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Sample records for hairy cell leukemia

  1. Eliminating Hairy Cell Leukemia Minimal Residual Disease

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with hairy cell leukemia who have disease-related symptoms that require treatment will be randomly assigned to receive cladribine with either concurrent rituximab or rituximab at least 6 months after completing cladribine therapy.

  2. Chemoimmunotherapy for hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ravandi, Farhad

    2015-12-01

    Success in the treatment of patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) over the last several decades is largely due to the high efficacy of the nucleoside analogs, cladribine and pentostatin. However, the relapse-free survival curves have not shown a plateau and many patients treated with these agents will eventually relapse. Although better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms in HCL have led to effective and novel options for the treatment of relapse, long term durability of the responses obtained with these agents still remains unclear. Combination of nucleoside analogs with monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab has been shown to be safe and effective and has the potential to supersede the nucleoside analogs as the frontline strategy. Such chemo-immunotherapy approaches are under further investigation and will have to be assessed with socioeconomic considerations in mind. Other novel monoclonal antibodies, approved for the treatment of other lymphoid neoplasms, may also be considered for future studies of chemo-immunotherapy. PMID:26614901

  3. Hairy Cell Leukemia and Bone Pain.

    PubMed

    Streu, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia is a relatively rare but distinct B-cell lympho-proliferative disorder of the blood, bone marrow, and spleen that accounts for only 2% of all adult leukemia cases. The median age at presentation is 50-55 years, with a 4:1 male to female predominance. Although considered uncommon, a number of unusual clinical presentations have been noted in the literature, including the presence of peripheral lymphadenopathy, lytic bone lesions, skin involvement, organ involvement, and central nervous system involvement. Unlike the clinical management of other hematologic malignancies, no current system is used to stage hairy cell leukemia. PMID:26679440

  4. Immunotoxin Therapy for Relapsed Hairy Cell Leukemia

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with hairy cell leukemia who have relapsed multiple times or not responded to prior chemotherapy will be treated with an experimental immunotoxin called moxetumomab pasudotox given intravenously on days 1, 3, and 5 of 28-day cycles

  5. Hairy cell leukemia: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Getta, Bartlomiej M; Park, Jae H; Tallman, Martin S

    2015-12-01

    This brief review highlights the sequence of therapeutic milestones and advances in our understanding of the biology of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) with a focus on recent molecular findings and how these may be applied to improve disease outcomes in the future. Targeted therapy is discussed in the context of the recently identified BRAF mutation and other genetic findings. PMID:26614906

  6. 75 FR 54496 - Diseases Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ...With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other Chronic B-Cell Leukemias, Parkinson's Disease and Ischemic...an amendment to 38 CFR 3.309 to add hairy cell leukemia and other chronic B-cell...

  7. 75 FR 53202 - Diseases Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ...With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other Chronic B-Cell Leukemias, Parkinson's Disease and Ischemic...herbicides and the subsequent development of hairy cell leukemia and other chronic B- cell...

  8. 75 FR 14391 - Diseases Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other Chronic B Cell Leukemias, Parkinson's Disease and Ischemic Heart...herbicides and the subsequent development of hairy cell leukemia and other chronic B- cell...

  9. Leukemia - B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia and Hairy Cell Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of leukemia in adults: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) ... of leukemia may occur by itself, together with CLL , or CLL may turn into PLL. PLL tends ...

  10. Treating Multiply Relapsed or Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with hairy cell leukemia who have not responded or relapsed after initial chemotherapy will be randomly assigned to receive rituximab combined with either pentostatin or bendamustine.

  11. Historical overview of hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Andritsos, Leslie A; Grever, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Since its discovery in 1923 and further characterization in 1958, hairy cell leukemia (HCL) has undergone enormous advances in the understanding of the biology and treatment of the disease. Initially a uniformly fatal disease, new therapies in rapid succession transformed HCL into a chronic disease with a normal life expectancy in many cases. More recently, the identification of BRAFV600E mutations in the majority of patients with classic HCL have enabled targeted therapies as a therapeutic option. Additional discoveries into the biology of the disease have identified new subtypes of HCL. Modern approaches to the evaluation and treatment of HCL include detailed molecular analysis which informs therapeutic options, which may consist of traditional therapies such as purine nucleoside analogs, or targeted therapies with antibodies, BTK inhibitors, or BRAF inhibitors, or combination therapy. Because HCL is a rare disease, continued progress depends on patients being enrolled on clinical trials whenever possible. PMID:26614894

  12. What your hairy cell leukemia patients want you to know.

    PubMed

    Stone, Earl J; Margolin, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Hairy cell leukemia is different from most other hematologic malignancies because it is so rare. Patient concerns include finding a knowledgeable physician, confirming the diagnosis at the initial presentation, coping with treatment side effects and monitoring for potential relapse of this chronic disease. PMID:26614905

  13. 75 FR 54496 - Diseases Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 53202), an amendment to 38 CFR 3.309 to add hairy cell leukemia and other chronic... 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN54 Diseases Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other Chronic B-Cell Leukemias, Parkinson's Disease and Ischemic Heart Disease);...

  14. The importance of the tissue microenvironment in hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sivina, Mariela; Burger, Jan A

    2015-12-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) cells engage in complex cellular and molecular interactions with accessory cells, matrix proteins, and various cytokines in the bone marrow and spleen, collectively referred to as the tissue microenvironment. Chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules are critical players for homing and retention within these microenvironments. Engagement of B cell antigen receptors and CD40 on HCL cells promote survival and proliferation. In this chapter, we summarize the current knowledge about the cellular and molecular interactions between HCL cells and their supportive tissue microenvironment, and provide insight into new therapeutic approaches targeting B cell receptor signaling in HCL. PMID:26614899

  15. Clinical features and diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Quest, Graeme R; Johnston, James B

    2015-12-01

    Significant advances in the diagnosis and treatment of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) have recently been made. Improved distinction of HCL from its mimics though clinical presentations, morphologic and immunophenotypic features, and more recently molecular biology, has highlighted marked differences in treatment response and overall prognosis between these disorders. As our understanding of the unique pathobiology of HCL has grown, exciting new avenues of treatment as well as insight into immune function have been obtained. This review provides an overview of the clinical features and diagnostic attributes of HCL, with contrast to other mature B cell lymphoproliferative disorders with overlapping features. PMID:26614896

  16. Current and emerging treatment options for hairy cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    López-Rubio, Montserrat; Garcia-Marco, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a lymphoproliferative B-cell disorder characterized by pancytopenia, splenomegaly, and characteristic cytoplasmic hairy projections. Precise diagnosis is essential in order to differentiate classic forms from HCL variants, such as the HCL-variant and VH4-34 molecular variant, which are more resistant to available treatments. The current standard of care is treatment with purine analogs (PAs), such as cladribine or pentostatin, which provide a high rate of long-lasting clinical remissions. Nevertheless, ~30%–40% of the patients relapse, and moreover, some of these are difficult-to-treat refractory cases. The use of the monoclonal antibody rituximab in combination with PA appears to produce even higher responses, and it is often employed to minimize or eliminate residual disease. Currently, research in the field of HCL is focused on identifying novel therapeutic targets and potential agents that are safe and can universally cure the disease. The discovery of the BRAF mutation and progress in understanding the biology of the disease has enabled the scientific community to explore new therapeutic targets. Ongoing clinical trials are assessing various treatment strategies such as the combination of PA and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, recombinant immunotoxins targeting CD22, BRAF inhibitors, and B-cell receptor signal inhibitors. PMID:26316784

  17. Novel therapeutic options for relapsed hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jain, Preetesh; Polliack, Aaron; Ravandi, Farhad

    2015-08-01

    The majority of patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL) achieve a response to therapy with cladribine or pentostatin with or without rituximab. However, late relapses can occur. Treatment of relapsed HCL can be difficult due to a poor tolerance to chemotherapy, increased risk of infections and decreased responsiveness to chemotherapy. The identification of BRAFV600E mutations and the role of aberrant MEK kinase and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) pathways in the pathogenesis of HCL have helped to develop novel targeted therapies for these patients. Currently, the most promising therapeutic strategies for relapsed or refractory HCL include recombinant immunoconjugates targeting CD22 (e.g. moxetumomab pasudotox), BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib and B cell receptor signaling kinase inhibitors such as ibrutinib. Furthermore, the VH4-34 molecular variant of classic HCL has been identified to be less responsive to chemotherapy. Herein, we review the results of the ongoing clinical trials and potential future therapies for relapsed/refractory HCL. PMID:25563425

  18. Hairy cell leukemia: short review, today's recommendations and outlook

    PubMed Central

    Maevis, V; Mey, U; Schmidt-Wolf, G; Schmidt-Wolf, I G H

    2014-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is part of the low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma family and represents approximately 2% of all leukemias. Treatment with splenectomy and interferon-? historically belonged to the first steps of therapeutic options, achieving partial responses/remissions (PR) in most cases with a median survival between 4 and 6 years in the 1980s. The introduction of the purine analogs (PA) pentostatin and cladribine made HCL a well-treatable disease: overall complete response rates (CRR) range from 76 to 98%, with a median disease-free survival (DFS) of 16 years a normal lifespan can be reached and HCL-related deaths are rare. However, insufficient response to PA with poorer prognosis and relapse rates of 30–40% after 5–10 years of follow-up may require alternative strategies. Minimal residual disease can be detected by additional examinations of bone marrow specimens after treatment with PA. The use of immunotherapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAB) like rituximab as a single agent or in combination with a PA or more recently clinical trials with recombinant immunotoxins (RIT) show promising results to restrict these problems. Recently, the identification of the possible disease-defining BRAF V600E mutation may allow the development of new therapeutic targets. PMID:24531447

  19. Immunoconjugates in the management of hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kreitman, Robert J; Pastan, Ira

    2015-12-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is an indolent B-cell malignancy effectively treated but not often cured by purine analog therapy; after multiple courses of purine analogs, patients can become purine analog resistant and in need of alternative therapies. Complete remission to single-agent purine analog is often accompanied by minimal residual disease (MRD), residual HCL cells detectable by immunologic methods, considered a risk factor for eventual relapse. Several different non-chemotherapy approaches are being used to target relapsed and refractory HCL, including inhibitors of BRAF, but so far only monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based approaches have been reported to eliminate MRD in a high percentage of patients. One of the MAb-based options for HCL currently under clinical investigation involves recombinant immunotoxins, containing a fragment of a MAb and a bacterial toxin. The bacterial toxin, a highly potent fragment from Pseudomonas exotoxin, catalytically ADP-ribosylates elongation factor 2 (EF2), resulting in protein synthesis inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Recombinant immunotoxins tested in HCL patients include LMB-2, targeting CD25, and BL22, targeting CD22. An affinity matured version of BL22, termed moxetumomab pasudotox (formerly HA22 or CAT-8015) achieved high CR rates in phase I, and is currently undergoing multicenter Phase 3 testing. Phase I testing was without dose-limiting toxicity, although 2 patients had grade 2 hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with transient grade 1 abnormalities in platelets and creatinine. Preclinical work is underway to identify residues on moxetumomab pasudotox leading to immunogenicity. Moxetumomab pasudotox is undergoing pivotal testing for relapsed and refractory HCL. PMID:26614902

  20. Epidemiology and environmental risk in hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, Tamar; Polliack, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is an orphan subtype of leukaemia which constitutes less than 2% of all leukaemia's, with an incidence of less than 1 per 100,000 persons per annum. Median age at presentation is 55 years and it is 3-4 times more frequent in males. It is also more frequently encountered in whites and less in Asians, Africans and Arabs. The epidemiologic data are multi-factorial and influenced by ethnicity and geographical factors. Other reported associations relate to some environmental exposures and possible occupational factors. Smoking appears to have an inverse correlation with the development of hairy cell leukaemia, while farming and exposure to pesticides, petroleum products, diesel and ionizing radiation have also been reported to be associated with an increased risk. National and international collaborative efforts are needed in order to undertake more extensive studies involving larger patient cohorts, aiming to determine the role of occupational and environmental risk factors in the development of this rare form of chronic leukaemia. PMID:26614895

  1. Leukemic meningitis in a patient with hairy cell leukemia. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, D.W.; Scopelliti, J.A.; Boselli, B.D.

    1984-09-15

    Central nervous system involvement has not previously been described in patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL). A patient is reported who presented with meningeal involvement as his initial symptom of HCL. Diagnosis was established by morphologic and cytochemical studies of his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and bone marrow. Treatment with whole-brain irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy was successful in clearing leukemic cells from the CSF with resolution of symptoms.

  2. Hairy cell leukemia: Uncommon clinical features, unusual sites of involvement and some rare associations.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, Tamar; Polliack, Aaron

    2015-12-01

    Unusual clinical manifestations and associations with auto-immunity or other systemic disorders are uncommon clinical features of hairy cell leukemia (HCL). The exact prevalence of these rare associations is difficult to determine as they are mostly published as anecdotal case reports and generally not included in larger published series. This chapter deals with uncommon clinical manifestations and rare sites of involvement in HCL. It also summarizes the association with systemic hemato-oncological disorders as well as second malignancies, based on review of the relevant literature and from personal experience. PMID:26614897

  3. Hematopoietic stem cell origin of BRAFV600E mutations in hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen S; Kim, Eunhee; Park, Jae H; Chung, Young Rock; Lito, Piro; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Hu, Wenhuo; Beguelin, Wendy; Monette, Sebastien; Duy, Cihangir; Rampal, Raajit; Telis, Leon; Patel, Minal; Kim, Min Kyung; Huberman, Kety; Bouvier, Nancy; Berger, Michael F; Melnick, Ari M; Rosen, Neal; Tallman, Martin S; Park, Christopher Y; Abdel-Wahab, Omar

    2014-05-28

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by somatic BRAFV600E mutations. The malignant cell in HCL has immunophenotypic features of a mature B cell, but no normal counterpart along the continuum of developing B lymphocytes has been delineated as the cell of origin. We find that the BRAFV600E mutation is present in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in HCL patients, and that these patients exhibit marked alterations in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) frequencies. Quantitative sequencing analysis revealed a mean BRAFV600E-mutant allele frequency of 4.97% in HSCs from HCL patients. Moreover, transplantation of BRAFV600E-mutant HSCs from an HCL patient into immunodeficient mice resulted in stable engraftment of BRAFV600E-mutant human hematopoietic cells, revealing the functional self-renewal capacity of HCL HSCs. Consistent with the human genetic data, expression of BRafV600E in murine HSPCs resulted in a lethal hematopoietic disorder characterized by splenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased circulating soluble CD25, and increased clonogenic capacity of B lineage cells-all classic features of human HCL. In contrast, restricting expression of BRafV600E to the mature B cell compartment did not result in disease. Treatment of HCL patients with vemurafenib, an inhibitor of mutated BRAF, resulted in normalization of HSPC frequencies and increased myeloid and erythroid output from HSPCs. These findings link the pathogenesis of HCL to somatic mutations that arise in HSPCs and further suggest that chronic lymphoid malignancies may be initiated by aberrant HSCs. PMID:24871132

  4. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Origin of BRAFV600E Mutations in Hairy Cell Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young Rock; Lito, Piro; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Hu, Wenhuo; Beguelin, Wendy; Monette, Sebastien; Duy, Cihangir; Rampal, Raajit; Telis, Leon; Patel, Minal; Kim, Min Kyung; Huberman, Kety; Bouvier, Nancy; Berger, Michael F.; Melnick, Ari M.; Rosen, Neal; Tallman, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by somatic BRAFV600E mutations. The malignant cell in HCL has immunophenotypic features of a mature B cell, but no normal counterpart along the continuum of developing B lymphocytes has been delineated as the cell of origin. We find that the BRAFV600E mutation is present in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in HCL patients, and that these patients exhibit marked alterations in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) frequencies. Quantitative sequencing analysis revealed a mean BRAFV600E-mutant allele frequency of 4.97% in HSCs from HCL patients. Moreover, transplantation of BRAFV600E-mutant HSCs from an HCL patient into immunodeficient mice resulted in stable engraftment of BRAFV600E-mutant human hematopoietic cells, revealing the functional self-renewal capacity of HCL HSCs. Consistent with the human genetic data, expression of BRafV600E in murine HSPCs resulted in a lethal hematopoietic disorder characterized by splenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased circulating soluble CD25, and increased clonogenic capacity of B lineage cells—all classic features of human HCL. In contrast, restricting expression of BRafV600E to the mature B cell compartment did not result in disease. Treatment of HCL patients with vemurafenib, an inhibitor of mutated BRAF, resulted in normalization of HSPC frequencies and increased myeloid and erythroid output from HSPCs. These findings link the pathogenesis of HCL to somatic mutations that arise in HSPCs and further suggest that chronic lymphoid malignancies may be initiated by aberrant HSCs. PMID:24871132

  5. Hepatic involvement in hairy cell leukemia: diagnosis by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase enzyme histochemistry on formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded liver biopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Grouls, V; Stiens, R

    1984-03-01

    The leukemic infiltrate in the liver in hairy cell leukemia may be easily overlooked in conventional histological slides and an exact classification may not always be possible. In order to facilitate the identification of tricholeukocytes , it is suggested to perform the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase stain on routinely formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded liver biopsy specimens. Thereby it will be in most cases possible to demonstrate sufficiently enough enzyme activity to establish unequivocally the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia. PMID:6728715

  6. Which role for rituximab in hairy cell leukemia? Reflections on six cases.

    PubMed

    Malfuson, J V; Fagot, T; Konopacki, J; Souleau, B; Cremades, S; de Revel, T

    2010-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare, chronic, B-cell, lymphoproliferative disorder. Treatment has been revolutionized by the advent of interferon (IFN)-alpha and purine analogs (PA). First-line therapy with PA yields complete response rates of 75-100%, with many long-lasting remissions. In the event of profound neutropenia and/or infectious complications, a short sequence of IFN-alpha may precede PA treatment. Because of the excellent results achieved with PA therapy, the potential role of rituximab (an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that is highly effective against most B-cell lymphomas) in HCL has yet to be elucidated. Six HCL cases treated with rituximab are reported herein with a view to elucidating the potential role of the drug in HCL. The indications essentially consist of relapsing or refractory disease, avoiding the cumulative toxicity of PA, consolidation therapy in order to eradicate minimal residual disease, and first-line therapy for patients with contraindications to PA and IFN-alpha. PMID:20051682

  7. Impact of telomere length on survival in classic and variant hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Arons, Evgeny; Zhou, Hong; Edelman, Daniel C; Gomez, Allison; Steinberg, Seth M; Petersen, David; Wang, Yonghong; Meltzer, Paul S; Kreitman, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Telomeres, which protect the ends of chromosomes, are shortened in several hematologic malignancies, often with adverse prognostic implications, but their effect on prognosis of classic and variant hairy cell leukemia (HCL and HCLv) has not been reported. HCL/HCLv genomic DNA from 46 patients was studied by PCR to determine the ratio of telomere to single copy gene number (T/S). T/S was unrelated to diagnosis of HCL or HCLv (p=0.27), but shorter T/S was associated with unmutated immunoglobulin rearrangements (p=0.033) and age above the median at diagnosis (p=0.017). Low T/S was associated with shorter overall survival from diagnosis (OS), particularly T/S <0.655 (p=0.0064, adjusted p=0.019). Shorter OS was also associated with presence of unmutated (p<0.0001) or IGHV4-34+ (p<0.0001) rearrangements, or increasing age (p=0.0002). Multivariable analysis with Cox modeling showed that short T/S along with either unmutated or IGHV4-34+ rearrangements remained associated with reduced OS (p=0.0071, p=0.0024, respectively) after age adjustment. While T/S is relatively long in HCL and the disease usually indolent with excellent survival, shortened telomeres in HCL/HCLv are associated with decreased survival. Shortened T/S could represent a risk factor needing further investigation/intervention to determine if non-chemotherapy treatment options, in addition to or instead of chemotherapy, might be particularly useful. PMID:26520623

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Cladribine: Subcutaneous versus Intravenous Administration in Hairy Cell Leukemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khorshid, Ola; Namour, Alfred Elias; El-Gammal, Mosaad M; Mahmoud, Tarek Yakout; Fortpied, Catherine; Abdel-Malek, Raafat; Ramadan, Safaa

    2015-01-01

    Cladribine induces durable complete remission (CR) in approximately 85% of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) patients. In Egypt, cladribine is mainly used as IV continuous infusion at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day for 7 days and as SC bolus injection at a dose of 0.14 mg/kg/day for 5 days. We aimed to compare the outcome and toxicity between these two regimens. We retrospectively collected data from HCL patients treated at the National Cancer Institute and its affiliated center, Nasser Institute, Cairo, Egypt. Forty-nine patients were identified, 18 treated with the IV regimen (IV group) and 31 with the SC regimen (SC group). Forty-one patients were newly diagnosed. Patient characteristics were balanced across the two groups. The CR rates in the IV and the SC group were 94% and 97%, respectively. The main complications in the IV group and the SC were neutropenia G3–4 (67% vs. 87%), mucositis mainly G1–2 (67% vs 32%) and infections (mainly viral, 78% vs 34%). In the IV group, five patients died, three of progression and infection, one of unknown cause and one of late heart failure. In the SC group, one patient died of disease progression and one of second cancer. After 33.5 months, median follow-up, the 3-year event free survival was 60% and 96%, respectively (p=0.104). The 3-year overall survival was 81% and 100%, respectively (p=0.277). In conclusion, SC cladribine is an excellent alternative to the IV regimen for the treatment of HCL. PMID:26543527

  9. Kytococcus schroeteri Bacteremia in a Patient with Hairy Cell Leukemia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Amaraneni, Akshay; Malik, Devin; Jasra, Sakshi; Chandana, Sreenivasa R.; Garg, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The Kytococcus genus formerly belonged to Micrococcus. The first report of a Kytococcus schroeteri infection was in 2002 in a patient diagnosed with endocarditis. We report a case of central line associated Kytococcus schroeteri bacteremia in a patient with underlying Hairy Cell Leukemia. Kytococcus schroeteri is an emerging infection in the neutropenic population and in patients with implanted artificial tissue. It is thought to be a commensal bacterium of the skin; however, attempts to culture the bacteria remain unsuccessful. There have been a total of 5 cases (including ours) of K. schroeteri bacteremia in patients with hematologic malignancies and neutropenia and only 18 documented cases in any population. Four of the cases of bacteria in neutropenic patients have been fatal, but early detection and treatment could make a difference in clinical outcomes. PMID:26064718

  10. Hairy cell leukemia treated initially with purine analogs: a retrospective study of 107 patients from the Spanish Cooperative Group on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (GELLC).

    PubMed

    López Rubio, Montserrat; Da Silva, Carolina; Loscertales, Javier; Seri, Cristina; Baltasar, Patricia; Colado, Enrique; Pérez Fernández, Inmaculada; Osma, Mar; Gomis, Federico; González, Marcos; Jarque, Isidro; Vargas, Manuel; Monzó, Encarnación; Monteagudo, Dolores; Orts, Maria Isabel; Pardal, Emilia; Carbonell, Félix; Perez Calvo, Cesar; Garcia-Marco, Jose A

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Purine analogs are highly effective in hairy cell leukemia (HCL) with response rates of 85%, but with many late relapses. We have retrospectively reviewed the clinical data from 107 patients treated with pentostatin (n = 27) or cladribine (n = 80), to investigate the long-term efficacy and to identify factors associated with the treatment-free interval (TFI). Complete remission and minimal residual disease (MRD) rates were similar in both groups. Median TFI was shorter (95 vs. 144 months) in the pentostatin group, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.476). MRD+ patients had shorter TFI than MRD- patients (97 months vs. not reached, p < 0.049). A hemoglobin level < 10 g/dL predicted for a shorter TFI only in the pentostatin group. Quality of response and number of hairy cells in the bone marrow are independent risk factors of treatment failure. The relationship between MRD+ and shorter TFI makes it of special interest to explore consolidation therapy with monoclonal antibodies to achieve durable responses. PMID:23885799

  11. Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

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  12. Clinical characteristics and long-term outcome of young hairy cell leukemia patients treated with cladribine: a single-institution series.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Joshua D; Burian, Carol; Waalen, Jill; Saven, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare, indolent B-cell disorder in which single courses of cladribine induce high rates of complete responses. We report on 88 young HCL patients (?40 years of age at diagnosis) treated with cladribine from the Scripps Clinic HCL Database, of whom 83 were evaluable for response. Seventy-three patients (88%) achieved an initial complete response and 10 (12%) a partial response, with a median response duration of 57 months. Forty-eight patients (58%) relapsed, with a median time to first relapse for all responders of 54 months. Eight patients developed 11 second primary malignancies with an excess frequency of 1.60 (95% confidence interval, 0.80-2.89). Thirteen (15%) patients died with a mortality ratio compared with age-matched normals of 1.85 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-3.18). Median overall survival for all patients following the first cladribine course was 231 months, and 251 months from diagnosis. Single courses of cladribine induce high rates of complete and durable responses in the majority of young HCL patients and are therefore recommended for HCL patients regardless of age. PMID:24192579

  13. Medical History, Lifestyle, and Occupational Risk Factors for Hairy Cell Leukemia: The InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project

    PubMed Central

    Slager, Susan L.; Hughes, Ann Maree; Smith, Alex; Glimelius, Bengt; Habermann, Thomas M.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Staines, Anthony; Norman, Aaron D.; Cerhan, James R.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the etiology of hairy cell leukemia (HCL), a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with marked male predominance. Our aim was to identify key risk factors for HCL. Methods A pooled analysis of individual-level data for 154 histologically confirmed HCL cases and 8834 controls from five case–control studies, conducted in Europe and Australia, was undertaken. Age-, race and/or ethnicity-, sex-, and study-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Results The usual patterns for age and sex in HCL were observed, with a median age of 55 years and sex ratio of 3.7 males to females. Cigarette smoking was inversely associated with HCL (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.71) with dose–response relationships observed for duration, frequency, and lifetime cigarette smoking (P trend < .001). In contrast, occupation as a farmer was positively associated with HCL (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.36 to 4.01), with a dose–response relationship observed for duration (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 0.85 to 3.88 for ?10 years vs never; and OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.50 to 5.93 for >10 years vs never; P trend = .025). Adult height was also positively associated with HCL (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.39 to 5.29 for upper vs lower quartile of height). The observed associations remained consistent in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Our observations of an increased risk of HCL from farming exposures and decreased risk from smoking exposures, independent of one another, support a multifactorial origin and an etiological specificity of HCL compared with other non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes. The positive association with height is a novel finding that needs replication. PMID:25174032

  14. [Chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders with hairy cells].

    PubMed

    Troussard, Xavier; Cornet, Édouard

    2015-01-01

    The standardized blood smear examination is the first step in the diagnosis of a B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorder and can guide further investigations. In the laboratory, the identification of hairy cells on blood smear is a matter of daily practice. Hairy cell proliferations represent heterogeneous entities and their respective diagnoses can be difficult. If hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) represent separate entities, the variant form of HCL (HCLv) and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRPL) remain provisional entities in the 2008 WHO classification. We discuss the main clinical and biological characteristics of these four entities and appropriate means to characterize, identify and distinguish from each other; standardized blood smear examination, multiparameter flow cytometry analysis, analysis of the repertoire of immunoglobulins heavy chains genes and their mutational status (mutated or unmutated profile), molecular analyses: BRAF gene V600E mutation in HCL and MAP2K1 gene mutations in HCLv. We also discuss the main therapeutic aspects with emphasis on the new targeted drugs that enter into force in the therapeutic arsenal. PMID:25858127

  15. Stages of Hairy Cell Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

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  16. Properties of anti-hairy cell serum.

    PubMed

    Stuart, A E; Dewar, A E

    1979-02-01

    An antiserum was prepared in rabbits against hairy leukaemic cells. After absorption with human erythrocytes, thymus and liver powder, the serum was passed through immunoabsorbent columns to remove extensive anti-plasma protein activity. Following these procedures, sensitive techniques failed to reveal residual activity against alpha-macroglobulins, beta2-microglobulin and other human plasma proteins. The antiserum reacted with normal B lymphocytes but not with T lymphocytes or monocytes. Positive reactions were seen in B cell lymphomas, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, hairy-cell leukaemia and uninucleated Reed-Sternberg cells. PMID:371661

  17. Leukemia stem cells.

    PubMed

    Testa, Ugo

    2011-03-01

    Leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) or leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are defined by their ability to form tumors after xenotransplantation in immunodeficient mice and appear to be rare in most human leukemias. In various leukemias, only small subpopulations of cells can transfer disease upon transplantation into immunocompromised NOD/SCID mice, and markers that distinguish the leukemogenic cancer cells from the bulk populations of non-leukemogenic cells have been identified. However, the phenotype of LICs is heterogeneous: it is variable for the different types of acute myeloid leukemias; cells with different membrane phenotype can act as LICs in each B-acute lymphoid leukemia; LICs change during the evolution of chronic myeloid leukemia from the chronic to the acute phase. There is a general consensus that the identification and characterization of leukemic stem cells might lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets and, through this way, to more effective treatments by focusing therapy on the most malignant cells. PMID:21107841

  18. Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia by Risk Group

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Topic Treating hairy cell leukemia Typical treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia Treatment options for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) vary ... SCT) early in treatment. Second-line treatment of CLL If the initial treatment is no longer working ...

  19. Treatment Options for Hairy Cell Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

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  20. General Information about Hairy Cell Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials. Information about clinical trials is available from ... want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. For some patients, taking part in a ...

  1. Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Leukemia What Is Leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. ... diagnosed with leukemia are over 50 years old. Leukemia Starts in Bone Marrow Click for more information ...

  2. Cellular Immunotherapy Following Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-27

    Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; B-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, With Features Intermediate Between Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, With Features Intermediate Between Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma

  3. Childhood Leukemia--A Look at the Past, the Present and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findeisen, Regina; Barber, William H.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of childhood leukemia. The causes, the survival period, different types (acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and hairy cell leukemia), symptoms, treatment, side effects of treatment (including learning problems), and the expected future direction of…

  4. Leukemia -- Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic: Overview Print to PDF Leukemia - Chronic T-Cell Lymphocytic: Overview Approved by the ... as a roadmap to this full guide. About leukemia Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. ...

  5. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-21

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  6. Hairy cell leukaemia-variant: Disease features and treatment.

    PubMed

    Matutes, Estella; Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Campo, Elias

    2015-12-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia-variant (HCL-V) is a rare B-cell malignancy that affects elderly males and manifests with splenomegaly, lymphocytosis and cytopenias without monocytopenia. The neoplastic cells have morphological features of prolymphocytes and hairy cells. The immunophenotype is that of a clonal B-cell CD11c and CD103 positive but, unlike classical HCL, CD25, CD123 and CD200 negative. The spleen histology is similar to classical HCL and the pattern of bone marrow infiltration is interstitial and/or intrasinusoidal. Mutations of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGVH) are seen in two thirds of cases with a preferential VH4-34 family usage. There is no distinct chromosomal abnormality but del17p13 and mutations of the TP53 gene are frequent. Mutations in the MAP2K1 gene have been documented in half of the cases. The course is chronic with median survivals of 7-9 years. Patients are refractory to purine analogues and the most effective therapy is the combination of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine and Rituximab. PMID:26614904

  7. Bone marrow and splenic histology in hairy cell leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wotherspoon, Andrew; Attygalle, Ayoma; Sena Teixeira Mendes, Larissa

    2015-12-01

    Hairy cell leukaemia is a rare chronic neoplastic B-cell lymphoproliferation that characteristically involves blood, bone marrow and spleen with liver, lymph node and skin less commonly involved. Histologically, the cells have a characteristic appearance with pale/clear cytoplasm and round or reniform nuclei. In the spleen, the infiltrate involves the red pulp and is frequently associated with areas of haemorrhage (blood lakes). The cells stain for B-cell related antigens as well as with antibodies against tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, DBA44 (CD72), CD11c, CD25, CD103, CD123, cyclin D1 and annexin A1. Mutation of BRAF -V600E is present and antibody to the mutant protein can be used as a specific marker. Bone marrow biopsy is essential in the initial assessment of disease as the bone marrow may be inaspirable or unrepresentative of degree of marrow infiltration as a result of the tumour associated fibrosis preventing aspiration of the tumour cell component. Bone marrow biopsy is important in the assessment of therapy response but in this context staining for CD11c and Annexin A1 is not helpful as they are also markers of myeloid lineage and identification of low level infiltration may be obscured. In this context staining for CD20 may be used in conjunction with morphological assessment and staining of serial sections for cyclin D1 and DBA44 to identify subtle residual infiltration. Staining for CD79a and CD19 is not recommended as these antibodies will identify plasma cells and can lead to over-estimation of disease. Staining for CD20 should not be used in patients following with anti-CD20 based treatments. Down regulation of cyclin D1 and CD25 has been reported in patients following BRAF inhibitor therapy and assessment of these antigens should not be used in this context. Histologically, hairy cell leukaemia needs to be distinguished from other B-cell lymphoproliferations associated with splenomegaly including splenic marginal zone lymphoma, splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma and hairy cell leukaemia variant. This can be done by assessment of the spleen but as this is now rarely performed in this disorder distinction is almost always possible by a combination of morphological and immunophenotypic studies on bone marrow trephine biopsy, which can be supplemented by assessment of BRAF-V600E mutation assessment in borderline cases. PMID:26614898

  8. PLASMA CELL LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    de Larrea, Carlos Fernandez; Kyle, Robert A.; Durie, Brian GM; Ludwig, Heinz; Usmani, Saad; Vesole, David H.; Hajek, Roman; Miguel, Jésus San; Sezer, Orhan; Sonneveld, Pieter; Kumar, Shaji K.; Mahindra, Anuj; Comenzo, Ray; Palumbo, Antonio; Mazumber, Amitabha; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Richardson, Paul G.; Badros, Ashraf Z.; Caers, Jo; Cavo, Michele; LeLeu, Xavier; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Chim, CS; Schots, Rik; Noeul, Amara; Fantl, Dorotea; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Landgren, Ola; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Moreau, Philippe; Fonseca, Rafael; Merlini, Giampaolo; Lahuerta, JJ; Bladé, Joan; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Shah, Jatin J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic-pathologic entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (? 20%) and absolute number (? 2 × 10 9/L) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds for diagnosis be reexamined and consensus recommendations are made for diagnosis, as well as, response and progression criteria. Induction therapy needs to begin promptly and have high clinical activity leading to rapid disease control in an effort to minimize the risk of early death. Intensive chemotherapy regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding of the pathogenesis of PCL. PMID:23288300

  9. Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  10. MK2206 in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors or Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-28

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Aggressive NK-cell Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myeloid/NK-cell Acute Leukemia; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Primary Central Nervous System Hodgkin Lymphoma; Primary Central Nervous System Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  11. Selective T-Cell Depletion to Reduce GVHD (Patients) Receiving Stem Cell Tx to Treat Leukemia, Lymphoma or MDS

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-12-09

    Graft vs Host Disease; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Leukemia; Leukemia, Myeloid; Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic; Leukemia, Lymphocytic; Lymphoma; Lymphoma, Mantle-cell; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; Hodgkin Disease

  12. [A case of occupational benzene poisoning combined with tricholeukocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Bescol-Liversac, J; Chabaux, C; Bolinard, S; Guillam, C

    1982-11-01

    Case report of occupational intoxication, with moderate anemia and hypogranulocytosis, in the course of which occurs a hairy cell leukemia. Cytological data are significative in photonic and electronic microscopy: microvilli and granulo-lamellar complexes. Discussion of benzen, as toxic factor in etiology of this leukemia. PMID:7170726

  13. Lenalidomide With or Without Rituximab in Treating Patients With Progressive or Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, Prolymphocytic Leukemia, or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Previously Treated With Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-03

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  14. Autofluorescence characteristics of human leukemia cells and mononuclear cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lifu; Liao, Xiaoying; Lin, Lisheng; Huang, Huifang; Chen, Yuanzhong; Li, Buhong

    2010-11-01

    Autofluorescence spectroscopy is a powerful method to identify the endogenous fluorophores in normal and cancerous cells. The purpose of this study is to characterize the autofluorescence spectra of human normal and leukemia cells. Autofluorescence measurements of each cell line are performed over a wide range of cell concentrations. All of the leukemia cells indicate a statistically significant increase in the tryptophan fluorescence relative to that of the normal cells, while no statistically significant differences are observed in the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) fluorescence between the normal and leukemia cells. The results suggest that the differences in autofluorescence spectra for leukemia cells and mononuclear cells may be attributed in part to differences in endogenous fluorophores of different cells.

  15. Participation of leukemia cells in immune responses.

    PubMed

    Borani?, M; Poljak-Bla?i, M; Rada?i?, M; Gabrilovac, J; Hr?ak, I

    1976-01-01

    Cells of a transplantable lymphoid leukemia of mice were tested in vivo and in vitro to see which features of normal lymphoid cells were retained in spite of malignant transformation and lack of growth control. Leukemia cells phagocytosed, adhered to glass, possessed receptors for immunoglobulin, participated in the immune response against SRBC (probably by amplifying a normal response through attachement of antibodies on their surfaces), became recruited into inflammatory reactions elicited by grafting allogeneic of syngeneic skin, and apparently joined graft-versus-host and host-versus-graft reactions, contributing toward damage of hemopoietic target tissues. PMID:12544

  16. Bringing Leukemia Stem Cells into the Clinic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jean C Y

    2015-11-01

    Outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain poor due to high rates of relapse. Thus, there is an urgent unmet medical need for new therapies that can more effectively kill the leukemia stem cells (LSC) and recently recognized preleukemic hematopoietic stem cells (preL-HSC) that can drive relapsed disease. In order to develop such therapies, a better understanding of the biology of these stem cell populations is required. The best functional assays for stem cells are xenotransplantation models using immunodeficient mouse recipients. Here, we present evidence of the clinical validity of such models for studying the biology of AML stem cells and propose a new paradigm for the development of LSC-targeted agents and biomarker tools for patient selection. PMID:26551024

  17. Overexpression of Rac1 in leukemia patients and its role in leukemia cell migration and growth

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jiying; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wei, Hui; Xing, Haiyan; Liu, Hang; Wang, Yanzhong; Tang, Kejing; Peng, Leiwen; Tian, Zheng; Wang, Jianxiang

    2009-09-04

    Rac1 belongs to the Rho family that act as critical mediators of signaling pathways controlling cell migration and proliferation and contributes to the interactions of hematopoietic stem cells with their microenvironment. Alteration of Rac1 might result in unbalanced interactions and ultimately lead to leukemogenesis. In this study, we analyze the expression of Rac1 protein in leukemia patients and determine its role in the abnormal behaviours of leukemic cells. Rac1 protein is overexpressed in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells as compared to normal bone marrow mononuclear cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1 in leukemia cell lines induced inhibition of cell migration, proliferation, and colony formation. Additionally, blocking Rac1 activity by an inhibitor of Rac1-GTPase, NSC23766, suppressed cell migration and growth. We conclude that overexpression of Rac1 contributes to the accelerated migration and high proliferation potential of leukemia cells, which could be implicated in leukemia development and progression.

  18. Sensory Cells of the Fish Ear: A Hairy Enigma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popper, A. N.; Saidel, W. M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the structure of the ears in teleost fishes has led to the tentative suggestion that otolithic endorgans may function differently, in different species. Recently, evidence has demonstrated different 'types' of sensory hair cells can be found in the ears of teleost fishes, and individual hair cell types are found in discrete regions of individual sensory, epithelia. The presence of multiple hair cell types in fishes provides strong support to the hypothesis of regional differences in the responses of individual otolithic sensory epithelia. The finding of hair cell types in fishes that closely resemble those found in amniote vestibular endorgans also suggests that hair cell heterogeneity arose earlier in the evolution of the vertebrate ear than previously thought.

  19. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute or Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-03

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Essential Thrombocythemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  20. Obatoclax Mesylate, Vincristine Sulfate, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Dexrazoxane Hydrochloride in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors, Lymphoma, or Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-30

    Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  1. CXCR4 Is Required for Leukemia-Initiating Cell Activity in T Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Passaro, Diana; Irigoyen, Marta; Catherinet, Claire; Gachet, Stéphanie; Da Costa De Jesus, Cindy; Lasgi, Charlène; Tran Quang, Christine; Ghysdael, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    Impaired cell migration has been demonstrated in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells upon calcineurin inactivation, among other phenotypic traits including increased apoptosis, inhibition of cell proliferation, and ultimately inhibition of leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) activity. Herein we demonstrate that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is essential to the LIC activity of T-ALL leukemic cells both in NOTCH-induced mouse T-ALL and human T-ALL xenograft models. We further demonstrate that calcineurin regulates CXCR4 cell-surface expression in a cortactin-dependent manner, a mechanism essential to the migratory properties of T-ALL cells. Because 20%-25% of pediatric and over 50% of adult patients with T-ALL do not achieve complete remission and relapse, our results call for clinical trials incorporating CXCR4 antagonists in T-ALL treatment. PMID:26058076

  2. Long-term follow-up after purine analogue therapy in hairy cell leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Else, Monica; Dearden, Claire E; Catovsky, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Since 2006 when we last reviewed the literature concerning the use of purine analogues in hairy cell leukaemia (HCL), results from several new and updated series have been published. Here we examine these reports and consider their implications for patient management. The two purine analogues pentostatin and cladribine remain the first-line treatments of choice for all patients with HCL. Although they have not been compared in randomised trials, they appear to be equally effective. A complete response is important for the long-term outcome and we look at how best this can be achieved. Evidence is emerging which supports the use of either purine analogue plus an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody after relapse, though questions remain concerning the scheduling of the monoclonal antibody. Patients refractory to the purine analogues may require alternative agents. PMID:26614900

  3. Laboratory Treated T Cells in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-27

    Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  4. Characterization of chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Jonathan M.; Qin, Lu; Kowalski, Jeanne; Smith, B. Douglas; Griffin, Constance A.; Vala, Milada S.; Collector, Michael I.; Perkins, Brandy; Zahurak, Marianna; Matsui, William; Gocke, Christopher D.; Sharkis, Saul J.; Levitsky, Hyam I.; Jones, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Though tyrosine kinase inhibitors have redefined the care of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), these agents have not proved curative, likely due to resistance of the leukemia stem cells (LSC). While a number of potential therapeutic targets have emerged in CML, their expression in the LSC remains largely unknown. We therefore isolated subsets of CD34+ stem/progenitor cells from normal donors and from patients with chronic phase or blast crisis CML. These cell subsets were then characterized based on ability to engraft immunodeficient mice and expression of candidate therapeutic targets. The CD34+CD38? CML cell population with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity was the most enriched for immunodeficient mouse engrafting capacity. The putative targets: PROTEINASE 3, SURVIVIN, and hTERT were expressed only at relatively low levels by the CD34+CD38?ALDHhigh CML cells, similar to the normal CD34+CD38?ALDHhigh cells and less than in the total CML CD34+ cells. In fact, the highest expression of these antigens was in normal, unfractionated CD34+ cells. In contrast, PRAME and WT1 were more highly expressed by all CML CD34+ subsets than their normal counterparts. Thus, ALDH activity appears to enrich for CML stem cells, which display an expression profile that is distinct from normal stem/progenitor cells and even the CML progenitors. Indeed, expression of a putative target by the total CD34+ population in CML does not guarantee expression by the LSC. These expression patterns suggest that PROTEINASE 3, SURVIVIN, and hTERT are not optimal therapeutic targets in CML stem cells; whereas PRAME and WT1 seem promising. PMID:21132730

  5. Laser activated nanothermolysis of leukemia cells monitored by photothermal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotko, Dmitri; Lukianova, Ekaterina; Shnip, Alexander; Zheltov, George; Potapnev, Michail; Savitsky, Valeriy; Klimovich, Olga; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    We are developing new diagnostic and therapeutic technologies for leukemia based on selective targeting of leukemia cells with gold nanoparticles and thermomechanical destruction of the tumor cells with laser-induced microbubbles. Clusters of spherical gold nanoparticles that have strong optical absorption of laser pulses at 532 nm served as nucleation sites of vapor microbubbles. The nanoparticles were targeted selectively to leukemia cells using leukemia-specific surface receptors and a set of two monoclonal antibodies. Application of a primary myeloid-specific antibody to tumor cells followed by targeting the cells with 30-nm nanoparticles conjugated with a secondary antibody (IgG) resulted in formation of nanoparticulate clusters due to aggregation of IgGs. Formation of clusters resulted in substantial decrease of the damage threshold for target cells. The results encourage development of Laser Activated Nanothermolysis as a Cell Elimination Therapy (LANCET) for leukemia. The proposed technology can be applied separately or in combination with chemotherapy for killing leukemia cells without damage to other blood cells. Potential applications include initial reduction of concentration of leukemia cells in blood prior to chemotherapy and treatment of residual tumor cells after the chemotherapy. Laser-induced bubbles in individual cells and cell damage were monitored by analyzing profile of photothermal response signals over the entire cell after irradiation with a single 10-ns long laser pulse. Photothermal microscopy was utilized for imaging formation of microbubbles around nanoparticulate clusters.

  6. Does hematopoietic stem cell transplantation benefit infants with acute leukemia?

    PubMed Central

    Sison, Edward Allan R.; Brown, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    A 6-month-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). She has completed induction therapy and is currently in first complete remission (CR1). You are asked by your resident if hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) would benefit infants with acute leukemia. PMID:24319238

  7. Pushing the Limits: Defeating Leukemia Stem Cells by Depleting Telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ya-Huei; Bhatia, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia stem cells (LSCs), featuring unlimited self-renewal capacity and chemoresistance, are critical cellular targets for new treatments to improve outcomes for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this issue, Bruedigam et al. demonstrate that inhibition of telomerase is damaging to LSCs and may represent a promising therapeutic approach in AML. PMID:25479742

  8. An Immunocompetent Mouse Model for MLL/AF9 Leukemia Reveals the Potential of Spontaneous Cytotoxic T-Cell Response to an Antigen Expressed in Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Kana; Tanaka, Satomi; Fujiki, Fumihiro; Morimoto, Soyoko; Nakajima, Hiroko; Tatsumi, Naoya; Nakata, Jun; Takashima, Satoshi; Nishida, Sumiyuki; Tsuboi, Akihiro; Oka, Yoshihiro; Oji, Yusuke; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Sugiyama, Haruo; Hosen, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia differs substantially with respect to stromal milieu from tumors that progress locally as solid masses, and the physiological importance of immunosurveillance in leukemia remains unclear. However, currently available mouse leukemia models have critical limitations in the context of analyzing immunological regulation of leukemia development. In this study, we transferred mouse MLL/AF9 leukemia-initiating cells into immunocompetent recipient mice without any pre-conditioning such as irradiation, and then analyzed the spontaneous T cell response to an immunogenic antigen expressed in leukemia cells. When the minimum numbers of leukemia-initiating cells for engraftment were transferred, leukemia cells were eradicated by the adaptive immune response in most, if not all, wild-type mice, but not in Rag2-/- recipient mice, which lack adaptive immunity. By contrast, mice transplanted with larger numbers of leukemia cells always developed leukemia. In mice with advanced leukemia, antigen-specific CTLs were also expanded, but were unresponsive to antigen stimulation and expressed high levels of PD-1 and LAG-3. These results provide the first clear demonstration that the spontaneous CTL response to a tumor-cell antigen has the potential to eradicate leukemia, whereas antigen-specific CTLs are exhausted in animals with advanced leukemia. This immunocompetent mouse leukemia model provides a useful platform for developing effective immunotherapies against leukemia. PMID:26658107

  9. Crystal structure of human T cell leukemia virus protease, a novel target for anticancer drug design

    E-print Network

    Crystal structure of human T cell leukemia virus protease, a novel target for anticancer drug the structure of a complex of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) PR with a substrate- based inhibitor of such anticancer therapies. inhibitor leukemia retroviral protease Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1

  10. Targeting Mitochondria with Avocatin B Induces Selective Leukemia Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eric A; Angka, Leonard; Rota, Sarah-Grace; Hanlon, Thomas; Mitchell, Andrew; Hurren, Rose; Wang, Xiao Ming; Gronda, Marcela; Boyaci, Ezel; Bojko, Barbara; Minden, Mark; Sriskanthadevan, Shrivani; Datti, Alessandro; Wrana, Jeffery L; Edginton, Andrea; Pawliszyn, Janusz; Joseph, Jamie W; Quadrilatero, Joe; Schimmer, Aaron D; Spagnuolo, Paul A

    2015-06-15

    Treatment regimens for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) continue to offer weak clinical outcomes. Through a high-throughput cell-based screen, we identified avocatin B, a lipid derived from avocado fruit, as a novel compound with cytotoxic activity in AML. Avocatin B reduced human primary AML cell viability without effect on normal peripheral blood stem cells. Functional stem cell assays demonstrated selectivity toward AML progenitor and stem cells without effects on normal hematopoietic stem cells. Mechanistic investigations indicated that cytotoxicity relied on mitochondrial localization, as cells lacking functional mitochondria or CPT1, the enzyme that facilitates mitochondria lipid transport, were insensitive to avocatin B. Furthermore, avocatin B inhibited fatty acid oxidation and decreased NADPH levels, resulting in ROS-dependent leukemia cell death characterized by the release of mitochondrial proteins, apoptosis-inducing factor, and cytochrome c. This study reveals a novel strategy for selective leukemia cell eradication based on a specific difference in mitochondrial function. PMID:26077472

  11. Hairy Crabs

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2011-02-16

    Broadcast Transcript: So in Japan, the vending machines act alive: they talk to you and make recommendations. Here in China, the vending machines are not alive but their contents are. At a subway station in Nanjing, people can buy live hairy crabs...

  12. Haematological profile of 21 patients with hairy cell leukaemia in a tertiary care centre of north India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Das, Reena; Naseem, Shano; Sharma, Prashant; Kumar, Narender; Malhotra, Pankaj; Varma, Neelam; Varma, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is a B cell neoplasm which constitutes around 2 per cent of all the lymphoid leukaemias. It has a characteristic morphology and immunophenotypic profile. It is important to distinguish HCL from other B cell lymphoproliferative disorders due to availability of different chemotherapeutic agents. This study presents clinical, haematological and immunophenotypic profile of patients with HCL seen over a period of four years in a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: Twenty one cases of hairy cell leukaemia were analyzed for their clinical details, haemogram, bone marrow examination and immunophenotypic findings. Results: Age of the patients ranged from 28-76 yr with male predominance. Weakness and fever were commonest presentations. Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, lymphadenopathy were seen in decreasing order of frequency. Anaemia was noted in all 21 patients, leukopenia in 15 and thrombocytopenia in 19 cases. Fourteen patients were pancytopenic. Bone marrow examination showed typical hairy cells in all cases. Immunophenotyping showed expression of CD19, CD20, CD103, CD25 and CD11c in all cases, while positivity was seen for CD79b in 93.7 per cent, kappa light chain restriction in 60 per cent and lambda in 40 per cent cases. Notably, 20 per cent showed CD10 and 12 per cent showed CD23 expression. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reveals some unusual findings in otherwise classical disease entity, like absence of palpable spleen, presence of lymphadenopathy, normal or elevated leukocyte counts, expression of CD10, which at times could be diagnostically challenging. PMID:26609034

  13. Plasma cell leukemia: from biology to treatment.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Tomas; Kryukov, Fedor; Rihova, Lucie; Hajek, Roman

    2015-07-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a very aggressive and rare form of malignant monoclonal gammopathy characterized by the presence of plasmocytes in peripheral blood. It is classified as primary PCL occuring 'de novo', or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinicopathological entity from myeloma with different cytogenetic abnormalities and molecular findings, which are usually found only in advanced multiple myeloma. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and reduced overall survival. The diagnostic criteria are based on the percentage (>20%) and absolute number (2 × 10(9) /L) of plasma cells in peripheral blood. After establishing diagnosis, induction therapy should begin promptly which is aimed to rapid disease control and to minimize the risk of early death. Intensive chemotherapy regimens and bortezomib-based regimens, followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation, are recommended. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. This article reviews recent knowledge of this hematological malignancy that is associated with a very poor prognosis. PMID:25778450

  14. Neutrophil elastase and its therapeutic effect on leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, KAI-LING; MA, PENG-PENG; YANG, XIAO-QUN; ZHONG, LIANG; WANG, HUI; ZHU, XIN-YU; LIU, BEI-ZHONG

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) is an early myeloid-specific serine protease, which is predominantly produced by promyelocytes. A previous study demonstrated that NE has an important role in the development of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The process of APL was shown to be accelerated in animals that expressed abundant NE, whereas NE-deficient mice were protected from APL development; thus suggesting an important role for NE in the development of APL. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of NE. Up- and downregulation of NE in various leukemia cell lines was conducted in order to explore its significance in the occurrence and procession of leukemia, with the aim of identifying novel targeted therapeutic drugs for the treatment of leukemia. NE was overexpressed in cells following infection with an adenovirus, and Cell Counting kit-8 and flow cytometry results demonstrated that cell proliferation was promoted, and cell apoptosis was inhibited, as compared with the untreated cells. NE was downregulated in the cells by both RNA interference and treatment with GW311616A, a specific inhibitor of NE, following which cell growth was shown to be inhibited and apoptosis was induced. These results suggested that NE may promote the development of APL, therefore, NE may be a therapeutic target and its inhibitor GW311616A may be a potential therapeutic drug for leukemia. Furthermore, the apoptosis-associated protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein was significantly increased, whereas Bcl-2 was markedly decreased in the cells with downregulated NE. Further experiments revealed that the probable apoptosis-associated signaling pathway was the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway. The present study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to demonstrate that GW311616A, a specific NE inhibitor, may act as a potential targeted drug for leukemia, which may have a profound impact on the future of leukemia-targeted therapy. PMID:26081156

  15. [Hand-mirror cells acute lymphoblastic leukemia (L3)].

    PubMed

    Uemura, K; Otani, H; Sakamoto, K; Sakanishi, Y; Ota, T; Kobayashi, T; Ariyoshi, N; Shirahata, A

    1995-11-01

    To our knowledge, this report represents the first confirmed case in Japan of a 15-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).L3 with hand-mirror cells (HMC) in the bone marrow. HMC lymphoid leukemia is an unusual variant of ALL in which the bone marrow lymphoblasts manifest distinctive hand-mirror morphologic features. HMC lymphoblast is characterized by an asymmetric foot-like cytoplasmic process that extends from the portion of the cell, thus giving it the light-microscopic appearance responsible for its name. Besides ALL, HMC has been reported in acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), blastic crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and infectious mononucleosis. HMC has been reported to be prevalent in ALL.L1 and L2 as compared with L3. PMID:8551683

  16. Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Donor Lymphocyte Infusion in Treating Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, or Multiple Myeloma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-30

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  17. Structures of O-linked oligosaccharides isolated from normal granulocytes, chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, and acute myelogenous leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, M; Carlsson, S R; Klock, J C; Dell, A

    1986-09-25

    O-Linked oligosaccharides were isolated from normal granulocytes, chronic myelogenous leukemia cells, and acute myelogenous leukemia cells by alkaline borohydride treatment. Oligosaccharides were fractionated by Sephadex G-50 gel filtration and QAE-Sephadex column chromatography, and their structures were elucidated by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry after permethylation and methylation analysis before and after specific exoglycosidase treatments. Results show that normal granulocytes and chronic myelogenous leukemia cells contain a series of O-linked oligosaccharides with the following structure, (formula: see text) where, in normal granulocytes n = 0 is major and n = 1 or 2, and thus polylactosaminyl oligosaccharides are present as minor components. However, these polylactosaminyl oligosaccharides were barely detectable in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. On the other hand, acute myelogenous leukemia cells, which represent poorly differentiated myeloid cells, mainly contain short O-linked oligosaccharides with 2----6-linked sialic acid as follows. (formula: see text) These results suggest that structures of O-linked oligosaccharides vary in the different maturation stages along the same cell lineage. PMID:3462190

  18. Leukomogenic factors downregulate heparanase expression in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eshel, Rinat; Ben-Zaken, Olga; Vainas, Oded; Nadir, Yona; Minucci, Saverio; Polliack, Aaron; Naparstek, Ella; Vlodavsky, Israel; Katz, Ben-Zion; E-mail: bkatz@tasmc.healt.gov.il

    2005-10-07

    Heparanase is a heparan sulfate-degrading endoglycosidase expressed by mature monocytes and myeloid cells, but not by immature hematopoietic progenitors. Heparanase gene expression is upregulated during differentiation of immature myeloid cells. PML-RAR{alpha} and PLZF-RAR{alpha} fusion gene products associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia abrogate myeloid differentiation and heparanase expression. AML-Eto, a translocation product associated with AML FAB M2, also downregulates heparanase gene expression. The common mechanism that underlines the activity of these three fusion gene products involves the recruitment of histone deacetylase complexes to specific locations within the DNA. We found that retinoic acid that dissociates PML-RAR{alpha} from the DNA, and which is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia patients, restores heparanase expression to normal levels in an acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line. The retinoic acid effects were also observed in primary acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and in a retinoic acid-treated acute promyelocytic leukemia patient. Histone deacetylase inhibitor reverses the downregulation of heparanase expression induced by the AML-Eto fusion gene product in M2 type AML. In summary, we have characterized a link between leukomogenic factors and the downregulation of heparanase in myeloid leukemic cells.

  19. Alvocidib, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Lymphoproliferative Disorders or Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Untreated Hairy Cell Leukemia; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  20. Novel and Emerging Drugs for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Stein, E.M.; Tallman, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a challenging disease to treat with the majority of patients dying from their illness. While overall survival has been markedly prolonged in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), survival in younger adults with other subtypes of AML has only modestly improved over the last twenty years. Physicians who treat AML eagerly await drugs like Imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia, Cladribine for hairy cell leukemia, and Rituximab for non-Hodgkin Lymphoma which have had an important impact on improving outcome. Recent research efforts have focused on refining traditional chemotherapeutic agents to make them more active in AML, targeting specific genetic mutations in myeloid leukemia cells, and utilizing novel agents such as Lenalidomide that have shown activity in other hematologic malignancies. Here, we focus on reviewing the recent literature on agents that may assume a role in clinical practice for patients with AML over the next five years. PMID:22483153

  1. Transcriptional Regulation of the Stem Cell Leukemia Gene (SCL) --Comparative Analysis

    E-print Network

    Batzoglou, Serafim

    Transcriptional Regulation of the Stem Cell Leukemia Gene (SCL) -- Comparative Analysis of Five Sanger Institute, Cambridge, CB101SA United Kingdom The stem cell leukemia (SCL) gene encodes a b. It was identified by virtue of its disruption in T-cell acute leukemia and rearrangements of the SCL locus

  2. Gene expression networks underlying retinoic acidinduced differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells

    E-print Network

    Tian, Weidong

    promyelocytic leukemia cells Ting-Xi Liu, Ji-Wang Zhang, Jiong Tao, Ruo-Bo Zhang, Qing-Hua Zhang, Chun-Jun Zhao promyelo- cytic leukemia (APL) cells, the gene expression patterns in the APL cell line NB4 before Introduction Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is an interesting model in the study of human cancer because

  3. Transcriptional regulatory networks downstream of TAL1/SCL in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    leukemia Teresa Palomero, Duncan T. Odom, Jennifer O'Neil, Adolfo A. Ferrando, Adam Margolin, Donna S pathogene- sis of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL); however, oncogenic transcriptional expression leads to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). TAL1 is expressed by the leukemic cells

  4. Leukemia stem cells in 2010: current understanding and future directions.

    PubMed

    Becker, Michael W; Jordan, Craig T

    2011-03-01

    Myeloid leukemias are clonal disorders originating in a primitive multipotential hematopoietic cell and characterized by aberrant proliferation, differentiation and maturation of leukemic progenitors and precursor cells. These diseases are the result of multiple genetic and epigenetic events, although the nature and number of events vary widely among patients. For over four decades, studies have identified sub-populations of leukemic cells possessing different functional capabilities. Investigators have struggled to understand the origin and significance of this heterogeneity. The stem cell model for myeloid malignancies has offered one potential explanation. Since 1994, experimental data supporting the presence of leukemia stem cells has been reported and validated in numerous studies. We will review the history of the model, data from the past decade supporting the stem cell model for myeloid malignancies, more recent data regarding patient specific variability in leukemic stem cell surface antigen phenotype and the impact the stem cell model has on the care of patients with myeloid malignancies. PMID:21216511

  5. Therapy-induced selective loss of leukemia-initiating activity in murine adult T cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, Hiba; El-Sabban, Marwan; Hasegawa, Hideki; Zaatari, Ghazi; Ablain, Julien; Saab, Shahrazad T.; Janin, Anne; Mahfouz, Rami; Nasr, Rihab; Kfoury, Youmna; Nicot, Christophe; Hermine, Olivier; Hall, William

    2010-01-01

    Chronic HTLV-I (human T cell lymphotropic virus type I) infection may cause adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), a disease with dismal long-term prognosis. The HTLV-I transactivator, Tax, initiates ATL in transgenic mice. In this study, we demonstrate that an As2O3 and IFN-? combination, known to trigger Tax proteolysis, cures Tax-driven ATL in mice. Unexpectedly, this combination therapy abrogated initial leukemia engraftment into secondary recipients, whereas the primary tumor bulk still grew in the primary hosts, only to ultimately abate later on. This loss of initial transplantability required proteasome function. A similar regimen recently yielded unprecedented disease control in human ATL. Our demonstration that this drug combination targeting Tax stability abrogates tumor cell immortality but not short-term growth may foretell a favorable long-term efficiency of this regimen in patients. PMID:21135137

  6. Effects of cytosine arabinoside on human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Crisp, L B; Smith, S M; Mathers, M A; Young, G A; Lyons, S D; Christopherson, R I

    1996-09-01

    Cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) is used to treat leukemias, with complete remission induced by combination chemotherapy in approximately 70% of cases of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Ara-CTP acts as a competitive inhibitor of DNA polymerase and may also be incorporated into DNA. Accumulation of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) induced by Ara-C may indicate disruption of DNA synthesis in susceptible leukemia cells. A procedure has been developed for the quantification of Ara-CTP and dNTPs from small samples of leukaemia cells from patients (4 x 10(7) cells) activated with concanavalin A (10 micrograms/ml, 48 hr) and grown in the presence of [32P]orthophosphate (1.1 microM, 9 x 10(6) Ci/mol, 16 hr). The susceptibilities to Ara-C of the human leukemia cell lines CCRF-CEM (IC50 = 6.30 nM), CCRF-HSB-2 (IC50 = 10.4 nM) and MOLT-4 (IC50 = 10.0 nM) may be correlated with their abilities to accumulate high concentrations of Ara-CTP (> 1000 amol/cell) with increases of between 1.3- and 3.4-fold in dATP, dGTP and dTTP for the four cell lines, while dCTP decreased between 0.23- and 0.78-fold. By contrast, an Ara-C-resistant derivative of HL-60 cells (IC50 = 400 nM) accumulated only low concentrations of Ara-CTP (71 amol/cell) without significant changes in dNTPs. High concentrations of Ara-CTP in leukemia cells induce accumulations of dATP, dGTP and dTTP due to inhibition of DNA synthesis, and depletion of dCTP. This imbalance in the pools of the four dNTPs could lead to genetic miscoding and cell death. PMID:8930129

  7. Serological analysis of cell surface antigens of null cell acute lymphocytic leukemia by mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, R; Tanimoto, M; Takahashi, T; Ogata, S; Nishida, K; Namikawa, R; Nishizuka, Y; Ota, K

    1982-01-01

    Nine antigens systems were defined. Two were related to HLA-A,B,C and to Ia-like antigens; the others could be grouped into three categories. (i) NL-22, NL-1: NL-22 antibody reacted with leukemia cells from 12 to 16 cases of null cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (null-ALL) but not with any other type of leukemia tested or with lymphoid cells of various origins. Among cultured cell lines tested, one (NALM-6) of three null-ALL cell lines was positive, the others were negative. Absorption analysis confirmed the restriction of NL-22 antigen to null-ALL. NL-1 antibody was reactive with leukemia cells from 10 to 16 cases of null-ALL and 3 of 6 cases of chronic myelocytic leukemia in blastic crisis (CML-BC). The antigen was present also on a minor population of normal lymphoid cells. The distribution and molecular weight (100,000; glycoprotein) of the NL-1 antigen resembled that of the previously described common ALL antigen (cALL). (ii) NL-30, NL-4: Both antibodies exhibited almost identical patterns of reactivities against cultured cell lines tested. They reacted with leukemia cells from some cases of null-ALL, adult T-cell leukemia, and CML-BC, although they showed discordance in their reactivities against a panel of leukemia cells, (iii) NL-9, NL-8, NL-25: These three antibodies detect serologically distinguishable determinants on a broad range of leukemias and normal lymphoid and hematopoietic cell types. The antibodies analyzed in this study provide evidence for the heterogeneity of null-ALL by demonstrating a variety of antigen phenotypes on leukemia cells. One of the antigens (NL-22) appears to be restricted to null-ALL. PMID:6956869

  8. Fludarabine Phosphate, Radiation Therapy, and Rituximab in Treating Patients Who Are Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Rituximab for High-Risk Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-30

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia

  9. AMPK Protects Leukemia-Initiating Cells in Myeloid Leukemias from Metabolic Stress in the Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yusuke; Chapple, Richard H; Lin, Angelique; Kitano, Ayumi; Nakada, Daisuke

    2015-11-01

    How cancer cells adapt to metabolically adverse conditions in patients and strive to proliferate is a fundamental question in cancer biology. Here we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolic checkpoint kinase, confers metabolic stress resistance to leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) and promotes leukemogenesis. Upon dietary restriction, MLL-AF9-induced murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) activated AMPK and maintained leukemogenic potential. AMPK deletion significantly delayed leukemogenesis and depleted LICs by reducing the expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), compromising glucose flux, and increasing oxidative stress and DNA damage. LICs were particularly dependent on AMPK to suppress oxidative stress in the hypoglycemic bone marrow environment. Strikingly, AMPK inhibition synergized with physiological metabolic stress caused by dietary restriction and profoundly suppressed leukemogenesis. Our results indicate that AMPK protects LICs from metabolic stress and that combining AMPK inhibition with physiological metabolic stress potently suppresses AML by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:26440282

  10. Long-range enhancer activity determines Myc sensitivity to Notch inhibitors in T cell leukemia

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    Long-range enhancer activity determines Myc sensitivity to Notch inhibitors in T cell leukemia Yumi-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The protooncogene c-Myc (Myc) is a critical target of Notch in normal an enhancer region containing multiple domains, recognizable as discrete H3K27 acetylation peaks. Leukemia

  11. 75 FR 53202 - Diseases Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... INFORMATION: On March 25, 2010, VA published in the Federal Register (75 FR 14391) a proposal to amend 38 CFR... between myocardial oxygen supply and demand.'' 75 FR 14393; See Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine...; it typically occurs when there is an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand.'' 75...

  12. 75 FR 14391 - Diseases Associated With Exposure to Certain Herbicide Agents (Hairy Cell Leukemia and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is proposing to amend its adjudication regulations concerning presumptive service connection for certain diseases based upon the most recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Institute of Medicine committee report, Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2008 (Update 2008). This proposed amendment is necessary to implement a decision of the Secretary of......

  13. Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Olaso, Aedan Simon; Cohen, Seth; Kossev, Plamen

    2013-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is an uncommon highly aggressive T-cell lymphoma associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. It is rarely encountered during pregnancy and is particularly challenging to treat due to its aggressive nature and because of the lack of robust data on optimal chemotherapy. We report a case of a Jamaican immigrant diagnosed with ATL during pregnancy. PMID:23840994

  14. Nilotinib and Imatinib Mesylate After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-09

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  15. The aurora kinases in cell cycle and leukemia.

    PubMed

    Goldenson, B; Crispino, J D

    2015-01-29

    The Aurora kinases, which include Aurora A (AURKA), Aurora B (AURKB) and Aurora C (AURKC), are serine/threonine kinases required for the control of mitosis (AURKA and AURKB) and meiosis (AURKC). Since their discovery nearly 20 years ago, Aurora kinases have been studied extensively in cell and cancer biology. Several early studies found that Aurora kinases are amplified and overexpressed at the transcript and protein level in various malignancies, including several types of leukemia. These discoveries and others provided a rationale for the development of small-molecule inhibitors of Aurora kinases as leukemia therapies. The first generation of Aurora kinase inhibitors did not fare well in clinical trials, owing to poor efficacy and high toxicity. However, the creation of second-generation, highly selective Aurora kinase inhibitors has increased the enthusiasm for targeting these proteins in leukemia. This review will describe the functions of each Aurora kinase, summarize their involvement in leukemia and discuss inhibitor development and efficacy in leukemia clinical trials. PMID:24632603

  16. Childhood Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  17. Potential use of the Macrobrachium rosenbergii lectin for diagnosis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Campos-Mayoral, Laura; Ruiz-Argüelles, Alejandro; Pérez-Romano, Beatriz; Zenteno, Edgar; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Martínez-Cruz, Ruth; Martínez-Cruz, Margarito; Pina-Canseco, Socorro; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common form of cancer in children. Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins from plants or animals that recognize oligossacharides on the cell surface and have been used to characterize the structural changes of oligosaccharides in leukemias. In this study, we used the lectin from the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium (M. rosenbergii), specific for acetyl groups in sialylated glycans, because increased sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids has been identified in lymphoblastic leukemias. We compared the specificity of the M. rosenbergii lectin for lymphoblastic leukemias with the specificities of the lectins from Triticum vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Arachis hipogaea, and Phytolacca americana. By morphologic and phenotype characterization with a panel of monoclonal antibodies, we identified four types of leukemias from 106 leukemia patients: 11 cases of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 61 cases of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 24 cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia, and 10 cases of acute biphenotypic leukemia. As determined by cytofluorometric assays, nine of the eleven cases with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (8 +/- 3 years old) were specifically identified with the lectin from M. rosenbergii. In contrast, only six cases of B-cell leukemia, one case of myeloblastic leukemia, and 2 cases of biphenotypic leukemia were identified with this M. rosenbergii lectin. The other lectins tested showed no capacity to differentiate, in a significant manner, any of the four types of leukemias tested. Thus, the lectin from M. rosenbergii could be considered a useful tool for the diagnosis and study of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:18212483

  18. Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2015 54,270 % of All New Cancer Cases 3.3% Estimated Deaths in 2015 24,450 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2012, there were an estimated 318,389 people living with leukemia in the ...

  19. Tacrolimus and Methotrexate With or Without Sirolimus in Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Young Patients Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Complete Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-23

    B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Graft Versus Host Disease; L1 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  20. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  1. Cancer Cell The Common Feature of Leukemia-Associated IDH1

    E-print Network

    Sharp, Kim

    Cancer Cell Article The Common Feature of Leukemia-Associated IDH1 and IDH2 Mutations of patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Surprisingly, less than half of cases glioblastomas, and in 8.5% of acute myeloid leukemias (AML) (Mardis et al., 2009; Yan et al., 2009). Mutations

  2. Clonal Evolution of Pre-Leukemic Hematopoietic Stem Cells Precedes Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    E-print Network

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Clonal Evolution of Pre-Leukemic Hematopoietic Stem Cells Precedes Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Max myeloid leukemia (AML). Using exome sequencing, we identified mutations present in individual AML patients-PAAuthorManuscriptNIH-PAAuthorManuscriptNIH-PAAuthorManuscript #12;INTRODUCTION Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy of hematopoietic progenitor

  3. Survivin selectively modulates genes deregulated in human leukemia stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Seiji; Abe, Mariko; Onishi, Chie; Taketani, Takeshi; Purevsuren, Jamiyan; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Conway, Edward M; Pelus, Louis M

    2011-01-01

    ITD-Flt3 mutations are detected in leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. While antagonizing Survivin normalizes ITD-Flt3-induced acute leukemia, it also impairs hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function, indicating that identification of differences in signaling pathways downstream of Survivin between LSC and HSC are crucial to develop selective Survivin-based therapeutic strategies for AML. Using a Survivin-deletion model, we identified 1,096 genes regulated by Survivin in ITD-Flt3-transformed c-kit(+), Sca-1(+), and lineage(neg) (KSL) cells, of which 137 are deregulated in human LSC. Of the 137, 124 genes were regulated by Survivin exclusively in ITD-Flt3(+) KSL cells but not in normal CD34(neg) KSL cells. Survivin-regulated genes in LSC connect through a network associated with the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway and falls into various functional categories independent of effects on apoptosis. Pathways downstream of Survivin in LSC that are distinct from HSC can be potentially targeted for selective anti-LSC therapy. PMID:21253548

  4. [Donor cell leukemia (DCL): A prospective study of its identification and treatment].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo J; Hernández-Reyes, Jesús; González-Ramírez, Mónica Patricia; Martagón-Herrera, Nora Ángela; Garcés-Eisele, Javier; Ruiz-Argüelles, Alejandro; González-Cortés, Angélica; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo J

    2015-01-01

    Donor-derived malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and after solid organ transplantation are considered as rare diseases. We have prospectively searched for donor cell leukemia in a 12-year period, in a single institution, in a group of 106 consecutive patients allografted because of leukemia. We have identified seven cases of donor cell leukemia; six were allografted because of relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia and one because of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria/aplastic anemia. These figures suggest that the real incidence of donor cell leukemia has been underestimated. The six patients with lymphoblastic donor cell leukemia were treated prospectively with a pediatric-inspired combined chemotherapy schedule designed for de novo acute leukemia. A complete response was obtained in three out of six patients with lymphoblastic donor cell leukemia. It is possible to obtain favorable responses in donor cell leukemia patients employing combined chemotherapy. The long-term donor cell leukemia survivors remain as full chimeras and have not needed a second transplant. PMID:26526471

  5. Targeting leukemia stem cells in vivo with antagomiR-126 nanoparticles in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dorrance, A M; Neviani, P; Ferenchak, G J; Huang, X; Nicolet, D; Maharry, K S; Ozer, H G; Hoellarbauer, P; Khalife, J; Hill, E B; Yadav, M; Bolon, B N; Lee, R J; Lee, L J; Croce, C M; Garzon, R; Caligiuri, M A; Bloomfield, C D; Marcucci, G

    2015-11-01

    Current treatments for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are designed to target rapidly dividing blast populations with limited success in eradicating the functionally distinct leukemia stem cell (LSC) population, which is postulated to be responsible for disease resistance and relapse. We have previously reported high miR-126 expression levels to be associated with a LSC-gene expression profile. Therefore, we hypothesized that miR-126 contributes to 'stemness' and is a viable target for eliminating the LSC in AML. Here we first validate the clinical relevance of miR-126 expression in AML by showing that higher expression of this microRNA (miR) is associated with worse outcome in a large cohort of older (?60 years) cytogenetically normal AML patients treated with conventional chemotherapy. We then show that miR-126 overexpression characterizes AML LSC-enriched cell subpopulations and contributes to LSC long-term maintenance and self-renewal. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of therapeutic targeting of miR-126 in LSCs with novel targeting nanoparticles containing antagomiR-126 resulting in in vivo reduction of LSCs likely by depletion of the quiescent cell subpopulation. Our findings suggest that by targeting a single miR, that is, miR-126, it is possible to interfere with LSC activity, thereby opening potentially novel therapeutic approaches to treat AML patients. PMID:26055302

  6. B-cell leukemia/lymphoma panel

    MedlinePLUS

    B lymphocyte cell surface markers ... sample is needed. In some cases, white blood cells are removed during a bone marrow biopsy . The ... to a laboratory, where a specialist checks the cell type and characteristics. This procedure is called immunophenotyping. ...

  7. Antileukemic potency of CD19-specific T cells against chemoresistant pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dolnikov, Alla; Shen, Sylvie; Klamer, Guy; Joshi, Swapna; Xu, Ning; Yang, Lu; Micklethwaite, Kenneth; O'Brien, Tracey A

    2015-12-01

    Adoptive therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells (CART cells) has exhibited great promise in clinical trials, with efficient response correlated with CART-cell expansion and persistence. Despite extensive clinical use, the mechanisms regulating CART-cell expansion and persistence have not been completely elucidated. We have examined the antileukemia potency of CART cells targeting CD19 antigen using second-generation CAR containing a CD28 co-stimulatory domain cloned into piggyBac-transposon vector and patient-derived chemoresistant pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia samples. In the presence of large numbers of target cells characteristic of patients with high leukemia burden, excessive proliferation of CART cells leads to differentiation into short-lived effector cells. Transient leukemia growth delay was induced by CART-cell infusion in mice xenografted with rapidly growing CD19+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and was followed by rapid CART-cell extinction. Conditioning with the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-activating caspase 3 and promotion of apoptosis in leukemia cells maximized the effect of CART cells and improved CART-cell persistence. These data suggest that the clinical use of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine before CART cells could be considered. Coculture of leukemia cells with bone marrow stroma cells reduced target cell loss, suggesting that leukemia cell mobilization into circulation may help to remove the protective effect of bone marrow stroma and increase the efficacy of CART-cell therapy. PMID:26384559

  8. Safety and Tolerability Study of PCI-32765 in B Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-25

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Diffuse Well-differentiated Lymphocytic Lymphoma; B Cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma,; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Diffuse Lymphoma

  9. Natural compounds and pharmaceuticals reprogram leukemia cell differentiation pathways.

    PubMed

    Morceau, Franck; Chateauvieux, Sébastien; Orsini, Marion; Trécul, Anne; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2015-11-01

    In addition to apoptosis resistance and cell proliferation capacities, the undifferentiated state also characterizes most cancer cells, especially leukemia cells. Cell differentiation is a multifaceted process that depends on complex regulatory networks that involve transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The time- and spatially-dependent expression of lineage-specific genes and genes that control cell growth and cell death is implicated in the process of maturation. The induction of cancer cell differentiation is considered an alternative approach to elicit cell death and proliferation arrest. Differentiation therapy has mainly been developed to treat acute myeloid leukemia, notably with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Numerous molecules from diverse natural or synthetic origins are effective alone or in association with ATRA in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. During the last two decades, pharmaceuticals and natural compounds with various chemical structures, including alkaloids, flavonoids and polyphenols, were identified as potential differentiating agents of hematopoietic pathways and osteogenesis. PMID:25886879

  10. Precursor NK cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma-report of a case with literature review.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sonal; Kumar, Rajiv; Purohit, Abhishek; Pati, Hara Prasad

    2014-09-01

    Precursor Natural Killer (NK) cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma is a rare entity defined clearly by WHO (2008 WHO classification). However, the pathobiology of this subset of neoplasms is not clearly defined. There is wide disparity in the literature regarding the nomenclature and diagnostic criteria used to diagnose and characterize acute leukemias of presumed NK cell origin. In the present article we report a case of Precursor NK cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma and review the cases reported after 2008 WHO classification came into vogue, as acute leukemias of NK cell origin. PMID:25332598

  11. Integrated molecular analysis of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Keisuke; Nagata, Yasunobu; Kitanaka, Akira; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Shimamura, Teppei; Yasunaga, Jun-Ichirou; Totoki, Yasushi; Chiba, Kenichi; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Nagae, Genta; Ishii, Ryohei; Muto, Satsuki; Kotani, Shinichi; Watatani, Yosaku; Takeda, June; Sanada, Masashi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Sato, Yusuke; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Yoshizato, Tetsuichi; Yoshida, Kenichi; Makishima, Hideki; Iwanaga, Masako; Ma, Guangyong; Nosaka, Kisato; Hishizawa, Masakatsu; Itonaga, Hidehiro; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Munakata, Wataru; Ogasawara, Hideaki; Sato, Toshitaka; Sasai, Ken; Muramoto, Kenzo; Penova, Marina; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Nakamura, Hiromi; Hama, Natsuko; Shide, Kotaro; Kubuki, Yoko; Hidaka, Tomonori; Kameda, Takuro; Nakamaki, Tsuyoshi; Ishiyama, Ken; Miyawaki, Shuichi; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Tobinai, Kensei; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Takeuchi, Kengo; Nureki, Osamu; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Toshiki; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Matsuoka, Masao; Miyano, Satoru; Shimoda, Kazuya; Ogawa, Seishi

    2015-11-01

    Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T cell neoplasm of largely unknown genetic basis, associated with human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection. Here we describe an integrated molecular study in which we performed whole-genome, exome, transcriptome and targeted resequencing, as well as array-based copy number and methylation analyses, in a total of 426 ATL cases. The identified alterations overlap significantly with the HTLV-1 Tax interactome and are highly enriched for T cell receptor-NF-?B signaling, T cell trafficking and other T cell-related pathways as well as immunosurveillance. Other notable features include a predominance of activating mutations (in PLCG1, PRKCB, CARD11, VAV1, IRF4, FYN, CCR4 and CCR7) and gene fusions (CTLA4-CD28 and ICOS-CD28). We also discovered frequent intragenic deletions involving IKZF2, CARD11 and TP73 and mutations in GATA3, HNRNPA2B1, GPR183, CSNK2A1, CSNK2B and CSNK1A1. Our findings not only provide unique insights into key molecules in T cell signaling but will also guide the development of new diagnostics and therapeutics in this intractable tumor. PMID:26437031

  12. Mast cell leukemia with rapidly progressing portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masayuki; Nishikawa, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yohei; Doi, Yuko; Tokairin, Takuo; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Omori, Yasufumi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Takahashi, Naoto; Yoshioka, Tomoko; Miura, Ikuo; Sawada, Ken-ichi; Enomoto, Katsuhiko

    2009-11-01

    Reported herein is an autopsy case of mast cell leukemia, a rare form of systemic mastocytosis, complicated with portal hypertension. A 52-year-old woman presented with urticaria-like skin symptoms, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Atypical mast cells (CD2+, CD25+, CD117+) with toluidine blue metachromasia were found in the peripheral blood and on bone marrow aspiration smears. Chemotherapy with cytosine arabinoside and idarubicin was ineffective and the patient died of multi-organ failure with rapidly progressing hepatosplenomegaly and large-volume ascites 3 months after admission. At autopsy the bone marrow, spleen, liver, and lymph nodes were extensively infiltrated by atypical tumor cells with occasional bi- or multi-lobated nuclei. They were positive for mast cell tryptase and possessed an activating mutation of the c-kitgene (D816V). Ascites (2200 mL) and non-ruptured esophageal varices with submucosal hemorrhage indicated the presence of severe portal hypertension. Although there was no evidence of liver cirrhosis, the hepatic sinusoids were clogged with tumor cells, with a tendency to be more severe in the perivenular areas, and the lumens of central veins were obliterated by tumor cell infiltration. The present case demonstrates that non-cirrhotic portal hypertension due to blocking of sinusoidal and venous flow could be a serious complication in mast cell leukemia. PMID:19883434

  13. Vitamin D Control of Hematopoietic Cell Differentiation and Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Studzinski, George P; Harrison, Jonathan S; Wang, Xuening; Sarkar, Surojit; Kalia, Vandana; Danilenko, Michael

    2015-08-01

    It is now well known that in the mammalian body vitamin D is converted by successive hydroxylations to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), a steroid-like hormone with pleiotropic properties. These include important contributions to the control of cell proliferation, survival and differentiation, as well as the regulation of immune responses in disease. Here, we present recent advances in current understanding of the role of 1,25D in myelopoiesis and lymphopoiesis, and the potential of 1,25D and analogs (vitamin D derivatives; VDDs) for the control of hematopoietic malignancies. The reasons for the unimpressive results of most clinical studies of the therapeutic effects of VDDs in leukemia and related diseases may include the lack of a precise rationale for the conduct of these studies. Further, clinical trials to date have generally used extremely heterogeneous patient populations and, in many cases, small numbers of patients, generally without controls. Although low calcemic VDDs have been used and combined with agents that can increase the leukemia cell killing or differentiation effects in acute leukemias, the sequencing of agents used for combination therapy should to be more clearly delineated. Most importantly, it is recommended that in future clinical trials the rationale for the basis of the enhancing action of drug combinations should be clearly articulated and the effects on anticancer immunity should also be evaluated. PMID:25694395

  14. Dendritic cells pulsed with leukemia cell-derived exosomes more efficiently induce antileukemic immunities.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ye; Wang, Chun; Wei, Wei; Shen, Chang; Deng, Xiaohui; Chen, Linjun; Ma, Liyuan; Hao, Siguo

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and tumor cell-derived exosomes have been used to develop antitumor vaccines. However, the biological properties and antileukemic effects of leukemia cell-derived exosomes (LEXs) are not well described. In this study, the biological properties and induction of antileukemic immunity of LEXs were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, western blot analysis, cytotoxicity assays, and animal studies. Similar to other tumor cells, leukemia cells release exosomes. Exosomes derived from K562 leukemia cells (LEXK562) are membrane-bound vesicles with diameters of approximately 50-100 ?m and harbor adhesion molecules (e.g., intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and immunologically associated molecules (e.g., heat shock protein 70). In cytotoxicity assays and animal studies, LEXs-pulsed DCs induced an antileukemic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response and antileukemic immunity more effectively than did LEXs and non-pulsed DCs (P<0.05). Therefore, LEXs may harbor antigens and immunological molecules associated with leukemia cells. As such, LEX-based vaccines may be a promising strategy for prolonging disease-free survival in patients with leukemia after chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:24622345

  15. Stem cell niche as a prognostic factor in leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ga-Young; Kim, Jin-A; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2015-01-01

    Despite high interests on microenvironmental regulation of leukemic cells, little is known for bone marrow (BM) niche in leukemia patients. Our recent study on BMs of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients showed that the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are altered during leukemic conditions in a clinical course-dependent manner. Leukemic blasts caused reprogramming of transcriptomes in MSCs and remodeling of niche cross-talk, selectively suppressing normal primitive hematopoietic cells while supporting leukemogenesis and chemo-resistance. Notably, differences in BM stromal remodeling were correlated to heterogeneity in subsequent clinical courses of AML, i.e., low numbers of mesenchymal progenitors at initial diagnosis were correlated to complete remission for 5-8 years, and high contents of mesenchymal progenitor or MSCs correlated to early or late relapse, respectively. Thus, stromal remodeling by leukemic cell is an intrinsic part of leukemogenesis that can contribute to the clonal dominance of leukemic cells over normal hematopoietic cells, and can serve as a biomarker for prediction of prognosis. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(8): 427-428] PMID:26198094

  16. Increased regulatory T cells in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Idris, Siti-Zuleha; Hassan, Norfarazieda; Lee, Le-Jie; Md Noor, Sabariah; Osman, Raudhawati; Abdul-Jalil, Marsitah; Nordin, Abdul-Jalil; Abdullah, Maha

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Regulation in adaptive immune response balances a fine line that prevents instigation of self-damage or fall into unresponsiveness permitting abnormal cell growth. Mechanisms that keep this balance in check include regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs consist of a small but heterogeneous population which may be identified by the phenotype, CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127-. Role of Tregs in pathogenesis of cancers is thus far supported by evidence of increased Tregs in various cancers and may contribute to poorer prognosis. Tregs may also be important in acute leukemias. Objective A review of the literature on Tregs in acute leukemias was conducted and Tregs were determined in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs). Results Studies on Tregs in B-cell ALL are few and controversial. We observed a significantly increased percentage of Tregs (mean ± SD, 9.72 ± 3.79% vs. 7.05 ± 1.74%; P = 0.047) in the bone marrow/peripheral blood of ALL (n = 17) compared to peripheral blood of normal controls (n = 35). A positive trend between Tregs and age (R = 0.474, P = 0.055, n = 17) implicates this factor of poor prognosis in B-cell ALL. Discussion Tregs in cancer are particularly significant in immunotherapy. The manipulation of the immune system to treat cancer has for a long time ignored regulatory mechanisms inducible or in place. In lymphoma studies tumor-specific mechanisms that are unlike conventional methods in the induction of Tregs have been hypothesized. In addition, tumor-infiltrating Tregs may present different profiles from peripheral blood pictures. Tregs will continue to be dissected to reveal their mysteries and their impact on clinical significance. PMID:26119924

  17. Fludarabine Phosphate, Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation, and Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-13

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Renal Cell Carcinoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Type 1 Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma; Type 2 Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  18. Novel biological insights in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Durinck, Kaat; Goossens, Steven; Peirs, Sofie; Wallaert, Annelynn; Van Loocke, Wouter; Matthijssens, Filip; Pieters, Tim; Milani, Gloria; Lammens, Tim; Rondou, Pieter; Van Roy, Nadine; De Moerloose, Barbara; Benoit, Yves; Haigh, Jody; Speleman, Frank; Poppe, Bruce; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter

    2015-08-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive type of blood cancer that accounts for about 15% of pediatric and 25% of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases. It is considered as a paradigm for the multistep nature of cancer initiation and progression. Genetic and epigenetic reprogramming events, which transform T-cell precursors into malignant T-ALL lymphoblasts, have been extensively characterized over the past decade. Despite our comprehensive understanding of the genomic landscape of human T-ALL, leukemia patients are still treated by high-dose multiagent chemotherapy, potentially followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Even with such aggressive treatment regimens, which are often associated with considerable acute and long-term side effects, about 15% of pediatric and 40% of adult T-ALL patients still relapse, owing to acquired therapy resistance, and present with very dismal survival perspectives. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms by which residual T-ALL tumor cells survive chemotherapy and act as a reservoir for leukemic progression and hematologic relapse remain poorly understood. Nevertheless, it is expected that enhanced molecular understanding of T-ALL disease biology will ultimately facilitate a targeted therapy driven approach that can reduce chemotherapy-associated toxicities and improve survival of refractory T-ALL patients through personalized salvage therapy. In this review, we summarize recent biological insights into the molecular pathogenesis of T-ALL and speculate how the genetic landscape of T-ALL could trigger the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of human T-ALL. PMID:26123366

  19. Alemtuzumab, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Total-Body Irradiation Followed by Cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil in Treating Patients Who Are Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-15

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  20. Selected epidemiologic observations of cell-specific leukemia mortality in the United States, 1969-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Levin, L.I.; Merrill, D.W.; Winkelstein, W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Utilizing a newly available data set which includes for the first time cell-specific leukemia mortality rates for the United States during 1969-1977, age and sex distributions, time trends and geographic patterns were analyzed. Four major cell types of leukemia were considered. Acute lymphatic leukemia had a bimodal distribution with the first peak in the 5-9-year age group and lowest rates in age group 35-44, after which rates rose geometrically. Acute myeloid leukemia had only a very small childhood peak with a low in the age group 5-9, after which the rates also rose geometrically. For both chronic lymphatic and myeloid leukemia the rates rose geometrically after age 15. Rates among females were consistently lower for each age group. The highest sex ratio was found for chronic lymphatic leukemia and is proposed to be the result of a lag period between male and female rates. During the period under study acute lymphatic leukemia mortality in adults declined by almost 10% while acute myeloid leukemia mortality increased by almost 20%. Analysis of the geographic variation of the four major cell types revealed a geographic association between acute lymphatic and acute myeloid leukemia in children, a lack of association between childhood and adult cell types, and an association of acute and chronic cell types in adults.

  1. Selected epidemiological observations of cell-specific leukemia mortality in the USA, 1969-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Levin, L.I.; Merrill, D.W.; Winkelstein, W. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    Utilizing a newly available data set which includes for the first time cell-specific leukemia mortality rates for the USA during the period 1969-1977, age and sex distributions, time trends and geographic patterns have been analyzed. Four major cell types of leukemia were considered. Acute lymphatic leukemia had a bimodal distribution with the first peak in the 5 to 9 year age group and lowest rates in age group 35 to 44 after which rates rose geometrically. Acute myeloid leukemia had only a very small childhood peak with a low in the age group 5 to 9, after which the rates also rose geometrically. For both chronic lymphatic and myeloid leukemia the rates rose geometrically after age 15. Rates among females were consistently lower for each age group. The highest sex ratio was found for chronic lymhatic leukemia and is proposed to be the result of a lag period between male and female rates. During the period under study acute lymphatic leukemia mortality in adults declined by almost 10% while acute myeloid leukemia mortality increased by almost 20%. Analysis of the geographic variation of the four major cell types revealed a geographic association between acute lymphatic and acute myeloid leukemia in children, a lack of association between childhood and adult cell types and an association of acute and chronic cell types in adults.

  2. Chemomodulating Effects of Flavonoids in Human Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Sak, Katrin; Everaus, Hele

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, a diverse class of polyphenolic compounds, are well known for their anticancer properties. Moreover, it is generally accepted that these plant secondary metabolites can also sensitize malignant cells to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and could thus be considered as potential adjunctive agents in cancer treatment. In this review article we show that besides potentiating the anticancer activity of standard chemotherapeutics by modifying the molecular events that are involved in cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis, flavonoids might also act as inhibitory modulators in human leukemia cells. The specific behavior of a certain flavonoid in such combination treatments is multifactorial being dependent on various aspects, including cellular context, molecular mechanisms of clinical drugs, temporal regimen of administration, as well as doses of agents. Based on the highly complex nature of leukemogenesis it is feasible that a multifaceted therapeutic approach is also required to cure this disease and therefore, combined chemotherapeutic schemes incorporating natural plant metabolites as chemosensitizing agents can represent a new attractive strategy for more successful treatment of leukemia patients in the future. However, as highlighted in this review, caution should be taken when affecting malignant cells concurrently with chemotherapeutic drugs and flavonoids as unwisely chosen combinations can lead to inadvisable results and sometimes even deteriorate the clinical outcomes. PMID:25986578

  3. The Newly Identified T Helper 22 Cells Lodge in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Gholamreza; Rastegar Pouyani, Mohsen; Navabi, Shadi sadat; Yazdani, Reza; Kiaee, Fatemeh; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia is a hematological tumor in which the malignant myeloid or lymphoid subsets play a pivotal role. Newly identified T helper cell 22 (Th22) is a subset of CD4+ T cells with distinguished gene expression, function and specific properties apart from other known CD4+ T cell subsets.Th22 cells are characterized by production of a distinct profile of effector cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-22, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). The levels of Th22 and cytokine IL-22 are increased and positively related to inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Recently, several studies have reported the changes in frequency and function of Th22 in acute leukemic disorders as AML and ALL. This review discusses the role of Th22 and its cytokine IL-22 in the immunopathogenesis of leukemic disease. PMID:26261700

  4. Evi3, a zinc-finger protein related to EBFAZ, regulates EBF activity in B-cell leukemia

    E-print Network

    Schountz, Tony

    Evi3, a zinc-finger protein related to EBFAZ, regulates EBF activity in B-cell leukemia Kathryn E mice are predisposed to a variety of leukemias and lymphomas as a result of viral integration. One leukemia cells showed that these tumors express high densities of the B- cell surface proteins CD19 and CD

  5. Obatoclax, Fludarabine, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  6. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Newly Diagnosed T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or T-cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-07

    Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Stage II Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage II Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage II Non-Contiguous Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage III Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  7. Insights into cell ontogeny, age, and acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Shahzya S; Morison, Jessica K; Gibson, Brenda E S; Keeshan, Karen

    2015-09-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogenous disease of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The pathogenesis of AML involves cytogenetic abnormalities, genetic mutations, and epigenetic anomalies. Although it is widely accepted that the cellular biology, gene expression, and epigenetic landscape of normal HSCs change with age, little is known about the interplay between the age at which the cell becomes leukemic and the resultant leukemia. Despite its rarity, childhood AML is a leading cause of childhood cancer mortality. Treatment is in general extrapolated from adult AML on the assumption that adult AML and pediatric AML are similar biological entities. However, distinct biological processes and epigenetic modifications in pediatric and adult AML may mean that response to novel therapies in children may differ from that in adults with AML. A better understanding of the key pathways involved in transformation and how these differ between childhood and adult AML is an important step in identifying effective treatment. This review highlights both the commonalities and differences between pediatric and adult AML disease biology with respect to age. PMID:26051919

  8. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Primary Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gyan, Emmanuel; Tournilhac, Olivier; Halty, Christelle; Veyrat-Masson, Richard; Akil, Saïda; Berger, Marc; Hérault, Olivier; Callanan, Mary; Bay, Jacques-Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an indolent disorder with an increased infectious risk remaining one of the main causes of death. Development of therapies with higher safety profile is thus a challenging issue. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) is an omega-3 fatty acid, a natural compound of normal cells, and has been shown to display antitumor potency in cancer. We evaluated the potential in vitro effect of DHA in primary CLL cells. DHA induces high level of in vitro apoptosis compared to oleic acid in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Estimation of IC50 was only of 4.813 µM, which appears lower than those reported in solid cancers. DHA is highly active on CLL cells in vitro. This observation provides a rationale for further studies aiming to understand its mechanisms of action and its potent in vivo activity.

  9. Exosome-mediated crosstalk between chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and human bone marrow stromal cells triggers an interleukin 8-dependent survival of leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Chiara; Raimondo, Stefania; Saieva, Laura; Flugy, Anna Maria; De Leo, Giacomo; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2014-06-28

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. Exosomes are nanovesicles released by cancer cells that are involved in cell-to-cell communication thus potentially affecting cancer progression. It is well known that bone marrow stromal microenvironment contributes to disease progression through the establishment of a bi-directional crosstalk with cancer cells. Our hypothesis is that exosomes could have a functional role in this crosstalk. Interleukin-8 (IL 8) is a proinflammatory chemokine that activates multiple signalling pathways downstream of two receptors (CXCR1 and CXCR2). We demonstrated that exosomes released from CML cells stimulate bone marrow stromal cells to produce IL 8 that, in turn, is able to modulate both in vitro and in vivo the leukemia cell malignant phenotype. PMID:24657661

  10. Tetrandrine induces autophagy and differentiation by activating ROS and Notch1 signaling in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Men, Qiuxu; Wu, Guixian; Yu, Chunrong; Huang, Zan; Liu, Xin; Li, Wenhua

    2015-04-10

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a differentiating agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the therapeutic efficacy of ATRA has limitations. Tetrandrine is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb extract with antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of tetrandrine on human PML-RAR?-positive acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Tetrandrine inhibited tumors in vivo. It induced autophagy and differentiation by triggering ROS generation and activating Notch1 signaling. Tetrandrine induced autophagy and differentiation in M5 type patient primary leukemia cells. The in vivo results indicated that low concentrations of tetrandrine inhibited leukemia cells proliferation and induced autophagy and then facilitated their differentiation, by activating ROS and Notch1 signaling. We suggest that tetrandrine is a potential agent for the treatment of APL by inducing differentiation of leukemia cells. PMID:25797266

  11. Tetrandrine induces autophagy and differentiation by activating ROS and Notch1 signaling in leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Men, Qiuxu; Wu, Guixian; Yu, Chunrong; Huang, Zan; Liu, Xin; Li, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a differentiating agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the therapeutic efficacy of ATRA has limitations. Tetrandrine is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb extract with antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of tetrandrine on human PML-RAR?-positive acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Tetrandrine inhibited tumors in vivo. It induced autophagy and differentiation by triggering ROS generation and activating Notch1 signaling. Tetrandrine induced autophagy and differentiation in M5 type patient primary leukemia cells. The in vivo results indicated that low concentrations of tetrandrine inhibited leukemia cells proliferation and induced autophagy and then facilitated their differentiation, by activating ROS and Notch1 signaling. We suggest that tetrandrine is a potential agent for the treatment of APL by inducing differentiation of leukemia cells. PMID:25797266

  12. Lenalidomide interferes with tumor-promoting properties of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fiorcari, Stefania; Martinelli, Silvia; Bulgarelli, Jenny; Audrito, Valentina; Zucchini, Patrizia; Colaci, Elisabetta; Potenza, Leonardo; Narni, Franco; Luppi, Mario; Deaglio, Silvia; Marasca, Roberto; Maffei, Rossana

    2015-02-01

    Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory agent clinically active in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. The specific mechanism of action is still undefined, but includes modulation of the microenvironment. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, nurse-like cells differentiate from CD14(+) mononuclear cells and protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from apoptosis. Nurse-like cells resemble M2 macrophages with potent immunosuppressive functions. Here, we examined the effect of lenalidomide on the monocyte/macrophage population in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients. We found that lenalidomide induces high actin polymerization on CD14(+) monocytes through activation of small GTPases, RhoA, Rac1 and Rap1 that correlated with increased adhesion and impaired monocyte migration in response to CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL12. We observed that lenalidomide increases the number of nurse-like cells that lost the ability to nurture chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, acquired properties of phagocytosis and promoted T-cell proliferation. Gene expression signature, induced by lenalidomide in nurse-like cells, indicated a reduction of pivotal pro-survival signals for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, such as CCL2, IGF1, CXCL12, HGF1, and supported a modulation towards M1 phenotype with high IL2 and low IL10, IL8 and CD163. Our data provide new insights into the mechanism of action of lenalidomide that mediates a pro-inflammatory switch of nurse-like cells affecting the protective microenvironment generated by chronic lymphocytic leukemia into tissues. PMID:25398834

  13. Gefitinib targets ZAP-70-expressing chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and inhibits B-cell receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dielschneider, R F; Xiao, W; Yoon, J-Y; Noh, E; Banerji, V; Li, H; Marshall, A J; Johnston, J B; Gibson, S B

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) can be divided into groups based on biomarkers of poor prognosis. The expression of the tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 (member of the Syk tyrosine kinase family) in CLL cells is associated with shorter overall survival in CLL patients. Currently, there is a lack of targeted therapies for patients with ZAP-70 expression in CLL cells. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib has been shown to be effective at induce apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia through inhibition of Syk. In this study, we sought to test the efficacy of gefitinib in primary human ZAP-70+ CLL cells. We demonstrate that gefitinib preferentially induces cell death in ZAP-70-expressing CLL cells with a median IC50 of 4.5??M. In addition, gefitinib decreases the viability of ZAP-70+ Jurkat T leukemia cells but fails to affect T cells from CLL patients. Western blot analysis shows gefitinib reduces both basal and B-cell receptor (BCR)-stimulated phosphorylation of Syk/ZAP-70, ERK, and Akt in ZAP-70+ CLL cells. Moreover, gefitinib inhibits the pro-survival response from BCR stimulation and decreases pro-survival proteins such as Mcl-1. Finally, ZAP-70 expression sensitizes Raji cells to gefitinib treatment. These results demonstrate that gefitinib specifically targets ZAP-70+ CLL cells and inhibits the BCR cell survival pathway leading to apoptosis. This represents the likelihood of tyrosine kinase inhibitors being effective targeted treatments for ZAP-70+ CLL cells. PMID:25275600

  14. RPS27a promotes proliferation, regulates cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis of leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Houcai; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Lixia; Xiong, Yuanyuan; Chen, Shuying; Xing, Haiyan; Tian, Zheng; Tang, Kejing; Wei, Hui; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wang, Jianxiang

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • RPS27a expression was up-regulated in advanced-phase CML and AL patients. • RPS27a knockdown changed biological property of K562 and K562/G01 cells. • RPS27a knockdown affected Raf/MEK/ERK, P21 and BCL-2 signaling pathways. • RPS27a knockdown may be applicable for new combination therapy in CML patients. - Abstract: Ribosomal protein S27a (RPS27a) could perform extra-ribosomal functions besides imparting a role in ribosome biogenesis and post-translational modifications of proteins. The high expression level of RPS27a was reported in solid tumors, and we found that the expression level of RPS27a was up-regulated in advanced-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute leukemia (AL) patients. In this study, we explored the function of RPS27a in leukemia cells by using CML cell line K562 cells and its imatinib resistant cell line K562/G01 cells. It was observed that the expression level of RPS27a was high in K562 cells and even higher in K562/G01 cells. Further analysis revealed that RPS27a knockdown by shRNA in both K562 and K562G01 cells inhibited the cell viability, induced cell cycle arrest at S and G2/M phases and increased cell apoptosis induced by imatinib. Combination of shRNA with imatinib treatment could lead to more cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 expression in RPS27a knockdown cells. Further, it was found that phospho-ERK(p-ERK) and BCL-2 were down-regulated and P21 up-regulated in RPS27a knockdown cells. In conclusion, RPS27a promotes proliferation, regulates cell cycle progression and inhibits apoptosis of leukemia cells. It appears that drugs targeting RPS27a combining with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) might represent a novel therapy strategy in TKI resistant CML patients.

  15. Increased NK Cell Maturation in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chretien, Anne-Sophie; Granjeaud, Samuel; Gondois-Rey, Françoise; Harbi, Samia; Orlanducci, Florence; Blaise, Didier; Vey, Norbert; Arnoulet, Christine; Fauriat, Cyril; Olive, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Understanding immune alterations in cancer patients is a major challenge and requires precise phenotypic study of immune subsets. Improvement of knowledge regarding the biology of natural killer (NK) cells and technical advances leads to the generation of high dimensional dataset. High dimensional flow cytometry requires tools adapted to complex dataset analyses. This study presents an example of NK cell maturation analysis in Healthy Volunteers (HV) and patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) with an automated procedure using the FLOCK algorithm. This procedure enabled to automatically identify NK cell subsets according to maturation profiles, with 2D mapping of a four-dimensional dataset. Differences were highlighted in AML patients compared to HV, with an overall increase of NK maturation. Among patients, a strong heterogeneity in NK cell maturation defined three distinct profiles. Overall, automatic gating with FLOCK algorithm is a recent procedure, which enables fast and reliable identification of cell populations from high-dimensional cytometry data. Such tools are necessary for immune subset characterization and standardization of data analyses. This tool is adapted to new immune cell subsets discovery, and may lead to a better knowledge of NK cell defects in cancer patients. Overall, 2D mapping of NK maturation profiles enabled fast and reliable identification of NK cell subsets. PMID:26594214

  16. Leydig cell damage after testicular irradiation for lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Shalet, S.M.; Horner, A.; Ahmed, S.R.; Morris-Jones, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of testicular irradiation on Leydig cell function has been studied in a group of boys irradiated between 1 and 5 years earlier for a testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Six of the seven boys irradiated during prepubertal life had an absent testosterone response to HCG stimulation. Two of the four boys irradiated during puberty had an appropriate basal testosterone level, but the testosterone response to HCG stimulation was subnormal in three of the four. Abnormalities in gonadotropin secretion consistent with testicular damage were noted in nine of the 11 boys. Evidence of severe Leydig cell damage was present irrespective of whether the boys were studied within 1 year or between 3 and 5 years after irradiation, suggesting that recovery is unlikely. Androgen replacement therapy has been started in four boys and will be required by the majority of the remainder to undergo normal pubertal development.

  17. Defective immunoregulatory T-cell function in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Han, T.; Ozer, H.; Henderson, E.S.; Dadey, B.; Nussbaum-Blumenson, A.; Barcos, M.

    1981-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) of B-cell origin results in the malignant proliferation of small immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes. There is currently a controversy in the literature regarding both the ability of this leukemic population to differentiate into mature plasma cells, as well as the ability of apparently normal T cells from these patients to regulate allogeneic B-cell differentiation. In the present study we have examined the lymphocytes of CLL patients in various clinical stages of their disease and with different surface phenotypes of their leukemic B-cell population. Our results show that leukemic CLL B cells from all 20 patients (including one patient with a monoclonal IgM paraprotein and another with a monoclonal IgG paraprotein) are incapable of further differentiation even in the absence of suppressor T cells and the presence of helper T lymphocytes. This lack of capacity to differentiate is unaffected by clinical stage, by therapy, or by the phenotype of the malignant population. Since the leukemic B population did not suppress normal allogeneic B-cell differentiation, the maturation deficit is evidently intrinsic to the leukemic clone rather than a result of activity of non-T suppressor cells. T helper function was also variably depressed in the blood of some patients with CLL, and this depression did not correlate with clinical stage, with therapy, or with the degree of lymphocytosis. Dysfunction of radiosensitive T suppressor cells was found to be the most consistent regulatory deficit of CLL T cells. Each of 11 patients whose leukemic cell population was of the ..mu..delta, ..mu cap alpha.., or ..mu.. phenotype had both helper and suppressor cell defects.

  18. Location of Feline Leukemia-Sarcoma Group-Specific Antigen in Infected Human Tissue Culture Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ubertini, Tito R.

    1972-01-01

    Feline leukemia-sarcoma group-specific antigens were located in human embryo cells infected with feline leukemia and feline sarcoma viruses. This was done by using the fluorescent-antibody and enzyme-labeled antibody techniques at both light and electron microscopic levels. The antigens were found to be exclusively intracytoplasmic, diffuse, and located in discrete punctate foci. Images PMID:4344220

  19. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-05-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment.

  20. TWIST-1 promotes cell growth, drug resistance and progenitor clonogenic capacities in myeloid leukemia and is a novel poor prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan; Guo, Dan; Zhao, YangYang; Dong, ChengYa; Liu, XiaoYan; Yang, BinXia; Wang, ShuWei; Wang, Lin; Liu, QingGuo; Ren, Qian; Lin, YongMin; Ma, XiaoTong

    2015-01-01

    Alterations of TWIST-1 expression are often seen in solid tumors and contribute to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, studies concerning its pathogenic role in leukemia are scarce. Our study shows that TWIST-1 is overexpressed in bone marrow mononuclear cells of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Gain-of-function and loss-of-function analyses demonstrate that TWIST-1 promotes cell growth, colony formation and drug resistance of AML and CML cell lines. Furthermore, TWIST-1 is aberrantly highly expressed in CD34+CD38? leukemia stem cell candidates and its expression declines with differentiation. Down-modulation of TWIST-1 in myeloid leukemia CD34+ cells impairs their colony-forming capacity. Mechanistically, c-MPL, which is highly expressed in myeloid leukemia cells and associated with poor prognosis, is identified as a TWIST-1 coexpressed gene in myeloid leukemia patients and partially contributes to TWIST-1-mediated leukemogenic effects. Moreover, patients with higher TWIST-1 expression have shorter overall and event-free survival (OS and EFS) in AML. Multivariate analysis further demonstrates that TWIST-1 overexpression is a novel independent unfavourable predictor for both OS and EFS in AML. These data highlight TWIST-1 as a new candidate gene contributing to leukemogenesis of myeloid leukemia, and propose possible new avenues for improving risk and treatment stratification in AML. PMID:26023795

  1. Discrimination and classification of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Managò, Stefano; Valente, Carmen; Mirabelli, Peppino; De Luca, Anna Chiara

    2015-05-01

    Currently, a combination of technologies is typically required to identify and classify leukemia cells. These methods often lack the specificity and sensitivity necessary for early and accurate diagnosis. Here, we demonstrate the use of Raman spectroscopy to identify normal B cells, collected from healthy patients, and three ALL cell lines (RS4;11, REH and MN60 at different differentiation level, respectively). Raman markers associated with DNA and protein vibrational modes have been identified that exhibit excellent discriminating power for leukemia cell identification. Principal Component Analysis was finally used to confirm the significance of these markers for identify leukemia cells and classifying the data. The obtained results indicate a sorting accuracy of 96% between the three leukemia cell lines.

  2. Adaptive Immunity to Leukemia Is Inhibited by Cross-Reactive Induced Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Manlove, Luke S; Berquam-Vrieze, Katherine E; Pauken, Kristen E; Williams, Richard T; Jenkins, Marc K; Farrar, Michael A

    2015-10-15

    BCR-ABL(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients have transient responses to current therapies. However, the fusion of BCR to ABL generates a potential leukemia-specific Ag that could be a target for immunotherapy. We demonstrate that the immune system can limit BCR-ABL(+) leukemia progression although ultimately this immune response fails. To address how BCR-ABL(+) leukemia escapes immune surveillance, we developed a peptide: MHC class II tetramer that labels endogenous BCR-ABL-specific CD4(+) T cells. Naive mice harbored a small population of BCR-ABL-specific T cells that proliferated modestly upon immunization. The small number of naive BCR-ABL-specific T cells was due to negative selection in the thymus, which depleted BCR-ABL-specific T cells. Consistent with this observation, we saw that BCR-ABL-specific T cells were cross-reactive with an endogenous peptide derived from ABL. Despite this cross-reactivity, the remaining population of BCR-ABL reactive T cells proliferated upon immunization with the BCR-ABL fusion peptide and adjuvant. In response to BCR-ABL(+) leukemia, BCR-ABL-specific T cells proliferated and converted into regulatory T (Treg) cells, a process that was dependent on cross-reactivity with self-antigen, TGF-?1, and MHC class II Ag presentation by leukemic cells. Treg cells were critical for leukemia progression in C57BL/6 mice, as transient Treg cell ablation led to extended survival of leukemic mice. Thus, BCR-ABL(+) leukemia actively suppresses antileukemia immune responses by converting cross-reactive leukemia-specific T cells into Treg cells. PMID:26378075

  3. Molecular Pathology of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Koichi

    2015-11-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a peripheral T-cell neoplasm of highly pleomorphic lymphoid cells. ATLL is usually widely disseminated, and it is caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). It is a disease with a long latency, and affected individuals are usually exposed to the virus very early in life. The cumulative incidence of ATLL is estimated to be 2.5% among HTLV-1 carriers. ATLL cells express CD2, CD3, CD5, CD4, and CD25, as well as CCR4 and FoxP3 of the regulatory T-cell marker. HTLV-1 is causally linked to ATLL, but infection alone is not sufficient to result in neoplastic transformation. A significant finding in this connection is that the Tax viral protein leads to transcriptional activation of many genes, while the HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor is thought to be important for T-cell proliferation and oncogenesis. Half of ATLL cases retain the ability to express HTLV-1 Tax, which is a target of HTLV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). An increase in HTLV-1-specific CTL responses is observed in some asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers. Although HTLV-1-specific CTL are also present in the peripheral blood of ATLL patients, they do not expand sufficiently. We investigated the clinicopathological features and analyzed the staining of Tax-specific CTL and FoxP3. Tax-specific CTL correlated inversely with FoxP3, an increase in the ratio of CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages was associated with worse clinical prognosis, and ATLL cell lines proliferated significantly following direct co-culture with M2 macrophages. Several clinical variants of ATLL have been identified: acute, lymphomatous, chronic, and smoldering. Oligo-array comparative genomic hybridization revealed that genomic loss of 9p21.3 was a significant characteristic of acute-type, but not of chronic-type ATLL. Furthermore, we found that genomic alteration of CD58, which is implicated in immune escape, is more frequently observed in acute than in chronic ATLL. Interestingly, the chronic cases with cell cycle deregulation and disruption of immunosurveillance mechanism were associated with faster progression to acute ATLL. Immune evasion, microenvironment, and genetic alteration are therefore important in the multi-step progression of ATLL lymphomagenesis. PMID:26550829

  4. MLL leukemia induction by genome editing of human CD34+ hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Buechele, Corina; Breese, Erin H.; Schneidawind, Dominik; Lin, Chiou-Hong; Jeong, Johan; Duque-Afonso, Jesus; Wong, Stephen H. K.; Smith, Kevin S.; Negrin, Robert S.; Porteus, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements involving the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene occur in primary and treatment-related leukemias and confer a poor prognosis. Studies based primarily on mouse models have substantially advanced our understanding of MLL leukemia pathogenesis, but often use supraphysiological oncogene expression with uncertain implications for human leukemia. Genome editing using site-specific nucleases provides a powerful new technology for gene modification to potentially model human disease, however, this approach has not been used to re-create acute leukemia in human cells of origin comparable to disease observed in patients. We applied transcription activator-like effector nuclease–mediated genome editing to generate endogenous MLL-AF9 and MLL-ENL oncogenes through insertional mutagenesis in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) derived from human umbilical cord blood. Engineered HSPCs displayed altered in vitro growth potentials and induced acute leukemias following transplantation in immunocompromised mice at a mean latency of 16 weeks. The leukemias displayed phenotypic and morphologic similarities with patient leukemia blasts including a subset with mixed phenotype, a distinctive feature seen in clinical disease. The leukemic blasts expressed an MLL-associated transcriptional program with elevated levels of crucial MLL target genes, displayed heightened sensitivity to DOT1L inhibition, and demonstrated increased oncogenic potential ex vivo and in secondary transplant assays. Thus, genome editing to create endogenous MLL oncogenes in primary human HSPCs faithfully models acute MLL-rearranged leukemia and provides an experimental platform for prospective studies of leukemia initiation and stem cell biology in a genetic subtype of poor prognosis leukemia. PMID:26311362

  5. Targeting acute myeloid leukemia stem cells: a review and principles for the development of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Pollyea, Daniel A.; Gutman, Jonathan A.; Gore, Lia; Smith, Clayton A.; Jordan, Craig T.

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increasingly rich understanding of its pathogenesis, acute myeloid leukemia remains a disease with poor outcomes, overwhelmingly due to disease relapse. In recent years, work to characterize the leukemia stem cell population, the disease compartment most difficult to eliminate with conventional therapy and most responsible for relapse, has been undertaken. This, in conjunction with advances in drug development that have allowed for increasingly targeted therapies to be engineered, raises the hope that we are entering an era in which the leukemia stem cell population can be eliminated, resulting in therapeutic cures for acute myeloid leukemia patients. For these therapies to become available, they must be tested in the setting of clinical trials. A long-established clinical trials infrastructure has been employed to shepherd new therapies from proof-of-concept to approval. However, due to the unique features of leukemia stem cells, drugs that are designed to specifically eliminate this population may not be adequately tested when applied to this model. Therefore, in this review article, we seek to identify the relevant features of acute myeloid leukemia stem cells for clinical trialists, discuss potential strategies to target leukemia stem cells, and propose a set of guidelines outlining the necessary elements of clinical trials to allow for the successful testing of stem cell-directed therapies. PMID:25082785

  6. Electrospun nanofibers as a bioadhesive platform for capturing adherent leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xue; Kwek, Kenneth; Chan, Jerry K Y; Chan, Casey K H; Lim, Mayasari

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the adhesive behaviors of normal and abnormal hematopoietic cells on nanotopographical materials. Previously, electrospun nanofiber scaffolds (NFSs) were used to capture and expand hematopoietic stem cells in vitro; here, we demonstrate that NFS could also serve as a useful bioadhesive platform for capturing functionally adherent leukemia cells. Collagen-blended poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) NFS enabled more rapid and efficient capture of K562 leukemia cells than tissue culture polystyrene surfaces with up to 70% improved adhesion and shorter time. Cellular extensions, stronger adhesion, and enhanced cell-cell interactions were observed in K562 cells captured on NFS. While NFS promoted hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation, it inhibited leukemia cell proliferation and affected cell cycle status by shifting more cells toward the G0/G1 phase. The expression of ?-integrins was equally high in both captured and uncaptured leukemia cell populations demonstrating no relation to its adhesive nature. Hematopoietic morphological signatures of NFS captured cells presented no impact on cell differentiation. We conclude that electrospun NFS serves as an excellent platform not only for capturing functionally adherent leukemia cells but also for studying the impact of niche-like structure in the nanoscale. PMID:23536515

  7. Ayanin diacetate-induced cell death is amplified by TRAIL in human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, Maria Teresa; Estevez, Sara; Negrin, Gledy; Quintana, Jose; Leon, Francisco; Estevez, Francisco

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ayanin diacetate as apoptotic inducer in leukemia cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell death was prevented by caspase inhibitors and by the overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intrinsic and the extrinsic pathways are involved in the mechanism of action. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Death receptors are up-regulated and TRAIL enhances apoptotic cell death. -- Abstract: Here we demonstrate that the semi-synthetic flavonoid ayanin diacetate induces cell death selectively in leukemia cells without affecting the proliferation of normal lymphocytes. Incubation of human leukemia cells with ayanin diacetate induced G{sub 2}-M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis which was prevented by the non-specific caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk and reduced by the overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L}. Ayanin diacetate-induced cell death was found to be associated with: (i) loss of inner mitochondrial membrane potential, (ii) the release of cytochrome c, (iii) the activation of multiple caspases, (iv) cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and (v) the up-regulation of death receptors for TRAIL, DR4 and DR5. Moreover, the combined treatment with ayanin diacetate and TRAIL amplified cell death, compared to single treatments. These results provide a basis for further exploring the potential applications of this combination for the treatment of cancer.

  8. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Radiation Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant and Immunosuppression in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Systemic Amyloidosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  9. Acute myelogenous leukemia cells with the MLL-ELL translocation convert morphologically and functionally into adherent myofibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Tashiro, Haruko; Mizutani-Noguchi, Mitsuho; Shirasaki, Ryosuke

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow-myofibroblasts, a major component of bone marrow-stroma, are reported to originate from hematopoietic stem cells. We show in this paper that non-adherent leukemia blasts can change into myofibroblasts. When myeloblasts from two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia with a fusion product comprising mixed lineage leukemia and RNA polymerase II elongation factor, were cultured long term, their morphology changed to that of myofibroblasts with similar molecular characteristics to the parental myeloblasts. The original leukemia blasts, when cultured on the leukemia blast-derived myofibroblasts, grew extensively. Leukemia blasts can create their own microenvironment for proliferation.

  10. Putative tyrosine kinases expressed in K-562 human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Partanen, J.; Maekelae, T.P.; Lehvaeslaiho, H.; Alitalo, K.; Alitalo, R. )

    1990-11-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is important in the transmission of growth and differentiation signals; known tyrosine kinases include several oncoproteins and growth factor receptors. Interestingly, some differentiated cell types, such as erythrocytes and platelets contain high amounts of phosphotyrosine. The authors analyzed tyrosine kinases expressed in the K-562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, which has a bipotential erythroid and megakaryoblastoid differentiation capacity. Analysis of 359 polymerase chain reaction-amplified cDNA clones led to the identification of 14 different tyrosine kinase-related sequences (JTK1-14). Two of the clones (JTK2 and JTK4) represent unusual members of the fibroblast growth factor receptor gene family, and the clones JTK5, JTK11, and JTK14 may also belong to the family of receptor tyrosine kinases but lack a close relationship to any known tyrosine kinase. Each of these different genes has its own characteristic expression pattern in K-562 cells and several other human tumor cell lines. In addition, the JTK11 and JTK14 mRNAs are induced during the megakaryoblastoid differentiation of K-562 cells. These tyrosine kinases may have a role in the differentiation of megakaryoblasts or in the physiology of platelets.

  11. Targeting IRAK1 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dussiau, Charles; Trinquand, Amélie; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Latiri, Mehdi; Simonin, Mathieu; Cieslak, Agata; Bedjaoui, Nawel; Villarèse, Patrick; Verhoeyen, Els; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Asnafi, Vahid

    2015-08-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) represents expansion of cells arrested at specific stages of thymic development with the underlying genetic abnormality often determining the stage of maturation arrest. Although their outcome has been improved with current therapy, survival rates remain only around 50% at 5 years and patients may therefore benefit from specific targeted therapy. Interleukin receptor associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase that mediates signaling downstream to Toll-like (TLR) and Interleukin-1 Receptors (IL1R). Our data demonstrated that IRAK1 is overexpressed in all subtypes of T-ALL, compared to normal human thymic subpopulations, and is functional in T-ALL cell lines. Genetic knock-down of IRAK1 led to apoptosis, cell cycle disruption, diminished proliferation and reversal of corticosteroid resistance in T-ALL cell lines. However, pharmacological inhibition of IRAK1 using a small molecule inhibitor (IRAK1/4-Inh) only partially reproduced the results of the genetic knock-down. Altogether, our data suggest that IRAK1 is a candidate therapeutic target in T-ALL and highlight the requirement of next generation IRAK1 inhibitors. PMID:26068967

  12. Targeting IRAK1 in T-Cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lhermitte, Ludovic; Latiri, Mehdi; Simonin, Mathieu; Cieslak, Agata; Bedjaoui, Nawel; Villarèse, Patrick; Verhoeyen, Els; Dombret, Hervé; Ifrah, Norbert; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Asnafi, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) represents expansion of cells arrested at specific stages of thymic development with the underlying genetic abnormality often determining the stage of maturation arrest. Although their outcome has been improved with current therapy, survival rates remain only around 50% at 5 years and patients may therefore benefit from specific targeted therapy. Interleukin receptor associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase that mediates signaling downstream to Toll-like (TLR) and Interleukin-1 Receptors (IL1R). Our data demonstrated that IRAK1 is overexpressed in all subtypes of T-ALL, compared to normal human thymic subpopulations, and is functional in T-ALL cell lines. Genetic knock-down of IRAK1 led to apoptosis, cell cycle disruption, diminished proliferation and reversal of corticosteroid resistance in T-ALL cell lines. However, pharmacological inhibition of IRAK1 using a small molecule inhibitor (IRAK1/4-Inh) only partially reproduced the results of the genetic knock-down. Altogether, our data suggest that IRAK1 is a candidate therapeutic target in T-ALL and highlight the requirement of next generation IRAK1 inhibitors. PMID:26068967

  13. Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-16

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  14. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Rituximab in Treating Younger Patients With Stage III-IV Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma or B-Cell Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-20

    Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma

  15. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia with Gilbert's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Acute leukemia with coexisting Gilbert's syndrome treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is rarely reported. Here we described a case whose transaminase levels were almost normal, although transient hyperbilirubinemia repeatedly happened during chemotherapy. PMID:21388537

  16. Pharmacologic inhibition of fatty acid oxidation sensitizes human leukemia cells to apoptosis induction

    PubMed Central

    Samudio, Ismael; Harmancey, Romain; Fiegl, Michael; Kantarjian, Hagop; Konopleva, Marina; Korchin, Borys; Kaluarachchi, Kumar; Bornmann, William; Duvvuri, Seshagiri; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Andreeff, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The traditional view is that cancer cells predominately produce ATP by glycolysis, rather than by oxidation of energy-providing substrates. Mitochondrial uncoupling — the continuing reduction of oxygen without ATP synthesis — has recently been shown in leukemia cells to circumvent the ability of oxygen to inhibit glycolysis, and may promote the metabolic preference for glycolysis by shifting from pyruvate oxidation to fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Here we have demonstrated that pharmacologic inhibition of FAO with etomoxir or ranolazine inhibited proliferation and sensitized human leukemia cells — cultured alone or on bone marrow stromal cells — to apoptosis induction by ABT-737, a molecule that releases proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins such as Bak from antiapoptotic family members. Likewise, treatment with the fatty acid synthase/lipolysis inhibitor orlistat also sensitized leukemia cells to ABT-737, which supports the notion that fatty acids promote cell survival. Mechanistically, we generated evidence suggesting that FAO regulates the activity of Bak-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition. Importantly, etomoxir decreased the number of quiescent leukemia progenitor cells in approximately 50% of primary human acute myeloid leukemia samples and, when combined with either ABT-737 or cytosine arabinoside, provided substantial therapeutic benefit in a murine model of leukemia. The results support the concept of FAO inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy in hematological malignancies. PMID:20038799

  17. Unusual immunophenotype of T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Rabade, Nikhil; Mansukhani, Dia; Khodaiji, Shanaz; Padte, Balkrishna; Bhave, Abhay; Tembhare, Prashant; Subramanian, Papagudi Ganesan; Sehgal, Kunal

    2015-01-01

    Large granular lymphocytes (LGL) leukemias are commonly of the T-cell or NK-cell type. T-cell LGL leukemia is typically a disorder of mature CD3, CD8 and T-cell receptor TCR (TCR - T cell receptor)-?? positive cytotoxic T-cells. Rare variants include TCR??+ variants and CD4 + TCR??+ cases. We report a case of each of these rare variants. An 83-year-old female presented with anemia and lymphocytosis with LGLs on peripheral smear. Six-color multiparametric flowcytometric analysis showed expression of CD3, heterogeneous CD7, dim CD2 and TCR?? and lacked expression of CD5, TCR??, CD56, CD4 and CD8. A final diagnosis of TCR??+ T-cell LGL leukemia was made. Differentiation between TCR??+ T-cell LGL leukemia and other ??+ T-cell malignancies is of utmost importance due to the indolent nature of the former as compared to the highly aggressive behavior of the latter. An 85-year-old male diagnosed with liposarcoma was identified to have lymphocytosis during preoperative evaluation. Peripheral smear showed presence of LGLs. Flowcytometric immunophenotyping showed expression of TCR??, CD3, CD2, CD5, CD4, dim CD8, CD56 with aberrant loss of CD7 expression. V? repertoire analysis by flowcytometry showed 97% cells with V?14 clonality. A final diagnosis of TCR??+ CD4 + T-cell LGL leukemia was made. CD4 + T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemias have an indolent, less aggressive course when compared to their CD8 + counterparts and are not necessarily associated with cytopenias. However, their association with secondary neoplasia (29% of the cases) warrants a high degree of suspicion in the diagnosis as also noted in the index case. Use of a wide panel of antibodies and newer modalities such as V? repertoire analysis helps in accurate subtyping of LGL leukemia. PMID:25673609

  18. Adult T-cell leukemia cells overexpress Wnt5a and promote osteoclast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bellon, Marcia; Ko, Nga Ling; Lee, Min-Jung; Yao, Yuan; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Trepel, Jane B.

    2013-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is etiologically linked to infection with the human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-I). ATL is classified into 4 distinct clinical diseases: acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering. Acute ATL is the most aggressive form, representing 60% of cases and has a 4-year survival of <5%. A frequent complication and cause of death in acute ATL patients is the presence of lytic bone lesions and hypercalcemia. We analyzed the Wnt/?-catenin pathway because of its common role in cancer and bone remodeling. Our study demonstrated that ATL cells do not express high levels of ?-catenin but displayed high levels of LEF-1/TCF genes along with elevated levels of ?-catenin (LEF-1/TCF target genes) responsive genes. By profiling Wnt gene expression, we discovered that ATL patient leukemia cells shifted expression toward the noncanonical Wnt pathway. Interestingly, ATL cells overexpressed the osteolytic-associated genes—Wnt5a, PTHLH, and RANKL. We further show that Wnt5a secreted by ATL cells favors osteoclast differentiation and expression of RANK. Our results suggest that Wnt5a is a major contributing factor to the increase in osteolytic bone lesions and hypercalcemia found in ATL patients. Anti-Wnt5a therapy may prevent or reduce osteolytic lesions found in ATL patients and improve therapy outcome. PMID:23660959

  19. Musashi2 sustains the mixed-lineage leukemia–driven stem cell regulatory program

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun-Mi; Gönen, Mithat; Vu, Ly; Minuesa, Gerard; Tivnan, Patrick; Barlowe, Trevor S.; Taggart, James; Lu, Yuheng; Deering, Raquel P.; Hacohen, Nir; Figueroa, Maria E.; Paietta, Elisabeth; Fernandez, Hugo F.; Tallman, Martin S.; Melnick, Ari; Levine, Ross; Leslie, Christina; Lengner, Christopher J.; Kharas, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are found in most aggressive myeloid diseases and contribute to therapeutic resistance. Leukemia cells exhibit a dysregulated developmental program as the result of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Overexpression of the RNA-binding protein Musashi2 (MSI2) has been previously shown to predict poor survival in leukemia. Here, we demonstrated that conditional deletion of Msi2 in the hematopoietic compartment results in delayed leukemogenesis, reduced disease burden, and a loss of LSC function in a murine leukemia model. Gene expression profiling of these Msi2-deficient animals revealed a loss of the hematopoietic/leukemic stem cell self-renewal program and an increase in the differentiation program. In acute myeloid leukemia patients, the presence of a gene signature that was similar to that observed in Msi2-deficent murine LSCs correlated with improved survival. We determined that MSI2 directly maintains the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) self-renewal program by interacting with and retaining efficient translation of Hoxa9, Myc, and Ikzf2 mRNAs. Moreover, depletion of MLL target Ikzf2 in LSCs reduced colony formation, decreased proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Our data provide evidence that MSI2 controls efficient translation of the oncogenic LSC self-renewal program and suggest MSI2 as a potential therapeutic target for myeloid leukemia. PMID:25664853

  20. Musashi2 sustains the mixed-lineage leukemia-driven stem cell regulatory program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Mi; Gönen, Mithat; Vu, Ly; Minuesa, Gerard; Tivnan, Patrick; Barlowe, Trevor S; Taggart, James; Lu, Yuheng; Deering, Raquel P; Hacohen, Nir; Figueroa, Maria E; Paietta, Elisabeth; Fernandez, Hugo F; Tallman, Martin S; Melnick, Ari; Levine, Ross; Leslie, Christina; Lengner, Christopher J; Kharas, Michael G

    2015-03-01

    Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are found in most aggressive myeloid diseases and contribute to therapeutic resistance. Leukemia cells exhibit a dysregulated developmental program as the result of genetic and epigenetic alterations. Overexpression of the RNA-binding protein Musashi2 (MSI2) has been previously shown to predict poor survival in leukemia. Here, we demonstrated that conditional deletion of Msi2 in the hematopoietic compartment results in delayed leukemogenesis, reduced disease burden, and a loss of LSC function in a murine leukemia model. Gene expression profiling of these Msi2-deficient animals revealed a loss of the hematopoietic/leukemic stem cell self-renewal program and an increase in the differentiation program. In acute myeloid leukemia patients, the presence of a gene signature that was similar to that observed in Msi2-deficent murine LSCs correlated with improved survival. We determined that MSI2 directly maintains the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) self-renewal program by interacting with and retaining efficient translation of Hoxa9, Myc, and Ikzf2 mRNAs. Moreover, depletion of MLL target Ikzf2 in LSCs reduced colony formation, decreased proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Our data provide evidence that MSI2 controls efficient translation of the oncogenic LSC self-renewal program and suggest MSI2 as a potential therapeutic target for myeloid leukemia. PMID:25664853

  1. Phase 1 Study of Terameprocol (EM-1421) in Patients With Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2009-01-29

    Leukemias; Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML); Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL); Adult T Cell Leukemia (ATL); Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML-BP); Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL); Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML)

  2. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  3. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  4. CPI-613, Bendamustine Hydrochloride, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  5. Oncogenic NRAS Primes Primary Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells for Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Millahn, Axel; Stiewe, Thorsten; Krause, Michael; Stabla, Kathleen; Ross, Petra; Huynh, Minh; Illmer, Thomas; Mernberger, Marco; Barckhausen, Christina; Neubauer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    RAS mutations are frequently found among acute myeloid leukemia patients (AML), generating a constitutively active signaling protein changing cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. We have previously shown that treatment of AML patients with high-dose cytarabine is preferentially beneficial for those harboring oncogenic RAS. On the basis of a murine AML cell culture model, we ascribed this effect to a RAS-driven, p53-dependent induction of differentiation. Hence, in this study we sought to confirm the correlation between RAS status and differentiation of primary blasts obtained from AML patients. The gene expression signature of AML blasts with oncogenic NRAS indeed corresponded to a more mature profile compared to blasts with wildtype RAS, as demonstrated by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and real-time PCR analysis of myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 homolog (MEIS1) in a unique cohort of AML patients. In addition, in vitro cell culture experiments with established cell lines and a second set of primary AML cells showed that oncogenic NRAS mutations predisposed cells to cytarabine (AraC) driven differentiation. Taken together, our findings show that AML with inv(16) and NRAS mutation have a differentiation gene signature, supporting the notion that NRAS mutation may predispose leukemic cells to AraC induced differentiation. We therefore suggest that promotion of differentiation pathways by specific genetic alterations could explain the superior treatment outcome after therapy in some AML patient subgroups. Whether a differentiation gene expression status may generally predict for a superior treatment outcome in AML needs to be addressed in future studies. PMID:25901794

  6. Metformin inhibits cell cycle progression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Silvia; Ledda, Bernardetta; Tenca, Claudya; Ravera, Silvia; Orengo, Anna Maria; Mazzarello, Andrea Nicola; Pesenti, Elisa; Casciaro, Salvatore; Racchi, Omar; Ghiotto, Fabio; Marini, Cecilia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; DeCensi, Andrea; Fais, Franco

    2015-01-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was believed to result from clonal accumulation of resting apoptosis-resistant malignant B lymphocytes. However, it became increasingly clear that CLL cells undergo, during their life, iterative cycles of re-activation and subsequent clonal expansion. Drugs interfering with CLL cell cycle entry would be greatly beneficial in the treatment of this disease. 1, 1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride (metformin), the most widely prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent, inexpensive and well tolerated, has recently received increased attention for its potential antitumor activity. We wondered whether metformin has apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity on leukemic cells derived from CLL patients. Metformin was administered in vitro either to quiescent cells or during CLL cell activation stimuli, provided by classical co-culturing with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts. At doses that were totally ineffective on normal lymphocytes, metformin induced apoptosis of quiescent CLL cells and inhibition of cell cycle entry when CLL were stimulated by CD40-CD40L ligation. This cytostatic effect was accompanied by decreased expression of survival- and proliferation-associated proteins, inhibition of signaling pathways involved in CLL disease progression and decreased intracellular glucose available for glycolysis. In drug combination experiments, metformin lowered the apoptotic threshold and potentiated the cytotoxic effects of classical and novel antitumor molecules. Our results indicate that, while CLL cells after stimulation are in the process of building their full survival and cycling armamentarium, the presence of metformin affects this process. PMID:26265439

  7. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infection and the onset of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL)

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Masao

    2005-01-01

    The clinical entity of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was established around 1977, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-I) was subsequently identified in 1980. In the 25 years since the discovery of HTLV-I, HTLV-I infection and its associated diseases have been extensively studied, and many of their aspects have been clarified. However, the detailed mechanism of leukemogenesis remains unsolved yet, and the prognosis of ATL patients still poor because of its resistance to chemotherapy and immunodeficiency. In this review, I highlight the recent progress and remaining enigmas in HTLV-I infection and its associated diseases, especially ATL. PMID:15854229

  8. YM155 suppresses cell proliferation and induces cell death in human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryousei; Ito, Shigeki; Asahi, Maki; Ishida, Yoji

    2015-12-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy of peripheral T cells infected with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The prognosis of patients with aggressive ATL remains poor because ATL cells acquire resistance to conventional cytotoxic agents. Therefore, development of novel agents is urgently needed. We examined the effects of YM155, sepantronium bromide, on cell proliferation and survival of ATL or HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, S1T, MT-1, and MT-2. We found that YM155 suppressed cell proliferation in these cells and induced cell death in S1T and MT-1 cells. Both real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses showed suppression of survivin expression in S1T, MT-1, and MT-2 cells. In addition, we observed the cleavage of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in YM155-treated S1T and MT-1 cells, indicating that YM155 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis in these cells. To clarify the mechanism of drug tolerance of MT-2 cells in terms of YM155-induced cell death, we examined intracellular signaling status in these cells. We found that STAT3, STAT5, and AKT were constitutively phosphorylated in MT-2 cells but not in S1T and MT-1 cells. Treatment with YM155 combined with the STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 significantly suppressed cell proliferation compared to that with either YM155 or S3I-201 in MT-2 cells, indicating that STAT3 may play a role in tolerance of MT-2 cells to YM155 and that STAT3 may therefore be a therapeutic target for YM155-resistant ATL cells. These results suggest that YM155 presents potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects via suppression of survivin in ATL cells in which STAT3 is not constitutively phosphorylated. YM155 merits further investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for ATL. PMID:26547260

  9. Cytotoxicity of CD56-positive lymphocytes against autologous B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Fei, F; Lim, M; George, A A; Kirzner, J; Lee, D; Seeger, R; Groffen, J; Abdel-Azim, H; Heisterkamp, N

    2015-04-01

    Precursor B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) affects hematopoietic development and therefore is associated with immune deficiencies that can be further exacerbated by chemotherapy. It is unclear if and when monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that stimulate antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) can be used for treatment because this depends on the presence of functional effector cells. Here, we used flow cytometry to determine that patient samples at diagnosis, post-induction and relapse contain detectable numbers of CD56+ cells. We were able to selectively expand CD56+ immune effector cells from bone marrow and peripheral blood samples at diagnosis and at various stages of treatment by co-culture with artificial antigen-presenting K562 clone 9.mbIL-21 cells. Amplified CD56+CD3- cells had spontaneous and anti-B cell-activating factor receptor mAb-stimulated ADCC activity against allogeneic ALL cells, which could be further enhanced by IL-15. Importantly, matched CD56+ effector cells also killed autologous ALL cells grown out from leukemia samples of the same patient, through both spontaneous as well as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Since autologous cell therapy will not be complicated by graft-versus-host disease, our results show that expanded CD56+ cells could be applied for treatment of pre-B ALL without transplantation, or for purging of bone marrow in the setting of autologous bone marrow transplants. PMID:25134458

  10. Drug screen in patient cells suggests quinacrine to be repositioned for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A; Österroos, A; Hassan, S; Gullbo, J; Rickardson, L; Jarvius, M; Nygren, P; Fryknäs, M; Höglund, M; Larsson, R

    2015-01-01

    To find drugs suitable for repositioning for use against leukemia, samples from patients with chronic lymphocytic, acute myeloid and lymphocytic leukemias as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were tested in response to 1266 compounds from the LOPAC(1280) library (Sigma). Twenty-five compounds were defined as hits with activity in all leukemia subgroups (<50% cell survival compared with control) at 10 ?M drug concentration. Only one of these compounds, quinacrine, showed low activity in normal PBMCs and was therefore selected for further preclinical evaluation. Mining the NCI-60 and the NextBio databases demonstrated leukemia sensitivity and the ability of quinacrine to reverse myeloid leukemia gene expression. Mechanistic exploration was performed using the NextBio bioinformatic software using gene expression analysis of drug exposed acute myeloid leukemia cultures (HL-60) in the database. Analysis of gene enrichment and drug correlations revealed strong connections to ribosomal biogenesis nucleoli and translation initiation. The highest drug-drug correlation was to ellipticine, a known RNA polymerase I inhibitor. These results were validated by additional gene expression analysis performed in-house. Quinacrine induced early inhibition of protein synthesis supporting these predictions. The results suggest that quinacrine have repositioning potential for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia by targeting of ribosomal biogenesis. PMID:25885427

  11. Drug screen in patient cells suggests quinacrine to be repositioned for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, A; Österroos, A; Hassan, S; Gullbo, J; Rickardson, L; Jarvius, M; Nygren, P; Fryknäs, M; Höglund, M; Larsson, R

    2015-01-01

    To find drugs suitable for repositioning for use against leukemia, samples from patients with chronic lymphocytic, acute myeloid and lymphocytic leukemias as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were tested in response to 1266 compounds from the LOPAC1280 library (Sigma). Twenty-five compounds were defined as hits with activity in all leukemia subgroups (<50% cell survival compared with control) at 10 ?M drug concentration. Only one of these compounds, quinacrine, showed low activity in normal PBMCs and was therefore selected for further preclinical evaluation. Mining the NCI-60 and the NextBio databases demonstrated leukemia sensitivity and the ability of quinacrine to reverse myeloid leukemia gene expression. Mechanistic exploration was performed using the NextBio bioinformatic software using gene expression analysis of drug exposed acute myeloid leukemia cultures (HL-60) in the database. Analysis of gene enrichment and drug correlations revealed strong connections to ribosomal biogenesis nucleoli and translation initiation. The highest drug–drug correlation was to ellipticine, a known RNA polymerase I inhibitor. These results were validated by additional gene expression analysis performed in-house. Quinacrine induced early inhibition of protein synthesis supporting these predictions. The results suggest that quinacrine have repositioning potential for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia by targeting of ribosomal biogenesis. PMID:25885427

  12. Immature MEF2C-dysregulated T-cell leukemia patients have an early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia gene signature and typically have non-rearranged T-cell receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zuurbier, Linda; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Mullighan, Charles G.; Canté-Barrett, Kirsten; Gevaert, A. Olivier; de Rooi, Johan; Li, Yunlei; Smits, Willem K.; Buijs-Gladdines, Jessica G.C.A.M.; Sonneveld, Edwin; Look, A. Thomas; Horstmann, Martin; Pieters, Rob; Meijerink, Jules P.P.

    2014-01-01

    Three distinct immature T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia entities have been described including cases that express an early T-cell precursor immunophenotype or expression profile, immature MEF2C-dysregulated T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cluster cases based on gene expression analysis (immature cluster) and cases that retain non-rearranged TRG@ loci. Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases exclusively overlap with immature cluster samples based on the expression of early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia signature genes, indicating that both are featuring a single disease entity. Patients lacking TRG@ rearrangements represent only 40% of immature cluster cases, but no further evidence was found to suggest that cases with absence of bi-allelic TRG@ deletions reflect a distinct and even more immature disease entity. Immature cluster/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases are strongly enriched for genes expressed in hematopoietic stem cells as well as genes expressed in normal early thymocyte progenitor or double negative-2A T-cell subsets. Identification of early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases solely by defined immunophenotypic criteria strongly underestimates the number of cases that have a corresponding gene signature. However, early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia samples correlate best with a CD1 negative, CD4 and CD8 double negative immunophenotype with expression of CD34 and/or myeloid markers CD13 or CD33. Unlike various other studies, immature cluster/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients treated on the COALL-97 protocol did not have an overall inferior outcome, and demonstrated equal sensitivity levels to most conventional therapeutic drugs compared to other pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. PMID:23975177

  13. Dose-dependent killing of leukemia cells by low-temperature plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barekzi, N.; Laroussi, M.

    2012-10-01

    The effect of low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma towards the progression of cancerous human T-cell leukemia cells was investigated. The plasma pencil, which utilizes short duration high voltage pulses, was used to generate a low-temperature plasma (LTP) plume in ambient air. Our data showed that cell morphology and cell viability were affected in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with LTP. The outcome of this study revealed that the effect of plasma exposure was not immediate, but had a delayed effect and increasing the time of plasma exposure resulted in increased leukemia cell death.

  14. Role for protein geranylgeranylation in adult T-cell leukemia cell survival

    SciTech Connect

    Nonaka, Mizuho; Uota, Shin; Saitoh, Yasunori; Takahashi, Mayumi; Sugimoto, Haruyo; Amet, Tohti; Arai, Ayako; Miura, Osamu; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2009-01-15

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease that develops in human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected individuals. Despite the accumulating knowledge of the molecular biology of HTLV-I-infected cells, effective therapeutic strategies remain to be established. Recent reports showed that the hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitor statins have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on certain tumor cells through inhibition of protein prenylation. Here, we report that statins hinder the survival of ATL cells and induce apoptotic cell death. Inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation is responsible for these effects, since simultaneous treatment with isoprenoid precursors, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate or farnesyl pyrophosphate, but not a cholesterol precursor squalene, restored the viability of ATL cells. Simvastatin inhibited geranylgeranylation of small GTPases Rab5B and Rac1 in ATL cells, and a geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor GGTI-298 reduced ATL cell viability more efficiently than a farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277. These results not only unveil an important role for protein geranylgeranylation in ATL cell survival, but also implicate therapeutic potentials of statins in the treatment of ATL.

  15. Antitumor activity of D-mannosamine in vitro: different sensitivities among human leukemia cell lines possessing T-cell properties.

    PubMed

    Onoda, T; Morikawa, S; Harada, T; Suzuki, Y; Inoue, K; Nishigami, K

    1982-07-01

    D-Mannosamine is toxic to human malignant T-lymphoid cell lines derived from patients with T-cell leukemia. We observed heterogeneity of mannosamine susceptibility among those cell lines. The leukemic T-cell lines, subgrouped according to the degree of mannosamine inhibition on nucleic acid biosyntheses, were: Subgroup 1, HPB-MLT cells; Subgroup 2, CCRF-HSB-2 and HPB-ALL cells; and Subgroup 3, MOLT-4 cells. The most sensitive line, HPB-MLT, originated from the patient with adult T-cell leukemia. The cytotoxicity of mannosamine was potentiated by a fatty acid, sodium oleate, at concentrations that were noncytolytic, and the interaction between the two drugs was synergistic. These results would suggest that mannosamine induces changes in the membrane structure of the leukemia cells. Thus, the primary target of the tumoricidal activity of mannosamine may also be the cellular membranes. PMID:6979385

  16. Scalarized Hairy Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Burkhard Kleihaus; Jutta Kunz; Stoytcho Yazadjiev

    2015-03-05

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  17. Scalarized Hairy Black Holes

    E-print Network

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  18. Scalarized hairy black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2015-05-01

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  19. Leukemia stem cells in T-ALL require active Hif1? and Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Giambra, Vincenzo; Jenkins, Catherine E; Lam, Sonya H; Hoofd, Catherine; Belmonte, Miriam; Wang, Xuehai; Gusscott, Sam; Gracias, Deanne; Weng, Andrew P

    2015-06-18

    The Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to play important roles in normal hematopoietic stem cell biology and in the development of both acute and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Its role in maintaining established leukemia stem cells, which are more directly relevant to patients with disease, however, is less clear. To address what role Wnt signaling may play in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), we used a stably integrated fluorescent Wnt reporter construct to interrogate endogenous Wnt signaling activity in vivo. In this study, we report that active Wnt signaling is restricted to minor subpopulations within bulk tumors, that these Wnt-active subsets are highly enriched for leukemia-initiating cells (LICs), and that genetic inactivation of ?-catenin severely reduces LIC frequency. We show further that ?-catenin transcription is upregulated by hypoxia through hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (Hif1?) stabilization, and that deletion of Hif1? also severely reduces LIC frequency. Of note, the deletion of ?-catenin or Hif1? did not impair the growth or viability of bulk tumor cells, suggesting that elements of the Wnt and Hif pathways specifically support leukemia stem cells. We also confirm the relevance of these findings to human disease using cell lines and patient-derived xenografts, suggesting that targeting these pathways could benefit patients with T-ALL. PMID:25934477

  20. Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. White blood cells help your body fight infection. Your blood cells form in your bone marrow. In leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood ...

  1. Eradication of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells: A Novel Mathematical Model Predicts No Therapeutic

    E-print Network

    Eradication of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells: A Novel Mathematical Model Predicts studies have shown that this residual disease resides within the stem cell compartment. Quiescence of leukemic stem cells has been suggested as a mechanism conferring insensitivity to imatinib, and exposure

  2. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gladstone, Douglas E.; Fuchs, Ephraim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the treatment of choice for many aggressive hematologic malignancies, the role of HSCT in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has remained controversial. Now in the era of improved conventional treatment and better prognostication of long-term outcome, a review of autologous and allogeneic HSCT in CLL treatment is warranted. Recent findings Despite an improved disease-free survival in some patients, multiple, prospective, randomized autologous HSCT CLL trials fail to demonstrate an overall survival benefit as compared to conventional therapy. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, although limited by donor availability, can successfully eradicate CLL with adverse prognostic features. In the older CLL patients, nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplants are better tolerated than myeloablative transplants. Nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplants are less effective in heavily diseased burdened patients. Summary Outside of a clinical protocol, autologous HSCT for CLL cannot be justified. Nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation should be considered in high-risk populations early in the disease process, when disease burden is most easily controlled. Alternative donor selection using haploidentical donors and posttransplantation cyclophosphamide has the potential to vastly increase the availability of curative therapy in CLL while retaining a low treatment-related toxicity. PMID:22234253

  3. Hollow core photonic crystal fiber for monitoring leukemia cells using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Khetani, Altaf; Momenpour, Ali; Alarcon, Emilio I.; Anis, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates an antibody-free, robust, fast, and portable platform for detection of leukemia cells using Raman spectroscopy with a 785-nm laser diode coupled to a hollow core photonic crystal (HC-PCF) containing silver nanoparticles. Acute myeloid leukemia is one of the most common bone marrow cancers in children and youths. Clinical studies suggest that early diagnosis and remission evaluation of myoblasts in the bone marrow are pivotal for improving patient survival. However, the current protocols for leukemic cells detection involve the use of expensive antibodies and flow cytometers. Thus, we have developed a new technology for detection of leukemia cells up to 300 cells/ml using a compact fiber HC-PCF, which offers a novel alternative to existing clinical standards. Furthermore, we were also able to accurately distinguish live, apoptotic and necrotic leukemic cells. PMID:26601021

  4. Hollow core photonic crystal fiber for monitoring leukemia cells using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).

    PubMed

    Khetani, Altaf; Momenpour, Ali; Alarcon, Emilio I; Anis, Hanan

    2015-11-01

    The present paper demonstrates an antibody-free, robust, fast, and portable platform for detection of leukemia cells using Raman spectroscopy with a 785-nm laser diode coupled to a hollow core photonic crystal (HC-PCF) containing silver nanoparticles. Acute myeloid leukemia is one of the most common bone marrow cancers in children and youths. Clinical studies suggest that early diagnosis and remission evaluation of myoblasts in the bone marrow are pivotal for improving patient survival. However, the current protocols for leukemic cells detection involve the use of expensive antibodies and flow cytometers. Thus, we have developed a new technology for detection of leukemia cells up to 300 cells/ml using a compact fiber HC-PCF, which offers a novel alternative to existing clinical standards. Furthermore, we were also able to accurately distinguish live, apoptotic and necrotic leukemic cells. PMID:26601021

  5. Natural History Study of Monoclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL), Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), and Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-30

    B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis; Lymhoma, Small Lymphocytic; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  6. Metformin Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Drug-Resistant Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Lirio, A.; Pérez-Yarza, G.; Fernández-Suárez, M. R.; Alonso-Tejerina, E.; Boyano, M. D.; Asumendi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that the antidiabetic drug metformin has chemosensitizing and chemopreventive effects against carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that metformin exerts varying degrees of antitumor activity against human leukemia cells, as reflected by differences in growth inhibition, apoptosis, and alterations to metabolic enzymes. In metformin-sensitive cells, autophagy was not induced but rather it blocked proliferation by means of arresting cells in the S and G2/M phases which was associated with the downregulation of cyclin A, cyclin B1, and cdc2, but not that of cyclin E. In 10E1-CEM cells that overexpress Bcl-2 and are drug-resistant, the effect of metformin on proliferation was more pronounced, also inducing the activation of the caspases 3/7 and hence apoptosis. In all sensitive cells, metformin decreased the ??m and it modified the expression of enzymes involved in energy metabolism: PKC? (PKCepsilon) and PKC? (PKCdelta). In sensitive cells, metformin altered PKC? and PKC? expression leading to a predominance of PKC? over PKC? which implies a more glycolytic state. The opposite occurs in the nonresponsive cells. In conclusion, we provide new insights into the activity of metformin as an antitumoral agent in leukemia cells that could be related to its capability to modulate energy metabolism. PMID:26688757

  7. Boswellic acid acetate induces differentiation and apoptosis in leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jing, Y; Nakajo, S; Xia, L; Nakaya, K; Fang, Q; Waxman, S; Han, R

    1999-01-01

    Boswellic acid acetate (BC-4), a compound isolated from the herb Boswellia carterii Birdw., can induce differentiation and apoptosis of leukemia cells. Based on cell morphology and NBT reduction, BC-4 induced monocytic differentiation of myeloid leukemia HL-60, U937 and ML-1 cells at a dose under 12.5 microg/ml (24.2 microM). BC-4 was a potent inducer, with 90% of the cells showing morphologic changes and 80-90% of the cells showing NBT reduction. Specific and non-specific esterase were also increased by BC-4. Based on benzidine staining assay, BC-4 failed to induce erythroid leukemia DS-19 and K562 cells differentiation. In contrast to its selective differentiation effect, BC-4 strongly inhibited growth of all cell lines tested. The growth inhibition effect was dose- and time-dependent. In HL-60 cells, 20 microg/ml (38.8 microM) of BC-4 decreased viable cell number by 60% at 24 h, whereas at 3 days there was virtually no viable cells. Morphologic and DNA fragmentation analysis proved that BC-4 induced cell apoptosis. The dual apoptotic and differentiation effects of BC-4 suggest that it may be a powerful agent in the treatment of leukemia. PMID:9933134

  8. PD-1hiTIM-3+ T cells associate with and predict leukemia relapse in AML patients post allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Y; Zhang, J; Claxton, D F; Ehmann, W C; Rybka, W B; Zhu, L; Zeng, H; Schell, T D; Zheng, H

    2015-01-01

    Prognosis of leukemia relapse post allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is poor and effective new treatments are urgently needed. T cells are pivotal in eradicating leukemia through a graft versus leukemia (GVL) effect and leukemia relapse is considered a failure of GVL. T-cell exhaustion is a state of T-cell dysfunction mediated by inhibitory molecules including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3). To evaluate whether T-cell exhaustion and inhibitory pathways are involved in leukemia relapse post alloSCT, we performed phenotypic and functional studies on T cells from peripheral blood of acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving alloSCT. Here we report that PD-1hiTIM-3+ cells are strongly associated with leukemia relapse post transplantation. Consistent with exhaustion, PD-1hiTIM-3+ T cells are functionally deficient manifested by reduced production of interleukin 2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interferon-? (IFN-?). In addition, these cells demonstrate a phenotype consistent with exhausted antigen-experienced T cells by losing TN and TEMRA subsets. Importantly, increase of PD-1hiTIM-3+ cells occurs before clinical diagnosis of leukemia relapse, suggesting their predictive value. Results of our study provide an early diagnostic approach and a therapeutic target for leukemia relapse post transplantation. PMID:26230954

  9. Strong, specific anti-human leukemia antisera prepared with the use of purified cell membrane antigen.

    PubMed

    Negoro, S; Seon, B K

    1981-07-01

    Two rabbits immunized with 15 micrograms of a purified human thymus leukemia-associated antigen preparation and boosted once with the same amount of the antigen preparation yielded antisera that showed strong specificity for human leukemic T-cells without any prior absorptions. These antisera from the two rabbits showed a 50% killing of cells at antiserum dilutions of 5700- and 1600-fold, respectively, against JM, a leukemic T-cell line, and slightly weaker activity against MOLT-4, another leukemia T-cell line. These antisera, without any absorption, showed no or minimal reaction against two nonmalignant B-cell lines (RPMI 1788 and RPMI 8057), a leukemic non-T, non-B-cell line (NALM-16), a leukemic pre-B-cell line (NALM-1), normal peripheral blood lymphocytes, and T-cells isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Antiserum 7557, which showed the higher antibody activity, was further studied by an absorption test using various human cell lines. The antiserum showed strong activity against all three leukemic T-cell lines tested, i.e., CCRF-CEM, RPMI 8402, and CCRF-HSB-2, whereas it showed no significant activity against other cell lines which included two leukemic non-T, non-B-cell lines (KM-3 and NALM-6), NALM-1 and RPMI 1788. These are the first anti-human leukemia antisera, except for monoclonal hybridoma antibodies, that showed good specificity for leukemia cells without prior absorption. The present procedure of immunizing animals with a small amount of human thymus leukemia-associated antigen preparation isolated from cell membrane will also be useful for obtaining strong, specific antisera of other cell membrane antigens. PMID:6972802

  10. T cell receptor alpha-chain gene rearrangements in B-precursor leukemia are in contrast to the findings in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Comparative study of T cell receptor gene rearrangement in childhood leukemia.

    E-print Network

    Hara, Junichi; Benedict, Stephen H.; Mak, Tak W.; Gelfand, Erwin W.

    1987-12-01

    band (Table I). As previously reported, this unique pattern was previously observed in HSB2 cells (T cell line), T cell, myeloid, and un- classified leukemia (40). 39 of 46 patients with B-precursor ALL showed rearrange- ments of IgH-chain gene without... stream_size 42248 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Hara_2.pdf.txt stream_source_info Hara_2.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 T Cell Receptor a-Chain Gene Rearrangements in B...

  11. MN1–Fli1 oncofusion transforms murine hematopoietic progenitor cells into acute megakaryoblastic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Wenge, D V; Felipe-Fumero, E; Angenendt, L; Schliemann, C; Schmidt, E; Schmidt, L H; Thiede, C; Ehninger, G; Berdel, W E; Arteaga, M-F; Mikesch, J-H

    2015-01-01

    Long-term outcome of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) patients without Down's syndrome remains poor. Founding mutations and chimeric oncogenes characterize various AMKL subtypes. However, for around one third of all cases the underlying mechanisms of AMKL leukemogenesis are still largely unknown. Recently, an in-frame fusion of meningeoma 1–friend leukemia virus integration 1 (MN1–Fli1) gene was detected in a child with AMKL. We intended to investigate the potential role of this oncofusion in leukemogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia. Strikingly, expression of MN1–Fli1 in murine hematopoietic progenitor cells was sufficient to induce leukemic transformation generating immature myeloid cells with cytomorphology and expression of surface markers typical for AMKL. Systematic structure function analyses revealed FLS and 3?ETS domains of Fli1 as decisive domains for the AMKL phenotype. Our data highlight an important role of MN1–Fli1 in AMKL leukemogenesis and provide a basis for research assessing the value of this oncofusion as a future diagnostic marker and/or therapeutic target in AMKL patients. PMID:26690545

  12. CD44, Hyaluronan, the Hematopoietic Stem Cell, and Leukemia-Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zöller, Margot

    2015-01-01

    CD44 is an adhesion molecule that varies in size due to glycosylation and insertion of so-called variant exon products. The CD44 standard isoform (CD44s) is highly expressed in many cells and most abundantly in cells of the hematopoietic system, whereas expression of CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v) is more restricted. CD44s and CD44v are known as stem cell markers, first described for hematopoietic stem cells and later on confirmed for cancer- and leukemia-initiating cells. Importantly, both abundantly expressed CD44s as well as CD44v actively contribute to the maintenance of stem cell features, like generating and embedding in a niche, homing into the niche, maintenance of quiescence, and relative apoptosis resistance. This is surprising, as CD44 is not a master stem cell gene. I here will discuss that the functional contribution of CD44 relies on its particular communication skills with neighboring molecules, adjacent cells and, last not least, the surrounding matrix. In fact, it is the interaction of the hyaluronan receptor CD44 with its prime ligand, which strongly assists stem cells to fulfill their special and demanding tasks. Recent fundamental progress in support of this “old” hypothesis, which may soon pave the way for most promising new therapeutics, is presented for both hematopoietic stem cell and leukemia-initiating cell. The contribution of CD44 to the generation of a stem cell niche, to homing of stem cells in their niche, to stem cell quiescence and apoptosis resistance will be in focus. PMID:26074915

  13. Donor T Cells After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-22

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  14. CD317 is over-expressed in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but not B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shunyou; Osei, Ebenezer S; Kaplan, David; Chen, Youhai H; Meyerson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    CD317 was first identified as a multiple myeloma-associated antigen. Here we report the expression of CD317 in normal B cells and B-cell malignancies. In normal bone marrow, CD317 demonstrates a biphasic expression pattern, with higher expression on stage 1 and stage 3 hematogones, but not on stage 2 hematogones. CD317 is over-expressed in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and appears associated with negative CD38 expression. Moreover, CD317 is barely detectable in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Our results suggest that CD317 expression might be of prognostic significance for B-CLL, and CD317 could be used as a new marker for minimal residual disease detection in B-ALL. PMID:25973046

  15. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Guo, Weihong; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Laura Beane, Freeman; Ge, Yichen; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hua, Ming; Blair, Aaron; Galvan, Noe; Ruan, Xiaolin; Alter, Blanche P.; Xin, Kerry X.; Li, Senhua; Moore, Lee E.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Xie, Yuxuan; Hayes, Richard B.; Azuma, Mariko; Hauptmann, Michael; Xiong, Jun; Stewart, Patricia; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Huang, Hanlin; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing and other industries. Epidemiological studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on formaldehyde’s ability to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse impact on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures. PMID:20056626

  16. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-23

    Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With t(9;22)(q34;q11.2); BCR-ABL1; Adult L1 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult L2 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  17. Metabolic reprogramming induces resistance to anti-NOTCH1 therapies in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Daniel; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Sudderth, Jessica; Sánchez-Martín, Marta; Belver, Laura; Tosello, Valeria; Xu, Luyao; Wendorff, Agnieszka A; Castillo, Mireia; Haydu, J Erika; Márquez, Javier; Matés, José M; Kung, Andrew L; Rayport, Stephen; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Ferrando, Adolfo A

    2015-10-01

    Activating mutations in NOTCH1 are common in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here we identify glutaminolysis as a critical pathway for leukemia cell growth downstream of NOTCH1 and a key determinant of the response to anti-NOTCH1 therapies in vivo. Mechanistically, inhibition of NOTCH1 signaling in T-ALL induces a metabolic shutdown, with prominent inhibition of glutaminolysis and triggers autophagy as a salvage pathway supporting leukemia cell metabolism. Consequently, inhibition of glutaminolysis and inhibition of autophagy strongly and synergistically enhance the antileukemic effects of anti-NOTCH1 therapy in mice harboring T-ALL. Moreover, we demonstrate that Pten loss upregulates glycolysis and consequently rescues leukemic cell metabolism, thereby abrogating the antileukemic effects of NOTCH1 inhibition. Overall, these results identify glutaminolysis as a major node in cancer metabolism controlled by NOTCH1 and as therapeutic target for the treatment of T-ALL. PMID:26390244

  18. CXCL12-Producing Vascular Endothelial Niches Control Acute T Cell Leukemia Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Lauren A; Tikhonova, Anastasia N; Hu, Hai; Trimarchi, Thomas; King, Bryan; Gong, Yixiao; Sanchez-Martin, Marta; Tsirigos, Aris; Littman, Dan R; Ferrando, Adolfo A; Morrison, Sean J; Fooksman, David R; Aifantis, Iannis; Schwab, Susan R

    2015-06-01

    The role of the microenvironment in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), or any acute leukemia, is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that T-ALL cells are in direct, stable contact with CXCL12-producing bone marrow stroma. Cxcl12 deletion from vascular endothelial, but not perivascular, cells impeded tumor growth, suggesting a vascular niche for T-ALL. Moreover, genetic targeting of Cxcr4 in murine T-ALL after disease onset led to rapid, sustained disease remission, and CXCR4 antagonism suppressed human T-ALL in primary xenografts. Loss of CXCR4 targeted key T-ALL regulators, including the MYC pathway, and decreased leukemia initiating cell activity in vivo. Our data identify a T-ALL niche and suggest targeting CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling as a powerful therapeutic approach for T-ALL. PMID:26058075

  19. Fludarabine Phosphate, Melphalan, and Low-Dose Total-Body Irradiation Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-28

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Aplastic Anemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Myelofibrosis; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Severe Congenital Neutropenia; Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome

  20. Differential mechanisms of cell death induction via delivery of therapeutic nanoliposomal ceramide in leukemias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryland, Lindsay K.

    Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is a rare lymphoproliferative malignancy that involves blood, bone marrow and spleen infiltration. Clinically, LGL leukemia can manifest as a chronic lymphocytosis or as an aggressive leukemia that is fatal within a short period of time. A segment of LGL leukemia patients are unresponsive to immunosuppressive therapy and currently there is no known curative treatment for this disease. Another hematological malignancy, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in adults in Western countries and accounts for approximately 30% of all diagnosed leukemia cases. Around 95% of all CLL cases involve clonal expansion and abnormal proliferation of neoplastic B lymphocytes in lymphoid organs, bone marrow and peripheral blood. Similar to LGL leukemia, CLL is also incurable with current therapies. Therefore, this represents a need for new therapeutic approaches for treatment of these diseases. Recent advances in nanotechnology have illustrated the feasibility of generating nanoliposomes that encapsulate hydrophobic compounds, like ceramide, to facilitate treatment of LGL leukemia and CLL. Ceramide is an anti-proliferative sphingolipid metabolite that has been shown to selectively induce cell death in cancer cells. However, the use of ceramide as a chemotherapeutic agent is limited due to hydrophobicity. While it is understood how nanoliposomal ceramide induces cell death in several types of cancers and hematological malignancies, the effect of nanoliposomal ceramide treatment in LGL leukemia and CLL remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the differential mechanisms of cell death induction following nanoliposomal C6-ceramide treatment in both LGL leukemia and CLL. We show that nanoliposomal C6-ceramide displays minimal cytotoxicity in normal donors. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and is a well-tolerated therapy during in vivo treatment in these leukemia models. To further examine this mechanism of selectivity, we utilize CLL as a cancer model which has an increased dependency on glycolysis. As most tumors exhibit a preferential switch to glycolysis, as described in the "Warburg effect," we hypothesize that ceramide nanoliposomes selectively target this activated glycolytic pathway in cancer. We demonstrate that nanoliposomal ceramide inhibits both the RNA and protein expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), an intermediate enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, which is overexpressed in a subset of CLL patients. Taken together, our results suggest that C6-ceramide nanoliposomes preferentially inhibit the enhanced metabolism of glucose in leukemic CLL cells, which results in induction of cell death. We conclude that selective inhibition of the glycolytic pathway in CLL cells with nanoliposomal C6-ceramide could potentially be an effective therapy for this leukemia by targeting the Warburg effect. In addition, we conclude that nanoliposomal C6-ceramide could also be an effective therapy for patients with LGL leukemia. Collectively, the results of this dissertation emphasize exploitation of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolism in design and development of novel chemotherapeutics.

  1. Identification of Glycan Structure Alterations on Cell Membrane Proteins in Desoxyepothilone B Resistant Leukemia Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Miyako; Saldanha, Rohit; Göbel, Anja; Kavallaris, Maria; Packer, Nicolle H.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to tubulin-binding agents used in cancer is often multifactorial and can include changes in drug accumulation and modified expression of tubulin isotypes. Glycans on cell membrane proteins play important roles in many cellular processes such as recognition and apoptosis, and this study investigated whether changes to the glycan structures on cell membrane proteins occur when cells become resistant to drugs. Specifically, we investigated the alteration of glycan structures on the cell membrane proteins of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (CEM) cells that were selected for resistance to desoxyepothilone B (CEM/dEpoB). The glycan profile of the cell membrane glycoproteins was obtained by sequential release of N- and O-glycans from cell membrane fraction dotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride membrane with PNGase F and ?-elimination respectively. The released glycan alditols were analyzed by liquid chromatography (graphitized carbon)-electrospray ionization tandem MS. The major N-glycan on CEM cell was the core fucosylated ?2–6 monosialo-biantennary structure. Resistant CEM/dEpoB cells had a significant decrease of ?2–6 linked sialic acid on N-glycans. The lower ?2–6 sialylation was caused by a decrease in activity of ?-galactoside ?2–6 sialyltransferase (ST6Gal), and decreased expression of the mRNA. It is clear that the membrane glycosylation of leukemia cells changes during acquired resistance to dEpoB drugs and that this change occurs globally on all cell membrane glycoproteins. This is the first identification of a specific glycan modification on the surface of drug resistant cells and the mechanism of this downstream effect on microtubule targeting drugs may offer a route to new interventions to overcome drug resistance. PMID:21859949

  2. Potentiation of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Cell Differentiation and Prevention of Leukemia Development in Mice by Oleanolic Acid.

    PubMed

    Rawendra, Reynetha D S; Lin, Ping-Yuan; Chang, Ching-Dong; Hsu, Jue-Liang; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Shih, Wen-Ling

    2015-12-01

    Although differentiation therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces complete remission in most acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients, it is associated with organ toxicity. The present study focused on investigating the effects of the natural compounds oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) on proliferation and differentiation of human APL HL-60 cells in vitro and murine APL WEHI-3 cells in vivo. Results demonstrated that OA and UA significantly inhibited cellular proliferation of HL-60 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Non-cytotoxic concentration of OA exhibited a marked differentiation-inducing effect on HL-60 and enhanced ATRA-induced HL-60 differentiation. In contrast, UA showed only a moderate effect. Activation of MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway was likely found to be involved in the mechanism. Moreover, OA increased survival duration of WEHI-3 transplanted BALB/c mice, and decreased leukemia cells infiltration in the liver and spleen. Thus, these results may provide new insight for developing alternative therapy in APL patients. PMID:26637873

  3. The establishment of a cell line from an acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with evidence of emperipolesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, C.Y.; Pabello, P.; Skinnider, L.F.

    1994-09-01

    Acute megakaryoblstic leukemia is uncommon and comprises about 5% of acute non-lymphoid leukemia in the Franco-American-British (FAB) classification. Cell lines from such leukemias are relatively rare with only 6 reported in the literature. We have established a cell line from a case of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia arising in a 2-year-old child. Surface marker studies of the cells confirm their megakaryoblastic nature with 54.1% of the cells being CD61-positive. The cells have a doubling time of 72 hours. Morphologically they appear blast-like with Wright Giemsa stain and electron microscopy and some have small cytoplasmic blebs. Emperipolesis of one blast into another large one is occasionally seen and review of the original bone marrow specimen also showed emperipolesis of neutrophils into the megakaryoblasts (emperipolesis is a phenomenon in which a cell, usually a lymphocyte or neutrophil, enters another cell, moves about and leaves without undergoing phagocytosis). Karyotyping of the cells showed 45,XX + marker chromosome. The marker chromosome is apparently chromosome 16 with a small segment of a chromosome translocated to the terminal portion of chromosome 16. The origin of the translocated material will be elucidated using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This cell line may be useful in studying factors that contribute to the phenomenon of emperipolesis.

  4. Antileukemic Effect of Tualang Honey on Acute and Chronic Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Nik Man, Nik Muhd Khuzaimi; Hassan, Rosline; Ang, Cheng Yong; Abdullah, Abu Dzarr; Mohd Radzi, Muhammad Amiro Rasheeq; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2015-01-01

    Complementary medicine using natural product as antitumor is on the rise. Much research has been performed on Tualang Honey and it was shown to have therapeutic potential in wound healing, and antimicrobial activity and be antiproliferative against several cancer models such as human osteosarcoma (HOS), human breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. To date, there was limited study on antileukemic properties of Tualang (Koompassia excelsa) Honey. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antileukemic effect of Tualang Honey on acute and chronic leukemia cell lines. Leukemia cell lines (K562 and MV4-11) and human mononuclear cell isolated from peripheral blood were grown in RPM1 1640 culture medium. The cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of Tualang Honey. After incubation, the evaluation of viability and apoptosis was performed. The morphological changes of leukemia cells were the presence of cytoplasmic blebs followed by apoptotic bodies and round shape of cells. IC50 against K562 and MV4-11 was determined. Tualang Honey gave 53.9% and 50.6% apoptosis activity on K562 and MV4-11, respectively, while on human mononuclear cell it was 37.4%. Tualang Honey has the apoptosis-inducing ability for acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (K562 and MV4-11) cell lines. PMID:26613081

  5. Central nervous system acute lymphoblastic leukemia: role of natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Frishman-Levy, Liron; Shemesh, Avishai; Bar-Sinai, Allan; Ma, Chao; Ni, Zhenya; Frenkel, Shahar; Muench, Vera; Bruckmueller, Hilke; Vokuhl, Christian; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Eckert, Cornelia; Stanulla, Martin; Schrappe, Martin; Campbell, Kerry S; Loewenthal, Ron; Schewe, Denis M; Hochman, Jacob; Meyer, Lueder H; Kaufman, Dan; Cario, Gunnar; Porgador, Angel; Izraeli, Shai

    2015-05-28

    Central nervous system acute lymphoblastic leukemia (CNS-ALL) is a major clinical problem. Prophylactic therapy is neurotoxic, and a third of the relapses involve the CNS. Increased expression of interleukin 15 (IL-15) in leukemic blasts is associated with increased risk for CNS-ALL. Using in vivo models for CNS leukemia caused by mouse T-ALL and human xenografts of ALL cells, we demonstrate that expression of IL-15 in leukemic cells is associated with the activation of natural killer (NK) cells. This activation limits the outgrowth of leukemic cells in the periphery, but less in the CNS because NK cells are excluded from the CNS. Depletion of NK cells in NOD/SCID mice enabled combined systemic and CNS leukemia of human pre-B-ALL. The killing of human leukemia lymphoblasts by NK cells depended on the expression of the NKG2D receptor. Analysis of bone marrow (BM) diagnostic samples derived from children with subsequent CNS-ALL revealed a significantly high expression of the NKG2D and NKp44 receptors. We suggest that the CNS may be an immunologic sanctuary protected from NK-cell activity. CNS prophylactic therapy may thus be needed with emerging NK cell-based therapies against hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:25896649

  6. AZD1775 sensitizes T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells to cytarabine by promoting apoptosis over DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Ford, James B; Baturin, Dmitry; Burleson, Tamara M; Van Linden, Annemie A; Kim, Yong-Mi; Porter, Christopher C

    2015-09-29

    While some children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have excellent prognoses, the prognosis for adults and children with T cell ALL is more guarded. Treatment for T-ALL is heavily dependent upon antimetabolite chemotherapeutics, including cytarabine. Targeted inhibition of WEE1 with AZD1775 has emerged as a strategy to sensitize cancer cells to cytarabine and other chemotherapeutics. We sought to determine if this strategy would be effective for T-ALL with clinically relevant anti-leukemia agents. We found that AZD1775 sensitizes T-ALL cells to several traditional anti-leukemia agents, acting synergistically with cytarabine by enhancing DNA damage and apoptosis. In addition to increased phosphorylation of H2AX at serine 139 (?H2AX), AZD1775 led to increased phosphorylation of H2AX at tyrosine 142, a signaling event associated with promotion of apoptosis over DNA repair. In a xenograft model of T-ALL, the addition of AZD1775 to cytarabine slowed leukemia progression and prolonged survival. Inhibition of WEE1 with AZD1775 sensitizes T-ALL to several anti-leukemia agents, particularly cytarabine and that mechanistically, AZD1775 promotes apoptosis over DNA repair in cells treated with cytarabine. These data support the development of clinical trials including AZD1775 in combination with conventional chemotherapy for acute leukemia. PMID:26334102

  7. Quantitation, in vitro propagation, and characterization of preleukemic cells induced by radiation leukemia virus

    SciTech Connect

    Yefenof, E.; Epszteyn, S.; Kotler, M. )

    1991-04-15

    Intrathymic (i.t.) inoculation of radiation leukemia virus into C57BL/6 mice induces a population of preleukemic (PL) cells that can progress into mature thymic lymphomas upon transfer into syngeneic recipients. A minimum of 10(3) PL thymic cells are required to induce lymphomas in the recipient. Most of the individual lymphomas developed in mice which were inoculated with cells of a single PL thymus, derived from different T-cell precursors. PL thymic cells could be grown in vitro on a feeder layer consisting of splenic stromal cells. Growth medium was supplemented with supernatant harvested from an established radiation leukemia virus-induced lymphoma cell line (SR4). The in vitro-grown PL cells were characterized as Thy-1+, CD4+, CD8- T-cells, most of which expressed radiation leukemia virus antigens. Cultured PL cells were found to be nontumorigenic, based on their inability to form s.c. tumors. However, these cells could develop into thymic lymphomas if inoculated i.t. into syngeneic recipients. A culture of PL cells, maintained for 2 mo, showed clonal T-cell receptor arrangement. Lymphomas which developed in several recipient mice upon injection with these PL cells were found to possess the same T-cell receptor arrangement. These results indicate that PL cells can be adapted for in vitro growth while maintaining their preleukemic character.

  8. Ibrutinib in Treating Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Patients With HIV Infection

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-18

    Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; HIV Infection; Intraocular Lymphoma; Multicentric Angiofollicular Lymphoid Hyperplasia; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma; Small Intestinal Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  9. Synthesis and activities of new indolopyrrolobenzodiazepine derivatives toward acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Francis; Bourhis, Marion; Ebrahimi, Edris; Herfindal, Lars; Choudhury, Romy Roy; Bjørnstad, Ronja; Døskeland, Stein Ove; Anizon, Fabrice; Moreau, Pascale

    2015-11-15

    The synthesis of new indolopyrrolobenzodiazepine derivatives is described. Six compounds were selected for evaluation of cytotoxicity towards acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and normal fibroblasts. One compound (29) showed selective AML cell death induction. Its action was only partly overcome by knock-down of p53 or Bcl-2 overexpression, suggesting a strong activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways. PMID:26526744

  10. Induction of apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by isolated fractions from strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberries contain phytochemicals that have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity. We investigated the ability of isolated fractions from strawberry extracts to induce apoptotic cell death in three pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) lines, including SEM and RS4;11 cell lines derived fr...

  11. Reproductive fitness advantage of BCRABL expressing leukemia cells Arne Traulsen a

    E-print Network

    Traulsen, Arne

    Reproductive fitness advantage of BCR­ABL expressing leukemia cells Arne Traulsen a , Jorge M Keywords: Cancer evolution Oncogenes Mutation fitness BCR­ABL Cancer dynamics a b s t r a c t Mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes confer a fitness advantage to cells that can lead to cancer. The tumor

  12. Signal transduction pathways and transcription factors triggered by arsenic trioxide in leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sumi, Daigo; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2010-05-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is widely used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Several lines of evidence have indicated that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} affects signal transduction and transactivation of transcription factors, resulting in the stimulation of apoptosis in leukemia cells, because some transcription factors are reported to associate with the redox condition of the cells, and arsenicals cause oxidative stress. Thus, the disturbance and activation of the cellular signaling pathway and transcription factors due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during arsenic exposure may explain the ability of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} to induce a complete remission in relapsed APL patients. In this report, we review recent findings on ROS generation and alterations in signal transduction and in transactivation of transcription factors during As{sub 2}O{sub 3} exposure in leukemia cells.

  13. A cosmid and cDNA ne physical map of a human chromosome 13q14 region frequently lost in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and

    E-print Network

    Baranova, Ancha

    -cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and identi¢cation of a new putative tumor suppressor gene, Leu5 Bagrat Berlin, Germany Received 11 March 1998 Abstract B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a human suppressor gene; Location; B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Zinc binding; Human 1. Introduction Genes

  14. Disruption of Annexin II /p11 Interaction Suppresses Leukemia Cell Binding, Homing and Engraftment, and Sensitizes the Leukemia Cells to Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnapillai, Anilkumar; Kolb, E. Anders; Dhanan, Priyanka; Mason, Robert W.; Napper, Andrew; Barwe, Sonali P.

    2015-01-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment plays an important role in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell proliferation, maintenance, and resistance to chemotherapy. Annexin II (ANX2) is abundantly expressed on bone marrow cells and complexes with p11 to form ANX2/p11-hetero-tetramer (ANX2T). We present evidence that p11 is upregulated in refractory ALL cell lines and patient samples. A small molecule inhibitor that disrupts ANX2/p11 interaction (ANX2T inhibitor), an anti-ANX2 antibody, and knockdown of p11, abrogated ALL cell adhesion to osteoblasts, indicating that ANX2/p11 interaction facilitates binding and retention of ALL cells in the bone marrow. Furthermore, ANX2T inhibitor increased the sensitivity of primary ALL cells co-cultured with osteoblasts to dexamethasone and vincristine induced cell death. Finally, in an orthotopic leukemia xenograft mouse model, the number of ALL cells homing to the bone marrow was reduced by 40–50% in mice injected with anti-ANX2 antibody, anti-p11 antibody or ANX2T inhibitor compared to respective controls. In a long-term engraftment assay, the percentage of ALL cells in mouse blood, bone marrow and spleen was reduced in mice treated with agents that disrupt ANX2/p11 interaction. These data show that disruption of ANX2/p11 interaction results in reduced ALL cell adhesion to osteoblasts, increased ALL cell sensitization to chemotherapy, and suppression of ALL cell homing and engraftment. PMID:26465153

  15. Vaccine Therapy in Preventing Cytomegalovirus Infection in Patients With Hematological Malignancies Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-27

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Cytomegalovirus Infection; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extramedullary Plasmacytoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Isolated Plasmacytoma of Bone; Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Central Nervous System Hodgkin Lymphoma; Primary Central Nervous System Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Primary Myelofibrosis; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Multiple Myeloma; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage IIA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IIB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Cu

  16. Fludarabine Phosphate, Low-Dose Total-Body Irradiation, and Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Cyclosporine, Mycophenolate Mofetil, Donor Lymphocyte Infusion in Treating Patients With Hematopoietic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-03

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Myeloid/NK-cell Acute Leukemia; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Systemic Amyloidosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  17. Anti-leukemic properties of deferasirox via apoptosis in murine leukemia cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sol-Rim; Lee, Jae-Wook; Jang, Pil-Sang; Cho, Bin; Jeong, Dae-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Background Although deferasirox (DFX) is reported to have anti-tumor effects, its anti-leukemic activity remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of DFX treatment on two murine lymphoid leukemia cell lines, and clarified the mechanisms underlying its potential anti-leukemic activity. Methods L1210 and A20 murine lymphoid leukemia cell lines were treated with DFX. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthaizol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethylphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, respectively. Immunoblotting was performed to detect the expression of key apoptotic proteins. Results In dose- and time-dependent manner, DFX decreased viability and increased apoptosis of murine leukemic cells. Fas expression was significantly higher in A20 cells than in L1210 cells at all DFX concentrations tested. Although both cell lines exhibited high caspase 3 and caspase 9 expression, a critical component of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, expression was greater in L1210 cells. In contrast, caspase 8, a key factor in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, showed greater expression in A20 cells. Cytochrome c expression was significantly higher in L1210 cells. In both cell lines, co-treatment with ferric chloride and DFX diminished the expression of these intracellular proteins, as compared to DFX treatment alone. Conclusion Treatment with DFX increased caspase-dependent apoptosis in two murine lymphoid leukemia cell lines, with differing apoptotic mechanisms in each cell line. PMID:25830128

  18. Polynucleotide sequences in the DNA of leukemia cells that form RNAase-resistant complexes with polyuridylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnova, I.A.

    1986-06-10

    Hybridization of (/sup 3/H)poly(U) with cell DNA yielded RNAase-resistant complexes poly(U):poly(dA). Depending on the method of RNAase treatment of the hybrids, two types of dA regions are detected: (1) dA-rich and (2) poly(dA) portions, differing in degree of homogeneity. The quantitative content of these two types of sequences in the DNA isolated from normal cells of healthy animals of different species and from leukemia cells in certain types of leukemia was determined. The complete identity of the level of dA portions in the DNA of normal tissues of the same animals and the statistically significant increase in their level in the leukemia cells were demonstrated. The differences between DNA of normal and leukemia cells vary substantially depending on the type of leukemia.

  19. A model with competition between the cell lines in leukemia under treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Halanay, A.; Cândea, D.; R?dulescu, R.

    2014-12-10

    The evolution of leukemia is modeled with a delay differential equation model of four cell populations: two populations (healthy and leukemic) ) of stem-like cells involving a larger category consisting of proliferating stem and progenitor cells with self-renew capacity and two populations (healthy and leukemic) of mature cells, considering the competition of healthy vs. leukemic cell populations and three types of division that a stem-like cell can exhibit: self-renew, asymmetric division and differentiation. In the model it is assumed that the treatment acts on the proliferation rate of the leukemic stem cells and on the apoptosis of stem and mature cells. The emphasis in this model is on establishing relevant parameters for chronic and acute manifestations of leukemia. Stability of equilibria is investigated and sufficient conditions for local asymptotic stability will be given using a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional.

  20. A model with competition between the cell lines in leukemia under treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halanay, A.; Cândea, D.; R?dulescu, R.

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of leukemia is modeled with a delay differential equation model of four cell populations: two populations (healthy and leukemic) ) of stem-like cells involving a larger category consisting of proliferating stem and progenitor cells with self-renew capacity and two populations (healthy and leukemic) of mature cells, considering the competition of healthy vs. leukemic cell populations and three types of division that a stem-like cell can exhibit: self-renew, asymmetric division and differentiation. In the model it is assumed that the treatment acts on the proliferation rate of the leukemic stem cells and on the apoptosis of stem and mature cells. The emphasis in this model is on establishing relevant parameters for chronic and acute manifestations of leukemia. Stability of equilibria is investigated and sufficient conditions for local asymptotic stability will be given using a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional.

  1. Enkephalins stimulate leukemia cell migration and surface expression of CD9.

    PubMed Central

    Heagy, W; Duca, K; Finberg, R W

    1995-01-01

    Opioid peptides have been implicated in the regulation of tumor growth and biology; however, little attention has been given to the mechanisms that are involved. In this study we show that physiological concentrations of the endogenous opioid neuropeptide methionine-enkephalin (MET-ENK) and the synthetic enkephalins D-Ala2, Me-Phe4, Gly(ol)5 and D-Ala2, D-Leu5 are stimulants for the in vitro migration of pre-B acute lymphoblastoid leukemia (ALL) cells. Activation of the human pre-B ALL cell lines NALM 6 and LAZ 221 with MET-ENK resulted in both an increase in their migration and an augmentation in the surface expression of the leukemia cell marker CD9. The opiate receptor antagonist naloxone reversed these enkephalin-induced effects on the leukemia cells. When the pre-B ALL cells were preincubated with an anti-CD9 mAb before challenge with MET-ENK their migration to the enkephalin was markedly reduced. These studies show that endogenous and synthetic opioid peptides are stimulants for pre-B ALL cell migration and suggest that CD9 is important in the regulation of leukemia cell motility. Images PMID:7657811

  2. Outcomes of acute leukemia patients transplanted with naive T cell–depleted stem cell grafts

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Marie; Heimfeld, Shelly; Loeb, Keith R.; Jones, Lori A.; Chaney, Colette; Seropian, Stuart; Gooley, Ted A.; Sommermeyer, Franziska; Riddell, Stanley R.; Shlomchik, Warren D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). In mice, naive T cells (TN) cause more severe GVHD than memory T cells (TM). We hypothesized that selective depletion of TN from human allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts would reduce GVHD and provide sufficient numbers of hematopoietic stem cells and TM to permit hematopoietic engraftment and the transfer of pathogen-specific T cells from donor to recipient, respectively. METHODS. In a single-arm clinical trial, we transplanted 35 patients with high-risk leukemia with TN-depleted PBSC grafts following conditioning with total body irradiation, thiotepa, and fludarabine. GVHD prophylactic management was with tacrolimus immunosuppression alone. Subjects received CD34-selected PBSCs and a defined dose of TM purged of CD45RA+ TN. Primary and secondary objectives included engraftment, acute and chronic GVHD, and immune reconstitution. RESULTS. All recipients of TN-depleted PBSCs engrafted. The incidence of acute GVHD was not reduced; however, GVHD in these patients was universally corticosteroid responsive. Chronic GVHD was remarkably infrequent (9%; median follow-up 932 days) compared with historical rates of approximately 50% with T cell–replete grafts. TM in the graft resulted in rapid T cell recovery and transfer of protective virus-specific immunity. Excessive rates of infection or relapse did not occur and overall survival was 78% at 2 years. CONCLUSION. Depletion of TN from stem cell allografts reduces the incidence of chronic GVHD, while preserving the transfer of functional T cell memory. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT 00914940). FUNDING. NIH, Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation, and Richard Lumsden Foundation. PMID:26053664

  3. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about acute lymphocytic leukemia? What is acute lymphocytic leukemia? Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic ... germs by surrounding and digesting them. Development of leukemia Any type of early blood-forming cell of ...

  4. Recurrent alterations of TNFAIP3 (A20) in T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Patricia; Bergmann, Anke; Rahmann, Sven; Wohlers, Inken; Scholtysik, René; Przekopowitz, Martina; Seifert, Marc; Tschurtschenthaler, Gertraud; Webersinke, Gerald; Jäger, Ulrich; Siebert, Reiner; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Dührsen, Ulrich; Dürig, Jan; Küppers, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia (T-LGL) is poorly understood, as STAT3 mutations are the only known frequent genetic lesions. Here, we identified non-synonymous alterations in the TNFAIP3 tumor suppressor gene in 3 of 39 T-LGL. In two cases these were somatic mutations, in one case the somatic origin was likely. A further case harbored a SNP that is a known risk allele for autoimmune diseases and B cell lymphomas. Thus, TNFAIP3 mutations represent recurrent genetic lesions in T-LGL that affect about 8% of cases, likely contributing to deregulated NF-?B activity in this leukemia. PMID:26199174

  5. Acute myeloid leukemia arising from a donor derived premalignant hematopoietic clone: A possible mechanism for the origin of leukemia in donor cells.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Mark A; Papadopoulos, Esperanza B; Hedvat, Cyrus V; Jhanwar, Suresh C; Brentjens, Renier J

    2014-01-01

    During recent years, it has become increasingly evident that donor leukemia following allogeneic transplant may be more common then realized in the past. We identified five cases of potential donor leukemia cases during past five years. The precise mechanism of the origin of such leukemias, however, remains poorly defined. In this short communication, we report a well documented case of donor-derived de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that developed fourteen years after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for treatment induced AML for his primary malignancy Immunoblastic lymphoma. This case allows us to postulate a possible mechanism of the origin of donor leukemia. The de novo AML clone contained a distinct cytogenetic abnormality, trisomy 11, which was simultaneously detected in preserved peripheral blood obtained at the time of transplantation as well as in the current bone marrow from an otherwise clinically and phenotypically normal donor. The findings from this unique case, provides insight into the process of leukemogenesis, and suggests that the sequence of events leading to leukemogenesis in this patient involved the senescence/apoptosis of normal donor hematopoietic cells due to telomere shortening resulting in the selective proliferation and transformation of this clone with MLL (mixed-lineage leukemia) gene amplification. PMID:24918066

  6. Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibody and Combination Chemotherapy Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Lymphoid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-14

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  7. Transplantability of human lymphoid cell line, lymphoma, and leukemia in splenectomized and/or irradiated nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, S.; Shimosato, Y.; Kuroki, M.; Sato, Y.; Nakajima, T.

    1980-07-01

    The effects of splenectomy and/or whole-body irradiation of nude mice before xenotransplantation of lymphoid cell lines, lymphoma, and leukemia were studied. Transplantation after whole-body irradiation resulted in the increased ''take'' rate of three cultured cell lines (two of T-cell-derived acute lymphocytic leukemia and one of B-cell derived acute lymphocytic leukemia) and in the tumorous growth of Burkitt-derived Raji and spontaneously transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. With splenectomy plus irradiation as a pretreatment, tumorous growth occurred in four other cell lines which were not transplantable after irradiation only (two cell lines of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed cord blood cells and one each of null acute lymphocytic leukemia and nodular lymphoma-derived cell lines). Direct transplantation of leukemia and lymphoma cells into the pretreated mice was successful in 7 of 24 cases (29%). B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid lymphoma was transplantable in three of seven cases (43%). However, lymphoma and leukemia of peripheral T-cell origin was difficult to transplant even with pretreatment, and only one pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma grew to a significant size (2 cm). One tumor each of B-cell-derived diffuse large lymphoid and T-cell diffuse lymphoblastic lymphoma became transplantable.

  8. Leukemia stem cells in a genetically defined murine model of blast-crisis CML

    PubMed Central

    Neering, Sarah J.; Bushnell, Timothy; Sozer, Selcuk; Ashton, John; Rossi, Randall M.; Wang, Pin-Yi; Bell, Deborah R.; Heinrich, David; Bottaro, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Myeloid leukemia arises from leukemia stem cells (LSCs), which are resistant to standard chemotherapy agents and likely to be a major cause of drug-resistant disease and relapse. To investigate the in vivo properties of LSCs, we developed a mouse model in which the biologic features of human LSCs are closely mimicked. Primitive normal hematopoietic cells were modified to express the BCR/ABL and Nup98/HoxA9 translocation products, and a distinct LSC population, with the aberrant immunophenotype of lineage?, Kit+/?, Flt3+, Sca+, CD34+, and CD150?, was identified. In vivo studies were then performed to assess the response of LSCs to therapeutic insult. Treatment of animals with the ABL kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate induced specific modulation of blasts and progenitor cells but not stem- cell populations, thereby recapitulating events inferred to occur in human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. In addition, challenge of leukemic mice with total body irradiation was selectively toxic to normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), suggesting that LSCs are resistant to apoptosis and/or senescence in vivo. Taken together, the system provides a powerful means by which the in vivo behavior of LSCs versus HSCs can be characterized and candidate treatment regimens can be optimized for maximal specificity toward primitive leukemia cells. PMID:17601986

  9. Boswellic acid acetate induces apoptosis through caspase-mediated pathways in myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lijuan; Chen, Duo; Han, Rui; Fang, Qicheng; Waxman, Samuel; Jing, Yongkui

    2005-03-01

    The mechanism of the cytotoxic effect of boswellic acid acetate, a 1:1 mixture of alpha-boswellic acid acetate and beta-boswellic acid acetate, isolated from Boswellia carterri Birdw on myeloid leukemia cells was investigated in six human myeloid leukemia cell lines (NB4, SKNO-1, K562, U937, ML-1, and HL-60 cells). Morphologic and DNA fragmentation assays indicated that the cytotoxic effect of boswellic acid acetate was mediated by induction of apoptosis. More than 50% of the cells underwent apoptosis after treatment with 20 mug/mL boswellic acid for 24 hours. This apoptotic process was p53 independent. The levels of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bax, and Bcl-XL were not modulated by boswellic acid acetate. Boswellic acid acetate induced Bid cleavage and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential without production of hydrogen peroxide. A general caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) and a specific caspase-8 inhibitor II (Z-IETD-FMK) blocked boswellic acid acetate-induced apoptosis. The mRNAs of death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5) were induced in leukemia cells undergoing apoptosis after boswellic acid acetate treatment. These data taken together suggest that boswellic acid acetate induces myeloid leukemia cell apoptosis through activation of caspase-8 by induced expression of DR4 and DR5, and that the activated caspase-8 either directly activates caspase-3 by cleavage or indirectly by cleaving Bid, which in turn decreases mitochondria membrane potential. PMID:15767547

  10. Treosulfan, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-29

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  11. B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells use tunneling nanotubes to orchestrate their microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Polak, Roel; de Rooij, Bob; Pieters, Rob; den Boer, Monique L

    2015-11-19

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells reside in the bone marrow microenvironment which nurtures and protects cells from chemotherapeutic drugs. The disruption of cell-cell communication within the leukemic niche may offer an important new therapeutic strategy. Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been described as a novel mode of intercellular communication, but their presence and importance in the leukemic niche are currently unknown. Here, we show for the first time that primary B-cell precursor ALL (BCP-ALL) cells use TNTs to signal to primary mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). This signaling results in secretion of prosurvival cytokines, such as interferon-?-inducible protein 10/CXC chemokine ligand 10, interleukin 8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1/CC chemokine ligand 2. A combination of TNT-disrupting conditions allows us to analyze the functional importance of TNTs in an ex vivo model. Our results indicate that TNT signaling is important for the viability of patient-derived B-cell precursor ALL cells and induces stroma-mediated prednisolone resistance. Disruption of TNTs significantly inhibits these leukemogenic processes and resensitizes B-cell precursor ALL cells to prednisolone. Our findings establish TNTs as a novel communication mechanism by which ALL cells modulate their bone marrow microenvironment. The identification of TNT signaling in ALL-MSC communication gives insight into the pathobiology of ALL and opens new avenues to develop more effective therapies that interfere with the leukemic niche. PMID:26297738

  12. Targeting fusion protein/corepressor contact restores differentiation response in leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Racanicchi, Serena; Maccherani, Chiara; Liberatore, Concetta; Billi, Monia; Gelmetti, Vania; Panigada, Maddalena; Rizzo, Giovanni; Nervi, Clara; Grignani, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    The AML1/ETO and PML/RAR? leukemia fusion proteins induce acute myeloid leukemia by acting as transcriptional repressors. They interact with corepressors, such as N-CoR and SMRT, that recruit a multiprotein complex containing histone deacetylases on crucial myeloid differentiation genes. This leads to gene repression contributing to generate a differentiation block. We expressed in leukemia cells containing PML/RAR? and AML1/ETO N-CoR protein fragments derived from fusion protein/corepressor interaction surfaces. This blocks N-CoR/SMRT binding by these fusion proteins, and disrupts the repressor protein complex. In consequence, the expression of genes repressed by these fusion proteins increases and differentiation response to vitamin D3 and retinoic acid is restored in previously resistant cells. The alteration of PML/RAR?–N-CoR/SMRT connections triggers proteasomal degradation of the fusion protein. The N-CoR fragments are biologically effective also when directly transduced by virtue of a protein transduction domain. Our data indicate that fusion protein activity is permanently required to maintain the leukemia phenotype and show the route to developing a novel therapeutic approach for leukemia, based on its molecular pathogenesis. PMID:15729358

  13. The Perceived Threat in Adults with Leukemia Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Farsi, Zahra; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Negarandeh, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) create physical, psychological, social, and spiritual distresses in patients. Understanding this threatening situation in adults with leukemia undergoing HSCT will assist health care professionals in providing holistic care to the patients. Objectives: The aim of the present study was exploring the perceived threat in adults with leukemia undergoing HSCT. Patients and Methods: This article is part of a longitudinal qualitative study which used the grounded theory approach and was conducted in 2009-2011. Ten adults with acute leukemia scheduled for HSCT were recruited from the Hematology–Oncology Research Center and Stem Cell Transplantation, Shariati Hospital in Tehran, Iran. A series of pre-transplant and post-transplant in-depth interviews were held in the hospital’s HSCT wards. Totally, 18 interviews were conducted. Three written narratives were also obtained from the participants. The Corbin and Strauss approach was used to analyze the data. Results: Perceived threat was one of the main categories that emerged from the data. This category included four subcategories, "inattention to the signs and symptoms", "doubt and anxiety", "perception of danger and time limitation" and "change of life conditions", which occurred in linear progression over time. Conclusion: Suffering from leukemia and experiencing HSCT are events that are uniquely perceived by patients. This threatening situation can significantly effect perception of patients and cause temporary or permanent alterations in patients' lives. Health care professionals can help these patients by deeper understanding of their experiences and effective interventions. PMID:25414863

  14. Hairy Root Transformation Using Agrobacterium rhizogenes as a Tool for Exploring Cell Type-Specific Gene Expression and Function Using Tomato as a Model1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ron, Mily; Kajala, Kaisa; Pauluzzi, Germain; Wang, Dongxue; Reynoso, Mauricio A.; Zumstein, Kristina; Garcha, Jasmine; Winte, Sonja; Masson, Helen; Inagaki, Soichi; Federici, Fernán; Sinha, Neelima; Deal, Roger B.; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Brady, Siobhan M.

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes (or Rhizobium rhizogenes) is able to transform plant genomes and induce the production of hairy roots. We describe the use of A. rhizogenes in tomato (Solanum spp.) to rapidly assess gene expression and function. Gene expression of reporters is indistinguishable in plants transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens as compared with A. rhizogenes. A root cell type- and tissue-specific promoter resource has been generated for domesticated and wild tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum pennellii, respectively) using these approaches. Imaging of tomato roots using A. rhizogenes coupled with laser scanning confocal microscopy is facilitated by the use of a membrane-tagged protein fused to a red fluorescent protein marker present in binary vectors. Tomato-optimized isolation of nuclei tagged in specific cell types and translating ribosome affinity purification binary vectors were generated and used to monitor associated messenger RNA abundance or chromatin modification. Finally, transcriptional reporters, translational reporters, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated nuclease9 genome editing demonstrate that SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW gene function is conserved between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tomato. PMID:24868032

  15. Genetically Engineered Lymphocyte Therapy in Treating Patients With B-Cell Leukemia or Lymphoma That is Resistant or Refractory to Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-31

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  16. Modes of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Transmission, Replication and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Alexandre; Barez, Pierre-Yves; Hamaidia, Malik; Gazon, Hélène; de Brogniez, Alix; Perike, Srikanth; Gillet, Nicolas; Willems, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes cancer (Adult T cell Leukemia, ATL) and a spectrum of inflammatory diseases (mainly HTLV-associated myelopathy—tropical spastic paraparesis, HAM/TSP). Since virions are particularly unstable, HTLV-1 transmission primarily occurs by transfer of a cell carrying an integrated provirus. After transcription, the viral genomic RNA undergoes reverse transcription and integration into the chromosomal DNA of a cell from the newly infected host. The virus then replicates by either one of two modes: (i) an infectious cycle by virus budding and infection of new targets and (ii) mitotic division of cells harboring an integrated provirus. HTLV-1 replication initiates a series of mechanisms in the host including antiviral immunity and checkpoint control of cell proliferation. HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to counteract these defense mechanisms allowing continuous persistence in humans. PMID:26198240

  17. Growth inhibition of cultured human leukemia cells by 3-aminothymidine and its analogue.

    PubMed

    Asano, S; Yokoyama, Y; Kohda, K

    1997-01-01

    In a previous report, we demonstrated that 3-aminothymidine (1) strongly inhibits the growth of the human T-cell acute lymphoblastoid leukemia cell line CCRF-HSB-2. In order to further study cell growth inhibition by this compound, several of its derivatives and analogues were synthesized and their growth inhibition activities examined using various cultured cell lines. Compound 1 was the most active among the compounds tested and the most effective against cells of the human T-cell acute lymphoblastoid leukemia cell line CCRF-CEM. 3-Methylthymidine (2) also inhibited the growth of CCRF-CEM cells but at a level about one thirtieth that of 1. Introduction of a methyl or acetyl group at the 3-amino group of 1 resulted in the loss of growth inhibition activity. 3-Amino- and 3-methyl-5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridines (6 and 7), the analogues of 1 and 2 both exhibited an ability to inhibit cell growth and their levels of activity were similar in extent, in spite of the difference in their 3-amino and 3-methyl groups, however, these levels were less than that of 1. Compounds 1, 2, 6 and 7 all showed evidence of growth inhibition in every human leukemia cell line examined. PMID:9137414

  18. MRS Evaluations of the Metabolic Response of Human Leukemia Cells to a New TyrosineKinase Inhibitor S. Gottschalk,C Hainz,D. Leibfritz,A! Serkova

    E-print Network

    MRS Evaluations of the Metabolic Response of Human Leukemia Cells to a New TyrosineKinase Inhibitor in chronic myeloid leukemia. It was our goal to assess the metabolic response of human leukemiacellsto tyrosine kinase in transformed chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells. Gleevec is currently under clinical

  19. Deciphering the Evolution of Leukemia-Initiating Cells | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer is a genetic disease, and a major focus in cancer research today is to tease out the details of how cancer cells evolve from a normal cell. Now, an international team of investigators has found that defective genes and the individual leukemia cells that carry them are organized in a more complex way than previously thought. These findings, which were published in the journal Nature, challenge the conventional scientific view that cancer progresses as a linear series of genetic events.

  20. Gene Expression Profiles in a Panel of Childhood Leukemia Cell Lines Mirror Critical Features of the Disease

    E-print Network

    Ringnér, Markus

    Gene Expression Profiles in a Panel of Childhood Leukemia Cell Lines Mirror Critical Features to be represented. In this study, we have examined these aspects for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A panel, the panel of lines displayed the critical genetic features identified in clinically important acute

  1. Alisertib in Combination With Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma, B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-14

    Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Lymphomatous Involvement of Non-Cutaneous Extranodal Site; Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestinal Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  2. Phosphatidylserine index as a marker of the procoagulant phenotype of acute myelogenous leukemia cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Recht, Olivia; Gruber, András; Levine, Ross L.; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-10-01

    Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are at risk for thrombotic complications. Risk to develop thrombosis is closely tied to leukemia subtype, and studies have shown an association between leukocytosis and thrombosis in AML M3. We evaluated the relative roles of cell count and the surface expression of tissue factor (TF) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in the procoagulant phenotype of AML cell lines. The TF-positive AML M3 cell lines, NB4 and HL60, and AML M2 cell line, AML14, exhibited both extrinsic tenase and prothrombinase activity in a purified system and promoted experimental thrombus formation. In contrast, the TF-negative AML cell line, HEL, exhibited only prothrombinase activity and did not affect the rate of occlusive thrombus formation. In plasma, NB4, HL60 and AML14 shortened clotting times in a cell-count, PS- and TF-dependent manner. Exposure of cultured NB4, HL60, and AML14 cells to the chemotherapeutic agent daunorubicin increased their extrinsic tenase activity and PS expression. Clot initiation time inversely correlated with logarithm of PS index, defined as the product of multiplying leukocyte count with cell surface PS exposure. We propose that leukemia cell PS index may serve as a biomarker for procoagulant activity.

  3. Deoxynucleotide-polymerizing enzyme activities in T- and B-cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia origin.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, B I

    1976-05-01

    All 5 thymus-dependent cell (T-cell) lines (Molt-3; Molt-4; RPMI-8402; CCRF-CEM; CCRF-HSB-2) and 7 thymus-independent cell (B-cell) lines (RPMI-8382, RPMI-8392, RPMI-8412, RPMI-8422, RPMI-8432, RPMI-8442, CCRF-SB) established so far from acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients were examined for deoxynucleotide polymerizing enzymes. All T- and B-cells had DNA polymerase gamma, DNA polymerase beta, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase both in the soluble (the latter 2 enzymes only in small amounts) and chromatin fraction, whereas DNA polymerase alpha was found only in the soluble fraction. With respect to their sedimentation and chromatographic behavior, template-primer requirements, Km for deoxythymidine triphosphate or deoxyguanosine triphosphate divalent cation preference, effect of NaCI and inhibitors, the enzymes from T- and B-cells resembled each other and those from other mammalian cells. DNA polymerase alpha, beta, and gamma from T-cells like those from "fresh" acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, were more thermolabile than those from B-cells or phytohemagglutinin-stimulated normal lymphocytes. In addition, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase from the above cells was completely inactivated in 5 to 6 min at 50 degrees, whereas the DNA polymerase alpha, beta, and gamma retained considerable activity even after heating for 25 min at 50 degrees. DNA polymerase activity of the soluble fraction from T-cells was of the same magnitude as in B-cells when expressed on a DNA basis but twice that of B-cells when expressed on a protein basis. High terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity, equivalent to that observed in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, was found in all T-cell lines that, when expressed on a DNA basis, was 30 to 100 times higher than the B-cell lines tested. These results support the suggestion of earlier investigators that T-cell lines examined here may have originated from leukemic cells. PMID:1083765

  4. Prevention of MDR development in leukemia cells by micelle-forming polymeric surfactant.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit K; Zhang, Li; Li, Shu; Kelly, David L; Alakhov, Valery Yu; Batrakova, Elena V; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2008-11-12

    Doxorubicin (Dox) incorporated in nanosized polymeric micelles, SP1049C, has shown promise as monotherapy in patients with advanced esophageal carcinoma. The formulation contains amphiphilic block copolymers, Pluronics, that exhibit the unique ability to chemosensitize multidrug resistant (MDR) tumors by inhibiting P-glycoprotein (Pgp) drug efflux system and enhancing pro-apoptotic signaling in cancer cells. This work evaluates whether a representative block copolymer, Pluronic P85 (P85) can also prevent development of Dox-induced MDR in leukemia cells. For in vitro studies murine lymphocytic leukemia cells (P388) were exposed to increasing concentrations of Dox with/without P85. For in vivo studies, BDF1 mice bearing P388 ascite were treated with Dox or Dox/P85. The selected P388 cell sublines and ascitic tumor-derived cells were characterized for Pgp expression and functional activity (RT-PCR, Western Blot, rhodamine 123 accumulation) as well as Dox resistance (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay). The global gene expression was determined by oligonucleotide gene microarrays. We demonstrated that P85 prevented development of MDR1 phenotype in leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo as determined by Pgp expression and functional assays of the selected cells. Cells selected with Dox in the presence of P85 in vitro and in vivo exhibited some increases in IC(50) values compared to parental cells, but these values were much less than IC(50) in respective cells selected with the drug alone. In addition to mdr1, P85 abolished alterations of genes implicated in apoptosis, drug metabolism, stress response, molecular transport and tumorigenesis. In conclusion, Pluronic formulation can prevent development of MDR in leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18722489

  5. Infection Prophylaxis and Management in Treating Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Previously Treated With Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Aplastic Anemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Cytomegalovirus Infection; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extramedullary Plasmacytoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Intraocular Lymphoma; Isolated Plasmacytoma of Bone; Mast Cell Leukemia; Meningeal Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Primary Systemic Amyloidosis; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Myelofibrosis; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lympho

  6. Rituximab in Treating Patients Undergoing Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant for Relapsed or Refractory B-cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-23

    B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  7. Blood dendritic cells suppress NK cell function and increase the risk of leukemia relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Martinez, Antonio; Iyengar, Rekha; Gan, Kwan; Chotsampancharoen, Thirachit; Rooney, Barbara; Holladay, Marti; Ramírez, Manuel; Leung, Wing

    2010-01-01

    NK cells play an important role in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and in cross talk with dendritic cells (DCs) to induce primary T cell response against infection. Therefore, we hypothesized that blood DCs should augment NK cell function and reduce the risk of leukemia relapse after HCT. To test this hypothesis, we conducted laboratory and clinical studies in parallel. We found that although phenotypically NK cells could induce DC maturation and DCs could in turn increase activating marker expression on NK cells, paradoxically, both BDCA1+ myeloid DCs and BDCA4+ plasmacytoid DCs suppressed the function of NK cells. Patients who received an HLA-haploidentical graft containing larger number of BDCA1+ DCs or BDCA4+ DCs had a higher risk of leukemia relapse and poorer survival. Further experiments indicated that the potent inhibition on NK cell cytokine production and cytotoxicity was mediated in part through the secretion of IL-10 by BDCA1+ DCs and IL-6 by BDCA4+ DCs. These results have significant implications for future HCT strategies. PMID:20977942

  8. Lenalidomide in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Who Have Undergone Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-02

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  9. Metastatic Calcinosis Cutis: A Case in a Child with Acute Pre-B Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Castanedo-Cázares, Juan Pablo; Reyes-Herrera, Amalia; Hernández-Blanco, Diana; Oros-Ovalle, Cuauhtémoc; Torres-Álvarez, Bertha

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcemia in children with malignancy is an uncommon condition. It has been described in leukemia patients with impaired renal excretion of calcium or osteolytic lesions. Metastatic calcinosis cutis (MCC) may develop if hypercalcemia persists. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with an atypical dermatosis and unspecific gastrointestinal symptoms. Considered clinical diagnoses were xanthomas, histiocytosis, molluscum contagiosum, and nongenital warts. Cutaneous histological analysis showed amorphous basophilic deposits in the dermis suggestive of calcium deposits. Laboratory tests confirmed serum hypercalcemia. Extensive investigations such as bone marrow biopsy established the diagnosis of an acute pre-B cell lymphoblastic leukemia. Hypercalcemia in hematopoietic malignancies is unusual, especially as initial manifestation of the disease. Careful review of the literature fails to reveal previous reports of these peculiar cutaneous lesions of MCC in children with leukemia. PMID:26346120

  10. Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Donor Bone Marrow Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Hodgkin Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Multiple Myeloma, or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-15

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Plasma Cell Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  11. Wnt pathway contributes to the protection by bone marrow stromal cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells and is a potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Mallampati, Saradhi; Sun, Baohua; Zhang, Jing; Kim, Sangbae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Gong, Yun; Cai, Zhen; Sun, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Leukemia cells are protected by various components of its microenvironment, including marrow stromal cells (MSCs). To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this protection, we cultured acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells with MSCs and studied the effect of the latter on the molecular profiling of ALL cells at the mRNA and protein levels. Our results indicated that activated Wnt signaling in ALL cells is involved in MSC-mediated drug resistance. Blocking the Wnt pathway sensitized the leukemia cells to chemotherapy and improved overall survival in a mouse model. Targeting the Wnt pathway may be an innovative approach to the treatment of ALL. PMID:23333798

  12. Biological activity of cytotoxic dendritic cells cocultured with cytokine-induced killer cells and their effect on acute leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X Y; Li, J L

    2015-01-01

    We cocultured cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells with dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and investigated their proliferation, immunophenotype changes, secretory cytokine levels, and their antitumor effects on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. DCs and CIK cells were acquired from healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cocultured as an experimental group, while CIK cells were cultured alone as a control group. Cell numbers were counted by trypan blue staining, cytotoxic activity was measured by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, cell phenotypes were detected by flow cytometry, and secreted levels of INF-? and IL-12 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The proliferation activity in the experimental group was noticeably higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). Under the same conditions, the ratio of CD3(+)CD56(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) double-positive CIK cells was significantly elevated when cocultured with DCs (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the experimental group had significantly higher levels of secreted INF-? and IL-12 in the supernatants after 3 days (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The antitumor effect of DC-CIK cells against leukemia cells was much higher than that of CIK cells at an effector-target ratio ranging from 2.5:1 to 20:1 (P < 0.05), and this effect was positively related to the effector-target ratio. The proliferation activity, level of secretory cytokines, and antitumor effect against AML cells of DC-CIK cells were significantly higher than in CIK cells. This study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for clinical immunotherapy using DC-CIK cells. PMID:26535634

  13. A novel SAHA-bendamustine hybrid induces apoptosis of leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jing; Qiu, Shaowei; Ge, Qiufu; Wang, Ying; Wei, Hui; Guo, Dianwu; Chen, Shuying; Liu, Shuang; Li, Shouyun; Xing, Haiyan; Rao, Qing; Wang, Jianxiang; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid anticancer drugs are of great therapeutic interests as they can potentially overcome the deficiencies of conventional chemotherapy drugs and improve the efficacy. Many studies have revealed that the combination of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and alkylating agents have synergistic effects. We reported a novel hybrid NL-101, in which the side chain of bendamustine was replaced with the hydroxamic acid of HDACi vorinostat (SAHA). NL-101 exhibited efficient anti-proliferative activity on myeloid leukemia cells especially Kasumi-1 and NB4 cells, accompanied by S phase arrest and caspase-3 dependent apoptosis. Importantly, it presented both the properties of HDAC inhibition and DNA damaging, as assessed by the acetylation of histone H3 and DNA double-strand breaks marker ?-H2AX. NL-101 also down-regulated the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL which was involved in the mitochondrial death pathway. Meanwhile, NL-101 induced apoptosis and DNA damage in primary cells from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. NL-101 treatment could significantly prolong the survival time of t(8;21) leukemia mice with enhanced efficacy than bendamustine. These data demonstrate that NL-101 could be a potent and selective agent for leukemia treatment. PMID:26015396

  14. Prevalence and Characterization of Murine Leukemia Virus Contamination in Human Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Uphoff, Cord C.; Lange, Sandra; Denkmann, Sabine A.; Garritsen, Henk S. P.; Drexler, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    Contaminations of cell cultures with microbiological organisms are well documented and can be managed in cell culture laboratories applying reliable detection, elimination and prevention strategies. However, the presence of viral contaminations in cell cultures is still a matter of debate and cannot be determined with general detection methods. In the present study we screened 577 human cell lines for the presence of murine leukemia viruses (MLV). Nineteen cell lines were found to be contaminated with MLV, including 22RV1 which is contaminated with the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus variant of MLV. Of these, 17 cell lines were shown to produce active retroviruses determined by product enhanced reverse transcriptase PCR assay for reverse transcriptase activity. The contaminated cell lines derive from various solid tumor types as well as from leukemia and lymphoma types. A contamination of primary human cells from healthy volunteers could not be substantiated. Sequence analyses of 17 MLV PCR products and five complete MLV genomes of different infected cell lines revealed at least three groups of related MLV genotypes. The viruses harvested from the supernatants of infected cell cultures were infectious to uninfected cell cultures. In the course of the study we found that contamination of human genomic DNA preparations with murine DNA can lead to false-positive results. Presumably, xenotransplantations of the human tumor cells into immune-deficient mice to determine the tumorigenicity of the cells are mainly responsible for the MLV contaminations. Furthermore, the use of murine feeder layer cells during the establishment of human cell lines and a cross-contamination with MLV from infected cultures might be sources of infection. A screening of cell cultures for MLV contamination is recommended given a contamination rate of 3.3%. PMID:25927683

  15. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  16. Recent Advances in Therapeutic Approaches for Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Koji; Akashi, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1). ATLL occurs in approximately 3%–5% of HTLV-1 carriers during their lifetime and follows a heterogeneous clinical course. The Shimoyama classification has been frequently used for treatment decisions in ATLL patients, and antiviral therapy has been reportedly promising, particularly in patients with indolent type ATLL; however, the prognosis continues to be dismal for patients with aggressive-type ATLL. Recent efforts to improve treatment outcomes have been focused on the development of prognostic stratification and improved dosage, timing, and combination of therapeutic modalities, such as antiviral therapy, chemotherapy, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and molecular targeted therapy. PMID:26694446

  17. Further Electron Microscope Studies of a Mouse Leukemia Induced by Cell-Free Filtrates

    PubMed Central

    de Harven, Etienne; Friend, Charlotte

    1960-01-01

    Further electron microscope observations of tissues from Swiss and DBA/2 mice with leukemia transmissible by cell-free filtrates to the adult animals are presented. The cytological characteristics of the leukemic cells, the fine structure of the viruses, and the virus host-cell relationships have been examined. The leukemia virus has an external diameter averaging 870 A, and appears to be formed at the level of cell membranes by a budding process. The viruses are observed most frequently in intercellular spaces, but are also often found within cytoplasmic vacuoles of megakaryocytes. Lead hydroxide staining was applied to the study of the leukemic material. The viruses have been found to have a considerable affinity for this lead salt, only comparable in intensity to the affinity shown by RNP granules for the same chemical. PMID:13814781

  18. The significance of PTEN and AKT aberrations in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zuurbier, Linda; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Vuerhard, Maartje J.; Calvert, Valerie; Kooi, Clarissa; Buijs-Gladdines, Jessica G.C.A.M.; Smits, Willem K.; Sonneveld, Edwin; Veerman, Anjo J.P.; Kamps, Willem A.; Horstmann, Martin; Pieters, Rob; Meijerink, Jules P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background PI3K/AKT pathway mutations are found in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but their overall impact and associations with other genetic aberrations is unknown. PTEN mutations have been proposed as secondary mutations that follow NOTCH1-activating mutations and cause cellular resistance to ?-secretase inhibitors. Design and Methods The impact of PTEN, PI3K and AKT aberrations was studied in a genetically well-characterized pediatric T-cell leukemia patient cohort (n=146) treated on DCOG or COALL protocols. Results PTEN and AKT E17K aberrations were detected in 13% and 2% of patients, respectively. Defective PTEN-splicing was identified in incidental cases. Patients without PTEN protein but lacking exon-, splice-, promoter mutations or promoter hypermethylation were present. PTEN/AKT mutations were especially abundant in TAL- or LMO-rearranged leukemia but nearly absent in TLX3-rearranged patients (P=0.03), the opposite to that observed for NOTCH1-activating mutations. Most PTEN/AKT mutant patients either lacked NOTCH1-activating mutations (P=0.006) or had weak NOTCH1-activating mutations (P=0.011), and consequently expressed low intracellular NOTCH1, cMYC and MUSASHI levels. T-cell leukemia patients without PTEN/AKT and NOTCH1-activating mutations fared well, with a cumulative incidence of relapse of only 8% versus 35% for PTEN/AKT and/or NOTCH1-activated patients (P=0.005). Conclusions PI3K/AKT pathway aberrations are present in 18% of pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Absence of strong NOTCH1-activating mutations in these cases may explain cellular insensitivity to ?-secretase inhibitors. PMID:22491738

  19. Abrupt Development of Plasma Cell Leukemia in a Patient with Chronic Anemia under Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Farzaneh, Mohamad Reza; Moradi, Ali; Ravanbod, Mohammad Reza; Daghbashi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a very rare and progressive hematologic malignancy with unpleasant prognosis, which present with monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells in peripheral blood. Here we report a 52-year-old female case of PCL which diagnosed by morphology and immunohistochemistery (IHC) study. IHC revealed CD20+/CD38+/CD138+/CD56-/kappa-/lambda+. We diagnose PCL on peripheral blood. IHC can be helpful for prognostic determination. PMID:26702753

  20. Donor Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant With or Without Ex-vivo Expanded Cord Blood Progenitor Cells in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-20

    Acute Biphenotypic Leukemia; Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Pancytopenia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  1. Fucoidan Suppresses the Growth of Human Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Atashrazm, Farzaneh; Lowenthal, Ray M; Woods, Gregory M; Holloway, Adele F; Karpiniec, Samuel S; Dickinson, Joanne L

    2016-03-01

    Fucoidan, a natural component of seaweeds, is reported to have immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects. The mechanisms underpinning these activities remain poorly understood. In this study, the cytotoxicity and anti-tumor activities of fucoidan were investigated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. The human AML cell lines NB4, KG1a, HL60, and K562 were treated with fucoidan and cell cycle, cell proliferation, and expression of apoptotic pathways molecules were analyzed. Fucoidan suppressed the proliferation and induced apoptosis through the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell lines NB4 and HL60, but not in KG1a and K562 cells. In NB4 cells, apoptosis was caspase-dependent as it was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor. P21/WAF1/CIP1 was significantly up-regulated leading to cell cycle arrest. Fucoidan decreased the activation of ERK1/2 and down-regulated the activation of AKT through hypo-phosphorylation of Thr(308) residue but not Ser(473). In vivo, a xenograft model using the NB4 cells was employed. Mice were fed with fucoidan and tumor growth was measured following inoculation with NB4 cells. Subsequently, splenic natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity was also examined. Oral doses of fucoidan significantly delayed tumor growth in the xenograft model and increased cytolytic activity of NK cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the selective inhibitory effect of fucoidan on APL cells and its protective effect against APL development in mice warrant further investigation of fucoidan as a useful agent in treatment of certain types of leukemia. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 688-697, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26241708

  2. Hepatic leukemia factor promotes resistance to cell death: Implications for therapeutics and chronotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Katrina M.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2013-04-15

    Physiological variation related to circadian rhythms and aberrant gene expression patterns are believed to modulate therapeutic efficacy, but the precise molecular determinants remain unclear. Here we examine the regulation of cell death by hepatic leukemia factor (HLF), which is an output regulator of circadian rhythms and is aberrantly expressed in human cancers, using an ectopic expression strategy in JB6 mouse epidermal cells and human keratinocytes. Ectopic HLF expression inhibited cell death in both JB6 cells and human keratinocytes, as induced by serum-starvation, tumor necrosis factor alpha and ionizing radiation. Microarray analysis indicates that HLF regulates a complex multi-gene transcriptional program encompassing upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes, downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes, and many additional changes that are consistent with an anti-death program. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ectopic expression of HLF, an established transcription factor that cycles with circadian rhythms, can recapitulate many features associated with circadian-dependent physiological variation. - Highlights: ? Circadian-dependent physiological variation impacts therapeutic efficacy. ? Hepatic leukemia factor inhibits cell death and is a candidate circadian factor. ? Hepatic leukemia factor anti-death program is conserved in murine and human cells. ? Transcriptomics indicates the anti-death program results from a systems response.

  3. Adipocytes cause leukemia cell resistance to L-asparaginase via release of glutamine.

    PubMed

    Ehsanipour, Ehsan A; Sheng, Xia; Behan, James W; Wang, Xingchao; Butturini, Anna; Avramis, Vassilios I; Mittelman, Steven D

    2013-05-15

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for cancer. A link between obesity and a childhood cancer has been identified: obese children diagnosed with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a 50% greater risk of relapse than their lean counterparts. l-asparaginase (ASNase) is a first-line therapy for ALL that breaks down asparagine and glutamine, exploiting the fact that ALL cells are more dependent on these amino acids than other cells. In the present study, we investigated whether adipocytes, which produce significant quantities of glutamine, may counteract the effects of ASNase. In children being treated for high-risk ALL, obesity was not associated with altered plasma levels of asparagine or glutamine. However, glutamine synthetase was markedly increased in bone marrow adipocytes after induction chemotherapy. Obesity substantially impaired ASNase efficacy in mice transplanted with syngeneic ALL cells and, like in humans, without affecting plasma asparagine or glutamine levels. In coculture, adipocytes inhibited leukemic cell cytotoxicity induced by ASNase, and this protection was dependent on glutamine secretion. These findings suggest that adipocytes work in conjunction with other cells of the leukemia microenvironment to protect leukemia cells during ASNase treatment. PMID:23585457

  4. Apoptosis of K562 leukemia cells by Abnobaviscum F®, a European mistletoe extract.

    PubMed

    Park, Yu-Kyoung; Do, Young Rok; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2012-12-01

    Evidence suggests that mistletoe extract has the potential to be used as an anticancer agent. Abnobaviscum F® is a European mistletoe extract from the host tree Fraxinus. We investigated the effect of Abnobaviscum F on the growth and survival of different leukemia cell lines. Abnobaviscum F treatment strongly reduced survival and induced apoptosis of K562 (human myeloid leukemia), RPMI-8226 (human plasmacytoma) and L1210 (murine lymphocytic leukemia) cells in culture. Using K562 cells to further investigate the mechanism of action of Abnobaviscum F, we showed that Abnobaviscum F-induced cell death was associated with the activation of caspase-9, JNK-1/2 and p38 MAPK, as well as with the downregulation of Mcl-1, and inhibition of ERK-1/2 and PKB phosphorylation. Moreover, Abnobaviscum F treatment led to both a reduction of cellular glutathione (GSH) and the induction of ER stress (GRP78 and CHOP induction and eIF-2? phosphorylation). By contrast, Abnobaviscum F did not impact the expression of the DR4 and DR5 death receptors. The Abnobaviscum F-induced apoptosis of K562 cells was blocked by pretreatment with either GSH, z-VAD-fmk or SP600125. Our results, therefore, show that Abnobaviscum F induces apoptosis of K562 cells through the activation of the intrinsic caspase pathway, the phosphorylation of JNK-1, the reduction of cellular GSH, and the induction of ER stress. PMID:22972372

  5. Efficacy of ponatinib against ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okabe, Seiichi Tauchi, Tetsuzo; Tanaka, Yuko; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •Efficacy of ponatinib against ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant leukemia cells okabe et al. •Imatinib or nilotinib resistance was involved Src family kinase. •The BCR-ABL point mutation (E334V) was highly resistant to imatinib or nilotinib. •Ponatinib was a powerful strategy against imatinib or nilotinib resistant Ph-positive cells. -- Abstract: Because a substantial number of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia acquire resistance to ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), their management remains a challenge. Ponatinib, also known as AP24534, is an oral multi-targeted TKI. Ponatinib is currently being investigated in a pivotal phase 2 clinical trial. In the present study, we analyzed the molecular and functional consequences of ponatinib against imatinib- or nilotinib-resistant (R) K562 and Ba/F3 cells. The proliferation of imatinib- or nilotinib-resistant K562 cells did not decrease after treatment with imatinib or nilotinib. Src family kinase Lyn was activated. Point mutation Ba/F3 cells (E334 V) were also highly resistant to imatinib and nilotinib. Treatment with ponatinib for 72 h inhibited the growth of imatinib- and nilotinib-resistant cells. The phosphorylation of BCR-ABL, Lyn, and Crk-L was reduced. This study demonstrates that ponatinib has an anti-leukemia effect by reducing ABL and Lyn kinase activity and this information may be of therapeutic relevance.

  6. Segmentation and Classification of Bone Marrow Cells Images Using Contextual Information for Medical Diagnosis of Acute Leukemias.

    PubMed

    Reta, Carolina; Altamirano, Leopoldo; Gonzalez, Jesus A; Diaz-Hernandez, Raquel; Peregrina, Hayde; Olmos, Ivan; Alonso, Jose E; Lobato, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Morphological identification of acute leukemia is a powerful tool used by hematologists to determine the family of such a disease. In some cases, experienced physicians are even able to determine the leukemia subtype of the sample. However, the identification process may have error rates up to 40% (when classifying acute leukemia subtypes) depending on the physician's experience and the sample quality. This problem raises the need to create automatic tools that provide hematologists with a second opinion during the classification process. Our research presents a contextual analysis methodology for the detection of acute leukemia subtypes from bone marrow cells images. We propose a cells separation algorithm to break up overlapped regions. In this phase, we achieved an average accuracy of 95% in the evaluation of the segmentation process. In a second phase, we extract descriptive features to the nucleus and cytoplasm obtained in the segmentation phase in order to classify leukemia families and subtypes. We finally created a decision algorithm that provides an automatic diagnosis for a patient. In our experiments, we achieved an overall accuracy of 92% in the supervised classification of acute leukemia families, 84% for the lymphoblastic subtypes, and 92% for the myeloblastic subtypes. Finally, we achieved accuracies of 95% in the diagnosis of leukemia families and 90% in the diagnosis of leukemia subtypes. PMID:26107374

  7. Segmentation and Classification of Bone Marrow Cells Images Using Contextual Information for Medical Diagnosis of Acute Leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Reta, Carolina; Altamirano, Leopoldo; Gonzalez, Jesus A.; Diaz-Hernandez, Raquel; Peregrina, Hayde; Olmos, Ivan; Alonso, Jose E.; Lobato, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Morphological identification of acute leukemia is a powerful tool used by hematologists to determine the family of such a disease. In some cases, experienced physicians are even able to determine the leukemia subtype of the sample. However, the identification process may have error rates up to 40% (when classifying acute leukemia subtypes) depending on the physician’s experience and the sample quality. This problem raises the need to create automatic tools that provide hematologists with a second opinion during the classification process. Our research presents a contextual analysis methodology for the detection of acute leukemia subtypes from bone marrow cells images. We propose a cells separation algorithm to break up overlapped regions. In this phase, we achieved an average accuracy of 95% in the evaluation of the segmentation process. In a second phase, we extract descriptive features to the nucleus and cytoplasm obtained in the segmentation phase in order to classify leukemia families and subtypes. We finally created a decision algorithm that provides an automatic diagnosis for a patient. In our experiments, we achieved an overall accuracy of 92% in the supervised classification of acute leukemia families, 84% for the lymphoblastic subtypes, and 92% for the myeloblastic subtypes. Finally, we achieved accuracies of 95% in the diagnosis of leukemia families and 90% in the diagnosis of leukemia subtypes. PMID:26107374

  8. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and cell surface antigen expression in acute lymphocytic leukemias of T cell and B cell precursor origins.

    PubMed Central

    Korsmeyer, S J; Arnold, A; Bakhshi, A; Ravetch, J V; Siebenlist, U; Hieter, P A; Sharrow, S O; LeBien, T W; Kersey, J H; Poplack, D G; Leder, P; Waldmann, T A

    1983-01-01

    We have explored the relationship among immunoglobulin gene rearrangement, cytoplasmic immunoglobulin production, and cell surface antigen expression within 37 cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia. All 12 cases of the T cell type had germ-line kappa and lambda genes and 11 of 12 had germ-line heavy chain genes. In contrast, all 25 cases of the "non-T, non-B" classification, which lacked both definitive T cell markers and surface immunoglobulin, had rearranged immunoglobulin genes, indicating that they represent precursor cells already committed to the B cell lineage at the gene level. 14 had rearranged heavy chain genes, yet retained germ-line light chain genes, whereas 11 cases had both heavy and light chain gene reorganizations. All patterns of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement predicted by a model that proceeds from heavy chain gene recombination to light chain genes were observed. Despite the uniform presence of rearranged immunoglobulin genes, only five cases produced cytoplasmic mu-chain, one exceptional case produced gamma-chain, and another produced only lambda-chain. The cases of B cell precursor type that do not produce immunoglobulin may represent cells that frequently possess ineffectively rearranged immunoglobulin genes. Included in this group may be a set of cells trapped within the B cell precursor series because their ineffective rearrangements have eliminated certain gene subsegments necessary for the assemblage of an effective heavy chain gene. All seven cases of the non-T, non-B subgroup that bore HLA-DR but lacked CALLA (the common acute lymphocytic leukemia-associated antigen) represented the earliest recognizable stage of B cell precursors with rearranged heavy chain genes but germ-line light chain genes. Correlations here suggest that cells entering B cell development express HLA-DR and rearrange heavy chain genes before the expression of a B cell-associated antigen recognized by the antibody BA-1, the antigen CALLA, and any subsequent light chain gene rearrangements. Images PMID:6401769

  9. PCFT/SLC46A1 promoter methylation and restoration of gene expression in human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gonen, Nitzan; Bram, Eran E.; Assaraf, Yehuda G.

    2008-11-28

    The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT/SLC46A1) displays optimal and prominent folate and antifolate transport activity at acidic pH in human carcinoma cells but poor activity in leukemia cells. Consistently herein, human leukemia cell lines expressed poor PCFT transcript levels, whereas various carcinoma cell lines showed substantial PCFT gene expression. We identified a CpG island with high density at nucleotides -200 through +100 and explored its role in PCFT promoter silencing. Leukemia cells with barely detectable PCFT transcripts consistently harbored 85-100% methylation of this CpG island, whereas no methylation was found in carcinoma cells. Treatment with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine which induced demethylation but not with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, restored 50-fold PCFT expression only in leukemia cells. These findings constitute the first demonstration of the dominant epigenetic silencing of the PCFT gene in leukemia cells. The potential translational implications of the restoration of PCFT expression in chemotherapy of leukemia are discussed.

  10. Black hairy tongue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient’s re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  11. Antitumor effects with apoptotic death in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells and suppression of leukemia xenograft tumor growth by irinotecan HCl.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Liang; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Yang, Jai-Sing; Hsueh, Shu-Ching; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Lee, Ching-Sung; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-07-01

    Irinotecan HCl (CPT-11) is an anticancer prodrug, but there is no available information addressing CPT-11-inhibited leukemia cells in in vitro and in vivo studies. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of CPT-11 in promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells and in vivo and tumor growth in a leukemia xenograft model. Effects of CPT-11 on HL-60 cells were determined using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, comet assay, real-time PCR, and Western blotting. CPT-11 demonstrated a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth, induction of apoptosis, and cell-cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase in HL-60 cells. CPT-11 promoted the release of AIF from mitochondria and its translocation to the nucleus. Bid, Bax, Apaf-1, caspase-9, AIF, Endo G, caspase-12, ATF-6b, Grp78, CDK2, Chk2, and cyclin D were all significantly upregulated and Bcl-2 was down-regulated by CPT-11 in HL-60 cells. Induction of cell-cycle arrest by CPT-11 was associated with changes in expression of key cell-cycle regulators such as CDK2, Chk2, and cyclin D in HL-60 cells. To test whether CPT-11 could augment antitumor activity in vivo, athymic BALB/c(nu/nu) nude mice were inoculated with HL-60 cells, followed by treatment with either CPT-11. The treatments significantly inhibited tumor growth and reduced tumor weight and volume in the HL-60 xenograft mice. The present study demonstrates the schedule-dependent antileukemia effect of CPT-11 using both in vitro and in vivo models. CPT-11 could potentially be a promising agent for the treatment of promyelocytic leukemia and requires further investigation. PMID:24474168

  12. Variant Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1c and Adult T-cell Leukemia, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cassar, Olivier; Bardy, Peter; Kearney, Daniel; Gessain, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 is endemic to central Australia among Indigenous Australians. However, virologic and clinical aspects of infection remain poorly understood. No attempt has been made to control transmission to indigenous children. We report 3 fatal cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Australo-Melanesian subtype c. PMID:24047544

  13. Pediatric T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia evolves into relapse by clonal selection, acquisition of mutations and promoter hypomethylation.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Joachim B; Rausch, Tobias; Bandapalli, Obul R; Eilers, Juliane; Pechanska, Paulina; Schuessele, Stephanie; Assenov, Yassen; Stütz, Adrian M; Kirschner-Schwabe, Renate; Hof, Jana; Eckert, Cornelia; von Stackelberg, Arend; Schrappe, Martin; Stanulla, Martin; Koehler, Rolf; Avigad, Smadar; Elitzur, Sarah; Handgretinger, Rupert; Benes, Vladimir; Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan O; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Kulozik, Andreas E

    2015-11-01

    Relapsed precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is characterized by resistance against chemotherapy and is frequently fatal. We aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms resulting in relapse of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and analyzed 13 patients at first diagnosis, remission and relapse by whole exome sequencing, targeted ultra-deep sequencing, multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification and DNA methylation array. Compared to primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, in relapse the number of single nucleotide variants and small insertions and deletions approximately doubled from 11.5 to 26. Targeted ultra-deep sequencing sensitively detected subclones that were selected for in relapse. The mutational pattern defined two types of relapses. While both are characterized by selection of subclones and acquisition of novel mutations, 'type 1' relapse derives from the primary leukemia whereas 'type 2' relapse originates from a common pre-leukemic ancestor. Relapse-specific changes included activation of the nucleotidase NT5C2 resulting in resistance to chemotherapy and mutations of epigenetic modulators, exemplified by SUZ12, WHSC1 and SMARCA4. While mutations present in primary leukemia and in relapse were enriched for known drivers of leukemia, relapse-specific changes revealed an association with general cancer-promoting mechanisms. This study thus identifies mechanisms that drive progression of pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia to relapse and may explain the characteristic treatment resistance of this condition. PMID:26294725

  14. Metabolic Adaptation to Chronic Inhibition of Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jhas, Bozhena; Sriskanthadevan, Shrivani; Skrtic, Marko; Sukhai, Mahadeo A.; Voisin, Veronique; Jitkova, Yulia; Gronda, Marcela; Hurren, Rose; Laister, Rob C.; Bader, Gary D.; Minden, Mark D.; Schimmer, Aaron D.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that the anti-bacterial agent tigecycline preferentially induces death in leukemia cells through the inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Here, we sought to understand mechanisms of resistance to tigecycline by establishing a leukemia cell line resistant to the drug. TEX leukemia cells were treated with increasing concentrations of tigecycline over 4 months and a population of cells resistant to tigecycline (RTEX+TIG) was selected. Compared to wild type cells, RTEX+TIG cells had undetectable levels of mitochondrially translated proteins Cox-1 and Cox-2, reduced oxygen consumption and increased rates of glycolysis. Moreover, RTEX+TIG cells were more sensitive to inhibitors of glycolysis and more resistant to hypoxia. By electron microscopy, RTEX+TIG cells had abnormally swollen mitochondria with irregular cristae structures. RNA sequencing demonstrated a significant over-representation of genes with binding sites for the HIF1?:HIF1? transcription factor complex in their promoters. Upregulation of HIF1? mRNA and protein in RTEX+TIG cells was confirmed by Q-RTPCR and immunoblotting. Strikingly, upon removal of tigecycline from RTEX+TIG cells, the cells re-established aerobic metabolism. Levels of Cox-1 and Cox-2, oxygen consumption, glycolysis, mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial membrane potential returned to wild type levels, but HIF1? remained elevated. However, upon re-treatment with tigecycline for 72 hours, the glycolytic phenotype was re-established. Thus, we have generated cells with a reversible metabolic phenotype by chronic treatment with an inhibitor of mitochondrial protein synthesis. These cells will provide insight into cellular adaptations used to cope with metabolic stress. PMID:23520503

  15. CCI-779 in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Malignant Neoplasm; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  16. Hyperoside enhances the suppressive effects of arsenic trioxide on acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Fang-Bing; Li, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Zhu, Jun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Hyperoside (Hyp) is the chief component of some Chinese herbs which has anticancer effect and the present study is to identify whether it could enhance the anti leukemic properties of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We provide evidence on the concomitant treatment of HL-60 human AML cells with hyperoside potentiates As2O3-dependent induction of apoptosis. The activation of caspase-9, Bcl-2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD), p-BAD, p27 was assessed by Western blot. Results showed that hyperoside inhibited BAD from phosphorylating, reactivated caspase-9, and increased p27 levels. Importantly, hyperoside demonstrated its induction of autophagy effect by upregulation of LC-II in HL-60 AML cell line. Taken together, hyperoside may serve as a great candidate of concomitant treatment for leukemia; these effects were probably related to induction of autophagy and enhancing apoptosis-inducing action of As2O3. PMID:26629016

  17. Modification of Gene Expression, Proliferation, and Function of OP9 Stroma Cells by Bcr-Abl-Expressing Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Supper, Emmanuelle; Tahir, Suhail; Imai, Takahiko; Inoue, Joe; Minato, Nagahiro

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the Bcr-Abl fusion gene in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) results in the development of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), for which hematopoietic microenvironment plays an important role. We investigated the specific effects of an HPC line transduced with Bcr-Abl, KOBA, on BM-derived OP9 stroma cells. DNA microarray analysis revealed that OP9 cells co-cultured with KOBA cells (OP9/L) show diverse changes in the gene expression. OP9/L cells showed significant down-regulation of Cdkn genes and up-regulation of Icam1, leading to the increased proliferation capacity of OP9 cells and enhanced transmigration of leukemia cells through them. The effects were attributed to direct Notch activation of OP9 cells by KOBA cells. OP9/L cells also showed a markedly altered cytokine gene expression pattern, including a robust increase in a variety of proinflammatory genes and a decrease in hematopoietic cytokines such as Cxcl12, Scf, and Angpt1. Consequently, OP9/L cells promoted the proliferation of KOBA cells more efficiently than parental OP9 cells, whereas the activity supporting normal myelopoiesis was attenuated. In mice bearing KOBA leukemia, the characteristic genetic changes observed in OP9/L cells were reflected differentially in the endothelial cells (ECs) and mesenchymal stroma cells (MCs) of the BM. The ECs were markedly increased with Notch-target gene activation and decreased Cdkn expression, whereas the MCs showed a marked increase in proinflammatory gene expression and a profound decrease in hematopoietic genes. Human CML cell lines also induced essentially similar genetic changes in OP9 cells. Our results suggest that CML cells remodel the hematopoietic microenvironment by changing the gene expression patterns differentially in ECs and MCs of BM. PMID:26218064

  18. Core Transcriptional Regulatory Circuit Controlled by the TAL1 Complex in Human T Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    E-print Network

    Sanda, Takaomi

    The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL is aberrantly expressed in over 40% of cases of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), emphasizing its importance in the molecular pathogenesis of T-ALL. Here we ...

  19. Genetically Modified T-cell Immunotherapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-02

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid modulates different genes in cell cycle and apoptosis to control growth of human leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Lawrence C M; Wong, Elaine Y L; Ooi, Vincent E C

    2004-09-01

    Although previous studies have shown that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 omega 3) from fish oils inhibits growth of different cancers, safety issues have been raised repeatedly about contaminations of toxins in these oils. Cultured microalgae are suggested recently as an alternative cleaner and safer source of the fatty acid. We investigated in this study the function of DHA from the enriched microalga Crypthecodinium cohnii (ADHA) in cell-growth control and its mechanism in human leukemia HL-60 cells. ADHA retarded proliferation of the leukemia cells dose-dependently by 4-93% of the control level, after 72-h incubations with 10-160 micro M of the fatty acid; and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was estimated as 74 micro M. DNA-flow cytometry study showed that ADHA arrested G0/G1 cells by 12-22% and induced apoptotic cells by 569-906% of their controls, after incubation with the IC50 of ADHA for 24, 48 and 72 h. The modes of cell-cycle arrest and pro-apoptotic actions of ADHA were further elucidated. Gene-array analysis illustrated that ADHA modulated a number of cell-cycle and apoptosis genes to control the cell growth; in particular, the fatty acid up-regulated the transcriptional repressor E2F-6 and pro-apoptotic Bax by 1435 and 4172% respectively, after 24 h of incubation. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR study further showed that ADHA induced elevation of the Bax mRNA transcript time-dependently. In meanwhile, ADHA also induced phosphorylation and thus inactivation of Rb protein in the leukemia cells. All these results suggest that ADHA up-regulates Bax and inactivates Rb protein to induce the cell-growth control and apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells. PMID:15289877

  1. Niche-based screening identifies small-molecule inhibitors of leukemia stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Kahn, Alissa R; Stewart, Alison L; Logan, David J; Negri, Joseph M; Duvet, Mildred; Järås, Marcus; Puram, Rishi; Dancik, Vlado; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Kindler, Thomas; Tothova, Zuzana; Chattopadhyay, Shrikanta; Hasaka, Thomas; Narayan, Rajiv; Dai, Mingji; Huang, Christina; Shterental, Sebastian; Chu, Lisa P; Haydu, J Erika; Shieh, Jae Hung; Steensma, David P; Munoz, Benito; Bittker, Joshua A; Shamji, Alykhan F; Clemons, Paul A; Tolliday, Nicola J; Carpenter, Anne E; Gilliland, D Gary; Stern, Andrew M; Moore, Malcolm A S; Scadden, David T; Schreiber, Stuart L; Ebert, Benjamin L; Golub, Todd R

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to develop more effective therapies for acute leukemia may benefit from high-throughput screening systems that reflect the complex physiology of the disease, including leukemia stem cells (LSCs) and supportive interactions with the bone-marrow microenvironment. The therapeutic targeting of LSCs is challenging because LSCs are highly similar to normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and are protected by stromal cells in vivo. We screened 14,718 compounds in a leukemia-stroma co-culture system for inhibition of cobblestone formation, a cellular behavior associated with stem-cell function. Among those that inhibited malignant cells but spared HSPCs was the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin. Lovastatin showed anti-LSC activity in vitro and in an in vivo bone marrow transplantation model. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the effect was on-target, via inhibition of HMGCoA reductase. These results illustrate the power of merging physiologically-relevant models with high-throughput screening. PMID:24161946

  2. Selective BCL-2 Inhibition by ABT-199 Causes On Target Cell Death in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Rongqing; Hogdal, Leah J.; Benito, Juliana M; Bucci, Donna; Han, Lina; Borthakur, Gautam; Cortes, Jorge; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Debose, LaKeisha; Mu, Hong; Döhner, Hartmut; Gaidzik, Verena I.; Galinsky, Ilene; Golfman, Leonard S.; Haferlach, Torsten; Harutyunyan, Karine G.; Hu, Jianhua; Leverson, Joel D; Marcucci, Guido; Müschen, Markus; Newman, Rachel; Park, Eugene; Ruvolo, Peter P.; Ruvolo, Vivian; Ryan, Jeremy; Schindela, Sonja; Zweidler-McKay, Patrick; Stone, Richard M.; Kantarjian, Hagop; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina; Letai, Anthony G.

    2014-01-01

    B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) prevents commitment to programmed cell death at the mitochondrion. It remains a challenge to identify those tumors that are best treated by inhibition of BCL-2. Here we demonstrate that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, primary patient samples, and murine primary xenografts are very sensitive to treatment with the selective BCL-2 antagonist ABT-199. In primary patient cells, the median IC50 was approximately 10 nM, and cell death occurred within 2 h. Our ex vivo sensitivity results compare favorably with those observed for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a disease for which ABT-199 has demonstrated consistent activity in clinical trials. Moreover, mitochondrial studies using BH3 profiling demonstrate activity at the mitochondrion that correlates well with cytotoxicity, supporting an on target mitochondrial mechanism of action. Our protein and BH3 profiling studies provide promising tools that can be tested as predictive biomarkers in any clinical trial of ABT-199 in AML. PMID:24346116

  3. Polyphenols are responsible for the proapoptotic properties of pomegranate juice on leukemia cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Dahlawi, Haytham; Jordan-Mahy, Nicola; Clench, Malcolm; McDougall, Gordon J; Maitre, Christine Lyn

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranates have shown great promise as anti-cancer agents in a number of cancers including clinical trials in prostate cancer. We have previously shown pomegranate juice (PGJ) induced apoptosis and preferentially alters the cell cycle in leukemia cell lines compared with nontumor control cells. However, the agents responsible have not yet been fully elucidated. Treatment of four leukemia cell lines with five fractions obtained from PGJ by solid phase extraction demonstrated that only the acetonitrile fractions decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in all leukemia cell lines. Acetonitrile fractions also significantly activated caspase-3 and induced nuclear morphology characteristic of apoptosis. S phase arrest was induced by acetonitrile fractions which matched S phase arrest seen previously following whole PGJ treatments. The acetonitrile fractions contained higher phenol content than whole PGJ whereas only low levels of phenols were seen in any other fraction. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC–MS) analysis demonstrated that acetonitrile fractions were enriched in ellagitannins, ellagic acid, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives but depleted in anthocyanins. Individual treatments with identified compounds demonstrated that the ellagitannin: punicalagin was the most active and mimicked the responses seen following acetonitrile fraction treatment. Bioactive components within pomegranate were confined to the acetonitrile fraction of PGJ. The enrichment in ellagitannins and hydroxycinnamic acids suggest these may provide the majority of the bioactivities of PGJ. Individual treatments with compounds identified demonstrated that the ellagitannin: punicalagin was the most active agent, highlighting this compound as a key bioactive agent in PGJ. PMID:24804028

  4. MicroRNA-128-3p is a novel oncomiR targeting PHF6 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mets, Evelien; Van Peer, Gert; Van der Meulen, Joni; Boice, Michael; Taghon, Tom; Goossens, Steven; Mestdagh, Pieter; Benoit, Yves; De Moerloose, Barbara; Van Roy, Nadine; Poppe, Bruce; Vandesompele, Jo; Wendel, Hans-Guido; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Speleman, Frank; Rondou, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia arises from the leukemic transformation of developing thymocytes and results from cooperative genetic lesions. Inactivation of the PHF6 gene is frequently observed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, suggesting an important tumor suppressive role for PHF6 in the pathobiology of this leukemia. Although the precise function of PHF6 is still unknown, this gene is most likely involved in chromatin regulation, a strongly emerging theme in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In this context, our previous description of a cooperative microRNA regulatory network controlling several well-known T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia tumor suppressor genes, including PHF6, is of great importance. Given the high frequency of PHF6 lesions in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the integration of PHF6 in this microRNA regulatory network, we aimed to identify novel oncogenic microRNAs in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia which suppress PHF6. To this end, we performed an unbiased PHF6 3?UTR-microRNA library screen and combined the results with microRNA profiling data of samples from patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and normal thymocyte subsets. We selected miR-128-3p as a candidate PHF6-targeting, oncogenic microRNA and demonstrated regulation of PHF6 expression upon modulation of this microRNA in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines. In vivo evidence of an oncogenic role of this microRNA in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia was obtained through accelerated leukemia onset in a NOTCH1-induced T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia mouse model upon miR-128-3p over-expression. We conclude that miR-128-3p is a strong novel candidate oncogenic microRNA in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia which targets the PHF6 tumor suppressor gene. PMID:24895337

  5. Abacavir, an anti–HIV-1 drug, targets TDP1-deficient adult T cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Takiuchi, Yoko; Iwai, Fumie; Sakamoto, Takashi; Nagata, Kayoko; Shinohara, Masanobu; Io, Katsuhiro; Shirakawa, Kotaro; Hishizawa, Masakatsu; Shindo, Keisuke; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Hirota, Kouji; Yamamoto, Junpei; Iwai, Shigenori; Sasanuma, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Shunichi; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    Adult T cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive T cell malignancy caused by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and has a poor prognosis. We analyzed the cytotoxic effects of various nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for HIV-1 on ATL cells and found that abacavir potently and selectively kills ATL cells. Although NRTIs have minimal genotoxicities on host cells, the therapeutic concentration of abacavir induced numerous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the chromosomal DNA of ATL cells. DSBs persisted over time in ATL cells but not in other cell lines, suggesting impaired DNA repair. We found that the reduced expression of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), a repair enzyme, is attributable to the cytotoxic effect of abacavir on ATL cells. We also showed that TDP1 removes abacavir from DNA ends in vitro. These results suggest a model in which ATL cells with reduced TDP1 expression are unable to excise abacavir incorporated into genomic DNA, leading to irreparable DSBs. On the basis of the above mechanism, we propose abacavir as a promising chemotherapeutic agent for ATL. PMID:26601161

  6. Aspects of hairy black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  7. Typhonium flagelliforme inhibits the proliferation of murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vitro and induces apoptosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Syam; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Al-Zubairi, Adel S; Aspollah Sukari, Mohamed; Abdullah, Rasedee; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Beng, Ng Kuan; Isa, Nurbaity Mohd

    2010-11-01

    Typhonium flagelliforme (TF) is a tropical plant, traditionally used by the ethnic population of Malaysia for the cure of various cancers. This plant had shown to induce antiproliferative effect as well as apoptosis in cancer cells. However, there is no available information to address that TF affects murine leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated in vitro and in vivo effects of TF on murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells. It was found that the growth of leukemia cells in vitro was inhibited by the various extracts of TF. Among these fractions, the dichloromethane (DCM) tuber extracts of TF showed the lowest IC(50) (24.0 ± 5.2 ?g/ml) and had demonstrated apoptogenic effect when observed under fluorescent microscope. We investigated the in vivo effects of DCM tuber extracts of TF on murine leukemia cells, and the results showed that the counts of immature granulocytes and monocytes were significantly decreased in peripheral blood of BALB/c leukemia mice after the oral administration of DCM tuber extracts of TF for 28 days with three doses (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg). These results were confirmed by observing the spleen histopathology and morphology of enlarged spleen and liver in leukemia mice when compared with the control. Furthermore, the cell death mechanism in the spleen tissue of treated mice was found via apoptosis. PMID:20569984

  8. Cell division patterns in acute myeloid leukemia stem-like cells determine clinical course: a model to predict patient survival.

    PubMed

    Stiehl, Thomas; Baran, Natalia; Ho, Anthony D; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna

    2015-03-15

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease in which a variety of distinct genetic alterations might occur. Recent attempts to identify the leukemia stem-like cells (LSC) have also indicated heterogeneity of these cells. On the basis of mathematical modeling and computer simulations, we have provided evidence that proliferation and self-renewal rates of the LSC population have greater impact on the course of disease than proliferation and self-renewal rates of leukemia blast populations, that is, leukemia progenitor cells. The modeling approach has enabled us to estimate the LSC properties of 31 individuals with relapsed AML and to link them to patient survival. On the basis of the estimated LSC properties, the patients can be divided into two prognostic groups that differ significantly with respect to overall survival after first relapse. The results suggest that high LSC self-renewal and proliferation rates are indicators of poor prognosis. Nevertheless, high LSC self-renewal rate may partially compensate for slow LSC proliferation and vice versa. Thus, model-based interpretation of clinical data allows estimation of prognostic factors that cannot be measured directly. This may have clinical implications for designing treatment strategies. PMID:25614516

  9. Organ-specific microenvironment modifies diverse functional and phenotypic characteristics of leukemia-associated macrophages in mouse T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sha-Yan; Yang, Xiao; Feng, Wen-Li; Liao, Jin-Feng; Wang, Li-Na; Feng, Li; Lin, Yong-Min; Ren, Qian; Zheng, Guo-Guang

    2015-03-15

    Tumor-associated macrophages are widely studied in solid tumors. The distribution of macrophages in lymph node samples was found to be associated with the prognosis of lymphoma patients. However, the role of macrophages in leukemia and their functional and phenotypic characteristics in hematopoietic malignancies have not been defined. In this study, we examined the distribution and functional and phenotypic characteristics of macrophages in a Notch1-induced mouse model of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). The distribution of macrophages in bone marrow (BM) and spleen, which are proposed as BM and spleen leukemia-associated macrophages (LAMs), were different during the development of leukemia. LAMs stimulated the proliferation of T-ALL cells and had higher migration activity. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that gene expression profiles of BM and spleen LAMs showed considerable differences. RT-PCR analysis showed that LAMs expressed both M1- and M2-associated phenotypic genes, but they expressed much lower levels of TGF-?1, VEGF-A, and CSF-1 than did tumor-associated macrophages from B16 melanoma. Furthermore, spleen LAMs more potently stimulated the proliferation of T-ALL cells compared with BM LAMs. Moreover, LAMs could be subdivided into M1-like (CD206(-)) and M2-like (CD206(+)) groups. Both CD206(+) and CD206(-) LAMs stimulated the proliferation of T-ALL cells, although CD206(+) LAMs expressed higher levels of most M1- and M2-associated genes. These results suggested the functional and phenotypic characteristics of LAMs, which were modified by organ specific microenvironments. Our results broaden our knowledge about macrophages in malignant microenvironments from solid tumors to leukemia. PMID:25662994

  10. Diversity and Complexity of Ceramide Generation After Exposure of Jurkat Leukemia Cells to Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ardail, Dominique Maalouf, Mira; Boivin, Anthony; Chapet, Olivier; Bodennec, Jacques; Rousson, Robert; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To define which intracellular pools of sphingomyelin and ceramide are involved in the triggering of apoptosis of Jurkat leukemia cells in response to {gamma}-ray exposure. Methods and Materials: We examined the kinetics of ceramide generation at the whole-cell level and in different subcellular compartments (plasma membrane rafts, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum) after irradiation with photons. Ceramide was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography or after pulse labeling experiments, and the presence of sphingomyelinase within mitochondria was assessed by electron microscopy. Results: Irradiation of Jurkat leukemia cells resulted in the sequential triggering of sphingomyelin hydrolysis, followed by de novo synthesis that led to a late ceramide response (from 24 h) correlated with the triggering of apoptosis. At the subcellular level, pulse-label experiments, using [{sup 3}H]-palmitate as a precursor, strengthened the involvement of the radiation-induced sphingomyelin breakdown and revealed a very early peak (15 min) of ceramide in plasma membrane rafts. A second peak in mitochondria was measured 4 h after irradiation, resulting from an increase of the sphingomyelin content relating to the targeting of acid sphingomyelinase toward this organelle. Conclusion: These data confirm that ceramide is a major determinant in the triggering of radiation-induced apoptosis and highlight the complexity of the sequential compartment-specific ceramide-mediated response of Jurkat leukemia cells to {gamma}-rays.

  11. Soy-derived isoflavones inhibit the growth of adult T-cell leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masao; Fujita, Satoshi; Ishiyama, Erina; Mukai, Ayako; Madhyastha, Harishkumar; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Hatakeyama, Kinta; Nemoto, Takayuki; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Nishiyama, Kazuo

    2007-11-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia occurs in human T-lymphotropic virus type I-infected individuals and is endemic to the south-western area of Kyushu in Japan. In this communication, we examined the effect of soy isoflavones on the growth of adult T-cell leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, daidzein and genistein but not glycitein significantly inhibited the proliferation of ED-40515 and Hut102 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among the isoflavones studied, genistein had the highest growth-inhibitory effect; however, genistein did not exert an apparent growth-inhibitory effect on Jurkat and Molt-4 cells, which were non-adult T-cell leukemia cells. Genistein prevented the G(1)/S or G(2)/M transition at 3 and 10 or 30 microM, respectively. Genistein upregulated p21 protein expression together with p53 accumulation. In addition, treatment with 30 microM genistein strongly induced phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase (CHK) 2 and p53 at serines 15, 20 and 37. Caffeine, an inhibitor of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated protein kinase, alleviated the genistein-induced p53 and CHK2 phosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of DNA damage at 30 microM. However, marked phosphorylation of CHK2 and p53 could not be detected at 3 and 10 microM genistein. These data indicate that genistein has biphasic growth-inhibitory properties. The in vivo studies demonstrated that soy-derived isoflavones significantly inhibit ED-40515 cell growth and infiltration into various organs in non-obese diabetic severe combined-immunodeficiency common gamma-chain knockout mice. Taken together, it is evident that soy isoflavones might serve as a promising compound for the treatment of adult T-cell leukemia. PMID:17727682

  12. Therapeutic advances in the treatment of primary plasma cell leukemia: a focus on hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nishihori, Taiga; Abu Kar, Sarah M; Baz, Rachid; Alsina, Melissa; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A

    2013-08-01

    Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is an uncommon but aggressive plasma cell malignancy associated with frequent extramedullary involvement, high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, and frequent organ dysfunction, ultimately resulting in poor prognosis. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and biological aspects of PCL and summarize therapeutic progress occurring over the past 2 decades. pPCL is distinguished from secondary PCL arising from multiple myeloma. The molecular and immunophenotypic changes of pPCL are often distinct from those seen in secondary PCL and multiple myeloma. The availability of novel agents (ie, proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory agents) and the increasing use of hematopoietic cell transplantation strategies have resulted in better outcomes, although long-term survival remains poor. Development of complex treatment algorithms that combine novel agents as induction therapy, as part of conditioning regimens for hematopoietic cell transplantation (autologous or allogeneic), or as post-transplantation remission strategies are logical and may translate into improved survival in patients with PCL. PMID:23416092

  13. Pre-malignant lymphoid cells arise from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kikushige, Yoshikane; Miyamoto, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Human malignancies progress through a multistep process that includes the development of critical somatic mutations over the clinical course. Recent novel findings have indicated that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which have the potential to self-renew and differentiate into multilineage hematopoietic cells, are an important cellular target for the accumulation of critical somatic mutations in hematological malignancies and play a central role in myeloid malignancy development. In contrast to myeloid malignancies, mature lymphoid malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), are thought to originate directly from differentiated mature lymphocytes; however, recent compelling data have shown that primitive HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells contribute to the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid malignancies. Several representative mutations of hematological malignancies have been identified within the HSCs of CLL and lymphoma patients, indicating that the self-renewing long-lived fraction of HSCs can serve as a reservoir for the development of oncogenic events. Novel mice models have been established as human mature lymphoma models, in which specific oncogenic events target the HSCs and immature progenitor cells. These data collectively suggest that HSCs can be the cellular target involved in the accumulation of oncogenic events in the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid and myeloid malignancies. PMID:25644149

  14. Endothelial cell derived angiocrine support of acute myeloid leukemia targeted by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Drusbosky, Leylah; Gars, Eric; Trujillo, Angelica; McGee, Christie; Meacham, Amy; Wise, Elizabeth; Scott, Edward W; Cogle, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), refractory disease is a major challenge and the leukemia microenvironment may harbor refractory disease. Human AML cell lines KG-1 and HL-60 expressed receptors also found on endothelial cells (ECs) such as VEGFRs, PDGFRs, and cKit. When human AML cells were co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and primary bone marrow endothelial cell (BMECs), the AML cells were more resistant to cytarabine chemotherapy, even in transwell co-culture suggesting angiocrine regulation. Primary BMECs secreted significantly increased levels of VEGF-A and PDGF-AB after exposure to cytarabine. Pazopanib, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) of VEGFRs, PDGFRs, and cKit, removed EC protection of AML cells and enhanced AML cell sensitivity to cytarabine. Xenograft modeling showed significant regression of AML cells and abrogation of BM hypervascularity in RTKI treated cohorts. Together, these results show direct cytotoxicity of RTKIs on AML cells and reversal of EC protection. Combining RTKIs with chemotherapy may serve as promising therapeutic strategy for patients with AML. PMID:26189107

  15. DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis Induction Caused by Lead in Human Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Hervey M; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the industrial use of lead has been significantly reduced from paints and ceramic products, caulking, and pipe solder. Despite this progress, lead exposure continues to be a significant public health concern. The main goal of this research was to determine the in vitro mechanisms of lead nitrate [Pb(NO?)?] to induce DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in human leukemia (HL-60) cells. To reach our goal, HL-60 cells were treated with different concentrations of Pb(NO?)? for 24 h. Live cells and necrotic death cells were measured by the propidium idiode (PI) assay using the cellometer vision. Cell apoptosis was measured by the flow cytometry and DNA laddering. Cell cycle analysis was evaluated by the flow cytometry. The result of the PI demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) increase of necrotic cell death in Pb(NO?)?-treated cells, indicative of membrane rupture by Pb(NO?)? compared to the control. Data generated from the comet assay indicated a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage, showing a significant increase (p < 0.05) in comet tail-length and percentages of DNA cleavage. Data generated from the flow cytometry assessment indicated that Pb(NO?)? exposure significantly (p < 0.05) increased the proportion of caspase-3 positive cells (apoptotic cells) compared to the control. The flow cytometry assessment also indicated Pb(NO?)? exposure caused cell cycle arrest at the G?/G? checkpoint. The result of DNA laddering assay showed presence of DNA smear in the agarose gel with little presence of DNA fragments in the treated cells compared to the control. In summary, Pb(NO?)? inhibits HL-60 cells proliferation by not only inducing DNA damage and cell cycle arrest at the G?/G? checkpoint but also triggering the apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation accompanied by secondary necrosis. We believe that our study provides a new insight into the mechanisms of Pb(NO?)? exposure and its associated adverse health effects. PMID:26703663

  16. Cadmium-coordinated supramolecule suppresses tumor growth of T-cell leukemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoping; Koizumi, Yukio; Zhang, Muxin; Natsui, Miyuki; Koyota, Souichi; Yamada, Manabu; Kondo, Yoshihiko; Hamada, Fumio; Sugiyama, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic pollutant with occupational and environmental significance, due to its diverse toxic effects. Supramolecules that conjugate and decontaminate toxic metals have potential for use in treatment of cadmium intoxication. In addition, metal-coordinating ability has been postulated to contribute to the cytotoxic effects of anti-tumor agents such as cisplatin or bleomycin. Thiacalixarenes, cyclic oligomers of p-alkylphenol bridged by sulfur atoms, are supramolecules known to have potent coordinating ability to metal ions. In this study, we show that cadmium-coordinated thiacalix[4]arene tetrasulfate (TC4ATS-Cd) exhibits an anti-proliferative effect against T-cell leukemia cells. Cadmium exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 36 to 129 ?M against epithelia-derived cancer cell lines, while TC4ATS-Cd elicited no significant cytotoxicity (IC50 > 947 ?M). However, a number of T-cell leukemia cell lines exhibited marked sensitivity to TC4ATS-Cd. In Jurkat cells, toxicity of TC4ATS-Cd occurred with an IC50 of 6.9 ?M, which is comparable to that of 6.5 ?M observed for cadmium alone. TC4ATS-Cd induced apoptotic cell death through activation of caspase-3 in Jurkat cells. In a xenograft model, TC4ATS-Cd (13 mg/kg) treatment significantly suppressed the tumor growth of Jurkat cells in mice. In addition, TC4ATS-Cd-treated mice exhibited significantly less cadmium accumulation in liver and kidney compared to equimolar cadmium-treated mice. These results suggest that cadmium-coordinated supramolecules may have therapeutic potential for treatment of T-cell leukemia. PMID:25735932

  17. Cytotoxic Indole Alkaloids against Human Leukemia Cell Lines from the Toxic Plant Peganum harmala.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhua; Zhang, Zhenxue; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation was used to determine the cytotoxic alkaloids from the toxic plant Peganum harmala. Two novel indole alkaloids, together with ten known ones, were isolated and identified. The novel alkaloids were elucidated to be 2-(indol-3-yl)ethyl-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-D-glucopyranoside (2) and 3-hydroxy-3-(N-acetyl-2-aminoethyl)-6-methoxyindol-2-one (3). The cytotoxicity against human leukemia cells was assayed for the alkaloids and some of them showed potent activity. Harmalacidine (compound 8, HMC) exhibited the highest cytotoxicity against U-937 cells with IC50 value of 3.1 ± 0.2 ?mol/L. The cytotoxic mechanism of HMC was targeting the mitochondrial and protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathways (PTKs-Ras/Raf/ERK). The results strongly demonstrated that the alkaloids from Peganum harmala could be a promising candidate for the therapy of leukemia. PMID:26540074

  18. Cytotoxic Indole Alkaloids against Human Leukemia Cell Lines from the Toxic Plant Peganum harmala

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunhua; Zhang, Zhenxue; Wang, Yihai; He, Xiangjiu

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation was used to determine the cytotoxic alkaloids from the toxic plant Peganum harmala. Two novel indole alkaloids, together with ten known ones, were isolated and identified. The novel alkaloids were elucidated to be 2-(indol-3-yl)ethyl-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 6)-?-d-glucopyranoside (2) and 3-hydroxy-3-(N-acetyl-2-aminoethyl)-6-methoxyindol-2-one (3). The cytotoxicity against human leukemia cells was assayed for the alkaloids and some of them showed potent activity. Harmalacidine (compound 8, HMC) exhibited the highest cytotoxicity against U-937 cells with IC50 value of 3.1 ± 0.2 ?mol/L. The cytotoxic mechanism of HMC was targeting the mitochondrial and protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathways (PTKs-Ras/Raf/ERK). The results strongly demonstrated that the alkaloids from Peganum harmala could be a promising candidate for the therapy of leukemia. PMID:26540074

  19. Molecular Classification and Pharmacogenetics of Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia: An Initial Approach toward Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Simeon, Vittorio; Todoerti, Katia; La Rocca, Francesco; Caivano, Antonella; Trino, Stefania; Lionetti, Marta; Agnelli, Luca; De Luca, Luciana; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Neri, Antonino; Musto, Pellegrino

    2015-01-01

    Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma (MM) which may represent a valid model for high-risk MM. This disease is associated with a very poor prognosis, and unfortunately, it has not significantly improved during the last three decades. New high-throughput technologies have allowed a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and moved toward risk stratification, providing insights for targeted therapy studies. This knowledge, added to the pharmacogenetic profile of new and old agents in the analysis of efficacy and safety, could contribute to help clinical decisions move toward a precision medicine and a better clinical outcome for these patients. In this review, we describe the available literature concerning the genomic characterization and pharmacogenetics of plasma cell leukemia (PCL). PMID:26263974

  20. Crystal Structures of Inhibitir Complexes of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus (HTLV-1) Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-09-17

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease.

  1. Crystal structures of inhibitor complexes of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) protease

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-09-28

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease.

  2. Crystal structures of inhibitor complexes of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) protease.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tadashi; Li, Mi; Nguyen, Jeffrey-Tri; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2010-08-27

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus associated with several serious diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia and tropical spastic paraparesis/myelopathy. For a number of years, the protease (PR) encoded by HTLV-1 has been a target for designing antiviral drugs, but that effort was hampered by limited available structural information. We report a high-resolution crystal structure of HTLV-1 PR complexed with a statine-containing inhibitor, a significant improvement over the previously available moderate-resolution structure. We also report crystal structures of the complexes of HTLV-1 PR with five different inhibitors that are more compact and more potent. A detailed study of structure-activity relationships was performed to interpret in detail the influence of the polar and hydrophobic interactions between the inhibitors and the protease. PMID:20600105

  3. Alemtuzumab and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Untreated Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-20

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L1 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L1 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Negative Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  4. Nilotinib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-29

    B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  5. Antileukemic effect of zerumbone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier in WEHI-3B cell-induced murine leukemia model

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Rasedee, Abdullah; How, Chee Wun; Zeenathul, Nazariah Allaudin; Chartrand, Max Stanley; Yeap, Swee Keong; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Tan, Sheau Wei; Othman, Hemn Hassan; Ajdari, Zahra; Namvar, Farideh; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fakurazi, Sharida; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Daneshvar, Nasibeh; Begum, Hasina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer nanotherapy is progressing rapidly with the introduction of many innovative drug delivery systems to replace conventional therapy. Although the antitumor activity of zerumbone (ZER) has been reported, there has been no information available on the effect of ZER-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) (ZER-NLC) on murine leukemia cells. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo effects of ZER-NLC on murine leukemia induced with WEHI-3B cells were investigated. The results from 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, Hoechst 33342, Annexin V, cell cycle, and caspase activity assays showed that the growth of leukemia cells in vitro was inhibited by ZER-NLC. In addition, outcomes of histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, and Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling analyses revealed that the number of leukemia cells in the spleen of BALB/c leukemia mice significantly decreased after 4 weeks of oral treatment with various doses of ZER-NLC. Western blotting and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed the antileukemia effects of ZER-NLC. In conclusion, ZER-NLC was shown to induce a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway in murine leukemia. Loading of ZER in NLC did not compromise the anticancer effect of the compound, suggesting ZER-NLC as a promising and effective delivery system for treatment of cancers. PMID:25767386

  6. Unusual Presentation of Pre-T Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Massive Pericardial Effusion Only.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Rahmi; Me?e, Timur; Karadeniz, Cem; Doksöz, Önder

    2015-10-01

    Despite the infectious and connective tissue diseases are most encountered, etiological factors, pericardial effusions, can also rarely emerge because of malign disease in childhood and it often develops during the course of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Unfortunately, pericardial involvement is one of the frequently encountered symptoms of pediatric malignancies. Herein, we present a rare case who was admitted with pericardial effusion and whose disease was diagnosed as pre-T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia without peripheral blood involvement. PMID:26181503

  7. Autocrine motility factor receptor promotes the proliferation of human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YINGCHAO; MA, LINA; WANG, CHUNMEI; SHENG, GUANGYAO; FENG, LEI; YIN, CHUYUN

    2015-01-01

    The aberrant activation of autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) has been implicated in several types of human cancer. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of AMFR on the regulation of proliferation in an acute monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1. THP-1 cells were transfected with AMFR-targeted small interfering (si)RNA and a plasmid encoding a truncated AMFR, AMFR-C, (pcDNA3.1-AMFR-C). The mRNA and protein levels of AMFR and the downstream targets, rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2), cyclin D1, and B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, were measured using reverse transcription-quantitatibe polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses. The effects on cell cycle and apoptosis were investigated using flow cytometry. The present study successfully established the knockdown of AMFR and expression of AMFR-C in the THP-1 cells. Downregulation of AMFR induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, and increased apoptosis of the THP-1 cells (all P<0.05). The AMFR siRNA increased the percentage of early apoptotic cells between 3.88±1.43 and 19.58±4.29% (P<0.05). The expression levels of ROCK2, cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 were reduced by the downregulation of AMFR and enhanced by overexpression of AMFR-C. In conclusion, AMFR appears to be crucial for the proliferation of the THP-1 acute monocytic leukemia cell line. Therefore, AMFR may represent a potential target for the treatment of acute monocytic leukemia. PMID:26136223

  8. PI3K Signaling in Normal B Cells and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    PubMed Central

    Okkenhaug, Klaus; Burger, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    B cells provide immunity to extracellular pathogens by secreting a diverse repertoire of antibodies with high affinity and specificity for exposed antigens. The B cell receptor (BCR) is a transmembrane antibody, which facilitates the clonal selection of B cells producing secreted antibodies of the same specificity. The diverse antibody repertoire is generated by V(D)J recombination of heavy and light chain genes, whereas affinity maturation is mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-mediated mutagenesis. These processes, which are essential for the generation of adaptive humoral immunity, also render B cells susceptible to chromosomal rearrangements and point mutations that in some cases lead to cancer. In this chapter, we will review the central role of PI3Ks in mediating signals from the B cell receptor that not only facilitate the development of functional B cell repertoire, but also support the growth and survival of neoplastic B cells, focusing on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells. Perhaps because of the central role played by PI3K in BCR signaling, B cell leukemia and lymphomas are the first diseases for which a PI3K inhibitor has been approved for clinical use. PMID:26350103

  9. The bone marrow niche, stem cells, and leukemia: impact of drugs, chemicals, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Detection, treatment, and prevention of bone marrow diseases have long been the aims of experimental and clinical hematologists and mechanistically oriented toxicologists. Among these diseases is aplastic anemia, which manifests as the cessation of normal blood cell production; the leukemias, in contrast, feature the production of excessive hematologic cancer cells. Both diseases are associated with exposure to either industrial chemicals or cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Studies of hematopoietic bone marrow cells in culture have shown that the generation of circulating blood cells requires the interaction of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with supporting marrow stromal cells; yet, isolation of HSCs from bone destroys the unique morphology of the marrow stroma in which the HSCs reside. Imaging techniques and related studies have made it possible to examine specific niches where HSCs may either initiate differentiation toward mature blood cells or reside in a dormant state awaiting a signal to begin differentiation. HSCs and related cells may be highly vulnerable to the mutagenic or toxic effects of drugs or other chemicals early in these processes. Additional studies are required to determine the mechanisms by which drug or chemical exposure may affect these cells and lead to either depression of bone marrow function or to leukemia. PMID:24495003

  10. PI3K Signaling in Normal B Cells and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL).

    PubMed

    Okkenhaug, Klaus; Burger, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    B cells provide immunity to extracellular pathogens by secreting a diverse repertoire of antibodies with high affinity and specificity for exposed antigens. The B cell receptor (BCR ) is a transmembrane antibody, which facilitates the clonal selection of B cells producing secreted antibodies of the same specificity. The diverse antibody repertoire is generated by V(D)J recombination of heavy and light chain genes, whereas affinity maturation is mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-mediated mutagenesis. These processes, which are essential for the generation of adaptive humoral immunity, also render B cells susceptible to chromosomal rearrangements and point mutations that in some cases lead to cancer. In this chapter, we will review the central role of PI3K s in mediating signals from the B cell receptor that not only facilitate the development of functional B cell repertoire, but also support the growth and survival of neoplastic B cells, focusing on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL ) B cells. Perhaps because of the central role played by PI3K in BCR signaling, B cell leukemia and lymphomas are the first diseases for which a PI3K inhibitor has been approved for clinical use. PMID:26350103

  11. MUC1 IS A POTENTIAL TARGET FOR THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA STEM CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Stroopinsky, Dina; Rosenblatt, Jacalyn; Ito, Keisuke; Mills, Heidi; Yin, Li; Rajabi, Hasan; Vasir, Baldev; Kufe, Turner; Luptakova, Katarina; Arnason, Jon; Nardella, Caterina; Levine, James D.; Joyce, Robin; Galinsky, Ilene; Reiter, Yoram; Stone, Richard; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Kufe, Donald; Avigan, David

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignancy of stem cells with an unlimited capacity for self-renewal. MUC1 is a secreted, oncogenic mucin that is expressed aberrantly in AML blasts, but its potential uses to target AML stem cells have not been explored. Here we report that MUC1 is highly expressed on AML CD34+/lineage?/CD38? cells as compared to their normal stem cell counterparts. MUC1 expression was not restricted to AML CD34+ populations as similar results were obtained with leukemic cells from patients with CD34? disease. Engraftment of AML stem cell populations that highly express MUC1 (MUC1high) led to development of leukemia in NSG immunodeficient mice. In contrast, MUC1low cell populations established normal hematopoiesis in the NSG model. Functional blockade of the oncogenic MUC1-C subunit with the peptide inhibitor GO-203 depleted established AML in vivo, but did not affect engraftment of normal hematopoietic cells. Our results establish that MUC1 is highly expressed in AML stem cells and they define the MUC1-C subunit as a valid target for their therapeutic eradication. PMID:23867470

  12. B cells generated by B-1 development can progress to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kyoko; Formica, Anthony M; Colombo, Matthew J; Ichikawa, Daiju; Shinton, Susan A; Brill-Dashoff, Joni; Hardy, Richard R

    2015-12-01

    B cells generated early during fetal/neonatal B-1 development in mice include autoreactive cells with detectable CD5 upregulation induced by B cell receptor (BCR) signaling (B1a cells). A fraction of B1a cells are maintained by self-renewal for life, with the potential risk of dysregulated growth and progression to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/lymphoma during aging. In studies using the E?-hTCL1 transgenic mouse system, it became clear that this B1a subset has a higher potential than other B cell subsets for progression to CLL. We have generated several autoreactive germline BCR gene models to compare B cells generated under conditions of natural exposure to autoantigen. Analysis of the mice has been key in understanding the importance of the BCR and BCR signaling for generating different B cell subsets and for investigating the cellular origin of B-CLL. PMID:25907284

  13. Increased lanosterol turnover: a metabolic burden for daunorubicin-resistant leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Stäubert, Claudia; Krakowsky, Rosanna; Bhuiyan, Hasanuzzaman; Witek, Barbara; Lindahl, Anna; Broom, Oliver; Nordström, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol metabolism is essential for cancer cell proliferation. We found the expression of genes involved in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway up-regulated in the daunorubicin-resistant leukemia cell line CEM/R2, which is a daughter cell line to the leukemia cell line CCRF-CEM (CEM). Cellular (2)H2O labelling, mass spectrometry, and isotopomer analysis revealed an increase in lanosterol synthesis which was not accompanied by an increase in cholesterol flux or pool size in CEM/R2 cells. Exogenous addition of lanosterol had a negative effect on CEM/R2 and a positive effect on sensitive CEM cell viability. Treatment of CEM and CEM/R2 cells with cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitors acting on the enzymes squalene epoxidase and lanosterol synthase, both also involved in the 24,25-epoxycholesterol shunt pathway, revealed a connection of this pathway to lanosterol turnover. Our data highlight that an increased lanosterol flux poses a metabolic weakness of resistant cells that potentially could be therapeutically exploited. PMID:26698156

  14. The effect of silymarin on telomerase activity in the human leukemia cell line K562.

    PubMed

    Faezizadeh, Zohreh; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Ali Reza; Allameh, Abdolamir

    2012-06-01

    Telomerase has been proposed as a novel and potentially selective target in cancer therapy. Silymarin, which is a standardized mixture of flavonolignans from the medical plant Silybum marianum, has potent effects against various types of cancer cells, but its effect on telomerase activity in the human leukemia cell line K562 has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism of silymarin-induced apoptosis in K562 cells, with particular emphasis on its effect on telomerase activity. The antiproliferation effect of silymarin on K562 cells was evaluated by the MTT assay. To measure apoptosis, Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometry were used. The telomerase activity was determined using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP)-ELISA assay. The treatment of the K562 cells with silymarin resulted in a significant inhibition of cell growth and telomerase activity. Also, a positive correlation was found between telomerase inhibition and induction of apoptosis in silymarin-treated K562 cells. These results suggest a novel mechanism in the anticancer activity of silymarin in human leukemia K562 cells and may provide a basis for future development of anti-telomerase therapies. PMID:22532022

  15. Congenital Hairy Polyp of Posterior Tonsillar Pillar

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Shahid; Talat, Nabila; Saleem, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Congenital hairy polyps are exceedingly rare congenital anomalies. We report a case of congenital hairy polyp arising from posterior tonsillar pillar which was excised with bipolar cautry. PMID:26023478

  16. Genistein decreases cellular redox potential, partially suppresses cell growth in HL?60 leukemia cells and sensitizes cells to ??radiation?induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Jin Sik; Lee, Jae Ha; Cho, Eun Wie

    2014-12-01

    Various mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the cellular activity of genistein, based on biological experiments and epidemiological studies. The present study demonstrated that genistein inhibited the expression of cytoplasmic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)?dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (cICDH), thus increasing levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human promyeloid leukemia HL?60 cells. In genistein?treated cells, the cellular redox potential (GSH/GSSG) was significantly decreased. This decrease in redox potential was caused by significant downregulation of the cICDH gene, generating the reducing equivalents (NADPH) for maintenance of cellular redox potential and cellular ROS level, which may regulate cell growth and cell death. Genistein?induced ROS partially induced rapid transition into the G2/M phase by upregulation of p21wap1/cip1 and apoptotic cell death. Treatment of cells with N?acetylcysteine, a well?known antioxidant (ROS scavenger), not only partially restored cell growth and inhibited cell cycle arrest in G2/M, but also prevented apoptotic cell death. By contrast, normal lymphocytes did not significantly progress into the G2/M phase and radiation?induced cell death was inhibited by genistein treatment. Therefore, genistein and ??irradiation together synergistically cause cell death in leukemia cells, however, genistein has a radioprotective effect in normal human lymphocytes. In conclusion, it was suggested that genistein selectively functions, not as an antioxidant, but as a pro?oxidant in HL?60 cells. This property can increase ionizing radiation?induced cell cycle arrest and sensitivity to apoptotic cell death in human promyeloid leukemia HL?60 cells, but does not cause significant damage to normal cells. PMID:25310747

  17. G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Tumor Selective Apoptosis of Acute Leukemia Cells by a Promising Benzophenone Thiosemicarbazone Compound

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Maia; Gomez, Natalia; Remes Lenicov, Federico; Echeverría, Emiliana; Shayo, Carina; Moglioni, Albertina; Fernández, Natalia; Davio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Anti-mitotic therapies have been considered a hallmark in strategies against abnormally proliferating cells. Focusing on the extensively studied family of thiosemicarbazone (TSC) compounds, we have previously identified 4,4’-dimethoxybenzophenone thiosemicarbazone (T44Bf) as a promising pharmacological compound in a panel of human leukemia cell lines (HL60, U937, KG1a and Jurkat). Present findings indicate that T44Bf-mediated antiproliferative effects are associated with a reversible chronic mitotic arrest caused by defects in chromosome alignment, followed by induced programmed cell death. Furthermore, T44Bf selectively induces apoptosis in leukemia cell lines when compared to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The underlying mechanism of action involves the activation of the mitochondria signaling pathway, with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and sustained phosphorylation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL as well as increased Bcl-2 (enhanced phosphorylated fraction) and pro-apoptotic protein Bad levels. In addition, ERK signaling pathway activation was found to be a requisite for T44Bf apoptotic activity. Our findings further describe a novel activity for a benzophenone thiosemicarbazone and propose T44Bf as a promising anti-mitotic prototype to develop chemotherapeutic agents to treat acute leukemia malignancies. PMID:26360247

  18. Inhibition of ceramide metabolism sensitizes human leukemia cells to inhibition of BCL2-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Casson, Lavona; Howell, Lauren; Mathews, Lesley A; Ferrer, Marc; Southall, Noel; Guha, Rajarshi; Keller, Jonathan M; Thomas, Craig; Siskind, Leah J; Beverly, Levi J

    2013-01-01

    The identification of novel combinations of effective cancer drugs is required for the successful treatment of cancer patients for a number of reasons. First, many "cancer specific" therapeutics display detrimental patient side-effects and second, there are almost no examples of single agent therapeutics that lead to cures. One strategy to decrease both the effective dose of individual drugs and the potential for therapeutic resistance is to combine drugs that regulate independent pathways that converge on cell death. BCL2-like family members are key proteins that regulate apoptosis. We conducted a screen to identify drugs that could be combined with an inhibitor of anti-apoptotic BCL2-like proteins, ABT-263, to kill human leukemia cells lines. We found that the combination of D,L-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP) hydrochloride, an inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, potently synergized with ABT-263 in the killing of multiple human leukemia cell lines. Treatment of cells with PDMP and ABT-263 led to dramatic elevation of two pro-apoptotic sphingolipids, namely ceramide and sphingosine. Furthermore, treatment of cells with the sphingosine kinase inhibitor, SKi-II, also dramatically synergized with ABT-263 to kill leukemia cells and similarly increased ceramides and sphingosine. Data suggest that synergism with ABT-263 requires accumulation of ceramides and sphingosine, as AMP-deoxynojirimycin, (an inhibitor of the glycosphingolipid pathway) did not elevate ceramides or sphingosine and importantly did not sensitize cells to ABT-263 treatment. Taken together, our data suggest that combining inhibitors of anti-apoptotic BCL2-like proteins with drugs that alter the balance of bioactive sphingolipids will be a powerful combination for the treatment of human cancers. PMID:23342165

  19. Inhibition of IRAK1/4 sensitizes T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia to chemotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaoyang; Younger, Kenisha; Gartenhaus, Ronald; Joseph, Ann Mary; Hu, Fang; Baer, Maria R.; Brown, Patrick; Davila, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Signaling via the MyD88/IRAK pathway in T cells is indispensable for cell survival; however, it is not known whether this pathway functions in the progression of T acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we determined that compared with thymic and peripheral T cells, T-ALL cells from patients have elevated levels of IRAK1 and IRAK4 mRNA as well as increased total and phosphorylated protein. Targeted inhibition of IRAK1 and IRAK4, either with shRNA or with a pharmacological IRAK1/4 inhibitor, dramatically impeded proliferation of T-ALL cells isolated from patients and T-ALL cells in a murine leukemia model; however, IRAK1/4 inhibition had little effect on cell death. We screened several hundred FDA-approved compounds and identified a set of drugs that had enhanced cytotoxic activity when combined with IRAK inhibition. Administration of an IRAK1/4 inhibitor or IRAK knockdown in combination with either ABT-737 or vincristine markedly reduced leukemia burden in mice and prolonged survival. IRAK1/4 signaling activated the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, increasing K63-linked ubiquitination and enhancing stability of the antiapoptotic protein MCL1; therefore, IRAK inhibition reduced MCL1 stability and sensitized T-ALL to combination therapy. These studies demonstrate that IRAK1/4 signaling promotes T-ALL progression through stabilization of MCL1 and suggest that impeding this pathway has potential as a therapeutic strategy to enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy. PMID:25642772

  20. Cepharanthine activates caspases and induces apoptosis in Jurkat and K562 human leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Suzuki, H; Zhou, Y W; Liu, W; Yoshihara, M; Kato, M; Akhand, A A; Hayakawa, A; Takeuchi, K; Hossain, K; Kurosawa, M; Nakashima, I

    2001-01-01

    Cepharanthine (CEP) is a known membrane stabilizer that has been widely used in Japan for the treatment of several disorders such as anticancer therapy-provoked leukopenia. We here report that apoptosis was induced by low concentrations (1-5 microM) of CEP in a human leukemia T cell line, Jurkat, and by slightly higher concentrations (5-10 microM) in a human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cell line K562, which expresses a p210 antiapoptotic Bcr-Abl fusion protein. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed in both Jurkat and K562 cells by DNA fragmentation and typical apoptotic nuclear change, which were preceded by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and were induced through a Fas-independent pathway. CEP treatment induced activation of caspase-9 and -3 accompanied by cleavage of PARP, Bid, lamin B1, and DFF45/ICAD in both Jurkat and K562 cells, whereas caspase-8 activation and Akt cleavage were observed only in Jurkat cells. The CEP-induced apoptosis was completely blocked by zVAD-fmk, a broad caspase inhibitor. Interestingly, CEP treatment induced remarkable degradation of the Bcr-Abl protein in K562 cells, and this degradation was prevented partially by zVAD-fmk. When used in combination with a nontoxic concentration of herbimycin A, lower concentrations (2-5 microM) of CEP induced obvious apoptosis in K562 cells with rapid degradation or decrease in the amount of Bcr-Abl and Akt proteins. Our results suggest that CEP, which does not have bone marrow toxicity, may possess therapeutic potential against human leukemias, including CML, which is resistant to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. PMID:11527146

  1. Metabolic basis for differential glutamine requirements of human leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kitoh, T; Kubota, M; Takimoto, T; Hashimoto, H; Shimizu, T; Sano, H; Akiyama, Y; Mikawa, H

    1990-04-01

    We compared the ability of human leukemia cell lines of various origins to grow in glutamine-deficient media. The growth of B lymphoblastoid cell lines, including promyelocytic HL-60, is highly dependent on glutamine, whereas T-cell lines are able to proliferate in glutamine-free media. Such glutamine dependency has a good inverse correlation with the activity of glutamine synthetase. Moreover, glutamine synthetase can be induced in glutamine-deficient media, especially in glutamine-independent cells. In HL-60 cells, glutamine deprivation results in the decrease of both ATP and dATP levels. The addition of adenine to the culture medium abolishes these changes without restoring cell growth, indicating that the effects of glutamine deprivation on cell growth cannot be fully explained by the perturbation of adenine nucleotide pools. PMID:1969419

  2. In situ real-time monitoring of apoptosis on leukemia cells by surface infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Ryo-taro; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Kimura, Yasuo; Niwano, Michio; Miyamoto, Ko-ichiro; Isoda, Hiroko; Miyazaki, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated in situ real-time monitoring of apoptosis on human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells using infrared absorption spectroscopy with the multiple internal reflection (MIR-IRAS) geometry. Actinomycin D (Act D)-induced apoptosis on HL-60 cells was monitored for 24 h. Apoptotic cells showed two strong peaks around the protein amide I and amide II bands probably due to the leakage of cytoplasmic proteins, while growing viable cells showed a peak corresponding to the secretion of metabolites and two downward peaks corresponding to uptake of nutrients from culture media. In addition, IR absorption peak intensity of the amide I and amide II bands was proportional to the extracellular concentration of lactate dehydrogenase, a marker protein for cell damage. These results demonstrate that our MIR-IRAS method is useful for discrimination of apoptotic cells from viable ones and cell apoptotic processes can be monitored in situ by analyzing the amide I and amide II peak intensity.

  3. The mechanism and influencing factors on photodynamic purging of leukemia cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongming; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2007-05-01

    The paper compared the response of HL60 cells with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) after 5-ALA PDT for different periods of time and then followed by irradiating with different wavebands for different fluences. The results of parameter experiments were obtained: 1 × 10 5/mL HL60 cell was incubated with 1 mmol/L ALA in dark for 4 h and the maximum fluorescence of PpIX level appeared; then irradiated with 410 nm (4 mW/cm2) for 14.4 J/cm2 and maximum photodamage to membrane and mitochondrial function of HL60 cell resulted. Analyzed the experimental results of references, we got that the effect of photodynamic purging of leukemia cells may be modulated by the leukemia cell type; the photosensitizer's type, dose, and its location point; the incubation time and condition; the light wavelength and its dosage. If the light is delivered at a high rate, significant heating of a molecule and its surrounding may take place. A too low dosage has no effect at all or will result in high relapse rate due to the presence of cancer cells. The wavelength and intensity of light required to carry out photopurging is determined by the absorption properties of the photosensitizer. The light dose actually received by the photosensitizer and tissue may be higher or lower depending on the manner of irradiation.

  4. Induced differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia cells by activation of retinoid X and liver X receptors.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, P V; Glantz, S T; Scotland, S; Kasner, M T; Carroll, M

    2014-04-01

    Use of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as a differentiation agent has been limited to acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) as non-APL leukemias are insensitive to ATRA. We recently demonstrated that the rexinoid, bexarotene, induces differentiation and therapeutic responses in patients with refractory AML. Rexinoids bind and activate retinoid X receptors (RXRs); however, rexinoids alone are incapable of activating retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/RXR complexes, suggesting that myeloid differentiation can occur independent of RAR. In this study, we demonstrate that rexinoid differentiation of AML cells is RAR independent and requires the expression of PU.1. Because of the promiscuousness of RXR with other nuclear receptors, myeloid differentiation by bexarotene with other nuclear receptor ligands was explored. Bexarotene cooperated with ATRA to enhance differentiation in some AML cell lines; however, the combination of bexarotene with the PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone did not. In contrast, bexarotene combined with liver X receptor (LXR) agonists, T0901317 or GW3965, induced potent differentiation and cytotoxicity in AML cell lines and primary human AML cells, but not in normal progenitor cells. These results suggest that RXR/LXR-regulated gene expression in normal cells is deregulated in AML cells and identifies a potential role for these agonists in differentiation therapy of non-APLs. PMID:23823656

  5. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is another rare form of chronic leukemia. The cancer cells are large and have features of either T lymphocytes or another type of lymphocyte called natural killer (NK) cells. Most LGL leukemias are slow- ...

  6. Activated Notch counteracts Ikaros tumor suppression in mouse and human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, M T; Cimmino, L; Hu, Y; Trimarchi, T; Tagoh, H; McKenzie, M D; Best, S A; Tuohey, L; Willson, T A; Nutt, S L; Busslinger, M; Aifantis, I; Smyth, G K; Dickins, R A

    2015-06-01

    Activating NOTCH1 mutations occur in ~60% of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs), and mutations disrupting the transcription factor IKZF1 (IKAROS) occur in ~5% of cases. To investigate the regulatory interplay between these driver genes, we have used a novel transgenic RNA interference mouse model to produce primary T-ALLs driven by reversible Ikaros knockdown. Restoring endogenous Ikaros expression in established T-ALL in vivo acutely represses Notch1 and its oncogenic target genes including Myc, and in multiple primary leukemias causes disease regression. In contrast, leukemias expressing high levels of endogenous or engineered forms of activated intracellular Notch1 (ICN1) resembling those found in human T-ALL rapidly relapse following Ikaros restoration, indicating that ICN1 functionally antagonizes Ikaros in established disease. Furthermore, we find that IKAROS mRNA expression is significantly reduced in a cohort of primary human T-ALL patient samples with activating NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutations, but is upregulated upon acute inhibition of aberrant NOTCH signaling across a panel of human T-ALL cell lines. These results demonstrate for the first time that aberrant NOTCH activity compromises IKAROS function in mouse and human T-ALL, and provide a potential explanation for the relative infrequency of IKAROS gene mutations in human T-ALL. PMID:25655195

  7. Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-11

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  8. Gammadelta T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia with spontaneous remission.

    PubMed

    Shichishima, Tsutomu; Kawaguchi, Michiko; Ono, Nobutaka; Oshimi, Kazuo; Nakamura, Naoya; Maruyama, Yukio

    2004-03-01

    T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia is a clonal disorder with an indolent clinical course. In July 1995, a 46-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because his anemia had progressed. He had a white blood cell count of 3.9 x 10(9)/L with 75% lymphocytes, which were intermediate to large and had almost round nuclei and azurophilic granules, and anemia with a red blood cell count (RBC) of 2.69 x 10(12)/L, hemoglobin (Hb) of 9.5 g/dL, and hematocrit (Hct) of 28.3%. Electron microscopic examination showed that most of the lymphocytes had a parallel tubular array and dense core granules in their cytoplasm. Flow cytometry and Southern blotting of the T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) genes using the peripheral blood species showed monoclonal proliferation of LGLs with a CD3+, TCRgammadelta+, CD4-, CD8-, CD16+, CD56-, CD57-, HLA-DR+ phenotype, and a TCR gamma gene rearrangement, respectively, suggesting that the patient was diagnosed as having gammadelta T-cell LGL leukemia. He had no symptoms, organomegaly, or skin lesions. About 1.5 years after diagnosis, the anemia gradually improved with disappearance and appearance of a rearranged band in the TCR-gamma gene and TCR-beta gene, respectively. About 7 years after diagnosis, the anemia improved completely with a RBC of 5.01 x 10(12)/L, Hb of 14.8 g/dL, and Hct of 44.3%, and he was in complete remission without TCR-beta and -gamma gene rearrangements. He had received no therapy. This is the first report of spontaneous remission of gammadelta T-cell LGL leukemia. PMID:14978699

  9. Long-range enhancer activity determines Myc sensitivity to Notch inhibitors in T cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro-Ohtani, Yumi; Wang, Hongfang; Zang, Chongzhi; Arnett, Kelly L.; Bailis, Will; Ho, Yugong; Knoechel, Birgit; Lanauze, Claudia; Louis, Lumena; Forsyth, Katherine S.; Chen, Sujun; Chung, Yoonjie; Schug, Jonathan; Blobel, Gerd A.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Liu, Xiaole Shirley; Aster, Jon C.; Pear, Warren S.

    2014-01-01

    Notch is needed for T-cell development and is a common oncogenic driver in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The protooncogene c-Myc (Myc) is a critical target of Notch in normal and malignant pre-T cells, but how Notch regulates Myc is unknown. Here, we identify a distal enhancer located >1 Mb 3? of human and murine Myc that binds Notch transcription complexes and physically interacts with the Myc proximal promoter. The Notch1 binding element in this region activates reporter genes in a Notch-dependent, cell-context–specific fashion that requires a conserved Notch complex binding site. Acute changes in Notch activation produce rapid changes in H3K27 acetylation across the entire enhancer (a region spanning >600 kb) that correlate with Myc expression. This broad Notch-influenced region comprises an enhancer region containing multiple domains, recognizable as discrete H3K27 acetylation peaks. Leukemia cells selected for resistance to Notch inhibitors express Myc despite epigenetic silencing of enhancer domains near the Notch transcription complex binding sites. Notch-independent expression of Myc in resistant cells is highly sensitive to inhibitors of bromodomain containing 4 (Brd4), a change in drug sensitivity that is accompanied by preferential association of the Myc promoter with more 3? enhancer domains that are strongly dependent on Brd4 for function. These findings indicate that altered long-range enhancer activity can mediate resistance to targeted therapies and provide a mechanistic rationale for combined targeting of Notch and Brd4 in leukemia. PMID:25369933

  10. Combination Chemotherapy and Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Children With Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-07

    L1 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; L2 Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Non-T, Non-B Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  11. Photothermolysis by laser-induced microbubbles generated around gold nanorod clusters selectively formed in leukemia cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotko, Dmitri; Lukianova-Hleb, Ekaterina; Zhdanok, Sergei; Rostro, Betty; Simonette, Rebecca; Hafner, Jason; Konopleva, Marina; Andreeff, Michael; Conjusteau, Andre; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    In an effort of developing clinical LANTCET (laser-activated nano-thermolysis as cell elimination technology) we achieved selective destruction of individual tumor cells through laser generation of vapor microbubbles around clusters of light absorbing gold nanorods (GNR) selectively formed in target tumor cells. Among all gold nanoparticles, nanorods offer the highest optical absorption in the near-infrared. We applied covalent conjugates of gold nanorods with targeting vectors such as monoclonal antibodies CD33 (specific for Acute Myeloid Leukemia), while GNR conjugates with polyethylene-glycol (PEG) were used as nonspecific targeting control. GNR clusters were formed inside the tumor cells at 37 °C due to endocytosis of large concentration of nanorods accumulated on the surface of tumor cells targeted at 4 °C. Formation of GNR clusters significantly reduces the threshold of tumor cell damage making LANTCET safe for normal cells. Appearance of GNR clusters was verified directly with optical resonance scattering microscopy. LANTCET was performed in vitro with living cells of (1) model myeloid K562 cells (CD33 positive), (2) primary human bone marrow CD33-positive blast cells from patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia. Laser-induced microbubbles were generated and detected with a photothermal microscope equipped with a tunable Ti-Sa pulsed laser. GNT cluster formation caused a 100-fold decrease in the threshold optical fluence for laser microbubble generation in tumor cells compared with that in normal cells under the same targeting and irradiation conditions. Combining imaging based on resonance optical scattering with photothermal imaging of microbubbles, we developed a method for detection, image-guided treatment and monitoring of LANTCET. Pilot experiments were performed in flow mode bringing LANTCET closer to reality of clinical procedure of purging tumor cells from bone marrow grafts.

  12. Exosomal shuttling of miR-126 in endothelial cells modulates adhesive and migratory abilities of chronic myelogenous leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent findings indicate that exosomes released from cancer cells contain microRNAs (miRNAs) that may be delivered to cells of tumor microenvironment. Results To elucidate whether miRNAs secreted from chronic myelogenous leukemia cells (CML) are shuttled into endothelial cells thus affecting their phenotype, we first analysed miRNAs content in LAMA84 exosomes. Among the 124 miRNAs identified in LAMA84 exosomes, we focused our attention on miR-126 which was found to be over-overexpressed in exosomes compared with producing parental cells. Transfection of LAMA84 with Cy3-labelled miR-126 and co-culture of leukemia cells with endothelial cells (EC) confirmed that miR-126 is shuttled into HUVECs. The treatment of HUVECs with LAMA84 exosomes for 24 hours reduced CXCL12 and VCAM1 expression, both at the mRNA and protein level, and negatively modulated LAMA84 motility and cells adhesion. Transfection in HUVECs of miR-126 inhibitor reversed the decrease of CXCL12 and restored the motility and adhesion of LAMA84 cells while the over-expression of miR-126, showed opposite effects. Conclusion Our results show that the miR-126 shuttled by exosomes is biologically active in the target cells, and support the hypothesis that exosomal miRNAs have an important role in tumor-endothelial crosstalk occurring in the bone marrow microenvironment, potentially affecting disease progression. PMID:25015105

  13. Molecular analysis of the apoptotic effects of BPA in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Bontempo, Paola; Mita, Luigi; Doto, Antonella; Miceli, Marco; Nebbioso, Angela; Lepore, Ilaria; Franci, GianLuigi; Menafra, Roberta; Carafa, Vincenzo; Conte, Mariarosaria; De Bellis, Floriana; Manzo, Fabio; Di Cerbo, Vincenzo; Benedetti, Rosaria; D'Amato, Loredana; Marino, Maria; Bolli, Alessandro; Del Pozzo, Giovanna; Diano, Nadia; Portaccio, Marianna; Mita, Gustavo D; Vietri, Maria Teresa; Cioffi, Michele; Nola, Ernesto; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Sica, Vincenzo; Molinari, Anna Maria; Altucci, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Background: BPA (bisphenol A or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-phenol)propane) is present in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which can be used in impact-resistant safety equipment and baby bottles, as protective coatings inside metal food containers, and as composites and sealants in dentistry. Recently, attention has focused on the estrogen-like and carcinogenic adverse effects of BPA. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of this compound. Methods: Cell cycle, apoptosis and differentiation analyses; western blots. Results: BPA is able to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in three different acute myeloid leukemias. Although some granulocytic differentiation concomitantly occurred in NB4 cells upon BPA treatment, the major action was the induction of apoptosis. BPA mediated apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred by activation of extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways modulating both FAS and TRAIL and by inducing BAD phosphorylation in NB4 cells. Finally, also non genomic actions such as the early decrease of both ERK and AKT phosphorylation were induced by BPA thus indicating that a complex intersection of regulations occur for the apoptotic action of BPA. Conclusion: BPA is able to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells via caspase activation and involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. PMID:19538739

  14. Anti-mutagenic and pro-apoptotic effects of apigenin on human chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Mehrdad; Nouri Long, Mehdi; Entezari, Maliheh; Nafisi, Shohreh; Nowroozii, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Diet can play a vital role in cancer prevention. Nowadays the scientists are looking for food materials which can potentially prevent the cancer occurrence. The purpose of this research is to examine anti-mutagenic and apoptotic effects of apigenin in human lymphoma cells. In present study human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Eheb cell line) were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Sigma), supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin-streptomycin, L-glutamine and incubated at 37 ºC for 2 days. In addition cancer cell line was treated by and apigenin and cellular vital capacity was determined by MTT assay. Then effect of apigenin in human lymphoma B cells was examined by flow cytometry techniques. The apigenin was subsequently evaluated in terms of anti-mutagenic properties by a standard reverse mutation assay (Ames test). This was performed with histidine auxotroph strain of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100). Thus, it requires histidine from a foreign supply to ensure its growth. The aforementioned strain gives rise to reverted colonies when exposed to sodium azide as a carcinogen substance. During MTT assay, human chronic lymphocytic leukemia revealed to have a meaningful cell death when compared with controls (P<0.01) Apoptosis was induced suitably after 48 hours by flow cytometry assay. In Ames test apigenin prevented the reverted mutations and the hindrance percent of apigenin was 98.17%.These results have revealed apigenin induced apoptosis in human lymphoma B cells in vitro. PMID:21287458

  15. PKC? Regulates T-Cell Leukemia-Initiating Activity via Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Giambra, Vincenzo; Jenkins, Christopher R.; Wang, Hongfang; Lam, Sonya H.; Shevchuk, Olena O.; Nemirovsky, Oksana; Wai, Carol; Gusscott, Sam; Chiang, Mark Y.; Aster, Jon C.; Humphries, R. Keith; Eaves, Connie; Weng, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a by-product of cellular metabolism, damage intracellular macromolecules and, in excess, can promote normal hematopoietic stem cell differentiation and exhaustion1–3. However, mechanisms that regulate ROS levels in leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) and the biological role of ROS in these cells remain largely unknown. We show here the ROSlow subset of CD44+ cells in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), a malignancy of immature T-cell progenitors, to be highly enriched in the most aggressive LICs, and that ROS are maintained at low levels by downregulation of protein kinase C theta (PKC?). Strikingly, primary mouse T-ALLs lacking PKC? show improved LIC activity whereas enforced PKC? expression in both mouse and human primary T-ALLs compromised LIC activity. We also demonstrate that PKC? is positively regulated by RUNX1, and that NOTCH1, which is frequently activated by mutation in T-ALL4–6 and required for LIC activity in both mouse and human models7,8, downregulates PKC? and ROS via a novel pathway involving induction of RUNX3 and subsequent repression of RUNX1. These results reveal key functional roles for PKC? and ROS in T-ALL and suggest that aggressive biological behavior in vivo could be limited by therapeutic strategies that promote PKC? expression/activity or ROS accumulation. PMID:23086478

  16. Pegylated gold nanoparticles induce apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chuen; Yang, Yuh-Cheng; Yang, Kai-Chien; Shieh, Hui-Ru; Wang, Tao-Yeuan; Hwu, Yeukuang; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have several potential biological applications as well as excellent biocompatibility. AuNPs with surface modification using polyethylene glycol (PEG-AuNPs) can facilitate easy conjugation with various biological molecules of interest. To examine the anticancer bioactivity of PEG-AuNPs, we investigated their effect on human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells. The results indicated that PEG-AuNPs markedly inhibited the viability and impaired the cell membrane integrity of K562 cells. The particles caused morphological changes typical of cell death, and a marked increase in the sub-G1 population in DNA histogram, indicating apoptosis. In addition, PEG-AuNPs reduced the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, a hallmark of the involvement of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in K562 cells. Observation of ultrastructure under a transmission electron microscope revealed that the internalized PEG-AuNPs were distributed into cytoplasmic vacuoles and damaged mitochondria, and subsequently accumulated in areas surrounding the nuclear membrane. In conclusion, PEG-AuNPs may have the potential to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia cells. PMID:24790990

  17. Activation of the Murine Sarcoma Virus Genome After Infection with the Murine Leukemia Virus as Determined by Cell Agglutination

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, Samuel; Green, Maurice

    1974-01-01

    Non-virus-producing NIH/3T3 cells transformed by the murine sarcoma virus are agglutinated by conconavalin A to the same low level as normal NIH/3T3 cells. Infection with the murine leukemia virus greatly increases the agglutination of transformed cells but not that of normal cells. These data suggest that the morphological expression of cell transformation and the surface alterations associated with increased cell agglutination are controlled by the expressions of different sarcoma virus genes. PMID:4363245

  18. Dual mechanisms by which miR-125b represses IRF4 to induce myeloid and B-cell leukemias.

    PubMed

    So, Alex Yick-Lun; Sookram, Reeshelle; Chaudhuri, Aadel A; Minisandram, Aarathi; Cheng, David; Xie, Catherine; Lim, Ee Lyn; Flores, Yvette Garcia; Jiang, Shuai; Kim, Jocelyn Tammy; Keown, Christopher; Ramakrishnan, Parameswaran; Baltimore, David

    2014-08-28

    The oncomir microRNA-125b (miR-125b) is upregulated in a variety of human neoplastic blood disorders and constitutive upregulation of miR-125b in mice can promote myeloid and B-cell leukemia. We found that miR-125b promotes myeloid and B-cell neoplasm by inducing tumorigenesis in hematopoietic progenitor cells. Our study demonstrates that miR-125b induces myeloid leukemia by enhancing myeloid progenitor output from stem cells as well as inducing immortality, self-renewal, and tumorigenesis in myeloid progenitors. Through functional and genetic analyses, we demonstrated that miR-125b induces myeloid and B-cell leukemia by inhibiting interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) but through distinct mechanisms; it induces myeloid leukemia through repressing IRF4 at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level without altering the genomic DNA and induces B-cell leukemia via genetic deletion of the gene encoding IRF4. PMID:25006123

  19. Pre-B cell receptor signaling in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Rahul; Müschen, Markus

    2014-01-01

    B cell lineage ALL represents by far the most frequent malignancy in children and is also common in adults. Despite significant advances over the past four decades, cytotoxic treatment strategies have recently reached a plateau with cure rates at 80 percent for children and 55 percent for adults. Relapse after cytotoxic drug treatment, initial drug-resistance and dose-limiting toxicity are among the most frequent complications of current therapy approaches. For this reason, pathway-specific treatment strategies in addition to cytotoxic drug treatment seem promising to further improve therapy options for ALL patients. In a recent study on 111 cases of pre-B cell-derived human ALL, we found that ALL cells carrying a BCR-ABL1-gene rearrangement lack expression of a functional pre-B cell receptor in virtually all cases. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we studied pre-B cell receptor function during progressive leukemic transformation of pre-B cells in BCR-ABL1-transgenic mice: Interestingly, signaling from the pre-B cell receptor and the oncogenic BCR-ABL1 kinase are mutually exclusive and only “crippled” pre-B cells that fail to express a functional pre-B cell receptor are permissive to transformation by BCR-ABL1. PMID:19901533

  20. Sustained targeting of Bcr-Abl + leukemia cells by synergistic action of dual drug loaded nanoparticles and its implication for leukemia therapy.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Sarbari; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2011-08-01

    Chimeric Bcr-Abl oncoprotein is the molecular hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and hence a lucrative target for therapeutic intervention of CML.However, limited efficacy of current first line treatment for CML calls attention for further development of more efficient strategies. Recently, much attention has been given to nanoparticle (NP) based drug delivery systems loaded with dual drugs to improve current disease therapies by overcoming toxicity and other side effects associated with high doses of single drugs. In the present study, we document to explore an approach to simultaneously deliver two drugs at target sites (i.e. Bcr-Abl oncoprotein) using poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles. Preliminary study included screening six different anticancer drugs and their nanoformulations on leukemia cells. Results confirmed superlative antileukemic activity of paclitaxel (especially in formulations) on model cell line K562, but only upon longer exposure. Thus to lower time of action of such a potent drug, different drug combination were experimented taking the advantage of synergistic action of both the drugs. Evaluation at molecular and genetic level helped to identify signaling pathways upstream and downstream of Bcr-Abl, leading to its suppression. Results helped to illustrate dynamic changes primarily involved in inducing apoptotic activities on drug exposure of leukemia cells, thereby facilitating us to integrate different drug combinations in a more specific manner in near future to study CML in clinical settings. PMID:21600647

  1. Cytosine arabinoside potentiates the apoptotic effect of bendamustine on several B- and T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Castegnaro, Silvia; Visco, Carlo; Chieregato, Katia; Bernardi, Martina; Albiero, Elena; Zanon, Cristina; Madeo, Domenico; Rodeghiero, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Bendamustine and cytosine arabinoside (ara-c) are commonly used cytotoxic agents with unique mechanisms of action. We have previously reported a striking additive cytotoxic effect of the consecutive combination of bendamustine and ara-c in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cell lines. In the present study, cell lines of follicular lymphoma (DOHH-2), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma (EHEB), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (SU-DHL-4), T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (JURKAT and KARPAS-299) and MCL (JEKO-1 and GRANTA-519) were exposed to the two single drugs or the drugs combined, given simultaneously and consecutively. Peripheral blood chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B-cells from five patients were also analyzed. Apoptosis, cell proliferation/metabolic activity and mitochondrial damage were evaluated. The combination index (CI) was used to assess synergy between the drugs. Bendamustine exhibited a relevant cytotoxic effect that was dose- and time-dependent, except for SU-DHL-4 and T-cell lymphoma cells. The addition of ara-c after bendamustine significantly potentiated the single-drug cytotoxic effect of bendamustine on all cell lines, including 17p - CLL B-cells, JURKAT and SU-DHL-4, the latter presenting the highest synergism (CI cell lymphoma cells and cell lines, similar to MCL, overcoming resistance to the single agents. PMID:22530665

  2. CD40 ligation reverses T cell tolerance in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Chen, Xiufen; Liu, Xiao; Kline, Douglas E; Teague, Ryan M; Gajewski, Thomas F; Kline, Justin

    2013-05-01

    Spontaneous antigen-specific T cell responses can be generated in hosts harboring a variety of solid malignancies, but are subverted by immune evasion mechanisms active within the tumor microenvironment. In contrast to solid tumors, the mechanisms that regulate T cell activation versus tolerance to hematological malignancies have been underexplored. A murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) model was used to investigate antigen-specific T cell responses against AML cells inoculated i.v. versus s.c. Robust antigen-specific T cell responses were generated against AML cells after s.c., but not i.v., inoculation. In fact, i.v. AML cell inoculation prevented functional T cell activation in response to subsequent s.c. AML cell challenge. T cell dysfunction was antigen specific and did not depend on Tregs or myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Antigen-specific TCR-Tg CD8+ T cells proliferated, but failed to accumulate, and expressed low levels of effector cytokines in hosts after i.v. AML induction, consistent with abortive T cell activation and peripheral tolerance. Administration of agonistic anti-CD40 Ab to activate host APCs enhanced accumulation of functional T cells and prolonged survival. Our results suggest that antigen-specific T cell tolerance is a potent immune evasion mechanism in hosts with AML that can be reversed in vivo after CD40 engagement. PMID:23619361

  3. Role of exosomes released by chronic myelogenous leukemia cells in angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Taverna, Simona; Flugy, Anna; Saieva, Laura; Kohn, Elise C; Santoro, Alessandra; Meraviglia, Serena; De Leo, Giacomo; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The present study is designed to assess if exosomes released from Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) cells may modulate angiogenesis. We have isolated and characterized the exosomes generated from LAMA84 CML cells and demonstrated that addition of exosomes to human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) induces an increase of both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 cell adhesion molecules and interleukin-8 expression. The stimulation of cell-cell adhesion molecules was paralleled by a dose-dependent increase of adhesion of CML cells to a HUVEC monolayer. We further showed that the treatment with exosomes from CML cells caused an increase in endothelial cell motility accompanied by a loss of VE-cadherin and ?-catenin from the endothelial cell surface. Functional characterization of exosomes isolated from CML patients confirmed the data obtained with exosomes derived from CML cell line. CML exosomes caused reorganization into tubes of HUVEC cells cultured on Matrigel. When added to Matrigel plugs in vivo, exosomes induced ingrowth of murine endothelial cells and vascularization of the Matrigel plugs. Our results suggest for the first time that exosomes released from CML cells directly affect endothelial cells modulating the process of neovascularization. PMID:21630268

  4. Role of exosomes released by chronic myelogenous leukemia cells in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Simona; Flugy, Anna; Saieva, Laura; Kohn, Elise C; Santoro, Alessandra; Meraviglia, Serena; De Leo, Giacomo; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2012-05-01

    Our study is designed to assess if exosomes released from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells may modulate angiogenesis. We have isolated and characterized the exosomes generated from LAMA84 CML cells and demonstrated that addition of exosomes to human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) induces an increase of both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 cell adhesion molecules and interleukin-8 expression. The stimulation of cell-cell adhesion molecules was paralleled by a dose-dependent increase of adhesion of CML cells to a HUVEC monolayer. We further showed that the treatment with exosomes from CML cells caused an increase in endothelial cell motility accompanied by a loss of VE-cadherin and ?-catenin from the endothelial cell surface. Functional characterization of exosomes isolated from CML patients confirmed the data obtained with exosomes derived from CML cell line. CML exosomes caused reorganization into tubes of HUVEC cells cultured on Matrigel. When added to Matrigel plugs in vivo, exosomes induced ingrowth of murine endothelial cells and vascularization of the Matrigel plugs. Our results suggest for the first time that exosomes released from CML cells directly affect endothelial cells modulating the process of neovascularization. PMID:21630268

  5. Exosomes released by chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induce the transition of stromal cells into cancer-associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Paggetti, Jerome; Haderk, Franziska; Seiffert, Martina; Janji, Bassam; Distler, Ute; Ammerlaan, Wim; Kim, Yeoun Jin; Adam, Julien; Lichter, Peter; Solary, Eric; Berchem, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes derived from solid tumor cells are involved in immune suppression, angiogenesis, and metastasis, but the role of leukemia-derived exosomes has been less investigated. The pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is stringently associated with a tumor-supportive microenvironment and a dysfunctional immune system. Here, we explore the role of CLL-derived exosomes in the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which malignant cells create this favorable surrounding. We show that CLL-derived exosomes are actively incorporated by endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells ex vivo and in vivo and that the transfer of exosomal protein and microRNA induces an inflammatory phenotype in the target cells, which resembles the phenotype of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). As a result, stromal cells show enhanced proliferation, migration, and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, contributing to a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Exosome uptake by endothelial cells increased angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo, and coinjection of CLL-derived exosomes and CLL cells promoted tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Finally, we detected ?-smooth actin–positive stromal cells in lymph nodes of CLL patients. These findings demonstrate that CLL-derived exosomes actively promote disease progression by modulating several functions of surrounding stromal cells that acquire features of cancer-associated fibroblasts. PMID:26100252

  6. Exosomes released by chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induce the transition of stromal cells into cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Paggetti, Jerome; Haderk, Franziska; Seiffert, Martina; Janji, Bassam; Distler, Ute; Ammerlaan, Wim; Kim, Yeoun Jin; Adam, Julien; Lichter, Peter; Solary, Eric; Berchem, Guy; Moussay, Etienne

    2015-08-27

    Exosomes derived from solid tumor cells are involved in immune suppression, angiogenesis, and metastasis, but the role of leukemia-derived exosomes has been less investigated. The pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is stringently associated with a tumor-supportive microenvironment and a dysfunctional immune system. Here, we explore the role of CLL-derived exosomes in the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which malignant cells create this favorable surrounding. We show that CLL-derived exosomes are actively incorporated by endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells ex vivo and in vivo and that the transfer of exosomal protein and microRNA induces an inflammatory phenotype in the target cells, which resembles the phenotype of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). As a result, stromal cells show enhanced proliferation, migration, and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, contributing to a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Exosome uptake by endothelial cells increased angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo, and coinjection of CLL-derived exosomes and CLL cells promoted tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Finally, we detected ?-smooth actin-positive stromal cells in lymph nodes of CLL patients. These findings demonstrate that CLL-derived exosomes actively promote disease progression by modulating several functions of surrounding stromal cells that acquire features of cancer-associated fibroblasts. PMID:26100252

  7. Eltrombopag Modulates Reactive Oxygen Species and Decreases Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kalota, Anna; Selak, Mary A.; Garcia-Cid, Laura A.; Carroll, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the small molecule thrombopoietin (TPO) mimetic, eltrombopag (E), induces apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Here, we sought to define the mechanism of the anti-leukemic effect of eltrombopag. Our studies demonstrate that, at a concentration of 5 ?M E in 2% serum, E induces apoptosis in leukemia cells by triggering PARP cleavage and activation of caspase cascades within 2–6 hours. The induction of apoptotic enzymes is critically dependent on drug concentration and the concentration of serum. This effect is not associated with an alteration in mitochondrial potential but is associated with a rapid decrease in a reactive oxygen species (ROS) in particular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Interestingly, E also decreases mitochondrial maximal and spare respiratory capacities suggesting an induced mitochondrial dysfunction that may not be readily apparent under basal conditions but becomes manifest only under stress. Co-treatment of MOLM14 AML cells with E plus Tempol or H2O2 provides a partial rescue of cell toxicity. Ferric ammonioum citrate (FAC) also antagonized the E induced toxicity, by inducing notable increase in ROS level. Overall, we propose that E dramatically decreases ROS levels leading to a disruption of AML intracellular metabolism and rapid cell death. PMID:25915523

  8. Inhibition of Wnt16 in human acute lymphoblastoid leukemia cells containing the t(1;19) translocation induces apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mazieres, Julien; You, Liang; He, Biao; Xu, Zhidong; Lee, Amie Y; Mikami, Iwao; McCormick, Frank; Jablons, David M

    2005-08-11

    The Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins is widely involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and oncogenesis. Many Wnt signaling genes are upregulated and activated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Less is known concerning acute leukemia. One subtype of acute lymphoblastoid leukemia (ALL) is characterized by a t(1;19) chromosomal translocation resulting in a fusion protein E2A-Pbx1 that promotes transformation and leukemogenesis. Wnt16 has been shown to be targeted by E2A-Pbx1. We performed a differential gene expression array in acute leukemia cell lines displaying or not displaying the t(1;19) translocation. We found that Wnt16 and many Wnt signaling-related genes were upregulated in the translocation-containing cells. As two isoforms of Wnt16, Wnt16a and Wnt16b, have been recently identified, we demonstrated by using RT-PCR and Western blot that Wnt16b (and not Wnt16a) is overexpressed in t(1;19)-containing cell lines. We then directly addressed the role played by both isoforms in this type of leukemia. Using specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) and an anti-Wnt16 antibody, we showed that targeted-Wnt16b inhibition leads to apoptotic cell death. We also demonstrated that Wnt16b mediates its effect through the canonical Wnt pathway involving dishevelled-2, beta-catenin and survivin. We thus propose that Wnt16 plays an important role in leukemogenesis, raising its therapeutic interest. PMID:16007226

  9. Leukemia-derived growth factor (non-interleukin 2) produced by a human malignant T lymphoid cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Uittenbogaart, C H; Fahey, J L

    1982-01-01

    A growth factor was found in the supernatants of MOLT-4f, a cell line derived from acute T lymphoblastic leukemia. This factor, which we designated leukemia-derived growth factor from MOLT-4f (LDGF-M4), is different from interleukin 2. LDGF-M4 has features of a polypeptide with a molecular weight in the range of 5,000-15,000, as indicated by gel diffusion chromatography. LDGF-M4 does stimulate MOLT-4f and at least two other T cell lines that do not respond to interleukin 2. Because MOLT-4f cells produce and respond to LDGF-M4, this factor may contribute to the independence of MOLT-4f and related T leukemia cell lines. PMID:6983693

  10. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia in the ATRA and ATO era

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Safaa M.; Di Veroli, Ambra; Camboni, Agnese; Breccia, Massimo; Iori, Anna Paola; Aversa, Franco; Cupelli, Luca; Papayannidis, Cristina; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Arcese, William; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The role of allogeneic stem cell transplant in advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia patients who received standard first- and second-line therapy is still unknown. We report the outcome of 31 acute promyelocytic leukemia patients (median age 39 years) who underwent allogeneic transplant in second remission (n=15) or beyond (n=16). Sixteen patients were real-time polymerase chain reaction positive and 15 negative for PML/RARA pre-transplant. The 4-year overall survival was 62% and 31% for patients transplanted in second remission and beyond, respectively (P=0.05), and 64% and 27% for patients with pre-transplant negative and positive real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively (P=0.03). The 4-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 32% and 44% for patients transplanted in second remission and beyond, respectively (P=0.37), and 30% and 47% for patients transplanted with negative and positive real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively (P=0.30). Transplant-related mortality was 19.6%. In conclusion, allogeneic transplant is effective in advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia in the all-trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide era, and should be considered once relapse is diagnosed. PMID:22689684

  11. Cryopreserved ovarian cortex from patients with leukemia in complete remission contains no apparent viable malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Greve, Tine; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Andersen, Morten T; Andersen, Mette K; Sørensen, Stine D; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2012-11-22

    Some women suffering from leukemia require bone marrow transplantation to be cured. Bone marrow transplantation is associated with a high risk of sterility, and some patients are offered fertility preservation by cryopreservation of the ovarian cortex. Transplantation of the ovarian cortex to women cured of leukemia who became menopausal is currently not performed because of the risk of introducing the disease. In this study, individual pieces of ovarian cortex intended for reimplantation from 25 patients with leukemia were transplanted to each of 25 nude mice for 20 weeks. The ovarian cortex was examined before and after transplantation by histology and immunohistochemistry, and RT-quantitative PCR (in the 7 patients with a known marker). Seventeen patients had the ovarian cortex retrieved when they were in complete remission. Before transplantation, 4 of 7 pieces (2 from patients in complete remission) of ovarian cortex had a positive RT-quantitative PCR. After transplantation, none of the mice revealed any sign of disease, neither in the pieces of ovarian cortex transplanted nor in any of the murine organs evaluated. Thus, the ovaries from patients in complete remission do not appear to contain viable malignant cells contrasting ovarian tissue retrieved before treatment. PMID:22709693

  12. Novel Cryptic Rearrangements in Adult B-Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Involving the MLL Gene.

    PubMed

    Othman, Moneeb A K; Grygalewicz, Beata; Pienkowska-Grela, Barbara; Rincic, Martina; Rittscher, Katharina; Melo, Joana B; Carreira, Isabel M; Meyer, Britta; Marzena, Watek; Liehr, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    MLL (mixed-lineage-leukemia) gene rearrangements are typical for acute leukemia and are associated with an aggressive course of disease, with a worse outcome than comparable case, and thus require intensified treatment. Here we describe a 69-year-old female with adult B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) with hyperleukocytosis and immunophenotype CD10- and CD19+ with cryptic MLL rearrangements. G-banding at the time of diagnosis showed a normal karyotype: 46,XX. Molecular cytogenetics using multitude multicolor banding (mMCB) revealed a complex rearrangement of the two copies of chromosome 11. However, a locus-specific probe additionally identified that the MLL gene at 11q23.3 was disrupted, and that the 5' region was inserted into the chromosomal sub-band 4q21; thus the aberration involved three chromosomes and five break events. Unfortunately, the patient died six months after the initial diagnosis from serious infections and severe complications. Overall, the present findings confirm that, by far not all MLL aberrations are seen by routine chromosome banding techniques and that fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) should be regarded as standard tool to access MLL rearrangements in patients with BCP-ALL. PMID:25699572

  13. 75 FR 33897 - Agency Request for Emergency Approval of an Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ...21-0960A. b. Hairy Cell and Other B-Cell Leukemias Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form...diseases based on herbicide exposure: Hairy cell leukemia and other chronic B-cell leukemias, Parkinson's disease, and ischemic...

  14. Leukemia derived growth factors produced by human malignant T-lymphoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Uittenbogaart, C H; Nishanian, P G; Anisman, D J; Erikson, T K; Fahey, J L

    1986-03-01

    An autocrine (noninterleukin 2) growth factor, which we term leukemia derived growth factor (LDGF), has previously been found in the culture supernatant of the human malignant T-lymphoid cell line MOLT-4f. We now show that two other human malignant T-lymphoid cell lines, CCRF-CEM and CCRF-HSB-2 also produce such a factor. All three factors, i.e., the LDGF from MOLT-4f, CCRF-CEM, and CCRF-HSB-2 are similar to each other both in biological activity and in physicochemical characteristics. In addition to their autocrine activity, these LDGFs stimulate the growth of other malignant T-lymphoid cell lines, but they do not stimulate B-lymphoblastoid or myeloid cell lines. The results therefore suggest that these LDGFs are T-cell specific. PMID:3080240

  15. Rapamycin and curcumin induce apoptosis in primary resting B chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Hayun, Rami; Okun, Eitan; Berrebi, Alain; Shvidel, Lev; Bassous, Lucette; Sredni, Benjamin; Nir, Uri

    2009-04-01

    B chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells exist in patients as slowly accumulating resting as well as proliferating B cells. In this study, we examined whether Rapamycin and Curcumin, two naturally occurring compounds shown to have apoptotic effects, could selectively induce apoptosis in resting B-CLL cells. Mononuclear cells isolated from patients with B-CLL were treated with these agents and analysed by AnnexinV/propidium iodide binding, caspase activity, and changes in bcl-2/Bax ratio. Rapamycin and curcumin significantly induced apoptosis in resting B-CLL cells obtained from patients with CLL. Furthermore, rapamycin and curcumin increased caspase 9, 3 and 7 activity, decreased anti-apoptotic bcl-2 levels, and increased the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. These data suggest rapamycin and curcumin may be an effective treatment for B-CLL and are of high clinical significance considering the growing population of patients and lack of efficient treatment for this malignant disease. PMID:19373661

  16. Role of Oxidative Stress in Modulating Unfolded Protein Response Activity in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Bazi, Ali; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Gholamin, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, it has been revealed that tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) act through inducing both oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in chronic myeloid leukemia cells. However, ER stress signaling triggers both apoptotic and survival processes within cells. Nevertheless, mechanisms by which TKIs avoid the pro-survival effects are not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of oxidative stress in activity of unfolded protein response (UPR) survival pathway within K562 cell line. Methods: The expression of UPR survival target genes, Xbp1, and Grp94 (glucose requiring protein 94) was studied in single and combined exposure to oxidative and ER stress in K562 cell line by quantitative and qualitative PCR. Results: The expression of UPR-related survival gene Grp94 was hampered by exposing to oxidative stress in cell induced with ER stress. Conclusion: Interaction of oxidative and ER stress may role as a mediator influencing UPR signaling activity. PMID:26432458

  17. Horizontal transmission of clonal cancer cells causes leukemia in soft-shell clams.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Michael J; Reinisch, Carol; Sherry, James; Goff, Stephen P

    2015-04-01

    Outbreaks of fatal leukemia-like cancers of marine bivalves throughout the world have led to massive population loss. The cause of the disease is unknown. We recently identified a retrotransposon, Steamer, that is highly expressed and amplified to high copy number in neoplastic cells of soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria). Through analysis of Steamer integration sites, mitochondrial DNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and polymorphic microsatellite alleles, we show that the genotypes of neoplastic cells do not match those of the host animal. Instead, neoplastic cells from dispersed locations in New York, Maine, and Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, all have nearly identical genotypes that differ from those of the host. These results indicate that the cancer is spreading between animals in the marine environment as a clonal transmissible cell derived from a single original clam. Our findings suggest that horizontal transmission of cancer cells is more widespread in nature than previously supposed. PMID:25860608

  18. ZO-1 expression shows prognostic value in chronic B cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nesmiyanov, Pavel P; Tolkachev, Boris E; Strygin, Andrey V

    2016-01-01

    Connexin-mediated gap junctions are vital for tumor cell function. Intracellular pathways of connexin signaling use Zonula Occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) as an intermediate. This report describes the ZO-1 and connexin 43 (Cx43) expression pattern in lymphocytes from chronic B-cell leukemia (B-CLL) patients. The ZO-1 and Cx43 expression in the B cells of 113 B-CLL patients was identified. Western blot and flow cytometry were used to determine protein expression. Results indicated that ZO-1 and Cx43 expression was reduced and correlated negatively with CD38 and Zap-70 expression. Inhibition of intercellular communication with anti-Cx43 antibodies, 1-octanol, or carbenoxolone resulted in induced cell apoptosis. These data suggest that ZO-1, along with CD38 and Zap-70, plays a role in cell cycle regulation in B-CLL and may be used as a prognostic marker in B-CLL monitoring. PMID:26306999

  19. Rituximab, Romidepsin, and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Refractory B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-30

    B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  20. NK cells play a significant role in immunosurveillance at the early stage of MLL-AF9 acute myeloid leukemia via CD226/CD155 interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, YaJie; Chen, Chen; Dong, Fang; Ma, ShiHui; Xu, Jing; Gong, YueMin; Cheng, Hui; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Tao; Hao, Sha

    2015-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematological malignancy, and the mechanism underlying immune system involvement in leukemia development is unclear. In the present study, we utilized a myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia; translocated to, 3 (MLLT3/MLL-AF9)-induced AML mouse model with or without exposure to irradiation. We found that the leukemia cells could survive and expand in hosts with intact immune systems, whereas leukemia progression was accelerated in mice with impaired immune systems. Moreover, the leukemia cells escaped from host immunosurveillance via editing their immunogenicity, including the up-regulation of an inhibitory antigen (i.e., CD47) and the down-regulation of active antigens (i.e., CD86, CD54, retinoic acid early transcript (RAE), histocompatibility 2, D region locus b (H2-Db) and H2-Dd). Natural killer (NK) cells were activated in the early phase of AML progression, whereas T cells were stimulated in the late phase. Furthermore, NK cell depletion showed that NK cells were necessary for the elimination of leukemia cells in our AML mouse model. Notably, CD155/CD226 primarily mediated the interaction between NK cells and leukemia cells and contributed to the antitumor effects of NK cells during the early phase of AML. Clinical data from patients with diverse hematological malignancies showed that CD155 expression was decreased in hematological malignancies. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NK cells play a pivotal role in immunosurveillance against leukemia cells during the early stage of AML primarily through the CD226/CD155 interaction; however, NK cells are not sufficient to eliminate leukemia cells. PMID:26588911

  1. Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (HTLV-1)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... white blood cells, namely lymphocytes, that constitute the lymphatic system. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin ... glands located in the small vessels of the lymphatic system. Thousands are located throughout the body and are ...

  2. The role of B-cell receptor inhibitors in the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wiestner, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a malignancy of mature auto-reactive B cells. Genetic and functional studies implicate B-cell receptor signaling as a pivotal pathway in its pathogenesis. Full B-cell receptor activation requires tumor-microenvironment interactions in lymphoid tissues. Spleen tyrosine kinase, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) ? isoform are essential for B-cell receptor signal transduction but also mediate the effect of other pathways engaged in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in the tissue-microenvironment. Orally bioavailable inhibitors of spleen tyrosine kinase, Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, or PI3K?, induce high rates of durable responses. Ibrutinib, a covalent inhibitor of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, and idelalisib, a selective inhibitor of PI3K?, have obtained regulatory approval in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Ibrutinib and idelalisib are active in patients with high-risk features, achieving superior disease control in difficult-to-treat patients than prior best therapy, making them the preferred agents for chronic lymphocytic leukemia with TP53 aberrations and for patients resistant to chemoimmunotherapy. In randomized trials, both ibrutinib, versus ofatumumab, and idelalisib in combination with rituximab, versus placebo with rituximab improved survival in relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Responses to B-cell receptor inhibitors are mostly partial, and within clinical trials treatment is continued until progression or occurrence of intolerable side effects. Ibrutinib and idelalisib are, overall, well tolerated; notable adverse events include increased bruising and incidence of atrial fibrillation on ibrutinib and colitis, pneumonitis and transaminase elevations on idelalisib. Randomized trials investigate the role of B-cell receptor inhibitors in first-line therapy and the benefit of combinations. This review discusses the biological basis for targeted therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with B-cell receptor inhibitors, and summarizes the clinical experience with these agents. PMID:26628631

  3. Levofloxacin in Preventing Infection in Young Patients With Acute Leukemia Receiving Chemotherapy or Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-28

    Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Bacterial Infection; Diarrhea; Fungal Infection; Musculoskeletal Complications; Neutropenia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  4. IGK with conserved IG?V/IG?J repertoire is expressed in acute myeloid leukemia and promotes leukemic cell migration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Xia, Miaoran; Sun, Xiaoping; He, Zhiqiao; Hu, Fanlei; Chen, Lei; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Yin, C Cameron

    2015-11-17

    We have previously reported that immunoglobulin heavy chain genes were expressed in myeloblasts and mature myeloid cells. In this study, we further demonstrated that rearranged Ig ? light chain was also frequently expressed in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines (6/6), primary myeloblasts from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (17/18), and mature monocytes (11/12) and neutrophils (3/12) from patients with non-hematopoietic neoplasms, but not or only rarely expressed in mature neutrophils (0/8) or monocytes (1/8) from healthy individuals. Interestingly, myeloblasts and mature monocytes/neutrophils shared several restricted IGKV and IGKJ gene usages but with different expression frequency. Surprisingly, almost all of the acute myeloid leukemia-derived IGKV showed somatic hypermutation; in contrast, mature myeloid cells-derived IGKV rarely had somatic hypermutation. More importantly, although IGK expression appeared not to affect cell proliferation, reduced IGK expression led to a decrease in cell migration in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines HL-60 and NB4, whereas increased IGK expression promoted their motility. In summary, IGK is expressed in myeloblasts and mature myeloid cells from patients with non-hematopoietic neoplasms, and is involved in cell migration. These results suggest that myeloid cells-derived IgK may have a role in leukemogenesis and may serve as a novel tumor marker for monitoring minimal residual disease and developing target therapy. PMID:26429876

  5. Bovine lactoferricin causes apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells by sequential permeabilization of the cell membrane and targeting of mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, Jamie S.; Richardson, Angela; Salsman, Jayme; Top, Deniz; Antueno, Roberto de; Duncan, Roy; Hoskin, David W. . E-mail: d.w.hoskin@dal.ca

    2007-07-15

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide that kills Jurkat T-leukemia cells by the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. However, the process by which LfcinB triggers mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is not well understood. Here, we show that LfcinB-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells was preceded by LfcinB binding to, and progressive permeabilization of the cell membrane. Colloidal gold electron microscopy revealed that LfcinB entered the cytoplasm of Jurkat T-leukemia cells prior to the onset of mitochondrial depolarization. LfcinB was not internalized by endocytosis because endocytosis inhibitors did not prevent LfcinB-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, intracellular delivery of LfcinB via fusogenic liposomes caused the death of Jurkat T-leukemia cells, as well as normal human fibroblasts. Collectively, these findings suggest that LfcinB caused damage to the cell membrane that allowed LfcinB to enter the cytoplasm of Jurkat T-leukemia cells and mediate cytotoxicity. In addition, confocal microscopy showed that intracellular LfcinB co-localized with mitochondria in Jurkat T-leukemia cells, while flow cytometry and colloidal gold electron microscopy showed that LfcinB rapidly associated with purified mitochondria. Furthermore, purified mitochondria treated with LfcinB rapidly lost transmembrane potential and released cytochrome c. We conclude that LfcinB-induced apoptosis in Jurkat T-leukemia cells resulted from cell membrane damage and the subsequent disruption of mitochondrial membranes by internalized LfcinB.

  6. Recent advances in the treatment of adult T-cell leukemia-lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Utsunomiya, Atae; Choi, Ilseung; Chihara, Dai; Seto, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in treatment for adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) are reviewed herein. It is currently possible to select a therapeutic strategy for ATL and predict prognosis by classification of patients by clinical subtypes and clinicopathological factors. Although the overall survival (OS) of patients with ATL has increased marginally because of advances in chemotherapy, further prolongation of survival might be difficult with conventional chemotherapy alone. Promising results have been reported for antiviral therapy using zidovudine and interferon-?, and, indeed, antiviral therapy is currently the standard treatment for patients with ATL in western countries. Remarkably, the 5-year OS rates are 100% for both the smoldering-type and chronic-type ATL. Recently, treatments for ATL have included allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and molecular targeted therapies. Furthermore, the anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody mogamulizumab has been shown to have marked cytotoxic effects on ATL cells, especially in the leukemic type of ATL. In the lymphoma type of ATL, the response rate may be improved by combining mogamulizumab with chemotherapy. It should be recognized that prevention of infection from carriers of human T-cell leukemia virus type-I and transfer of the virus from mother to infant are crucial issues for the eradication of ATL. PMID:25613789

  7. Acute myeloid leukemia fusion proteins deregulate genes involved in stem cell maintenance and DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, Myriam; Meani, Natalia; Gelmetti, Vania; Fantozzi, Anna; Fagioli, Marta; Orleth, Annette; Riganelli, Daniela; Sebastiani, Carla; Cappelli, Enrico; Casciari, Cristina; Sciurpi, Maria Teresa; Mariano, Angela Rosa; Minardi, Simone Paolo; Luzi, Lucilla; Muller, Heiko; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Frosina, Guido; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    Acute myelogenous leukemias (AMLs) are genetically heterogeneous and characterized by chromosomal rearrangements that produce fusion proteins with aberrant transcriptional regulatory activities. Expression of AML fusion proteins in transgenic mice increases the risk of myeloid leukemias, suggesting that they induce a preleukemic state. The underlying molecular and biological mechanisms are, however, unknown. To address this issue, we performed a systematic analysis of fusion protein transcriptional targets. We expressed AML1/ETO, PML/RAR, and PLZF/RAR in U937 hemopoietic precursor cells and measured global gene expression using oligonucleotide chips. We identified 1,555 genes regulated concordantly by at least two fusion proteins that were further validated in patient samples and finally classified according to available functional information. Strikingly, we found that AML fusion proteins induce genes involved in the maintenance of the stem cell phenotype and repress DNA repair genes, mainly of the base excision repair pathway. Functional studies confirmed that ectopic expression of fusion proteins constitutively activates pathways leading to increased stem cell renewal (e.g., the Jagged1/Notch pathway) and provokes accumulation of DNA damage. We propose that expansion of the stem cell compartment and induction of a mutator phenotype are relevant features underlying the leukemic potential of AML-associated fusion proteins. PMID:14660751

  8. PU.1 affects proliferation of the human acute myeloid leukemia U937 cell line by directly regulating MEIS1

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, JING; ZHANG, XIAOFENG; WANG, YUHUA; GUAN, YINGHUI

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor PU.1 is a member of the ETS family, which is expressed in a wide variety of hematopoietic lineages. Accumulating evidence has indicated that PU.1 plays a key role in hematopoiesis, and reduced expression of PU.1 leads to the pathogenesis of human myeloid leukemia. As a multi-functional factor, PU.1 is also required for mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) stem cell potential and the development of MLL. However, the function of PU.1 in human non-MLL leukemia and its molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, PU.1 siRNA was demonstrated to efficiently inhibit the transcription level of oncogene MEIS1 in the human acute myeloid non-MLL leukemia U937 cell line. In addition, PU.1, as a positive regulator of MEIS1, performed a crucial role in maintaining cell proliferation. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and luciferase reporter assay, previously unexplored evidence that PU.1 activated the MEIS1 promoter through a conserved binding motif in vitro and in vivo was further defined. Overall, the present study provides insight into the molecular mechanism of the contribution of PU.1 to the pathogenesis of non-MLL U937 cells, which is mediated by direct regulation of MEIS1 transcription. The present data reveal the possibility of developing an alternative therapy for non-MLL leukemia by targeting PU.1-mediated MEIS1 gene activation.

  9. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia That Has Responded to Treatment With Imatinib Mesylate, Dasatinib, or Nilotinib

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-20

    Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Adult Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Childhood Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  10. The antileukemia effect of metformin in the Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia cell line and patient primary leukemia cell.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rui; Lin, Juan; Gong, Yuping; Yan, Tianyou; Shi, Fangfang; Yang, Xi; Liu, Xuehua; Naren, Duolan

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, there have been considerable research advances on the antileukemic mechanisms of the antidiabetic drug metformin. Our current studies have shown that metformin suppresses cell viability, induces apoptosis, and downregulates the mTORC1 signaling pathway both in the Ph+ALL cell line and primary blasts from Ph+ ALL patients, as well as the CML cell lines K562 (imatinib-sensitive) and K562R (imatinib-resistance). We have also shown that metformin activates the ERK pathway in Ph+ALL cells, SUP-B15, a side effect that can be overcome by U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor) or imatinib. Moreover, this activation of ERK signaling in SUP-B15 induces autophagy. Inhibition of the autophagic process by 3-MA, promoting the death of these cells, suggests that autophagy may be a cytoprotective factor in cell survival after metformin treatment. Finally, metformin is shown to potentiate the anticancer efficacy of imatinib in Ph+ALL and CML cells, resensitizing the CML imatinib-resistance cells to imatinib. Overall, our data suggest that metformin represents a promising and attractive agent for Ph+ALL or CML therapy. PMID:26186064

  11. Induction of apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells by remote exposure of resistive barrier cold plasma.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Anderson, Heather; Gonzales, Xavier F

    2014-03-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), an ambient temperature ionized gas, is gaining extensive interest as a promising addition to anti-tumor therapy primarily due to the ability to generate and control delivery of electrons, ions, excited molecules, UV photons, and reactive species such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) to a specific site. The heterogeneous composition of CAP offers the opportunity to mediate several signaling pathways that regulate tumor cells. Consequently, the array of CAP generated products has limited the identification of the mechanisms of action on tumor cells. The aim of this work is to assess the cell death response of human myeloid leukemia cells by remote exposure to CAP generated RNS by utilizing a novel resistive barrier discharge system that primarily produces RNS. The effect of variable treatments of CAP generated RNS was tested in THP-1 cell (human monocytic leukemia cell line), a model for hematological malignancy. The number of viable cells was evaluated with erythrosine-B staining, while apoptosis and necrosis was assessed by endonuclease cleavage observed by agarose gel electrophoresis and detection of cells with the exclusionary dye propidium iodide and fluorescently labeled annexin-V by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Our observations indicate that treatment dosage levels of 45 s of exposure to CAP emitted RNS-induced apoptotic cell death and for higher dosage conditions of ?50 s of exposure to CAP induced necrosis. Overall the results suggest that CAP emitted RNS play a significant role in the anti-tumor potential of CAP. PMID:24022746

  12. Levofloxacin in Preventing Infection in Young Patients With Acute Leukemia Receiving Chemotherapy or Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This randomized phase III trial studies how well levofloxacin works in preventing infection in young patients with acute leukemia receiving chemotherapy or undergoing stem cell transplant. Giving antibiotics may be effective in preventing or controlling early infection in patients receiving chemotherapy or undergoing stem cell transplant for acute leukemia. It is not yet known whether levofloxacin is effective in preventing infection.

  13. CD90 and CD110 correlate with cancer stem cell potentials in human T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Hiroto; Nishida, Hiroko; Iwata, Satoshi; Dang, Nam H.; Morimoto, Chikao

    2009-05-29

    Although cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been recently identified in myeloid leukemia, published data on lymphoid malignancy have been sparse. T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is characterized by the abnormal proliferation of T-cell precursors and is generally aggressive. As CD34 is the only positive-selection marker for CSCs in T-ALL, we performed extensive analysis of CD markers in T-ALL cell lines. We found that some of the tested lines consisted of heterogeneous populations of cells with various levels of surface marker expression. In particular, a small subpopulation of CD90 (Thy-1) and CD110 (c-Mpl) were shown to correlate with stem cell properties both in vitro and in transplantation experiments. As these markers are expressed on hematopoietic stem cells, our results suggest that stem cell-like population are enriched in CD90+/CD110+ fraction and they are useful positive-selection markers for the isolation of CSCs in some cases of T-ALL.

  14. Dideoxycytidine permeation and salvage by mouse leukemia cells and human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Plagemann, P G; Woffendin, C

    1989-10-15

    Transmembrane equilibration of dideoxycytidine (ddCyd) in P388 mouse leukemia cells and human erythrocytes was only 1% as rapid as that of uridine and 2'-deoxycytidine which is mediated by the facilitated nucleoside transporter of these cells. ddCyd entry was nonsaturable up to a concentration of 1 mM but was partially inhibited by dipyridamole, nitrobenzylthioinosine and nucleosides, but not by nucleobases. Thus, entry was partly (70-80%) mediated, though very inefficiently, by the nucleoside carrier. Intracellular phosphorylation of ddCyd in P388 cells was also very inefficient compared to that of 2'-deoxycytidine and uridine and not rate limited by its slow entry into the cells. PMID:2554924

  15. Hepatic Leukemia Factor Promotes Resistance To Cell Death: Implications For Therapeutics and Chronotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Katrina M.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2013-04-15

    Physiological variation related to circadian rhythms and aberrant gene expression patterns are believed to modulate therapeutic efficacy, but the precise molecular determinants remain unclear. Here we examine the regulation of cell death by hepatic leukemia factor (HLF), which is an output regulator of circadian rhythms and is aberrantly expressed in human cancers, using an ectopic expression strategy in JB6 mouse epidermal cells and human keratinocytes. Ectopic HLF expression inhibited cell death in both JB6 cells and human keratinocytes, as induced by serum-starvation, tumor necrosis factor alpha and ionizing radiation. Microarray analysis indicates that HLF regulates a complex multi-gene transcriptional program encompassing upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes, downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes, and many additional changes that are consistent with an anti-death program. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ectopic expression of HLF, an established transcription factor that cycles with circadian rhythms, can recapitulate many features associated with circadian-dependent physiological variation.

  16. Effects of highly purified anthraquinoid compounds from Aloe vera on sensitive and multidrug resistant leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Grimaudo, S; Tolomeo, M; Gancitano, R; Dalessandro, N; Aiello, E

    1997-01-01

    Folk medicine has attributed antitumor properties to preparations from Aloe vera. We have studied the effects of five purified compounds from the plant on human K562 leukemia and on its multidrug resistant (MDR) variant, K562/R. The glycosides aloin A and B, aloesin and aloeresin were devoid of antitumor activity up to 200 mu M concentrations. Only the aglycone aloe emodin produced reproducible antitumor effects, which, interestingly, were more pronounced in the MDR, P-glycoprotein overexpressing, cell line. Its IC50 was in fact 29 mu M in K562 and 10.5 mu M in K562/R. Aloe emodine caused mainly cytostasis and accumulation of the cells in the S and G(2)-M phases of the cell cycle during the first 48 h of treatment. Thereafter, massive cell death ensued. Research on the antitumor activity of compounds extracted from Aloe vera probably deserves continuation. PMID:21590055

  17. Tanshinone IIA inhibits acute promyelocytic leukemia cell proliferation and induces their apoptosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaiji; Li, Jian; Meng, Wentong; Xing, Hongyun; Yang, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA (TanIIA) is a traditional Chinese agent and has been widely used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has shown that TanIIA can induce the differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells by increasing C/EBP?expression and induce APL cell apoptosis in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the activity of TanIIA against APL in vivo. We found that treatment with TanIIA prevented APL-mediated reduction in body weights. Treatment with TanIIA inhibited the proliferation of APL cells and triggered APL cell apoptosis and differentiation in vivo. Treatment with TanIIA significantly prolonged the survival of APL-bearing mice. Our data indicate that TanIIA has potent anti-APL activity with little adverse effect. PMID:26603724

  18. Fludarabine and Total-Body Irradiation Followed By Donor Stem Cell Transplant and Cyclosporine and Mycophenolate Mofetil in Treating HIV-Positive Patients With or Without Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-28

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Aggressive NK-cell Leukemia; AIDS-related Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Peripheral/Systemic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Primary CNS Lymphoma; AIDS-related Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extramedullary Plasmacytoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; HIV Infection; HIV-associated Hodgkin Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Isolated Plasmacytoma of Bone; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Meningeal Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Myeloid/NK-cell Acute Leukemia; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma; Primary Myelofibrosis; Primary Systemic Amyloidosis; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I

  19. Single Diastereomer of a Macrolactam Core Binds Specifically to Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1 (MCL1).

    PubMed

    Fang, Chao; D'Souza, Brendan; Thompson, Christopher F; Clifton, Matthew C; Fairman, James W; Fulroth, Ben; Leed, Alison; McCarren, Patrick; Wang, Lili; Wang, Yikai; Feau, Clementine; Kaushik, Virendar K; Palmer, Michelle; Wei, Guo; Golub, Todd R; Hubbard, Brian K; Serrano-Wu, Michael H

    2014-12-11

    A direct binding screen of 100?000 sp(3)-rich molecules identified a single diastereomer of a macrolactam core that binds specifically to myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1). A comprehensive toolbox of biophysical methods was applied to validate the original hit and subsequent analogues and also established a binding mode competitive with NOXA BH3 peptide. X-ray crystallography of ligand bound to MCL1 reveals a remarkable ligand/protein shape complementarity that diverges from previously disclosed MCL1 inhibitor costructures. PMID:25516789

  20. Single Diastereomer of a Macrolactam Core Binds Specifically to Myeloid Cell Leukemia 1 (MCL1)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A direct binding screen of 100?000 sp3-rich molecules identified a single diastereomer of a macrolactam core that binds specifically to myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1). A comprehensive toolbox of biophysical methods was applied to validate the original hit and subsequent analogues and also established a binding mode competitive with NOXA BH3 peptide. X-ray crystallography of ligand bound to MCL1 reveals a remarkable ligand/protein shape complementarity that diverges from previously disclosed MCL1 inhibitor costructures. PMID:25516789

  1. A feedback model for leukemia including cell competition and the action of the immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balea, S.; Halanay, A.; Neamtu, M.

    2014-12-01

    A mathematical model, coupling the dynamics of short-term stem-like cells and mature leukocytes in leukemia with that of the immune system, is investigated. The model is described by a system of nine delay differential equations with nine delays. Three equilibrium points E0, E1, E2 are highlighted. The stability and the existence of the Hopf bifurcation for the equilibrium points are investigated. In the analysis of the model, the rate of asymmetric division and the rate of symmetric division are very important.

  2. Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia—Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) in the Background of a Large Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gonsalves, Wilson I.; He, Rong; Pardanani, Animesh; Gupta, Vinay; Smeltzer, Jacob P.; Hanson, Curtis A.; Witzig, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Clonal eosinophilic disorders are rare among hematological malignancies. Most eosinophilia tends to be due to secondary causes such as infections, hypersensitivity conditions, drug reactions, and connective tissue disorders. The presence of a primary clonal eosinophilic disorder such as chronic eosinophilic leukemia—not otherwise specified (NOS) in the presence of a synchronous large cell lymphoma—is rare making the diagnosis challenging. We present a case of a 51-year-old female with the aforementioned presentation and demonstrate the extensive workup performed to identify the diagnosis. PMID:24224106

  3. Characterization of rat basophilic leukemia cell surface proteins using monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Buonocore-Buzzelli, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells express both immunoglobulin E (IgE) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) receptors. In this study, mouse monoclonal antibodies were produced against the RBL cell and screened for their ability to precipitate specific bands from {sup 125}I surface labeled cells. Fourteen hybridomas were selected and divided into five groups since many of the hybridomas precipitated bands of identical molecular weight. One or more of the hybridomas from each group, and the cell surface antigens they identified, were further characterized. Binding of all the monoclonal antibodies to the RBL-2H3 cell surface was saturable and of high affinity. In cross inhibition studies, two of the antibodies were found to bind to identical or neighboring epitopes, presumably on the same cell surface molecule. Binding studies using other cell populations demonstrated that the monoclonal antibodies react not only with commonly expressed rat cell surface molecules but also with molecules specifically expressed on rat mast cells and basophils. None of the antibodies were found to induce or inhibit serotonin release from the RBL cells. Western blotting showed most of the antibodies to react with bands whose molecular weights resembled those seen by immuno-precipitation. Antibodies 8 and 12, although from the same group, were found to react with different subunits of the same cell surface protein. Sequential immunoprecipitation and peptide mapping confirmed that the antigens defined by these antibodies were structurally related.

  4. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells Inhibit the Differentiation of Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Osteoblasts In Vitro by Activating Notch Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui-Cun; Xu, You-Hua; Chen, Hong-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2015-01-01

    The disruption of normal hematopoiesis has been observed in leukemia, but the mechanism is unclear. Osteoblasts originate from bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and can maintain normal hematopoiesis. To investigate how leukemic cells inhibit the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and the role of Notch signaling in this process, we cocultured BMSCs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells in osteogenic induction medium. The expression levels of Notch1, Hes1, and the osteogenic markers Runx2, Osteopontin (OPN), and Osteocalcin (OCN) were assessed by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting on day 3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was analyzed using an ALP kit, and mineralization deposits were detected by Alizarin red S staining on day 14. And then we treated BMSCs with Jagged1 and anti-Jagged1 neutralizing Ab. The expression of Notch1, Hes1, and the abovementioned osteogenic differentiation markers was measured. Inhibition of the expression of Runx2, OPN, and OCN and reduction of ALP activity and mineralization deposits were observed in BMSCs cocultured with ALL cells, while Notch signal inhibiting rescued these effects. All these results indicated that ALL cells could inhibit the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by activating Notch signaling, resulting in a decreased number of osteoblastic cells, which may impair normal hematopoiesis. PMID:26339248

  5. SB225002 Induces Cell Death and Cell Cycle Arrest in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells through the Activation of GLIPR1

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Paulo C.; Bhasin, Manoj K.; Zenatti, Priscila Pini; Nunes, Ricardo J.; Yunes, Rosendo A.; Nowill, Alexandre E.; Libermann, Towia A.; Zerbini, Luiz Fernando; Yunes, José Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is the most frequent childhood malignancy. In the effort to find new anti-leukemic agents, we evaluated the small drug SB225002 (N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitrophenyl)-N’-(2-bromophenyl)urea). Although initially described as a selective antagonist of CXCR2, later studies have identified other cellular targets for SB225002, with potential medicinal use in cancer. We found that SB225002 has a significant pro-apoptotic effect against both B- and T-ALL cell lines. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that treatment with SB225002 induces G2-M cell cycle arrest. Transcriptional profiling revealed that SB225002-mediated apoptosis triggered a transcriptional program typical of tubulin binding agents. Network analysis revealed the activation of genes linked to the JUN and p53 pathways and inhibition of genes linked to the TNF pathway. Early cellular effects activated by SB225002 included the up-regulation of GLIPR1, a p53-target gene shown to have pro-apoptotic activities in prostate and bladder cancer. Silencing of GLIPR1 in B- and T-ALL cell lines resulted in increased resistance to SB225002. Although SB225002 promoted ROS increase in ALL cells, antioxidant N-Acetyl Cysteine pre-treatment only modestly attenuated cell death, implying that the pro-apoptotic effects of SB225002 are not exclusively mediated by ROS. Moreover, GLIPR1 silencing resulted in increased ROS levels both in untreated and SB225002-treated cells. In conclusion, SB225002 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in different B- and T-ALL cell lines. Inhibition of tubulin function with concurrent activation of the p53 pathway, in particular, its downstream target GLIPR1, seems to underlie the anti-leukemic effect of SB225002. PMID:26302043

  6. In vitro anticancer activity of loquat tea by inducing apoptosis in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Zar, Phyu Phyu Khine; Yano, Satoshi; Sakao, Kozue; Hashimoto, Fumio; Nakano, Takayuki; Fujii, Makoto; Hou, De-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Fresh loquat leaves have been used as folk health herb in Asian countries for long time, although the evidence supporting their functions is still minimal. This study aimed to clarify the chemopreventive effect of loquat tea extract (LTE) by investigating the inhibition on proliferation, and underlying mechanisms in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). LTE inhibited proliferation of HL-60 in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular data showed that the isolated fraction of LTE induced apoptosis of HL-60 as characterized by DNA fragmentation; activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9; and inactivation of poly(ADP)ribose polymerase. Moreover, LTE fraction increased the ratio of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax)/anti-apoptotic myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) that caused mitochondrial membrane potential loss and cytochrome c released to cytosol. Thus, our data indicate that LTE might induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells through a mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. These findings enhance our understanding for chemopreventive function of loquat tea. PMID:25118018

  7. How I treat T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults.

    PubMed

    Litzow, Mark R; Ferrando, Adolfo A

    2015-08-13

    T-cell immunophenotype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an uncommon aggressive leukemia that can present with leukemic and/or lymphomatous manifestations. Molecular studies are enhancing our understanding of the pathogenesis of T-ALL, and the discovery of activating mutations of NOTCH1 and FBXW7 in a majority of patients has been a seminal observation. The use of pediatric intensive combination chemotherapy regimens in adolescents and young adults has significantly improved the outcome of patients with T-ALL. The use of nelarabine for relapsed and refractory T-ALL results in responses in a substantial minority of patients. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) still plays a key role in patients with high-risk or relapsed/refractory disease. ?-Secretase inhibitors hold promise for the treatment of patients with NOTCH1 mutations, and the results of clinical trials with these agents are eagerly awaited. It is recommended that younger patients receive a pediatric-intensive regimen. Older and unfit patients can receive suitable multiagent chemotherapy and be allocated to HCT based on their response, risk factors, and comorbidities. Although advances in the treatment of T-ALL have lagged behind those of B-cell ALL, it is hoped that the molecular revolution will enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of this aggressive lymphoid malignancy. PMID:25966987

  8. Reversion to an embryonic alternative splicing program enhances leukemia stem cell self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Frida; Hellqvist, Eva; Mason, Cayla N.; Ali, Shawn A.; Delos-Santos, Nathaniel; Barrett, Christian L.; Chun, Hye-Jung; Minden, Mark D.; Moore, Richard A.; Marra, Marco A.; Runza, Valeria; Frazer, Kelly A.; Sadarangani, Anil; Jamieson, Catriona H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Formative research suggests that a human embryonic stem cell-specific alternative splicing gene regulatory network, which is repressed by Muscleblind-like (MBNL) RNA binding proteins, is involved in cell reprogramming. In this study, RNA sequencing, splice isoform-specific quantitative RT-PCR, lentiviral transduction, and in vivo humanized mouse model studies demonstrated that malignant reprogramming of progenitors into self-renewing blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells (BC LSCs) was partially driven by decreased MBNL3. Lentiviral knockdown of MBNL3 resulted in reversion to an embryonic alternative splice isoform program typified by overexpression of CD44 transcript variant 3, containing variant exons 8–10, and BC LSC proliferation. Although isoform-specific lentiviral CD44v3 overexpression enhanced chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progenitor replating capacity, lentiviral shRNA knockdown abrogated these effects. Combined treatment with a humanized pan-CD44 monoclonal antibody and a breakpoint cluster region - ABL proto-oncogene 1, nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (BCR-ABL1) antagonist inhibited LSC maintenance in a niche-dependent manner. In summary, MBNL3 down-regulation–related reversion to an embryonic alternative splicing program, typified by CD44v3 overexpression, represents a previously unidentified mechanism governing malignant progenitor reprogramming in malignant microenvironments and provides a pivotal opportunity for selective BC LSC detection and therapeutic elimination. PMID:26621726

  9. The pan-ErbB tyrosine kinase inhibitor canertinib induces caspase-mediated cell death in human T-cell leukemia (Jurkat) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Trinks, Cecilia; Severinsson, Emelie A.; Holmlund, Birgitta; Green, Anna; Green, Henrik; Joensson, Jan-Ingvar; Hallbeck, Anna-Lotta; Department of Oncology, County Council of Ostergoetland, Linkoeping ; Walz, Thomas M.

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Canertinib induces caspase-mediated apoptosis in T-cell leukemia cells in vitro. {yields} Canertinib mediates activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. {yields} Canertinib induces apoptosis in an ErbB receptor independent manner. {yields} Lymphocyte specific proteins as well as survival kinases are inhibited. {yields} Canertinib may act as a multi-kinase inhibiting drug in human T-cell malignancies. -- Abstract: Canertinib is a novel ErbB-receptor inhibitor currently in clinical development for the treatment of solid tumors overexpressing ErbB-receptors. We have recently demonstrated that canertinib displays anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in human myeloid leukemia cells devoid of ErbB-receptors. The mechanism mediating these effects are however unknown. In this study, we show that canertinib is able to act as a multi-kinase inhibitor by inhibition of several intracellular kinases involved in T-cell signaling such as Akt, Erk1/2 and Zap-70, and reduced Lck protein expression in the human T-cell leukemia cell line Jurkat. Treatment with canertinib at a concentration of 2 {mu}M caused accumulation of Jurkat cells in the G{sub 1} cell cycle phase and increased doses induced apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. Apoptotic signs of treated cells were detected by Annexin V staining and cleavage of PARP, caspase-3, -8, -9, -10 and Bid. A subset of the pro-apoptotic signals mediated by canertinib could be significantly reduced by specific caspase inhibitors. Taken together, these results demonstrate the dual ability of canertinib to downregulate important signaling pathways and to activate caspase-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway in human T-cell leukemia cells.

  10. Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant and Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Treating Patients With High-Risk Advanced Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-05

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia and Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  11. Ketoconazole inhibition and glucocorticoid action in the human lymphoblastic leukemia cell line CEM-C7.

    PubMed

    Hackney, J F; Schwartz, D A

    1988-01-01

    The antifungal drug, ketoconazole, was reported to antagonize the induction of the enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) by glucocorticoids in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells, and to compete with glucocorticoids for binding to the glucocorticoid receptor. Since glucocorticoids inhibit the growth of the human leukemia cell line CEM-C7, ketoconazole might be expected to reverse this inhibition. Unexpectedly, ketoconazole inhibited CEM-C7 cell growth without utilizing glucocorticoid receptors. This was confirmed by ketoconazole inhibition of the growth of a receptor-less subline of CEM-C7 cells which are insensitive to glucocorticoids. Ketoconazole competed with triamcinolone acetonide (TA) for binding to the glucocorticoid receptor in cell-free supernatant prepared from CEM-C7 cells, but this was greatly reduced if ketoconazole and TA were incubated with intact cells prior to preparation of the cell-free supernatant. Ketoconazole inhibited induction by TA of the enzyme glutamine synthetase only at concentrations of 45-90 microM. We conclude that ketoconazole antagonism of glucocorticoid activity in CEM-C7 cells is probably not of pharmacologic significance due to the large concentrations required, and its reduced interaction with receptors in intact cells. The growth inhibitory activity of ketoconazole may be of interest in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:2894483

  12. Non-destructive Identification of Individual Leukemia Cells by Optical Trapping Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, J W; Taylor, D S; Lane, S; Zwerdling, T; Tuscano, J; Huser, T

    2007-03-05

    Currently, a combination of technologies is typically required to assess the malignancy of cancer cells. These methods often lack the specificity and sensitivity necessary for early, accurate diagnosis. Here we demonstrate using clinical samples the application of laser trapping Raman spectroscopy as a novel approach that provides intrinsic biochemical markers for the noninvasive detection of individual cancer cells. The Raman spectra of live, hematopoietic cells provide reliable molecular fingerprints that reflect their biochemical composition and biology. Populations of normal T and B lymphocytes from four healthy individuals, and cells from three leukemia patients were analyzed, and multiple intrinsic Raman markers associated with DNA and protein vibrational modes have been identified that exhibit excellent discriminating power for cancer cell identification. A combination of two multivariate statistical methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), was used to confirm the significance of these markers for identifying cancer cells and classifying the data. The results indicate that, on average, 95% of the normal cells and 90% of the patient cells were accurately classified into their respective cell types. We also provide evidence that these markers are unique to cancer cells and not purely a function of differences in their cellular activation.

  13. Suppression of HSP27 increases the anti-tumor effects of quercetin in human leukemia U937 cells

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, XI; DONG, XIU-SHUAI; GAO, HAI-YAN; JIANG, YONG-FANG; JIN, YING-LAN; CHANG, YU-YING; CHEN, LI-YAN; WANG, JING-HUA

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, inhibits the growth of leukemia cells and induces apoptosis. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) has been reported to promote the development of leukemia by protecting tumor cells from apoptosis through various mechanisms. The present study investigated the effects of small hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated HSP27 knockdown on the anti-cancer effects of quercetin in U937 human leukemia cells. Cells were transfected with recombinant lentiviral vector pCMV-G-NR-U6-shHSP27 (shHSP27), which expressed shRNA specifically targeting the HSP27 gene, alone or in combination with quercetin. The results showed that shHSP27 and quercetin synergistically inhibited U937 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis by decreasing the Bcl2-to-Bax ratio. Furthermore, this combined treatment significantly suppressed the infiltration of tumor cells and the expression of angiogenesis-associated proteins HIF1? and VEGF. Compared with shHSP27 or quercetin alone, shHSP27 plus quercetin markedly decreased the protein expression of cyclinD1 and thus blocked the cell cycle at G1 phase. The Notch/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is important in tumor aggressiveness; quercetin plus shHSP27 significantly decreased Notch 1 expression and the phosphorylation levels of the downstream signaling proteins AKT and mTOR. The inhibitory effects of quercetin plus shHSP27 on this pathway may thus have been responsible for the cell cycle arrest, inhibition of proliferations and infiltration as well as enhancement of apoptosis. Therefore, these findings collectively suggested that suppression of HSP27 expression amplified the anti-cancer effects of quercetin in U937 human leukemia cells, and that quercetin in combination with shHSP27 represents a promising therapeutic strategy for human leukemia. PMID:26648539

  14. Suppression of HSP27 increases the anti?tumor effects of quercetin in human leukemia U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Dong, Xiu-Shuai; Gao, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Yong-Fang; Jin, Ying-Lan; Chang, Yu-Ying; Chen, Li-Yan; Wang, Jing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, inhibits the growth of leukemia cells and induces apoptosis. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) has been reported to promote the development of leukemia by protecting tumor cells from apoptosis through various mechanisms. The present study investigated the effects of small hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated HSP27 knockdown on the anti?cancer effects of quercetin in U937 human leukemia cells. Cells were transfected with recombinant lentiviral vector pCMV?G?NR?U6?shHSP27 (shHSP27), which expressed shRNA specifically targeting the HSP27 gene, alone or in combination with quercetin. The results showed that shHSP27 and quercetin synergistically inhibited U937 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis by decreasing the Bcl2-to-Bax ratio. Furthermore, this combined treatment significantly suppressed the infiltration of tumor cells and the expression of angiogenesis?associated proteins HIF1? and VEGF. Compared with shHSP27 or quercetin alone, shHSP27 plus quercetin markedly decreased the protein expression of cyclinD1 and thus blocked the cell cycle at G1 phase. The Notch/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is important in tumor aggressiveness; quercetin plus shHSP27 significantly decreased Notch 1 expression and the phosphorylation levels of the downstream signaling proteins AKT and mTOR. The inhibitory effects of quercetin plus shHSP27 on this pathway may thus have been responsible for the cell cycle arrest, inhibition of proliferations and infiltration as well as enhancement of apoptosis. Therefore, these findings collectively suggested that suppression of HSP27 expression amplified the anti?cancer effects of quercetin in U937 human leukemia cells, and that quercetin in combination with shHSP27 represents a promising therapeutic strategy for human leukemia. PMID:26648539

  15. Inhibiting Polo-like kinase 1 causes growth reduction and apoptosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Hartsink-Segers, Stefanie A.; Exalto, Carla; Allen, Matthew; Williamson, Daniel; Clifford, Steven C.; Horstmann, Martin; Caron, Huib N.; Pieters, Rob; Den Boer, Monique L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated Polo-like kinase 1, a mitotic regulator often over-expressed in solid tumors and adult hematopoietic malignancies, as a potential new target in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Polo-like kinase 1 protein and Thr210 phosphorylation levels were higher in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=172) than in normal bone marrow mononuclear cells (n=10) (P<0.0001). High Polo-like kinase 1 protein phosphorylation, but not expression, was associated with a lower probability of event-free survival (P=0.042) and was a borderline significant prognostic factor (P=0.065) in a multivariate analysis including age and initial white blood cell count. Polo-like kinase 1 was necessary for leukemic cell survival, since short hairpin-mediated Polo-like kinase 1 knockdown in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines inhibited cell proliferation by G2/M cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Primary patient cells with a high Polo-like kinase 1 protein expression were sensitive to the Polo-like kinase 1-specific inhibitor NMS-P937 in vitro, whereas cells with a low expression and normal bone marrow cells were resistant. This sensitivity was likely not caused by Polo-like kinase 1 mutations, since only one new mutation (Ser335Arg) was found by 454-sequencing of 38 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases. This mutation did not affect Polo-like kinase 1 expression or NMS-P937 sensitivity. Together, these results indicate a pivotal role for Polo-like kinase 1 in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and show potential for Polo-like kinase 1-inhibiting drugs as an addition to current treatment strategies for cases expressing high Polo-like kinase 1 levels. PMID:23753023

  16. Recognition of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells in Microscopic Images Using K-Means Clustering and Support Vector Machine Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Morteza Moradi; Kermani, Saeed; Talebi, Ardeshir; Oghli, Mostafa Ghelich

    2015-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common form of pediatric cancer which is categorized into three L1, L2, and L3 and could be detected through screening of blood and bone marrow smears by pathologists. Due to being time-consuming and tediousness of the procedure, a computer-based system is acquired for convenient detection of Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Microscopic images are acquired from blood and bone marrow smears of patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and normal cases. After applying image preprocessing, cells nuclei are segmented by k-means algorithm. Then geometric and statistical features are extracted from nuclei and finally these cells are classified to cancerous and noncancerous cells by means of support vector machine classifier with 10-fold cross validation. These cells are also classified into their sub-types by multi-Support vector machine classifier. Classifier is evaluated by these parameters: Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy which values for cancerous and noncancerous cells 98%, 95%, and 97%, respectively. These parameters are also used for evaluation of cell sub-types which values in mean 84.3%, 97.3%, and 95.6%, respectively. The results show that proposed algorithm could achieve an acceptable performance for the diagnosis of Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and its sub-types and can be used as an assistant diagnostic tool for pathologists. PMID:25709941

  17. Gene-expression and in vitro function of mesenchymal stromal cells are affected in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Calkoen, Friso G J; Vervat, Carly; Eising, Else; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S; 't Hoen, Peter-Bram A C; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Egeler, R Maarten; van Tol, Maarten J D; Ball, Lynne M

    2015-11-01

    An aberrant interaction between hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stromal cells has been linked to disease and shown to contribute to the pathophysiology of hematologic malignancies in murine models. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is an aggressive malignant disease affecting young infants. Here we investigated the impact of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia on mesenchymal stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells were expanded from bone marrow samples of patients at diagnosis (n=9) and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n=7; from 5 patients) and from healthy children (n=10). Cells were characterized by phenotyping, differentiation, gene expression analysis (of controls and samples obtained at diagnosis) and in vitro functional studies assessing immunomodulation and hematopoietic support. Mesenchymal stromal cells from patients did not differ from controls in differentiation capacity nor did they differ in their capacity to support in vitro hematopoiesis. Deep-SAGE sequencing revealed differential mRNA expression in patient-derived samples, including genes encoding proteins involved in immunomodulation and cell-cell interaction. Selected gene expression normalized during remission after successful hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Whereas natural killer cell activation and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation were not differentially affected, the suppressive effect on monocyte to dendritic cell differentiation was increased by mesenchymal stromal cells obtained at diagnosis, but not at time of remission. This study shows that active juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia affects the immune response-related gene expression and function of mesenchymal stromal cells. In contrast, the differential gene expression of hematopoiesis-related genes could not be supported by functional data. Decreased immune surveillance might contribute to the therapy resistance and progression in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. PMID:26294732

  18. Inhibitory activity of boswellic acids from Boswellia serrata against human leukemia HL-60 cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Shao, Y; Ho, C T; Chin, C K; Badmaev, V; Ma, W; Huang, M T

    1998-05-01

    Four major triterpene acids including beta-boswellic acid (1), 3-O-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid (2), 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (3), and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (4) were isolated from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata and examined for their in vitro antitumor activity. They inhibited the synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in human leukemia HL-60 cells in a dose dependent manner with IC50 values ranging from 0.6 to 7.1 microM. Among them, compound 4 induced the most pronounced inhibitory effects on DNA, RNA and protein synthesis with IC50 values of 0.6, 0.5, and 4.1 microM, respectively. The effect of 4 on DNA synthesis was found to be irreversible. Compound 4 significantly inhibited the cellular growth of HL-60 cells, but did not affect cell viability. PMID:9619114

  19. Developing a Novel Indolocarbazole as Histone Deacetylases Inhibitor against Leukemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjing; Lv, Maomin; Zhao, Xiong; Zhang, Jingang

    2015-01-01

    A novel indolocarbazole (named as ZW2-1) possessing HDAC inhibition activity was synthesized and evaluated against human leukemia cell lines HL-60 and NB4. ZW2-1 performed anti-population growth effect which was in a concentration-dependent manner (2–12??M) by inducing both apoptosis and autophagy in cells. The compound also caused differentiation of HL-60 and NB4 cells as shown by increasing expression of CD11b, CD14, and CD38 at moderate concentration (4??M). At relatively high concentration (8??M), ZW2-1 significantly decreased intracellular histone deacetylase 1 level which was also observed. All the results indicated that ZW2-1 could be a novel antileukemia lead capable of simultaneously inducing apoptosis, autophagy, and differentiation. PMID:26649226

  20. A novel 2,6-diisopropylphenyl-docosahexaenoamide conjugate induces apoptosis in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Altenburg, Jeffrey D.; Harvey, Kevin A.; McCray, Sharon; Xu, Zhidong; Siddiqui, Rafat A.

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} 2,6-Diisopropylphenyl-docosahexaenoamide conjugates (DIP-DHA) inhibits the proliferation of T-cell leukemic cell lines. {yields} DIP-DHA resulted in increased activation of caspase-3, and caspase-7. {yields} DIP-DHA significantly downregulated CXCR4 surface expression. -- Abstract: We have previously characterized the effects of 2,6-diisopropylphenyl-docosahexaenoamide (DIP-DHA) conjugates and their analogs on the proliferation and progression of breast cancer cell lines. For this study, we investigated the effects of the DIP-DHA conjugate on 2 representative T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cell lines: CEM and Jurkat. Treatment of both cell lines with DIP-DHA resulted in significantly greater inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis than that of parent compounds, 2,6-diisopropylphenol (DIP) or docosahexaenoate (DHA). Treatment of the cells with DIP-DHA resulted in increased activation of caspase-3, and caspase-7. Furthermore, induction of apoptosis in both cell lines was reversed in the presence of a caspase family inhibitor. Treatment with DIP-DHA reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. These observations suggest that the effects are driven by intrinsic apoptotic pathways. DIP-DHA treatment also downregulated surface CXCR4 expression, an important chemokine receptor involved in cancer metastasis that is highly expressed in both CEM and Jurkat cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that the DIP-DHA conjugate exhibits significantly more potent effects on CEM and Jurkat cells than that of DIP or DHA alone. These conjugates have potential use for treatment of patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  1. Salinomycin overcomes ABC transporter-mediated multidrug and apoptosis resistance in human leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Dominik; Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 305, D-69120 Heidelberg ; Daniel, Volker; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Opelz, Gerhard; Naujokat, Cord

    2010-04-16

    Leukemia stem cells are known to exhibit multidrug resistance by expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters which constitute transmembrane proteins capable of exporting a wide variety of chemotherapeutic drugs from the cytosol. We show here that human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exposed to the histone deacetylase inhibitor phenylbutyrate resemble many characteristics of leukemia stem cells, including expression of functional ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein, BCRP and MRP8. Consequently, KG-1a cells display resistance to the induction of apoptosis by various chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic drugs can be reversed by cyclosporine A, which effectively inhibits the activity of P-glycoprotein and BCRP, thus demonstrating ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance in KG-1a cells. However, KG-1a are highly sensitive to apoptosis induction by salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to kill human breast cancer stem cell-like cells and to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells displaying multiple mechanisms of drug and apoptosis resistance. Whereas KG-1a cells can be adapted to proliferate in the presence of apoptosis-inducing concentrations of bortezomib and doxorubicin, salinomycin does not permit long-term adaptation of the cells to apoptosis-inducing concentrations. Thus, salinomycin should be regarded as a novel and effective agent for the elimination of leukemia stem cells and other tumor cells exhibiting ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance.

  2. Lithium Carbonate in Treating Patients With Acute Intestinal Graft-Versus-Host-Disease After Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-01-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; De Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Disseminated Neuroblastoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Gastrointestinal Complications; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Poor Prognosis Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Wilm's Tumor; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Multiple Myeloma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Multiple Myeloma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IIIA Breast Can

  3. Trichostatin A improves the anticancer activity of low concentrations of curcumin in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Bai, Hai; Wang, Cunbang; Kang, Jiuhong

    2006-08-01

    Curcumin (Cur), a promising anticancer drug, kills tumor cells through either diminishing or promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In this study, it was investigated whether trichostatin A (TSA), a specific histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and a new anticancer drug, could improve the anticancer activity of low concentrations of Cur in human leukemia cells (HL-60). HL-60 cells were treated with Cur, TSA or their combinations; cell proliferation arrest, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and cell viability were measured as indicators of cell damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and the acetylation of histones were also measured. The cytotoxicity of Cur and TSA increased in a time and dose-dependent manner. Low Cur (no more than 20 microM) diminished the ROS generation in HL-60 cells, while high Cur (50 and 100 microM) promoted that. In contrast, TSA showed no influence on ROS generation. When their effects on histone acetylation were determined, low Cur showed no effect, while TSA significantly increased that. As expected, combinations of low Cur and TSA could not only diminish ROS generation, but also increase histone acetylation, and hence showed a more significant cytotoxicity in HL-60 cells. Since the extra ROS generation may also harm normal cells, instead of using high Cur, combining low Cur with TSA is obviously a better strategy to improve the anticancer activity of Cur. PMID:16964716

  4. T-cell-replete haploidentical transplantation versus autologous stem cell transplantation in adult acute leukemia: a matched pair analysis.

    PubMed

    Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Labopin, Myriam; Piemontese, Simona; Arcese, William; Santarone, Stella; Huang, He; Meloni, Giovanna; Ferrara, Felicetto; Beelen, Dietrich; Sanz, Miguel; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Ciceri, Fabio; Mailhol, Audrey; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad

    2015-04-01

    Adult patients with acute leukemia in need of a transplant but without a genoidentical donor are usually considered upfront for transplantation with stem cells from any other allogeneic source, rather than autologous stem cell transplantation. We used data from the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and performed a matched pair analysis on 188 T-cell-replete haploidentical and 356 autologous transplants done from January 2007 to December 2012, using age, diagnosis, disease status, cytogenetics, and interval from diagnosis to transplant as matching factors. "Haploidentical expert" centers were defined as having reported more than five haploidentical transplants for acute leukemia (median value for the study period). The median follow-up was 28 months. Multivariate analyses, including type of transplant categorized into three classes ("haploidentical regular", "haploidentical expert" and autologous), conditioning intensity (reduced intensity versus myeloablative conditioning) and the random effect taking into account associations related to matching, showed that non-relapse mortality was higher following haploidentical transplants in expert (HR: 4.7; P=0.00004) and regular (HR: 8.98; P<10(-5)) centers. Relapse incidence for haploidentical transplants was lower in expert centers (HR:0.39; P=0.0003) but in regular centers was similar to that for autologous transplants. Leukemia-free survival and overall survival rates were higher following autologous transplantation than haploidentical transplants in regular centers (HR: 1.63; P=0.008 and HR: 2.31; P=0.0002 respectively) but similar to those following haploidentical transplants in expert centers. We conclude that autologous stem cell transplantation should presently be considered as a possible alternative to haploidentical transplantation in regular centers that have not developed a specific expert program. PMID:25637051

  5. Neolignans from Nectandra megapotamica (Lauraceae) Display in vitro Cytotoxic Activity and Induce Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Ponci, Vitor; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Massaoka, Mariana H; de Farias, Camyla F; Matsuo, Alisson L; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G

    2015-01-01

    Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng.) Mez. (Lauraceae) is a well-known Brazilian medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine to treat several diseases. In continuation of our ongoing efforts to discover new bioactive natural products from the Brazilian flora, this study describes the identification of cytotoxic compounds from the MeOH extract of N. megapotamica (Lauraceae) leaves using bioactivity-guided fractionation. This approach resulted in the isolation and characterization of eight tetrahydrofuran neolignans: calopeptin (1), machilin-G (2), machilin-I (3), aristolignin (4), nectandrin A (5), veraguensin (6), ganschisandrin (7), and galgravin (8). Different assays were conducted to evaluate their cytotoxic activities and to determine the possible mechanism(s) related to the activity displayed against human leukemia cells. The most active compounds 4, 5 and 8 gave IC50 values of 14.2 ± 0.7, 16.9 ± 0.8 and 16.5 ± 0.8 µg/mL, respectively, against human leukemia (HL-60) tumor cells. Moreover, these compounds induced specific apoptotic hallmarks, such as plasma membrane bleb formation, nuclear DNA condensation, specific chromatin fragmentation, phosphatidyl-serine exposure on the external leaflet of the plasma membrane, cleavage of PARP as well as mitochondrial damage, which as a whole could be related to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. PMID:26184150

  6. The next new target in leukemia: The embryonic stem cell gene SALL4

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Wenxiu; Kong, Nikki; Cui, Wei; Chai, Li

    2015-01-01

    The embryonic stem (ES) cell gene SALL4 has recently been identified as a new target for cancer therapy, including leukemia. SALL4 is expressed in ES cells and during embryonic development, but is absent in most adult tissues. It is, however, aberrantly expressed in various solid tumors and hematologic malignancies such as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Aberrant expression of SALL4 is frequently associated with a more aggressive cancer phenotype, which includes high-risk MDS and its progression to AML. SALL4 contributes to leukemogenesis through multiple pathways including the repression of PTEN and the activation of HOXA9 expression. Targeting the SALL4/PTEN pathway by blocking the protein–protein interaction of SALL4 and its associated epigenetic complex, nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex (NuRD), might be a novel approach to treating AML and holds great potential for the treatment of other SALL4-mediated oncogenic processes such as high-risk MDS and solid tumors. PMID:25977939

  7. Select microtubule inhibitors increase lysosome acidity and promote lysosomal disruption in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Dannie; Gebbia, Marinella; Prabha, Swayam; Gronda, Marcela; MacLean, Neil; Wang, Xiaoming; Hurren, Rose; Sukhai, Mahadeo A; Cho, Eunice E; Manolson, Morris F; Datti, Alessandro; Wrana, Jeffrey; Minden, Mark D; Al-Awar, Rima; Aman, Ahmed; Nislow, Corey; Giaever, Guri; Schimmer, Aaron D

    2015-07-01

    To identify new biological vulnerabilities in acute myeloid leukemia, we screened a library of natural products for compounds cytotoxic to TEX leukemia cells. This screen identified the novel small molecule Deoxysappanone B 7,4' dimethyl ether (Deox B 7,4), which possessed nanomolar anti-leukemic activity. To determine the anti-leukemic mechanism of action of Deox B 7,4, we conducted a genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified enrichment of genes related to mitotic cell cycle as well as vacuolar acidification, therefore pointing to microtubules and vacuolar (V)-ATPase as potential drug targets. Further investigations into the mechanisms of action of Deox B 7,4 and a related analogue revealed that these compounds were reversible microtubule inhibitors that bound near the colchicine site. In addition, Deox B 7,4 and its analogue increased lysosomal V-ATPase activity and lysosome acidity. The effects on microtubules and lysosomes were functionally important for the anti-leukemic effects of these drugs. The lysosomal effects were characteristic of select microtubule inhibitors as only the Deox compounds and nocodazole, but not colchicine, vinca alkaloids or paclitaxel, altered lysosome acidity and induced lysosomal disruption. Thus, our data highlight a new mechanism of action of select microtubule inhibitors on lysosomal function. PMID:25832785

  8. Akt Pathway Activation by Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Mathew A; Baydoun, Hicham H; Al-Saleem, Jacob; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka; Green, Patrick; Ratner, Lee

    2015-10-23

    Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) type 1, the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia, expresses the viral oncoprotein Tax1. In contrast, HTLV-2, which expresses Tax2, is non-leukemogenic. One difference between these homologous proteins is the presence of a C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) in Tax1, previously reported to be important for non-canonical NF?B activation. In contrast, this study finds no defect in non-canonical NF?B activity by deletion of the Tax1 PBM. Instead, Tax1 PBM was found to be important for Akt activation. Tax1 attenuates the effects of negative regulators of the PI3K-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), and PHLPP. Tax1 competes with PTEN for binding to DLG-1, unlike a PBM deletion mutant of Tax1. Forced membrane expression of PTEN or PHLPP overcame the effects of Tax1, as measured by levels of Akt phosphorylation, and rates of Akt dephosphorylation. The current findings suggest that Akt activation may explain the differences in transforming activity of HTLV-1 and -2. PMID:26324707

  9. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1-Associated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Denise Utsch; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Ribas, João Gabriel Ramos; Araújo, Marcelo Grossi; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Guedes, Antônio Carlos; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human retrovirus to be discovered, is present in diverse regions of the world, where its infection is usually neglected in health care settings and by public health authorities. Since it is usually asymptomatic in the beginning of the infection and disease typically manifests later in life, silent transmission occurs, which is associated with sexual relations, breastfeeding, and blood transfusions. There are no prospects of vaccines, and screening of blood banks and in prenatal care settings is not universal. Therefore, its transmission is active in many areas such as parts of Africa, South and Central America, the Caribbean region, Asia, and Melanesia. It causes serious diseases in humans, including adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and an incapacitating neurological disease (HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis [HAM/TSP]) besides other afflictions such as uveitis, rheumatic syndromes, and predisposition to helminthic and bacterial infections, among others. These diseases are not curable as yet, and current treatments as well as new perspectives are discussed in the present review. PMID:20610824

  10. N-Me, a long range oncogenic enhancer in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Herranz, Daniel; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Palomero, Teresa; Schnell, Stephanie A.; Belver, Laura; Wendorff, Agnieszka A.; Xu, Luyao; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Llobet-Navás, David; Cardo, Carlos Cordon; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Soulier, Jean; Ferrando, Adolfo A.

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to identify and annotate cancer driver genetic lesions have been almost exclusively focused on the analysis of protein coding genes. Here we identify a new long-range acting MYC enhancer controlled by NOTCH1, targeted by recurrent chromosomal duplications in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). This highly conserved regulatory element, hereby named N-Me for NOTCH MYC enhancer, is located within a broad super-enhancer region +1.47 Mb from the MYC transcription initiating site, interacts with the MYC proximal promoter and induces orientation-independent MYC expression in reporter assays. Moreover, analysis of N-Me knockout mice demonstrates a selective and essential role of this regulatory element during thymocyte development and in NOTCH1-induced T-ALL. Altogether, these results identify N-Me as a long range oncogenic enhancer directly implicated in the pathogenesis of human leukemia and highlight the fundamental importance of the NOTCH1-MYC regulatory axis in T-cell transformation and as therapeutic target in T-ALL. PMID:25194570

  11. Primary Central Nervous System Histiocytic Sarcoma Arising After Precursor B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan F; Fan, Hongxin; Floyd, John R; Henry, James M; Higgins, Russell A

    2015-12-01

    Histiocytic sarcomas (HSs) are rare malignant neoplasms derived from histiocytes that may be associated with other hematolymphoid neoplasms. Histiocytic sarcomas rarely occur in the CNS and have not previously been reported in conjunction with prior B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. We report the case of a 23-year-old man who presented with primary CNS HS 7 years after achieving remission for precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Molecular studies revealed clonal immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) gene rearrangement within the HS, suggesting linkage to his previous B-ALL. Previously reported post-ALL HSs show a strong predilection for young males (male-to-female ratio, 20:1), whereas cases of primary CNS HS without previous ALL affected older adults with balanced sex predilection. The patient's survival at 60 months exceeds expectations when compared with that of other reported cases of de novo primary CNS HS (n = 18) and post-ALL HS at all sites (n = 19). In addition, we discuss the potential relationship between B-ALL and HS posed by other authors. PMID:26574666

  12. Characterization of a set of tumor suppressor microRNAs in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Viraj R.; Mavrakis, Konstantinos J.; Van der Meulen, Joni; Boice, Michael; Wolfe, Andrew L.; Carty, Mark; Mohan, Prathibha; Rondou, Pieter; Socci, Nicholas D.; Benoit, Yves; Taghon, Tom; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Leslie, Christina S.; Speleman, Frank; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2015-01-01

    The posttranscriptional control of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) is highly redundant, and compensatory effects limit the consequences of the inactivation of individual miRNAs. This implies that only a few miRNAs can function as effective tumor suppressors. It is also the basis of our strategy to define functionally relevant miRNA target genes that are not under redundant control by other miRNAs. We identified a functionally interconnected group of miRNAs that exhibited a reduced abundance in leukemia cells from patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). To pinpoint relevant target genes, we applied a machine learning approach to eliminate genes that were subject to redundant miRNA-mediated control and to identify those genes that were exclusively targeted by tumor-suppressive miRNAs. This strategy revealed the convergence of a small group of tumor suppressor miRNAs on the Myb oncogene, as well as their effects on HBP1, which encodes a transcription factor. The expression of both genes was increased in T-ALL patient samples, and each gene promoted the progression of T-ALL in mice. Hence, our systematic analysis of tumor suppressor miRNA action identified a widespread mechanism of oncogene activation in T-ALL. PMID:25406379

  13. A flavone derivative from Sesbania sesban leaves and its cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianhar, Hanhan; Syah, Yana Maolana; Mujahidin, Didin; Hakim, Euis Holisotan; Juliawaty, Lia Dewi

    2014-03-01

    Sesbania sesban, locally named as Jayanti, is one of Indonesia plants belonging to Fabaceae family. This species is traditionally used by Indonesian people to cure digestive disorders, fever, or headache. Jayanti can grow well in tropical to subtropical region, such as in Asia and Africa. Based on literature, qualitative analysis of the methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban showed that it contained flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. In addition, the activity assay of extracts of different tissues of this species showed antitumor, antimalarial, and antidiabetic activityies (leaves and seed extracts), antioxidants (flower extract), and analgesic (wood extract). Though the extracts of S. sesban parts showed interesting activities, chemical study of those extracts have not been widely reported. Therefore, the objective of this research was to isolate the secondary metabolites from methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban and to determine their cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells. One compound has been obtained and identified as 3-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (1), a new isolated compound from nature. This compound was obtained through separation of methanol extract using various chromatographic techniques, such as vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structure elucidation of isolated compound was based on 1D NMR (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR) and 2D NMR (HMBC). The cytotoxicity of methanol extract and compound 1 against murine leukemia P-388 cells examined through MTT assay showed IC50 value of 60.04 ?g/mL and 5.40 ?g/mL, respectively.

  14. Bortezomib and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-30

    B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  15. Yttrium Y 90 Anti-CD45 Monoclonal Antibody BC8 Followed by Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-10

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  16. Lithium Chloride Promotes Apoptosis in Human Leukemia NB4 Cells by Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Beta

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liu; Song, Hao; Zhong, Liang; Yang, Rong; Yang, Xiao-Qun; Jiang, Kai-Ling; Liu, Bei-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). With the application of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), APL becomes one of best prognosis of leukemia. However, ATRA and ATO are not effective against all APLs. Therefore, a new strategy for APL treatment is necessary. Here, we investigated whether lithium chloride (LiCl), a drug used for the treatment of mental illness, could promote apoptosis in human leukemia NB4 cells. We observed that treatment with LiCl significantly accelerated apoptosis in NB4 cells and led to cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Moreover, LiCl significantly increased the level of Ser9-phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3?(p-GSK-3?), and decreased the level of Akt1 protein in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, LiCl inhibition of c-Myc also enhanced cell death with a concomitant increase in ?-catnin. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that LiCl promoted apoptosis in NB4 cells through the Akt signaling pathway and that G2/M phase arrest was induced by increase of p-GSK-3?(S9). PMID:26516309

  17. Mechanical Stimulation in Preventing Bone Density Loss in Patients Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-07-05

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Disseminated Neuroblastoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Poor Prognosis Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3

  18. Common clonal origin of an acute B-lymphoblastic leukemia and a Langerhans’ cell sarcoma: evidence for hematopoietic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Ratei, Richard; Hummel, Michael; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Jähne, Doris; Arnold, Renate; Dörken, Bernd; Mathas, Stephan; Benter, Thomas; Dudeck, Oliver; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Stein, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Background The hierarchical organization of hematopoiesis with unidirectional lineage determination has become a questionable tenet in view of the experimental evidence of reprogramming and transdifferentiation of lineage-determined cells. Clinical examples of hematopoietic lineage plasticity are rare. Here we report on a patient who presented with an acute B-lymphoblastic leukemia and developed a Langerhans’ cell sarcoma 9 years later. We provide evidence that the second neoplasm is the result of transdifferentiation. Design and Methods B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia was diagnosed in an 11-year old boy in 1996. Treatment according to the ALL-BFM-1995 protocol resulted in a complete remission. Nine years later, in 2005, Langerhans’ cell sarcoma was diagnosed in a supraclavicular lymph node. Despite treatment with different chemotherapy protocols the patient had progressive disease. Finally, he received an allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant and achieved a continuous remission. Molecular studies of IGH- and TCRG-gene rearrangements were performed with DNA from the Langerhans’ cell sarcoma and the cryopreserved cells from the acute B-lymphoblastic leukemia. The expression of PAX5 and ID2 was analyzed with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results Identical IGH-rearrangements were demonstrated in the acute B-lymphoblastic leukemia and the Langerhans’ cell sarcoma. The key factors required for B-cell and dendritic cell development, PAX5 and ID2, were differentially expressed, with a strong PAX5 signal in the acute B-lymphoblastic leukemia and only a weak expression in the Langerhans’ cell sarcoma, whereas ID2 showed an opposite pattern. Conclusions The identical IGH-rearrangement in both neoplasms indicates transdifferentiation of the acute B-lymphoblastic leukemia into a Langerhans’ cell sarcoma. Loss of PAX5 and the acquisition of ID2 suggest that these key factors are involved in the transdifferentiation from a B-cell phenotype into a Langerhans’/dendritic cell phenotype. (Clinical trial registration at: Deutsches KrebsStudienRegister, http://www.studien.de, study-ID:8) PMID:20421277

  19. Recombinant human CD19L-sTRAIL effectively targets B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, Fatih M.; Myers, Dorothea E.; Qazi, Sanjive; Ozer, Zahide; Rose, Rebecca; D’Cruz, Osmond J.; Ma, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Patients with B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL) respond well to chemotherapy at initial diagnosis; however, therapeutic options are limited for individuals with BPL who relapse. Almost all BPL cells express CD19, and we recently cloned the gene encoding a natural ligand of the human CD19 receptor (CD19L). We hypothesized that fusion of CD19L to the soluble extracellular domain of proapoptotic TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) would markedly enhance the potency of sTRAIL and specifically induce BPL cell apoptosis due to membrane anchoring of sTRAIL and simultaneous activation of the CD19 and TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) apoptosis signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that recombinant human CD19L-sTRAIL was substantially more potent than sTRAIL and induced apoptosis in primary leukemia cells taken directly from BPL patients. CD19L-sTRAIL effectively targeted and eliminated in vivo clonogenic BPL xenograft cells, even at femtomolar-picomolar concentrations. In mice, CD19L-sTRAIL exhibited a more favorable pharmacokinetic (PK) profile than sTRAIL and was nontoxic at doses ranging from 32 fmol/kg to 3.2 pmol/kg. CD19L-sTRAIL showed potent in vivo antileukemic activity in NOD/SCID mouse xenograft models of relapsed and chemotherapy-resistant BPL at nontoxic fmol/kg dose levels. Together, these results suggest that recombinant human CD19L-sTRAIL has clinical potential as a biotherapeutic agent against BPL. PMID:25621496

  20. Molecular characterization of chronic-type adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Noriaki; Karube, Kennosuke; Utsunomiya, Atae; Tsukasaki, Kunihiro; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Taira, Naoya; Uike, Naokuni; Umino, Akira; Arita, Kotaro; Suguro, Miyuki; Tsuzuki, Shinobu; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Ohshima, Koichi; Seto, Masao

    2014-11-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a human T-cell leukemia virus type-1-induced neoplasm with four clinical subtypes: acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering. Although the chronic type is regarded as indolent ATL, about half of the cases progress to acute-type ATL. The molecular pathogenesis of acute transformation in chronic-type ATL is only partially understood. In an effort to determine the molecular pathogeneses of ATL, and especially the molecular mechanism of acute transformation, oligo-array comparative genomic hybridization and comprehensive gene expression profiling were applied to 27 and 35 cases of chronic and acute type ATL, respectively. The genomic profile of the chronic type was nearly identical to that of acute-type ATL, although more genomic alterations characteristic of acute-type ATL were observed. Among the genomic alterations frequently observed in acute-type ATL, the loss of CDKN2A, which is involved in cell-cycle deregulation, was especially characteristic of acute-type ATL compared with chronic-type ATL. Furthermore, we found that genomic alteration of CD58, which is implicated in escape from the immunosurveillance mechanism, is more frequently observed in acute-type ATL than in the chronic-type. Interestingly, the chronic-type cases with cell-cycle deregulation and disruption of immunosurveillance mechanism were associated with earlier progression to acute-type ATL. These findings suggested that cell-cycle deregulation and the immune escape mechanism play important roles in acute transformation of the chronic type and indicated that these alterations are good predictive markers for chronic-type ATL. PMID:25320005

  1. Collecting and Storing Malignant, Borderline Malignant Neoplasms, and Related Samples From Young Patients With Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-12

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  2. Mycophenolate Mofetil and Cyclosporine in Reducing Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies or Metastatic Kidney Cancer Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Renal Cell Carcinoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Large Cell Lymp

  3. A novel compound against oncogenic Aurora kinase A overcomes imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Long, Zi-Jie; Wang, Le-Xun; Zheng, Fei-Meng; Chen, Jia-Jie; Luo, Yu; Tu, Xi-Xiang; Lin, Dong-Jun; Lu, Gui; Liu, Quentin

    2015-06-01

    Drug resistance still represents a major obstacle to successful chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) treatment and novel compounds or strategies to override this challenging problem are urgently required. Here, we evaluated a novel compound AKI603 against oncogenic Aurora kinase A (Aur-A) in imatinib-resistant CML cells. We found that Aur-A was highly activated in imatinib-resistant KBM5-T315I cells. AKI603 significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Aur-A kinase at Thr288, while had little inhibitory effect on BCR-ABL kinase in both KBM5 and KBM5-T315I cells. AKI603 inhibited cell viability, and induced cell cycle arrest with polyploidy accumulation in KBM5 and KBM5-T315I cells. Moreover, inhibition of Aur-A kinase by AKI603 suppressed colony formation capacity without promoting obvious apoptosis. Importantly, AKI603 promoted cell differentiation in both CML cell types. Thus, our study suggested the potential clinical use of small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitor AKI603 to overcome imatinib resistance in CML treatment. PMID:25872528

  4. DAP12 ITAM motif regulates differentiation and apoptosis in M1 leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Naoko; Kimura, Shoji; Oikawa, Kensuke; Nochi, Hitoshi; Atsuta, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Hiroya; Sato, Keisuke; Katagiri, Makoto

    2002-02-22

    DAP12 is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-bearing transmembrane adapter molecule that is associated with the NK-activating receptors. DAP12 is expressed not only in NK cells, but also in myeloid cells. Previously, we reported that DAP12 was likely to be involved in monocyte differentiation to macrophage. In this study, we established the mutant DAP12-M1 transfectants (Y76F-M1) that have mutation at their ITAM motifs. We observed that Y76F-M1 cells could not differentiate to macrophages by stimulation via DAP12, whereas wild type DAP12 transfectants (FDAP-M1) could. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the apoptosis signal mediated by LPS was inhibited in Y76F-M1 cells, but was augmented in FDAP-M1 cells. In contrast to the LPS-mediated apoptosis, the combination of LPS and DAP12 stimulation showed good cell viability in FDAP-M1 cells. Collectively our studies demonstrated that DAP12 has a critical role for macrophage differentiation and LPS induced apoptosis in M1 leukemia cells. PMID:11846404

  5. Antiproliferative effects of lectins from Canavalia ensiformis and Canavalia brasiliensis in human leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Faheina-Martins, Glaucia V; da Silveira, Alethéia Lacerda; Cavalcanti, Bruno C; Ramos, Márcio V; Moraes, Manoel O; Pessoa, Cláudia; Araújo, Demetrius A M

    2012-10-01

    The antiproliferative activity of lectins Canavalia ensiformis (ConA) and Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr) were studied using human leukemia MOLT-4 and HL-60 cell lines. It was revealed that both ConA and ConBr were markedly cytotoxic to cells using MTT and NAC assays. The IC(50) values were approximately 3 and 20 ?g/mL for ConA and ConBr, respectively, for both MOLT-4 and HL-60 cells. However, in normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes, the lectins were not cytotoxic, even when tested at concentrations as high as 200 ?g/ml. Using comet assay, the lectins produced a rate of DNA damage exceeding 80% in MOLT-4 and HL-60 cells. Fluorescence analysis revealed the morphology characteristic of apoptosis, with low concentrations of apoptotic bodies and fragmented DNA (5 ?g/ml). Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated an accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 cell cycle that is characteristic of DNA fragmentation, and a decrease in membrane integrity at high concentrations. Lastly, we evaluated the alterations in mitochondrial potential that reduced after treatment with lectins. Our results indicate that ConA and ConBr inhibited cell proliferation selectively in tumor cells and that apoptosis was the main death mechanism. Therefore, lectins can be considered a class of molecules with a high antitumor activity potential. PMID:22776218

  6. Salarin C inhibits the maintenance of chronic myeloid leukemia progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Del Poggetto, E; Tanturli, M; Ben-Califa, N; Gozzini, A; Tusa, I; Cheloni, G; Marzi, I; Cipolleschi, M G; Kashman, Y; Neumann, D; Rovida, E; Dello Sbarba, P

    2015-10-01

    We previously showed that incubation of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells in very low oxygen selects a cell subset where the oncogenetic BCR/Abl protein is suppressed and which is thereby refractory to tyrosine kinase inhibitors used for CML therapy. In this study, salarin C, an anticancer macrolide extracted from the Fascaplysinopsis sponge, was tested as for its activity on CML cells, especially after their incubation in atmosphere at 0.1% oxygen. Salarin C induced mitotic cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA damage. Salarin C also concentration-dependently inhibited the maintenance of stem cell potential in cultures in low oxygen of either CML cell lines or primary cells. Surprisingly, the drug also concentration-dependently enforced the maintenance of BCR/Abl signaling in low oxygen, an effect which was paralleled by the rescue of sensitivity of stem cell potential to IM. These results suggest a potential use of salarin C for the suppression of CML cells refractory to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:26291130

  7. Leukemia inhibitory factor is an autocrine survival factor for Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Dowsing, B J; Morrison, W A; Nicola, N A; Starkey, G P; Bucci, T; Kilpatrick, T J

    1999-07-01

    Schwann cells play a major role in promoting nerve survival and regeneration after injury. Their activities include providing neurotrophic factors and increasing the production of extracellular matrix components and cell surface adhesion molecules to promote axon regeneration. Following nerve transection, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is up-regulated by Schwann cells at the injury site. LIF receptors are also up-regulated at the nerve injury site, but their cellular localization and function have not been fully characterized. We demonstrate that Schwann cells express mRNAs for LIF and the LIF receptor components LIF receptor subunit beta and glycoprotein 130 in vitro. We also show that although LIF is not required for the genesis of Schwann cells, it can potentiate the survival of differentiated Schwann cells in the context of neuregulin support. Not only does exogenous LIF promote survival under these conditions, but addition of the soluble LIF receptor (LIF binding protein) and anti-LIF antibodies significantly reduced cell survival, suggesting that LIF exerts autocrine effects. These results suggest that Schwann cell survival following nerve injury is potentially modulated by LIF. PMID:10386959

  8. Arsenic trioxide induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in human leukemia (HL-60) cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which accounts for approximately 10% of all acute myloid leukemia cases. It is a blood cancer that is formed by chromosomal mutation. Each year in the United States, APL affects about 1,500 patients of all age groups and causes approximately 1.2% of cancer deaths. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used successfully for treatment of APL patients, and both induction and consolidated therapy have resulted in complete remission. Recently published studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that ATO pharmacology as an anti-leukemic drug is associated with cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in leukemia cells. Methods In the present study, we further investigated the detailed molecular mechanism of ATO-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis; using HL-60 cells as a test model. Oxidative stress was assessed by spectrophotometric measurements of MDA and GSH levels while genotoxicity was determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay). Apoptosis pathway was analyzed by Western blot analysis of Bax, Bcl2 and caspase 3 expression, as well as immunocytochemistry and confocal imaging of Bax and Cyt c translocation and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization. Results ATO significantly (p?cells in a dose-dependent manner. It also activated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by significantly modulating (p?leukemia cells. Conclusion Taken together, our research demonstrated that ATO induces mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in HL-60 cells. This apoptotic signaling is modulated via oxidative stress, DNA damage, and change in mitochondrial membrane potential, translocation and upregulation of apoptotic proteins leading programmed cell death. PMID:24887205

  9. Successful Unrelated Stem Cell Transplantation in an Infant With Congenital Acute Myelogenous Leukemia FAB M5 Showing Massive Cutaneous Infiltrations-A Challenging Multidisciplinary Approach.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Sofia; Schwinger, Wolfgang; Sovinz, Petra; Lackner, Herwig; Resch, Bernhard; Urlesberger, Berndt; Sipurzynski, Sabine; Urban, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The multidisciplinary management of a male neonate presenting with congenital acute myelogenous leukemia of monoblastic phenotype is reported using conventional chemotherapy, high dose conditioning, and matched unrelated donor stem cell transplantation. These therapies were combined to add a graft versus leukemia effect to the treatment. Although chimerism studies showed a decrease of donor white blood cells, T-cells remained stable of allogeneic origin. We hypothesize that a continuous graft versus leukemia effect results in minimal residual disease negativity for now more than 18 months since stem cell transplantation. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26291692

  10. Oxygen radical detoxification enzymes in doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant P388 murine leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ramu, A.; Cohen, L.; Glaubiger, D.

    1984-05-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms for the cytotoxic effects of anthracycline compounds suggests that the effect is mediated through the formation of intracellular superoxide radicals. It is therefore possible that doxorubicin resistance is associated with increased intracellular enzyme capacity to convert these superoxide radicals to inactive metabolites. We have measured the relative activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in P388 mouse leukemia cells and in a doxorubicin-resistant subline. Since oxygen-reactive metabolites also play a role in mediating the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation, the radiosensitivity of both cell lines was also studied. No significant differences in superoxide dismutase activity between these cell lines was observed, indicating that they have a similar capacity to convert superoxide anion radicals to hydrogen peroxide. P388 cells that are resistant to doxorubicin have 1.5 times the glutathione content and 1.5 times the activity of glutathione peroxidase measured in drug-sensitive P388 cells. However, incubation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, which covalently binds glutathione, had no effect on the sensitivity of either cell line to doxorubicin. Measured catalase activity in drug-resistant P388 cells was one-third of the activity measured in doxorubicin-sensitive P388 cells. The activity of this enzyme was much higher than that of glutathione peroxidase in terms of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ deactivation in both cell lines. It is therefore unlikely that doxorubicin-resistant P388 cells have an increased ability to detoxify reactive oxygen metabolites when compared to drug-sensitive cells. Doxorubicin-resistant P388 cells were significantly more sensitive to X-irradiation than were drug-sensitive P388 cells. These observations suggest that the difference in catalase activity in these cell lines may be associated with the observed differences in radiosensitivity.

  11. Selective Activity of the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor AR-42 against Leukemia Stem Cells: A Novel Potential Strategy in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Monica L.; Yang, Neng; Sharma, Krishan K.; Balys, Marlene; Corbett, Cheryl A.; Jordan, Craig T.; Becker, Michael W.; Steidl, Ulrich; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Levine, Ross L.; Marcucci, Guido; Roboz, Gail J.; Hassane, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    Most patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) relapse and die of their disease. Increasing evidence indicates that AML relapse is driven by the inability to eradicate leukemia stem cells (LSC). Thus, it is imperative to identify novel therapies that can ablate LSCs. Using an in silico gene expression-based screen for compounds evoking transcriptional effects similar to the previously described anti-LSC agent parthenolide, we identified AR-42 (OSU-HDAC42), a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor that is structurally similar to phenylbutyrate, but with improved activity at submicromolar concentrations. Here, we report that AR-42 induces NF-?B inhibition, disrupts the ability of Hsp90 to stabilize its oncogenic clients, and causes potent and specific cell death of LSCs but not normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Unlike parthenolide, the caspasedependent apoptosis caused by AR-42 occurs without activation of Nrf-2-driven cytoprotective pathways. As AR-42 is already being tested in early clinical trials, we expect that our results can be extended to the clinic. PMID:24934933

  12. [Reduction of hairiness of a transsexual person].

    PubMed

    Karppinen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of male pattern hairiness--especially facial hairiness--is important for the identity of a transsexual female. Methods of treatment include epilation, waxing, chemical depilation, planing, electrolysis, eflornitine cream and methods based on optical light. Also the hormonal therapies utilized in the treatment process reduce the degree of hairiness and make the hairs thinner. Instead of hair removal, one should rather speak of reducing hairiness, since life-long hairlessness is usually not achieved even by the most effective methods of hair reduction. Aspects affecting the choice of treatment include skin type, quality of hair, tolerability and availability of treatment, among other things. PMID:26237932

  13. Beclomethasone Dipropionate in Preventing Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Undergoing a Donor Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-05

    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extramedullary Plasmacytoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Graft Versus Host Disease; Isolated Plasmacytoma of Bone; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Meningeal Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Disease, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Multiple Myeloma;

  14. Trypsin Isoinhibitors with Antiproliferative Activity toward Leukemia Cells from Phaseolus vulgaris cv “White Cloud Bean”

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-01-01

    A purification protocol that comprised ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75 was complied to isolate two trypsin inhibitors from Phaseolus vulgaris cv “White Cloud Bean”. Both trypsin inhibitors exhibited a molecular mass of 16?kDa and reduced the activity of trypsin with an IC50 value of about 0.6??M. Dithiothreitol attenuated the trypsin inhibitory activity, signifying that an intact disulfide bond is indispensable to the activity. [Methyl-3H] thymidine incorporation by leukemia L1210 cells was inhibited with an IC50 value of 28.8??M and 21.5??M, respectively. They were lacking in activity toward lymphoma MBL2 cells and inhibitory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and fungal growth when tested up to 100??M. PMID:20617140

  15. Primary laryngeal manifestation in precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LIN; MA, YAN; CHEN, BOBIN; TANG, FENG; XU, XIAOPING; LIN, GUOWEI

    2015-01-01

    Primary involvement of the larynx in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is rare. Early symptoms are non-specific and thus, it is difficult to diagnose. In the present study, the case of a 52 year-old male with hoarseness due to diffuse T-cell lymphoma as the first manifestation of precursor T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is presented. Subsequent to treatment with three cycles of the etoposide and cytosine arabinoside (EA) and one cycle of the EA+L-asp chemotherapy regimens, the patient achieved complete remission. A series of consolidation therapy courses were performed subsequently. At present, the patient remains disease-free, indicating that the treatment was effective. Primary involvement of the larynx in NHL is rare. Symptoms in the early stage are subtle and non-specific and thus, diagnosis is difficult to establish. This type of tumor requires special diagnostic and therapeutic attention. PMID:25624896

  16. A Supramolecular Substance, [2] Rotaxane, Induces Apoptosis in Human Molt-3 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Makio, K; Hara, K; Hiruma, W; Fujita, Y; Takata, T; Nishio, K; Ono, N

    2015-11-01

    The antitumor effects of a supramolecular substance, the [2] rotaxane (TRO-A0001), and its molecular mechanisms were investigated. TRO-A0001 suppressed the proliferation of cultured human Molt-3 acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells for 12-72?h in a dose-dependent manner. Based on flow cytometry, TRO-A0001 clearly induced apoptosis after 24?h. The mitochondrial membrane potential disappeared after treatment with 1.0?µM of TRO-A0001. Expression of the cleaved forms of capase-9 and caspase-3 was significantly increased in cells exposed to TRO-A0001, whereas the expression of XIAP, a type of inhibitor of apoptosis family, was decreased. These results suggest that [2] rotaxane TRO-A0001 may be a highly promising new antitumor medicine. PMID:25463596

  17. Leydig-cell function in children after direct testicular irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Brauner, R.; Czernichow, P.; Cramer, P.; Schaison, G.; Rappaport, R.

    1983-07-07

    To assess the effect of testicular irradiation on testicular endocrine function, we studied 12 boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had been treated with direct testicular irradiation 10 months to 8 1/2 years earlier. Insufficient Leydig-cell function, manifested by a low response of plasma testosterone to chorionic gonadotropin or an increased basal level of plasma luteinizing hormone (or both), was observed in 10 patients, 7 of whom were pubertal. Two of these patients had a compensated testicular endocrine insufficiency with only high plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone. Testosterone secretion was severely impaired in three pubertal boys studied more than four years after testicular irradiation. A diminished testicular volume indicating tubular atrophy was found in all pubertal patients, including three who had not received cyclophosphamide or cytarabine. These data indicate that testosterone insufficiency is a frequent complication of testicular irradiation, although some patients continue to have Leydig-cell activity for several years after therapy.

  18. [Apoptosis-inducing effects of brucine on human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Li; We, Wu; Ji, Ai-Fan; Shen, Xu-Liang; Zhang, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Mei-Xiang; Zhai, Chun-Yan

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the apoptosis-induction effect of brucine on human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562 cells, K562 cells were exposed to various dosages of brucine. MTT method was used to assayed the growth inhibition effect of brucine on K562 cells. The apoptosis of K562 cells was detected by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) double staining, Annexin-V/PI double labeling method and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that brucine could remarkably inhibit the K562 cell growth in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manners at the range of 50 to 400 µg/ml, and its most significant inhibition was observed at 400 µg/ml for 72 hours and the inhibition rate was 94.0%. Staining of cells with AO-EB revealed that brucine induced nuclear chromatin condensation. After the K562 cells were treated with the brucine of 400 µg/ml for 72 hours, the most of the nucleus were orange stained and condensation-like or bead-like showing apoptotic morphology. The K562 cells treated with brucine of different concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml) for 72 hours, Annexin-V/PI detection showed brucine could induce apoptosis of K562 cells, and apoptosis rate increased gradually with increasing concentration of drugs. The K562 cells treated with brucine of 400 µg/ml for 72 hours displayed typical ladder strap in DNA gel electrophoresis. It is concluded that brucine can efficiently inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis of K562 cells with dose-dependent manner in concentrations of 50 - 400 µg/ml. PMID:21729538

  19. NALP3 inflammasome upregulation and CASP1 cleavage of the glucocorticoid receptor cause glucocorticoid resistance in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Paugh, Steven W; Bonten, Erik J; Savic, Daniel; Ramsey, Laura B; Thierfelder, William E; Gurung, Prajwal; Malireddi, R K Subbarao; Actis, Marcelo; Mayasundari, Anand; Min, Jaeki; Coss, David R; Laudermilk, Lucas T; Panetta, John C; McCorkle, J Robert; Fan, Yiping; Crews, Kristine R; Stocco, Gabriele; Wilkinson, Mark R; Ferreira, Antonio M; Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Wenjian; Karol, Seth E; Fernandez, Christian A; Diouf, Barthelemy; Smith, Colton; Hicks, J Kevin; Zanut, Alessandra; Giordanengo, Audrey; Crona, Daniel; Bianchi, Joy J; Holmfeldt, Linda; Mullighan, Charles G; den Boer, Monique L; Pieters, Rob; Jeha, Sima; Dunwell, Thomas L; Latif, Farida; Bhojwani, Deepa; Carroll, William L; Pui, Ching-Hon; Myers, Richard M; Guy, R Kiplin; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Relling, Mary V; Evans, William E

    2015-06-01

    Glucocorticoids are universally used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and resistance to glucocorticoids in leukemia cells confers poor prognosis. To elucidate mechanisms of glucocorticoid resistance, we determined the prednisolone sensitivity of primary leukemia cells from 444 patients newly diagnosed with ALL and found significantly higher expression of CASP1 (encoding caspase 1) and its activator NLRP3 in glucocorticoid-resistant leukemia cells, resulting from significantly lower somatic methylation of the CASP1 and NLRP3 promoters. Overexpression of CASP1 resulted in cleavage of the glucocorticoid receptor, diminished the glucocorticoid-induced transcriptional response and increased glucocorticoid resistance. Knockdown or inhibition of CASP1 significantly increased glucocorticoid receptor levels and mitigated glucocorticoid resistance in CASP1-overexpressing ALL. Our findings establish a new mechanism by which the NLRP3-CASP1 inflammasome modulates cellular levels of the glucocorticoid receptor and diminishes cell sensitivity to glucocorticoids. The broad impact on the glucocorticoid transcriptional response suggests that this mechanism could also modify glucocorticoid effects in other diseases. PMID:25938942

  20. NALP3 inflammasome up-regulation and CASP1 cleavage of the glucocorticoid receptor causes glucocorticoid resistance in leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Paugh, Steven W.; Bonten, Erik J.; Savic, Daniel; Ramsey, Laura B.; Thierfelder, William E.; Gurung, Prajwal; Malireddi, R. K. Subbarao; Actis, Marcelo; Mayasundari, Anand; Min, Jaeki; Coss, David R.; Laudermilk, Lucas T.; Panetta, John C.; McCorkle, J. Robert; Fan, Yiping; Crews, Kristine R.; Stocco, Gabriele; Wilkinson, Mark R.; Ferreira, Antonio M.; Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Wenjian; Karol, Seth E.; Fernandez, Christian A.; Diouf, Barthelemy; Smith, Colton; Hicks, J. Kevin; Zanut, Alessandra; Giordanengo, Audrey; Crona, Daniel; Bianchi, Joy J.; Holmfeldt, Linda; Mullighan, Charles G.; den Boer, Monique L.; Pieters, Rob; Jeha, Sima; Dunwell, Thomas L.; Latif, Farida; Bhojwani, Deepa; Carroll, William L.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Myers, Richard M.; Guy, R. Kiplin; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Relling, Mary V.; Evans, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are universally used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and leukemia cell resistant to glucocorticoids confers a poor prognosis. To elucidate mechanisms of glucocorticoid resistance, we determined the sensitivity to prednisolone of primary leukemia cells from 444 newly diagnosed ALL patients, revealing significantly higher expression of caspase 1 (CASP1) and its activator NLRP3 in glucocorticoid resistant leukemia cells, due to significantly lower somatic methylation of CASP1 and NLRP3 promoters. Over-expression of CASP1 resulted in cleavage of the glucocorticoid receptor, diminished glucocorticoid-induced transcriptional response and increased glucocorticoid resistance. Knockdown or inhibition of CASP1 significantly increased glucocorticoid receptor levels and mitigated glucocorticoid resistance in CASP1 overexpressing ALL. Our findings establish a new mechanism by which the NLRP3/CASP1 inflammasome modulates cellular levels of the glucocorticoid receptor and diminishes cell sensitivity to glucocorticoids. The broad impact on glucocorticoid transcriptional response suggests this mechanism could also modify glucocorticoid effects in other diseases. PMID:25938942

  1. Always expect the unexpected: lung abscess due to pseudomonas aeruginosa mimicking pulmonary aspergilloma in acute B-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dieks, J-K; von Bueren, A O; Schaefer, I-M; Menke, J; Lex, C; Krause, U; Zenker, D; Kühnle, I; Kramm, C M

    2013-11-01

    We report on a case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis and consecutive lung abscess in a 13-year-old patient with acute B-cell leukemia. At first, radiographic findings strongly suggested presence of pulmonary aspergilloma and only microbiological testing of the surgically enucleated mass revealed the correct underlying pathogen and confirmed final diagnosis. PMID:24166086

  2. Stromal cell-mediated mitochondrial redox adaptation regulates drug resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jizhong; Masurekar, Ashish; Johnson, Suzanne; Chakraborty, Sohini; Griffiths, John; Smith, Duncan; Alexander, Seema; Dempsey, Clare; Parker, Catriona; Harrison, Stephanie; Li, Yaoyong; Miller, Crispin; Di, Yujun; Ghosh, Zhumur; Krishnan, Shekhar; Saha, Vaskar

    2015-12-15

    Despite the high cure rates in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), relapsed ALL remains a significant clinical problem. Genetic heterogeneity does not adequately explain variations in response to therapy. The chemoprotective tumor microenvironment may additionally contribute to disease recurrence. This study identifies metabolic reprogramming of leukemic cells by bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) as a putative mechanism of drug resistance. In a BMSC-extracellular matrix culture model, BMSC produced chemoprotective soluble factors and facilitated the emergence of a reversible multidrug resistant phenotype in ALL cells. BMSC environment induced a mitochondrial calcium influx leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in ALL cells. In response to this oxidative stress, drug resistant cells underwent a redox adaptation process, characterized by a decrease in ROS levels and mitochondrial membrane potential with an upregulation of antioxidant production and MCL-1 expression. Similar expanded subpopulations of low ROS expressing and drug resistant cells were identified in pre-treatment bone marrow samples from ALL patients with slower response to therapy. This suggests that the bone marrow microenvironment induces a redox adaptation in ALL subclones that protects against cytotoxic stress and potentially gives rise to minimal residual disease. Targeting metabolic remodeling by inhibiting antioxidant production and antiapoptosis was able to overcome drug resistance. Thus metabolic plasticity in leukemic cell response to environmental factors contributes to chemoresistance and disease recurrence. Adjunctive strategies targeting such processes have the potential to overcome therapeutic failure in ALL. PMID:26474278

  3. Induced myelomonocytic differentiation in leukemia cells is accompanied by noncanonical transcription factor expression

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Holly A.; Yourish, Harmony B.; Bunaciu, Rodica P.; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Yen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors that drive non-neoplastic myelomonocytic differentiation are well characterized but have not been systematically analyzed in the leukemic context. We investigated widely used, patient-derived myeloid leukemia cell lines with proclivity for differentiation into granulocytes by retinoic acid (RA) and/or monocytes by 1,25-dihyrdroxyvitamin D3 (D3). Using K562 (FAB M1), HL60 (FAB M2), RA-resistant HL60 sublines, NB4 (FAB M3), and U937 (FAB M5), we correlated nuclear transcription factor expression to immunophenotype, G1/G0 cell cycle arrest and functional inducible oxidative metabolism. We found that myelomonocytic transcription factors are aberrantly expressed in these cell lines. Monocytic-lineage factor EGR1 was not induced by D3 (the monocytic inducer) but instead by RA (the granulocytic inducer) in lineage bipotent myeloblastic HL60. In promyelocytic NB4 cells, EGR1 levels were increased by D3, while Gfi-1 expression (which promotes the granulocytic lineage) was upregulated during D3-induced monocytic differentiation in HL60, and by RA treatment in monocytic U937 cells. Furthermore, RAR? and VDR expression were not strongly correlated to differentiation. In response to different differentiation inducers, U937 exhibited the most distinct transcription factor expression profile, while similarly mature NB4 and HL60 were better coupled. Overall, the differentiation induction agents RA and D3 elicited cell-specific responses across these common FAB M1-M5 cell lines. PMID:26566473

  4. IPI-145 antagonizes intrinsic and extrinsic survival signals in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shuai; Guinn, Daphne; Dubovsky, Jason A.; Zhong, Yiming; Lehman, Amy; Kutok, Jeffery; Woyach, Jennifer A.; Byrd, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) displays constitutive phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation resulting from aberrant regulation of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Previous studies have shown that an oral PI3K p110? inhibitor idelalisib exhibits promising activity in CLL. Here, we demonstrate that a dual PI3K p110? and p110? inhibitor, IPI-145, antagonizes BCR crosslinking activated prosurvival signals in primary CLL cells. IPI-145 causes direct killing in primary CLL cells in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, but does not generate direct cytotoxicity to normal B cells. However, IPI-145 does reduce the viability of normal T and natural killer cells and decrease activated T-cell production of various inflammatory and antiapoptotic cytokines. Furthermore, IPI-145 overcomes the ibrutinib resistance resulting from treatment-induced BTK C481S mutation. Collectively, these studies provide rationale for ongoing clinical evaluation of IPI-145 as a targeted therapy for CLL and related B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:25258342

  5. Inhibition of autophagy augments the anticancer activity of ?-mangostin in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Jie; Long, Zi-Jie; Xu, Dong-Fan; Xiao, Ruo-Zhi; Liu, Ling-Ling; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Qiu, Samuel X; Lin, Dong-Jun; Liu, Quentin

    2014-03-01

    Natural products possessing anticancer activity have been extensively studied because of their low toxicity and potential effect. ?-Mangostin, a component of Garcinia mangostana Linn, is a xanthone derivative shown to have antioxidant and antitumor properties. This study was carried out to investigate how to improve the anticancer effects of ?-mangostin in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines bearing wild-type BCR-ABL or BCR-ABL-T315I mutation. We showed that ?-mangostin inhibited cell proliferation of K562, KBM5 and KBM5-T315I cells in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. Significantly, ?-mangostin increased the number of apoptotic cells and induced DNA fragmentation compared to control cells. Moreover, ?-mangostin selectively inhibited proliferation in primary CML cells, while showing limited lethality in normal hematopoietic progenitors. Additionally, ?-mangostin induced not only apoptosis but also autophagy in CML cells. ?-Mangostin dramatically increased the expression levels of LC-3II, an autophagosome marker in mammals, and the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs). Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine enhanced ?-mangostin-mediated cytotoxicity through increasing apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that targeting the autophagy pathway is a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance ?-mangostin-induced apoptosis. Our study provides an approach for future studies to explore this combination for the treatment of CML. PMID:23734655

  6. (Lymph)angiogenic influences on hematopoietic cells in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yoon; Kim, Hee-Je

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the effect of (lymph)angiogenic cytokines on hematopoietic cells involved in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Like angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis occurs in pathophysiological conditions but not in healthy adults. AML is closely associated with the vasculature system, and the interplay between lymphangiogenic cytokines maintains leukemic blast survival in the bone marrow (BM). Once AML is induced, proangiogenic cytokines function as angiogenic or lymphangiogenic factors and affect hematopoietic cells, including BM-derived immune cells. Simultaneously, the representative cytokines, VEGFs and their receptors are expressed on AML blasts in vascular and osteoblast niches in both the BM and the peripheral circulation. After exposure to (lymph)angiogenic cytokines in leukemogenesis and infiltration, immune cell phenotypes and functions are affected. These dynamic behaviors in the BM reflect the clinical features of AML. In this review, we note the importance of lymphangiogenic factors and their receptors in hematopoietic cells in AML. Understanding the functional characterization of (lymph)angiogenic factors in the BM niche in AML will also be helpful in interrupting the engraftment of leukemic stem cells and for enhancing immune cell function by modulating the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25412683

  7. Spred2 is involved in imatinib-induced cytotoxicity in chronic myeloid leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiao-Yun; Yang, Yue-Feng; Wu, Chu-Tse; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Zhang, Qun-Wei; Ma, Xiao-Ni; Li, Qing-Fang; Yan, Jun; Wang, Hua; Wang, Li-Sheng

    2010-03-19

    Spreds, a recently established class of negative regulators of the Ras-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, are involved in hematogenesises, allergic disorders and tumourigenesis. However, their role in hematologic neoplasms is largely unknown. Possible effects of Spreds on other signal pathways closely related to Ras-ERK have been poorly investigated. In this study, we investigated the in vitro effects of Spred2 on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells. In addition to inhibiting the well-established Ras-ERK cascade, adenovirus-mediated Spred2 over-expression inhibits constitutive and stem cell factor (SCF)-stimulated sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1) and Mcl-1 expression, as well as inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in CML cells. In K562 cells and primary CML cells, imatinib induces endogenous Spred2 expression. Spred2 silencing by stable RNA interference partly protects K562 cells against imatinib-induced apoptosis. Together, these data implicate Spred2 in imatinib-induced cytotoxicity in CML cells, possibly by inhibiting the Ras-ERK cascade and the pro-survival signaling molecules SPHK1 and Mcl-1. These findings reveal potential targets for selective therapy of CML.

  8. Membrane microdomain sphingolipids are required for anti-CD20-induced death of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells

    PubMed Central

    Hammadi, Mariam; Youinou, Pierre; Tempescul, Adrian; Tobón, Gabriel; Berthou, Christian; Bordron, Anne; Pers, Jacques-Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia remains incurable, despite the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy as an available means of treatment. The resistance of certain patients to this monoclonal antibody prompted us to set up in vitro studies of another CD20-specific monoclonal antibody, B1 (later termed tositumomab). We hypothesized that the membrane lipid organization of leukemic B cells might be instrumental in the cells’ sensitivity to the B1 monoclonal antibody. Design and Methods B lymphocytes from 36 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 13 patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma were investigated for B1-triggered cell death. Membrane components, such as sphingomyelin and ganglioside M1, were investigated by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation, together with the Csk-binding protein. Results Chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients segregated into two groups: B cells from one group were sensitive to B1, whereas those from the second group were not. Further results ascribed the resistance of these latter cases to a defective recruitment of Csk-binding protein, resulting in a lack of sphingomyelin and ganglioside M1 at the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of their malignant B cells. Sphingolipids were indeed retained in the cytoplasm, because of lowered activity of P-glycoprotein. Supporting this mechanism, rifampicin, an inducer of P-glycoprotein, improved the activity of this transmembrane efflux pump, normalized the quantity of sphingomyelin within the membrane, and thereby restored the efficacy of the B1 monoclonal antibody in the formerly B1-resistant cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Conclusions The lipid organization of membranes of B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia differs from one patient to another. In practice, given the relevance of the membrane lipid distribution to the efficacy of biotherapies, this observation is of potential importance. PMID:22058197

  9. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Blast Crisis Arises from Progenitors FRANZISKA MICHOR

    E-print Network

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Blast Crisis Arises from Progenitors FRANZISKA MICHOR Society of Fellows, USA Key Words. Chronic myeloid leukemia · Hematopoietic stem cells · Hematopoietic progenitor cells · Differentiation ABSTRACT Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progresses through three distinct clinical stages: chronic

  10. Up-regulated A20 promotes proliferation, regulates cell cycle progression and induces chemotherapy resistance of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuying; Xing, Haiyan; Li, Shouyun; Yu, Jing; Li, Huan; Liu, Shuang; Tian, Zheng; Tang, Kejing; Rao, Qing; Wang, Min; Wang, Jianxiang

    2015-09-01

    A20, also known as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?)-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), has been identified as a key regulator of cell survival in many solid tumors. However, little is known about the protein expression level and function of A20 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, we found that A20 is up-regulated in ALL patients and several cell lines. Knockdown of A20 in Jurkat, Nalm-6, and Reh cells resulted in reduced cell proliferation, which was associated with cell cycle arrest. Phospho-ERK (p-ERK) was also down-regulated, while p53 and p21 were up-regulated in A20 knockdown cells. In addition, A20 knockdown induced apoptosis in Jurkat and Reh cells and enhanced the sensitivity of these cell lines to chemotherapeutic drugs. These results indicate that A20 may stimulate cell proliferation by regulating cell cycle progression. A20 inhibited apoptosis in some types of ALL cells, thereby enhancing their resistance to chemotherapy. This effect was abolished through A20 silencing. These findings suggest that A20 may contribute to the pathogenesis of ALL and that it may be used as a new therapeutic target for ALL treatment. PMID:26159495

  11. Laboratory-Treated T Cells in Treating Patients With High-Risk Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Previously Treated With Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-30

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  12. Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Bryostatin 1 induces ubiquitin COOH-terminal hydrolase in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, R M; Maki, A; Pettit, G R; al-Katib, A M

    1996-01-01

    It has been previously reported that Bryostatin 1 (Bryo1) induces differentiation of the human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line, Reh, to a monocytoid B-cell stage. In this study we demonstrate that a novel protein, ubiquitin COOH-terminal hydrolase (UCH-L1), is associated with this differentiation. Reh cells were treated with 200 nmol/l of Bryo1 for 72 h and analyzed for changes in morphology, surface immunophenotype, acid phosphatase and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Protein patterns of the parent and differentiated cells, by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE), were studied. Bryo1-treated cells expressed morphologic, phenotypic and enzymatic features of the monocytoid B-cell stage. The UCH-L1 enzyme (MW-pl 34-5.3) was detected by 2 D PAGE in the differentiated, but not in parent cells. The presence of UCH-L1 in the Bryo1-treated cells was further confirmed by immunoblotting of 2 D PAGE using UCH-L1 polyclonal antibody. Ubiquitin expression was studied in parent and Bryo1-treated cells and was compared with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated cells. Both agents, TPA and Bryo1, increased the level of ubiquitin expression as detected by flow cytometry. Sodium borohydride, an inhibitor of UCH-L1, inhibited the Bryo1-induced differentiating effect on Reh cells. To date, the mechanism by which Bryo1, exerts its B-cell differentiating effect is not fully understood. This study shows that UCH-L1 expression may play a major role in Bryo1-induced differentiation in pre-B-ALL. PMID:9252784

  14. Regulation of cancer stem cell properties by CD9 in human B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Hiroto; Wilson Xu, C.; Naito, Motohiko; Nishida, Hiroko; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Ghani, Farhana Ishrat; Iwata, Satoshi; Inukai, Takeshi; Sugita, Kanji; Morimoto, Chikao; Drug Development Program, Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, NV

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} We performed more detailed analysis of CD9 function for CSC properties in B-ALL. {yields} Leukemogenic fusion/Src family proteins were markedly regulated in the CD9{sup +} cells. {yields} Proliferation of B-ALL cells was inhibited by anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody. {yields} Knockdown of CD9 by RNAi remarkably reduced the leukemogenic potential. {yields} CD9-knockdown affected the expression and phosphorylation of Src family and USP22. -- Abstract: Although the prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved considerably in recent years, some of the cases still exhibit therapy-resistant. We have previously reported that CD9 was expressed heterogeneously in B-ALL cell lines and CD9{sup +} cells exhibited an asymmetric cell division with greater tumorigenic potential than CD9{sup -} cells. CD9{sup +} cells were also serially transplantable in immunodeficient mice, indicating that CD9{sup +} cell possess self-renewal capacity. In the current study, we performed more detailed analysis of CD9 function for the cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. In patient sample, CD9 was expressed in the most cases of B-ALL cells with significant correlation of CD34-expression. Gene expression analysis revealed that leukemogenic fusion proteins and Src family proteins were significantly regulated in the CD9{sup +} population. Moreover, CD9{sup +} cells exhibited drug-resistance, but proliferation of bulk cells was inhibited by anti-CD9 monoclonal antibody. Knockdown of CD9 remarkably reduced the leukemogenic potential. Furthermore, gene ablation of CD9 affected the expression and tyrosine-phosphorylation of Src family proteins and reduced the expression of histone-deubiquitinase USP22. Taken together, our results suggest that CD9 links to several signaling pathways and epigenetic modification for regulating the CSC properties of B-ALL.

  15. Expression of transcobalamin II receptors by human leukemia K562 and HL-60 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amagasaki, T.; Green, R.; Jacobsen, D.W. )

    1990-10-01

    Plasma membrane receptors for the serum cobalamin-binding protein transcobalamin II (TCII) were identified on human leukemia K562 and HL-60 cells using immunoaffinity-purified human TCII labeled with (57Co)cyanocobalamin. The Bmax values for TCII receptors on proliferating K562 and HL-60 cells were 4,500 and 2,700 per cell, respectively. Corresponding dissociation constants (kd) were 8.0 x 10(-11) mol/L and 9.0 x 10(-11) mol/L. Rabbit TCII also bound to K562 and HL-60 cells but with slightly reduced affinities. Calcium was required for the binding of transcobalamin II to K562 cells. Brief treatment of these cells with trypsin resulted in almost total loss of surface binding activity. After removal of trypsin, surface receptors for TCII slowly reappeared, reaching pretrypsin treatment densities only after 24 hours. Reappearance of receptors was blocked by cycloheximide. TCII receptor densities on K562 and HL-60 cells correlated inversely with the concentration of cobalamin in the culture medium. This suggests that intracellular stores of cobalamin may affect the expression of transcobalamin receptors. Nonproliferating stationary-phase K562 cells had low TCII receptor densities. However, the density of TCII receptors increased substantially when cells were subcultured in fresh medium. Up-regulation of receptor expression coincided with increased 3H-thymidine incorporation, which preceded the resumption of cellular proliferation as measured by cell density. In the presence of cytosine arabinoside, which induces erythroid differentiation, K562 cells down-regulated expression of TCII receptors. When HL-60 cells were subcultured in fresh medium containing dimethysulfoxide to induce granulocytic differentiation, the up-regulation of TCII receptors was suppressed. This event occurred well before a diminution of 3H-thymidine incorporation and cessation of proliferation.

  16. The characteristics and outcomes of parainfluenza virus infections in 200 patients with leukemia or recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chemaly, Roy F; Hanmod, Santosh S; Rathod, Dhanesh B; Ghantoji, Shashank S; Jiang, Ying; Doshi, Arpan; Vigil, Karen; Adachi, Javier A; Khoury, Andrew M; Tarrand, Jeffery; Hosing, Chitra; Champlin, Richard

    2012-03-22

    Community respiratory viruses are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Data on characteristics and outcomes of parainfluenza virus (PIV) infections in these patients are limited. We reviewed the records of patients with leukemia and HSCT recipients who developed PIV infections to determine the characteristics and outcomes of such infections. We identified 200 patients with PIV infections, including 80 (40%) patients with leukemia and 120 (60%) recipients of HSCT. At presentation, most patients (70%) had an upper respiratory tract infection and the remaining patients (30%) had pneumonia. Neutropenia, APACHE II score more than 15, and respiratory coinfections were independent predictors of progression to pneumonia on multivariate analysis. Overall mortality rate was 9% at 30 days after diagnosis and 17% among patients who had PIV pneumonia, with no significant difference between patients with leukemia and HSCT recipients (16% vs 17%). On multivariate analysis, independent predictors of death were relapsed or refractory underlying malignancy, APACHE II score more than 15, and high-dose steroid use. Patients with leukemia and HSCT are at risk for serious PIV infections, including PIV pneumonia, with a significant mortality rate. We identified multiple risk factors for progression to pneumonia and death. PMID:22246027

  17. Autologous stem cell transplantation for adult acute leukemia in 2015: time to rethink? Present status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Gorin, N-C; Giebel, S; Labopin, M; Savani, B N; Mohty, M; Nagler, A

    2015-12-01

    The use of autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as consolidation therapy for adult patients with acute leukemia has declined over time. However, multiple randomized studies in the past have reported lower relapse rates after autologous transplantation compared with chemotherapy and lower non-relapse mortality rates compared with allogeneic transplantation. In addition, quality of life of long-term survivors is better after autologous transplantation than after allogeneic transplantation. Further, recent developments may improve outcomes of autograft recipients. These include the use of IV busulfan and the busulfan+melphalan combination, better detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) with molecular biology techniques, the introduction of targeted therapies and post-transplant maintenance therapy. Therefore, ASCT may nowadays be reconsidered for consolidation in the following patients if and when they reach a MRD-negative status: good- and at least intermediate-1 risk acute myelocytic leukemia in first CR, acute promyelocytic leukemia in second CR, Ph-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia. Conversely, patients with MRD-positive status or high-risk leukemia should not be considered for consolidation with ASCT. PMID:26281031

  18. Clofarabine and Melphalan Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Myelodysplasia or Acute Leukemia in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-07

    Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  19. Leukemic progenitor cells are susceptible to targeting by stimulated cytotoxic T cells against immunogenic leukemia-associated antigens.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Vanessa; Zhang, Lu; Rojewski, Markus; Fekete, Natalie; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Erle, Alexander; Bullinger, Lars; Hofmann, Susanne; Götz, Marlies; Döhner, Konstanze; Ihme, Susann; Döhner, Hartmut; Buske, Christian; Feuring-Buske, Michaela; Greiner, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    Leukemic stem cells (LSC) might be the source for leukemic disease self-renewal and account for disease relapse after treatment, which makes them a critical target for further therapeutic options. We investigated the role of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) counteracting and recognizing LSC. Leukemia-associated antigens (LAA) represent immunogenic structures to target LSC. We enriched the LSC-containing fraction of 20 AML patients and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) of healthy volunteers. Using microarray analysis and qRT-PCR we detected high expression of several LAA in AML cells but also in LSC. PRAME (p = 0.0085), RHAMM (p = 0.03), WT1 (p = 0.04) and Proteinase 3 (p = 0.04) showed significant differential expression in LSC compared with HSC. PRAME, RHAMM and WT1 are furthermore also lower expressed on leukemic bulk. In contrast, Proteinase 3 indicates a higher expression on leukemic bulk than on LSC. In colony forming unit (CFU) immunoassays, T cells stimulated against various LAA indicated a significant inhibition of CFUs in AML patient samples. The LAA PRAME, RHAMM and WT1 showed highest immunogenic responses with a range up to 58-83%. In a proof of principle xenotransplant mouse model, PRAME-stimulated CTL targeted AML stem cells, reflected by a delayed engraftment of leukemia (p = 0.0159). Taken together, we demonstrated the expression of several LAA in LSC. LAA-specific T cells are able to hamper LSC in immunoassays and in a mouse model, which suggests that immunotherapeutic approaches have the potential to target malignant stem cells. PMID:25912930

  20. BET inhibitor OTX015 targets BRD2 and BRD4 and decreases c-MYC in acute leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Berrou, Jeannig; Dupont, Mélanie; Bertrand, Sibyl; Masse, Aline; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Itzykson, Raphaël; Delord, Marc; Riveiro, Maria E.; Herait, Patrice; Baruchel, André; Dombret, Hervé; Gardin, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The bromodomain (BRD) and extraterminal (BET) proteins including BRD2, BRD3 and BRD4 have been identified as key targets for leukemia maintenance. A novel oral inhibitor of BRD2/3/4, the thienotriazolodiazepine compound OTX015, suitable for human use, is available. Here we report its biological effects in AML and ALL cell lines and leukemic samples. Exposure to OTX015 lead to cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis at submicromolar concentrations in acute leukemia cell lines and patient-derived leukemic cells, as described with the canonical JQ1 BET inhibitor. Treatment with JQ1 and OTX15 induces similar gene expression profiles in sensitive cell lines, including a c-MYC decrease and an HEXIM1 increase. OTX015 exposure also induced a strong decrease of BRD2, BRD4 and c-MYC and increase of HEXIM1 proteins, while BRD3 expression was unchanged. c-MYC, BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and HEXIM1 mRNA levels did not correlate however with viability following exposure to OTX015. Sequential combinations of OTX015 with other epigenetic modifying drugs, panobinostat and azacitidine have a synergic effect on growth of the KASUMI cell line. Our results indicate that OTX015 and JQ1 have similar biological effects in leukemic cells, supporting OTX015 evaluation in a Phase Ib trial in relapsed/refractory leukemia patients. PMID:25989842

  1. BET inhibitor OTX015 targets BRD2 and BRD4 and decreases c-MYC in acute leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Coudé, Marie-Magdelaine; Braun, Thorsten; Berrou, Jeannig; Dupont, Mélanie; Bertrand, Sibyl; Masse, Aline; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Itzykson, Raphaël; Delord, Marc; Riveiro, Maria E; Herait, Patrice; Baruchel, André; Dombret, Hervé; Gardin, Claude

    2015-07-10

    The bromodomain (BRD) and extraterminal (BET) proteins including BRD2, BRD3 and BRD4 have been identified as key targets for leukemia maintenance. A novel oral inhibitor of BRD2/3/4, the thienotriazolodiazepine compound OTX015, suitable for human use, is available. Here we report its biological effects in AML and ALL cell lines and leukemic samples. Exposure to OTX015 lead to cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis at submicromolar concentrations in acute leukemia cell lines and patient-derived leukemic cells, as described with the canonical JQ1 BET inhibitor. Treatment with JQ1 and OTX15 induces similar gene expression profiles in sensitive cell lines, including a c-MYC decrease and an HEXIM1 increase. OTX015 exposure also induced a strong decrease of BRD2, BRD4 and c-MYC and increase of HEXIM1 proteins, while BRD3 expression was unchanged. c-MYC, BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and HEXIM1 mRNA levels did not correlate however with viability following exposure to OTX015. Sequential combinations of OTX015 with other epigenetic modifying drugs, panobinostat and azacitidine have a synergic effect on growth of the KASUMI cell line. Our results indicate that OTX015 and JQ1 have similar biological effects in leukemic cells, supporting OTX015 evaluation in a Phase Ib trial in relapsed/refractory leukemia patients. PMID:25989842

  2. Linalool Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Cervical Cancer Cells through CDKIs.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Yin; Shieh, Den-En; Chen, Chung-Chi; Yeh, Ching-Sheng; Dong, Huei-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Plantaginaceae, a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used for treating various diseases from common cold to cancer. Linalool is one of the biologically active compounds that can be isolated from Plantaginaceae. Most of the commonly used cytotoxic anticancer drugs have been shown to induce apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. However, the signaling pathway for apoptosis remains undefined. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of linalool on human cancer cell lines was investigated. Water-soluble tetrazolium salts (WST-1) based colorimetric cellular cytotoxicity assay, was used to test the cytotoxic ability of linalool against U937 and HeLa cells, and flow cytometry (FCM) and genechip analysis were used to investigate the possible mechanism of apoptosis. These results demonstrated that linalool exhibited a good cytotoxic effect on U937 and HeLa cells, with the IC50 value of 2.59 and 11.02 ?M, respectively, compared with 5-FU with values of 4.86 and 12.31 ?M, respectively. After treating U937 cells with linalool for 6 h, we found an increased sub-G1 peak and a dose-dependent phenomenon, whereby these cells were arrested at the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, by using genechip analysis, we observed that linalool can promote p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18 gene expression. Therefore, this study verified that linalool can arrest the cell cycle of U937 cells at the G0/G1 phase and can arrest the cell cycle of HeLa cells at the G2/M phase. Its mechanism facilitates the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (CDKIs) p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18, as well as the non-expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) activity. PMID:26703569

  3. Linalool Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Cervical Cancer Cells through CDKIs

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mei-Yin; Shieh, Den-En; Chen, Chung-Chi; Yeh, Ching-Sheng; Dong, Huei-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Plantaginaceae, a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used for treating various diseases from common cold to cancer. Linalool is one of the biologically active compounds that can be isolated from Plantaginaceae. Most of the commonly used cytotoxic anticancer drugs have been shown to induce apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. However, the signaling pathway for apoptosis remains undefined. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of linalool on human cancer cell lines was investigated. Water-soluble tetrazolium salts (WST-1) based colorimetric cellular cytotoxicity assay, was used to test the cytotoxic ability of linalool against U937 and HeLa cells, and flow cytometry (FCM) and genechip analysis were used to investigate the possible mechanism of apoptosis. These results demonstrated that linalool exhibited a good cytotoxic effect on U937 and HeLa cells, with the IC50 value of 2.59 and 11.02 ?M, respectively, compared with 5-FU with values of 4.86 and 12.31 ?M, respectively. After treating U937 cells with linalool for 6 h, we found an increased sub-G1 peak and a dose-dependent phenomenon, whereby these cells were arrested at the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, by using genechip analysis, we observed that linalool can promote p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18 gene expression. Therefore, this study verified that linalool can arrest the cell cycle of U937 cells at the G0/G1 phase and can arrest the cell cycle of HeLa cells at the G2/M phase. Its mechanism facilitates the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (CDKIs) p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18, as well as the non-expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) activity. PMID:26703569

  4. Bispecific antibody releasing-mesenchymal stromal cell machinery for retargeting T cells towards acute myeloid leukemia blasts

    PubMed Central

    Aliperta, R; Cartellieri, M; Feldmann, A; Arndt, C; Koristka, S; Michalk, I; von Bonin, M; Ehninger, A; Bachmann, J; Ehninger, G; Bornhäuser, M; Bachmann, M P

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) engaging T cells are emerging as a promising immunotherapeutic tool for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Because their low molecular mass, bsAbs have short half-lives. To achieve clinical responses, they have to be infused into patients continously, for a long period of time. As a valid alternative we examined the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as autonomous cellular machines for the constant production of a recently described, fully humanized anti-CD33-anti-CD3 bsAb, which is capable of redirecting human T cells against CD33-expressing leukemic cells. The immortalized human MSC line SCP-1 was genetically modified into expressing bsAb at sufficient amounts to redirect T cells efficiently against CD33 presenting target cells, both in vitro and in an immunodeficient mouse model. Moreover, T cells of patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in blast crisis eliminated autologous leukemic cells in the presence of the bsAb secreting MSCs over time. The immune response against AML cells could be enhanced further by providing T cells an additional co-stimulus via the CD137-CD137 ligand axis through CD137L expression on MSCs. This study demonstrates that MSCs have the potential to be used as cellular production machines for bsAb-based tumor immunotherapy in the future. PMID:26383821

  5. Decitabine, Donor Natural Killer Cells, and Aldesleukin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-12

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  6. The bone marrow niche, stem cells, and leukemia: impact of drugs, chemicals, and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Greim, Helmut; Kaden, Debra A.; Larson, Richard A.; Palermo, Christine M.; Rice, Jerry M.; Ross, David; Snyder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a unique population of somatic stem cells that can both self-renew for long-term reconstitution of HSCs and differentiate into hematopoietic progenitor cells, which in turn give rise, in a hierarchical manner, to the entire myeloid and lymphoid lineages. The differentiation and maturation of these lineages occurs in the bone marrow niche, a microenvironment that regulates self-renewal, survival, differentiation, and proliferation, with interactions among signaling pathways in the HSCs and the niche required to establish and maintain homeostasis. The accumulation of genetic mutations and cytogenetic abnormalities within cells of the partially differentiated myeloid lineage, particularly as a result of exposure to benzene or cytotoxic anticancer drugs, can give rise to malignancies like acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Better understanding of the mechanisms driving these malignancies and susceptibility factors, both within hematopoietic progenitor cells and cells within the bone marrow niche, may lead to the development of strategies for prevention of occupational and cancer therapy–induced disease. PMID:24495159

  7. B-cell antigen receptor signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: therapeutic targets and translational opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ronald J; Lou, Yan; Tan, Seng-Lai

    2013-08-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by clonally expanded and molecularly heterogeneous populations of B lymphocytes with impaired apoptotic mechanisms. This occurs as a result of multiple genetic and epigenetic abnormalities, including chromosomal aberrations and enhancer region hypomethylation, often impinging on intracellular signaling pathways that are essential to normal B-cell activation, proliferation, and survival. The B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling is one such pathway usurped by malignant B cells, as exemplified by the early phase clinical success achieved by small-molecule agents targeting key players involved in the pathway. Such new targeted agents, including those that inhibit the function of Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), along with the current standard therapy comprising chemo-immunotherapies with or without B-cell depleting biologic agent rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody), should expand the armamentarium for CLL therapy. We review the therapeutic agents currently in clinical development which target different effectors of the malignant BCR signaling, and discuss their overlapping and discriminating translational opportunities in the context of CLL treatment. PMID:23886341

  8. Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells recapitulate hematopoietic abnormalities of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gandre-Babbe, Shilpa; Paluru, Prasuna; Aribeana, Chiaka; Chou, Stella T.; Bresolin, Silvia; Lu, Lin; Sullivan, Spencer K.; Tasian, Sarah K.; Weng, Julie; Favre, Helene; Choi, John K.; French, Deborah L.; Loh, Mignon L.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is an aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm of young children initiated by mutations that deregulate cytokine receptor signaling. Studies of JMML are constrained by limited access to patient tissues. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from malignant cells of two JMML patients with somatic heterozygous p.E76K missense mutations in PTPN11, which encodes SHP-2, a nonreceptor tyrosine phosphatase. In vitro differentiation of JMML iPSCs produced myeloid cells with increased proliferative capacity, constitutive activation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and enhanced STAT5/ERK phosphorylation, similar to primary JMML cells from patients. Pharmacological inhibition of MEK kinase in iPSC-derived JMML cells reduced their GM-CSF independence, providing rationale for a potential targeted therapy. Our studies offer renewable sources of biologically relevant human cells in which to explore the pathophysiology and treatment of JMML. More generally, we illustrate the utility of iPSCs for in vitro modeling of a human malignancy. PMID:23620576

  9. Mechanisms for the proliferation of eosinophilic leukemia cells by FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Kenji; Kitamura, Hajime; Hiraizumi, Kenji; Kaneko, Motoko; Takahashi, Aki; Zee, OkPyo; Seyama, Toshio; Hong, JangJa; Ohuchi, Kazuo; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2008-02-22

    The constitutively activated tyrosine kinase Fip1-like 1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha} (PDGFR{alpha}) causes eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells to proliferate. Recently, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors suppressed this proliferation and induced the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils in parallel with a decrease in the level of FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation and whether the suppression of cell proliferation triggers the differentiation into eosinophils. The FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} inhibitor imatinib inhibited the proliferation of EoL-1 cells and decreased the level of the oncoprotein c-Myc as well as the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The proliferation of EoL-1 cells and expression of c-Myc were also inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126 and JNK inhibitor SP600125. The expression of the eosinophilic differentiation marker CCR3 was not induced by imatinib. These findings suggest that FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation of EoL-1 cells through the induction of c-Myc expression via ERK and JNK signaling pathways, but is not involved in the inhibition of differentiation toward mature eosinophils.

  10. Glaucocalyxin A induces apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cells through mitochondria-mediated death pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li Wen; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Wen Hua; Wang, Bin; Wang, Jian Wen

    2011-02-01

    Glaucocalyxin A (GLA) is a biologically active ent-kauranoid diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, which has been shown to inhibit tumor cell proliferation. However, the mechanism underlying GLA-induced cytotoxicity remains unclear. In this study, we focused on the effect of GLA induction on apoptosis, the mitochondria-mediated death pathway and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human leukemia cells (HL-60). GLA could induce a dose-dependent apoptosis in HL-60 cells as characterized by cell morphology, DNA fragmentation, activation of caspase-3, -9 and an increased expression ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. The mitochondrial membrane potential (??(m)) loss and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol were observed during the induction. Moreover, GLA caused a time- and dose-dependent elevation of intracellular ROS level in HL-60 cells, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, a well-known antioxidant) could block GLA-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. These data suggest that GLA induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells through ROS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. PMID:20851175

  11. Immunoprecipitation of membrane proteins from rat basophilic leukemia cells by the antiganglioside monoclonal antibody AA4

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, V.; Guo, N.; Ginsburg, V.; Siraganian, R.P. )

    1991-06-15

    In previous studies, mAb AA4 inhibited IgE binding, induced rapid morphologic changes, and blocked histamine release in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. It bound to two novel derivatives of ganglioside GD1b (Ag I and Ag II) that appear to be present only in rat mast cells. The present study demonstrates the importance of gangliosides Ag I and Ag II for binding of mAb AA4 to intact cells. We also investigated the presence of gangliosides Ag I and Ag II and proteins immunoprecipitated with mAb AA4 in the parental and four variant cell lines. In comparison with the parental RBL-2H3, two variant cell lines had very low (0.5% and 2.0%) and two others had intermediate levels (9% and 18%) of 125I-AA4 binding. mAb AA4 inhibited 125I-IgE binding to the parental RBL-2H3 cells and to only one variant with intermediate amounts of gangliosides Ag I and Ag II. Therefore, there are variations in the proximity of these gangliosides to the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI) among different cell lines. mAb AA4 immunoprecipitated proteins of 50 to 60, 120, and 135 kDa from 125I-surface labeled cells. These were different from the subunits of Fc epsilon RI. The amount of gangliosides Ag I and Ag II in cell extracts correlated with the number of mAb AA4 binding sites on the cell surface and with the quantity of proteins precipitated from the different cell lines. Thus, these membrane proteins appear to be associated with gangliosides Ag I and Ag II. The binding of mAb AA4 to the surface gangliosides could induce intracellular changes through transmembrane signaling by these proteins.

  12. Signaling thresholds and negative B cell selection in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengshan; Shojaee, Seyedmehdi; Buchner, Maike; Geng, Huimin; Lee, Jae Woong; Klemm, Lars; Titz, Björn; Graeber, Thomas G.; Park, Eugene; Tan, Ying Xim; Satterthwaite, Anne; Paietta, Elisabeth; Hunger, Stephen P.; Willman, Cheryl L.; Melnick, Ari; Loh, Mignon L.; Jung, Jae U.; Coligan, John E.; Bolland, Silvia; Mak, Tak W.; Limnander, Andre; Jumaa, Hassan; Reth, Michael; Weiss, Arthur; Lowell, Clifford A.; Müschen, Markus

    2015-01-01

    B cells are selected for an intermediate level of B cell receptor (BCR) signaling strength: Attenuation below minimum (e.g. non-functional BCR)1 or hyperactivation above maximum (e.g. self-reactive BCR)2–3 thresholds of signaling strength causes negative selection. In ~25% of cases, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells carry the oncogenic BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase (Ph+), which mimics constitutively active pre-BCR signaling4,5. Current therapy approaches are largely focused on the development of more potent tyrosine kinase inhibitors to suppress oncogenic signaling below a minimum threshold for survival6. Here, we tested the hypothesis that targeted hyperactivation above a maximum threshold will engage a deletional checkpoint for removal of self-reactive B cells and selectively kill ALL cells. Testing various components of proximal pre-BCR signaling, we found that an incremental increase of Syk tyrosine kinase activity was required and sufficient to induce cell death. Hyperactive Syk was functionally equivalent to acute activation of a self-reactive BCR on ALL cells. Despite oncogenic transformation, this basic mechanism of negative selection was still functional in ALL