied to a fiber from the fiberglass fiber calibration curve. The stiffness of the hair bundle, which is the slope of the hair cell's force-displacement curve, was then calculated using Hooke's law, assuming the force was distributed along the entire length of the hair bundle. The mean stiffness value was 5.04 +/- 2.68 x 10(-4) N/m for 14 hair cells, and was in close agreement with previously reported stiffness values of several investigators utilizing different animal models and procedures. PMID:1618714

Szymko, Y M; Dimitri, P S; Saunders, J C

1992-05-01

432

Coarctation of the aorta in Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair.  

PubMed

Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS/LAH; OMIM 607721) due to a missense mutation c.4A>G in SHOC2 predicting p.Ser2Gly has been described recently. This condition is characterized by facial features similar to Noonan syndrome, reduced growth, cardiac defects, and typical abnormal hair. We report on a patient with molecularly confirmed NS/LAH with coarctation of the aorta. The girl was precipitously born at 37 weeks of gestation at home and required a 3-min resuscitation. Increased nuchal translucency and aortic coarctation with a small ventricular septal defect were described prenatally, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was detected postnatally. The patient presented with facial dysmorphism typical of NS with redundant skin over the nape and on the back. Short stature, relative macrocephaly, failure-to-thrive together with dystrophic appearance, developmental delay mainly in motor milestones and very thin, sparse, slow-growing hair occurred a few weeks after birth. Endocrine evaluation revealed low IGF-1 levels and borderline growth hormone deficiency. Growth hormone therapy started at 16 months had a partial effect and prevented further growth deterioration. Coarctation of the aorta is not a typical heart defect among individuals with NS/LAH, therefore our observation extends the phenotypic spectrum of this disorder. PMID:24458596

Zmolikova, Michaela; Puchmajerova, Alena; Hecht, Petr; Lebl, Jan; Trkova, Marie; Krepelova, Anna

2014-05-01

433

Interaction between arthropod filiform hairs in a fluid enviroment  

PubMed Central

Many arthropods use filiform hairs as mechanoreceptors to detect air motion. In common house crickets (Acheta domestica) the hairs cover two antenna-like appendages called cerci at the rear of the abdomen. The biomechanical stimulus-response properties of individual filiform hairs have been investigated and modeled extensively in several earlier studies. However, only a few previous studies have considered viscosity-mediated coupling between pairs of hairs, and only in particular configurations. Here we present a model capable of calculating hair-to-hair coupling in arbitrary configurations. We simulate the coupled motion of a small group of mechanosensory hairs on a cylindrical section of cercus. We have found that the coupling effects are non-negligible, and likely constrain the operational characteristics of the cercal sensory array. PMID:17434184

Cummins, Bree; Gedeon, Tomas; Klapper, Isaac; Cortez, Ricardo

2009-01-01

434

Amplitude death of coupled hair bundles with stochastic channel noise  

E-print Network

Hair cells conduct auditory transduction in vertebrates. In lower vertebrates such as frogs and turtles, due to the active mechanism in hair cells, hair bundles(stereocilia) can be spontaneously oscillating or quiescent. Recently, the amplitude death phenomenon has been proposed [K.-H. Ahn, J. R. Soc. Interface, {\\bf 10}, 20130525 (2013)] as a mechanism for auditory transduction in frog hair-cell bundles, where sudden cessation of the oscillations arises due to the coupling between non-identical hair bundles. The gating of the ion channel is intrinsically stochastic due to the stochastic nature of the configuration change of the channel. The strength of the noise due to the channel gating can be comparable to the thermal Brownian noise of hair bundles. Thus, we perform stochastic simulations of the elastically coupled hair bundles. In spite of stray noisy fluctuations due to its stochastic dynamics, our simulation shows the transition from collective oscillation to amplitude death as inter-bundle coupling str...

Kim, Kyung-Joong

2014-01-01

435

Hair Regrowth and Increased Hair Tensile Strength Using the HairMax LaserComb for Low-Level Laser Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors wished to confirm the efficacy of low level laser therapy (LLLT) using a Hair- Max LaserComb for the stimulation of hair growth and also to determine what effect LLLT with this device had on the tensile strength of hair. Thirty-five patients, 28 males and 7 fe- males, with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) underwent treatment for a six-month period. Both

John L. Satino; Michael Markou

2003-01-01

436

Overview of raise boring and blind shaft drilling with practical applications and particular reference to design limits for accuracy  

SciTech Connect

The current excavation technology of raise boring and blind shaft drilling operations is reviewed. Examples are presented of recent applications of both downhole boring machines and surface-mounted rotary shaft drilling equipment, with comparisons made of operational characteristics, shaft sizes, and accuracy limits of each system. Raise-boring and box-drilling machines are described and current operating practices of these systems are reviewed. The increased interest in slant hole or inclined shaft construction is noted, and techniques and equipment for these special shafts are presented. Practical accuracy limits are discussed for each shaft drilling technique and trade-offs between accuracy, drilling rates, and shaft utilization factors are noted. Finally, the current status of ongoing research and development efforts will be described, and some predictions made regarding worthwhile improvement trends in shaft construction methods.

Neudecker, J.W. Jr.

1984-04-18

437

Gene miles-apart is required for formation of otic vesicle and hair cells in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss is a serious burden to physical and mental health worldwide. Aberrant development and damage of hearing organs are recognized as the causes of hearing loss, the molecular mechanisms underlining these pathological processes remain elusive. Investigation of new molecular mechanisms involved in proliferation, differentiation, migration and maintenance of neuromast primordium and hair cells will contribute to better understanding of hearing loss pathology. This knowledge will enable the development of protective agents and mechanism study of drug ototoxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that the zebrafish gene miles-apart, a homolog of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (s1pr2) in mammals, has an important role in the development of otic vesicle, neuromasts and survival of hair cells. Whole-mount in situ hybridization of embryos showed that miles-apart expression occurred mainly in the encephalic region and the somites at 24?h.p.f. (hour post fertilization), in the midbrain/hindbrain boundary, the brainstem and the pre-neuromast of lateral line at 48?h.p.f. in a strict spatiotemporal regulation. Both up- and downregulation of miles-apart led to abnormal otoliths and semicircular canals, excess or few hair cells and neuromasts, and their disarranged depositions in the lateral lines. Miles-apart (Mil) dysregulation also caused abnormal expression of hearing-associated genes, including hmx2, fgf3, fgf8a, foxi1, otop1, pax2.1 and tmieb during zebrafish organogenesis. Moreover, in larvae miles-apart gene knockdown significantly upregulated proapoptotic gene zBax2 and downregulated prosurvival gene zMcl1b; in contrast, the level of zBax2 was decreased and of zMcl1b enhanced by miles-apart overexpression. Collectively, Mil activity is linked to organization and number decision of hair cells within a neuromast, also to deposition of neuromasts and formation of otic vesicle during zebrafish organogenesis. At the larva stage, Mil as an upstream regulator of bcl-2 gene family has a role in protection of hair cells against apoptosis by promoting expression of prosurvival gene zMcl1b and suppressing proapoptotic gene zBax2. PMID:24176858

Hu, Z-y; Zhang, Q-y; Qin, W; Tong, J-w; Zhao, Q; Han, Y; Meng, J; Zhang, J-p

2013-01-01

438

Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption.  

PubMed

Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest concentration was 0.003% in a hair wax. From experiments with separated hair samples of alcoholics as well as from the evaluation of the FAEE concentrations and the data about hair care of 75 volunteers (alcoholics, social drinkers and teetotalers) follows that usual shampooing, permanent wave, dyeing, bleaching or shading are of minor importance as compared to the drinking amount and other individual features. However, false positive results were found after daily treatment with a hair lotion containing 62.5% ethanol, with a deodorant and with a hair spray. As an explanation, it is assumed that FAEE are formed in the sebum glands also after regular topical application of products with a higher ethanol content. PMID:12590045

Hartwig, Sven; Auwärter, Volker; Pragst, Fritz

2003-01-28

439

Parathyroid hormone-related peptide and the hair cycle - is it the agonists or the antagonists that cause hair growth?  

PubMed

While the effects of PTHrP have been studied for almost 20 years, most of these studies have focused on effects on the termination of the anagen phase, giving an incomplete picture of the overall effect of PTHrP on the hair cycle. PTHrP was determined in several experimental models to promote transition of hair follicles from anagen to catagen phase, which by itself would suggest that PTHrP blockade might prolong the anagen phase and promote hair growth. However, clinical trials with topically applied PTHrP antagonists have been disappointing, leading to a reconsideration of this model. Additional studies performed in mouse models where hair follicles are damaged (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia) suggest that PTHrP has effects early in the hair cycle as well, promoting hair follicles' entry into anagen phase and initiates the hair cycle. While the mechanism of this has yet to be elucidated, it may involve activation of the Wnt pathway. Thus, the overall effect of PTHrP is to stimulate and accelerate the hair cycle, and in the more clinically relevant models of hair loss where hair follicles have been damaged or become quiescent, it is the agonists, not the antagonists, which would be expected to promote hair growth. PMID:25041375

Gensure, Robert C

2014-12-01

440

Vibration and stability of a cracked shaft simultaneously subjected to a follower force with an axial force  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is presented for the vibration and stability of a non-uniform shaft with a crack by use of the transfer matrix approach. The shaft is simultaneously subjected to a tangential follower force, which is distributed over the center line, with an axial force. For this purpose, the governing equations of the shaft are written as a coupled set of

I. Takahashi

1998-01-01

441

Epidermal expression of the truncated prelamin A causing Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: effects on keratinocytes, hair and skin  

PubMed Central

Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is an accelerated aging disorder caused by point mutation in LMNA encoding A-type nuclear lamins. The mutations in LMNA activate a cryptic splice donor site, resulting in expression of a truncated, prenylated prelamin A called progerin. Expression of progerin leads to alterations in nuclear morphology, which may underlie pathology in HGPS. We generated transgenic mice expressing progerin in epidermis under control of a keratin 14 promoter. The mice had severe abnormalities in morphology of skin keratinocyte nuclei, including nuclear envelope lobulation and decreased nuclear circularity not present in transgenic mice expressing wild-type human lamin A. Primary keratinocytes isolated from these mice had a higher frequency of nuclei with abnormal shape compared to those from transgenic mice expressing wild-type human lamin A. Treatment with a farnesyltransferase inhibitor significantly improved nuclear shape abnormalities and induced the formation of intranuclear foci in the primary keratinocytes expressing progerin. Similarly, spontaneous immortalization of progerin-expressing cultured keratinocytes selected for cells with normal nuclear morphology. Despite morphological alterations in keratinocyte nuclei, mice expressing progerin in epidermis had normal hair grown and wound healing. Hair and skin thickness were normal even after crossing to Lmna null mice to reduce or eliminate expression of normal A-type lamins. Although progerin induces significant alterations in keratinocyte nuclear morphology that are reversed by inhibition of farnesyltransferasae, epidermal expression does not lead to alopecia or other skin abnormalities typically seen in human subjects with HGPS. PMID:18442998

Wang, Yuexia; Panteleyev, Andrey A.; Owens, David M.; Djabali, Karima; Stewart, Colin L.; Worman, Howard J.

2008-01-01

442

Torsional vibration measurements on rotating shaft system using laser doppler vibrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a laser torsional vibrameter was used to measure the torsion vibration of a rotating shaft system under electrical network impact. Based on the principles of laser Doppler velocimetry, the laser torsional vibrometer (LTV) are non-contact measurement of torsional oscillation of rotating shafts, offering significant advantages over conventional techniques. Furthermore, a highly complex shafting system is analyzed by a modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix. The system is modeled as a chain consisting of an elastic spring with concentrated mass points, and the multi-segments lumped mass model is established for this shafting system. By the modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix method, an accumulated calculation is effectively eliminated to obtain the natural frequencies. The electrical network impacts can activize the torsional vibration of shaft system, and the activized torsion vibration frequencies contained the natural frequencies of shaft system. The torsional vibrations of the shaft system were measured under electrical network impacts in laser Doppler torsional vibrometer. By comparisons, the natural frequencies by measurement were consistent with the values by calculation. The results verify the instrument is robust, user friendly and can be calibrated in situ. The laser torsional vibrometer represents a significant step forward in rotating machinery diagnostics.

Xiang, Ling; Yang, Shixi; Gan, Chunbiao

2012-11-01

443

Amplitude death of coupled hair bundles with stochastic channel noise.  

PubMed

Hair cells conduct auditory transduction in vertebrates. In lower vertebrates such as frogs and turtles, due to the active mechanism in hair cells, hair bundles (stereocilia) can be spontaneously oscillating or quiescent. Recently an amplitude death phenomenon has been proposed [K.-H. Ahn, J. R. Soc. Interface, 10, 20130525 (2013)] as a mechanism for auditory transduction in frog hair-cell bundles, where sudden cessation of the oscillations arises due to the coupling between nonidentical hair bundles. The gating of the ion channel is intrinsically stochastic due to the stochastic nature of the configuration change of the channel. The strength of the noise due to the channel gating can be comparable to the thermal Brownian noise of hair bundles. Thus, we perform stochastic simulations of the elastically coupled hair bundles. In spite of stray noisy fluctuations due to its stochastic dynamics, our simulation shows the transition from collective oscillation to amplitude death as interbundle coupling strength increases. In its stochastic dynamics, the formation of the amplitude death state of coupled hair bundles can be seen as a sudden suppression of the displacement fluctuation of the hair bundles as the coupling strength increases. The enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio through the amplitude death phenomenon is clearly seen in the stochastic dynamics. Our numerical results demonstrate that the multiple number of transduction channels per hair bundle is an important factor to the amplitude death phenomenon, because the phenomenon may disappear for a small number of transduction channels due to strong gating noise. PMID:24827274

Kim, Kyung-Joong; Ahn, Kang-Hun

2014-04-01

444

Regional differences in lectin binding patterns of vestibular hair cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface glycoconjugates of hair cells and supporting cells in the vestibular endorgans of the bullfrog were identified using biotinylated lectins with different carbohydrate specificities. Lectin binding in hair cells was consistent with the presence of glucose and mannose (CON A), galactose (RCA-I), N-acetylglucosamine (WGA), N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA), but not fucose (UEA-I) residues. Hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus, unlike those in the utriculus and semicircular canals, did not strain for N-acetylglucosamine (WGA) or N-acetylgalactosamine (VVA). By contrast, WGA and, to a lesser extent, VVA, differentially stained utricular and semicircular canal hair cells, labeling hair cells located in peripheral, but not central, regions. In mammals, WGA uniformly labeled Type I hair cells while labeling, as in the bullfrog, Type II hair cells only in peripheral regions. These regional variations were retained after enzymatic digestion. We conclude that vestibular hair cells differ in their surface glycoconjugates and that differences in lectin binding patterns can be used to identify hair cell types and to infer the epithelial origin of isolated vestibular hair cells.

Baird, R. A.; Schuff, N. R.; Bancroft, J.

1993-01-01

445

Amplitude death of coupled hair bundles with stochastic channel noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair cells conduct auditory transduction in vertebrates. In lower vertebrates such as frogs and turtles, due to the active mechanism in hair cells, hair bundles (stereocilia) can be spontaneously oscillating or quiescent. Recently an amplitude death phenomenon has been proposed [K.-H. Ahn, J. R. Soc. Interface, 10, 20130525 (2013)] as a mechanism for auditory transduction in frog hair-cell bundles, where sudden cessation of the oscillations arises due to the coupling between nonidentical hair bundles. The gating of the ion channel is intrinsically stochastic due to the stochastic nature of the configuration change of the channel. The strength of the noise due to the channel gating can be comparable to the thermal Brownian noise of hair bundles. Thus, we perform stochastic simulations of the elastically coupled hair bundles. In spite of stray noisy fluctuations due to its stochastic dynamics, our simulation shows the transition from collective oscillation to amplitude death as interbundle coupling strength increases. In its stochastic dynamics, the formation of the amplitude death state of coupled hair bundles can be seen as a sudden suppression of the displacement fluctuation of the hair bundles as the coupling strength increases. The enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio through the amplitude death phenomenon is clearly seen in the stochastic dynamics. Our numerical results demonstrate that the multiple number of transduction channels per hair bundle is an important factor to the amplitude death phenomenon, because the phenomenon may disappear for a small number of transduction channels due to strong gating noise.

Kim, Kyung-Joong; Ahn, Kang-Hun

2014-04-01

446

Computational identification of root hair-specific genes in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Activated cortical domains (AC Ds) are regions of the plant cell cortex performing localized membrane turnover, delimited by concerted action of the cortical cytoskeleton and endomembrane compartments. Arabidopsis thaliana rhizodermis consists of two cell types differing by a single AC D (trichoblasts, carrying tip-growing root hairs, and hairless atrichoblasts), providing a model for the study of AC D determination. We compiled a set of genes specifically upregulated in root hairs from published transcriptome data and compared it with a “virtual Arabidopsis root hair proteome,” i.e., a list of computationally identified homologs of proteins from the published soybean root hair proteome. Both data sets were enriched in genes and proteins associated with root hairs in functional studies, but there was little overlap between the transcriptome and the proteome: the former captured gene products specific to root hairs, while the latter selected those abundant in root hairs but not necessarily specific to them. Decisive steps in AC D specification may be performed by signaling proteins of high expression specifity and low abundance. Nevertheless, 73 genes specifically transcribed in Arabidopsis trichoblasts or root hairs encode homologs of abundant root hair proteins from soybean. Most of them encode “housekeeping” proteins required for rapid tip growth. However, among the “candidates” is also a generative actin isoform, ACT11. Preliminary characterization of an act11 mutant allele indeed suggests a hitherto unexpected role for this gene in root and root hair development. PMID:21051945

Bezvoda, Radek; Zarsky, Viktor

2010-01-01

447

Overlapping and divergent signaling pathways for ARK1 and AGD1 in the control of root hair polarity in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

We previously showed that seedlings harboring mutations in genes encoding ARK1, an armadillo repeat-containing kinesin, or AGD1, a class 1 ARF-GAP, have root hairs that exhibit wavy/spiral growth and two tips originating from one initiation site. These root hair defects were accompanied by bundling of endoplasmic microtubules and filamentous actin (F-actin) that extended to the extreme root hair apex. The similar phenotypes of ark1 and agd1 mutants suggest a tight coordination between the cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking in the control of root hair polarity. Indeed, cell biological and genetic studies of the agd1 mutant provided evidence that AGD1's involvement in root hair development involves cross-talk among phosphoinositides (PIs), the actin cytoskeleton and other small GTPases such as ROP2 and RABA4b. Here we show that ark1 root hairs mirror those of agd1 with regard to altered targeting of ROP2 and RABA4b, as well as abnormal tonoplast organization. Furthermore, like agd1, enhanced root hair defects in double mutants in ARK1 and genes encoding a type B phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 3 (PIP5K3), a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI-4P) phosphatase (RHD4), a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (COW1), and a vegetative actin isoform (ACT2), were observed. However, root hair shape of some ark1 double mutant combinations, particularly those with act2, pip5k3 and rhd4 (ark1 act2, ark1 pip5k3, ark1 rhd4), differed in some respects from agd1 act2, agd1 pip5k3, and agd1 rhd4. Taken together our results continue to point to commonalities between ARK1 and AGD1 in specifying root hair polarity, but that these two modulators of tip-growth can also regulate root hair development through divergent signaling routes with AGD1 acting predominantly during root hair initiation and ARK1 functioning primarily in sustained tip growth. PMID:24400013

Yoo, Cheol-Min; Blancaflor, Elison B.

2013-01-01

448

Phase Slips in Oscillatory Hair Bundles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair cells of the inner ear contain an active amplifier that allows them to detect extremely weak signals. As one of the manifestations of an active process, spontaneous oscillations arise in fluid immersed hair bundles of in vitro preparations of selected auditory and vestibular organs. We measure the phase-locking dynamics of oscillatory bundles exposed to low-amplitude sinusoidal signals, a transition that can be described by a saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant circle. The transition is characterized by the occurrence of phase slips, at a rate that is dependent on the amplitude and detuning of the applied drive. The resultant staircase structure in the phase of the oscillation can be described by the stochastic Adler equation, which reproduces the statistics of phase slip production.

Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Shlomovitz, Roie; Bruinsma, Robijn; Bozovic, Dolores

2013-04-01

449

Root Hair-Specific EXPANSIN A7 Is Required for Root Hair Elongation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Expansins are non-hydrolytic cell wall-loosening proteins that are involved in the cell wall modifications that underlie many plant developmental processes. Root hair growth requires the accumulation of cell wall materials and dynamic cell wall modification at the tip region. Although several lines of indirect evidence support the idea that expansin-mediated wall modification occurs during root hair growth, the involvement of these proteins remains to be demonstrated in vivo. In this study, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to examine the biological function of Arabidopsis thaliana EXPANSIN A7 (AtEXPA7), which is expressed specifically in the root hair cell. The root hairspecific AtEXPA7 promoter was used to drive RNAi expression, which targeted two independent regions in the AtEXPA7 transcript. Quantitative reverse transcriptase- PCR analyses were used to examine AtEXPA7 transcript levels. In four independent RNAi transformant lines, RNAi expression reduced AtEXPA7 transcript levels by 25-58% compared to controls. Accordingly, the root hairs of RNAi transformant lines were 25-48% shorter than control plants and exhibited a broader range of lengths than the controls. Our results provide in vivo evidence that expansins are required for root hair tip growth. PMID:21359675

Lin, Changfa; Choi, Hee-Seung; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

2011-01-01

450

Human hair follicle mites and forensic acarology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair follicle mites of the genus Demodex (Demodecidae) were first discovered in humans in 1841. Since then, members of this host-specific genus have been found in\\u000a 11 of the 18 orders of eutherian mammals with most host species harboring two or more species of Demodex. Humans are host to D. folliculorum and D. brevis. The biology, natural history, and

Clifford E. Desch

2009-01-01

451

Analysis of Rat Vestibular Hair Cell Development and Regeneration Using Calretinin as an Early Marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite increased interest in inner ear hair cell regeneration, it is still unclear what exact mechanisms underlie hair cell regener- ation in mammals because of our limited understanding of hair cell development and the lack of specific hair cell markers. In this report, we studied hair cell development using immunohis- tochemistry on sections prepared from embryonic day (E) 13 to

J. Lisa Zheng; Wei-Qiang Gao

1997-01-01

452

Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force ~10-7 N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of ~10 N cm-2: sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved.

Geim, A. K.; Dubonos, S. V.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Novoselov, K. S.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapoval, S. Yu.

2003-07-01

453

Microfabricated adhesive mimicking gecko foot-hair.  

PubMed

The amazing climbing ability of geckos has attracted the interest of philosophers and scientists alike for centuries. However, only in the past few years has progress been made in understanding the mechanism behind this ability, which relies on submicrometre keratin hairs covering the soles of geckos. Each hair produces a miniscule force approximately 10(-7) N (due to van der Waals and/or capillary interactions) but millions of hairs acting together create a formidable adhesion of approximately 10 N x cm(-2): sufficient to keep geckos firmly on their feet, even when upside down on a glass ceiling. It is very tempting to create a new type of adhesive by mimicking the gecko mechanism. Here we report on a prototype of such 'gecko tape' made by microfabrication of dense arrays of flexible plastic pillars, the geometry of which is optimized to ensure their collective adhesion. Our approach shows a way to manufacture self-cleaning, re-attachable dry adhesives, although problems related to their durability and mass production are yet to be resolved. PMID:12776092

Geim, A K; Dubonos, S V; Grigorieva, I V; Novoselov, K S; Zhukov, A A; Shapoval, S Yu

2003-07-01

454

Can a topical scalp treatment reduce hair bulb extraction?  

PubMed

Generally speaking, when people talk about "hair breakage" they are typically referring to the idea that as they comb or brush their hair, the fibers are elongating and snapping at some weak point in the fiber length. It is well established that as people chemically treat their hair, the keratin proteins are degraded further and the hair become more brittle and susceptible to breakage. For the consumer, hair breakage is registered as hair fibers noted in their comb or brush, and in the drain that they see after a cosmetic treatment. However, a fundamental question that needs to be asked is whether or not the hairs that are seen in the drain are really the result of hair breakage (i.e., a fiber snapping) or are they the result of hairs that are actually being extracted from the scalp by their root bulbs. If the bulk of the hair fibers are actually extracted by the bulb, than it seems somewhat superfluous to try and improve hair strength by improving the exterior of the fiber. The fiber is dead and topical treatments can only smooth, and possibly moisten already established fiber structure and integrity. This paper will attempt to address hair strength by looking at the scalp and follicle as the target for treatment, showing that topical application of a product containing a blend of well-known skin active ingredients can demonstrate potential reductions in hair extractions. An in vivo testing protocol in which 15 voluntary participants with at least 12" hair length were professionally shampooed, and then treated, half-head, with a commercial conditioner, or the same conditioner that contained 5% of a mixture of yeast peptides, fruit acids and green tea polyphenols every day for five days will be discussed. At the beginning and end of the treatment period, the number of hairs that either broke along the fiber, or extracted by the bulb were gathered, separated and counted for both the treated and untreated side of the head. The results of this one-week study demonstrate that the number of hairs that actually break pales in comparison to the number of hairs that are extracted complete with intact root bulb from the follicle. PMID:17728937

Gruber, James V; Bouldin, Lisa; Lou, Kevin

2007-01-01

455

Dynamic stability analysis of torsional vibrations of a shaft system connected by a Hooke's joint through a continuous system model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stability of parametrically excited torsional vibrations of a shaft system composed of two torsionally elastic shafts interconnected through a Hooke's joint is studied. The shafts are considered to be continuous (distributed-parameter) systems and an approximate discrete model for the torsional vibrations of the shaft system is derived via a finite element scheme. The stability of the solutions of the linearized equations of motion, consisting of a set of Mathieu-Hill type equations, is examined by means of a monodromy matrix method and the results are presented in the form of a Strutt-Ince diagram visualizing the effects of the system parameters on the stability of the shaft system.

Bulut, Gökhan

2014-08-01

456

Taphonomy of hair--a study of postmortem root banding.  

PubMed

Although it has been generally accepted within the forensic hair community that decompositional changes in the form of an identifiable banding pattern can occur in the root area of hairs after death, little detailed information with regard to this phenomenon is known (e.g., rates at which this occurs and conditions that cause this banding). Hairs were collected daily from bodies placed in water, an air-conditioned environment, an enclosed vehicle, on the surface of the ground, and buried at the University of Tennessee Forensic Anthropology Center. The hairs were examined microscopically and the level of change documented for each environment. The onset of the banding was observed to have been delayed in water, air-conditioning, and cold weather and was hastened by warm weather and within the vehicle. This study provides validation that decomposition does produce varying effects on hair at the proximal portion of a hair root, including a dark band. PMID:23013230

Koch, Sandra L; Michaud, Amy L; Mikell, Carmenza E

2013-01-01

457

From conditioning shampoo to nanomechanics and haptics of human hair.  

PubMed

Shampoo treatment and hair conditioning have a direct impact on our wellbeing via properties like combability and haptic perception of hair. Therefore, systematic investigations leading to quality improvement of hair care products are of major interest. The aim of our work is a better understanding of complex testing and the correlation with quantitative parameters. The motivation for the development of physical testing methods for hair feel relates to the fact that an ingredient supplier like BASF can only find new, so far not yet toxicologically approved chemistries for hair cosmetics, if an in-vitro method exists.In this work, the effects of different shampoo treatments with conditioning polymers are investigated. The employed physical test method, dry friction measurements and AFM observe friction phenomena on a macroscopic as well as on a nanoscale directly on hair. They are an approach to complement sensoric evaluation with an objective in-vitro method. PMID:21635853

Wood, Claudia; Sugiharto, Albert Budiman; Max, Eva; Fery, Andreas

2011-01-01

458

A Model of Filiform Hair Distribution on the Cricket Cercus  

PubMed Central

Crickets and other orthopteran insects sense air currents with a pair of abdominal appendages resembling antennae, called cerci. Each cercus in the common house cricket Acheta domesticus is covered with between 500 to 750 filiform mechanosensory hairs. The distribution of the hairs on the cerci, as well as the global patterns of their movement axes, are very stereotypical across different animals in this species, and the development of this system has been studied extensively. Although hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying pattern development of the hair array have been proposed in previous studies, no quantitative modeling studies have been published that test these hypotheses. We demonstrate that several aspects of the global pattern of mechanosensory hairs can be predicted with considerable accuracy using a simple model based on two independent morphogen systems. One system constrains inter-hair spacing, and the second system determines the directional movement axes of the hairs. PMID:23056357

Heys, Jeffrey J.; Rajaraman, Prathish K.; Gedeon, Tomas; Miller, John P.

2012-01-01

459

Flexural stiffness of feather shafts: geometry rules over material properties.  

PubMed

Flight feathers of birds interact with the flow field during flight. They bend and twist under aerodynamic loads. Two parameters are mainly responsible for flexibility in feathers: the elastic modulus (Young's modulus, E) of the material (keratin) and the geometry of the rachises, more precisely the second moment of area (I). Two independent methods were employed to determine Young's modulus of feather rachis keratin. Moreover, the second moment of area and the bending stiffness of feather shafts from fifth primaries of barn owls (Tyto alba) and pigeons (Columba livia) were calculated. These species of birds are of comparable body mass but differ in wing size and flight style. Whether their feather material (keratin) underwent an adaptation in stiffness was previously unknown. This study shows that no significant variation in Young's modulus between the two species exists. However, differences in Young's modulus between proximal and distal feather regions were found in both species. Cross-sections of pigeon rachises were particularly well developed and rich in structural elements, exemplified by dorsal ridges and a well-pronounced transversal septum. In contrast, cross-sections of barn owl rachises were less profiled but had a higher second moment of area. Consequently, the calculated bending stiffness (EI) was higher in barn owls as well. The results show that flexural stiffness is predominantly influenced by the geometry of the feathers rather than by local material properties. PMID:22246249

Bachmann, Thomas; Emmerlich, Jens; Baumgartner, Werner; Schneider, Jochen M; Wagner, Hermann

2012-02-01

460

Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsion (DSEP) Technology Development Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background, progress, and current state of the DOE-sponsored Advanced Dual-Shaft Electric Propulsion Technology Development are presented. Three electric-drive vehicles were build as conversions of a commercial gasoline-powered van, using program-designed components and systems as required. The vehicles were tested primarily on dynamometer or test tract. Component and system testing represented a major portion of the development effort. Test data are summarized in this report, and an Appendix contains the final component design specifications. This major programmatic concerns were the traction battery, the battery management system, the dc-to-ac inverter, the drive motor, the transaxle and its ancillary equipment, and the vehicle controller. Additional effort was devoted to vehicle-related equipment: gear selector, power steering, power brakes, accelerator, dashboard instrumentation, and heater. Design, development, and test activities are reported for each of these items, together with an appraisal (lessons learned) and recommendations for possible further work. Other programmatic results include a Cost and Commercialization Analysis, a Reliability and Hazards Analysis Study, Technical Recommendations for Next-Generation Development, and an assessment of overall program efforts.

1992-08-01

461

WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system.

Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1997-12-01

462

Hair waving natural product: Dillenia indica seed sap.  

PubMed

Knowing keratin is the main component and mechanical strength of hair a study was performed to evaluate whether Dillenia indica seed sap can affect molecular strength of hair or not. In the present study the human hair collected from barber shop waste were subjected to purified sap for 12 h and then analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for documenting evidence for keratin degradation. Further the deterioration was confirmed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:23124020

Saikia, Jyoti Prasad

2013-02-01

463

Two-state approach to stochastic hair bundle dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hair cells perform the mechanoelectrical transduction of sound signals in the auditory and vestibular systems of vertebrates. The part of the hair cell essential for this transduction is the so-called hair bundle. In vitro experiments on hair cells from the sacculus of the American bullfrog have shown that the hair bundle comprises active elements capable of producing periodic deflections like a relaxation oscillator. Recently, a continuous nonlinear stochastic model of the hair bundle motion [Nadrowski , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12195 (2004)] has been shown to reproduce the experimental data in stochastic simulations faithfully. Here, we demonstrate that a binary filtering of the hair bundle's deflection (experimental data and continuous hair bundle model) does not change significantly the spectral statistics of the spontaneous as well as the periodically driven hair bundle motion. We map the continuous hair bundle model to the FitzHugh-Nagumo model of neural excitability and discuss the bifurcations between different regimes of the system in terms of the latter model. Linearizing the nullclines and assuming perfect time-scale separation between the variables we can map the FitzHugh-Nagumo system to a simple two-state model in which each of the states corresponds to the two possible values of the binary-filtered hair bundle trajectory. For the two-state model, analytical expressions for the power spectrum and the susceptibility can be calculated [Lindner and Schimansky-Geier, Phys. Rev. E 61, 6103 (2000)] and show the same features as seen in the experimental data as well as in simulations of the continuous hair bundle model.

Clausznitzer, Diana; Lindner, Benjamin; Jülicher, Frank; Martin, Pascal

2008-04-01

464

Stochastic resonance in the mechanoelectrical transduction of hair cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In transducing mechanical stimuli into electrical signals, at least some hair cells in vertebrate auditory and vestibular systems respond optimally to weak periodic signals at natural, nonzero noise intensities. We understand this stochastic resonance by constructing a faithful mechanical model reflecting the hair cell geometry and described by a nonlinear stochastic differential equation. This Langevin description elucidates the mechanism of hair cell stochastic resonance while supporting the hypothesis that noise plays a functional role in hearing.

Lindner, John F.; Bennett, Matthew; Wiesenfeld, Kurt

2005-11-01

465

Biological and clinical aspects in laser hair removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In the past cen- tury, unwanted hair has been traditionally treated with multi- tudes of techniques that were found to be slow, tedious, painful, impractical, and resulted in poor long-term efficacy. Consequently, there has been a public demand for a novel, rapid, reliable, safe, and affordable hair removal tech- nique.Inthelastdecade,laserand light-based technology for hair removal became one of the

J Lepselter; M Elman

2004-01-01

466

Reduction of Shaft Voltages and Bearing Currents in Five-Phase Induction Motor  

E-print Network

tested using a digital signal processor (DSP) to drive the five-phase IGBT inverter. The experimental results verified that the new switching pattern could reduce shaft voltages and bearing current without affecting the performance....

Hussain, Hussain

2012-07-16

467

Multistep Optimization of Composite Drive Shaft Subject to Strength, Buckling, Vibration and Manufacturing Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite drive shafts are extensively used in automotive and aeronautical applications due to lightweight combined with exceptional strength and stiffness. Complexity of the drive shaft design problem associated with the need to determine rational values for multiple parameters characterizing composite material (fiber orientation angles, stacking sequence and ply thicknesses), as well as with the fact that multiple conflicting design constraints should be considered simultaneously. In this paper we approach this problem considering carbon/epoxy drive shaft design as a multistep optimization process. It includes the following steps: 1) determination of fiber orientation angles and laminate stacking sequence based on analysis of loading conditions and analytical expressions predicting buckling load and minimal natural frequency of idealized drive shaft; 2) finding rational ply thicknesses using formal optimization procedure utilizing response surface approximations and gradient-based optimization algorithm; and 3) verification analysis of the optimized configuration with the use of nonlinear buckling analysis to ensure satisfaction of stability constraint.

Cherniaev, Aleksandr; Komarov, Valeriy

2014-09-01

468

Alignment of Vertical Shaft Hydro Units. Facilities Instructions, Standards, and Techniques. Volume 2-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bulletin provides an introduction to the concepts and procedures used to align, plumb, and evenly load bearings on vertical shaft hydrounits with most thrust and guide bearing configurations. The objectives of unit alignment are discussed and general...

H. Watson, D. Temple, W. Duncan

1989-01-01

469