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1

Hair Shaft Abnormalities – Clues to Diagnosis and Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks

Peter H. Itin; Susanna K. Fistarol

2005-01-01

2

Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.  

PubMed

Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Ma?gorzata

2013-10-01

3

Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.  

PubMed

Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones. PMID:23165165

Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

2012-10-16

4

STR genotyping of exogenous hair shaft DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most hairs found at crime scenes yield low quality and\\/or low quantities of nuclear DNA. This DNA is further depleted when stringent hair cleaning procedures are applied in the laboratory, suggesting that detectable DNA exists exogenously. The phenomenon of exogenous hair DNA is the subject of this study. DNA was extracted from washed and unwashed hairs and the resulting Profiler™

Kate S. Robertson; Dennis McNevin; James Robertson

2007-01-01

5

Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures  

SciTech Connect

Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via {beta}-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and {beta}-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/{beta}-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)]. E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Moriya, Kei [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

2007-08-03

6

6-Gingerol inhibits hair shaft growth in cultured human hair follicles and modulates hair growth in mice.  

PubMed

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been traditionally used to check hair loss and stimulate hair growth in East Asia. Several companies produce shampoo containing an extract of ginger claimed to have anti-hair loss and hair growth promotion properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to back up these claims. This study was undertaken to measure 6-gingerol, the main active component of ginger, on hair shaft elongation in vitro and hair growth in vivo, and to investigate its effect on human dermal papilla cells (DPCs) in vivo and in vitro. 6-Gingerol suppressed hair growth in hair follicles in culture and the proliferation of cultured DPCs. The growth inhibition of DPCs by 6-gingerol in vitro may reflect a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Similar results were obtained in vivo. The results of this study showed that 6-gingerol does not have the ability to promote hair growth, on the contrary, can suppress human hair growth via its inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on DPCs in vitro, and can cause prolongation of telogen phase in vivo. Thus, 6-gingerol rather than being a hair growth stimulating drug, it is a potential hair growth suppressive drug; i.e. for hair removal. PMID:23437345

Miao, Yong; Sun, Yabin; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Benjun; Xiao, Shun-e; Hu, Yijue; Hu, Zhiqi

2013-02-21

7

Mylodon darwinii DNA sequences from ancient fecal hair shafts.  

PubMed

Preserved hair has been increasingly used as an ancient DNA source in high throughput sequencing endeavors, and it may actually offer several advantages compared to more traditional ancient DNA substrates like bone. However, cold environments have yielded the most informative ancient hair specimens, while its preservation, and thus utility, in temperate regions is not well documented. Coprolites could represent a previously underutilized preservation substrate for hairs, which, if present therein, represent macroscopic packages of specific cells that are relatively simple to separate, clean and process. In this pilot study, we report amplicons 147-152 base pairs in length (w/primers) from hair shafts preserved in a south Chilean coprolite attributed to Darwin's extinct ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. Our results suggest that hairs preserved in coprolites from temperate cave environments can serve as an effective source of ancient DNA. This bodes well for potential molecular-based population and phylogeographic studies on sloths, several species of which have been understudied despite leaving numerous coprolites in caves across of the Americas. PMID:21640569

Clack, Andrew A; MacPhee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

2011-05-17

8

The disruption of Sox21-mediated hair shaft cuticle differentiation causes cyclic alopecia in mice.  

PubMed

Hair is maintained through a cyclic process that includes periodic regeneration of hair follicles in a stem cell-dependent manner. Little is known, however, about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate the layered differentiation of the hair follicle. We have established a mutant mouse with a cyclic alopecia phenotype resulting from the targeted disruption of Sox21, a gene that encodes a HMG-box protein. These mice exhibit progressive hair loss after morphogenesis of the first hair follicle and become completely nude in appearance, but then show hair regrowth. Sox21 is expressed in the cuticle layer and the progenitor cells of the hair shaft in both mouse and human. The lack of this gene results in a loss of the interlocking structures required for anchoring the hair shaft in the hair follicle. Furthermore, the expression of genes encoding the keratins and keratin binding proteins in the hair shaft cuticle are also specifically down-regulated in the Sox21-null mouse. These results indicate that Sox21 is a master regulator of hair shaft cuticle differentiation and shed light on the possible causes of human hair disorders. PMID:19470461

Kiso, Makoto; Tanaka, Shigekazu; Saba, Rie; Matsuda, Satoru; Shimizu, Atsushi; Ohyama, Manabu; Okano, Hirotaka James; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Okano, Hideyuki; Saga, Yumiko

2009-05-26

9

Reduction of regrowing hair shaft size and pigmentation after ruby and diode laser treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract Laser pulses which selectively damage pigmented hair follicles are a useful treatment for hypertrichosis. Clinically, regrowing\\u000a hairs are often thinner and lighter after treatment. In this study, hair shaft diameter and optical transmission (700 nm)\\u000a were measured before and after ruby (694 nm) and diode (800 nm) laser irradiation. Hair was collected from 47 and 41 subjects\\u000a treated with

Tai-Yuan David Lin; Christine C. Dierickx; Valeria B. Campos; William A. Farinelli; Joshua Rosenthal; R. Rox Anderson

2000-01-01

10

Desmoglein 4 is regulated by transcription factors implicated in hair shaft differentiation.  

PubMed

The hair fiber is made of specialized keratinocytes, known as trichocytes, that primarily express hair keratins, which are cemented by a multitude of keratin-associated proteins (KAPs). The hair keratins form the intermediate filament cytoskeleton of the trichocytes, which are linked to abundant cell-cell adhesion junctions, called desmosomes. Desmoglein 4 (DSG4) is the major desmosomal cadherin expressed in the hair shaft cortex where the hair keratins are highly expressed. In humans, mutations affecting either the hair keratins or DSG4 lead to beaded hair phenotypes with features of monilethrix. In this work, we postulated that the regulatory pathways governing the expression of hair shaft components, such as hair keratins and DSG4, are shared. Therefore, we studied the transcriptional regulation of DSG4 by transcription factors/pathways that are known regulators of hair keratin or KAP expression. We show that HOXC13, LEF1 and FOXN1 repress DSG4 transcription and provide in vitro and in vivo evidence correlating the Notch pathway with the activation and/or maintenance of DSG4 expression in the hair follicle. PMID:19683850

Bazzi, Hisham; Demehri, Shadmehr; Potter, Christopher S; Barber, Alison G; Awgulewitsch, Alexander; Kopan, Raphael; Christiano, Angela M

2009-08-15

11

Observations of a human hair shaft with an x-ray microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed the internal structures of a human hair shaft using x-ray microscopes with a spatial resolution in the range from a few microns to less than 100 nm. The energy of the x-ray used is 6.95 keV. The Zernike phase contrast together with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm enabled us to see the cuticles of scales, the cortex of macrofibrils and the medulla. All these internal features and more can easily be observed with no sample preparation including staining.

Youn, Hwa Shik; Jung, Suk-Won

2005-11-01

12

A new method for DNA extraction from feces and hair shafts of the South China tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis).  

PubMed

It is commonly known that tigers (Panthera tigris) groom themselves by licking their coats, which leads to an abundance of hairs in their feces. These hairs are designated specially as "fecal hairs". In our study, in order to explore fecal hairs potential as a DNA source for genetic analysis, 55 fecal hair samples were collected from 23 captive South China tigers (P. t. amoyensis). According to the amplification of mitochondrial primers loop F and loop R, DNA quality of noninvasive samples were grouped into three grades: grade I-the highest-quality DNA, grade II--high-quality DNA, and grade III--poor-quality DNA. No failed amplifications on microsatellite primers and only 0.27% genotyping errors occurred with grade I fecal hair DNA, as compared with 9.4% failed amplifications on microsatellite primers and 9.5% genotyping errors with grade II fecal hair DNA. It was found that 25.45% of fecal hair DNA was grade I and 65.45 and 10.00% of fecal hair DNA were grades II and III, respectively, as compared with 4.35% grade I fecal DNA and 34.78 and 60.87% grades II and III fecal DNA, respectively. Thus, higher-quality DNA can be extracted from fecal hairs than feces. In addition, DNA could be extracted from hair shafts of tigers and a minimum of 2000 hair shafts were required for visible DNA bands on a 1% agarose gel. These findings demonstrate that fecal hairs may serve as a convenient and reliable genomic DNA source for genotype analysis. PMID:19358318

Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhihe; Xu, Xiao; Wei, Kun; Wang, Xiaofang; Liang, Xu; Zhang, Liang; Shen, Fujun; Hou, Rong; Yue, Bisong

13

Determination of Triazolam Involving Its Hydroxy Metabolites in Hair Shaft and Hair Root by Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Application to Human Hair Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive method using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry has been developed for simultaneous determination of triazolam and its hydroxy metabolites in hair. After the addition of deuterium-labeled 1-hydroxymethyltriazolam as an internal standard, the analytes in hair shaft and hair root samples were extracted with a basic medium, CH2Cl2:MeOH:28% NH4OH (20:80:2) at room temperature overnight. The

Toshimasa Toyo'oka; Masayoshi Kanbori; Yusuke Kumaki; Yuji Nakahara

2001-01-01

14

Evidence for calcium soaps in human hair shaft revealed by sub-micrometer X-ray fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New information about calcium status in human scalp hair shaft, deduced from X-ray microfluorescence imaging, including its distribution over the hair section, the existence of one or several binding-types and its variation between people, is presented. The existence of two different calcium types is inferred. The first one corresponds to atoms (or ions) easily removable by hydrochloric acid, located in the cortex (granules), in the cuticle zone and also in the core of the medulla, which are identified as calcium soaps cy comparison with X-ray diffraction and IR spectromicroscopy data. The second type consists of non-easily removable calcium atoms (or ions) that are located in the medulla wall, probably also the cuticle, and rather uniformly in the cortex; these calcium atoms may be involved in Ca^{2+}-binding proteins, their concentration is fairly constant from one subject to another.

Briki, F.; Mérigoux, C.; Sarrot-Reynauld, F.; Salomé, M.; Fayard, B.; Susini, J.; Doucet, J.

2003-03-01

15

Evaluation of a decontamination protocol for hair shafts before mtDNA sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing is a powerful and sensitive method to identify the donor of shed hairs found at a crime scene. Because of the low amounts of DNA in shed hair and the sensitivity of PCR, contaminating cells (e.g. saliva, blood), sometimes present on these hairs, will be co-amplified. This will result in ambiguous sequencing results and might even

Els Jehaes; Anja Gilissen; Jean-Jacques Cassiman; Ronny Decorte

1998-01-01

16

Pili annulati associated with hair fragility: cause or coincidence?  

PubMed

Pili annulati is a disorder that produces a spangled appearance to the hair, caused by alternating light and dark banding of hair shafts. This phenomenon is created by abnormal cavities in the cortex of the hair shaft, which produces lighter bands seen on clinical examination. Complications of pili annulati are limited; the most noteworthy complication is increased breakage secondary to weathering of the abnormal hair shafts. We report a case of a 14-year-old adolescent girl with pili annulati and progressive hair loss of 2 months' duration. Most of her hairs were notably short, spangled, and lusterless with light and dark banding observed with handheld magnification. Light microscopy demonstrated alternating light and dark bands, and the dark bands had the typical appearance of air-filled spaces. Gentler hair grooming practices were recommended, and at a follow-up visit, the appearance of the hair had improved with darker and longer shafts. This case should alert clinicians to look for pili annulati when hair fragility is present. PMID:23461057

Werner, Kimberly; St-Surin-Lord, Sharleen; Sperling, Leonard C

2013-01-01

17

Gsdma3 is required for hair follicle differentiation in mice.  

PubMed

Hair follicle differentiation is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. However, the known cellular and molecular mechanisms are limited. Gsdma3 is a novel murine gene and considered to be a mutation hotspot. Six mutants have been reported in Gsdma3 and all these mutants exhibit hair loss and hyperkeratosis phenotypes. In order to verify how the lack of Gsdma3 affects the hair defects, we use alopecia and excoriation mice, a new mouse mutation in this gene, as our research model. This mutation exhibits progressive hair loss, from head to the whole back, and followed by hair regrowth. We test that Gsdma3 is expressed in matrix, inner root sheath, and hair shaft. Ultrastructural and histological analyses show abnormal hair structures and reduced hair keratins in AE mice. The loss of interlocking structures and abnormal constitutive protein indicate defects in anchoring hair shaft in the hair follicle and resisting external forces. Molecular analysis of Gsdma3 deficiency and overexpression shows an Msx2/Foxn1/acidic hair keratin genetic pathway is involved. Thus, Gsdma3 is necessary for normal hair follicle differentiation. PMID:20977888

Li, Jin; Zhou, Yue; Yang, Tian; Wang, Ning; Lian, Xiaohua; Yang, Li

2010-10-25

18

Results of a collaborative study of the EDNAP group regarding mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy and segregation in hair shafts.  

PubMed

A collaborative exercise was carried out by the European DNA Profiling Group (EDNAP) in order to evaluate the distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy amongst the hairs of an individual who displays point heteroplasmy in blood and buccal cells. A second aim of the exercise was to study reproducibility of mtDNA sequencing of hairs between laboratories using differing chemistries, further to the first mtDNA reproducibility study carried out by the EDNAP group. Laboratories were asked to type 2 sections from each of 10 hairs, such that each hair was typed by at least two laboratories. Ten laboratories participated in the study, and a total of 55 hairs were typed. The results showed that the C/T point heteroplasmy observed in blood and buccal cells at position 16234 segregated differentially between hairs, such that some hairs showed only C, others only T and the remainder, C/T heteroplasmy at varying ratios. Additionally, differential segregation of heteroplasmic variants was confirmed in independent extracts at positions 16093 and the poly(C) tract at 302-309, whilst a complete A-G transition was confirmed at position 16129 in one hair. Heteroplasmy was observed at position 16195 on both strands of a single extract from one hair segment, but was not observed in the extracts from any other segment of the same hair. Similarly, heteroplasmy at position 16304 was observed on both strands of a single extract from one hair. Additional variants at positions 73, 249 and the HVII poly(C) region were reported by one laboratory; as these were not confirmed in independent extracts, the possibility of contamination cannot be excluded. Additionally, the electrophoresis and detection equipment used by this laboratory was different to those of the other laboratories, and the discrepancies at position 249 and the HVII poly(C) region appear to be due to reading errors that may be associated with this technology. The results, and their implications for forensic mtDNA typing, are discussed in the light of the biology of hair formation. PMID:15013160

Tully, G; Barritt, S M; Bender, K; Brignon, E; Capelli, C; Dimo-Simonin, N; Eichmann, C; Ernst, C M; Lambert, C; Lareu, M V; Ludes, B; Mevag, B; Parson, W; Pfeiffer, H; Salas, A; Schneider, P M; Staalstrom, E

2004-02-10

19

Trichoscopy: a new method for diagnosing hair loss.  

PubMed

Videodermoscopy of hair and scalp (trichoscopy) is gaining popularity as a valuable tool in differential diagnosis of hair loss. This method allows viewing of the hair and scalp at X20 to X160 magnifications. Structures which may be visualized by trichoscopy include hair shafts of different types: vellus, terminal, micro-exclamation mark type, monilethrix, Netherton type, and pili annulati hairs. The number of hairs in one pilosebaceous unit may be assessed. It may be distinguished whether hair follicles are normal, empty, fibrotic ("white dots"), filled with hyperkeratotic plugs ("yellow dots") or containing cadaverized hair ("black dots"). Abnormalities of scalp skin color or structure which may be visualized by trichoscopy include honeycomb-type hyperpigmentation, perifollicular discoloration (hyperpigmentation), and scaling. PMID:18664157

Rudnicka, Lidia; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rakowska, Adriana; Kowalska-Oledzka, Elzbieta; Slowinska, Monika

2008-07-01

20

Hair cosmetics.  

PubMed

The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the 'lift' of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today's rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and 'natural' hair products. PMID:23974582

Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem

21

Shaft engineering  

SciTech Connect

This report includes site investigation, shaft design and hydrogeology, shaft lining and furnishing, shafts for radioactive waste repositories, high pressure shafts for hydroelectric projects, and case histories of specific projects. Selected titles are presented.

Not Available

1989-01-01

22

The hair follicle as a dynamic miniorgan.  

PubMed

Hair is a primary characteristic of mammals, and exerts a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical protection, sensory activity, and social interactions. The hair shaft consists of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are produced by the hair follicle. Hair follicle development takes place during fetal skin development and relies on tightly regulated ectodermal-mesodermal interactions. After birth, mature and actively growing hair follicles eventually become anchored in the subcutis, and periodically regenerate by spontaneously undergoing repetitive cycles of growth (anagen), apoptosis-driven regression (catagen), and relative quiescence (telogen). Our molecular understanding of hair follicle biology relies heavily on mouse mutants with abnormalities in hair structure, growth, and/or pigmentation. These mice have allowed novel insights into important general molecular and cellular processes beyond skin and hair biology, ranging from organ induction, morphogenesis and regeneration, to pigment and stem cell biology, cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. In this review, we present basic concepts of hair follicle biology and summarize important recent advances in the field. PMID:19211055

Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

2009-02-10

23

SHAFT: interactive shaft design program  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHAFT is an interactive program to calculate shaft diameter, at one or more critical points on a steel shaft, required for proper operation in accordance with user-specified design criteria. The user also selects one of four different failure criteria for use by the program: Soderberg, Modified Goodman, Gerber parabolic, or Quadratic. As a first step, SHAFT calculates the bearing loads

Cook

1984-01-01

24

Hair removal.  

PubMed

Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New treatment procedures are evolving. Consumer-based treatments with portable home devices are rapidly evolving, and presently include low-level diode lasers and IPL devices. PMID:21865803

Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

2011-08-16

25

SHAFT: Interactive Shaft Design Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SHAFT is an interactive program to calculate shaft diameter, at one or more critical points on a steel shaft, required for proper operation in accordance with user-specified design criteria. The user also selects one of four different failure criteria for...

T. A. Cook

1984-01-01

26

Acquired Hair Fragility in Pili anulati: Causal Relationship with Androgenetic Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pili anulati are defined by characteristic alternating light and dark banding in the hair shaft, due to air-filled spaces between the macrofibrillar units of the hair cortex, and are regarded as a congenital hair shaft disorder without increased hair fragility. Two cases of pili anulati are presented, in which fragility of hair developed in a causal relationship with the onset

Günther F. L. Hofbauer; Dionysios Tsambaos; Max A. Spycher; Ralph M. Trüeb

2001-01-01

27

SHAFT: interactive shaft design program  

SciTech Connect

SHAFT is an interactive program to calculate shaft diameter, at one or more critical points on a steel shaft, required for proper operation in accordance with user-specified design criteria. The user also selects one of four different failure criteria for use by the program: Soderberg, Modified Goodman, Gerber parabolic, or Quadratic. As a first step, SHAFT calculates the bearing loads using the design approach given in Shigley and Mitchell's Mechanical Engineering Design. For systems without a graphics capability, SHAFT gives the user hard copy printout options for the final input and again for the computed final design parameters. An optional display (available for systems with a graphics package) shows the diagrams for moment, torque, and axial force along the length of the shaft. By observing these diagrams, the user can choose the points on the shaft for which the diameter is critical.

Cook, T.A.

1984-12-20

28

Hair cosmetics.  

PubMed

Porosity, elasticity, and texture influence the hair's ability to be changed. The types of color--temporary, gradual, natural, semipermanent, and permanent--depend upon the size of the "coloring" molecule to determine whether they penetrate the cortex (permanent) or precipitate on the cuticle. Different types of hair--thick or coarse, fine or thin--have varying affinity for different products and coloring/waving methods. Damaged hair is treated differently from hair with healthy, less porous shafts. Because so many people have color-treated hair today, dermatologists should be aware of all the latest changes and improvements, in order to assist patients with damaged or congenitally deformed hair. Acid-based permanents are becoming the most commonly used. Daily care with shampooing and conditioning has attained its most sophisticated level with the use of anionic and cationic surfactants in all hair-care products. It is also important for the dermatologist to be aware of what help is available for his or her patients. Cosmetic companies are eager to help any patient with severe problems with texture, dullness, over-fine or congenitally defective hair. The physician should send the patient with a severe problem directly to the nearest company headquarters or major city office to have a hair analysis, and receive suggestions from the experts of that company. For patients with moderate to mild problems, the dermatologist should be able to recommend three or four good salons in the local area with which he or she is familiar. Our main goal as physicians is to take care of the entire patient and to enable him or her to have a good self-image. PMID:3608250

O'Donoghue, M N

1987-07-01

29

Shaft adjuster  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

Harry, Herbert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

30

Drilled Shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This session will provide an overview of drilled shaft design and construction, including general design principles, construction methods, and construction quality assurance. Project examples will be used to illustrate the types of bridge structures and subsurface conditions where drilled shafts should be considered.

Elizabeth Dwyre

2012-01-01

31

Biomechanics of hair cell kinocilia: experimental measurement of kinocilium shaft stiffness and base rotational stiffness with Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam analysis  

PubMed Central

Vestibular hair cell bundles in the inner ear contain a single kinocilium composed of a 9+2 microtubule structure. Kinocilia play a crucial role in transmitting movement of the overlying mass, otoconial membrane or cupula to the mechanotransducing portion of the hair cell bundle. Little is known regarding the mechanical deformation properties of the kinocilium. Using a force-deflection technique, we measured two important mechanical properties of kinocilia in the utricle of a turtle, Trachemys (Pseudemys) scripta elegans. First, we measured the stiffness of kinocilia with different heights. These kinocilia were assumed to be homogenous cylindrical rods and were modeled as both isotropic Euler–Bernoulli beams and transversely isotropic Timoshenko beams. Two mechanical properties of the kinocilia were derived from the beam analysis: flexural rigidity (EI) and shear rigidity (kGA). The Timoshenko model produced a better fit to the experimental data, predicting EI=10,400 pN ?m2 and kGA=247 pN. Assuming a homogenous rod, the shear modulus (G=1.9 kPa) was four orders of magnitude less than Young's modulus (E=14.1 MPa), indicating that significant shear deformation occurs within deflected kinocilia. When analyzed as an Euler–Bernoulli beam, which neglects translational shear, EI increased linearly with kinocilium height, giving underestimates of EI for shorter kinocilia. Second, we measured the rotational stiffness of the kinocilium insertion (?) into the hair cell's apical surface. Following BAPTA treatment to break the kinocilial links, the kinocilia remained upright, and ? was measured as 177±47 pN ?m rad–1. The mechanical parameters we quantified are important for understanding how forces arising from head movement are transduced and encoded by hair cells.

Spoon, Corrie; Grant, Wally

2011-01-01

32

Biomechanics of hair cell kinocilia: experimental measurement of kinocilium shaft stiffness and base rotational stiffness with Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam analysis.  

PubMed

Vestibular hair cell bundles in the inner ear contain a single kinocilium composed of a 9+2 microtubule structure. Kinocilia play a crucial role in transmitting movement of the overlying mass, otoconial membrane or cupula to the mechanotransducing portion of the hair cell bundle. Little is known regarding the mechanical deformation properties of the kinocilium. Using a force-deflection technique, we measured two important mechanical properties of kinocilia in the utricle of a turtle, Trachemys (Pseudemys) scripta elegans. First, we measured the stiffness of kinocilia with different heights. These kinocilia were assumed to be homogenous cylindrical rods and were modeled as both isotropic Euler-Bernoulli beams and transversely isotropic Timoshenko beams. Two mechanical properties of the kinocilia were derived from the beam analysis: flexural rigidity (EI) and shear rigidity (kGA). The Timoshenko model produced a better fit to the experimental data, predicting EI=10,400 pN ?m(2) and kGA=247 pN. Assuming a homogenous rod, the shear modulus (G=1.9 kPa) was four orders of magnitude less than Young's modulus (E=14.1 MPa), indicating that significant shear deformation occurs within deflected kinocilia. When analyzed as an Euler-Bernoulli beam, which neglects translational shear, EI increased linearly with kinocilium height, giving underestimates of EI for shorter kinocilia. Second, we measured the rotational stiffness of the kinocilium insertion (?) into the hair cell's apical surface. Following BAPTA treatment to break the kinocilial links, the kinocilia remained upright, and ? was measured as 177±47 pN ?m rad(-1). The mechanical parameters we quantified are important for understanding how forces arising from head movement are transduced and encoded by hair cells. PMID:21307074

Spoon, Corrie; Grant, Wally

2011-03-01

33

Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations.  

PubMed

Human hair has been classified into 3 major groups, as determined by ethnic origin. In these populations, significant structural and biochemical variations of the hair follicle and shaft are seen, as well as unique hair grooming practices. These structural variations of the hair are closely linked to the common disorders of the hair and scalp, such as acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, seborrheic dermatitis, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, dissecting cellulitis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. PMID:23652889

Rodney, Ife J; Onwudiwe, Oge C; Callender, Valerie D; Halder, Rebat M

2013-04-01

34

Impaired Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Cycling with Abnormal Epidermal Differentiation in nackt Mice, a Cathepsin L-Deficient Mutation  

PubMed Central

We previously described an autosomal-recessive mutation named nackt (nkt) exhibiting partial alopecia associated with CD4+ T-cell deficiency. Also, we recently reported that nkt (now Ctslnkt) comprises a deletion in the cathepsin L (Ctsl) gene. Another recent study reported that Ctsl knockout mice have CD4+ T-cell deficiency and periodic shedding of hair, which recapitulate the nkt mutation and the old furless (fs) mutation. The current study focuses on the dermatological aspects of the nkt mutation. Careful histological analysis of skin development of homozygous nkt mice revealed a delayed hair follicle morphogenesis and late onset of the first catagen stage. The skin of Ctslnkt/Ctslnkt mice showed mild epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, severe hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands, and structural alterations of hair follicles. Epidermal differentiation seems to be affected in nkt skin, with overexpression of involucrin and profilaggrin/filaggrin along with focal areas of keratin 6 expression in the interfollicular epidermis. Severe epidermal hyperplasia, acanthosis, orthokeratosis, and hyperkeratosis were only observed in mice maintained in nonpathogen-free environments. The analysis of Rag2?/? Ctslnkt/Ctslnkt double-mutant mice indicates that the skin defect remains under the absence of T and B cells. This animal model provides in vivo evidence that cysteine protease cathepsin L plays a critical role in hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling, as well as epidermal differentiation.

Benavides, Fernando; Starost, Matthew F.; Flores, Monica; Gimenez-Conti, Irma B.; Guenet, Jean-Louis; Conti, Claudio J.

2002-01-01

35

Hair loss  

MedlinePLUS

... notice hair coming out in handfuls while you shampoo, comb, or run your hands through your hair. ... your hair? How often? How often do you shampoo your hair? What kind of shampoo, hair spray, ...

36

Shaft design criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criteria for shaft design are described and methods of design developed. Among aspects covered in detail are: selection of shaft locations; shaft collar design and determination of collar dimensions; shaft lining design and estimation of side pressures; shaft insets and sump design. Factors considered, apart from geotechnical criteria include constraints imposed by surface structures, mineral handling and water flows.

Kot F. Unrug

1984-01-01

37

Blind shaft development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses how Shaft Drillers International (SDI) is breaking new ground in shaft development and ground stabilization. Techniques of blind shaft drilling and raise bore shaft development developed by SDI are briefly explained. An associated company, Coastal Drilling East, deals with all types of ground improvement such as pre-grouting work for shafts, grouting of poor soil and water leaks

Fiscor

2009-01-01

38

Ultramicroscopic observations on morphological changes in hair during 25 years of weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weathering or long-term burial may cause profound morphological and histological changes in hair, which may affect the results of forensic and archaeological investigations. We therefore used ultramicroscopic techniques to assay the changes in weathering hair shafts caused by burial for up to 25 years. We found that the middle portion of hair shafts from living individuals shows the expected histological

Byung Soo Chang; Wan Sung Hong; Eunju Lee; Sung Moon Yeo; In Seok Bang; Yoon Hee Chung; Do Sun Lim; Ga Hee Mun; Jaehyup Kim; Sang Ock Park; Dong Hoon Shin

2005-01-01

39

Artificial sensory hairs based on the flow sensitive receptor hairs of crickets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the modelling, design, fabrication and characterization of flow sensors based on the wind-receptor hairs of crickets. Cricket sensory hairs are highly sensitive to drag-forces exerted on the hair shaft. Artificial sensory hairs have been realized in SU-8 on suspended SixNy membranes. The movement of the membranes is detected capacitively. Capacitance versus voltage, frequency dependence and directional sensitivity measurements have been successfully carried out on fabricated sensor arrays, showing the viability of the concept.

Dijkstra, M.; van Baar, J. J.; Wiegerink, R. J.; Lammerink, T. S. J.; de Boer, J. H.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

2005-07-01

40

Rotary shaft seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith.

Langebrake; Clair O

1984-01-01

41

Blind shaft development  

SciTech Connect

The article discusses how Shaft Drillers International (SDI) is breaking new ground in shaft development and ground stabilization. Techniques of blind shaft drilling and raise bore shaft development developed by SDI are briefly explained. An associated company, Coastal Drilling East, deals with all types of ground improvement such as pre-grouting work for shafts, grouting of poor soil and water leaks into the mine. 3 photos.

Fiscor, S.

2009-02-15

42

The cell cycle regulator protein 14-3-3? is essential for hair follicle integrity and epidermal homeostasis.  

PubMed

The 14-3-3? (Stratifin; Sfn) is a cell cycle regulator intimately involved in the program of epithelial keratinization. 14-3-3? is unique in that it is expressed primarily in epithelial cells and is frequently silenced in epithelial cancers. Despite its well-documented role as a cell cycle regulator and as a tumor suppressor, the function of 14-3-3? in the intricate balance of proliferation and differentiation in epithelial development is poorly understood. A mutation in 14-3-3? was found to be responsible for the repeated epilation (Er) phenotype. It has previously been shown that Sfn(+/Er) mice are characterized by repeated hair loss and regrowth, whereas Sfn(Er/Er) mice die at birth displaying severe oral fusions and limb abnormalities as a result of defects in keratinizing epithelia. Here we show that mice heterozygous for the 14-3-3? mutation have severe defects in hair shaft differentiation, resulting in destruction of the hair shaft during morphogenesis. Furthermore, we report that the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous glands are hyperproliferative, coincident with expanded nuclear Yap1 (Yes-associated protein 1)--a critical modulator of epidermal stem cell proliferation. We also report that hair follicle stem cells in the bulge cycle abnormally, raising important questions as to the role of 14-3-3? in the bulge. PMID:22377760

Hammond, Nigel L; Headon, Denis J; Dixon, Michael J

2012-03-01

43

The cell-cycle regulator protein 14-3-3? is essential for hair follicle integrity and epidermal homeostasis  

PubMed Central

14-3-3? (Stratifin; Sfn) is a cell cycle regulator intimately involved in the programme of epithelial keratinisation. 14-3-3? is unique in that it is expressed primarily in epithelial cells and is frequently silenced in epithelial cancers. Despite its well-documented role as a cell cycle regulator and as a tumour suppressor, 14-3-3?’s function in the intricate balance of proliferation and differentiation in epithelial development is poorly understood. A mutation in 14-3-3? was found to be responsible for the repeated epilation (Er) phenotype. It has previously been shown Sfn+/Er mice are characterised by repeated hair loss and re-growth while SfnEr/Er mice die at birth displaying severe oral fusions and limb abnormalities as a result of defects in keratinising epithelia. Here we show mice heterozygous for the 14-3-3? mutation have severe defects in hair shaft differentiation, resulting in destruction of the hair shaft during morphogenesis. Further, we report the inter-follicular epidermis and sebaceous glands are hyperproliferative, coincident with expanded nuclear Yap1; a critical modulator of epidermal stem cell proliferation. We also report hair follicle stem cells in the bulge cycle abnormally raising important questions as to the role of 14-3-3? in the bulge.

Hammond, Nigel L.; Headon, Denis J.; Dixon, Michael J.

2012-01-01

44

Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... person's hair may look greasy. Time for a shampoo! Continue Hair Today, Gone Tomorrow! You have more ... When you wash your hair, use a gentle shampoo and warm water. Lather up using your fingertips, ...

45

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... type of hair loss, affecting both men and women. In men, hair often begins to recede from the ... of prostate cancer. Finasteride should be avoided by women of childbearing age. Surgery In the most common type of permanent hair loss, ...

46

Bent shaft motor  

DOEpatents

A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

47

Differentiating Inbred Mouse Strains from Each Other and Those with Single Gene Mutations Using Hair Proteomics  

PubMed Central

Mutant laboratory mice with distinctive hair phenotypes are useful for identifying genes responsible for hair diseases. The work presented here demonstrates that shotgun proteomic profiling can distinguish hair shafts from different inbred mouse strains. For this purpose, analyzing the total hair shaft provided better discrimination than analyzing the isolated solubilized and particulate (cross-linked) fractions. Over 100 proteins exhibited significant differences among the 11 strains and 5 mutant stocks across the wide spectrum of strains surveyed. Effects on the profile of single gene mutations causing hair shaft defects were profound. Since the hair shaft provides a discrete sampling of the species proteome, with constituents serving important functions in epidermal appendages and throughout the body, this work provides a foundation for non-invasive diagnosis of genetic diseases of hair and perhaps other tissues.

Rice, Robert H.; Bradshaw, Katie M.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Eigenheer, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett S.; Sundberg, John P.

2012-01-01

48

Rotary valve shaft  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a rotary valve shaft for use with an internal combustion engine having a combustion chamber port, the rotary valve shaft including at least one gas passage means. It comprises groove on the periphery of the rotary valve shaft and a means for connecting the groove with the port upon rotation of the rotary valve shaft, wherein the connecting means comprising notch adjacent to and leading into the groove.

Lynch, R.M.

1992-07-07

49

Shaft drilling machine  

SciTech Connect

A shaft drilling machine has a circularly moving drilling head. The drilling head is angularly oriented with respect to the longitudinal axis of the shaft sought to be drilled. Loosened material is transported from the lower portion of the shaft by pickup means, moving with the drilling head, and taken to the upper portion of the angularly oriented bottom of the shaft, whereupon the loosened material or borings slide, by gravity, to a centrally located vertical conveyor mechanism for final removal of the material or borings from the shaft.

Hennecke, J.; Horst, H.; Podellek, H.

1984-11-20

50

Turbine shaft fuel pump  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a turbine engine having a support housing, a shaft rotatably mounted in the support housing, an annular combustion chamber coaxial with the shaft and the support housing, the shaft having an axial passageway, injector nozzles aligned for discharging fuel into the combustion chamber, and means for pumping and metering a supply of fuel to the injector nozzles, the pumping and metering means. It comprises a flow passageway extending from a first end of the shaft axial passageway and to the injector nozzles the flow passageway comprising an annular chamber formed between two axially spaced and radially inwardly extending walls in the shaft, the annular chamber is open to the axial passageway while a periphery of the annular chamber is open to the injector nozzles, and pumping vanes disposed in the annular chamber, the vanes being secured to the shaft so that, upon rotation of the shaft, the vanes provided pressurized fuel from the passageway to the injectors.

Smith, R.

1991-08-27

51

Hair transplantation.  

PubMed

Hair transplantation is a purely dermatologic surgical procedure that dermatologists should be able to perform in appropriate candidates with hair loss. Hair transplantation techniques performed in the 1960s through the 1990s utilized large grafts that created an unfortunate public image of unnatural-appearing transplanted hair. Over the last 15 years, hair transplantation has been performed using follicular units to create consistently natural-looking transplanted hair in both men and women. This article provides an overview of candidate selection and state-of-the-art techniques for performing hair transplantation. PMID:23409484

Avram, Marc R

2012-12-01

52

Hair Loss (Alopecia)  

MedlinePLUS

... Z Diseases and treatments E - H Hair loss Hair loss Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE-shah) Hereditary hair loss. Millions ... our skin, hair, and nails. Learn more about hair loss: Hair loss: Signs and symptoms Hair loss: Who ...

53

Qualitative investigation of fresh human scalp hair with full-field optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated depth-resolved cellular structures of unmodified fresh human scalp hairs with ultrahigh-resolution full-field optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). The Linnik-type white light interference microscope has been home-implemented to observe the micro-internal layers of human hairs in their natural environment. In hair shafts, FF-OCT has qualitatively revealed the cellular hair compartments of cuticle and cortex layers involved in keratin filaments and melanin granules. No significant difference between black and white hair shafts was observed except for absence of only the melanin granules in the white hair, reflecting that the density of the melanin granules directly affects the hair color. Anatomical description of plucked hair bulbs was also obtained with the FF-OCT in three-dimensions. We expect this approach will be useful for evaluating cellular alteration of natural hairs on cosmetic assessment or diagnosis of hair diseases.

Choi, Woo June; Pi, Long-Quan; Min, Gihyeon; Lee, Won-Soo; Lee, Byeong Ha

2012-03-01

54

Keratin 17 modulates hair follicle cycling in a TNF?-dependent fashion  

PubMed Central

Mammalian hair follicles cycle between stages of rapid growth (anagen) and metabolic quiescence (telogen) throughout life. Transition from anagen to telogen involves an intermediate stage, catagen, consisting of a swift, apoptosis-driven involution of the lower half of the follicle. How catagen is coordinated, and spares the progenitor cells needed for anagen re-entry, is poorly understood. Keratin 17 (K17)-null mice develop alopecia in the first week post-birth, correlating with hair shaft fragility and untimely apoptosis in the hair bulb. Here we show that this abnormal apoptosis reflects premature entry into catagen. Of the proapoptotic challenges tested, K17-null skin keratinocytes in primary culture are selectively more sensitive to TNF?. K17 interacts with TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1)-associated death domain protein (TRADD), a death adaptor essential for TNFR1-dependent signal relay, suggesting a functional link between this keratin and TNF? signaling. The activity of NF-?B, a downstream target of TNF?, is increased in K17-null skin. We also find that TNF? is required for a timely anagen–catagen transition in mouse pelage follicles, and that its ablation partially rescues the hair cycling defect of K17-null mice. These findings identify K17 and TNF? as two novel and interdependent regulators of hair cycling.

Tong, Xuemei; Coulombe, Pierre A.

2006-01-01

55

Variations of scalp, pubic and axillary hair.  

PubMed

Hair examinations and comparisons conducted by forensic scientists often provide investigative and associative information. Apart from its length and its natural color, hair displays a morphologic diversity both macroscopically and microscopically. Pseudogenization of hair keratin gene inactivation highlights dramatic differences and is thought to be one of the strongest reasons for localization of hair in human. Therefore, humans have several different types of hair that can be classified depending on their body position and form. Size, angle of penetrance through the skin, embryological time of first appearance, and structural variations in the hair follicles are all taken into account when classifying hair types. However, the classification of differential types of hair quantitative traits in human is yet to be undertaken. An attempt has been made in the present study to understand the variation by using the histomorphological and quantitative variables of 540 hair strands (180 each scalp, axillary and pubic hair) of 18 adult Bengalee Hindu caste females. Apart from variation in histomorphological variables, quantitative variables regarding shaft and medulla diameter demonstrated variation in terms of being significantly higher (p < 0.05) in pubic hair compared to that of axillary and scalp hair. Therefore, the present study envisaged that variability in histomorphological and quantitative traits in different areas of human could be one of the important criteria for personal identification in forensic research. PMID:22338799

Mistry, Sanchita; Chatterjee, Madhumati; Ghosh, Jyoti Ratan; Chakrabarti, Nirmal Kanti; Bandyopadhyay, Arup Ratan

2012-01-01

56

118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) FORWARD LOOKING AFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE SHOWING THE SHAFT, SHAFT PACKING GLAND, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE AND FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN PIPING. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

57

Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling  

PubMed Central

Embryonic hair follicle induction and formation are regulated by mesenchymal-epithelial interactions between specialized dermal cells and epidermal stem cells that switch to a hair fate. Similarly, during postnatal hair growth, communication between mesenchymal dermal papilla cells and surrounding epithelial matrix cells coordinates hair shaft production. Adult hair follicle regeneration in the hair cycle again is thought to be controlled by activating signals originating from the mesenchymal compartment and acting on hair follicle stem cells. Although many signaling pathways are implicated in hair follicle formation and growth, the precise nature, timing, and intersection of these inductive and regulatory signals remains elusive. The goal of this review is to summarize our current understanding and to discuss recent new insights into mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling.

Sennett, Rachel; Rendl, Michael

2012-01-01

58

The Drosophila Tissue Polarity Gene inturned Functions Prior to Wing Hair Morphogenesis in the Regulation of Hair Polarity and Number  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult cuticular wing of Drosophila is covered with an array of distally pointing hairs. Mutations in the inturned (in) gene result in both abnormal hair polarity (i.e., hairs no longer point distally), and, in most cells forming more than one hair. We have isolated and characterized a collection of in alleles. Among this collection of alleles are a number

Paul N. Adler; Jeannette Charlton; Woo Jin Park

1994-01-01

59

Comparison of hair from rectum cancer patients and from healthy persons by Raman microspectroscopy and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectra of hair from cancer patients show some abnormality.Raman imaging provides more details by identifying patient hair micro-structures.Raman microspectroscopy and imaging of hair may be useful for cancer diagnosis.

Wei, Xiaoli; Wang, Xin; Fang, Yusheng; Huang, Qing

2013-09-01

60

Managing hair loss in midlife women.  

PubMed

Hair is considered one of the most defining aspects of human appearance. Hair loss, or alopecia in women is often met with significant emotional distress and anxiety. In midlife, women may encounter various hormonal and age-related physiologic changes that can lead to alterations in hair texture and growth. The most significant hormonal alteration is the onset of menopause in which there is a cessation of ovarian estrogen production. This decrease in estrogen is known to have deleterious effects on the skin and cutaneous appendages. As our understanding of the molecular and hormonal controls on the hair follicle has grown, there has been increased interest in the various modulators of hair growth, including the potential role of estrogen. Further study of hair changes in midlife women provides an important opportunity for identification of the complex regulation of hair growth as well as identification of treatment targets that may specifically benefit women. In this review, management of hair loss in midlife women is discussed with a focus on three most commonly encountered clinical conditions: female pattern hair loss, hair shaft alterations due to hair care, and telogen effluvium. PMID:23182767

Mirmirani, Paradi

2012-11-24

61

Effect of fluid forcing on vestibular hair bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. A dynamic,3-D hair bundle model including inertia and viscous fluid drag effects based on the finite element method is presented. Six structural components are used to construct the hair bundle – kinocilium, stereocilia, upper lateral links, shaft links, tip links, and kinocilial links. Fluid drag is distributed on the surface of cilia columns. Bundle mechanics are analyzed under two

J. h. Nam; J. r. Cotton; J. w. Grant

62

Hair Follicles – A Long-Term Reservoir for Drug Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticles represent an important drug carrier system. Recently, we have reported on the penetration and storage behavior of particular and non-particular substances revealing the superiority of particular substances in the range of 300–400 nm. In this regard, it was assumed that the rigid hair shaft acts as a geared pump, moving the particles deeper into the hair follicle. In the

J. Lademann; H. Richter; U. F. Schaefer; U. Blume-Peytavi; A. Teichmann; N. Otberg; W. Sterry

2006-01-01

63

Hair Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer, you may also lose your hair. Other causes are stress, a low protein diet, a family history, or poor nutrition. Treatment for hair loss depends on the cause. In some cases, treating the underlying cause will ...

64

Hair Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you�ve ever had a question about the biological make-up of your hair or anyone else�s, then this website is the place to go for answers. The Hair Biology portion of the Keratin web page gives incredible detail on hair fiber, follicles, growth cycle stages, hair length and density. These are just a few of the biological aspects of hair and much more is addressed and covered in great detail on the site. Hair Biology also features photography of different stages of hair growth along with a FAQ section which may answer some commonly asked (and not so commonly) questions about hair. Overall, this site would be an invaluable tool for anyone in the industry or anyone aspiring to join.

2006-11-24

65

Polarized Raman microspectroscopy on intact human hair.  

PubMed

Polarization-resolved Raman microspectroscopy with near-infrared laser excitation was applied to intact human hair in order to non-invasively investigate the conformation and orientation of the polypeptide chains. By varying the orientation of the hair shaft relative to the polarization directions of the laser/analyzer, a set of four polarized Raman spectra is obtained; this allows to simultaneously determine both the secondary structure of hair proteins and the orientation of the polypeptide strands relative to the axis of the hair shaft. For the amide I band, results from a quantitative analysis of the polarized Raman spectra are compared with theoretically expected values for fibers with uniaxial symmetry. Based on the polarization behavior of the amide I band and further vibrational bands, a partial ordering of alpha-helical polypeptide strands parallel to the hair shaft can be concluded. We suggest that this microspectroscopic approach may be used for human hair diagnostics by detecting structural or orientational alterations of keratins. PMID:19343665

Ackermann, Katrin R; Koster, Joachim; Schlücker, Sebastian

2008-10-01

66

Rotary Shaft Sealing Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal...

L. L. Dietle J. E. Schroeder M. S. Kalsi P. D. Alvarez

2004-01-01

67

Rotary Shaft Seal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of...

C. O. Langebrake

1983-01-01

68

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be

Lannie L. Dietle; John E. Schroeder; Manmohan S. Kalsi; Patricio D. Alvarez

2010-01-01

69

Rotary shaft seal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

Langebrake, Clair O. (Waverly, OH)

1984-01-01

70

Cam shaft with expanded hollow shaft  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a camshaft having lobes with irregularly shaped apertures spaced along the longitudinal axis of a hollow tubular shaft. The lobes are orientated radially and axially in predetermined positions along the hollow tubular shaft. The camshaft is characterized by the walls of the hollow shaft expanded outwardly into aperture portions in irregular engagement with the interior of the apertures of the lobes and the walls expanded outwardly radially farther into ballooned portions between adjacent lobes to create corresponding outside and inside shoulders extending between the aperture and ballooned portions. The outside shoulders are disposed immediately adjacent and abutting each side of the lobes circumferentially about the apertures therein to secure the lobes axially upon the shaft, the inside shoulders disposed directly opposite the outside shoulders to that shoulder extend annularly about each end of each of the apertures and the ballooned portions extend between shoulders at adjacent lobes, the exterior circumferences of the lobes being furnished to closer tolerances than the interior apertures and the exterior surfaces of the lobes being positioned radially relative to the longitudinal axis with the radial positions of the interior apertures being offset among adjacent lobes.

Hughes, R.W.; Brisson, R.H.; Brisson, G.R.

1987-09-15

71

Distinguishing Mouse Strains by Proteomic Analysis of Pelage Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

AKR\\/J mice display a hair interior defect (hid) phenotype for which the molecular basis is unknown. To investigate the application of hair-shaft proteomics to the study of such diseases, pelage from AKR\\/J and two other mouse strains without this defect was analyzed by shotgun proteomics. The results permitted the identification of 111 proteins from tryptic digests of total hair from

Robert H Rice; David M Rocke; Hua-Sheng Tsai; Kathleen A Silva; Young Jin Lee; John P Sundberg

2009-01-01

72

Ceramic rotor-shaft attachment  

SciTech Connect

A rotor shaft assembly is described comprising: a metal sleeve member having a cavity therein generally symmetrically distributed about the sleeve axis, a ceramic rotor having a stub shaft symmetrically distributed about the rotor axis; a crimp in the sleeve member corresponding to the annular groove in the stub shaft; and a shaft coaxially affixed to the sleeve member in torque receiving relationship.

Byrne, J.L.

1988-06-07

73

Fabricated torque shaft  

SciTech Connect

A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

Mashey, Thomas Charles (Anderson, SC)

2002-01-01

74

MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD  

DOEpatents

An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

Colbert, H.P.

1962-10-23

75

Characterization of human scalp hairs by optical low-coherence reflectometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical low-coherence reflectometry is used to investigate the internal structure and optical properties of human scalp hair. Regardless of hair color, the refractive index of the cortical region remains within the range of 1.56-1.59. The amplitude of the backscattered infrared light coupled into different-colored hair confirms the relative melanin content. Discontinuities in the refractive index permit identification of distinct structural layers within the hair shaft.

Wang, X. J.; Milner, T. E.; Dhond, R. P.; Sorin, W. V.; Newton, S. A.; Nelson, J. S.

1995-03-01

76

Generation and suppression of singlet oxygen in hair by photosensitization of melanin.  

PubMed

We have studied the spectroscopic properties of hair (white, blond, red, brown, and black) under illumination with visible light, giving special emphasis to the photoinduced generation of singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). Irradiation of hair shafts (?(ex)>400 nm) changed their properties by degrading the melanin. Formation of C3 hydroperoxides in the melanin indol groups was proven by (1)H NMR. After 532-nm excitation, all hair shafts presented the characteristic (1)O(2) emission (?(em)=1270 nm), whose intensity varied inversely with the melanin content. (1)O(2) lifetime was also shown to vary with hair type, being five times shorter in black hair than in blond hair, indicating the role of melanin as a (1)O(2) suppressor. Lifetime ranged from tenths of a nanosecond to a few microseconds, which is much shorter than the lifetime expected for (1)O(2) in the solvents in which the hair shafts were suspended, indicating that (1)O(2) is generated and suppressed inside the hair structure. Both eumelanin and pheomelanin were shown to produce and to suppress (1)O(2), with similar efficiencies. The higher amount of (1)O(2) generated in blond hair and its longer lifetime is compatible with the stronger damage that light exposure causes in blond hair. We propose a model to explain the formation and suppression of (1)O(2) in hair by photosensitization of melanin with visible light and the deleterious effects that an excess of visible light may cause in hair and skin. PMID:21723388

Chiarelli-Neto, Orlando; Pavani, Christiane; Ferreira, Alan S; Uchoa, Adjaci F; Severino, Divinomar; Baptista, Maurício S

2011-06-15

77

Hair today  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable levels of a heteroplasmic point mutation in individual hair roots Bendall, K.E. et al. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 61, 1303–1308Characterization of melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor variant alleles in twins with red hair Box, N.F. et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. 6, 1891–1897

M Jobling

1998-01-01

78

Patchy hair loss on the pubis--a case study.  

PubMed

A female, aged 17 years and with a history of anorexia nervosa, presented with a 3 month history of a large, irregular area of hair loss over the pubis. Physical examination revealed scattered short hairs of varying length, follicular hyperkeratosis and hyperpigmentation throughout the area of alopecia (Figure 1a). A magnified view revealed decreased hair density, broken hairs with different shaft lengths, short vellous hairs and signs of recent haemorrhage (Figure 1b). The remainder of the hairs appeared normal, and her nails did not show any pathological changes. The hair-pull test was negative. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination and fungal culture were negative. Biochemical studies, abdominal X-ray and ultrasonography were normal. PMID:23826602

Grillo, Emiliano; Vano-Galvan, Sergio; Diaz-Ley, Blanca; Jaén, Pedro

2013-07-01

79

Hair diseases.  

PubMed

A few common causes of hair loss account for the vast majority of cases. A well-directed history and simple physical examination is often sufficient to make a diagnosis. Laboratory testing is often unnecessary. A scalp biopsy can be useful, but only if processed and interpreted correctly. Androgenetic alopecia, alopecia areata, senescent alopecia, telogen effluvium, traction alopecia, trichotillomania, and cosmetic hair damage are common causes of non-scarring alopecia. Discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, and central, centrifugal scarring alopecia are the most common forms of scarring hair loss. PMID:9769798

Sperling, L C; Mezebish, D S

1998-09-01

80

Congenital hypothyroidism, spiky hair, and cleft palate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two brothers are described with athyroidal hypothyroidism, spiky hair, choanal atresia, cleft palate, and bifid epiglottis. Polyhydramnios was present in the third trimester of each pregnancy. These abnormalities appear to represent a new syndrome.

J S Bamforth; I A Hughes; J H Lazarus; C M Weaver; P S Harper

1989-01-01

81

Mobilities of the cercal wind-receptor hairs of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deflection sensitivities of cercal filiform hairs of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, were determined by direct measurement. The tangential velocity of deflecting hair shafts in response to stimulus air motion\\u000a was measured in situ by a laser-Doppler velocimeter with surface scattering of the shaft. The velocity of the stimulus air motion in a small wind\\u000a tunnel was calibrated by the

T. Kumagai; T. Shimozawa; Y. Baba

1998-01-01

82

Shaft design criteria  

SciTech Connect

Shaft design with adjacent openings is probably the most complex engineering problem in the process of mine construction. Since for each case the final solution must satisfy requirements for a given set of natural conditions and production goals, there is no single procedure to be recommended, but rather a multitude of approaches to be considered. However, certain technical solutions, as present

Unrug, K.F.

1984-02-01

83

Large shaft development study  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to determine the largest diameter shaft that can be drilled at Hanford utilizing drilling equipment currently on-site, in a single pass, with reasonable assurance of success. Also addressed are such related considerations as circulation systems, bit design, cutter design and configuration, weight on bit, and overall drill penetration rates. 4 refs., 1 tab.

McKinney, S.M. (Morrison-Knudsen Co., Inc., Richland, WA (USA))

1984-09-20

84

Shaft generator transmissions  

SciTech Connect

Economical on-board power can be generated from two-stroke, low-speed engines by installing a multistage hollow-shaft gearbox on the propeller intermediate shaft to drive the generator. Gearbox manufacturer Asug, based in Dessau, Germany, has designed units specifically for this purpose. The Asug shaft generator drive concept for generator drives at the front end of the engine is designed to reduce installation costs and uses an integrated engine-gearbox foundation. The complete propulsion system, consisting of the diesel engine, gear with coupling and generator, can be completely or partially preassembled outside the ship`s engine room to reduce onboard assembly time. A separate foundation for this arrangement is not necessary. The company offers a full range of gearboxes to generate power from 500 kW up to 5000 kW. Gearboxes driven from the forward engine end often incorporate an additional gear stage to gain energy from an exhaust turbine. This arrangement feeds part of the exhaust energy back into the system to increase efficiency. Latest installations of Asug shaft generator gears are in container ships and cargo/container ships built in Turkey and China.

NONE

1995-11-01

85

Polygonal shaft hole rotor  

DOEpatents

A laminated rotor for an induction motor has a plurality of ferro-magnetic laminations mounted axially on a rotor shaft. Each of the plurality of laminations has a central aperture in the shape of a polygon with sides of equal length. The laminations are alternatingly rotated 180.degree. from one another so that the straight sides of the polygon shaped apertures are misaligned. As a circular rotor shaft is press fit into a stack of laminations, the point of maximum interference occurs at the midpoints of the sides of the polygon (i.e., at the smallest radius of the central apertures of the laminations). Because the laminates are alternatingly rotated, the laminate material at the points of maximum interference yields relatively easily into the vertices (i.e., the greatest radius of the central aperture) of the polygonal central aperture of the next lamination as the shaft is inserted into the stack of laminations. Because of this yielding process, the amount of force required to insert the shaft is reduced, and a tighter fit is achieved.

Hussey, John H. (St. Louis, MO); Rose, John Scott (Alton, IL); Meystrik, Jeffrey J. (Webster Groves, MO); White, Kent Lee (Maryland Heights, MO)

2001-01-23

86

Blind shaft drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mining of various minerals from the earth, large mining shafts extending from the surface down to the deposited mineral layers or seams in the earth can be provided through the use of large diameter bore hole drilling equipment. With the drilling equipment stationed on the surface of the earth, a drilling member is drilled down into the earth

P. Richardson; D. C. Albers; D. A. Whitley

1985-01-01

87

The Very Large G-Protein-Coupled Receptor VLGR1: A Component of the Ankle Link Complex Required for the Normal Development of Auditory Hair Bundles  

PubMed Central

Sensory hair bundles in the inner ear are composed of stereocilia that can be interconnected by a variety of different link types, including tip links, horizontal top connectors, shaft connectors, and ankle links. The ankle link antigen is an epitope specifically associated with ankle links and the calycal processes of photoreceptors in chicks. Mass spectrometry and immunoblotting were used to identify this antigen as the avian ortholog of the very large G-protein-coupled receptor VLGR1, the product of the Usher syndrome USH2C (Mass1) locus. Like ankle links, Vlgr1 is expressed transiently around the base of developing hair bundles in mice. Ankle links fail to form in the cochleae of mice carrying a targeted mutation in Vlgr1 (Vlgr1/del7TM), and the bundles become disorganized just after birth. FM1-43 [N-(3-triethylammonium)propyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl) pyridinium dibromide] dye loading and whole-cell recordings indicate mechanotransduction is impaired in cochlear, but not vestibular, hair cells of early postnatal Vlgr1/del7TM mutant mice. Auditory brainstem recordings and distortion product measurements indicate that these mice are severely deaf by the third week of life. Hair cells from the basal half of the cochlea are lost in 2-month-old Vlgr1/del7TM mice, and retinal function is mildly abnormal in aged mutants. Our results indicate that Vlgr1 is required for formation of the ankle link complex and the normal development of cochlear hair bundles.

McGee, JoAnn; Goodyear, Richard J.; McMillan, D. Randy; Stauffer, Eric A.; Holt, Jeffrey R.; Locke, Kirsten G.; Birch, David G.; Legan, P. Kevin; White, Perrin C.; Walsh, Edward J.; Richardson, Guy P.

2009-01-01

88

Shaft Currents in Electric Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the causes of, and remedies for, the existence of ``shaft currents'' or ``bearing currents'' which sometimes flow across the rubbing surfaces of the bearings of electric machinery, thereby gradually damaging the shaft and bearings. Up to the present time the only cause of shaft currents that has attracted any particular attention has been the use of sectionalized

P. L. Alger; H. W Samson

1924-01-01

89

Hair collection  

Treesearch

Noninvasive survey methods for North American carnivores. ... Description: The identification of species from hair samples is probably as old as ... but did not receive much scientific attention until efficient and relatively inexpensive methods for ...

90

Senile hair graying: H2O2-mediated oxidative stress affects human hair color by blunting methionine sulfoxide repair.  

PubMed

Senile graying of human hair has been the subject of intense research since ancient times. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in hair follicle melanocyte apoptosis and DNA damage. Here we show for the first time by FT-Raman spectroscopy in vivo that human gray/white scalp hair shafts accumulate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in millimolar concentrations. Moreover, we demonstrate almost absent catalase and methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B protein expression via immunofluorescence and Western blot in association with a functional loss of methionine sulfoxide (Met-S=O) repair in the entire gray hair follicle. Accordingly, Met-S=O formation of Met residues, including Met 374 in the active site of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis, limits enzyme functionality, as evidenced by FT-Raman spectroscopy, computer simulation, and enzyme kinetics, which leads to gradual loss of hair color. Notably, under in vitro conditions, Met oxidation can be prevented by L-methionine. In summary, our data feed the long-voiced, but insufficiently proven, concept of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in the entire human hair follicle, inclusive of the hair shaft, as a key element in senile hair graying, which does not exclusively affect follicle melanocytes. This new insight could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process. PMID:19237503

Wood, J M; Decker, H; Hartmann, H; Chavan, B; Rokos, H; Spencer, J D; Hasse, S; Thornton, M J; Shalbaf, M; Paus, R; Schallreuter, K U

2009-02-23

91

Hair Dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis to hair dye ingredients have been known since human started dyeing with aromatic amines like p-phenylenediamine\\u000a (PPD). Hair dye allergy may cause severe clinical reactions, with edema of the face, eyelids, and scalp. More moderate reactions\\u000a such as erythema, suppuration, and ulceration, typically at the scalp margin, on the ears, and sometimes with evidence of\\u000a eczema where the

David Basketter; Jeanne Duus Johansen; John McFadden; Heidi Søsted

92

Lornoxicam-induced hair loss: An unusual case.  

PubMed

A patient started on 8 mg lornoxicam twice daily for pain in the hips developed acute-onset scalp hair loss. History and clinical examination revealed no evident abnormalities. Temporal association of the onset of hair loss with the use of lornoxicam, inability to explain hair loss by alternate causes, possibility of hair loss with lornoxicam and resolution on dechallenge placed this reaction as a probable adverse reaction to lornoxicam. PMID:24029201

Keny, M S; Ghodge, R R; Bandekar, S M

93

Hair Dye and Hair Relaxers  

MedlinePLUS

... hair dye you use, follow directions carefully. Pay attention to all “Caution” or “Warning” statements. What problems ... safely? • Follow the directions in the package. Pay attention to all “Caution” and “Warning” statements. • Do a ...

94

U1h shaft project  

SciTech Connect

The U1h shaft project is a design/build subcontract to construct one 20 foot (ft) finished diameter shaft to a depth of 1,045 ft at the Nevada Test Site. Atkinson Construction was subcontracted by Bechtel Nevada to construct the U1h Shaft for the Department of Energy. The project consists of furnishing and installing the sinking plant, construction of the 1,045 ft of concrete lined shaft, development of a shaft station at a depth of 976 ft, and construction of a loading pocket at the station. The outfitting of the shaft and installation of a new hoist may be incorporated into the project at a later date. This paper should be of interest to those involved with the construction of relatively deep shafts and underground excavations.

Brian Briggs; R. G. Musick

2000-06-30

95

Pump shaft inspection system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for inspecting a solid shaft for physical defects. It comprises: positioning a matrix of transducers within a predetermined range of one another to form a transducer head having an aperture for generating bulk longitudinal acoustic waves into a solid shaft; coupling each transducer to the output of a respective pulser for applying a voltage across the transducer for generating bulk longitudinal acoustic waves; coupling each the transducer to the input of a respective preamplifier for amplifying electrical signals generated across the transducer in response to the receipt of reflected acoustic waves; coupling an output of each the preamplifier to a respective input of a summing amplifier to provide the algebraic sum of the input signals at an input of each the pulser to the output of a respective pulse width modulator; and coupling a trigger pulse to the input of each pulse width modulator.

Light, G.M.; Bloom, E.A.; Liku, S.N.

1990-02-13

96

Mimicking hair disorders by genetic manipulation of organ cultured human hair follicles  

PubMed Central

Human hair follicles can be dissected out of the scalp skin and cultured in vitro in defined growth medium. Hair follicle organ cultures have previously been used to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanisms through which various factors regulate the maintenance and cycling of adult hair follicles. In this issue, Samuelov et al. transfected organ-cultured human hair follicles with siRNA nucleotides and suppressed the expression of the endogenous P-cadherin gene in follicular keratinocytes. Knocking-down the expression of P-cadherin in hair follicles in vitro recapitulated the hair follicle phenotype observed in patients with hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy (HJMD), and enabled the authors to establish a cause-effect relationship between loss of P-cadherin and suppression of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and, upregulation of TGF?2 during the development of the hair abnormalities observed in HJMD patients.

Chen, Jiang; Roop, Dennis R.

2013-01-01

97

Detect shaft cracks earlier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petrochemia Plock, Poland`s largest refinery with an annual processing capacity of 12.6 million tons of crude and products, had a history of resonance problems on a 16-year-old turbocompressor train. When problems worsened, it was decided to include this train in a recently installed online, computer-based monitoring system. Online predictive monitoring of both shaft radial vibration and phase enabled the refinery

L. Barszczewski; M. A. Flanagan

1995-01-01

98

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

DOEpatents

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

2013-08-13

99

Rotary shaft sealing assembly  

DOEpatents

A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

Dietle, Lannie L. (Houston, TX); Schroeder, John E. (Richmond, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Alvarez, Patricio D. (Richmond, TX)

2010-09-21

100

Brown-colored deposits on hair of female rats chronically exposed to 60-Hz electric fields  

SciTech Connect

An increased incidence and severity of a brownish coloration of hair has been observed around the nose and on the ears of female rats that were chronically exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Microscopic examination of the colored areas revealed a red-brown globular deposit on hair shafts in affected areas without signs of physical injury.

Leung, F.C.; Rommereim, D.N.; Miller, R.A.; Anderson, L.E. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

1990-01-01

101

Vibrational characteristics of cracked shafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vibrational characteristics of a cracked Timoshenko shaft are investigated in this paper. Analytical expressions and derived curves relating the crack depth and location on the shaft to changes in the first few natural frequencies of the shaft are presented. These expressions are obtained by modeling the crack as bending and shear compliances of equivalent incremental strain energy by using the J-integral concept from fracture mechanics. It is shown that knowledge of the changes in the first three natural frequencies relative to the uncracked shaft is sufficient to estimate the crack depth and crack location in the shaft. Each additional crack in the shaft requires the knowledge of the changes in two more higher natural frequencies.

Rajab, M. D.; Al-Sabeeh, A.

1991-06-01

102

Structural scaling and functional design of the cercal wind-receptor hairs of cricket  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have estimated the intrinsic mechanical parameters of cricket cercal wind-receptor hairs. The hairs were modeled as an\\u000a inverted pendulum, and mechanical parameters of the equation of motion were determined from data given by a systematic measurement\\u000a of mobility by the least-square error method. The theoretical torque which turns the hair shaft is given by the drag force\\u000a due to

T. Shimozawa; T. Kumagai; Y. Baba

1998-01-01

103

Hollow cam shaft  

SciTech Connect

A hollow cam shaft is described comprising: a steel pipe having an outer peripheral surface, defining an outer diameter of the steel pipe, a journal portion formed by cutting a portion of the outer peripheral surface, the journal portion having a uniform axial length and uniform radial depth and having an outer diameter smaller than the outer diameter of the steel pipe, an annular groove formed at each axial end of the journal portion, a cam portion assembled to a portion of the outer peripheral surface of the steel pipe adjacent the journal portion.

Fujita, Y.; Yunokawa, T.

1988-03-15

104

Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth  

SciTech Connect

Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Nishiofuku, Mariko; Matsuda, Ryosuke; Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

2008-03-07

105

Nudging hair shedding by antidandruff shampoos. A comparison of 1% ketoconazole, 1% piroctone olamine and 1% zinc pyrithione formulations.  

PubMed

Hair shedding and hair thinning have been reported to be affected by dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The present study was conducted in 150 men presenting with telogen effluvium related to androgenic alopecia associated with dandruff. They were randomly allocated to three groups receiving each one of the three shampoos in the market containing either 1% ketoconazole (KTZ), 1% piroctone olamine (PTO) or 1% zinc pyrithione (ZPT). Shampoos had to be used 2-3 times a week for 6 months. Hair shedding during shampoo was evaluated semiquantitatively. Hair density on the vertex was evaluated on photographs using a Dermaphot. Trichograms were used for determining the anagen hair percentage and the mean proximal hair shaft diameter using computerized image analysis. The sebum excretion rate (SER, mug cm(-2) h(-1)) was also measured using a Sebumeter. The three treatments cleared pruritus and dandruff rapidly. At end point, hair density was unchanged, although hair shedding was decreased (KTZ: -17.3%, PTO: -16.5%, ZPT: -10.1%) and the anagen hair percentage was increased (KTZ: 4.9%, PTO: 7.9%, ZPT: 6.8%). The effect on the mean hair shaft diameter was contrasted between the three groups of volunteers (KTZ: 5.4%, PTO: 7.7%, ZPT: -2.2%). In conclusion, telogen effluvium was controlled by KTZ, PTO and ZPT shampoos at 1% concentration. In addition, KTZ and PTO increased the mean hair shaft thickness while discretely decreasing the sebum output at the skin surface. PMID:18498517

Piérard-Franchimont, C; Goffin, V; Henry, F; Uhoda, I; Braham, C; Piérard, G E

2002-10-01

106

The ultrastructural characteristics of the hair bulb of segmented heterochromia in the scalp hair.  

PubMed

Segmented heterochromia is a pigmentary disorder characterized by alternating dark and light segments on each hair shaft. Our aim was to observe the ultrastructure of hair shafts and bulbs to understand the pathogenesis of the disease. Biopsy specimens including normal or diseased hair follicles were prepared for transmission electron microscopy. In dark segments, dense and ellipsoidal melanosomes were noted while small, round ones were found in the light segments. Two groups of melanosomes lined up on the matrix, one of which was composed of compact ellipsoidal melanosomes, and the other was composed of melanosomes with irregular sizes and shapes. Melanocytes seemed to be under necrosis, apoptosis, or dark cell transformation. Langerhans cells were found in the bulb. Two kinds of melanosomes were produced in the same hair bulb simultaneously. Degenerating melanocytes might produce deformed melanosomes. Langerhans cells might be involved in the death of melanocytes. It is unknown how either group of melanosomes is adopted and transferred to the hair cortex producing the characteristic pattern of pigmentation. PMID:15564202

Sohn, Seonghyang; Lee, Joong Sun; Lee, Eun-So; Yoon, Kyeong Han; Kang, Hee Young

107

Shaft drilling rig  

SciTech Connect

A shaft drilling rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a drill string having a plurality of components for drilling a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for drilling at least to a drill bit on the drill string, the drilling being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further drill string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the drill string for further drilling; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further drill string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further drill string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further drill string component is to be added to the drill string and a parking position spaced laterally of the drill string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the drill string which has been separated from the upper part of the drill string preparatory to adding the further drill string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the drilling direction.

Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.

1986-06-17

108

Heteroplasmy in hair: Differences among hair and blood from the same individuals are still a matter of debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a useful tool in forensic cases when sample contents too little or degraded nuclear DNA to genotype by autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, but it is especially useful when the only forensic evidence is a hair shaft. Several authors have related differences in mtDNA from different tissues within the same individual, with

Greiciane G. Paneto; Joyce A. Martins; Larissa V. G. Longo; Gabriella A. Pereira; Adriana Freschi; Vera L. S. Alvarenga; Bety Chen; Rogério N. Oliveira; Mário H. Hirata; Regina M. B. Cicarelli

2007-01-01

109

Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one

J. E. Griggs; H. J. Newman

1983-01-01

110

Shaft Seal Assembly and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for exampl...

J. E. Keba

2007-01-01

111

Is propionibacterium acnes associated with hair casts and alopecia?  

PubMed

We report a series of four patients who presented with complaints of diffuse non-scarring alopecia. They had similar clinical features of alopecia, hyperseborrhea, and distinct keratinaceous hair casts that encircled the hair shafts. Propionibacterium acnes was isolated from two of the patients' scalp, and Gram-positive, Giemsa-positive bacteria were seen in the hair follicles in the scalp biopsy of one of the patients. The patients' symptoms did not respond to standard treatment for seborrheic dermatitis, but responded to a course of systemic antibiotics targeting P. acnes. We propose a role for P. acnes colonization of the terminal hair follicles in the pathogenesis of hair casts, and possibly diffuse non-scarring alopecia. Possible mechanisms of pathogenesis are discussed with a literature review. PMID:23180917

Wang, Etienne; Lee, Joyce Siong-See; Hee, Tan Hiok

2012-04-01

112

Coaxial drive shaft system with shearable section  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a drive shaft system which includes a single input shaft for driving plural outputs. It comprises: a pair of coaxial, telescoped drive shafts both drivingly connected independently to the single input shaft for providing independent outputs at different speeds to a pair of driven means; and a shear action formed on one of the drive shafts for rupturing the one drive shaft in response to an overload condition thereon while the other coaxial, telescoped drive shaft continues to be rotated by the single input shaft.

Becker, T.; Ryan, D.M.

1990-06-12

113

Hair bleach poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair bleach poisoning occurs when someone swallows or splashes this substance on their skin or in their eyes. This ... Hydrogen peroxide Some hair bleaches Note: This list may not include all sources of hair bleach.

114

Hair Pulling (Trichotillomania)  

MedlinePLUS

... The medical term for severe hair pulling is trichotillomania. People with trichotillomania pull hair on various parts of their bodies, ... clips, a hat, wig or scarf. People with trichotillomania are not able stop pulling their hair. As ...

115

Characterization of Hair Follicle Development in Engineered Skin Substitutes  

PubMed Central

Generation of skin appendages in engineered skin substitutes has been limited by lack of trichogenic potency in cultured postnatal cells. To investigate the feasibility and the limitation of hair regeneration, engineered skin substitutes were prepared with chimeric populations of cultured human keratinocytes from neonatal foreskins and cultured murine dermal papilla cells from adult GFP transgenic mice and grafted orthotopically to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice. Non-cultured dissociated neonatal murine-only skin cells, or cultured human-only skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts without dermal papilla cells served as positive and negative controls respectively. In this study, neonatal murine-only skin substitutes formed external hairs and sebaceous glands, chimeric skin substitutes formed pigmented hairs without sebaceous glands, and human-only skin substitutes formed no follicles or glands. Although chimeric hair cannot erupt readily, removal of upper skin layer exposed keratinized hair shafts at the skin surface. Development of incomplete pilosebaceous units in chimeric hair corresponded with upregulation of hair-related genes, LEF1 and WNT10B, and downregulation of a marker of sebaceous glands, Steroyl-CoA desaturase. Transepidermal water loss was normal in all conditions. This study demonstrated that while sebaceous glands may be involved in hair eruption, they are not required for hair development in engineered skin substitutes.

Sriwiriyanont, Penkanok; Lynch, Kaari A.; McFarland, Kevin L.; Supp, Dorothy M.; Boyce, Steven T.

2013-01-01

116

Configuration for V type double overhead cam shaft engine utilizing interchangable intake cam shafts and interchangable exhaust cam shafts  

SciTech Connect

A configuration is described for a V type double overhead cam shaft engine comprising a crank shaft, a left cylinder bank with a left bank cylinder head, and a right cylinder with a right bank cylinder head, wherein: (a) a left bank intake cam shaft is fitted to the left bank cylinder head and a right bank intake cam shaft is fitted the the right bank cylinder head, the left bank intake cam shaft being substantially identically formed to the right bank intake cam shaft and being fitted in reversed alignment thereto; (b) a left bank exhaust cam shaft is fitted to the left bank cylinder head and a right bank exhaust cam shaft is fitted to the right bank cylinder head, the left bank exhaust cam shaft being substantially identically formed to the right bank exhaust cam shaft and being fitted in reversed alignment thereto; (c) a pair of the same type of the cam shafts are driven in a determinate phase relationship with the engine crank shaft; (d) a pair of left bank gears, with the same number of teeth, are provided one on the left bank intake cam shaft and one on the left bank exhaust cam shaft, and mesh together so as to rotationally couple together the left bank intake cam shaft and the left bank exhaust cam shaft in a determinate phase relationship.

Fujita, H.

1986-09-09

117

Large shaft development test plan  

SciTech Connect

This test plan proposes the conduct of shaft liner tests as part of the large shaft development test proposed for the Hanford Site in support of the repository development program. The objectives of these tests are to develop techniques for measuring liner alignment (straightness), both construction assembly alignment and downhole cumulative alignment, and to assess the alignment information as a real time feedback to aid the installation procedure. The test plan is based upon installing a 16 foot ID shaft liner into a 20 foot diameter shaft to a depth of 1000 feet. This test plan is considered to be preliminary in that it was prepared as input for the decision to determine if development testing is required in this area. Should the decision be made to proceed with development testing, this test plan shall be updated and revised. 6 refs., 2 figs.

Krug, A.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1984-03-01

118

Case study: ancient sloth DNA recovered from hairs preserved in paleofeces.  

PubMed

Ancient hair, which has proved to be an excellent source of well-preserved ancient DNA, is often preserved in paleofeces. Here, we separate and wash hair shafts preserved in a paleofecal specimen believed to be from a Darwin's ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. After extracting DNA from the recovered and cleaned hair using a protocol optimized for DNA extraction from keratinous substrates, we amplify 12S and 16S rDNA sequences from the DNA extract. As expected, the recovered sequences most closely match previously published sequences of M. darwinii. Our results demonstrate that hair preserved in paleofeces, even from temperate cave environments, is an effective source of ancient DNA. PMID:22237521

Clack, Andrew A; Macphee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

2012-01-01

119

Resilient shaft mounting for pump  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pump. It comprises: a tube having a centrifugal pump mounted on an upper end thereof, the centrifugal pump having an inlet coaxial with the tube, an outlet disposed radially and an impeller rotatable in a housing to pump a liquid; at least one propeller disposed in the tube below the centrifugal pump, the propeller being rotatable to draw fluid upwardly in the tube; a shaft connecting the impeller of the centrifugal with the propeller in the tube; at least one triangular support for the shaft, having three resilient planar plates dimensioned to be bowed inwardly in the tube and enclosing the shaft. The plates are discrete sections, each having ends disposed against an inner surface of the tube and against an adjoining one of the plates, an intermediate portion of each of the plates resiliently bearing inwardly toward the shaft; and, a resilient bushing disposed between the plates and the shaft, the resilient bushing being a round tube deformed into a triangular shape by pressure of the plates; whereby the shaft is supported coaxially in the tube.

Valentine, W.

1990-06-12

120

The absorption of mercuric ion into single human head hairs  

SciTech Connect

The concentration patterns of radioactive Hg++, Cu++, and I- in individual hair shafts, after soaking in aqueous solutions of these tracers, were measured nondestructively to permit repeated experiments on a given shaft. The mercury concentrations generally increased from the root end to the distal end of a given shaft less steeply than those of copper, while iodide concentrations generally decreased. Concentration peaks and other pattern features for mercury were also relatively less intense, but there was some correlation of the position of such areas of increased mercury, copper, and iodine adsorption in a given shaft. At equilibrium after more than 100 h of soaking, the amount of mercury taken up at pH 8 by the hair was three to four times that at pH 3. The rate of absorption of mercury was higher at low pH values, and that of desorption higher at high pH values. The relative intensity of pattern features remained constant during absorption or desorption at a given pH, but changed if the pH was changed. These data are discussed in terms of the chemistry of the hair binding sites for cations and anions.

Mackintosh, J.; Pate, B.D.

1982-07-01

121

[Radioimmunoassay of testosterone concentrations in hair: use in doping control].  

PubMed

The measurement of doping agents in hair is attractive since it offers an increase in retrospective detection of doping with these substances. Hair analysis has a wide window of detection, ranging from months to years, depending on the length of the hair shaft and provides information concerning the pattern of an individual's drug abuse. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of a radioimmunological method to determine physiological concentrations of testosterone in hair. Specimens of hair were collected from four children, nine women and twelve men. None of the subjects was an athlete. Hair samples were weighed, decontaminated and digested in sodium hydroxide. The homogenates were extracted by organic solvent. After evaporation, testosterone was measured by radioimmuno-assay. Hair testosterone concentrations ranged 0.6-2.7 pg/mg, 1.8-6.4 pg/mg and 3.6-23.3 pg/mg for children, women and men respectively. This method is fast and accurate and could have applications in doping control, for screening easily numerous hair samples. GCMS is absolutely necessary to confirm results above 30 pg/mg. PMID:11787430

Mornay, E; Deveaux, M; Soudan, B; Gosset, D

2001-09-01

122

[Frizzy hair pathology].  

PubMed

Frizzy hair syndrome is frequent. It is due to sideways growth and tight coiling of the hair fiber. It is often secondary to unsuitable grooming practices causing ingrown hair (pili incarnati) followed by infection and\\or damage. The fragility of frizzy hair promotes alopecia due to chronic traction, use of hair relaxers, and perming. Treatment of complications is difficult so awareness of precautionary measures is important. PMID:22235613

Morand, Jean-Jacques

2011-10-01

123

MALDI-TOF and MALDI-FTICR imaging mass spectrometry of methamphetamine incorporated into hair.  

PubMed

A new approach is described for imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) of methamphetamine (MA) incorporated into human hair using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF) and MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR). A longitudinal section of a lengthwise manually-cut single human hair shaft from a chronic MA user was directly analyzed by MALDI-TOF-IMS after deposited with ?-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix. A barcode-like image, which was most probably generated with repeated intakes of MA, was for the first time obtained by monitoring MA-specific product ion in the selected reaction monitoring mode. Laser beam scan lengthwise-cut hair shafts gave only poor mass spectra of MA, probably due to the loss of MA and/or the thermal denaturation of hair. The identity of MA detected in hair was further confirmed by MALDI-FTICR mass spectrometry. A combination with ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry by FTICR provided indisputable identification of MA. The MALDI-FTICR-IMS of another hair shaft from the same MA user also provided a barcode-like image by monitoring the protonated molecule of MA with ultra-high resolution. The two barcode-like images exhibited a close resemblance. Thus, MALDI-IMS can offer a new perspective: 'imaging hair analyses for drugs'. PMID:21438091

Miki, Akihiro; Katagi, Munehiro; Kamata, Tooru; Zaitsu, Kei; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Takubo, Takayuki; Suzuki, Koichi

2011-04-01

124

Sebaceous Hyperplasia of the Scrotum and Penile Shaft  

PubMed Central

Sebaceous hyperplasia (SH) is a proliferative abnormality of sebaceous glands, most often seen in elderly individuals. It consists of single or multiple, asymptomatic, small yellow papules with a central depression. The face is most commonly affected, but there have been reports of SH on the chest or genitalia. A lobular array of well-differentiated mature sebaceous lobules is noted on histological preparations. In this report, we describe a patient with SH on the penile shaft and parts of the scrotum.

Kim, Hei Sung; Lee, Jun Young; Kim, Hyung Ok

2011-01-01

125

Pathobiology of chemotherapy-induced hair loss.  

PubMed

Hair loss can be a psychologically devastating adverse effect of chemotherapy, but satisfactory management strategies for chemotherapy-induced alopecia remain elusive. In this Review we focus on the complex pathobiology of this side-effect. We discuss the clinical features and current management approaches, then draw upon evidence from mouse models and human hair-follicle organ-culture studies to explore the main pathobiology principles and explain why chemotherapy-induced alopecia is so challenging to manage. P53-dependent apoptosis of hair-matrix keratinocytes and chemotherapy-induced hair-cycle abnormalities, driven by the dystrophic anagen or dystrophic catagen pathway, play important parts in the degree of hair-follicle damage, alopecia phenotype, and hair-regrowth pattern. Additionally, the degree of hair-follicle stem-cell damage determines whether chemotherapy-induced alopecia is reversible. We highlight the need for carefully designed preclinical research models to generate novel, clinically relevant pointers to how this condition may be overcome. PMID:23369683

Paus, Ralf; Haslam, Iain S; Sharov, Andrey A; Botchkarev, Vladimir A

2013-02-01

126

Large shaft development test plan  

SciTech Connect

This test plan proposes the conduct of tests of the grout implaced as part of the large shaft development test proposed for the Hanford Site in support of the repository development program. The objectives of these tests are to develop the methodology to determine the feasibility of successfully grouting the annulus of a large diameter shaft. The test plan is based upon grouting inplace a 16 foot ID liner in a 20 foot diameter in a 1000 foot shaft. Specific objectives are to: determine the material properties of the grout implaced in the shaft annulus; evaluate the ability of the grout to completely displace the drilling fluid during grout implacement; determine the ability of a grout to act as a barrier to hydraulic transport; and assess the suitability of using nondestructive testing methods for assessing the completeness of grouting, the presence of voids, and the effectiveness of bonding between the grout and shaft wall. This test plan is considered to be preliminary in that it was prepared as input for the decision to determine if development testing is required in this area. Should the decision be made to proceed with development testing, this test plan shall be updated and revised. 33 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Krug, A.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1984-02-01

127

Menkes' disease: report of a case and determination of eumelanin and pheomelanin in hypopigmented hair.  

PubMed

We report a male infant with Menkes' disease who showed, at the age of 3 months, slow growth, hair abnormalities such as pili torti and white hair, and low levels of serum copper and ceruloplasmin. The exceptionally bright portions of his hair contained eumelanin and pheomelanin at levels only half those of normal Japanese controls. After subcutaneous administration of copper-histidinate for 2 months, his scalp hair changed to dark brown. PMID:1638075

Tomita, Y; Kondo, Y; Ito, S; Hara, M; Yoshimura, T; Igarashi, H; Tagami, H

1992-01-01

128

Exploratory shaft liner corrosion estimate  

SciTech Connect

An estimate of expected corrosion degradation during the 100-year design life of the Exploratory Shaft (ES) is presented. The basis for the estimate is a brief literature survey of corrosion data, in addition to data taken by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The scope of the study is expected corrosion environment of the ES, the corrosion modes of general corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, dissimilar metal corrosion, and environmentally assisted cracking. The expected internal and external environment of the shaft liner is described in detail and estimated effects of each corrosion mode are given. The maximum amount of general corrosion degradation was estimated to be 70 mils at the exterior and 48 mils at the interior, at the shaft bottom. Corrosion at welds or mechanical joints could be significant, dependent on design. After a final determination of corrosion allowance has been established by the project it will be added to the design criteria. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Duncan, D.R.

1985-10-01

129

An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan  

SciTech Connect

This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

Not Available

1987-03-01

130

Heteroplasmy in hair: differences among hair and blood from the same individuals are still a matter of debate.  

PubMed

The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a useful tool in forensic cases when sample contents too little or degraded nuclear DNA to genotype by autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci, but it is especially useful when the only forensic evidence is a hair shaft. Several authors have related differences in mtDNA from different tissues within the same individual, with high frequency of heteroplasmic variants in hair, as also in some other tissues. Is still a matter of debate how the differences influence the interpretation forensic protocols. One difference between two samples supposed to be originated from the same individual are related to an inconclusive result, but depending on the tissue and the position of the difference it should have a different interpretation, based on mutation-rate heterogeneity of mtDNA. In order to investigate it differences in the mtDNA control region from hair shafts and blood in our population, sequences from the hypervariable regions 1 and 2 (HV1 and HV2) from 100 Brazilian unrelated individuals were compared. The frequency of point heteroplasmy observed in hair was 10.5% by sequencing. Our study confirms the results related by other authors that concluded that small differences within tissues should be interpreted with caution especially when analyzing hair samples. PMID:17368780

Paneto, Greiciane G; Martins, Joyce A; Longo, Larissa V G; Pereira, Gabriella A; Freschi, Adriana; Alvarenga, Vera L S; Chen, Bety; Oliveira, Rogério N; Hirata, Mário H; Cicarelli, Regina M B

2007-03-26

131

Defining BMP functions in the hair follicle byconditional ablation of BMP receptor IA  

Microsoft Academic Search

sing conditional gene targeting in mice, we show that BMP receptor IA is essential for the differentiation of progenitor cells of the inner root sheath and hair shaft. Without BMPRIA activation, GATA-3 is down-regulated and its regulated control of IRS differentiation is compro- mised. In contrast, Lef1 is up-regulated, but its regulated control of hair differentiation is still blocked, and

Krzysztof Kobielak; H. Amalia Pasolli; Laura Alonso; Lisa Polak; Elaine Fuchs

132

Evaluating the potential use of composites in ship shafting 3. Efficient design of the intermediate shaft of ship shafting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines the problems associated with the design of a composite intermediate shaft for a ship shaftline. A comparison is made between shafts of carbon- and glass-fiber-reinforced plastics made by winding with different laws governing the change in winding angle through the thickness of the shaft. An analysis and comparison of results obtained for a specific example show that

G. G. Portnov

1997-01-01

133

Lubrication system for a vertical shaft engine  

SciTech Connect

A lubrication system is described for a vertical shaft engine comprising a crank case having an upper and a lower wall, a vertical crank shaft, a vertical balancing shaft, upper and lower bosses formed in the upper and lower walls for rotatably supporting the shafts, an oil pump housed in the lower wall, and an oil feeding passage for feeding lubricating oil from the pump to any part desired to be lubricated in the engine. The improvement comprises: the pump having a drive shaft housed under the balancing shaft, the lower end of the balancing shaft housed in one of the lower losses, the balancing shaft being rotatably supported by an antifriction bearing; and the antifriction bearing being held in an upper part of the one lower boss.

Hashigaki, Y.; Umeda, T.

1987-05-12

134

Laser-assisted hair removal: Side effects of Q-switched Nd:YAG, long-pulsed ruby, and alexandrite lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Laser-assisted hair removal has become popularized using wavelengths in both the red and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These photoepilation devices target follicular melanin or an exogenous pigment placed within the follicle resulting in thermal damage to the hair follicle and shaft. However, melanocytes and keratinocytes located within the superficial layers of the skin also absorb red and

Christopher A. Nanni; Tina S. Alster

1999-01-01

135

Hair follicle (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... in a cavity in the skin called a follicle. Over time the follicle can shrink causing the hair to become shorter ... in men who are balding the very small follicle ceases to grow any hair. The cause of ...

136

Hair straightener poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hair straightener poisoning occurs when someone swallows chemicals used to straighten hair. This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an ...

137

Forensic Science: Hair Identification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

Keller, Elhannan L.

1980-01-01

138

Torsion fatigue failure of bus drive shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mystery surrounding high failure rates in the drive shafts of a large municipal transit agency's fleet of 40 newly acquired\\u000a articulated buses is investigated. The drive shafts were fabricated from a low-carbon (0.45%) steel such as AISI 5046. An\\u000a examination of the drive shafts on all 40 buses is conducted, and 6 different drive shaft designs are identified among

D. H. Duffner

2006-01-01

139

Test plan for exploratory shaft  

SciTech Connect

A test plan for an Exploratory Shaft (ES) in the Columbia River basalts at the reference repository location (RRL) is presented in two phases. Phase I will provide in situ characterization of the candidate repository horizon selected for breakout and provide information to support a Test and Evaluation Facility decision. 11 refs., 24 figs., 23 tabs.

Not Available

1982-10-01

140

Performance of Nitinol-reinforced drive shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bending stiffness of composite drive shafts is actively controlled by activating optimal sets of shape memory alloy (NITINOL) wires which are embedded near the outer surfaces of these shafts and parallel to their longitudinal axes. With such active control capabilities, the drive shafts can be manufactured from light weight sections without compromising their transverse load carrying capabilities. These features

Amr M. Baz; T. Chen

1993-01-01

141

Failure analysis of an elevator drive shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study failure analysis of an elevator drive shaft is analyzed in detail. Failure occurred at the keyway of the shaft. Microstructural, mechanical and chemical properties of the shaft are determined. After visual investigation of the fracture surface it is concluded that fracture occurred due to torsional-bending fatigue. Fatigue crack has initiated at the keyway edge. Considering elevator and

A. Göksenli; I. B. Eryürek

2009-01-01

142

What Causes Hair Loss?  

MedlinePLUS

... stop the inflammation that destroys the hair follicles. Disease Underlying medical condition . A warning sign for about 30 diseases, hair ... stopped or reversed with treatment for the underlying disease. Two common underlying medical conditions that can cause hair loss are thyroid disease ...

143

Common Hair Loss Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, close attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a

KARYN SPRINGER; MATTHEW BROWN; DANIEL L. STULBERG

2003-01-01

144

Odontodysplasia, gingival manifestations, and accompanying abnormalities.  

PubMed

Regional odontodysplasia is an uncommon developmental dental disorder that may occasionally be accompanied by other abnormalities. A case is described in which the chief report was of a gingival enlargement arising in a female patient who also had dolichocephaly, thin calvarium, clinodactyly and transverse grooving of her fingernails, and a history of abnormal hair. Previously suggested etiologic factors and cases reported in association with other abnormalities are reviewed. PMID:8850490

Fanibunda, K B; Soames, J V

1996-01-01

145

Exploratory shaft location documentation report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to describe and document the process that involved locating, relocating, and designing the exploratory shafts for site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site. In a broad sense, the contents of the report have been developed to reflect several topics including the guidance provided by DOE-HQ to the NNWSI Project; the interaction between DOE-HQ and the NNWSI Project during the course of reaching major milestone decisions; the process and considerations that formed the basis for locating, relocating, and designing the ES(s), the review of those considerations, and the associated interface with quality assurance (QA); the interactions among DOE-HQ, the NNWSI Project, and the NRC that had impact on the location, function, and design of the ES and the exploratory shaft facility (ESF); and the impact of the course of events in the NWTS Program on the activities of the NNWSI Project since its inception in FY 1977.

Gnirk, P.; Hardin, E.; Voegele, M.

1988-12-21

146

Successful direct amplification of nuclear markers from a single hair follicle.  

PubMed

We report on successful amplification of DNA profiles from a single hair. Direct amplification was used on the root tip of both anagen and telogen hairs using a kit to amplify 15 STR loci. All 30 anagen hairs tested from five different people gave full DNA profiles after 29 cycles with no allelic drop-in or heterozygous imbalance. Six of the 30 telogen hairs tested resulted in a full DNA profile, and a further four telogen hair samples tested produced a DNA profile of five or more complete loci that could be up-loaded to the National DNA Database (Australia). A full DNA profile was also obtained from the shaft of an anagen hair. Current practice for many laboratories is that a single hair may not be subjected to DNA testing as there is little chance of success, hence this 100 % success rate from anagen hairs is a significant advancement. A full DNA profile was obtained from a 5 year-old single hair illustrating the success when using direct PCR rather than attempting an extraction prior to the amplification step. The process described deliberately uses current DNA profiling methods with no increase in cycle number, such that the methodology can be incorporated readily into operational practice. For the first time in the field of human identification, single hairs can be analyzed with confidence that a meaningful DNA profile will be generated and the data accepted by the criminal justice system. PMID:23275022

Ottens, Renée; Taylor, Duncan; Abarno, Damien; Linacre, Adrian

2012-12-30

147

Exploratory shaft readiness review process  

SciTech Connect

The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating the suitability of siting a deep geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Part of this investigation includes the drilling of two shafts through many layers of dense basalt to enable testing and obtaining in situ geologic, hydrologic, rock mechanics, chemistry, and constructibility data from geologic strata to a depth of approximately 3400 feet. The shafts and underground facilities make up the Exploratory Shaft (ES) facility. The ES facility must accommodate an array of geotechnical tests including the taking of data during the construction process. The DOE has requested that Rockwell develop and implement a Readiness Review Program to determine whether the more critical stages of the ES program are, in fact, ready to proceed. This presentation is an overview of the Exploratory Shaft (ES) Readiness Review process, which Rockwell is implementing to satisfy the requirements of the DOE. The ES Readiness Review process has been developed and is identified as the ES Construction/Operations Prerequisites Plan. Rockwell has explored new pathways in extending current operational readiness review procedures and is close to completing the initial planning and organization. The scope of the presentation includes a description of the ES Readiness Review process, what the constraints are, how the Startup Team and Readiness Review Board are structured and how they interrelate, how the Startup Team plans to function, and what conclusions can be based on the work already accomplished. The ES Readiness Review process shows that a readiness review task is the culmination of the Prerequisites Plan, which is a management oversight tool that covers design, construction, operations, testing, and potentially decommissioning activities.

Johnson, R.E.

1986-03-01

148

Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair bundle is both a mechano-sensory antenna and a force generator that might help the vertebrate hair cell from the inner ear to amplify its responsiveness to small stimuli. To study active hair-bundle motility, we combined calcium iontophoresis with mechanical stimulation of single hair bundles from the bullfrog's sacculus. A hair bundle could oscillate spontaneously, or be quiescent but

J.-Y. Tinevez; P. Martin; F. Jülicher

2009-01-01

149

Introduction—Human Hair, Skin, and Hair Care Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This book presents the biophysics of human hair and hair treatment. It deals with the structure of hair, the nanomechanical\\u000a characterization, nanotribological characterization, the conditioner thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair\\u000a surface, and surface potential studies. It is the first book on the biophysical properties of hair.

Bharat Bhushan

150

Large shaft development test plan  

SciTech Connect

This test plan proposes the conduct of a large shaft development test at the Hanford site in support of the repository development program. The purpose and objective of the test plan is to obtain the information necessary to establish feasibility and to predict the performance of the drilling system used to drill large diameter shafts. The test plan is based upon drilling a 20 ft diameter shaft to a depth of 1,000 feet. The test plan specifies series of tests to evaluate the performance of the downhole assembly, the performance of the rig, and the ability of the system to cope with geologic hazards. The quality of the hole produced will also be determined. This test plan is considered to be preliminary in that it was prepared as input for the decision to determine if development testing is required in this area. Should the decision be made to proceed with development testing, this test plan shall be updated and revised. 6 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Krug, A.D. (Rockwell International Corp., Richland, WA (USA). Rockwell Hanford Operations)

1984-03-01

151

Influence of the shaft rotation on the stability of magnetic fluid shaft seal characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distribution of the magnetic particles concentration in a magnetic fluid shaft seal is studied numerically for a rotating shaft. It is revealed that the shaft rotation causes not only an azimuthal flow of the magnetic fluid, but a meridional flow as well. This meridional flow prevents the growth of magnetic particle concentration in the gap of the magnetic fluid shaft seal. As a result, the burst pressure of the magnetic fluid shaft seal for the rotating shaft is stable and does not change with time. Figs 6, Refs 7.

Krakov, M. S.; Nikiforov, I. V.

2008-12-01

152

Abnormal posturing  

MedlinePLUS

People with abnormal posturing almost always have reduced consciousness. Anyone who shows symptoms of abnormal posturing should ... Elsevier; 2008:chap 5. Bleck T. Levels of consciousness and attention. In: Goetz, CG, ed. Textbook of ...

153

Walking abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

Gait abnormalities ... of how a person walks is called the gait. Many different types of walking problems occur without ... Some walking abnormalities have been given names: Propulsive gait -- a stooped, stiff posture with the head and ...

154

Secondary ion mass spectrometric investigation of penetration of coconut and mineral oils into human hair fibers: relevance to hair damage.  

PubMed

An attempt has been made to show the difference in the penetrability of coconut oil and mineral oil in human hair. We have used secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in combination with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. Characteristic ions formed by the pure components when bombarded with gallium ions have been identified with their m/z values. The distribution of the ion, characteristic of the particular treatment, has been established in the cross sections of hair treated with coconut and mineral oils. The results show that coconut oil penetrates the hair shaft while mineral oil does not. The difference may be due to the polarity of the coconut oil compared to the nonpolar nature of the mineral oil. The affinity of the penetrant to the protein seems to be the cause for this difference in their behavior. This study also indicates that the swelling of hair is limited by the presence oil. Since the process of swelling and deswelling of hair is one of the causes of hair damage by hygral fatigue, coconut oil, which is a better penetrant than mineral oil, may provide better protection from damage by hygral fatigue. PMID:11413497

Ruetsch, S B; Kamath, Y K; Rele, A S; Mohile, R B

155

Hair analysis for drug abuse. XIV. Identification of substances causing acute poisoning using hair root. I. Methamphetamine.  

PubMed

A hair root was evaluated as a specimen for proving acute methamphetamine (MA) poisonings using an animal model and fatal cases of MA intoxicaton. First of all, male pigmented hairy rats (n = 5) were administered with acute poisonous doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg) of MA and the hair roots were plucked out with a hair nipper 5 min and 0.5, 1, 2, 6 and 24 h after i.p. injection. The hair root samples were, directly or after washing with detergent, extracted with methanol/5 N HCl (20:1) under vortex mixing at room temperature for 14 h. After evaporation, the residue was derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and analyzed with GC/MS. From all samples including a 5-min sample, MA was detected at high concentrations (approximately 150 ng/mg) with a small amount of amphetamine (AP). Many animals died within 120 min of administration, but the concentrations in the hair roots increased up to 120 min and then slowly decreased until 24 h. Although MA was definitely detected anytime in the hair roots, almost no MA was found in 24-h plasma. In comparison of the drug levels in hair roots between the washed group and the unwashed group, the levels of the washed group were as a whole 4-5-fold higher than those of the unwashed group. These differences show that most of the drug incorporated into hair root is still not immobilized in the early stage. The ratios of the MA remainder in the washed samples increased with the elapse of time in all cases. However, the slope of the curves definitely dropped after the death of rats, probably due to the stopping of the hair growth and the incorporation of drug into the hair shaft. The ratios of AP/MA after death became a plateau probably due to the stoppage of the activity of metabolism after death, while those before death had increased over time. We analyzed the specimens of hair root of four men who died mainly due to acute poisonings with MA. Consequently, MA in the hair roots was detected at high concentrations, 30.5-134.6 ng/mg, and its metabolic, AP, at the concentrations of 1.2-9.0 ng/mg. Our results suggested that hair root is a good specimen for probing acute MA poisoning. PMID:9042721

Nakahara, Y; Kikura, R; Yasuhara, M; Mukai, T

1997-01-17

156

Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. XVIII. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) disposition in hair roots and use in identification of acute MDMA poisoning.  

PubMed

Disposition of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in hair roots was studied using rats and the hair root samples were evaluated to prove acute MDMA poisoning. The back hair of male pigmented hairy rats (n = 6) was shaved and 5 d later the animals were intraperitoneally administered with acute poisonous doses (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) of MDMA. Roots of the hairs were then plucked out with a hair nipper 5 min and, 0.5, 1, 2, 6 and 24 h after injection. The hair root samples were, directly or after being washed with detergent, extracted with methanol-5 N HCl (20:1) under ultrasonication in ice-cold water for 4 h. After filtration and evaporation, the residue was derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and analyzed by GC/MS. From all samples including the 5 min sample, MDMA was detected at high concentrations (up to 156 ng/mg) accompanied by 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA). Some of the animals died within 2 h after administration, but in the surviving rats the MDMA concentrations in the hair roots increased up to 6 h and then slowly decreased until 24 h. The remaining MDMA after washing apparently increased from 13-31% at 0.5 h to 51-83% at 24 h in the surviving rats. These facts show that most of drugs in the hair roots are not yet immobilized in the early stage and are thereafter gradually incorporated into the hair shaft. Increase of the MDMA concentration stopped soon after death of the animal, probably due to the cessation of hair growth. Although the ratios of MDA/MDMA steadily increased over time, those after death plateaued, probably due to the cessation of metabolism after death. It was clearly shown that MDMA is more quickly incorporated into and more firmly retained in hair than methamphetamine (MA) by comparing their disposition in hair roots. PMID:9331978

Nakahara, Y; Kikura, R

1997-09-01

157

Shaft mount for data coupler system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device for mounting a data transmission apparatus to a rotating, tapered, and instrumented shaft is provided. This device permits attachment without interfering with shaft rotation or the accuracy of data output, and prevents both radial and axial slippage of the data transmission apparatus. The mounting device consists of a sleeve assembly which is attached to the shaft by means of clamps that are situated at some distance removed from the instrumented area of the shaft. The data transmission device is secured to the sleeve such that the entire assembly rotates with the shaft. Shim adjustments between sleeve sections assure that a minimum compressive load is transferred to the instrumented area of the shaft and a rubber lining is affixed to a large portion of the interior surface of the sleeve to absorb vibration.

Elliott, James R., Jr.; Lord, Mark T.

1993-11-01

158

Shaft mount for data coupler system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A device for mounting a data transmission apparatus to a rotating, tapered, and instrumented shaft is provided. This device permits attachment without interfering with shaft rotation or the accuracy of data output, and prevents both radial and axial slippage of the data transmission apparatus. The mounting device consists of a sleeve assembly which is attached to the shaft by means of clamps that are situated at some distance removed from the instrumented area of the shaft. The data transmission device is secured to the sleeve such that the entire assembly rotates with the shaft. Shim adjustments between sleeve sections assure that a minimum compressive load is transferred to the instrumented area of the shaft and a rubber lining is affixed to a large portion of the interior surface of the sleeve to absorb vibration.

Elliott, James R., Jr.; Lord, Mark T.

1991-10-01

159

MRI of human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Hair care for humans is a major world industry with specialised tools, chemicals and techniques. Studying the effect of hair\\u000a care products has become a considerable field of research, and besides mechanical and optical testing numerous advanced analytical\\u000a techniques have been employed in this area. In the present work, another means of studying the properties of hair is added\\u000a by

Eveline Mattle; Markus Weiger; Daniel Schmidig; Peter Boesiger; Michael Fey

2009-01-01

160

Female hair restoration.  

PubMed

Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

Unger, Robin H

2013-08-01

161

Photoaggravation of Hair Aging  

PubMed Central

Photoaggravation of hair aging includes various chemical and physical changes in fiber properties which lead to an increase in fiber porosity, loss of mechanical strength and an increase in surface roughness. These changes come from lipid oxidation, disulfide bond cleavage, tryptophan degradation and cysteic acid formation. Hair exposed to sunlight is claimed to be more brittle, stiffer and drier than before irradiation and exhibits a reduced water-absorption capacity. Hair pigments function to provide photochemical protection to hair proteins. Hair pigments accomplish this protection by absorbing and filtering the impinging radiation and subsequently dissipating this energy as heat. However, in the process of protecting the hair proteins from light, the pigments are degraded or bleached. Dark hair is more resistant to photodegradation than light hair, because of the higher photostability of eumelanin compared to pheomelanin. Integral lipids of hair fibers are degraded by ultraviolet light, as well as by visible light, helping to explain the weakening of the cell membrane complex exposed to light radiation.

Lee, Won-Soo

2009-01-01

162

‘Plica neuropathica’: Matting of Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor degrees of irreversible tangling of scalp hair are commonly observed by hairdressers or individuals with long hair. However, severe irreversible matting of scalp hair is extremely rare [1]. A patient recently seen by us is presented.

Rashmi Sarkar; Sukhjot Kaur; G. P. Thami; A. J. Kanwar

2000-01-01

163

How to Stop Damaging Your Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... healthy hair Stop hair damage Styling without damage Hair loss vs. hair shedding Hair loss in new moms Removing gum without cutting hair ... if you are concerned about thinning hair or hair loss. Most causes can be stopped or treated. The ...

164

Structure of cam shaft for engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes the structure of a cam shaft for an engine having a crankshaft provided with a helical crank gear and a cam shaft provided with a helical cam gear meshing with the crank gear and rotatably supported at both ends thereof by journal bearing boxes, characterized inn that either one of the journal bearing boxes is communicated with a pressure oil supply passage, thereby causing the oil pressure produced within the one journal bearing box to act upon the end face of the cam shaft so that the cam shaft is normally biased in a constant axial direction.

Sato, M.; Nakamizo, K.; Mitadera, T.

1989-02-21

165

Noncontacting multiparametric sensor for shaft speed, torque, and position  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parameters of greatest interest in bearing diagnostics are shaft torque. Shaft vibration is often monitored as a periodic change in shaft position. Typical bearing diagostic systems require separate sensors for monitoring shaft vibration and shaft torque. If these two parameters can be monitored with one sensor, a reduction in weight intrusion associated with the sensors would result. This would

A. Schwartzbart

1990-01-01

166

Flexible shaft versus rigid shaft electric machines for petroleum and chemical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that most small electric machines are designed to rigid shaft criteria without any concern for possible effects on operating performance. However, an increasing number of large high-speed motors that operate at constant speed are designed to be flexible shaft machines. For those machines that operate at constant speed, flexible shaft design may be a good approach.

Edward L. Owen

1991-01-01

167

Frictional Contact Analysis of Turbocharger Compressor-Shaft Sleeve-Shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impeller mounted onto the compressor shaft assembly via interference fit is one of the key components of a centrifugal compressor stage. The assembly creates a complicated frictional contact problem the interface of the mating parts when the rotational speed is high. So it is quite necessary to investigate the contact situation of compressor-shaft sleeve-shaft for running safely. The FE

Liao Ai-hua

2009-01-01

168

Long Hair Shampoo Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to a long hair shampoo basin for use at barber shops and beauty salons. More specifically, the present invention is directed to shampoo basins which are adapted for shampooing longer hair than is accommodated by present basin...

K. Schulken

2005-01-01

169

Growth and viability of secondary hair follicles of the Angora goat cultured in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The viability of isolated secondary anagen hair follicles from Angora goats was studied in an in vitro tissue culture system. Intact hair follicles were isolated from the dermal layer singly or in groups using watchmakers' forceps under a dissecting microscope following removal of both the epidermis at the basal layer and subcutaneous fat layers using a scalpel blade. The connective tissue sheath surrounding the follicle and the dermal papilla in the bulb were left intact. The isolated follicles were maintained floating in supplemented Williams E medium and showed significant increases in hair shaft length over 96 h. The viability of the cultured hair follicles was verified by the findings that (1) the rate of hair shaft elongation was similar to that occurring in vivo; (2) the pattern of DNA synthesis observed by autoradiography of [methyl-3H]thymidine uptake was maintained in the isolated follicles throughout culture; (3) the ATP content was significantly higher in growing follicles compared with that observed in freshly isolated follicles; and (4) Feulgen-stained preparations of fresh and maintained hair follicles confirmed the retention of mitotic activity in the matrix cells of the bulb for a maximum of 120 h of maintenance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Ibraheem, M; Galbraith, H; Scaife, J; Ewen, S

1993-01-01

170

Endoscope Shaft-Rigidity Control Mechanism: “FORGUIDE”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in flexible endoscopy and other fields of medical technology have raised the need for compact slender shafts that can be made rigid and compliant at will. A novel compact mechanism, named FORGUIDE, with this functionality was developed. The FORGUIDE shaft rigidifies due to friction between a ring of cables situated between a spring and an inflated tube. A

Arjo J. Loeve; Dick H. Plettenburg; Paul Breedveld; Jenny Dankelman

2012-01-01

171

Shaft Design Revisited: A More Rational Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional writings on shaft design have typically been characterized by a significant lack of recognition of the real conditions of service and of the corresponding appropriate design criteria. Specifically, the high incidence of shafts which are designed for stiffness is not acknowledged and methods of achieving high stiffness are not well described. The fundamental problem of fatigue design in the

R. B. FROST

1993-01-01

172

Rock mechanics applied to shaft pillar mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines is investigating methods for evaluating and optimizing shaft designs for deep metal mines. This paper describes one such project at the Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. To determine a safe approach for the extraction of ore from the Ross Shaft pillar at Homestake, a basic rock mechanics approach has been taken that involves laboratory testing, field

J. C. Johnson; S. A. Orr

1990-01-01

173

Treatment of Periprosthetic Femoral Shaft Nonunion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to review the contemporary treatment of periprosthetic femoral shaft nonunions. Thirteen periprosthetic femoral shaft nonunions in 13 patients were reviewed retrospectively. The average follow-up was 48.3 months. Five patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation, 3 patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation and prosthesis revision, and 5 were treated

Alpesh A. Patel; William M. Ricci; Douglas J. McDonald; Joseph Borrelli; John C. Clohisy

2006-01-01

174

A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is a very complex visual pattern whose rep- resentation is rarely studied in the vision literature despite its important role in human recognition. In this paper, we propose a generative model for hair representation and hair sketching, which is far more compact than the physically based models in graphics. We decompose a color hair im- age into three

Hong Chen; Song Chun Zhu

2005-01-01

175

Exhaust powered drive shaft torque enhancer  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a power producing combination including an internal combustion engine and a mounting frame therefor, and power transmission means including rotating drive shaft means connected to the engine. The improvement described here is a drive shaft torque enhancing device, the device comprising: a multiplicity of blades secured to the drive shaft, equally spaced therearound, each generally lying in a plane containing the axis of the drive shaft; torque enhancer feed duct means for selectively directing a stream of exhaust gases from the engine to impact against the blades to impart torque to the drive shaft; and wherein the power producing combination is used in a vehicle, the vehicle having braking means including a brake pedal; and the power producing combination further comprising torque enhancer disengagement means responsive to motion of the brake pedal.

Koch, A.B.

1986-09-30

176

Shaft Sinking at the Nevada Test Site, U1h Shaft Project  

SciTech Connect

The U1h Shaft Project is a design/build subcontract to construct one 6.1 meter (m) (20 feet (ft)) finished diameter shaft to a depth of 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) at the Nevada Test Site. Atkinson Construction was subcontracted by Bechtel Nevada to construct the U1h Shaft for the U.S. Department of Energy. The project consists of furnishing and installing the sinking plant, construction of the 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) of concrete lined shaft, development of a shaft station at a depth of 297.5 m (976 ft.), and construction of a loading pocket at the station. The outfitting of the shaft and installation of a new hoist may be incorporated into the project at a later date. This paper will describe the design phase, the excavation and lining operation, shaft station construction and the contractual challenges encountered on this project.

B. Briggs; R. Musick

2001-03-01

177

SKIN BLISTERS AND HAIR LOSS IN A RAT MUTANT CALLED VIBRISSAELESS (vb)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiation-induced autosomal recessive mutant in the rat called vibrissaeless (vb), has been described and studied. Mutants have abnormal hair growth, the hairs being reduced in number and length. Mutant animals form blisters which then erode, crust, and heal without scars. The blisters can be artificially produced by friction and result from intraepidermal separation which is suprabasilar in position. To

Marvin A. Lutzner; Carl T. Hansen

1975-01-01

178

Fullerene nanomaterials potentiate hair growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair loss is a common symptom resulting from a wide range of disease processes and can lead to stress in affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fullerene nanomaterials on hair growth. We used shaved mice as well as SKH-1 “bald” mice to determine if fullerene-based compounds could affect hair growth and hair follicle

Zhiguo Zhou; Robert Lenk; Anthony Dellinger; Darren MacFarland; Krishan Kumar; Stephen R. Wilson; Christopher L. Kepley

2009-01-01

179

Exogenous Factors in Hair Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and beauty of human hair have immeasurable psychological importance. Hair structure and its cycle are influenced by intentionally or nonintentionally delivered factors such as grooming, heat styling, chemical agents and climatic exposure. All of these factors are capable of causing loss of hair color and luster, harshness, stiffness, weakness, brittleness and flyaway, transient loss of hair or scarring

Liran Horev

2004-01-01

180

Hair Follicular Expression and Function of Group X Secreted Phospholipase A2 in Mouse Skin*  

PubMed Central

Although perturbed lipid metabolism can often lead to skin abnormality, the role of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in skin homeostasis is poorly understood. In the present study we found that group X-secreted PLA2 (sPLA2-X) was expressed in the outermost epithelium of hair follicles in synchrony with the anagen phase of hair cycling. Transgenic mice overexpressing sPLA2-X (PLA2G10-Tg) displayed alopecia, which was accompanied by hair follicle distortion with reduced expression of genes related to hair development, during a postnatal hair cycle. Additionally, the epidermis and sebaceous glands of PLA2G10-Tg skin were hyperplasic. Proteolytic activation of sPLA2-X in PLA2G10-Tg skin was accompanied by preferential hydrolysis of phosphatidylethanolamine species with polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as elevated production of some if not all eicosanoids. Importantly, the skin of Pla2g10-deficient mice had abnormal hair follicles with noticeable reduction in a subset of hair genes, a hypoplasic outer root sheath, a reduced number of melanin granules, and unexpected up-regulation of prostanoid synthesis. Collectively, our study highlights the spatiotemporal expression of sPLA2-X in hair follicles, the presence of skin-specific machinery leading to sPLA2-X activation, a functional link of sPLA2-X with hair follicle homeostasis, and compartmentalization of the prostanoid pathway in hair follicles and epidermis.

Yamamoto, Kei; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Isogai, Yuki; Miki, Yoshimi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Masuda, Seiko; Nishito, Yasumasa; Morioka, Kiyokazu; Ishimoto, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Noriko; Yokota, Yasunori; Hanasaki, Kohji; Ishikawa, Yukio; Ishii, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Fukami, Kiyoko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Nakanishi, Hiroki; Taguchi, Ryo; Murakami, Makoto

2011-01-01

181

Molecular evolution of the keratin associated protein gene family in mammals, role in the evolution of mammalian hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Hair is unique to mammals. Keratin associated proteins (KRTAPs), which contain two major groups: high\\/ultrahigh cysteine and\\u000a high glycine-tyrosine, are one of the major components of hair and play essential roles in the formation of rigid and resistant\\u000a hair shafts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  The KRTAP family was identified as being unique to mammals, and near-complete KRTAP gene repertoires for eight mammalian genomes\\u000a were

Dong-Dong Wu; David M Irwin; Ya-Ping Zhang

2008-01-01

182

Hair and scalp dermatoscopy.  

PubMed

Dermatoscopy is a noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows the recognition of morphologic structures not visible by the naked eye. Trichoscopy (scalp dermatoscopy and videodermatoscopy) is useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of hair and scalp disorders. However, it is not widely used in the management of hair disorders. This review provides updated information from the literature and our experience on the dermoscopic features of the most common hair and scalp disorders. This will enable dermatologists to make fast diagnoses of tinea capitis and alopecia areata, distinguish early androgenetic alopecia from telogen effluvium, and differentiate scarring from nonscarring alopecia. PMID:22405573

Miteva, Mariya; Tosti, Antonella

2012-03-08

183

Servo control system for transmission shaft speed control  

SciTech Connect

An electronic shaft synchronization system is described comprising: means for providing an input shaft driven at an angular speed w/sub 1/; means comprising an output shaft capable of being selectively driven by the input shaft means at an angular speed of w/sub 2/; and means for coupling the input shaft to the output shaft in accordance with a plurality of predetermined selectable angular speed ratios between the speeds of w/sub 2/ and w/sub 1/. This coupling means includes transmission control for monitoring the input shaft speed w/sub 1/ and the output shaft speed w/sub 2/ and controlling at least one thereof, the control means implementing one of the selectable speed ratios by providing a predetermined coupling between the input shaft and the output shaft in response to the monitored angular speeds of the shafts having a predetermined relationship therebetween.

Deutsch, R.W.; Karim, F.

1989-02-21

184

Turbocharger with improved roller bearing shaft support  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an exhaust gas driven turbocharger. It comprises: a housing, a shaft within the housing having a pair of ends, a compressor wheel mounted within the housing on one end of the shaft for rotation therewith, a turbine wheel mounted within the housing on the other end of the shaft for rotation therewith, means for communicating air through the compressor wheel, means for communicating exhaust gas through the turbine wheel to cause the latter to rotate the shaft and the compressor wheel mounted thereon to compress the air communicated through the compressor wheel, and bearing means mounting the shaft for rotation relative to the housing, the bearing means including a bearing outer ring, a bearing inner ring, and ball bearing elements supporting the bearing outer ring on the bearing inner ring, the ball bearing elements includes a first set of the elements and a second set of the elements spaced axially from the first set, the bearing outer ring being a rigid, uninterrupted member providing an uninterrupted structural link between the first and second sets to establish the axial spacing between the sets, a pair of axially spaced faying surfaces on the inner ring engaging corresponding faying surfaces on the shaft to support the inner ring on the shaft, the shaft defining a circumferentially extending surface between the faying surfaces on the inner ring cooperating with the shaft to define an air gap therebetween, one of the faying surfaces on the inner ring having a diameter greater than the diameter of the other of the faying surfaces on the inner ring.

Gutknecht, D.A.

1991-10-08

185

Craniofacial Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

186

Congenital Abnormalities  

MedlinePLUS

... only. Girls may carry the abnormal gene that causes these disorders but not show the actual disease. (Examples of this problem include hemophilia, color blindness, and the common forms of muscular ...

187

Skin blisters and hair loss in a rat mutant called vibrissaeless.  

PubMed

A radiation-induced autosomal recessive mutant in the rat called vibrissaeless (vb), has been described and studied. Mutants have abnormal hair growth, the hairs being reduced in number and length. Mutant animals form blisters which then erode, crust, and heal without scars. The blisters can be artificially produced by friction and result from intraepidermal separation which is suprabasilar in position. To date, we cannot correlate this abnormality in rats with any known inherited human blistering disease. PMID:1151112

Lutzner, M A; Hansen, C T

1975-08-01

188

Analysis of human hair cross sections from two different population groups by Nuclear Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace element analysis of hair is used as a screening technique to assess body-nutrient levels and/or toxicity due to environmental pollutants. With the aim to compare element content and spatial distribution within scalp hair-shaft cross sections of two distinct human population groups, and to assess possible similarities and/or differences, hair samples from Sudan and South Africa were collected. Proton backscattering and Micro-PIXE were used to determine the matrix composition and content of light and middle transition elements, with beam energies of 1.5 and 3.0 MeV. Mapping analysis showed a relatively similar content distribution for S, Cl, K and Ca within each group. However significant differences, particularly for heavier metals, such as Fe and Zn were also found. Correspondence Analysis of the data showed a clear separation between the two groups when the total content over the hair cross section was considered.

Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Eisa, M. E. M.

2010-06-01

189

Exploratory Shaft Facility design basis study report  

SciTech Connect

The Design Basis Study is a scoping/sizing study that evaluated the items concerning the Exploratory Shaft Facility Design including design basis values for water and methane inflow; flexibility of the design to support potential changes in program direction; cost and schedule impacts that could result if the design were changed to comply with gassy mine regulations; and cost, schedule, advantages and disadvantages of a larger second shaft. Recommendations are proposed concerning water and methane inflow values, facility layout, second shaft size, ventilation, and gassy mine requirements. 75 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Langstaff, A.L.

1987-06-08

190

Common Hair Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... bacterial infection of hair follicles (folliculitis), infestation of head lice (pediculosis capitis), and fungal infection of scalp ringworm ( ... below to see additional images and learn more. Head Lice (Pediculosis Capitis) Head lice (pediculosis capitis) is a ...

191

Common hair loss disorders.  

PubMed

Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women of all ages and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, dose attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved topical minoxidil to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of "handfuls" of hair, often following emotional or physical stressors. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on examination that aid in diagnosis. Treatment for these disorders and telogen effluvium focuses on resolution of the underlying cause. PMID:12887115

Springer, Karyn; Brown, Matthew; Stulberg, Daniel L

2003-07-01

192

Biomedical versus cultural constructions of abnormality: the case of idiopathic hirsutism in the United States.  

PubMed

From an examination of (1) psychological and social stresses documented by the medical profession of women with amounts of hair departing from what is considered to be the "feminine" distribution of hair (idiopathic hirsutism), (2) biomedical information about male and female hair growth and distribution, (3) definitional influences of society, and (4) instrumental maneuverings of depilatory industries, this paper offers insights about the alteration of natural female facial and body hair to conform to a social construct of gender status. Although the hair problem is interesting in itself, its implications are much broader, for what lies behind conceptions of abnormality is a biological reality mediated by social constructs and classificatory schema. PMID:3044697

Ferrante, J

1988-06-01

193

Short Anagen Hair Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Short anagen syndrome (SAS) is a condition in which hair does not grow long. It usually perceived by parents in children around 2-4 years of age. It is a benign disease of the hair cycle. The condition is relevant from the standpoint of differential diagnosis with loose anagen syndrome. We report a case of SAS in a Hispanic 3-year-old girl.

Herskovitz, Ingrid; de Sousa, Isabel Cristina Valente Duarte; Simon, Jessica; Tosti, Antonella

2013-01-01

194

Hair Motion Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hair motion simulation in computer graphics has been an attraction for many researchers. The application we have developed\\u000a has been inspired by the related previous work as well as our own efforts in finding useful algrithms to handle this problem.\\u000a The work we present uses a set of representations, including hair strands, clusters and strips, that are derived from the

Yusuf Sahillioglu; Bülent Özgüç

2004-01-01

195

Eruptive vellus hair cyst presenting as asymptomatic follicular papules on extremities  

PubMed Central

Eruptive vellus hair cysts were first described in 1977. They usually appear as yellow to reddish-brown papules on the chest. Usual onset is between ages 17 and 24 years, but they may be congenital. Some believe that they may be inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder. Histologically the cyst has a stratified squamous epithelium and it contains laminated keratin and vellus hairs. They are felt to be caused by an abnormality at the infundibular level of the vellus hair. We present this because of this patient's unusual distribution of eruptive vellus hair cysts.

Khatu, Swapna; Vasani, Resham; Amin, Shital

2013-01-01

196

Thermal expansion problems with long single piece fan drive shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of larger and more efficient mechanically induced draft cooling tower fans has given rise to the use of long, single piece fan gear box input shafts. This type of shaft eliminates the maintenance nuisance of intermediate shaft bearings with a potential thermal expansion problem. This paper discusses the advantage of using the single piece coupling shaft, the design

C. W. Hendrickson; D. A. Fairbanks; G. R. Kleman

1985-01-01

197

Over the shaft fuel pumping system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a high speed rotary liquid pump, adapted to be driven by a shaft in the core of a gas turbine engine. It comprises a rotatable impeller having a plurality of straight blades extending radially from an annular hub, the hub having a central aperture of sufficient size to engage the shaft for rotation therewith; a pump housing surrounding the impeller and defining a generally annular pump cavity for receiving the rotatable impeller; the housing also defining an annular fluid inlet aperture leading axially into the cavity adjacent the hub, a shield member axially adjacent the aperture and disposed between fluid entering the aperture and the shaft, whereby circumferential swirl of the fluid due to contact with the shaft is minimized, and at least one fluid outlet passage extending tangentially from the periphery of the cavity adjacent the tips of the blades.

Hoopes, J.N.; Eick, C.D.; Williamson, J.R.

1991-06-11

198

Exploratory Shaft Facility Preliminary Designs - Permian Basin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing th...

1983-01-01

199

Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure  

SciTech Connect

The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31

200

Optimization of Drilled Shaft Group Spacing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a summary of findings from an assessment of the technical literature, experience of engineers, and unpublished reports on lateral loads on pile groups. Specific interest is adopted in the design methods for drilled shafts, in particula...

B. Douthitt D. N. Frechette K. D. Walsh S. L. Houston W. N. Houston

1999-01-01

201

Holographically observed torsion in a cylindrical shaft.  

PubMed

Using holographic interferometry, the rotation of a rigid cylinder and the torsion of a flexible shaft (RTV silastic rubber) have been observed. The experimentally generated fringe patterns are compared with computed ones and good agreement is obtained. PMID:20094202

Wilson, A D

1970-09-01

202

Distributions of sulphur and other elements in human hair follicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distributions of sulphur and other elements have been measured in several different specimens of human hair follicles. Whole specimens, longitudinal bisections, and 10 ?m thick longitudinal sections have been analyzed by PIXE using the Melbourne scanning proton microprobe. Elemental maps consistently showed that sulphur contents of the presumptive hair shaft (PHS) were uniformly low from 0 to 400 ?m (bulb end), increased continuously from about 400 to 800 ?m, and reached a plateau. Sulphur levels were uniformly low in the inner root sheath. These observations are consistent with previous protein analysis of PHS sections, indicating sequential synthesis of the major classes of keratin proteins. Maps of other elements indicated that Si, Ca, and Fe tended to be concentrated randomly, whereas, P, Cl, K, and Zn were more uniformly distributed. Average relative concentrations of Si, P, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn were estimated from total X-ray spectra.

Ollerhead, R. W.; Legge, G. J. F.; Jones, L. N.

1989-04-01

203

Flexible shaft versus rigid shaft electric machines for petroleum and chemical plants  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on criteria used to design shafts may limit operating characteristics that can be obtained from electric machines. Most small machines are designed to rigid shaft criterion without any concern for possible effects on operating performance. Large, high-speed machines that operate only at constant speed may be well suited to flexible shaft design. High-speed machines that operate over a wide, unrestricted speed range may be better suited to rigid shaft design. Basic mechanical factors and construction features that determine an ultimate limit on available power ratings, for a given maximum operating speed, are discussed.

Owen, E.L (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (US))

1991-03-01

204

Cytokeratin expression in alopecia areata hair follicles.  

PubMed

Alopecia areata is a human hair disease of unknown etiology. Immunological mechanisms, alterations in the extracellular matrix and follicular growth abnormalities have been suggested as a possible cause. Here we compare the expression of cytokeratins in normal hair follicles to that of alopecia areata using immunohistology with monoclonal antibodies. A number of cytokeratins were specifically expressed in defined anatomical parts of the follicle; however, no gross qualitative or quantitative differences were found between normal and diseased scalp. Interestingly, the expression of cytokeratin 16, which is modulated by conditions that affect the rate of keratinocyte proliferation, was found to be unchanged in the outer root sheet of alopecia areata follicles. This is in contrast with earlier observations of a decrease in the expression of the proliferation-associated, Ki-67 nuclear antigen. PMID:7511864

Van Baar, H M; Van Vlijmen, I M; Ramaekers, F C; Van Muijen, G N; Troyanovsky, S M; Perret, C M; Van de Kerkhof, P C; Schalkwijk, J

1994-01-01

205

Evaluation of main coolant pump shaft cracking  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a review of reactor main coolant pump shaft failures which have occurred in various types of plants and pump designs. The objective of the review was to identify common metallurgical, design and operational considerations which may have contributed to the failures, and which might provide insight into potential repairs and monitoring practices. The review considered Westinghouse PWR main coolant pumps, Byron-Jackson pumps for both BWR and PWR applications, KSB pumps in a US PWR, and Sulzer-Bingham pumps in a US BWR application. All of the above have experienced at least one shaft cracking event, and some have experienced multiple shaft cracking events or total shaft failures. Common factors involved in essentially all of the failures include thermal effects due to purge flow and/or seal cooling, and asymmetric (radial) impeller thrust loads. These have been aggravated in some instances by extended periods of off-design operation; holes, keyways and other stress concentration factors; and less-than-optimal manufacturing processes such as chrome plating and poor surface machining conditions. As a result of this review, several recommendations have been identified for potential industry programs to help resolve the shaft cracking problem and/or to qualify potential remedies. These include programs aimed at reducing the susceptibility of the shafts to the basic failure mechanisms identified as well as programs aimed at improving the industry's basic understanding of the primary loading conditions responsible for the failures.

Brose, W.R.; Chen, K.L.; Kuo, A.Y.; Riccardella, P.C. (Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States))

1992-02-01

206

Abnormal Plasminogen  

PubMed Central

A patient who suffered a recurring thrombosis over the last 15 yr has been investigated. The only abnormality found in this patient was a significantly depressed level of plasminogen activity in plasma. In spite of the depressed plasminogen activity, the patient was found to have a normal level of plasminogen antigen concentration. It was calculated that the activity per milligram of plasminogen of the patient was approximately one-half the values of normal subjects. The same discrepancy between biological activity and antigen concentration was found in the other members of the kindred. A niece was found to have practically no plasminogen activity but possessed a normal concentration of plasminogen antigen. Both her parents were found to have approximately half the normal plasminogen activity and normal antigen levels. These studies suggested that the molecular abnormality was inherited as an autosomal characteristic, and the family members who had half the normal levels of activity with normal plasminogen antigen were heterozygotes whereas the one with practically no plasminogen activity was homozygote. Subsequent studies showed that the pattern of gel electrofocusing of purified plasminogen of the heterozygotes consisted of 10 normal bands and 10 additional abnormal bands, each of which had a slightly higher isoelectric point than each corresponding normal component. This indicates that plasminogen of the heterozygote is a mixture of normal and abnormal molecules in an approximately equal amount, which was substantiated by active site titration of purified plasminogen preparations obtained from the propositus and a normal individual. The gel electrofocusing pattern of the homozygote consisted of abnormal bands only. The defect is a hereditary abnormality of plasminogen. Images

Aoki, Nobuo; Moroi, Masaaki; Sakata, Yoichi; Yoshida, Nobuhiko; Matsuda, Michio

1978-01-01

207

The biology of hair diversity.  

PubMed

Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

2013-03-06

208

Founder mutations in the lipase h gene in families with autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis.  

PubMed

Autosomal-recessive woolly hair (ARWH)/hypotrichosis is a hereditary hair disorder which is characterized by tightly curled hair and is associated with sparse hair. ARWH can be caused by mutations in the P2RY5 or lipase H (LIPH) gene. Disruption of either gene results in phenotypes with features of both wooly hair (WH) and hypotrichosis. In this study, we identified two Guyanese families with ARWH. Both families are of recent Indian descent. Mutation analysis resulted in the identification of mutations in the LIPH gene in both families. Affected individuals in the first family carry compound heterozygous mutations Ex7_8del and 1303_1309dupGAAAACG in the LIPH gene, while those in the second family have a homozygous mutation 659_660delTA in the LIPH gene. The mutations Ex7_8del and 659_660delTA were identified earlier in several Pakistani families with ARWH. Haplotype analysis using microsatellite markers close to the LIPH gene defined a founder haplotype shared in families from Pakistan and Guyana. Proteomic analysis of hair shaft samples from one of the families revealed no substantial changes among the proteins identified, indicating that the syndrome does not involve global alterations in protein expression. Our results further suggest a crucial role of LIPH gene in hair growth. PMID:19262606

Shimomura, Yutaka; Wajid, Muhammad; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Lee, Young-Jin; Rice, Robert H; Christiano, Angela M

2009-03-05

209

A mass spring model for hair simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to simulate the full hair geometry, consisting of approximately one hundred thousand hairs on a typical human head. This will require scalable methods that can simulate every hair as opposed to only a few guide hairs. Novel to this approach is that the individual hair\\/hair interactions can be modeled with physical parameters (friction, static attraction, etc.) at

Andrew Selle; Michael Lentine; Ronald Fedkiw

2008-01-01

210

A mass spring model for hair simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to simulate the full hair geometry, consisting of ap- proximately one hundred thousand hairs on a typical human head. This will require scalable methods that can simulate every hair as opposed to only a few guide hairs. Novel to this approach is that the individual hair\\/hair interactions can be modeled with physical parameters (friction, static attraction, etc.)

Andrew Selle; Michael Lentine; Ronald Fedkiw

2008-01-01

211

Nanoscale characterization of human hair and hair conditioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair is a nanocomposite biological fiber. Hair care products such as shampoos and conditioners, along with damaging processes such as chemical dyeing and permanent wave treatments, affect the maintenance and grooming process and are important to study because they alter many hair properties. Nanoscale characterization of the cellular structure, mechanical properties, and morphological, frictional, and adhesive properties (tribological properties)

Bharat Bhushan

2008-01-01

212

Hair Loss in New Moms  

MedlinePLUS

... shedding after having a baby. Dermatologists’ tips for new mothers If the excessive hair shedding bothers you, ... the rest does not exist. 2. Try a new hairstyle. Some haircuts make hair look fuller. An ...

213

Numerical simulation and experimental study of shaft pumping by laser structured shafts with rotary lip seals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation model to predict pumping by shafts with various surface finishes, in combination with a rotary lip seal, has been developed and validated by experiment. The model consists of a fluid mechanics analysis of the flow in the sealing zone coupled with a deformation analysis of the seal. The experimental validation consists of pumping rate measurements with shafts whose

Xiaohong Jia; Steffen Jung; Werner Haas; Richard F. Salant

2011-01-01

214

Variation in neck-shaft angle: influence in prosthetic design.  

PubMed

Surgeons performing anatomical reconstruction of the shoulder during prosthetic replacement should consider the size of the humeral head and the placement of the head within the humerus. Prosthetic systems with a wide range of modular head sizes, eccentric tapers, and adjustable neck-shaft angles and versions help surgeons to better adapt a prosthesis to a patient's bone anatomy. Surgical technique remains critical for proper placement of the prosthesis and for correction of other soft-tissue and bony abnormalities associated with the pathology. In this article, we review some principles of prosthetic design and surgical technique to anatomically reconstruct the humeral head. We also review the clinical consequences of prosthetic humeral head malpositioning. PMID:18264551

Iannotti, Joseph P; Lippitt, Steven B; Williams, Gerald R

2007-12-01

215

European hair and eye color  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hair and eye color is unusually diverse in northern and eastern Europe. The many alleles involved (at least seven for hair color) and their independent origin over a short span of evolutionary time indicate some kind of selection. Sexual selection is particularly indicated because it is known to favor color traits and color polymorphisms. In addition, hair and eye

Peter Frost

2006-01-01

216

Hair colour in clinical diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

N recent years a vast amount of research has been devoted to the physiology and pathology of hair growth, partly because of the great economic importance of the hair of the sheep and partly because the hair follicle is a compact, complex and accessible organ for the study of many fundamental biological processes. The melanocyte, too, has attracted a great

Arthur Rook

1969-01-01

217

Automatic transmission with free-wheeling drive shaft  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a free wheeling driven shaft. It comprises: a first drive gear having first shaft-engaging means on an inner, shaft-receiving diameter thereof; a driven shaft emplaced within the shaft-receiving diameter; and first releasable coupling means, on the driven shaft, for coupling the first shaft-engaging means when the first gear is driving the shaft and for automatically releasing the coupling as soon as the rotation of the first drive gear is retarded with respect to the rotation of the driven shaft, wherein the first shaft-engaging means comprises a pawl-engaging detent notch; and the first releasable coupling means comprises a drive-engaging pawl pivotally coupled to the driven shaft for pivotally extending into an engaging with the detent notch when the first drive gear is driving the shaft and pivotally withdrawing and disengaging from the detent notch when the rotation of the first drive gear is retarded with respect to the driven shaft; and further comprising a transfer shaft having fixedly coupled thereto a drive transfer gear coupled to and driven by the first drive gear.

Douglass, D.S.

1992-03-31

218

Over the shaft fuel pumping system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a gas turbine engine apparatus. It comprises: a compressor adapted to compress air inducted into the engine; a combustor adapted to receive and burn a mixture of fuel and compressed air to produce motive gas, a metering valve adapted to receive fuel and deliver the fuel to the combustor; a turbine adapted to receive the motive gas and produce rotary motion in response thereto; a shaft connected to the turbine and the compressor for transmitting the rotary motion to the compressor; and a vortex pump having an impeller girdling the shaft intermediate the compressor and the turbine rotating therewith, a pump inlet adjacent the shaft in fluid communication with a source of the fuel, a pump outlet in fluid communication with the metering valve, and means for defining a flow path between the fuel source and the inlet whereby the fuel is directed into the inlet in an axial direction which is substantially parallel to the shaft while preventing substantial fuel contact with the shaft so that circumferential fuel swirl at the inlet is minimized.

Hoopes, J.N.; Eick, C.D.; Williamson, J.R.

1991-02-05

219

Constant-mesh, multiple-shaft transmission  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a multiple-shaft, constant-mesh transmission adapted to establish selectively a reverse torque delivery path and a forward drive torque delivery path and having a torque input means including a torque input shaft, a mainshaft aligned with the input shaft, a countershaft geared to the input shaft in spaced, parallel relationship with respect to the mainshaft, a torque output shaft joined to the mainshaft; multiple mainshaft gear elements journalled on the main airshaft, multiple cluster gear elements carried by the countershaft in meshing engagement with the mainshaft gear elements, one of the cluster gear elements being rotatably journalled on the countershaft; a reverse idle gear, a reverse gear journalled on the countershaft, the reverse idler gear being in constant mesh with the reverse gear and one of the mainshaft gear elements; first clutch means for connecting selectively the reverse gear and the countershaft; second synchronizer clutch means for connecting selectively the one of the mainshaft gear elements to the mainshaft; and third synchronizer clutch means for selectively connecting another of the mainshaft gear elements to the mainshaft; the first clutch means being a double-acting clutch with a first common axially movable clutch element adapted upon movement in one axial direction to drivably connected the reverse gear to the countershaft and adapted upon movement in the opposite axial direction to connect the one cluster gear element to the countershaft.

Rea, J.E.; Mills, D.D.; Sewell, J.S.

1992-04-21

220

High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism  

DOEpatents

A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

Dietle, Lannie (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX)

2001-05-08

221

Growth of secondary hair follicles of the Cashmere goat in vitro and their response to prolactin and melatonin.  

PubMed Central

The isolation and viability in vitro of anagen secondary hair follicles of the Cashmere goat were studied. Isolated hair follicles were used to determine the effects on hair shaft elongation, of prolactin and melatonin, hormones considered to influence hair follicle growth and activity in vivo. Intact hair follicles were isolated from the dermal layer of the skin singly or in groups using watchmakers' forceps under a dissecting microscope. The isolated follicles were maintained floating in Williams E medium. The medium was supplemented with 1 of 6 concentrations of ovine prolactin (0, 50, 200, 400, 800 and 4000 micrograms/l) for the culture of hair follicles isolated during July and August, and with 1 of 5 concentrations of melatonin (0, 50, 150, 300, 600 ng/l) for the culture of hair follicles isolated during September and October. There was clear evidence of DNA synthesis, observed by autoradiography, in matrix cells of freshly isolated follicles incubated for 6 h in the presence of [methyl-3H]-thymidine. Similar measurements after 96 h of maintenance indicated a marked reduction in the incorporation of [methyl-3H]-thymidine in matrix cells of the follicles studied. Prolactin and melatonin were shown to have a stimulating effect on hair shaft elongation of secondary follicles during 24 h periods of measurement and cumulatively over 120 h. Maximum hair follicle growth was observed in follicles exposed to 400 micrograms/l of prolactin and follicles exposed to 300 ng/l of melatonin. The number of follicles remaining viable during each 24 h measuring period was not affected by prolactin, but was significantly reduced by melatonin treatment after 96 h of maintenance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Ibraheem, M; Galbraith, H; Scaife, J; Ewen, S

1994-01-01

222

Coupled shaft-torsion and blade-bending vibrations of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to analyzing the dynamic coupling between shaft torsion and blade bending of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit is introduced. The approach allows the shaft to vibrate freely around its rotation axis instead of assuming a periodic perturbation of the shaft speed that may accommodate the shaft flexibility only to a limited extent. A weighted residual method is applied, and the receptances at the connections of blades and shaft-disk are formulated. Numerical examples are given for cases with between two and six symmetrically arranged blades. The results show not only coupling between the shaft, disk, and blades, but also coupling between individual blades where the shaft acts as a rigid support and experiences no torsional vibration. The blade-coupling modes occurred only in repeated frequencies. Finally, the effect of shaft speed on the modal frequencies was investigated. Plots illustrating the occurrence of critical speeds and flutter instabilities are presented.

Huang, S.C.; Ho, K.B. [National Taiwan Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-01-01

223

Horizontal-shaft wind turbine with few blades  

SciTech Connect

A horizontal shaft wind turbine with few blades, is provided with device for turning or twisting the blades about their longitudinal axes, comprising a power source situated outside the turbine shaft and adapted to impart axial motion to a first axially displaceable clutch mounted on the shaft, the clutch having two main parts in mutual coaction such that one part is rotationally stationary on the shaft, whereas the other part may rotate with the shaft, the part rotating with the shaft being coupled to the blades.

Selestam, R. K.; Nygren, I. K.

1985-08-13

224

Large Membrane Domains in Hair Bundles Specify Spatially Constricted Radixin Activation  

PubMed Central

The plasma membrane of vertebrate hair bundles interacts intimately with the bundle cytoskeleton to support mechanotransduction and homeostasis. To determine the membrane composition of bundles, we used lipid mass spectrometry with purified chick vestibular bundles. While the bundle glycerophospholipids and acyl chains resemble those of other endomembranes, bundle ceramide and sphingomyelin nearly exclusively contain short-chain, saturated acyl chains. Confocal imaging of isolated bullfrog vestibular hair cells shows that the bundle membrane segregates spatially into at least three large structural and functional domains. One membrane domain, including the stereocilia basal tapers and ~1 ?m of the shaft, the location of the ankle links, is enriched in the lipid phosphatase PTPRQ (protein tyrosine phosphatase Q) and polysialylated gangliosides. The taper domain forms a sharp boundary with the shaft domain, which contains the plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPase PMCA2 and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2); moreover, a tip domain has elevated levels of cholesterol, PMCA2, and PI(4,5)P2. Protein mass spectrometry shows that bundles from chick vestibular hair cells contain a complete set of proteins that transport, synthesize, and degrade PI(4,5)P2. The membrane domains have functional significance; radixin, essential for hair-bundle stability, is activated at the taper-shaft boundary in a PI(4,5)P2-dependent manner, allowing assembly of protein complexes at that site. Membrane domains within stereocilia thus define regions within hair bundles that allow compartmentalization of Ca2+ extrusion and assembly of protein complexes at discrete locations.

Zhao, Hongyu; Williams, Diane E.; Shin, Jung-Bum; Brugger, Britta; Gillespie, PeterG.

2012-01-01

225

Root hair sweet growth  

PubMed Central

Root hairs are single cells specialized in the absorption of water and nutrients from the soil. Growing root hairs require intensive cell-wall changes to accommodate cell expansion at the apical end by a process known as tip or polarized growth. We have recently shown that cell wall glycoproteins such as extensins (EXTs) are essential components of the cell wall during polarized growth. Proline hydroxylation, an early posttranslational modification of cell wall EXTs that is catalyzed by prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), defines the subsequent O-glycosylation sites in EXTs. Biochemical inhibition or genetic disruption of specific P4Hs resulted in the blockage of polarized growth in root hairs. Our results demonstrate that correct hydroxylation and also further O-glycosylation on EXTs are essential for cell-wall self-assembly and, hence, root hair elongation. The changes that O-glycosylated cell-wall proteins like EXTs undergo during cell growth represent a starting point to unravel the entire biochemical pathway involved in plant development.

Velasquez, Silvia M; Iusem, Norberto D

2011-01-01

226

Rotating shaft seal and bearing lubricating apparatus  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a seal or bearing lubricating system adapted for use in a downhole tool such as a drilling motor includes chamber means packed with grease for lubricating said and/or bearing, and centrifugal separator means responsive to rotation of a shaft included in said tool for separating and trapping solid particles suspended in the well fluids to prevent contamination of the grease by such solid particles. Pressure equalization across a principal rotating shaft seal also is disclosed.

Young, D. E.

1985-10-22

227

Raman spectroscopic analyses of preserved historical specimens of human hair attributed to Robert Stephenson and Sir Isaac Newton.  

PubMed

The Raman spectra of two historical specimens of human hair attributed to the engineer Robert Stephenson and scientist Sir Isaac Newton, preserved in private collections are reported. Comparisons are made with the Raman spectra of modern hair specimens and with hair from archaeological excavations. The hair spectra collected with a laser excitation of 785 nm are of a better quality than those collected using 1064 nm. The historical hair specimens are remarkably well-defined spectroscopically in terms of the amide I vibrational mode and the [small nu](SS), ascribed to a predominantly gauche-gauche-gauche CSSC conformation. The contrast with degraded hair specimens recovered from archaeological excavations is striking. The presence of a weak feature near 2590 cm(-1) in the hair samples attributed to a [small nu](SH) vibration could be indicative of a reduction process operative on the CSSC cystine keratotic linkages and a possible origin of this is bacterial biodegradation identified histologically. This study demonstrates the molecular information available from non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis from single hair shafts or small bundles of fibres which complements information available from histological and destructive analytical techniques for rare biological specimens subjected to conservation or curation procedures in museums or private collections. PMID:15457330

Edwards, Howell G M; Hassan, Nik F N; Wilson, Andrew S

2004-08-23

228

New Methodology for Shaft Design Based on Life Expectancy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confi...

S. H. Loewenthal

1986-01-01

229

Application of Numerical Optimization to Drive Shaft Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of numerical optimization techniques to the design of drive shafts is demonstrated. The analysis investigated the effects of a small mass imbalance in conjunction with the rotation of a shaft with synchronous whirl. (Author)

V. S. Merced

1980-01-01

230

Apparatus for measuring rotational velocity of a shaft  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is disclosed for mounting a rotational signal transducer on a rotary shaft where the transducer generates a signal proportional to the shaft's rotational velocity. The apparatus includes a gear mounted for rotation with the shaft. A support platform is rotatably secured to the shaft by a roller bearing. The roller bearing permits the shaft and platform to rotate relative to one another but prevents relative axial motion between the shaft and platform. A transducer is mounted on the platform and operably aligned over the gear and generates a signal as gear teeth pass the transducer. A torque rod pivotally fixed to both the platform and a stationary support restrains the platform from rotating with the shaft. The pivotal connections of the torque rod permit the platform to move axially with the shaft.

Orner, R.L. Jr.; Smith, Ch.W.

1984-12-18

231

Structure for supporting governor shaft of automatic transmission  

SciTech Connect

An automatic transmission is described comprising; a transmission case, a governor driving shaft having a governor drive gear, a governor shaft having a governor shaft gear engaging with the governor drive gear, and extending upwardly from a lower end to an upper end, a governor connected with the upper end of the governor shaft, and governor shaft supporting means for rotatably supporting the governor shaft, the supporting means having a lower portion which supports the lower end of the governor shaft, and which is formed with an opening for allowing a lubricating oil contained in the transmission case to flow into a clearance between the lower end of the governor shaft and the lower portion.

Taguchi, H.

1989-02-21

232

Failure Analysis of a Tool-Steel Torque Shaft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low design load drive shaft from an experimental diesel truck engine failed unexpectedly during highway testing. The shaft was driven by a turbine used to deliver power from an experimental exhaust heat recovery system to the engine's crankshaft. During...

J. R. Reagan

1981-01-01

233

8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SHAFT AND PUMP IN COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT PUMPHOUSES. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

234

14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...System § 29.931 Shafting critical speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must...be used if reliable methods of analysis are available for the particular design. (b) If any critical speed lies within, or...

2013-01-01

235

14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...System § 27.931 Shafting critical speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must...be used if reliable methods of analysis are available for the particular design. (b) If any critical speed lies within, or...

2013-01-01

236

Transmission with two parallel driving shafts bearing two driving gears each meshed with same driven gear on parallel driven shaft  

SciTech Connect

A transmission mechanism for a vehicle is described for receiving input of rotational power from a power supply member which rotates in a particular rotational direction and for outputting rotational power to a power receiving member which includes: an input member connected to the power supply member and which is rotatably mounted and receives supplying of the rotational power from the power supply member; a first driving gear wheel shaft; a second driving gear wheel shaft mounted generally parallel to the first driving gear wheel shaft; a driven gear wheel shaft mounted generally parallel to the first and second driving gear wheel shafts, the driven gear wheel shaft being rotationally connected to the power receiving member; a first driven gear wheel fixedly mounted on the driven gear wheel shaft; a first driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the first driving gear wheel shaft and is constant mesh with the driven gear wheel, the first driving and driven gear wheels providing a first reduction gear ratio from the first driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft; a second driven gear wheel fixedly mounted on the driven gear wheel shaft; a second driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the second driving gear wheel shaft and is in constant mesh with the first driven gear wheel, the second driving and the first driven gear wheels providing a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio from the second driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft; a third driving gear wheel which is rotatably mounted on the first driving gear wheel shaft and is in constant mesh with the second driven gear wheel, the third driving and the second driven gear wheels providing a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio from the first driving gear wheel shaft to the driven gear wheel shaft.

Akashi, T.; Ito, H.; Yamada, S.

1986-06-17

237

Stress-linked cortisol concentrations in hair: what we know and what we need to know.  

PubMed

Cortisol has major impacts upon a range of physiological homeostatic mechanisms and plays an important role in stress, anxiety and depression. Although traditionally described as being solely synthesised via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, recent animal and human studies indicate that cortisol may also be synthesised via a functionally-equivalent 'peripheral' HPA-like process within the skin, principally within hair follicles, melanocytes, epidermal melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Current data indicate that basal levels of cortisol within hair vary across body regions, show diurnal variation effects, respond to the onset and cessation of environmental stressors, and may demonstrate some degree of localisation in those responses. There are conflicting data regarding the presence of variability in cortisol concentrations across the length of the hair shaft, thus challenging the suggestion that hair cortisol may be used as a historical biomarker of stress and questioning the primary origin of cortisol in hair. The need to comprehensively 'map' the hair cortisol response for age, gender, diurnal rhythm and responsivity to stressor type is discussed, plus the major issue of if, and how, the peripheral and central HPA systems communicate. PMID:22150070

Sharpley, Christopher F; McFarlane, James R; Slominski, Andrzej

2011-12-08

238

Stress-linked cortisol concentrations in hair: what we know and what we need to know  

PubMed Central

Cortisol has major impacts upon a range of physiological homeostatic mechanisms and plays an important role in stress, anxiety and depression. Although traditionally described as being solely synthesised via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, recent animal and human studies indicate that cortisol may also be synthesised via a functionally-equivalent ‘peripheral’ HPA-like process within the skin, principally within hair follicles, melanocytes, epidermal melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Current data indicate that basal levels of cortisol within hair vary across body regions, show diurnal variation effects, respond to the onset and cessation of environmental stressors, and may demonstrate some degree of localisation in those responses. There are conflicting data regarding the presence of variability in cortisol concentrations across the length of the hair shaft, thus challenging the suggestion that hair cortisol may be used as a historical biomarker of stress and questioning the primary origin of cortisol in hair. The need to comprehensively ‘map’ the hair cortisol response for age, gender, diurnal rhythm and responsivity to stressor type is discussed, plus the major issue of if, and how, the peripheral and central HPA systems communicate.

Sharpley, Christopher F.; McFarlane, James R.; Slominski, Andrzej

2012-01-01

239

Age-induced hair greying - the multiple effects of oxidative stress.  

PubMed

An obvious sign of ageing is hair greying, or the loss of pigment production and deposition within the hair shafts. Numerous mechanisms, acting at different levels and follicular locations, contribute to hair greying, ranging from melanocyte stem cells defects to follicular melanocyte death. One key issue that is in common to these processes is oxidative damage. At the hair follicle stem cells niche, oxidative stress, accelerated by B-cell lymphoma 2 gene (BCL-2) depletion, leads to selective apoptosis and diminution of melanocyte stem cells, reducing the repopulation of newly formed anagen follicles. Melanotic bulbar melanocytes express high levels of BCL-2 to enable survival from melanogenesis- and ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) attacks. With ageing, the bulbar melanocyte expression of anti-oxidant proteins such as BCL-2, and possibly TRP-2, is reduced, and the dedicated enzymatic anti-oxidant defence system throughout the follicle weakens, resulting in enhanced oxidative stress. A marked reduction in catalase expression and activity results in millimolar accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, contributing to bulbar melanocyte malfunction and death. Interestingly, amelanotic melanocytes at the outer root sheath (ORS) are somewhat less affected by these processes and survive for longer time even within the white, ageing hair follicles. Better understanding of the overtime susceptibility of melanocytes to oxidative stress at the different follicular locations might yield clues to possible therapies for the prevention and reversal of hair greying. PMID:24033376

Seiberg, M

2013-10-10

240

Exploratory Shaft Facility design basis study report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Design Basis Study is a scoping\\/sizing study that evaluated the items concerning the Exploratory Shaft Facility Design including design basis values for water and methane inflow; flexibility of the design to support potential changes in program direction; cost and schedule impacts that could result if the design were changed to comply with gassy mine regulations; and cost, schedule, advantages

Langstaff

1987-01-01

241

Improve reliability of liquid film shaft seals  

SciTech Connect

A centrifugal compressor shaft seal and its supporting system form an important pat of a turbocompressor train. API-617 references different types of seals. The notable ones are shown with applicable remarks in Table 1. Of all the seals described in Table 1, process applications favor liquid film shaft seals. Since the design permits positive clearance between the shaft/shaft sleeve and inner bore of the seal rings with an oil film supplied by the system, theoretically long life is expected. There are instances of unforeseen shutdowns due more to seal failure than due to the bearings. An API requirement of uninterrupted compressor runs for three years is infeasible in some installations, in spite of the standby concept applied to the seal system pumps, filters and coolers that are prone to maintenance and changeover during operation. To pinpoint areas of concern, a seal system should be divided into two parts: seal itself; and seal auxiliary support system. The latter can be reliable in most installations while the former may not, which causes early shutdowns. Since it is essential to maintain uninterrupted oil supply under varying operating conditions, process upsets, orderly shutdown and blocking-in case of trips, the system designer is required to carefully size the components as well as instrumentation. The following summary on component sizing and other considerations according to API-614 will help to understand the factors that make the system reliable on the supply side. This also shows how the system can become too large.

Godse, A.G. [Qatar General Petroleum Corp., Umm Said (Qatar)

1995-08-01

242

Failure analysis of hydraulic turbine shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the analysis of major failure of 28MW horizontal hydro turbine shaft. The analysis of load carrying capacity of critical radius and fractography analysis are presented. Special emphasize is on metallurgical failure analysis of in-service crack initiation. The analysis of stresses is obtained by the finite element method and the developed model and load conditions are described. Finite

Dejan Mom?ilovi?; Zoran Odanovi?; Radivoje Mitrovi?; Ivana Atanasovska; Tomaž Vuherer

243

Large diameter shaft development basalt drillability tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to provide a preliminary evaluation of the performance and wear characteristics of various cutter types, and to provide initial estimates of drilling rates, bit thrust, torque, and power requirements for the drilling of large diameter shafts in basalt. 20 refs., 74 figs., 7 tabs.

Krug

1984-01-01

244

Transient Performance Analysis of Shaft Generator Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shaft generator system, which consists of a shaft generator, a rectifier, an externally commutated thyristor inverter, an ac reactor, and a synchronous compensator, is widely used in a ship to feed sufficient power to the electric apparatus by using a part of the power produced by the main engine. We have already analyzed the steady-state performances of this type of generating system in some detail. However, transient characteristics of the shaft generator system have been investigated little. In this paper, transient performances of the shaft generator system are analyzed in detail. A set of transient equations is derived first for the systems with ordinary ac reactor or duplex reactor to achieve output voltage without distortion, and a block diagram representation of the equations is then obtained. Transient responses of the system when the load was changed are calculated through the diagram and compared with experimental results. Also, the block diagram is modified to take the effects of the magnetic-saturation phenomenon of synchronous compensator into account to obtain an accurate simulated result. Moreover, the effects of the duplex reactor and inertia constant of synchronous compensator on the transient responses are clarified for the cases when various system variables are changed.

Yamashita, Ken-Ichiro; Nishikata, Shoji

245

Rotating shaft seal and bearing lubricating apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a seal or bearing lubricating system adapted for use in a downhole tool such as a drilling motor includes chamber means packed with grease for lubricating said and\\/or bearing, and centrifugal separator means responsive to rotation of a shaft included in said tool for separating and trapping solid particles suspended

Young

1985-01-01

246

Complex elasticoplastic torsion of cylindrical shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article discusses axisymmetric problems involving the torsion of variable or constant diameter, with complex static and mixed boundary conditions. In the general case, it is assumed that the material of the shaft is isotropic, and that it is subject to the deformation theory of plasticity, with an arbitrary degree of hardening, during the active loading process. The investigated

Yu. V. Nemirovskii; É. É. Saks

1973-01-01

247

Hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on basic aspects and recent studies of hair analysis for abused and therapeutic drugs and is discussed with 164 references. Firstly, biology of hair and sampling of hair specimens have been commented for the sake of correct interpretation of the results from hair analysis. Then the usual washing methods of hair samples and the extraction methods for

Yuji Nakahara

1999-01-01

248

The small GTPase Rac1 regulates auditory hair cell morphogenesis.  

PubMed

Morphogenesis of sensory hair cells, in particular their mechanotransduction organelle, the stereociliary bundle, requires highly organized remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The roles of Rho family small GTPases during this process remain unknown. Here we show that deletion of Rac1 in the otic epithelium resulted in severe defects in cochlear epithelial morphogenesis. The mutant cochlea was severely shortened with a reduced number of auditory hair cells and cellular organization of the auditory sensory epithelium was abnormal. Rac1 mutant hair cells also displayed defects in planar cell polarity and morphogenesis of the stereociliary bundle, including bundle fragmentation or deformation, and mispositioning or absence of the kinocilium. We further demonstrate that a Rac-PAK (p21-activated kinase) signaling pathway mediates kinocilium-stereocilia interactions and is required for cohesion of the stereociliary bundle. Together, these results reveal a critical function of Rac1 in morphogenesis of the auditory sensory epithelium and stereociliary bundle. PMID:20016102

Grimsley-Myers, Cynthia M; Sipe, Conor W; Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S G; Lu, Xiaowei

2009-12-16

249

The small GTPase Rac1 regulates auditory hair cell morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Morphogenesis of sensory hair cells, in particular their mechanotransduction organelle, the stereociliary bundle, requires highly organized remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The roles of Rho family small GTPases during this process remain unknown. Here we show that deletion of Rac1 in the otic epithelium resulted in severe defects in cochlear epithelial morphogenesis. The mutant cochlea was severely shortened with a reduced number of auditory hair cells and cellular organization of the auditory sensory epithelium was abnormal. Rac1 mutant hair cells also displayed defects in planar cell polarity and morphogenesis of the stereociliary bundle, including bundle fragmentation or deformation, and mispositioning or absence of the kinocilium. We further demonstrate that a Rac-PAK signaling pathway mediates kinocilium-stereocilia interactions and is required for cohesion of the stereociliary bundle. Together, these results reveal a critical function of Rac1 in morphogenesis of the auditory sensory epithelium and stereociliary bundle.

Grimsley-Myers, Cynthia M.; Sipe, Conor W.; Geleoc, Gwenaellle S.G.; Lu, Xiaowei

2010-01-01

250

Effects of artificial hair-waving on hair mercury values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An artificial hair-waving which is popular among Japanese women and the use of thiol-containing solutions for reforming hair-wavings was tested for its effects on hair mercury values. The first step of the procedures, shampooing and drying, entailed slightly organic mercury concentrations; the second step, applying the cosmetic containing thiols, reduced organic mercury concentrations to less than half of the

Reiko Yamamoto; Tsuguyoshi Suzuki

1978-01-01

251

Fatigue failure of a rear axle shaft of an automobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the failure analysis of a rear axle shaft used in an automobile which had been involved in an accident. The axle shaft was found to break into two pieces. The investigation was carried out in order to establish whether the failure was the cause or a consequence of the accident. An evaluation of the failed axle shaft

Osman Asi

2006-01-01

252

Marine shafting reasonable alignment design based on genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine shafting alignment is an indispensable part of marine propulsion shafting design and installation. In this paper, the marine shafting reasonable alignment based on genetic algorithm is investigated. The three-moment theory is utilized to analyze the bearing loads at straight alignment and bearing additional loads caused by offsets of bearings and inflections of flanges. An optimization model of reasonable alignment

Li Ren; WenXiao Zhang; JingBo Yu

2010-01-01

253

Failures of rear axle shafts of 575 DI tractors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rear axle shafts of 575 DI tractors manufactured by Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd, Tractor Division, Mumbai, failed before completion of warranty period. Most of the shaft failures (nearly 80–85%) occur during puddeling operations. Rear axle shafts fail in the spline portion. Cracks were found at the root of the splines. The causes of failure and remedies have been discussed in

G. K. Nanaware; M. J. Pable

2003-01-01

254

30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911 Section 77.1911...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All slopes and...

2010-07-01

255

30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911 Section 77.1911...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All slopes and...

2009-07-01

256

Stress concentration factor in collar and shouldered shafts in torsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous work the stress intensity factors of shouldered and collar shafts are determined by a boundary element method (BEM) analysing the influence of the ratios between shaft and collar diameters, between the rounded fillet radius and shaft diameter, between length and height of the collar. In general the values obtained are lower than experimental values of the literature,

Vincenzo Nigrelli; Gabriele VirzíMariotti

1995-01-01

257

Rotating black hole hair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is conical with respect to a local co-rotating frame, not with respect to the static frame at infinity.

Gregory, Ruth; Kubiz?ák, David; Wills, Danielle

2013-06-01

258

Biology and genetics of hair.  

PubMed

The mammalian hair follicle (HF) is a complex structure composed of several distinct cell layers. The HF is an ectodermal appendage that resides in the skin, and unlike other tissues and organs, it possesses the remarkable ability to self-renew and undergoes a hair cycle that persists in adult life. Stem cells in the bulge region of the HF, as well as dermal papilla cells, play key roles in the regulation of successive hair cycles. Recent advances in molecular genetics have enabled the identification of many genes and pathways that are involved in HF morphogenesis and cycling. Furthermore, mutations in some of these genes are associated with hereditary hair diseases in humans. Identification of causative genes for hair diseases has provided a better understanding of the crucial roles of these genes in HF morphogenesis, development, and hair growth in humans. PMID:20590427

Shimomura, Yutaka; Christiano, Angela M

2010-01-01

259

Design review of a rectangular shaft in alluvium. [Vertical shaft 9 x 14 ft; 550-ft deep  

Microsoft Academic Search

During design of a 550-foot rectangular shaft in alluvium, lateral support within the excavation was an anticipated construction problem. Actual experience showed that the nearly 9 x 14 ft excavation required no lateral support. A strain measurement program concurrent with construction and for a 9-month period following completion of the shaft detected only minor strains. Shaft design included consideration of

P. D. Pack; E. H. Skinner

1976-01-01

260

Effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in hair samples of MA addicts were studied. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples collected from male (n=24, 24–51 yrs) and female abusers (n=7, 17–46 yrs) were evaluated for MA and AM concentration's changes after repeated hair washing and a single hair

SeungKyung Baeck; EunYoung Han; HeeSun Chung; MyoungYun Pyo

2011-01-01

261

Cultural preferences for hair colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compare colour preference between Japanese and British people who have a different culture, we examined hair colour preference by questionnaire1-4), visual assessment5,6) and SD method7). We found several key differences between two countries. They were 'beauty' and 'fashion'. British students want hair colour beautiful, in contrast Japanese students want hair colour fashionable. From the factor analysis, we

Y. Kato; T. L. V. Cheung; S. Kitaguchi; S. Westland; H. Yasunaga; T. Sato

262

Photodamage determination of human hair.  

PubMed

Sunlight on human hair causes photo-degradation. This results in bleaching due to melanin oxidation through free radicals, and induces keratin impairment. Protein degradation, tryptophan degradation, lipidic peroxidation and electron paramagnetic resonance can be used to evaluate proteic and lipidic photodecomposition and free radical formation in hair fibres subjected to antioxidant action and different UV intensities. All these methodologies have been optimised to determine protein, lipid and melanin degradation in hair subjected to different UV intensities. PMID:22119660

Fernández, Estibalitz; Barba, Clara; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Parra, José Luis; Coderch, Luisa

2011-11-07

263

Hair Loss: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome  

MedlinePLUS

... reduction: Bald scalp is surgically removed and hair-bearing scalp is brought closer together to reduce balding. ... also can be performed solely to stretch hair-bearing areas, which reduces balding. Scalp flaps: A hair- ...

264

Researchers Report Progress with Growing Hair  

MedlinePLUS

... 2014) Monday, October 21, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cloning Hair Loss MONDAY, Oct. 21 (HealthDay News) -- There's ... they're getting closer to the goal of cloning hair cells and coaxing them to grow hair ...

265

Tips for Removing Gum without Cutting Hair  

MedlinePLUS

For the public Diseases and treatments Health and beauty General skin care Hair care Tips for healthy ... series Home Dermatology A to Z Health and beauty Hair care Removing gum without cutting hair Tips ...

266

Hair Cell Regeneration and Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... loss occurs when either hair cells or auditory nerve cells are destroyed. Scientists believed that hair cells in ... scientists found that newly formed hair cells and nerve cells successfully reestablish connections in an organized way, although ...

267

Water-Soluble Polymers in Hair Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline hair relaxers used to straighten excessively curly hair, usually African-American hair, often cause considerable\\u000a hair damage. One of the effects of straightening the hair with relaxers is a loss in tensile strength due mainly to breakage\\u000a of disulfide and hydrogen bonds. This loss in tensile strength leaves the hair more susceptible to breakage and cuticle erosion\\u000a from subsequent grooming.

Ali N. Syed; Wagdi W. Habib; Anna M. Kuhajda

268

Monitor for shaft vibration in an operating turbine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for detecting torsional events on a rotating shaft subjected to torsional loads. It comprises: two marks placed on the shaft longitudinally spaced apart; means, longitudinally spaced apart by a predetermined distance, for sensing the two marks as each mark passes a respective position as the shaft rotates, means for measuring the lapse time for each mark to make one rotation on the shaft as the shaft rotates, means for subtracting the lapse time of rotation of one mark from the lapse time of rotation of the other mark, whereby a difference in lapse time is indicative of torque on the shaft, and transient vibration circuit means connected to the subtracting means for determining torsional vibrations on the shaft.

Leon, R.L.

1991-02-26

269

Hair growth activity of Crataegus pinnatifida on C57BL/6 mouse model.  

PubMed

Crataegus pinnatifida has a long history of use in traditional oriental herbal medicine to stimulating digestion and improving blood circulation. Based on nutrition of hair, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of C. pinnatifida extract on hair growth using mouse model and its mechanisms of action. The C. pinnatifida extract containing the contents of total polyphenol of 5.88?0.82?g gallic acid/100?g extract and proanthocyanidin of 9.15?1.58?mg cyaniding chloride/100?g extract was orally administered daily at a dosage of 50?mg/kg weight to the 7-week-old C57BL/6 mice in telogen. The C. pinnatifida extract promoted hair growth by inducing anagen phase in mice in telogen, reflected by color of skin, thickness of hair shaft, and density of hair. The ratio of anagento telogen was determined by shape of hair follicles in vertically sectioned slide and increased by oral administration of C. pinnatifida extract. The number and the size of hair follicles were also enlarged, indicating anagen phase induction. The proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPC) was accelerated by addition of C. pinnatifida extract, which activated the signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk, p-38, and JNK) and Akt. Moreover, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax as the determinant of cell fate was also raised in skin. These results suggest that the C. pinnatifida extract promotes hair growth by inducing anagen phase, which might be mediated by the activation of cellular signalings that enhance the survival of cultured hDPC and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax that protects cells against cell death. PMID:23148028

Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Sang-Yong; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ju-Han; Yi, Tae-Hoo

2012-11-12

270

Promotion of hair follicle development and trichogenesis by Wnt-10b in cultured embryonic skin and in reconstituted skin  

SciTech Connect

We previously showed that Wnt-10b promoted the differentiation of primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC) toward hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle (IRS) cells in vitro. In the present study, we found that Wnt-10b promotes the development of hair follicles using a culture of mouse embryonic skin tissue and trichogenesis using a reconstitution experiment with nude mice. Hair follicle development was observed in skin taken from mouse embryos on embryonic day 10.5 following a 2-day culture with recombinant Wnt-10b (rWnt-10b), however, not without rWnt-10b. Brown hair growth was observed at the site of reconstituted skin in Balb/c nude mice where dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, derived from C3H/HeN new born mice, were transplanted with Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-COS). Without the co-transplantation of Wnt-COS, no hair growth was observed. Our results suggest an important role of Wnt-10b in the initiation of hair follicle development and following trichogenesis.

Ouji, Yukiteru [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)]. E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Shiroi, Akira [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan); Ishizaka, Shigeaki [Program in Tissue Engineering and Department of Parasitology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara (Japan)

2006-06-30

271

The d-c shaft furnace  

SciTech Connect

A recent projection of world steel production by process through the year 2000 illustrates a general consensus that electric arc furnace production will continue to increase and represent a greater proportion of total steel produced. State of the art technology is being applied to meet the increasing volume and quality demands with the continuing objectives being the production of high-quality product at the lowest possible cost. In this article, the integration of two state-of-the-art technologies into the d-c shaft furnace process is discussed: the direct current arc furnace; and scrap preheating. The d-c shaft furnace, with scrap preheating capability, provides the potential for not only major increases in production rate but also significant reductions in energy and electrode consumption in comparison with a conventional d-c furnace of similar physical and electrical characteristics.

Haissig, M. (Fuchs Systems Inc., Salisbury, NC (United States))

1994-05-01

272

Twin countershaft transmission with floating main shaft  

SciTech Connect

A multi-speed transmission is described comprising, in combination: a housing; a pair of spaced parallel main countershafts mounted for rotation within the housing and being spatially fixed therein; means for supplying input power to both of the main countershafts; a plurality of pairs of driving gears mounted on the main countershafts, each gear of a pair being substantially identical and positioned on a respective one of the main countershafts at axially aligned locations along a floating mainshaft; the floating main shaft having input and output ends, the main shaft being located within the housing between and parallel to the main countershafts and having its output end extending beyond the main countershafts with no internal or external bearings or other support at or adjacent its ends under torque delivering conditions.

Loeffler, J.M.

1989-02-28

273

Long vertical shaft bioreactor of simplified design  

SciTech Connect

An improved long vertical shaft bioreactor for the treatment of degradable waste is provided wherein the head tank or basin surmounting the vertical downcomer and riser chambers is surrounded by a foam oxidation vessel. Conduits are provided between the head tank and the foam vessel through which (A) foam accumulated in the head tank is passed to the foam vessel and (B) through which excess fluid in the head tank may be vented.

Pollock, D.C.

1981-06-09

274

Laser torquemeter: effects of axial shaft vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser speckle produced from a diffuse object may be used in determining the angular position of a rotating object. When the object rotates the backscattered speckle patterns are sampled by a suitably positioned photodetector. The photodetector output signal is periodic and one period is stored in memory as a reference. Shaft position is then determined by cross-correlating this stored reference signal with the current photodetector output signal. When the shift is axially displaced the back scattered speckle patterns change and the cross-correlation between the reference signal and the current signal is reduced. The Laser Torquemeter is an instrument designed to measure the time- resolved torque transmitted in a rotating shaft and uses two probe laser beams, axially separated on a shaft of known mechanical properties. In order to design a robust Laser Torquemeter it is necessary to determine the cross- correlation of the current photodetector output signal and the stored reference signal as a function of axial shift position because the reduced cross-correlation due to axial motion results in a loss of tracking which is determined to the performance of the Torquemeter. Experiments conducted to measure the photodetector output cross-correlation show that the ratio of decorrelation displacement to beam diameter can achieve a maximum value of 0.7. For a typical axial shaft vibration of 0.6 mm peak to peak, a minimum beam diameter of 1 mm is recommended and further details of the optical configuration necessary to achieve this optimum resistance to decorrelation are suggested.

Tullis, Iain; Halliwell, Neil A.; Rothberg, Steve

1996-08-01

275

Discussion of flexible shaft versus rigid shaft electric machines for petroleum and chemical plants  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses flexible shaft versus rigid shaft electric machines for petroleum and chemical plants. A user of an electric machine will have a difficult time relating to the rigid bearing critical'' given in this paper as the determining definition for a rigid shaft'' machine. A rotor with an operating speed below its first system resonant speed, while mounted on its foundation, should be called rigid''or stiff'' shaft. The modern trend of motors is to have long and slender rotors with a low shaft height. Many 3600-r/min induction motors become flexible rotor'' design (i.e. not stiff'' by the definition given in the above paragraph) above a rating of approximately 800 to 1500. In conclusion the following are observation of a rotor designed to operate above its first system resonant speed: If the manufacturer does not process the rotor carefully during fabrication, balance shifts, which are difficult to correct or predict can occur. Balance of the rotor is more difficult, usually requiring the ability to add balance weight at the center of the rotor to correct the static unbalance component. Rated-temperature test of the machine, on a factory test stand, is the best way to prove the rotor thermal stability'' and to avoid field problems.

Hamer, P.S. (Chevron Research and Technology Co. (United States))

1992-04-01

276

Percutaneous penetration of hair dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scalp penetration of 7 hair dyes (oxidative and direct) that occurs under conditions of hair dye usage was evaluated for both rhesus monkey and man using 14C labeled materials by quantifying their absorbtion via urine assays. Both species showed a remarkably similar pattern of dye penetration. The extent of scalp penetratoon is slightly higher for direct dyes but in neither

L. J. Wolfram; H. I. Maibach

1985-01-01

277

Directing hair motion on Tangled  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of-the-art simulation techniques can produce compelling and natural hair motion. In creating Disney's feature film Tangled, physically plausible motion was important but just one foundational component. The story contains an unprecedented amount of interaction of the hair with the characters, as well as a high level of art-direction. Through 2D \\

Maryann Simmons; Kelly Ward; Hidetaka Yosumi; Hubert Leo; Xinmin Zhao

2011-01-01

278

"Dissection" of a Hair Dryer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-01-01

279

Hair Loss Measurement Tool Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hair loss from cancer chemotherapy has received considerable attention in recent years in the field of cancer care because of the emotional and social distress it can cause patients. Many investigators have attempted to decrease hair loss by means of scal...

B. S. Mueggenborg

1983-01-01

280

Human Hair: An Educational Tool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Briefly describes some of the more recent developments in the use of human hairs for such instructional purposes as observing barr bodies and chromosomes, and for culturing to produce cells of both epithelial and fibroblastic morphology. Three main hair categories are also described. (JN)|

Wells, John

1983-01-01

281

Transcriptome and phenotypic analysis reveals Gata3-dependent signalling pathways in murine hair follicles.  

PubMed

The transcription factor Gata3 is crucially involved in epidermis and hair follicle differentiation. Yet, little is known about how Gata3 co-ordinates stem cell lineage determination in skin, what pathways are involved and how Gata3 differentially regulates distinct cell populations within the hair follicle. Here, we describe a conditional Gata3-/- mouse (K14-Gata3-/-) in which Gata3 is specifically deleted in epidermis and hair follicles. K14-Gata3-/- mice show aberrant postnatal growth and development, delayed hair growth and maintenance, abnormal hair follicle organization and irregular pigmentation. After the first hair cycle, the germinative layer surrounding the dermal papilla was not restored; instead, proliferation was pronounced in basal epidermal cells. Transcriptome analysis of laser-dissected K14-Gata3-/- hair follicles revealed mitosis, epithelial differentiation and the Notch, Wnt and BMP signaling pathways to be significantly overrepresented. Elucidation of these pathways at the RNA and protein levels and physiologic endpoints suggests that Gata3 integrates diverse signaling networks to regulate the balance between hair follicle and epidermal cell fates. PMID:17151017

Kurek, Dorota; Garinis, George A; van Doorninck, J Hikke; van der Wees, Jacqueline; Grosveld, Frank G

2006-12-06

282

The Ethnic Differences of the Damage of Hair and Integral Hair Lipid after Ultra Violet Radiation  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic factors account for the majority of differences in skin color and hair morphology across human populations. Although many studies have been conducted to examine differences in skin color across populations, few studies have examined differences in hair morphology. Objective To investigate changing of integral hair lipids after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in three human ethnic groups. Methods We studied the UV irradiation induced hair damage in hairs of three human populations. UV irradiation had been performed with self-manufactured phototherapy system. Damaged hair samples were prepared at 12 and 48 hours after UVA (20 J/sec) and UVB (8 J/sec) irradiation. We evaluated the changes of hair lipid using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), lipid TEM and HP-TLC. After UV irradiation, hair surface damage was shown. Results African hair showed more severe damage on hair surface than others. The lipid compositions across human populations were similar, but Asian hair had more integral hair lipids than other groups as a whole. Especially, free fatty acid contents were higher than other lipids. After UV irradiation, lipid contents were decreased. These patterns were shown in all human populations. Asian hair has more integral hair lipid than European or African hair. After UV irradiation, European and African hair samples exhibited more damage because they have less integral hair lipids. However, Asian hair samples have less damage. Conclusion We conclude that integral hair lipid may protect the hair against the UV light.

Ji, Jae Hong; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, Hae-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Duk; Pi, Long-Quan; Jin, Xin-Hai

2013-01-01

283

Myosin XVa and whirlin, two deafness gene products required for hair bundle growth, are located at the stereocilia tips and interact directly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defects in myosin XVa and the PDZ domain-containing protein, whirlin, underlie deafness in humans and mice. Hair bundles of mutant mice defective for either protein have abnormally short stereocilia. Here, we show that whirlin, like myosin XVa, is present at the very tip of each stereocilium in the developing and mature hair bundles of the cochlear and vestibular system. We

Benjamin Delprat; Vincent Michel; Richard Goodyear; Yasuhiro Yamasaki; Nicolas Michalski; Aziz El-Amraoui; Isabelle Perfettini; Pierre Legrain; Guy Richardson; Jean-Pierre Hardelin; Christine Petit

2005-01-01

284

Development of Hair Dye from Herbal Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The developments of hair dyes from herbal extracts are studied. Seven herbs, such as Jackfruit core, Sappan wood, Lac, Henna, Mangosteen, Amla and Turmeric were ex- tracted and used as pigment for hair dyes. The dyed hair conditions, which comprised concentrations of a developer (hydrogen peroxide), concentrations of crude herbal ex- tracts, and dyed hair treatment process were compared

Kongtun Janphuk Sumonthip; Suracherdkaiti Wichai

2009-01-01

285

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or where long hair could result in increased likelihood of work...The Warden shall make available to an inmate hair care services which comply with applicable...

2009-07-01

286

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...require an inmate with long hair to wear a cap or hair net when working in food service or where long hair could result in increased likelihood of work...The Warden shall make available to an inmate hair care services which comply with applicable...

2010-07-01

287

Simulating Rapunzel's hair in Disney's Tangled  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair simulation is known to be a complex problem in animation. In Tangled we have the extreme task of simulating 70 feet of hair for the film's main character, Rapunzel. The excessive hair length in addition to the loose style and intricate structure of the hair present many unique challenges in simulation. Moreover, the specific art direction of the film

Kelly Ward; Maryann Simmons; Andy Milne; Hidetaka Yosumi; Xinmin Zhao

2010-01-01

288

Prevention of hair surface aging.  

PubMed

The hydrophobic character of the surface of human hair is particularly attributed to the lipid components of the epicuticle and to a layer of covalently bound fatty acids. This outer f-layer mainly consists of 18-methyl eicosanoic acid (18-MEA), which is covalently bound to the underlying protein matrix, forming the epicuticle as composite surface structure. Daily weathering and chemical treatments, specifically oxidative bleaching, decrease the hydrophobicity of the outer hair surface drastically.Multiple daily stress, simulated by an automatic test device including shampooing, blow drying and sun light exposure, changed the lipid composition of hair significantly. A marked loss of 18-MEA was observed. Decreasing contact angles are the direct consequence. A new method to determine the "pseudo-static" contact angle on hair was developed. The results correlate with the corresponding data obtained by dynamic contact angle measurements according to Wilhelmy. Besides that, the resorption time of water droplets by the hair surface provides additional information about the intactness of the outer f-layer.Specific proteolipids, which are lipid-modified keratins, are able to reconstruct the surface layer of damaged hair by creating renewed surface hydrophobicity and extending the water resorption time by the hair surface. PMID:21635851

Wiesche, Erik Schulze Zur; Körner, Andrea; Schäfer, Karola; Wortmann, Franz-Josef

289

10. Photocopied August 1978. CLOSEUP VIEW OF TURBINE SHAFT PENETRATING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Photocopied August 1978. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF TURBINE SHAFT PENETRATING THE STEEL PLATE BULKHEAD THROUGH A STUFFING BOX AND AND ALSO SHOWING THE CONTROL GATE SHAFT. THIS PARTICULAR UNIT WAS INSTALLED IN 1916. THE ADMISSION OF WATER TO ALL FOUR RUNNERS IN A PENSTOCK UNIT COULD SIMULTANEOUSLY BE CONTROLLED BY THE CONTROL SHAFT ON THE LEFT. (899) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

290

Failure investigation and redesign of piston and pump shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the application of glue during the production of cars, a double-acting pump driven by a pneumatic piston is used. The shafts of the pump and the pneumatic piston are fixed to each other with a C-shaped split bush, which fits over a groove in both the pump and the piston shaft.A number of piston- and pump shafts failed prematurely

Wouter Ost; Patrick De Baets; Jeroen Van Wittenberghe

2009-01-01

291

Derivatives of eigenvalues for torsional vibration of geared shaft systems  

SciTech Connect

Design sensitivity analysis of natural frequency for geared shaft systems is of practical importance in the optimal design of these systems. This note provides a simple and easily implemented method to calculate the eigenvalue derivatives of a geared shaft system with respect to a design parameter v, including gear inertia J, shaft stiffness K, and transmission ratio Q, when the eigensolution is known. An example is given to illustrate the method.

Liu Zhongsheng; Chen Suhuan; Xu Tao (Jilin Univ. of Technology, Changchun (China). Dept. of Mechanics)

1993-07-01

292

A hair material simulation approach in virtual reality and application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairs are important components to human. So, to create virtual human we must create hair material models and simulate hair's motion so that it is similar to real hairs. Alternatively, hairs are complicated objects, because each human has about from 200.000 to 400.000 stands of hairs, so simulating is very complex. Furthermore, it is difficult to simulate hairs according to

N. V. Huan; P. V. Binh; D. N. Toan

2009-01-01

293

Super vasomol hair dye poisoning  

PubMed Central

Hair dye poisoning is not rare but is an emerging poisoning in India. The main component of hair dye causing toxicity is paraphenylenediamine (PPD). Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angioedema of the upper airway accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard, and protruding tongue. Systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF). PPD consumption is an uncommon cause of ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment is mainly supportive. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that presented with cervicofascial edema and later developed rhabdomyolysis and ARF. Our patient improved with dialysis and symptomatic management.

Kumar, Praveen A. S.; Talari, Keerthi; Dutta, T. K.

2012-01-01

294

Body Hair Transplantation in Vitiligo  

PubMed Central

Hair transplantation has been used to repigment a stable vitiligo patch. Body hair transplant was done for a 28-year-old male with stable vitiligo with scarring. Peri-folllicular repigmentation was noted at 4 weeks and complete repigmentation of vitiligo patch was achieved at 12 weeks. No recurrence was noted at the end of 3-month follow-up with a good colour match with surrounding skin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report highlighting the effectiveness of body hair transplantation by FUE in focal vitiligo patch with leukotrichia.

Chouhan, Kavish; Kumar, Amrendra; Kanwar, Amrinder J

2013-01-01

295

Detection of mercury in the 411-year-old beard hairs of the astronomer Tycho Brahe by elemental analysis in electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Hairs more than 400 years old of the famous astronomer Tycho Brahe were studied by electron microscopy to evaluate the hypothesis that Johannes Kepler murdered his teacher Brahe by mercury intoxication. The beard hairs showed a well-preserved ultrastructure with typical hair scales and melanosomes. The authors detected an accumulation of electron-dense granules of about 10 nm inside the outer hair scales, but not in the hair shaft and roots. At the places of these heavy-metal-containing granules they detected mercury besides other elements by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, Oxford, UK) in a field cathode scanning electron microscope (SEM, Gemini, Zeiss). The mercury-containing granules were found over the whole length of hairs, but only in the outer hair scales. Nevertheless, surface coatings of hairs were free of mercury. This distribution of mercury does not support the murder hypothesis, but could be related to precipitation of mercury dust from the air during long-term alchemistic activities. PMID:23025649

Jonas, Ludwig; Jaksch, Heiner; Zellmann, Erhard; Klemm, Kerstin I; Andersen, Peter Hvilshøj

2012-10-01

296

9. Interior view, overhead line shafting and lathe workbench, east ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Interior view, overhead line shafting and lathe workbench, east shop, ground floor, looking northwest. - Larrabee & Hingston Company, Main Shop Building, 19 Howley Street, Peabody, Essex County, MA

297

23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ELEVATOR LOADING DOOR. - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

298

20. VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM FIRST FLOOR TO SKYLIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM FIRST FLOOR TO SKYLIGHT, LOOKING SKYWARD, NORTH - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

299

21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

300

Design for a slender shaft glass micropipette.  

PubMed

A method for the construction of long, slender shaft glass micropipettes is described. The diameter of the pipettes is comparable to metal microelectrodes that are used when multiple penetrations are required to record from neurons in relatively small targets located deep within brain tissue. The advantages of the slender micropipettes over metal microelectrodes are that: (1) the pipettes can be rapidly and reliably produced for consistent shape, size and impedance characteristics, (2) dyes can be used to define recording sites, (3) substances that carry a stable ionic charge such as soluble dyes or drugs can be ionophoreticaly applied through the pipette and, (4) both extra- and intracellular recordings are feasible. PMID:6668954

Perachio, A A; Correia, M J

1983-12-01

301

Nevada nuclear waste storage investigations: Exploratory shaft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is proposed that an Exploratory Shaft (ES) be constructed in Yucca Mountain on or near the southwest portion of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This document described a conceptual design for an ES and a cost estimate based on a set of construction assumptions. Included in this document are appendixes consisting of supporting studies done at NTS by Fenix and Scisson, Inc. and Holmes and Narver, Inc. These appendixes constitute a history of the development of the design and are included as part of the record.

Nelson, D. C.; Merson, T. J.

1982-06-01

302

Visuo-Haptic Interface for Hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we focus on adaptive visuo-haptic simulation of hair using force feedback haptic devices, and propose an easy-to-use interactive hair modelling interface. The underlying idea is to explore ways of integrating visual hair simulation and haptic into one multirate-multilayer-multithread application allowing for intuitive interactive hair modeling. The user is allowed to interact with the simulated hair on a

Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann; Melanie Montagnol; Ugo Bonanni; Rajeev Gupta

2007-01-01

303

Hair morphology and systematics of Physalis ( Solanaceae )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair morphology was exammed on developing seedlings and mature plants of ten species from five of seven series inPhysalis. The taxonomic importance of hair development and the distribution of hair types then was evaluated with respect to other comparative data. Two classes of hair types were observed, as found in earlier investigations ofSolanum andRhododendron. The first hair class comprises a

Almut Seithe; Janet R. Sullivan

1990-01-01

304

Essentials of Hair Care often Neglected: Hair Cleansing  

PubMed Central

Why does the selection of hair cleansing products and conditioners seem complex? Why are there clear, opalescent, green, blue, glittery, cheap, expensive, thick, thin, fragrant, and unscented varieties of shampoos and conditioners? Why the whole cleansing process cannot be simplified by using the same bar soap used on the body for the hair? Does the shampoo selected really make a difference? What can a conditioner accomplish?

Draelos, Zoe D

2010-01-01

305

Co-factors of LIM domains (Clims/Ldb/Nli) regulate corneal homeostasis and maintenance of hair follicle stem cells  

PubMed Central

The homeostasis of both cornea and hair follicles depends on a constant supply of progeny cells produced by populations of keratin (K) 14-expressing stem cells localized in specific niches. To investigate the potential role of Co-factors of LIM domains (Clims) in epithelial tissues, we generated transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative Clim molecule (DN-Clim) under the control of the K14 promoter. As expected, the K14 promoter directed high level expression of the transgene to the basal cells of cornea and epidermis, as well as the outer root sheath of hair follicles. In corneal epithelium, the transgene expression causes decreased expression of adhesion molecule BP180 and defective hemidesmosomes, leading to detachment of corneal epithelium from the underlying stroma, which in turn causes blisters, wounds and an inflammatory response. After a period of epithelial thinning, the corneal epithelium undergoes differentiation to an epidermis-like structure. The K14-DN-Clim mice also develop progressive hair loss due to dysfunctional hair follicles that fail to generate hair shafts. The number of hair follicle stem cells is decreased by at least 60% in K14-DN-Clim mice, indicating that Clims are required for hair follicle stem cell maintenance. In addition, Clim2 interacts with Lhx2 in vivo, suggesting that Clim2 is an essential co-factor for the LIM homeodomain factor Lhx2, which was previously shown to play a role in hair follicle stem cell maintenance. Together, these data indicate that Clim proteins play important roles in the homeostasis of corneal epithelium and hair follicles.

Xu, Xiaoman; Mannik, Jaana; Kudryavtseva, Elena; Lin, Kevin K.; Flanagan, Lisa A.; Spencer, Joel; Soto, Amelia; Wang, Ning; Lu, Zhongxian; Yu, Zhengquan; Monuki, Edwin S.; Andersen, Bogi

2007-01-01

306

Analysis of Drilled-Shaft Foundation for Overhead-Sign Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design procedures are outlined for drilled-shaft foundations subjected to lateral, axial, and flexural stresses. Single-shaft as well as double-shaft systems are investigated. The effects of shaft interaction for systems involving more than one shaft are ...

G. Lowe L. C. Reese

1982-01-01

307

tmie Is Required for Gentamicin Uptake by the Hair Cells of Mice  

PubMed Central

The circling (cir/cir) mouse is a spontaneous model of deafness due to deletion of a 40-kb genomic region that includes the transmembrane inner ear (tmie) gene. In addition to being deaf, cir/cir mice exhibit abnormal behaviors including circling and hyperactivity. Here we investigated differences between 3-d-old (that is, before hair-cell degeneration) cir/cir and phenotypically normal (+/cir) mice and the reason underlying the degeneration of the inner ear structure of cir/cir mice. To this end, we used gentamicin, gentamicin–Texas red conjugate, and FM1-43 to investigate mechanotransducer channel activity in the hair cells of cir/cir mice; these compounds are presumed to enter hair cells through the mechanotransducer channel. Although the structure of the inner ear of +/cir mice was equivalent to that of cir/cir mice, the hair cells of cir/cir mice (unlike +/cir) did not take up gentamicin, gentamicin–Texas red conjugate, or FM1-43. These findings suggest that hair cells in cir/cir mice demonstrate abnormal maturation and mechanotransduction. In addition, our current results indicate that tmie is required for maturation and maintenance of hair cells.

Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong-Han; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Kyu-yup; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yun, Byung-Wook; Ryoo, ZaeYoung

2013-01-01

308

Human Scalp Hair Follicles Are Both a Target and a Source of Prolactin, which Serves as an Autocrine and/or Paracrine Promoter of Apoptosis-Driven Hair Follicle Regression  

PubMed Central

The prototypic pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) exerts a wide variety of bioregulatory effects in mammals and is also found in extrapituitary sites, including murine skin. Here, we show by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistology that, contrary to a previous report, human skin and normal human scalp hair follicles (HFs), in particular, express both PRL and PRL receptors (PRL-R) at the mRNA and protein level. PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity can be detected in the epithelium of human anagen VI HFs, while the HF mesenchyme is negative. During the HF transformation from growth (anagen) to apoptosis-driven regression (catagen), PRL and PRL-R immunoreactivity appear up-regulated. Treatment of organ-cultured human scalp HFs with high-dose PRL (400 ng/ml) results in a significant inhibition of hair shaft elongation and premature catagen development, along with reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of hair bulb keratinocytes (Ki-67/terminal dUTP nick-end labeling immunohistomorphometry). This shows that PRL receptors, expressed in HFs, are functional and that human skin and human scalp HFs are both direct targets and sources of PRL. Our data suggest that PRL acts as an autocrine hair growth modulator with catagen-promoting functions and that the hair growth-inhibitory effects of PRL demonstrated here may underlie the as yet ill-understood hair loss in patients with hyperprolactinemia.

Foitzik, Kerstin; Krause, Karoline; Conrad, Franziska; Nakamura, Motonobu; Funk, Wolfang; Paus, Ralf

2006-01-01

309

White matter integrity in hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania).  

PubMed

Hair-pulling disorder (trichotillomania, HPD) is a disabling condition that is characterized by repetitive hair-pulling resulting in hair loss. Although there is evidence of structural grey matter abnormalities in HPD, there is a paucity of data on white matter integrity. The aim of this study was to explore white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in subjects with HPD and healthy controls. Sixteen adult female subjects with HPD and 13 healthy female controls underwent DTI. Hair-pulling symptom severity, anxiety and depressive symptoms were also assessed. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to analyze data on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). There were no differences in DTI measures between HPD subjects and healthy controls. However, there were significant associations of increased MD in white matter tracts of the fronto-striatal-thalamic pathway with longer HPD duration and increased HPD severity. Our findings suggest that white matter integrity in fronto-striatal-thalamic pathways in HPD is related to symptom duration and severity. The molecular basis of measures of white matter integrity in HPD deserves further exploration. PMID:23149033

Roos, Annerine; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine

2012-11-11

310

Founder mutations in the lipase H (LIPH) gene in families with autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis  

PubMed Central

Autosomal recessive woolly hair (ARWH)/hypotrichosis is a hereditary hair disorder which is characterized by tightly curled hair, and is occasionally associated with sparse hair. ARWH can be caused by mutations in the P2RY5 or lipase H (LIPH) gene. Disruption of both genes results in phenotypes with features of both WH and hypotrichosis. In this study, we identified two Guyanese families with ARWH. Both families are of recent Indian descent. Mutation analysis resulted in the identification of mutations in the LIPH gene in both families. Affected individuals in the first family carry compound heterozygous mutations Ex7_8del and 1303_1309dupGAAAACG in the LIPH gene, and those in the second family have a homozygous mutation 659_660delTA in LIPH. The mutations Ex7_8del and 659_660delTA were previously identified in several Pakistani families with ARWH. Haplotype analysis using microsatellite markers close to the LIPH gene defined a founder haplotype shared in families from Pakistan and Guyana. Proteomic analysis of hair shaft samples from one of the families revealed no substantial changes among the proteins identified, indicating that the syndrome does not involve global alterations in protein expression. Our results further suggest a crucial role of lipase H in hair growth.

Shimomura, Yutaka; Wajid, Muhammad; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Lee, Young Jin; Rice, Robert H.; Christiano, Angela M.

2010-01-01

311

Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)  

MedlinePLUS

... windy weather. People with trichotillomania may wear wigs, style their hair to disguise bald patches or wear ... not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not ...

312

Removable control rod drive shaft guide  

SciTech Connect

A removable control rod drive shaft guide is described for a control rod ''guide'' structure card, comprising: a. a substantially annular shaped main body portion having a central axial bore for receiving a control rod drive shaft and an upper exterior groove for receiving removal tooling; b. the main body portion having a reduced outer diameter at its lower section; c. a shoulder portion integral with the main body portion for supporting the main body portion on the guide structure card; d. the shoulder portion having a substantially radial bore and the reduced outer diameter lower section having a slot in alignment with the radial bore; e. a locking arm ''pivotaly'' mounted in the radial bore which protrudes into the slot and is movable between a first normal locking position for engaging the guide structure card and a second release position; f. a spring received within a second axial bore in the main body portion and biased against the locking arm for urging and locking arm into the first normal locking position; and g. a release tab at one end of the locking arm for moving the locking arm into the second release position.

Ales, M.W.; Brown, S.K.; Dixon, L.D.

1988-06-14

313

Paraphenylene diamine hair dye poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1883, paraphenylene diamine (PPD) has traditionally been used for dyeing (dark color) hair in Europe [1-2] as a fresh\\u000a preparation mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) [3]. In Sudan PPD is used by women to color their hair and as a body dye when added to henna ( Lawasonia alba). Henna on it’s own need to be applied two or

Mohamed I. Hamdouk; Mohamed B. Abdelraheem; Ahbab A. Taha; Mohamed Benghanem; Marc E. Broe

314

Functional Development of Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic hair cells in chicks and mammals have functional transduction channels and voltage-gated outwardly rectifying potassium (K+) channels, fast inwardly rectifying channels, and voltage-gated sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca2+) channels. Together these channels may participate in spiking by the immature hair cells, which may drive rhythmic or bursting activity of neurons at higher levels of the auditory pathway. The electrical

Ruth Anne Eatock; Karen M. Hurley

2003-01-01

315

Testing human hair for cannabis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To validate information on cannabis use, we investigated human hair and pubic hair for cannabinoids (THC and THC-COOH) by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Samples (100 mg approximately) were decontaminated with methylene chloride, then pulverized and dissolved in 1 ml 1 N NaOH for 10 min at 95 °C in the presence of 200 ng of deuterated standards. After cooling, samples were

V. Cirimele; P. Kintz; P. Mangin

1995-01-01

316

Chronic Restraint Stress Inhibits Hair Growth via Substance P Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species in Mice  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds Solid evidence has demonstrated that psychoemotional stress induced alteration of hair cycle through neuropeptide substance P (SP) mediated immune response, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in brain-skin-axis regulation system remains unknown. Objectives The present study aims to investigate possible mechanisms of ROS in regulation of SP-mast cell signal pathway in chronic restraint stress (CRS, a model of chronic psychoemotional stress) which induced abnormal of hair cycle. Methods and Results Our results have demonstrated that CRS actually altered hair cycle by inhibiting hair follicle growth in vivo, prolonging the telogen stage and delaying subsequent anagen and catagen stage. Up-regulation of SP protein expression in cutaneous peripheral nerve fibers and activation of mast cell were observed accompanied with increase of lipid peroxidation levels and reduction of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in CRS mice skin. In addition, SP receptor antagonist (RP67580) reduced mast cell activations and lipid peroxidation levels as well as increased GSH-Px activity and normalized hair cycle. Furthermore, antioxidant Tempol (a free radical scavenger) also restored hair cycle, reduced SP protein expression and mast cell activation. Conclusions Our study provides the first solid evidence for how ROS play a role in regulation of psychoemotional stress induced SP-Mast cell pathway which may provide a convincing rationale for antioxidant application in clinical treatment with psychological stress induced hair loss.

Wang, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Xi-Ping; Jiang, Yan; Shang, Jing; Murao, Koji; Chen, Jing-Wei; Fu, Wen-Qing; Zhang, Guo-Xing

2013-01-01

317

Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.  

PubMed

Previously published results showed that both in vitro and in vivo coconut oil (CNO) treatments prevented combing damage of various hair types. Using the same methodology, an attempt was made to study the properties of mineral oil and sunflower oil on hair. Mineral oil (MO) was selected because it is extensively used in hair oil formulations in India, because it is non-greasy in nature, and because it is cheaper than vegetable oils like coconut and sunflower oils. The study was extended to sunflower oil (SFO) because it is the second most utilized base oil in the hair oil industry on account of its non-freezing property and its odorlessness at ambient temperature. As the aim was to cover different treatments, and the effect of these treatments on various hair types using the above oils, the number of experiments to be conducted was a very high number and a technique termed as the Taguchi Design of Experimentation was used. The findings clearly indicate the strong impact that coconut oil application has to hair as compared to application of both sunflower and mineral oils. Among three oils, coconut oil was the only oil found to reduce the protein loss remarkably for both undamaged and damaged hair when used as a pre-wash and post-wash grooming product. Both sunflower and mineral oils do not help at all in reducing the protein loss from hair. This difference in results could arise from the composition of each of these oils. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft. Mineral oil, being a hydrocarbon, has no affinity for proteins and therefore is not able to penetrate and yield better results. In the case of sunflower oil, although it is a triglyceride of linoleic acid, because of its bulky structure due to the presence of double bonds, it does not penetrate the fiber, consequently resulting in no favorable impact on protein loss. PMID:12715094

Rele, Aarti S; Mohile, R B

318

[A syndrome: uncombable hair. Observation of 6 members of a family with pili canaliculi, associated with pili torti, progressive alopecia, atopic eczema and hamartomas].  

PubMed

Six members of one family showed the typical clinical picture of uncombable hair (cheveux incoiffables), a syndrome first described by Dupré, Rochiccioli and Bonafé in 1973. In all six cases scanning electron microscopical investigations revealed characteristic morphological hair changes including longitudinal grooves as well as angular or kidney-shaped patterns in cross sections. Genetically the abnormality seems to be of autosomal dominant heredity with incomplete penetrance. In addition to uncombable hair some of our patients showed pili torti, progressive alopecia areata and atopic eczema. Possible relations of this syndrome with other diseases as pili torti, kinky hair disease or hypotrichia congenita are discussed. PMID:7107281

Braun-Falco, O; Ryckmanns, F; Heilgemeir, G P; Ring, J

1982-07-01

319

Safety Analysis of the Blind Shaft Borer. Volume 1. Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, sponsored by the Bureau of Mines, presents the results of an examination of the safety of the Blind Shaft Borer (BSB) shaft sinking system and an alternative modified BSB design concept in comparison to conventional shaft sinking technology. ...

C. A. Geffen-Fowler J. M. Hobbs J. J. Jacobsen J. M. Oylear T. B. Powers

1981-01-01

320

Safety Analysis of the Blind Shaft Borer. Volume 3. Supplementary Reports F through J.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, sponsored by the Bureau of Mines, presents the results of an examination of the safety of the Blind Shaft Borer (BSB) shaft sinking system and an alternative modified BSB design concept in comparison to conventional shaft sinking technology. ...

C. A. Geffen-Fowler J. J. Jacobsen J. M. Hobbs J. M. Oylear T. B. Powers

1981-01-01

321

Safety Analysis of the Blind Shaft Borer. Volume 2. Supplementary Reports A through E.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, sponsored by the Bureau of Mines, presents the results of an examination of the safety of the Blind Shaft Borer (BSB) shaft sinking system and an alternative modified BSB design concept in comparison to conventional shaft sinking technology. ...

C. A. Geffen-Fowler J. J. Jacobsen J. M. Hobbs J. M. Oylear T. B. Powers

1981-01-01

322

30 CFR 77.1904 - Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1904 Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist...

2010-07-01

323

30 CFR 77.1900 - Slopes and shafts; approval of plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Slopes and shafts; approval of plans. 77.1900...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1900 Slopes and shafts; approval of plans....

2010-07-01

324

30 CFR 77.1904 - Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1904 Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist...

2009-07-01

325

30 CFR 77.1900 - Slopes and shafts; approval of plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Slopes and shafts; approval of plans. 77.1900...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1900 Slopes and shafts; approval of plans....

2009-07-01

326

Monitoring the Blind Shaft Borer Project, Oak Grove, Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1974, plans of the United States to obtain energy self-sufficiency included a significant increase in coal production, primarily from new underground mines in the Eastern states. The poor condition of coal shaft sinking companies was a major concern. The US Bureau of Mines perceived similarities between shaft sinking and tunnel boring and felt that a machine could be produced

R. Amstutz; T. Danowski

1982-01-01

327

8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the northwest, with turbine shaft and thrust bearing visible in upper center of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

328

Equations of Motion of an Asymmetric Timoshenko Shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equations of motion of an asymmetric Timoshenko shaft, that is having unequal principal moments of inertia, are derived within the framework of the Lagrangian formulation for continuous systems and fields. The Lagrangian density of the system is calculated in a moving frame, that is a rotating frame attached to the deformed shaft, and proves to depend on the four

F. A. Raffa; F. Vatta

2001-01-01

329

46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100 Section 171.100 Shipping COAST...Requirements § 171.100 Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. (a) Stern tubes in each of the following vessels must be...

2012-10-01

330

A concrete shaft liner design methodology for nuclear waste repositories  

SciTech Connect

Considerations important to design of cast-in-place concrete liners for repository shafts are discussed. Requirements for repository shaft liners and design criteria appropriate to those requirements are presented. Types of loads acting on a liner and modes of deformation are discussed. Methods are proposed for calculating load magnitudes and liner stresses and for evaluating liner performance. 14 refs., 3 figs.

Richardson, A.M.; St. John, C.M.

1988-01-01

331

Convertible turbo-fan, turbo-shaft aircraft propulsion system  

SciTech Connect

A composite gas turbine engine propulsion system for aircraft which includes a propulsion fan for providing forward thrust as a first mode of operation and a turbo-shaft power output for driving an external load as a second mode of operation and means for selectably changing between the modes of operation and combinations thereof comprising: a gas turbine engine mounted to a frame providing power to a drift shaft; first transmission means connected to the drive shaft for providing a power output suitable for driving the external load; second transmission means connected to the drive shaft for providing a variable power output suitable for driving the propulsion fan, the second transmission comprising; a gear reduction system operatively connected to the drive shaft and constructed to provide output power to an output shaft suitable for driving the fan, the gear reduction system comprising a sun gear operatively connected for rotation with the drive shaft; a planet gear carrier fixed to the engine frame; planet gears mounted in the planet gear carrier in operative engagement with the sun gear; a bell gear mounted for rotation in operative engagement with the planet gears and having a shaft extending therefrom to provide the output of the gear reduction system; and a torque converter.

Ossi, R.R.

1987-03-24

332

Computer aided technique for shaft design through Monte Carlo simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper predicts the probability of failure of shafts subjected to reverse bending during the process of transfer of power. Since reliability and probability of failure are complementary to each other, the safety levels are calculated in terms of reliability factors. The shafts considered in this study are subjected to tension, compression, bending or torsional loads acting singly or in

J. H. Kreiner; C. S. Putcha

1994-01-01

333

Vibration of rotating-shaft design spindles with flexible bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an accurate mathematical model predicting forced vibration of rotating-shaft HDD spindle motors with flexible stationary parts. The mathematical model consists of three parts: a rotating part, a stationary part, and bearings. The rotating part includes a flexible hub, a flexible shaft press-fit into the hub, and N elastic disks mounted on the

Chaw-Wu Tseng

2002-01-01

334

7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW SHOWS VERTICAL LADDER AND CAGE ALONG ELEVATOR SHAFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

335

A coupled mechanical/hydrologic model for WIPP shaft seals  

SciTech Connect

Effective sealing of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shafts will be required to isolate defense-generated transuranic wastes from the accessible environment. Shafts penetrate water-bearing hard rock formations before entering a massive creeping-salt formation (Salado) where the WIPP is located. Short and long-term seals are planned for the shafts. Short-term seals, a composite of concrete and bentonite, will primarily be located in the hard rock formations separating the water-bearing zones from the Salado Formation. These seals will limit water flow to the underlying long-term seals in the Salado. The long-term seals will consist of lengthly segments of initially unsaturated crushed salt. Creep closure of the shaft will consolidate unsaturated crushed salt, thereby reducing its permeability. However, water passing through the upper short-term seals and brine inherent to the salt host rock itself will eventually saturate the crushed salt and consolidation could be inhibited. Before saturating, portions of the crushed salt in the shafts are expected to consolidate to a permeability equivalent to the salt host rock, thereby effectively isolating the waste from the overlying water-bearing formations. A phenomenological model is developed for the coupled mechanical/hydrologic behavior of sealed WIPP shafts. The model couples creep closure of the shaft, crushed salt consolidation, and the associated reduction in permeability with Darcy's law for saturated fluid flow to predict the overall permeability of the shaft seal system with time. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Ehgartner, B.

1991-06-01

336

Failure analysis of a tool-steel torque shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low design load drive shaft from an experimental diesel truck engine failed unexpectedly during highway testing. The shaft was driven by a turbine used to deliver power from an experimental exhaust heat recovery system to the engine's crankshaft. During design, fatigue was not considered a major problem because of the low operating cyclic stresses. An independent testing laboratory analyzed

Reagan

1981-01-01

337

30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shaft opening with fireproof air ducts; (3) Designed to permit the reversal of the air current, and located in an area...prevent a recirculation of air from the slope or shaft...with air ducts which are fire resistant and...

2013-07-01

338

Fatigue life estimation of adhesive bonded shaft joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue tests and analytical investigation of adhesive bonded shaft joints were conducted to propose the estimation method of fatigue strength. Two kinds of adhesive bonded joints were studied: one, shaft joints connected with adhesive coupling, the other, adhesive joints of thin wall tubes to obtain standard fatigue strength. Both pulsating tensile and torsional fatigue tests were conducted with each adhesive

Makoto Imanaka; Waichiro Kishimoto; Kozo Okita; Hideaii Nakayama; Hiroyoshi Nagai

1989-01-01

339

Safety Aspects Related to Vibrational Diagnostics of Deep Mine Shafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploitation of deep mine shafts is connected with vitally important aspects of work and public safety. The latter becomes clear keeping in mind the fact that in many locations of the European coal and ore mining countries, the shafts can be found in close proximity of free access areas such as, for instance, public roads. On the other hand, proper operational capabilities of mine shaft installation determine the level of safety of hundreds underground miners, in a single underground mine, who use the shaft at least twice a day. Reliable operation of shaft installations is a derivative of many factors influencing the shaft frame as such, and its surroundings, e.g. changing of water conditions in the ground. Consequently, systematic control (including continuous monitoring if need be) of the vibration level of both the rotating machinery installed within the shaft structure, and frame supporting elements (including continuous monitoring) is compulsory. Currently, only in the Upper Silesia coal mining region, approximately 35 such structures are under extensive vibrational control. The paper presents sets of vibration parameters measurements obtained using conventional, and laser-based instrumentation, performed on some of those shaft structures. In relation to these results safety aspects have been discussed.

Kompa?a, Janusz; Motyka, Zbigniew; Passia, Henryk; Szade, Adam; ?wider, Janusz

2010-05-01

340

Safety Aspects Related to Vibrational Diagnostics of Deep Mine Shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploitation of deep mine shafts is connected with vitally important aspects of work and public safety. The latter becomes clear keeping in mind the fact that in many locations of the European coal and ore mining countries, the shafts can be found in close proximity of free access areas such as, for instance, public roads. On the other hand, proper

Janusz Kompala; Zbigniew Motyka; Henryk Passia; Adam Szade; Janusz Swider

2010-01-01

341

Ground water pressure relief wells in shaft sinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of pressure relief produced in a confined aquifer by a ring of vertical relief wells is conventionally evaluated by summation of simple contributions from individual wells. Where the wells surround an open excavation such as a shaft, the pattern is modified. This paper outlines the appropriate modifications. The resulting pattern of pressure relief and of shaft inflow is

R. A. Scott; G. P. Daw

1983-01-01

342

ROTATING-SHAFT HELIUM SEAL INVESTIGATION. Status Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research program was conducted to study positive rotating-shaft seals ; using helium for high-speed turbomachinery. Materials were evaluated to ; determine their - resistance to high-speed rubbing contact in helium, and a ; theoretical analysis of gas leakage past dry pressure seals was made. It is ; concluded that a dry face-type shaft seal can be developed if satisfactory

F. K. Orcutt; J. C. Bell; W. A. Glaeser; C. M. Allen

1959-01-01

343

29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross over valve. Shaft at left operates main flood valve to admit water into the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

344

Shaft mines can get power without armor  

SciTech Connect

A Pennsylvania coal operator has been able to install neoprene jacketed mine power feeder (MPF) cable in an airshaft without the use of expensive armored power cables. Armored cables traditionally have been favored in applications where the cable is dropped vertically because their galvanized metal shielding protects the cable as it is dragged across rough ground and stretched by its own weight as it is lowered into the hole. But armored cable poses some problems. It is as much as $20 per foot more expensive than MPF cable. Also, sinking armored cables is particularly difficult when space is limited because the cable must be laid out on the ground before it is lowered into the hole. The technique that allowed Pennsylvania Mines Corp. to install two 750-ft-long, 15-kv cables at is 400,000-tpy Tunnelton mine, near New Alexandria, Pa., was devised by J.H. Service Co.'s Indianola, Pa., branch office. The method involves feeding MPF cable from a spool on a truck equipped with special braking devices, over a steel drum that acts as a sheave, directly into a mine shaft or borehole. Robert C. Kadyk, a sales manager with J.H. Service, says that while this is not the first time standard MPF cable has been used in a borehole or shaft, the cables are not usually used in these cases because there were no dependable methods for holding the cable steady as it was lowered into the hole to keep it from abrading against the sides of the borehole or shaft. Also, dragging MPF cable through the woods invariably damages it. With its cable sinking method, J.H. Service vulcanizes stainless steel kellems grips into the cable about every 100 ft. The interval varies with the weight and diameter of the cable, depth of the hole, and length of the kellems grip. One twisted steel messenger wire is attached to each kellems grip to displace the weight of the cable as it takes its trip to the mine floor.

Brezovec, D.

1984-02-01

345

Effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hairs.  

PubMed

The effects of repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing on concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AM) in hair samples of MA addicts were studied. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples collected from male (n = 24, 24-51 yrs) and female abusers (n = 7, 17-46 yrs) were evaluated for MA and AM concentration's changes after repeated hair washing and a single hair dyeing. Thirty-one MA positive hair samples, no additional treatment hair sample group (NAT), were treated in vitro with liquid soap or three kinds of hair dyes which were black, brown and yellow color hair dye, respectively. Quantitation of AM and MA in hair samples was utilized GC-MS using selected ion monitoring. MA and AM concentrations in NAT were 10.41 ± 8.91 ng/mg (range 1.50-30.0 ng/mg) and 2.24 ± 2.75 ng/mg (range 0.41-12.90 ng/mg). And, their concentrations were decreased about 23.3 ± 4.5% (range 16.7-32.8%) in hair repeated washing group (WAS) and 32.6 ± 4.82 (22.2-41.9) in three kinds of a single hair dyeing groups in comparison to original concentrations of MA and AM in NAT. A statistically significant difference was found between NAT and WAS or three hair dyeing groups (p < 0.01), but not between WAS and three hair dyeing groups, and not between each hair dyeing groups with each three kinds of hair dyes (p > 0.05). PMID:20650577

Baeck, SeungKyung; Han, EunYoung; Chung, HeeSun; Pyo, MyoungYun

2010-07-21

346

Cartilage-hair hypoplasia caused by novel compound heterozygous RMRP mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cartilage-hair hypoplasia is a rare, autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia, caused by mutations in the RMRP gene. The skeletal abnormalities include irregular metaphyses and cone shaped epiphyses of the hands. Molecular diagnosis\\u000a confirmed two novel RMRP mutations in a compound heterozygous state in two siblings with this condition.

Kerstin Reicherter; Amithkumar Iynapillai Veeramani; Sujatha Jagadeesh

2011-01-01

347

Exploratory Shaft Facility quality assurance impact evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the impact of the quality assurance practices used for the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) design, and construction in licensing as part of the repository. Acceptance criteria used for evaluating the suitability of ESF QA practices are based on documents that had not been invoked for repository design or construction activities at the time of this evaluation. This report identifies the QA practices necessary for ESF design and construction licensability. A review and evaluation of QA practices for ESF design and construction resulted in the following conclusions. QA practices were found to be acceptable with a few exceptions. QA practices for construction activities were found to be insufficiently documented in implementing procedures to allow a full and effective evaluation for licensing purposes. Recommendations are provided for mitigating impacts to ensure compatibility of the QA practices with those considered necessary for repository licensing. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1987-08-01

348

Exploratory Shaft Facility geotechnical sensitivity report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to examine the design sensitivity of various components of the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) to the geotechnical and hydrological data needed for design and construction of the facility. The data fall into two broad categories: data used directly in design calculations and data used indirectly in the design and construction process. Design elements are much more sensitive to data that is used directly in design calculations than to the data that is used indirectly, and the degree of sensitivity can be used as a means of prioritizing the data gathering activities. The geotechnical and hydrological parameters that are directly used in design studies, the design elements that are effected by the parameters, and the relative sensitivity to the given parameter are briefly summarized. 9 refs., 10 tabs.

Lentell, R.

1986-11-01

349

Random vibrations of a damped rotating shaft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Response of a simple Jeffcott rotor to random excitation is considered with both external and internal damping taken into account. Mean square responses are predicted by the method of moments for the cases of transverse and angular (tilting) oscillations. Contrary to unbalance-induced response the random vibrations are shown to depend on the internal or ``rotating'' damping; in particular, their level increases with approaching threshold speed for dynamic instability. Procedure for estimating this threshold from on-line measurements of the shaft's random vibrations at a constant rotation speed is outlined based on the calculating coherence function of lateral displacements in two perpendicular directions for the case of transverse vibrations and that of tilting angles about two perpendicular axes for the case of tilting oscillations. Dependence of the mean square responses on the rotation speed can also be used for the stability margin evaluation.

Dimentberg, M. F.; Ryzhik, B.; Sperling, L.

2005-01-01

350

Flexible shaft versus rigid shaft electric machines for petroleum and chemical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A background on electric machines is presented covering power\\/speed rating charts and the history of motors and turbogenerators. Their applications in petroleum and chemical plants are described. Motor construction, speed\\/power limits, and vibration and balance are discussed. Recent developments and design conflicts are examined. It is noted that the vast majority of electric machines have been produced according to rigid-shaft

E. L. Owen

1989-01-01

351

Minireview: Hair Cortisol: A Novel Biomarker of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Activity  

PubMed Central

Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is commonly assessed by measuring glucocorticoids such as cortisol (CORT). For many years, CORT was obtained primarily from blood plasma or urine, whereas later approaches added saliva and feces for noninvasive monitoring of HPA functioning. Despite the value of all these sample matrices for answering many research questions, they remain limited in the temporal range of assessment. Plasma and saliva are point samples that vary as a function of circadian rhythmicity and are susceptible to confounding by environmental disturbances. Even urine and feces generally assess HPA activity over a period of only 24 h or less. We and others have recently developed and validated methods for measuring the concentration of CORT in the body hair of animals (e.g. rhesus monkeys) and scalp hair of humans. CORT is constantly deposited in the growing hair shaft, as a consequence of which such deposition can serve as a biomarker of integrated HPA activity over weeks and months instead of minutes or hours. Since the advent of this methodological advance, hair CORT has already been used as an index of chronic HPA activity and stress in human clinical and nonclinical populations, in a variety of laboratory-housed and wild-living animal species, and in archival specimens that are many decades or even centuries old. Moreover, because human hair is known to grow at an average rate of about 1 cm/month, several studies suggest that CORT levels in hair segments that differ in proximity to the scalp can, under certain conditions, be used as a retrospective calendar of HPA activity during specific time periods preceding sample collection.

Novak, Melinda A.

2012-01-01

352

Minireview: Hair cortisol: a novel biomarker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity.  

PubMed

Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is commonly assessed by measuring glucocorticoids such as cortisol (CORT). For many years, CORT was obtained primarily from blood plasma or urine, whereas later approaches added saliva and feces for noninvasive monitoring of HPA functioning. Despite the value of all these sample matrices for answering many research questions, they remain limited in the temporal range of assessment. Plasma and saliva are point samples that vary as a function of circadian rhythmicity and are susceptible to confounding by environmental disturbances. Even urine and feces generally assess HPA activity over a period of only 24 h or less. We and others have recently developed and validated methods for measuring the concentration of CORT in the body hair of animals (e.g. rhesus monkeys) and scalp hair of humans. CORT is constantly deposited in the growing hair shaft, as a consequence of which such deposition can serve as a biomarker of integrated HPA activity over weeks and months instead of minutes or hours. Since the advent of this methodological advance, hair CORT has already been used as an index of chronic HPA activity and stress in human clinical and nonclinical populations, in a variety of laboratory-housed and wild-living animal species, and in archival specimens that are many decades or even centuries old. Moreover, because human hair is known to grow at an average rate of about 1 cm/month, several studies suggest that CORT levels in hair segments that differ in proximity to the scalp can, under certain conditions, be used as a retrospective calendar of HPA activity during specific time periods preceding sample collection. PMID:22778226

Meyer, Jerrold S; Novak, Melinda A

2012-07-09

353

Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.  

PubMed

Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. PMID:23301816

Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

2013-01-24

354

Active Hair Bundle Motion Linked to Fast Transducer Adaptation in Auditory Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

During transduction in auditory hair cells, hair bundle deflection opens mechanotransducer channels that subsequently reclose or adapt to maintained stimuli, a major component of the adap- tation occurring on a submillisecond time scale. Using a photo- diode imaging technique, we measured hair bundle motion in voltage-clamped turtle hair cells to search for a mechanical correlate of fast adaptation. Excitatory force

A. J. Ricci; A. C. Crawford; R. Fettiplace

2000-01-01

355

Analysis of pubic hair as an alternative specimen to scalp hair: A contamination issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pubic hair is often analyzed as an alternative to scalp hair to prove previous drug use. However, urine is a potential source of external contamination. In the present study, the concentrations of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AP) in both scalp and pubic hair from illegal MA users were compared. Furthermore, in order to investigate the external contamination of pubic hair

Sooyeun Lee; Eunyoung Han; Hwakyung Choi; Heesun Chung; Kyu Hyuck Chung

2011-01-01

356

Complex hair cycle domain patterns and regenerative hair waves in living rodents  

PubMed Central

Single hair follicles go through regeneration and involution cycles. In a population, hair follicles may affect each other during anagen re-entry, thus forming propagating regenerative hair waves. We review these regenerative hair waves and complex hair cycle domains which were recently reported in transgenic mice. Two non-invasive methods to track the propagating hair wave in large populations of hair follicles in vivo are described. We also reviewed early accounts of "hair growth patterns" from classical literature. We decipher the "behavior rules" that dictate how dynamic hair waves lead to complex hair cycle domains. In general, a single domain expands when a regenerative hair wave reaches a responsive region and boundaries form when the wave reaches a non-responsive region. As mice age, multiple hair cycle domains form, each with own regeneration rhythm. Domain patterns can be reset by physiological events such as pregnancy and lactation. Longitudinal sections across domains show arrays of follicles in a continuum of hair cycle stages. Hair cycle domains are different from regional specificity domains. Regenerative hair waves are different from the developmental wave of newly forming hair follicles. The study provides novel insights into the dynamic states of adult skin and physiological regulation of organ regeneration.

Plikus, Maksim V.; Chuong, Cheng-Ming

2009-01-01

357

Cultivation of Functionally Intact Hair Follicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to the cultivation of hair follicles, and more particularly to a process for cultivating functionally intact hair follicles. One of the major challenges of cell biology is the elucidation of factors which regulate cellular d...

S. H. Yuspa P. Steinert D. R. Roop

1987-01-01

358

Multiple engine drive for single output shaft and combining gearbox therefor  

SciTech Connect

A multiple engine drive system is described for driving a single drive shaft, comprising: multiple input shafts, each drivingly coupled to an output shaft of a different engine; a common final drive shaft; separate gear train means for drivingly coupling each of the multiple input shafts to the common final drive shaft; each separate gear train means including a separate input gear on an associated input shaft and a separate output gear on the common final drive shaft, and separate coupling means for coupling each output gear to the common final drive shaft; the coupling means comprising a separate clutch means operable to drivingly couple each output gear to the common final drive shaft when each output gear is driven by its associated input gear at a speed at least as great as that of the common final drive shaft.

Soloy, J.I.

1989-05-16

359

Economic evaluation of the blind-shaft borer (BSB)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study is to assess the economic feasibility of Blind Shaft Boring versus alternate methods of shaft sinking. In Section 1 a review is made of two previous economic analyses. Comparisons have been made between projected performance of a fully commercialized Blind Shaft Borer (BSB) and the actual results of the DOE sponsored field trial at Oak Grove, Alabama. Problems encountered with the prototype are fully discussed and considered. The purpose of this review is to determine if the methodology used in the previous reports is valid. For a better familiarization of the reader with the details of the Paul Weir Co. and TRW studies, a rather comprehensive review of these two studies is given in Appendix A. In Section 2, the operating costs for a commercialized BSB, including amortization of capital costs, are determined. Probable costs associated with shaft sinking using a second generation BSB are predicted in dollars per foot and include mobilization, capital, and operating costs. In Section 3, BSB costs derived in Section 2 are compared with costs of alternate methods including: (1) Conventional Shaft Sinking, (2) Large Diameter Drilling, (3) Multi-Pass Reaming Methods. In Section 4, a Sensitivity Analysis is performed to determine the relative influence of parameters such as shaft diameter, shaft depth, penetration rate, etc. The conclusions of the report and the main topics addressed in the study are summarized in Section 5.

Not Available

1981-05-01

360

Fast adaptation and Ca2+-sensitivity of the mechanotransducer require myosin-XVa in inner but not outer cochlear hair cells  

PubMed Central

In inner ear hair cells, activation of mechotransduction channels is followed by extremely rapid deactivation that depends on the influx of Ca2+ through these channels. Although the molecular mechanisms of this “fast” adaptation are largely unknown, the predominant models assume Ca2+ sensitivity as an intrinsic property of yet unidentified mechanotransduction channels. Here we examined mechanotransduction in the hair cells of young postnatal shaker 2 mice (Myo15sh2/sh2). These mice have no functional myosin-XVa, which is critical for normal growth of mechanosensory stereocilia of hair cells. Although stereocilia of both inner and outer hair cells of Myo15sh2/sh2 mice lack myosin-XVa and are abnormally short, these cells have dramatically different hair bundle morphology. Myo15sh2/sh2 outer hair cells retain a “staircase” arrangement of the abnormally short stereocilia and prominent tip links. Myo15sh2/sh2 inner hair cells do not have obliquely oriented tip links and their mechanosensitivity is mediated exclusively by “top-to-top” links between equally short stereocilia. In both inner and outer hair cells of Myo15sh2/sh2 mice, we found mechanotransduction responses with a normal “wild type” amplitude and speed of activation. Surprisingly, only outer hair cells exhibit fast adaptation and sensitivity to extracellular Ca2+. In Myo15sh2/sh2 inner hair cells, fast adaptation is disrupted and the transduction current is insensitive to extracellular Ca2+. We conclude that the Ca2+-sensitivity of the mechanotransduction channels and the fast adaptation require a structural environment that is dependent on myosin-XVa and is disrupted in Myo15sh2/sh2 inner hair cells, but not in Myo15sh2/sh2 outer hair cells.

Stepanyan, Ruben; Frolenkov, Gregory I.

2009-01-01

361

Radioimmunological determination of cocaine in human hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure for the determination of cocaine in human hair was described. After washing hair samples were crushed in 0.1m HCl and incubated overnight at 45°C. The acid extracts were neutralized with 1m NaOH. Phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) was added to the extracts. The cocaine concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Detection in hair was achieved in all hair samples

S. Balabanova; H. Brunner; R. Nowak

1987-01-01

362

A study on the concentrations of 11-nor-? 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in hair root and whole hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the patterns of cannabis users (n=412) according to their sex, age, and the results of urinalysis and hair analysis, and classified the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair into three categories to examine the levels of cannabis use. We also compared the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair root, hair without the hair root and whole hair

Eunyoung Han; Hwakyung Choi; Sangki Lee; Heesun Chung; Joon Myong Song

2011-01-01

363

A new protocol for radiocarbon dating of hair and keratin type samples—application to an Andean mummy from the National Museum of Natural History in Paris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protocol of preparation of keratinized samples (e.g. hair, furs …) for radiocarbon dating that we have developed is based\\u000a on the selective extraction of keratin from the bulk part of the shaft (cortex). The aim of this method is to eliminate the\\u000a cuticle which could contain exogenous carbon from external contaminations. The total treatment takes place as follows: a

Pascale Richardin; Nathalie Gandolfo; Pauline Carminati; Philippe Walter

364

Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. (Bechtel National, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)); Bethmann, H.K. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

1991-01-01

365

Device for selectively securing an object to a shaft  

SciTech Connect

A magnetic tape reel is secured to a reel drive motor shaft by a device including a hub secured to the shaft, a plurality of shoes, and actuating means for thrusting the shoes against the reel and for releasing them from contact with the reel. The securing device includes a cam mounted on the shaft in combination with a locking device including the cam periphery. The locking device thrusts the shoes against the object and is operated by rotation of the motor. The cam is immobilized in rotation while the shoes are locked.

Calizano, F.; Chauvel, M.

1984-06-26

366

Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. [Bechtel National, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States); Bethmann, H.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1991-12-31

367

A novel stereocilia defect in sensory hair cells of the deaf mouse mutant Tasmanian devil.  

PubMed

Stereocilia are specialized actin-filled, finger-like processes arrayed in rows of graded heights to form a crescent or W-shape on the apical surface of sensory hair cells. The stereocilia are deflected by the vibration of sound, which opens transduction channels and allows an influx of ions to depolarize the hair cell, in turn triggering synaptic activity. The specialized morphology and organization of the stereocilia bundle is crucial in the process of sensory transduction in the inner ear. However, we know little about the development of stereocilia in the mouse and few molecules that are involved in stereocilia maturation are known. We describe here a new mouse mutant with abnormal stereocilia development. The Tasmanian devil (tde) mouse mutation arose by insertional mutagenesis and has been mapped to the middle of chromosome 5. Homozygotes show head-tossing and circling and have raised thresholds for cochlear nerve responses to sound. The gross morphology of the inner ear was normal, but the stereocilia of cochlear and vestibular hair cells are abnormally thin, and they become progressively disorganized with increasing age. Ultimately, the hair cells die. This is the first report of a mutant showing thin stereocilia. The association of thin stereocilia with cochlear dysfunction emphasizes the critical role of stereocilia in auditory transduction, and the discovery of the Tasmanian devil mutant provides a resource for the identification of an essential molecule in hair cell function. PMID:12405956

Erven, Alexandra; Skynner, Michael J; Okumura, Katsuzumi; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Brown, Steve D M; Steel, Karen P; Allen, Nicholas D

2002-10-01

368

Time course of cocaine in rabbit hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate interpretation of analytical results from hair testing for drugs of abuse continues to be a complex and difficult problem since many questions still remain unanswered. In this paper an animal model was developed to ascertain the time course for the appearance and disappearance of cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) in hair. Female Fauve Bourgogne red-haired rabbits (n

C. Jurado; C. Rodriguez-Vicente; M. Menéndez; M. Repetto

1997-01-01

369

Minoxidil: mechanisms of action on hair growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We have known for over 30 years that minoxidil stimulates hair growth, yet our understanding of its mechanism of action on the hair follicle is very limited. In animal studies, topical minoxidil shortens telogen, causing premature entry of resting hair follicles into anagen, and it probably has a similar action in humans. Minoxidil may also cause prolongation of anagen

A. G. Messenger; J. Rundegren

2004-01-01

370

28 CFR 551.4 - Hair length.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hair length. 551.4 Section 551.4 Judicial...MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.4 Hair length. (a) The Warden may not restrict hair length if the inmate keeps it neat and...

2013-07-01

371

Pathogenesis in Trichorrhexis Invaginata (Bamboo Hair)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of formation of trichorrhexis invaginata, which is one of the characteristic hair anomalies seen in Nether ton's syndrome, was studied using plucked hairs obtained from 3 patients with the typical clinical features. The biopsy specimens used to examine the hair root were obtained from the scalp of one of the patients and the eyebrow area of the other.

Masaaki Ito; Kaoru Ito; Ken Hashimoto

1984-01-01

372

Live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs.  

PubMed

Root hairs are tubular extensions from the root surface that expand by tip growth. This highly focused type of cell expansion, combined with position of root hairs on the surface of the root, makes them ideal cells for microscopic observation. This chapter describes the method that is routinely used in our laboratory for live cell imaging of Arabidopsis root hairs. PMID:24132430

Ketelaar, Tijs

2014-01-01

373

Simulation-Based Cartoon Hair Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new hybrid technique for cartoon hair animation, one that allows the animators to create attractive and controllable hair animations without having to draw everything by hand except a sparse set of key frames. We demonstrate how to give a cel animation character accentuated hair motion. The novelty of this approach is that we neither simply interpolate

Eiji Sugisaki; Yizhou Yu; Ken Anjyo; Shigeo Morishima

2005-01-01

374

Tooth - abnormal shape  

MedlinePLUS

Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. Abnormally shaped teeth can result from many different conditions. Specific diseases can have a profound effect ...

375

Abnormal Head Position  

MedlinePLUS

... ocular problem. What are some of the ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Eye misalignment: Sometimes when ... asymmetry. What are some of the non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the ...

376

``Dissection'' of a Hair Dryer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can ``dissect'' a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can discover how engineers solve problems such as how to vary between low and high heat and fan speed by simply moving the position of a single switch. Principles of alternating versus direct current, series and parallel circuits, electrical safety, voltage dividing, ac rectification, power, and measurement of resistance and continuity all come in to play.

Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

2008-12-01

377

Evaluation of deep shaft biological wastewater treatment process at Ithaca, New York. Final report Oct 79-Aug 81  

SciTech Connect

The major objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of the Deep Shaft biological treatment process and to evaluate its application for the treatment of municipal wastewater. A 757-cu m day (0.2-mgd) pilot plant facility was constructed at the existing wastewater treatment plant site in Ithaca, New York, for this purpose. Performance of the Deep Shaft process was evaluated under a variety of operating conditions including raw wastewater and primary effluent as influent sources, constant and diurnal (varying) flow patterns, with and without polymer addition as a flotation aid, and with alum addition for a short period for phosphorus removal. Pilot plant influent characteristics were not typical of domestic raw wastewater or primary effluent as had been anticipated in selecting Ithaca as the project site as a result of the practice of returning partially ground screenings and abnormally strong anaerobic digester supernatant to the main plant headworks.

Schwinn, D.E.; Storrier, D.F.; Butterworth, R.

1983-10-01

378

A Case of Incontinentia Pigmenti Associated with Multiorgan Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Incontinentia pigmenti is a systemic disorder affecting the skin, teeth, eyes, nervous tissue, hair, nails, musculoskeletal system, and heart. We describe an 11-month-old girl with incontinentia pigmenti associated with a ventricular septal defect, left hemiatrophy, hemangiomas, an abnormal labial frenum, and spastic cerebral palsy manifested as left hemiplegia and developmental delay. We believe this patient illustrates that incontinentia pigmenti is a systemic disorder necessitating a multidisciplinary approach to management.

Chung, Woon-Kyong; Lee, Deok-Woo; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho

2009-01-01

379

Skin and hair follicle integrity is crucially dependent on ?1 integrin expression on keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

?1 integrins are ubiquitously expressed receptors that mediate cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. To analyze the function of ?1 integrin in skin we generated mice with a keratinocyte-restricted deletion of the ?1 integrin gene using the cre–loxP system. Mutant mice developed severe hair loss due to a reduced proliferation of hair matrix cells and severe hair follicle abnormalities. Eventually, the malformed hair follicles were removed by infiltrating macrophages. The epidermis of the back skin became hyperthickened, the basal keratinocytes showed reduced expression of ?6?4 integrin, and the number of hemidesmosomes decreased. Basement membrane components were atypically deposited and, at least in the case of laminin-5, improperly processed, leading to disruption of the basement membrane and blister formation at the dermal–epidermal junction. In contrast, the integrity of the basement membrane surrounding the ?1-deficient hair follicle was not affected. Finally, the dermis became fibrotic. These results demonstrate an important role of ?1 integrins in hair follicle morphogenesis, in the processing of basement membrane components, in the maintenance of some, but not all basement membranes, in keratinocyte differentiaton and proliferation, and in the formation and/or maintenance of hemidesmosomes.

Brakebusch, Cord; Grose, Richard; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Ramirez, Angel; Jorcano, Jose L.; Pirro, Alison; Svensson, Marcus; Herken, Rainer; Sasaki, Takako; Timpl, Rupert; Werner, Sabine; Fassler, Reinhard

2000-01-01

380

Yucca Mountain Project: Preliminary shaft liner design criteria and methodology guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shaft Liner Design Criteria and Methodology Guide outlines a methodology for designing concrete shaft liners for the Yucca Mountain Project repository in tuff, the use of which will ensure that all shafts meet the requirements for repository service. These requirements are identified in the guide; then, unlined shaft behavior is examined to establish rock behavior modes and to investigate

1990-01-01

381

An analysis of the relationship between induction motor current and shaft speed fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

For induction motors, motor shaft speed variations accompany motor load torque variations and motor torque variations. Hence, shaft speed fluctuation detection can serve as a warning of undesirable motor load conditions. This paper presents a theoretical foundation for the relationship between motor shaft speed fluctuations and stator current fluctuations when the shaft speed is perturbed by any cause. In addition,

C. H. Nowlin

1992-01-01

382

Influence of axial thrust bearing defects on the dynamic behavior of an elastic shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the non-linear dynamic behavior of a flexible shaft is presented. The shaft is mounted in two journal bearings and axial load is supported by a hydrodynamic thrust bearing, at one end. The coupling between the axial thrust bearing behavior and the bending vibrations of the shaft is especially studied. The shaft is modeled by a typical beam

Sébastien Berger; Olivier Bonneau; Jean Frêne

2000-01-01

383

An examination of the utility of a nuclear DNA/mitochondrial DNA duplex qPCR assay to assess surface decontamination of hair.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to compare two commonly used methods for the surface decontamination of human hair shafts, and to evaluate the use of a duplex real-time qPCR assay to assess decontamination effectiveness for the purpose of mitochondrial DNA typing. Hair shafts of known mitochondrial DNA haplotype were coated with undiluted saliva, semen or blood, each of known mitochondrial haplotype distinct from the test hair. Surface decontamination was conducted by enzymatic treatment with Terg-a-zyme™ and by chemical treatment with dilutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO, bleach). Following DNA extraction, a duplex (nuclear and mitochondrial DNA) real-time qPCR assay was used to quantify mitochondrial DNA and to test for surface contamination by quantifying the exogenous nuclear DNA not removed from the hair shaft. The NaClO treatment was found to be more effective for removing surface contamination than the Terg-a-zyme™ treatment, and it was procedurally simpler to implement, resulting in a significant savings of sample processing time. Exposure to 3% NaClO for up to two minutes had no detrimental effect on quantity or typing of the mitochondrial DNA belonging to the hair. In addition, we demonstrated that the duplex real-time PCR assay is a convenient early-warning diagnostic method for the detection of the presence of external DNA contamination, providing an assessment of the purity of the sample prior to embarking on further analysis by more laborious mitochondrial DNA typing methods. PMID:23582697

Date-Chong, Mavis; Buoncristiani, Martin R; Aceves, Margaret; Orrego, Cristián

2013-04-10

384

Multi-Track Optical Shaft Position and Timing Cylinder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A shaft position, direction and timing assembly for a stepper motor in an electrically controlled printing system operating in an environment subjected to relatively strong vibrational and shock levles is disclosed. A cyclindrical coding member having one...

S. Everett

1985-01-01

385

Exploratory Shaft Phase 1, Project B-314: Functional design criteria  

SciTech Connect

This document establishes the Functional Design Criteria for Exploratory Shaft - Phase I (ES - Phase I), Project B-314. The document includes the design requirements which must be fulfilled by the Architect/Engineer in the performance of design. 3 tabs.

Gustavsen, D.R.; Hanlen, D.F.

1984-05-10

386

Drilled Shaft Design for Sound Barrier Walls, Signs, and Signals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) uses drilled shafts to support the noise barrier walls and the large overhead signs and signals placed alongside the highways. These structures are subjected to predominantly lateral loads from wind. Curren...

D. Hanneman J. Nusairat K. Yang N. Abu-Hejleh R. Engel R. Y. Liang

2004-01-01

387

Task V, engineering study No. 5: Shaft optimization  

SciTech Connect

This engineering study was performed primarily to determine the development testing required to design and construct repository shafts at Hanford by blind boring methods and to formulate performance requirements for such development and testing.

Not Available

1984-07-01

388

Preliminary design of sector cryogenic shaft transfer line system  

SciTech Connect

This work summarizes the preliminary design of the shaft transfer line. Operating mod dictating the design criteria are addressed. System requirements, design constraints, and results design analysis conducted on key elements are also discussed.

Zhang, B.; Stifle, K.

1993-04-01

389

39. ENGINE LATHE, SANDER, AND LATHE WITH PATTERNS AND SHAFTS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

39. ENGINE LATHE, SANDER, AND LATHE WITH PATTERNS AND SHAFTS ABOVE-LOOKING NORTHWEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

390

18. INTERIOR OF WARD ROOM WITH RUDDER QUADRANT AND SHAFT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. INTERIOR OF WARD ROOM WITH RUDDER QUADRANT AND SHAFT LOCATED ABOVE. NOTE WIRE ROPE ALONG CEILING WHICH RUNS DIRECT TO WHEEL MECHANISM. - Lightship 116, Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

391

80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 UNIT IN POSITION. OVERVIEW LOOKING EAST IN THE POWERHOUSE, Print No. 234, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

392

Failure Analysis of a Tool Steel Torque Shaft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A low design load drive shaft used to deliver power from an experimental exhaust heat recovery system to the crankshaft of an experimental diesel truck engine failed during highway testing. An independent testing laboratory analyzed the failure by routine...

J. R. Reagan

1981-01-01

393

Studying ship electric energy systems with shaft generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution aims primarily at making a discussion on the shaft generator systems installed onboard highlighting their advantages and disadvantages focusing on that they can possibly be a hybrid alternative to \\

J. Prousalidis; I. K. Hatzilau; P. Michalopoulos; I. Pavlou; D. Muthumuni

2005-01-01

394

13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

395

8. VIEW LOOKING UP INTO TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW LOOKING UP INTO TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM THIRD FLOOR, SHOWING OPERATING CABLES AT LEFT, MAIN CABLE IN CENTER, AND CAR GUIDE AT RIGHT - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

396

18. DETAIL OF SHAFT COLLAR AND CAGE GUIDES. VIEW LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DETAIL OF SHAFT COLLAR AND CAGE GUIDES. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH INCLUDES DETAIL OF RIVETED STEEL CONSTRUCTION OF HEADFRAME. - Butte Mineyards, Stewart Mine, Intersection of Main & Woolman Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

397

7. VIEW OF SHAFT ON FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING COUNTERWEIGHT AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. VIEW OF SHAFT ON FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING COUNTERWEIGHT AND ITS GUIDE AT LEFT, OPERATING CABLE AT RIGHT, CARLIGHT ELECTRIC CABLE IS LOOPED IN FRONT OF WINDOW - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

398

18. TURBINE AND GENERATOR SHAFT IN CONCRETE HOUSING OF THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. TURBINE AND GENERATOR SHAFT IN CONCRETE HOUSING OF THE TURBINE FLUME. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

399

40. MAIN DRIVE SHAFT IN CENTER, PATTERN STORAGE IN REAR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

40. MAIN DRIVE SHAFT IN CENTER, PATTERN STORAGE IN REAR, WATER TANK AT RIGHT-LOOKING EAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

400

17. TOP OF TURBINE LOOKING NORTHWEST. SHAFT TO GENERATOR IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. TOP OF TURBINE LOOKING NORTHWEST. SHAFT TO GENERATOR IN CENTER. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

401

3. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, VIEW OF LIGHT SHAFT SHOWING DECORATIVE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, VIEW OF LIGHT SHAFT SHOWING DECORATIVE TRIM AROUND OPENING, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST LOOKING UP. - 629 D Street Northwest (Commercial Building), Square 457, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

402

18. VIEW NORTHEAST, SHAFT, CAM, AND OPERATING ARM FOR NORTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. VIEW NORTHEAST, SHAFT, CAM, AND OPERATING ARM FOR NORTH END LOCK, INBOARD SIDE OF WEST BASCULE GIRDER - Grand Street Bridge, Spanning Pequonnock River at Grand Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

403

Reactor Coolant Pump Shaft Seal Behavior during Station Blackout.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A testing program designed to provide fundamental information pertaining to the behavior of reactor coolant pump (RCP) shaft seals during a postulated nuclear power plant station blackout has been completed. One seal assembly, utilizing both hydrodynamic ...

B. M. Cotnam C. A. Kittmer D. B. Rhodes R. Metcalfe R. G. Wensel

1985-01-01

404

Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection  

PubMed Central

Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection.

Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

2012-01-01

405

Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection.  

PubMed

Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection. PMID:22171023

Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

2011-12-14

406

ESF (Exploratory Shaft Facility) flexibility analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report directs that uncertainty allowances be included within the ESF facilities. The recommendations herein developed are intended as input to Title II Design criteria. Flexibility is measured first by lineal ft of drift, and then by hoisting rate and capacity of supporting utilities and services. A defined probability of need shows an extra 10,000 ft of drift for the first level of flexibility responding to testing and operations, and over 60,000 ft of drift for the second level of flexibility which recognizes possible need for perimeter drifting to investigate geologic stratigraphy. Observing there will be time constraints, a single shaft muck hoisting rate up to 170 to 250 tons per hour is recommended. The potential hoisting rate recommended for flexibility should be satisfied by a hoist approximately equivalent to, or conveniently upgraded from those being considered for sinking and construction, or 1000 horsepower. The cost of flexibility is limited to engineering planning and design (mostly conceptual) which makes later expansion achievable, and to selected items for initial construction where later upgrading would be impractical, impossible, or very costly. The cost is fixed to the level of flexibility and does not vary with excavated footage. The incremental margin is only a small fraction of the additional footage made available. Flexibility presents a strategy and not a position of design or technology. Examples used in this report are intended to be illustrative only, and not to lead design or cost estimates. 7 tabs.

Brusenback, R.W.

1987-03-01

407

Modulation of hair cell efferents  

PubMed Central

Outer hair cells (OHCs) amplify the sound-evoked motion of the basilar membrane to enhance acoustic sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents inhibit OHCs to reduce the sound-evoked response of cochlear afferent neurons. OHC inhibition occurs through the activation of postsynaptic ?9?10 nicotinic receptors tightly coupled to calcium-dependent SK2 channels that hyperpolarize the hair cell. MOC neurons are cholinergic but a number of other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators have been proposed to participate in efferent transmission, with emerging evidence for both pre- and postsynaptic effects. Cochlear inhibition in vivo is maximized by repetitive activation of the efferents, reflecting facilitation and summation of transmitter release onto outer hair cells. This review summarizes recent studies on cellular and molecular mechanisms of cholinergic inhibition and the regulation of those molecular components, in particular the involvement of intracellular calcium. Facilitation at the efferent synapse is compared in a variety of animals, as well as other possible mechanisms of modulation of ACh release. These results suggest that short-term plasticity contributes to effective cholinergic inhibition of hair cells.

Wersinger, Eric; Fuchs, Paul Albert

2011-01-01

408

Shaft torque monitoring using conventional digital fault recorders  

SciTech Connect

A software package that utilizes a conventional digital fault recorder (DFR) and personal computer (PC) to perform the important functions of a torsional monitor has been developed. This is referred to as MOST (Monitoring of Shaft Torque). MOST was developed to take advantage of the current technology to provide simulated shaft torque monitoring that is simple, reliable and required no new hardware. The paper provides a description of the theory and features of MOST.

Agrawal, B.L.; Demcko, J.A.; Farmer, R.G.; Selin, D.A. (Arizona Public Service Co. (US))

1992-08-01

409

Design considerations for rotating laminated metal-matrix-composite shafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A logical step in the application of fiber-reinforced composites is to take advantage of their light-weight\\/high-strength potential and replace traditional monolithic shaft designs with composite materials. In the case of aircraft engine shafts where the high-temperature environment excludes the use of most traditional materials, a high-strength titanium alloy is recommended. The focus of this paper is the evaluation of Ti-21S

Robert S. Salzar

1999-01-01

410

A shaft seal system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

As part of the demonstration of compliance with federal regulations, a shaft seal system has been designed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The system completely fills the 650 m shafts with components consisting of the common engineering materials, each of which possesses low permeability, longevity, and can be constructed using available technology. Design investigations couple rock mechanics and fluid flow analysis and tests of these materials within the natural geological setting, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the design.

Hansen, F.D.; Ahrens, E.H.; Dennis, A.W.; Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Tillerson, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thompson, T.W. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States); Galbraith, D. [USDOE Carlsbad Area Office, NM (United States)

1996-07-01

411

Failure analysis of a diesel engine gear-shaft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A failure investigation has been conducted on a diesel-engine gear-shaft used in a truck, which is made from 45# steel. The crack initiated from the root transition region between the cylinder and the platform of the gear-shaft, and propagated toward the direction with an angle of 45° to the axial direction first, then toward the direction normal to the axial

Xiaolei Xu; Zhiwei Yu; Hongxin Ding

2006-01-01

412

Fabrication of WC micro-shaft by using electrochemical etching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tungsten carbide (WC) micro-shaft can be used as various micro-tools for MEMS because of its high rigidity and toughness.\\u000a In this study, we performed fabrication experiments of the WC micro-shaft using electrochemical etching. H2SO4 solution was used as the electrolyte because it can dissolve tungsten and cobalt simultaneously. Optimal electrolyte concentration\\u000a and applied voltage resulting in uniform shape, good surface

S. H. Choi; S. H. Ryu; D. K. Choi; C. N. Chu

2007-01-01

413

11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the south, with operating ring at base of shaft and servo motor arms in foreground and in left background recess. Turbine monitoring and auxiliary equipment is located in the rightbackground recess. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

414

Effectiveness of pressure relief shafts - full scale assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of pressure relief shafts has often been proposed as a means of reducing pressure fluctuations and of improving passenger comfort on board high-speed trains in tunnels. The recently opened rail-link between Mattstetten-Rothrist in Switzerland is one of the first rail projects where such shafts became an integral part of the project right from the design stage. The effectiveness

Bernd Hagenah; Peter Reinke

415

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTHSOUTH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTH-SOUTH IS IN PLACE; AT RIGHT IS A PRESS FOR WORKING THE ALUMINUM SHEETS; E. W. BLISS CO. OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, MANUFACTURED THE PRESS. MACHINERY ORIGINALLY POWERED BY OVERHEAD BELTS CONNECTED TO CENTRAL LINE SHAFTS; BY ABOUT THE 1940s THE MACHINERY WAS ELECTRICALLY POWERED. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

416

Blind shaft drilling: The state of the art  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the ``Art`` of blind shaft drilling which has been in a continual state of evolution at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since the start of underground testing in 1957. Emplacement holes for nuclear devices are still being drilled by the rotary drilling process, but almost all the hardware and systems have undergone many changes during the intervening years. Blind shaft drilling and tunnel construction technologies received increased emphasis with the signing of the LTBT in 1963.

Rowe, P.A.

1993-04-20

417

Mammalian hairs in Early Cretaceous amber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two mammalian hairs have been found in association with an empty puparium in a ˜100-million-year-old amber (Early Cretaceous) from France. Although hair is known to be an ancestral, ubiquitous feature in the crown Mammalia, the structure of Mesozoic hair has never been described. In contrast to fur and hair of some Jurassic and Cretaceous mammals preserved as carbonized filaments, the exceptional preservation of the fossils described here allows for the study of the cuticular structure. Results show the oldest direct evidence of hair with a modern scale pattern. This discovery implies that the morphology of hair cuticula may have remained unchanged throughout most of mammalian evolution. The association of these hairs with a possible fly puparium provides paleoecological information and indicates peculiar taphonomic conditions.

Vullo, Romain; Girard, Vincent; Azar, Dany; Néraudeau, Didier

2010-07-01

418

Shaft Siting and Configuration for Flexible Operating Mode  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document as stated in the ''Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities'' (CRWMS M&O 2001a, pg. 14) is to review and evaluate the most current concepts for shaft siting and configuration. The locations of the shaft sites will be evaluated in reference to the overall subsurface ventilation layout shown in Figure 1. The scope will include discussions on pad size requirements, shaft construction components such as collars, shaft stations, sumps, ground support and linings, head frames, fan ducting and facility equipping. In addition to these, shaft excavation methodologies and integration with the overall subsurface construction schedule will be described. The Technical Work Plan (TWP), (CRWMS M&O 2001a), for this document has been prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering and Regulatory Compliance Activities''. This document will be prepared in accordance with AP-3.10Q, ''Analysis and Models''. This document contributes to Site Recommendation (SR). The intended use of this document is to provide an analysis for shaft siting and configuration criteria for subsequent construction. This document identifies preliminary design concepts that should not be used for procurement, fabrication, or construction.

Robert Boutin

2001-08-02

419

Fuel transfer system for multiple concentric shaft gas turbine engines  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes fuel pumping and transfer system for a turbine engine having a combustion region. The fuel system consists of: a housing; a first spool having an inner shafty rotatably mounted to the housing, the inner shaft having at least one discharge hold and an inner surface defining a central bore; a fuel tube extending axially within the central bore and mounted to the inner shaft for rotation with the inner shaft, the fuel tube having a first end and a second end, the second end of the pair of ends being adjacent the at least one discharge hole; means for supplying fuel to the fuel tube, the means for supplying in flow communication with the first end of the fuel tube, the fuel tube delivering the fuel to the second end of the fuel tube by centrifugal force when the inner shaft is rotated; means for discharging fuel from the second end of the fuel tube through the at least one discharge hold of the inner shaft, the means for discharging comprising a baffle mounted opposite the second end of the fuel tube and a dam extending radially inwardly from the inner surface of the inner shaft, the dam disposed intermediate the at least one discharge hold and the baffle whereby a ring of fuel is trapped by the dam is increased the pressure of the fuel prior to being discharged through at least one discharge hole.

Barbeau, D.E.

1988-09-13

420

New technique for humerus shaft fracture retrograde intramedullary nailing.  

PubMed

Humeral shaft fracture intramedullary nailing is less invasive than plates and screws. Antegrade technique has postoperative shoulder pain, increased rehab time, and frequent reoperation for rod removal. Published retrograde technique is not collinear with the shaft, has insertion site fractures (5% to 15%), and radial nerve palsies (5%). Our retrograde technique is collinear with the humerus shaft, simpler, and decreases operative fracture risk. The supine patient's elbow is fully flexed. A guide pin is inserted through the triceps tendon to the olecranon fossa roof, aligned with the humerus shaft, and drilled thought the cortex followed by the 6.5 mm cannulated drill through a small triceps splitting incision. The guide pin is passed along the humerus shaft and across the fracture. A small incision is made to identify and protect the radial nerve during reduction, reaming, and rod insertion. Flexible reamers are used and the nail placed and locked at least distally to prevent distal migration. An institutional review broad approved retrospective review of Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center adult humeral shaft fractures with retrograde technique from 1999 to January of 2009 was carried out. Sixteen patients were treated without perioperative fracture or nerve palsy. PMID:21869643

Hollister, Anne M; Saulsbery, Carla; Odom, Jennifer L; Anissian, Lucas; Garon, Mark Tyson; Jordan, Jenee'

2011-09-01

421

Simultaneous quantification of morphine and cocaine in hair samples from drug addicts by GC-EI/MS.  

PubMed

The development of analytical techniques that enable the use of hair as an alternative matrix for the analysis of drugs of abuse is useful for confirming the exposure in a larger time window (weeks to months, depending on the length of the hair shaft). In the present study a methodology aimed at the simultaneous quantification of cocaine and morphine in human hair was developed and validated. After decontamination, hair samples (20?mg) were incubated with a mixture of methanol/hydrochloric acid (2:1) at 65?°C overnight (~16?h) in order to extract the drugs of the matrix. Purification was performed by solid-phase extraction using mixed-mode extraction cartridges. After derivatization with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide, blank, standards and samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/electron impact-mass spectrometry (GC-EI/MS). The method proved to be selective, as there were no interferences of endogenous compounds with the same retention time as cocaine, morphine and ethylmorphine (internal standard). The regression analysis for both analytes showed linearity in the range 0.25-10.00?ng/mg with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9989 to 0.9991. The coefficients of variation oscillated between 0.83 and 14.60%. The limits of detection were 0.01 and 0.02?ng/mg, and the limits of quantification were 0.03 and 0.06?ng/mg for cocaine and morphine, respectively. The proposed GC-EI/MS method provided an accurate and simple assay with adequate precision and recovery for the quantification of cocaine and morphine in hair samples. The proof of applicability was performed in hair samples obtained from drug addicts enrolled in a Regional Detoxification Treatment Center. The importance of hair samples is highlighted, since positives results were obtained when urine immunoassay analyses were negative. PMID:22753238

Gouveia, Carla Alexandra; Oliveira, Ana; Pinho, Sandra; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Carvalho, Félix; Moreira, Roxana Falcão; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

2012-07-03

422

Hair cell replacement in adult mouse utricles after targeted ablation of hair cells with diphtheria toxin.  

PubMed

We developed a transgenic mouse to permit conditional and selective ablation of hair cells in the adult mouse utricle by inserting the human diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) gene into the Pou4f3 gene, which encodes a hair cell-specific transcription factor. In adult wild-type mice, administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) caused no significant hair cell loss. In adult Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice, DT treatment reduced hair cell numbers to 6% of normal by 14 days post-DT. Remaining hair cells were located primarily in the lateral extrastriola. Over time, hair cell numbers increased in these regions, reaching 17% of untreated Pou4f3(+/DTR) mice by 60 days post-DT. Replacement hair cells were morphologically distinct, with multiple cytoplasmic processes, and displayed evidence for active mechanotransduction channels and synapses characteristic of type II hair cells. Three lines of evidence suggest replacement hair cells were derived via direct (nonmitotic) transdifferentiation of supporting cells: new hair cells did not incorporate BrdU, supporting cells upregulated the pro-hair cell gene Atoh1, and supporting cell numbers decreased over time. This study introduces a new method for efficient conditional hair cell ablation in adult mouse utricles and demonstrates that hair cells are spontaneously regenerated in vivo in regions where there may be ongoing hair cell turnover. PMID:23100430

Golub, Justin S; Tong, Ling; Ngyuen, Tot B; Hume, Cliff R; Palmiter, Richard D; Rubel, Edwin W; Stone, Jennifer S

2012-10-24

423

Identification of techniques for monitoring strains in the 72-inch diameter shaft liner for the exploratory shaft at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

A series of finite element models were used to predict the distribution of hoop and axial strains that would occur in the 72-in. ID ring stiffened shaft liner during installation. The finite element results were used to determine the optimal instrumentation locations for monitoring the behavior of the ES liner. In addition, the results provide predictive values for comparison with the actual field data during installation, grouting, and dewatering of the shaft. An additional model was prepared for simulating the time-dependent behavior of the basalt surrounding the ES shaft and the resulting loads. Because no time-dependent data for the Hanford basalt is available, the intent of the model is to provide a tool for understanding any observed strains in the ES liner that occur after grouting of the annulus and dewatering of the shaft.

Voss, C.F.; Strope, L.A.; Garnich, M.R.; Bastian, R.J.; Liebetrau, A.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1985-01-01

424

Hair breakage index: an alternative tool for damage assessment of human hair.  

PubMed

Improper hair care, mechanical abrasion, sun damage and chemical treatment changes the physical and morphological characteristics of hair. Several methods involving microscopic techniques, protein loss and assessment of tensile properties of the hair are generally used to evaluate the extent of damage caused. These are also used to determine the protective effect of hair care products. In the present investigation, the hair breakage index (HBI) was used as an alternative tool to determine the change in the properties of hair on weathering. HBI is a measure of the diameter of hair in a given cross sectional area of a marked region of hair on the scalp. The hair diameter changes as we progress towards the tip of the hair due to breakage. The ratio of the diameter of hair bundle in the distal region to the diameter of hair bundle in the proximal region from the scalp is used as an indicator of hair breakage. Higher HBI value is an indicator of hair damage.A study was conducted for duration of 16 weeks to assess the effect of weathering due to grooming practices on HBI values. The HBI and break stress for a group of 30 subjects were measured at baseline and at the end of 16 weeks (NU). Since Coconut oil (CNO) is known to have a positive benefit on tensile properties of hair, another matched group of 30 subjects who oiled their hair daily with CNO was used as a positive control (CNO). The HBI and break stress for this group were also measured at the baseline and after 16 weeks. It was observed that the HBI significantly increased in the NU group versus the CNO user group. The break stress also significantly decreased in the NU group suggesting its correlation with the HBI data. This study demonstrates the usefulness of HBI as a simple and effective tool for determining hair damage and its protection by different hair care products. PMID:21635848

Mhaskar, Sudhakar; Kalghatgi, Bhargavi; Chavan, Madhavi; Rout, Suryamani; Gode, Vaishali

425

Comparison between single-shaft and mutli-shaft gas fired 800 MWel combined cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-shaft and single-shaft configurations allow customization to optimize plant performance, capital investment, construction and maintenance access, operating convenience, and minimum space requirements. Technical comparison between both configurations at partial loads has not been published before. This paper will primarily address a comparison between the two configurations based on thermodynamic simulation results for a gross power capacity of approximately 800 MWel at

M. Edris

2010-01-01

426

Glucocorticosteroid concentrations in feces and hair of captive caribou and reindeer following adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge.  

PubMed

Climate change and industrial development are contributing to synchronous declines in Rangifer populations across the Arctic. Chronic stress has been implicated as a proximate factor associated with decline in free-ranging populations, but its role in Rangifer is unspecified. Analysis of glucocorticosteroid (GC) concentration in feces, and more recently in hair, is a non-invasive method for monitoring stress in wildlife. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) released from the pituitary gland stimulates GC release from the adrenals and can be administered to reflect adrenal activation. In this study, we assessed concentrations of GC metabolites in feces and cortisol in hair of Alaskan caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and reindeer (R. t. tarandus) following ACTH treatment. We predicted that ACTH challenge would increase concentrations of fecal GCs, but not hair cortisol because steroid deposited into the hair shaft occurs over an extended period of time (months) and is likely insensitive to acute adrenal stimulation. Adult caribou (n=10; mean age, 6.5 years old) exhibited a peak increase in fecal GCs 8h following a 2 IU/kg dose of ACTH compared to pre-injection concentrations. In contrast, sub-adult reindeer (n=10, 0.8 years old) elicited a diminished response to the same dose. Quadrupling the dose (8 IU/kg) prolonged the fecal GC response in female reindeer, but male reindeer were unresponsive. Hair cortisol was unaffected by a single ACTH challenge. Further investigation is required to ascertain whether subspecific differences in adrenal sensitivity are attributed to age or sex differences, or historical selective pressures from semi-domestication and/or sedentary life cycle in reindeer. PMID:21501613

Ashley, N T; Barboza, P S; Macbeth, B J; Janz, D M; Cattet, M R L; Booth, R K; Wasser, S K

2011-04-08

427

Severe Hair Loss of the Scalp due to a Hair Dye Containing Para phenylenediamine  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 41-year-old female showing severe hair loss approximately 90% after the use of a hair dye. These symptoms developed six days after the use of a hair dye containing PPD. A patch test showed a (++) reaction at 48?h to 1% PPD in petrolatum, whereas all metals and white petrolatum were negative. She was therefore diagnosed with contact dermatitis due to PPD, resulting in hair loss. The skin lesions gradually improved after starting treatment with the systemic corticosteroids. The possibility that allergic contact dermatitis from hair dyes may be responsible for telogen effluvium should always be considered in a patient with increased hair loss.

Ishida, Waka; Makino, Teruhiko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

2011-01-01

428

Clinical Analysis of Femur Shaft Insufficiency Fractures  

PubMed Central

Background To characterize the recently issued femur shaft insufficiency fracture in terms of a patient's own epidemiological status. Methods Fourteen patients were treated for insufficiency fracture from July 2002 to June 2008, excluding cases including the risk factors of insufficiency fracture. All patients were female, and their mean age was 75.6 years (range, 65 to 89 years). The mean follow-up period was 50.6 months (range, 14 to 86 months). Results The mean body weight of the Koreans in the same age group was 58.1 ± 9.7 kg, and the mean height was 155.5 ± 8.8 cm. The mean body weight of our insufficiency fracture patients was 45.7 kg and it was statistically significantly lower than that of the Koreans in the same age group (p < 0.001). The mean height was 147.3 cm and it was significantly shorter than the mean height of the Koreans in the same age group (p = 0.002). In regard to menopausal time, the mean menopausal time of the Koreans was 48.0 ± 4.2 years, it was 44 years in our study, as menopause occurred statistically significantly earlier (p = 0.017). The patients with insufficiency fracture showed statistically lower weight, shorter stature and an earlier menopausal period than that of the general population. Conclusions In early menopausal, underweight, and short patients prescribed osteoporosis medication for an extended period of time, if predromal symptom is present, it is necessary to suspect insufficiency fracture of the femur.

Lee, Sang-Wook; Park, Chang-Min; Lee, Sang-Hwa

2012-01-01

429

HPLC Analysis of Oxidation Hair Dyes in Permanent Hair Colorants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reversed-phase liquid chromatographic separation of several hair dyes (diamines, aminophenols, phenols, etc.), using mobile phases containing 1,8-diaminoctane as new amine modifier and sodium heptansulfonate, is described. The combined effect of the amine and of the alkylsulfonate enabled very good separation of all the dyes studied. The proposed chromatographic system was found to be selective, rugged and therefore suitable for

V. Andrisano; R. Gotti; A. M. Di Pietra; V. Cavrini

1994-01-01

430

Design evaluation: Structural calculations for the construction and salt handling shaft and the waste handling shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One fundamental strategy under consideration for sealing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shafts involves the consolidation of the salt backfill in specified portions of the shaft. The criterion for effective salt consolidation was defined to occur when the fractional density of the crushed salt reaches 95%. Thus, the shaft is sealed with a backfill material (crushed salt and\\/or precompacted

1988-01-01

431

Active Magnetic Control of Oscillatory Axial Shaft Vibrations in Ship Shaft Transmission Systems Part 1: System Natural Frequencies and Laboratory Scale Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ship's main drive shaft axial vibration at propeller blade rate may be transmitted to the hull. A method for reducing these vibrations is investigated in this paper. A proposed design consists of an auxiliary shaft magnetic thrust bearing added in parallel to the shaft fluid film (mechanical) thrust bearing. The blade passing oscillatory load supported by the auxiliary magnetic

David W. Lewis; Paul E. Allaire; Peter W. Thomas

1989-01-01

432

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs  

SciTech Connect

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

2011-12-31

433

Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.  

PubMed

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

2011-06-29

434

Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs  

PubMed Central

Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ?31 cms/year and ?16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

2011-01-01

435

Metals in female scalp hair globally and its impact on perceived hair health.  

PubMed

Globally, billions of individuals wash their hair in water, which acts as an exogenous metal source. Many studies which measure the metal levels found on human hair specifically aim to remove exogenous materials prior to analysis. Although this is needed when using hair analysis to probe the impact of the local environment on endogenous metal levels, it is not relevant for understanding exactly what is on hair as a result of contact with its daily environment. Understanding these levels are important, as the presence of redox active metals, such as copper and iron, can impact fibre health, either as a result of UV irradiation, or during the hair colouring process. A global hair sampling study of over 300 individuals from nine countries has been performed, and the combined endogenous and exogenous metals analysed. The levels measured vary widely, even within the narrow geography of each hair sampling location. The levels of calcium, magnesium, copper and iron were not correlated, and within each location, there are expected to be individuals with high metal levels. Levels increased from hair root to tip for calcium, magnesium and copper, attributed to hair contact with the environment showing the impact of exogenous metals in the overall levels on hair. Levels of redox metals were comparable between individuals who coloured or did not colour their hair, although water hardness ions were statistically significantly higher for hair colouring individuals. Individuals who perceived their hair health as poor had higher metal levels on their hair. Controlling metals on hair, either by preventing their binding during environmental contact, or through controlling their ability to cause hair damage, should lead to improved consumer perceived hair health. PMID:23305149

Godfrey, Simon; Staite, William; Bowtell, Philip; Marsh, Jennifer

2013-01-24

436

EEMCO Guidance for the Assessment of Hair Shedding and Alopecia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the hair follicle anatomy and the dynamics of hair cycling is substantial. Recognizing the anagen, catagen and telogen phases as well as teloptosis and the hair eclipse phenomenon clearly characterizes the typical hair chronobiology. Physiological modulators include hormones, neuromediators, miscellaneous biomolecules, seasons, micro-inflammation and ageing. For individuals who present with the complaint of increased hair shedding or alopecia,

G. E. Piérard; C. Piérard-Franchimont; R. Marks; P. Elsner

2004-01-01

437

Two-state approach to stochastic hair bundle dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair cells perform the mechanoelectrical transduction of sound signals in the auditory and vestibular systems of vertebrates. The part of the hair cell essential for this transduction is the so-called hair bundle. In vitro experiments on hair cells from the sacculus of the American bullfrog have shown that the hair bundle comprises active elements capable of producing periodic deflections like

Diana Clausznitzer; Benjamin Lindner; Frank Jülicher; Pascal Martin

2008-01-01

438

Magnetic actuation of hair cells  

PubMed Central

The bullfrog sacculus contains mechanically sensitive hair cells whose stereociliary bundles oscillate spontaneously when decoupled from the overlying membrane. Steady-state offsets on the resting position of a hair bundle can suppress or modulate this native motility. To probe the dynamics of spontaneous oscillation in the proximity of the critical point, we describe here a method for mechanical actuation that avoids loading the bundles or contributing to the viscous drag. Magnetite beads were attached to the tips of the stereocilia, and a magnetic probe was used to impose deflections. This technique allowed us to observe the transition from multi-mode to single-mode state in freely oscillating bundles, as well as the crossover from the oscillatory to the quiescent state.

Rowland, David; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Cheon, Jinwoo; Bozovic, Dolores

2011-01-01

439

Quo vadis, hair cell regeneration?  

PubMed Central

Hearing loss is a global health problem with profound socioeconomic impact. We contend that acquired hearing loss is mainly a modern disorder caused by man-made noise and modern drugs, among other causes. These factors, combined with increasing lifespan, have exposed a deficit in cochlear self-regeneration that was irrelevant for most of mammalian evolution. Nevertheless, the mammalian cochlea has evolved from phylogenetically older structures, which do have the capacity for self-repair. Moreover, nonmammalian vertebrates can regenerate auditory hair cells that restore sensory function. We will offer a critical perspective on recent advances in stem cell biology, gene therapy, cell cycle regulation and pharmacotherapeutics to define and validate regenerative medical interventions for mammalian hair cell loss. Although these advances are promising, we are only beginning to fully appreciate the complexity of the many challenges that lie ahead.

Brigande, John V; Heller, Stefan

2010-01-01

440

[Ingredients of modern hair dyes].  

PubMed

70 substances currently used in colouring human hair are reviewed from chemical and structural perspectives. On the basis of structural simularities the question of relationships to known contact allergens, in particular p-phenylendiamine and benzochinones, is examined. Hereby it may be discerned that despite the relatively large number of new substances, the dangers of new potent allergens or cross-reactions with widely encountered existing agents are limited. PMID:3319473

Ippen, H

441

Calcium in Root Hair Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The growth of cells as diverse as fungal hyphae, pollen tubes, algal rhizoids, and root hairs is characterized by a highly\\u000a localized control of cell expansion confined to the growing tip. The cellular regulators that have been shown to maintain\\u000a this spatial localization of growth range from monomeric G-proteins and the actin cytoskeleton to protein kinases and phospholipid-modulating\\u000a enzymes. A

T. Bibikova; S. Gilroy

442

Analytical pitfalls in hair testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on possible pitfalls in hair testing procedures. Knowledge of such pitfalls is useful when developing\\u000a and validating methods, since it can be used to avoid wrong results as well as wrong interpretations of correct results. In\\u000a recent years, remarkable advances in sensitive and specific analytical techniques have enabled the analysis of drugs in alternative\\u000a biological specimens such

Frank Musshoff; Burkhard Madea

2007-01-01

443

Genetics of structural hair disorders.  

PubMed

The identification of causative genes carries the promise of new and innovative therapeutic strategies for both inherited and acquired hair disorders. Moreover, the delineation of the relationships between similar phenotypes, resulting from mutations affecting seemingly distinct regulatory pathways, paves the way to improved diagnosis and treatment. Finally, understanding the biological processes governing HF development and maintenance may have implications for more general disease processes in the skin, such as inflammation and cancer. PMID:23154628

Harel, Sivan; Christiano, Angela M

2012-11-15

444

Sliding adhesion confers coherent motion to hair cell stereocilia and parallel gating to transduction channels  

PubMed Central

When the tip of a hair bundle is deflected by a sensory stimulus, the stereocilia pivot as a unit, producing a shearing displacement between adjacent tips. It is not clear how stereocilia can stick together laterally but still shear. We used dissociated hair cells from the bullfrog saccule and high-speed video imaging to characterize this sliding adhesion. Movement of individual stereocilia was proportional to height, indicating that stereocilia pivot at their basal insertion points. All stereocilia moved by approximately the same angular deflection, and the same motion was observed at 1, 20 and 700 Hz stimulus frequency. Motions were consistent with a geometric model that assumes the stiffness of lateral links holding stereocilia together is >1000 times the pivot stiffness of stereocilia and that these links can slide in the plane of the membrane—in essence, that stereocilia shear without separation. The same motion was observed when bundles were moved perpendicular to the tip links, or when tip links, ankle links and shaft connectors were cut, ruling out these links as the basis for sliding adhesion. Stereocilia rootlets are angled towards the center of the bundle, tending to push stereocilia tips together for small deflections. However, stereocilia remained cohesive for deflections of up to ±35°, ruling out rootlet prestressing as the basis for sliding adhesion. These observations suggest that horizontal top connectors mediate a sliding adhesion. They also indicate that all transduction channels of a hair cell are mechanically in parallel, an arrangement that may enhance amplification in the inner ear.

Karavitaki, K. Domenica; Corey, David P.

2010-01-01

445

Mutations in the lipase H gene underlie autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis.  

PubMed

Woolly hair (WH) is characterized by the presence of fine and tightly curled hair. WH can appear as a symptom of some systemic diseases, or without associated findings (nonsyndromic WH). Nonsyndromic WH is known to be inherited as either an autosomal-dominant (OMIM 194300) or recessive (ARWH; OMIM 278150) trait. In this study, we identified 11 consanguineous families of Pakistani origin with ARWH, as well as associated features including sparse and hypopigmented hair shafts. We first checked for mutations in the P2RY5 gene, which encodes an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor that we recently identified as a cause of ARWH. However, none of the 11 families had mutations in the P2RY5 gene. To identify the disease locus, we performed linkage studies in one of these families using the Affymetrix 10K array, and identified a region of suggestive linkage on chromosome 3q27. This region contains the lipase H (LIPH) gene which has been recently shown to underlie an autosomal-recessive form of hypotrichosis. Mutation analysis resulted in the identification of a total of 5 pathogenic mutations in the LIPH of all 11 families analyzed. These results show that LIPH is a second causative gene for ARWH/hypotrichosis, giving rise to a phenotype clinically indistinguishable from P2RY5 mutations. PMID:18830268

Shimomura, Yutaka; Wajid, Muhammad; Petukhova, Lynn; Shapiro, Lawrence; Christiano, Angela M

2008-10-02

446

Mitochondrial profiling of dog hairs.  

PubMed

In order to make greater use of dog hairs as forensic evidence, we have developed a robust method for duplex amplification of adjacent 306 and 332bp amplicons within the 5' hypervariable region (5' HVR) of the canine mitochondrial control region. In support of this, a 595bp region covering 35 polymorphic sites has been sequenced from the blood of 105 UK dogs. In total, 30 different haplotypes were observed, 13 only once whilst the commonest was seen 14 times; the overall exclusion capacity is 0.929. One animal was heteroplasmic in blood for a single base deletion and showed phenotypes ranging from near complete deletion to a predominance of the base among a sample of 12 hairs. In contrast, no evidence of heteroplasmy was seen in single hairs from 20 dogs which were not visibly heteroplasmic in blood. Phylogenetic analysis and comparisons with other published databases highlighted instances of possible recurrent mutation which may be relevant when interpreting single base differences between samples. PMID:12787657

Wetton, Jon H; Higgs, Jenny E; Spriggs, Adrian C; Roney, Chris A; Tsang, Carol S F; Foster, Aiden P

2003-05-01

447

The Challenge of Hair Cell Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Sensory hair cells of the inner ear are responsible for translating auditory or vestibular stimuli into electrical energy that can be perceived by the nervous system. Although hair cells are exquisitely mechanically sensitive, they can be easily damaged by excessive stimulation, by ototoxic drugs and by the effects of aging. In mammals, auditory hair cells are never replaced, such that cumulative damage to the ear causes progressive and permanent deafness. In contrast, non-mammalian vertebrates are capable of replacing lost hair cells, which has led to efforts to understand the molecular and cellular basis of regenerative responses in different vertebrate species. In this review, we describe recent progress in understanding the limits to hair cell regeneration in mammals and discuss the obstacles that currently exist for therapeutic approaches to hair cell replacement.

Groves, Andrew K.

2013-01-01

448

Hair growth and rejuvenation: an overview.  

PubMed

Hair has psychological and sociological importance throughout the ages in framing the personality and general appearance of an individual. Significant progress is being made on discovering an effective and safe drug for hair growth. Angiogenesis, androgen antagonism, vasodilation, potassium channel opening and 5-alpha reductase inhibition are the major non-surgical therapeutic strategies of hair growth promotion. In spite of a flood of drugs claiming to be useful as hair growth promoters, more rational strategies, which can target the problem areas or stages of the hair growth cycle effectively, are still awaited. This article highlights the developments in hair rejuvenation strategies and reviews the potential of herbal drugs as safer and effective alternatives. PMID:20536276

Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, Mohan Singh Maniyari

2010-06-10

449

Lining considerations for a circular vertical shaft in generic tuff  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes some to the classical formulas used in the design of concrete linings for vertical, circular bored shafts and applies them to a generic shaft in tuff. The lining requirements are shown to be highly dependent on the rock mass strength and in situ stress field. For a given stress field, the required lining thickness is analyzed as a function of rock mass strength, which is approximated by various fractions of the laboratory strength. For the cases considered, if the rock mass strength is equal to the laboratory compressive strength, then no lining would be required. If the strength reduction factor is 2, a concrete lining (compressive strength = 35 MPa) having a thickness of 0.3 m would provide a safety factor of at least 1.5. For larger strength reduction factors, the required lining thickness in the different formations is quite variable. An analysis of measured lining pressures for the conventionally sunk (excavated with explosives) Mt. Taylor shaft (Grants, New Mexico) has been included. The results suggest that a substantial damaged (relaxed) zone was created during the excavation process. The lining pressures are much less than would be predicted under the assumption of no damage. Therefore, the recommendations presented sunk, rather than bored, shafts. The approach described and the equations presented may, it is believed, be used with care to analyze different generic shaft scenarios. However, high priority should be placed on obtaining the best estimates possible for rock mass strength and an in situ stress field.

Hustrulid, W.

1984-12-01

450

Eddy Current Sensing of Torque in Rotating Shafts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noncontact torque sensing in machine shafts is addressed based on the stress induced in a press-fitted magnetoelastic sleeve on the shaft and eddy current sensing of the changes of electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability due to the presence of stress. The eddy current probe uses dual drive, dual sensing coils whose purpose is increased sensitivity to torque and decreased sensitivity to variations in distance between probe and shaft (liftoff). A mechanism of keeping the distance constant is also employed. Both the probe and the magnetoelastic sleeve are evaluated for performance using a standard eddy current instrument. An eddy current instrument is also used to drive the coils and analyze the torque data. The method and sensor described are general and adaptable to a variety of applications. The sensor is suitable for static and rotating shafts, is independent of shaft diameter and operational over a large range of torques. The torque sensor uses a differential eddy current measurement resulting in cancellation of common mode effects including temperature and vibrations.

Varonis, Orestes J.; Ida, Nathan

2013-10-01

451

Failure analysis of a tool-steel torque shaft  

SciTech Connect

A low design load drive shaft from an experimental diesel truck engine failed unexpectedly during highway testing. The shaft was driven by a turbine used to deliver power from an experimental exhaust heat recovery system to the engine's crankshaft. During design, fatigue was not considered a major problem because of the low operating cyclic stresses. An independent testing laboratory analyzed the failure by routine metallography. The structure of the hardened S-7 tool steel shaft was banded and the laboratory attributed the failure to fatigue induced by a banded microstructure. NASA was asked to confirm this analysis. Visual examination of the failed shaft plus the knowledge of the torsional load that it carried pointed to a 100% ductile failure with no evidence of fatigue. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed this. Torsional test specimens were produced from pieces of the failed shaft and torsional overload testing produced identical failures to that which had occurred in the truck engine. This pointed to a failure caused by a high overload and although the microstructure was defective it was not the cause of the failure.

Reagan, J.R.

1981-01-01

452

Reconstruction nailing for ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures.  

PubMed

The surgical management of ipsilateral fractures of the femoral neck and shaft presents a difficult and challenging problem for the orthopaedic surgeon. The purpose of the present study was to report the mid-term results and complications in a series of patients who sustained ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures and treated in our trauma department with a single reconstruction nail for both fractures. Eleven patients were included in the study with an average age of 46.4 years. The mean follow-up was 47 months (range, 15-75 months). There were no cases of a missed diagnosis at initial presentation. The mean time to union was 4.5 months for the neck fracture and 8.2 months for the shaft. There were no cases of avascular necrosis of the femoral head or non-union of the neck fracture. The mean Harris Hip Score was (85 ± 4.3). Complications included two cases of shaft fracture non-union and one case of peroneal nerve palsy. Heterotopic ossification at the tip of the greater trochanter was evident in two cases without causing any functional deficit. The current study suggests that reconstruction nailing produces satisfactory clinical and functional results in the mid-term. The complications involved only the femoral shaft fracture and were successfully treated with a single operative procedure. PMID:21779894

Tsarouhas, Alexandros; Hantes, Michael E; Karachalios, Theohilos; Bargiotas, Konstantinos; Malizos, Konstantinos N

2011-07-21

453

Method of lining a vertical mine shaft with concrete  

DOEpatents

The apparatus includes a cylindrical retainer form spaced inwardly of the wall of the shaft by the desired thickness of the liner to be poured and having overlapping edges which seal against concrete flow but permit the form to be contracted to a smaller circumference after the liner has hardened and is self-supporting. A curb ring extends downwardly and outwardly toward the shaft wall from the bottom of the retainer form to define the bottom surface of each poured liner section. An inflatable toroid forms a seal between the curb ring and the shaft wall. A form support gripper ring having gripper shoes laterally extendable under hydraulic power to engage the shaft wall supports the retainer form, curb ring and liner until the newly poured liner section becomes self-supporting. Adjusting hydraulic cylinders permit the curb ring and retainer form to be properly aligned relative to the form support gripper ring. After a liner section is self-supporting, an advancing system advances the retainer form, curb ring and form support gripper ring toward a shaft boring machine above which the liner is being formed. The advancing system also provides correct horizontal alignment of the form support gripper ring.

Eklund, James D. (Mattawa, WA); Halter, Joseph M. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Spokane, WA); Sullivan, Robert G. (Richland, WA); Moffat, Robert B. (Federal Way, WA)

1981-01-01

454

In vitro methodology, hormonal and nutritional effects and fibre production in isolated ovine and caprine anagen hair follicles.  

PubMed

Mammalian hair follicles are complex multicellular structures in the skin, which produce hair fibre under the influence of locally produced and systemic signalling systems. Investigation to determine mechanisms of regulation, follicular responses and the importance of nutritional supply have utilised a number of in vivo and in vitro approaches. Included in these are studies on isolated intact anagen secondary follicles singly or in groups with incubation in culture medium. These utilise techniques developed for investigation of follicles from human skin. Results from selected studies reviewed here demonstrate differences in capacity for hair growth and protein synthesis between secondary follicles from Angora and cashmere-bearing goats. Mohair follicles were shown to exhibit faster hair shaft elongation both in vivo and in vitro, to have greater DNA content per follicle and to deposit significantly more protein per follicle and per unit of DNA. Incubation of anagen mohair and cashmere follicles in the presence of melatonin or prolactin showed positive responses in hair shaft growth and protein synthesis to both signalling molecules. This result indicated directly acting effects on the follicle in addition to any indirect effects arising at a whole animal level in response to, for example, variation in photoperiod. Similarly, epidermal growth factor was shown to alter elongation and protein synthesis in mohair follicles and to produce, at higher concentration, club hair structures similar to effects observed in other species. The vitamin biotin was shown to be important in maintaining viability of isolated sheep secondary hair follicles where supplementation increased the proportion continuing to grow. Effects on growth and apparent protein synthesis suggested comparatively lesser effects on follicles, which remained viable. Histology on follicles indicated effects of biotin deficiency in reducing proliferation of basal keratinocytes. The final study, included in this review, demonstrated that supply of the essential sulphur-containing amino acid l-methionine was necessary to maintain the viability and growth of mohair follicles. l-cysteine was not required in the presence of l-methionine, although there was evidence of an optimisation when both amino acids were present in adequate concentrations. Consideration is given to the importance of transport mechanisms and capacity to utilise absorbed nutrients when considering optimising nutritional supply to individual follicles. These may then provide targets for attainment in applied nutrition of animals in vivo. PMID:22444695

Galbraith, H

2010-09-01

455

Active Hair-Bundle Motility of the Hair Cells of Vestibular and Auditory Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hair bundle is the mechanosensitive organelle that protrudes from the hair cell’s apical surface. Sound in hearing organs, head acceleration in vestibular organs and water flow in the lateral line of fish and amphibians ultimately evoke hair-bundle deflections, to which the hair cell responds by generating an electrical signal. Mechanical-to-electrical transduction, a process that is fast enough to enable

Pascal Martin

456

The Actions of Calcium on Hair Bundle Mechanics in Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound stimuli excite cochlear hair cells by vibration of each hair bundle, which opens mechanotransducer (MT) channels. We have measured hair-bundle mechanics in isolated rat cochleas by stimulation with flexible glass fibers and simultaneous recording of the MT current. Both inner and outer hair-cell bundles exhibited force-displacement relationships with a nonlinearity that reflects a time-dependent reduction in stiffness. The nonlinearity

Maryline Beurg; Jong-Hoon Nam; Andrew Crawford; Robert Fettiplacey

2008-01-01

457

Effect of Castration on Hair Re-growth in Pomeranians with Hair Cycle Arrest (Alopecia X)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair cycle arrest (alopecia X) is characterized by progressive hair loss in plush-coated canines, such as Pomeranians. It is a poorly understood condition thought to be caused by hormonal imbalances and has also been referred to as castration-responsive dermatosis and pseudo- Cushing's syndrome. This study evaluated the effect of castration on hair re-growth in Pomera- nians with hair cycle arrest.

Hui-Pi Huang; Yu-Hsin Lien; Pen-Heng Chang

2009-01-01

458

Morphological abnormalities among lampreys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

Manion, Patrick J.

1967-01-01

459

Whirler Mutant Hair Cells Have Less Severe Pathology than Shaker 2 or Double Mutants  

PubMed Central

MYOSIN XV is a motor protein that interacts with the PDZ domain-containing protein WHIRLIN and transports WHIRLIN to the tips of the stereocilia. Shaker 2 (sh2) mice have a mutation in the motor domain of MYOSIN XV and exhibit congenital deafness and circling behavior, probably because of abnormally short stereocilia. Whirler (wi) mice have a similar phenotype caused by a deletion in the third PDZ domain of WHIRLIN. We compared the morphology of Whrnwi/wi and Myo15sh2/sh2 sensory hair cells and found that Myo15sh2/sh2 have more frequent pathology at the base of inner hair cells than Whrnwi/wi, and shorter outer hair cell stereocilia. Considering the functional and morphologic similarities in the phenotypes caused by mutations in Myo15 and Whrn, and the physical interaction between their encoded proteins, we used a genetic approach to test for functional overlap. Double heterozygotes (Myo15sh2/+, Whrnwi/+) have normal hearing and no increase in hearing loss compared to normal littermates. Single and double mutants (Myo15sh2/sh2, Whrnwi/wi) exhibit abnormal persistence of kinocilia and microvilli, and develop abnormal cytoskeletal architecture. Double mutants are also similar to the single mutants in viability, circling behavior, and lack of a Preyer reflex. The morphology of cochlear hair cell stereocilia in double mutants reflects a dominance of the more severe Myo15sh2/sh2 phenotype over the Whrnwi/wi phenotype. This suggests that MYOSIN XV may interact with other proteins besides WHIRLIN that are important for hair cell maturation.

Mustapha, Mirna; Beyer, Lisa A.; Izumikawa, Masahiko; Swiderski, Donald L.; Dolan, David F.; Raphael, Yehoash

2007-01-01

460

Analysis of Heavy Metals in Scalp Hair Samples of Hypertensive Patients by Conventional and Microwave Digestion Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abnormal metabolism of metal ions plays an important role in health and disease conditions, and studies about them have been attracting significant interest. The aim of our study was to assess the heavy metals (cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, chromium, lead, and zinc) in scalp hair samples of 200 hypertensive (HT) patients of an urban population together with 215 non?hypertensive

Hassan Imran Afridi; Tasneem Gul Kazi; Mohammad Khan Jamali; Gul Hasan Kazi; Mohammad Bilal Arain; Nusrat Jalbani; Ghulam Qadir Shar

2006-01-01

461

Myosin VI is required for structural integrity of the apical surface of sensory hair cells in zebrafish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconventional myosins have been associated with hearing loss in humans, mice, and zebrafish. Mutations in myosin VI cause both recessive and dominant forms of nonsyndromic deafness in humans and deafness in Snell's waltzer mice associated with abnormal fusion of hair cell stereocilia. Although myosin VI has been implicated in diverse cellular processes such as vesicle trafficking and epithelial morphogenesis, the

Christoph Seiler; Orit Ben-David; Samuel Sidi; Oliver Hendrich; Alfons Rusch; Beth Burnside; Karen B. Avraham; Teresa Nicolsona

2004-01-01

462

Unifying the Various Incarnations of Active Hair-Bundle Motility by the Vertebrate Hair Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dazzling sensitivity and frequency selectivity of the vertebrate ear rely on mechanical amplification of the hair cells’ responsiveness to small stimuli. As revealed by spontaneous oscillations and forms of mechanical excitability in response to force steps, the hair bundle that adorns each hair cell is both a mechanosensory antenna and a force generator that might participate in the amplificatory

Jean-Yves Tinevez; Frank Jülicher; Pascal Martin

2007-01-01

463

Eps8 Regulates Hair Bundle Length and Functional Maturation of Mammalian Auditory Hair Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several stereociliary proteins have been shown to be associated

Valeria Zampini; Lukas Rüttiger; Stuart L. Johnson; Christoph Franz; David N. Furness; Jörg Waldhaus; Hao Xiong; Carole M. Hackney; Matthew C. Holley; Nina Offenhauser; Pier Paolo Di Fiore; Marlies Knipper; Sergio Masetto; Walter Marcotti

2011-01-01

464

Human exposure to mercury due to goldmining in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon, Brazil: Speciation of mercury in human hair, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in Amazon, total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeI Ig) were determined for human hair, blood and\\/or urine samples collected from populations living in gold mining area and fishing villages upstream of the Tapajos River basin. Abnormally high levels of T-Hg were observed in hair

H. Akagi; O. Malm; F. J. P. Branches; Y. Kinjo; Y. Kashima; J. R. D. Guimaraes; R. B. Oliveira; K. Haraguchi; W. C. Pfeiffer; Y. Takizawa; H. Kato

1995-01-01

465

Simplified nonlinear outer hair cell models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a consistent second-order expansion of nonlinear constitutive theories for outer hair cells. For a particular theory, we will test the validity of such a model for small variations in voltage and strain about the resting state of outer hair cells. An analysis of the various terms in the simplified nonlinear model and their relevance to outer hair cell mechanics are presented. Results show that the second-order expansion is adequate for modeling outer hair cell mechanics in a global model of the cochlea. Model predictions agree with the notion that voltage nonlinearities are the dominant ones at low sound levels in vivo. .

Deo, Niranjan; Grosh, Karl

2005-04-01

466

Improved Biolistic Transfection of Hair Cells  

PubMed Central

Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C) and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 2) to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells.

Gillespie, Peter G.

2012-01-01

467

Improved biolistic transfection of hair cells.  

PubMed

Transient transfection of hair cells has proven challenging. Here we describe modifications to the Bio-Rad Helios Gene Gun that, along with an optimized protocol, improve transfection of bullfrog, chick, and mouse hair cells. The increased penetrating power afforded by our method allowed us to transfect mouse hair cells from the basal side, through the basilar membrane; this configuration protects hair bundles from damage during the procedure. We characterized the efficiency of transfection of mouse hair cells with fluorescently-tagged actin fusion protein using both the optimized procedure and a published procedure; while the efficiency of the two methods was similar, the morphology of transfected hair cells was improved with the new procedure. In addition, using the improved method, we were able to transfect hair cells in the bullfrog sacculus and chick cochlea for the first time. We used fluorescent-protein fusions of harmonin b (USH1C) and PMCA2 (ATP2B2; plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 2) to examine protein distribution in hair cells. While PMCA2-EGFP localization was similar to endogenous PMCA2 detected with antibodies, high levels of harmonin-EGFP were found at stereocilia tapers in bullfrog and chick, but not mouse; by contrast, harmonin-EGFP was concentrated in stereocilia tips in mouse hair cells. PMID:23049715

Zhao, Hongyu; Avenarius, Matthew R; Gillespie, Peter G

2012-10-01

468

Return of function after hair cell regeneration.  

PubMed

The ultimate goal of hair cell regeneration is to restore functional hearing. Because birds begin perceiving and producing song early in life, they provide a propitious model for studying not only whether regeneration of lost hair cells can return auditory sensitivity but also whether this regenerated periphery can restore complex auditory perception and production. They are the only animal where hair cell regeneration occurs naturally after hair cell loss and where the ability to correctly perceive and produce complex acoustic signals is critical to procreation and survival. The purpose of this review article is to survey the most recent literature on behavioral measures of auditory functional return in adult birds after hair cell regeneration. The first portion of the review summarizes the effect of ototoxic drug induced hair cell loss and regeneration on hearing loss and recovery for pure tones. The second portion reviews studies of complex, species-specific vocalization discrimination and recognition after hair cell regeneration. Finally, we discuss the relevance of temporary hearing loss and recovery through hair cell regeneration on complex call and song production. Hearing sensitivity is restored, except for the highest frequencies, after hair cell regeneration in birds, but there are enduring changes to complex auditory perception. These changes do not appear to provide any obstacle to future auditory or vocal learning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Inner Ear Development and Regeneration". PMID:23202051

Ryals, Brenda M; Dent, Micheal L; Dooling, Robert J

2012-11-29

469

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal baldness. Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic,...

2013-04-01

470

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal baldness. Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic,...

2009-04-01

471

21 CFR 895.101 - Prosthetic hair fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fibers. Prosthetic hair fibers are devices intended for implantation into the human scalp to simulate natural hair or conceal baldness. Prosthetic hair fibers may consist of various materials; for example, synthetic fibers, such as modacrylic,...

2010-04-01

472

7 CFR 3201.70 - Hair care products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hair care products. 3201.70 Section 3201...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.70 Hair care products. (a) Definitions...hygiene products specifically formulated for hair cleaning and treating applications,...

2013-01-01

473

Expression Pattern of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Normal Rat Epidermis and Pilosebaceous Unit during Hair Cycle  

PubMed Central

As an important member of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mainly catalyzes the first two steps in prostanoid synthesis. In mammalian animals, although COX-2 was thought to be rarely expressed in most normal tissues and was usually upregulated in a variety of epithelial tumors and inflammatory reactions, recently it was reported that COX-2 could localize in the epidermis as well as the pilosebaceous unit of the normal human and mouse skin. Until now, the function of COX-2 in normal skin has remained unknown. To investigate the possible roles of COX-2 in normal skin by RT-PCR and immunochemistry, we studied the expression pattern of COX-2 in hair cycle of the normal rat skin. The expression of COX-2 mRNA was detected in normal rat skin sample and was related to the hair follicle cycle. When the hair cycle entered catagen and telogen, COX-2 mRNA transcription in skin increased significantly. Furthermore, the location of COX-2 immunoreactivity showed that COX-2 protein is mainly concentrated in the epidermis and pilosebaceous unit. In the stratified epidermis, the strong COX-2 protein expression was detected in the suprabasal layers of epidermis in anagen and declined in catagen and telogen. In hair follicle, COX-2 protein was obviously expressed in the outer root sheath of the anagen hair follicle, and was barely detectable in catagen as well as telogen. In the sebaceous gland, the COX-2 protein expression became more intense in catagen and telogen, with an increase in sebaceous gland size. Our results suggested that COX-2 was not specific to some abnormal tissues and was indeed involved in the normal physiology of rat skin, such as the differentiation of epidermis, the morphogenesis of the hair follicle, the transformation of hair cycle stages, and the lipid production of the sebaceous gland.

Xu, Yuanxu; Yang, Li; Yang, Tian; Xiang, Mingming; Huang, Enyi; Lian, Xiaohua

2008-01-01

474

Regulation of PCDH15 function in mechanosensory hair cells by alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain.  

PubMed

Protocadherin 15 (PCDH15) is expressed in hair cells of the inner ear and in photoreceptors of the retina. Mutations in PCDH15 cause Usher Syndrome (deaf-blindness) and recessive deafness. In developing hair cells, PCDH15 localizes to extracellular linkages that connect the stereocilia and kinocilium into a bundle and regulate its morphogenesis. In mature hair cells, PCDH15 is a component of tip links, which gate mechanotransduction channels. PCDH15 is expressed in several isoforms differing in their cytoplasmic domains, suggesting that alternative splicing regulates PCDH15 function in hair cells. To test this model, we generated three mouse lines, each of which lacks one out of three prominent PCDH15 isoforms (CD1, CD2 and CD3). Surprisingly, mice lacking PCDH15-CD1 and PCDH15-CD3 form normal hair bundles and tip links and maintain hearing function. Tip links are also present in mice lacking PCDH15-CD2. However, PCDH15-CD2-deficient mice are deaf, lack kinociliary links and have abnormally polarized hair bundles. Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins are distributed normally in the sensory epithelia of the mutants, suggesting that PCDH15-CD2 acts downstream of PCP components to control polarity. Despite the absence of kinociliary links, vestibular function is surprisingly intact in the PCDH15-CD2 mutants. Our findings reveal an essential role for PCDH15-CD2 in the formation of kinociliary links and hair bundle polarization, and show that several PCDH15 isoforms can function redundantly at tip links. PMID:21427143

Webb, Stuart W; Grillet, Nicolas; Andrade, Leonardo R; Xiong, Wei; Swarthout, Lani; Della Santina, Charley C; Kachar, Bechara; Müller, Ulrich

2011-04-01

475

Hair Pulling in African Americans—Only Your Hairdresser Knows for Sure: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined whether African American hair care professionals saw individuals who met general criteria for trichotillomania, chronic hair pulling that results in significant hair loss. Thirty-eight African American hair care professionals and 1 Caucasian hair care professional were interviewed about their customers’ hair-pulling behavior and condition of their hair. Sixteen African American hair care professionals saw 21 individuals who

Angela M. Neal-Barnett; Brenda J. Ward-Brown; Michelle Mitchell; Michael Krownapple

2000-01-01

476

Reactor coolant pump reliability improvement through mechanical shaft seal retrofit  

SciTech Connect

The reliable operation of reactor coolant (RCPs) in pressurized water reactors is necessary for high availability of power plants and economic production of electricity. Large diameters and high differential pressures require specialized shaft seal designs to be utilized in these pumps. One operator was experiencing frequent forced outages on two 1200-MW plants caused by unacceptable leakage rates of reactor coolant through the shaft seals. After unsuccessful attempts to improve performance with the original equipment design, other alternatives were evaluated. The result of this evaluation was an industry first program to replace the existing shaft seal with a proven design from a different manufacturer. This paper chronicles the actual program to select, design, test, install, and monitor performance on the RCP seal retrofit.

Shaw, S.W.; Cummings, D.L.

1988-01-01

477

Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material  

SciTech Connect

Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)