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Sample records for hakko gas nenryo

  1. Gas gangrene

    MedlinePlus

    Tissue infection - Clostridial; Gangrene - gas; Myonecrosis; Clostridial infection of tissues; Necrotizing soft tissue infection ... Gas gangrene is most often caused by bacteria called Clostridium perfringens. It also can be caused by ...

  2. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, Arye

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  3. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  4. Gas vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Walsby, A E

    1994-01-01

    The gas vesicle is a hollow structure made of protein. It usually has the form of a cylindrical tube closed by conical end caps. Gas vesicles occur in five phyla of the Bacteria and two groups of the Archaea, but they are mostly restricted to planktonic microorganisms, in which they provide buoyancy. By regulating their relative gas vesicle content aquatic microbes are able to perform vertical migrations. In slowly growing organisms such movements are made more efficiently than by swimming with flagella. The gas vesicle is impermeable to liquid water, but it is highly permeable to gases and is normally filled with air. It is a rigid structure of low compressibility, but it collapses flat under a certain critical pressure and buoyancy is then lost. Gas vesicles in different organisms vary in width, from 45 to > 200 nm; in accordance with engineering principles the narrower ones are stronger (have higher critical pressures) than wide ones, but they contain less gas space per wall volume and are therefore less efficient at providing buoyancy. A survey of gas-vacuolate cyanobacteria reveals that there has been natural selection for gas vesicles of the maximum width permitted by the pressure encountered in the natural environment, which is mainly determined by cell turgor pressure and water depth. Gas vesicle width is genetically determined, perhaps through the amino acid sequence of one of the constituent proteins. Up to 14 genes have been implicated in gas vesicle production, but so far the products of only two have been shown to be present in the gas vesicle: GvpA makes the ribs that form the structure, and GvpC binds to the outside of the ribs and stiffens the structure against collapse. The evolution of the gas vesicle is discussed in relation to the homologies of these proteins. Images PMID:8177173

  5. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  6. Gas magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2016-05-03

    Measurement of a precessional rate of a gas, such as an alkali gas, in a magnetic field is made by promoting a non-uniform precession of the gas in which substantially no net magnetic field affects the gas during a majority of the precession cycle. This allows sensitive gases that would be subject to spin-exchange collision de-phasing to be effectively used for extremely sensitive measurements in the presence of an environmental magnetic field such as the Earth's magnetic field.

  7. Gas separating

    DOEpatents

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  8. Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasek, Francis W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This review covers fundamental developments in gas chromatography during 1982 and 1983. Literature is considered under these headings: columns; liguid phases; solid supports; sorption processes and solvents; open tubular column gas chromatography; instrumentation; high-resolution columns and applications; other techniques; qualitative and…

  9. Natural Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, Robert N.; Moshfeghian, Mahmood; Ldol, James D.; Johannes, Arland H.

    Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of simple hydrocarbons and nonhydrocarbons that exists as a gas at ordinary pressures and temperatures. In the raw state, as produced from the earth, natural gas consists principally of methane (CH4) and ethane (C2H4), with fractional amounts of propane (C3H8), butane (C4H10), and other hydrocarbons, pentane (C5H12) and heavier. Occasionally, small traces of light aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene may also be present.

  10. Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The M200 originated in the 1970's under an Ames Research Center/Stanford University contract to develop a small, lightweight gas analyzer for Viking Landers. Although the unit was not used on the spacecraft, it was further developed by The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Three researchers from the project later formed Microsensor Technology, Inc. (MTI) to commercialize the analyzer. The original version (Micromonitor 500) was introduced in 1982, and the M200 in 1988. The M200, a more advanced version, features dual gas chromatograph which separate a gaseous mixture into components and measure concentrations of each gas. It is useful for monitoring gas leaks, chemical spills, etc. Many analyses are completed in less than 30 seconds, and a wide range of mixtures can be analyzed.

  11. Volcanic Gas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hazards Tephra/Ash Lava Flows Lahars Volcanic Gas Climate Change Pyroclastic Flows Volcanic Landslides Preparedness Volcano Hazard Zones ... Please see our discussion of volcanic gases and climate change for additional information. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is ...

  12. Gas - flatulence

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods that are hard to digest, such as fiber. Sometimes, adding more fiber into your diet can cause temporary gas. Your ... your diet changed recently? Have you increased the fiber in your diet? How fast do you eat, ...

  13. Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Stuart P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Selects fundamental developments in theory, methodology, and instrumentation in gas chromatography (GC). A special section reviews GC in the People's Republic of China. Over 1,000 references are cited. (CS)

  14. Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A miniature gas chromatograph, a system which separates a gaseous mixture into its components and measures the concentration of the individual gases, was designed for the Viking Lander. The technology was further developed under National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and funded by Ames Research Center/Stanford as a toxic gas leak detection device. Three researchers on the project later formed Microsensor Technology, Inc. to commercialize the product. It is a battery-powered system consisting of a sensing wand connected to a computerized analyzer. Marketed as the Michromonitor 500, it has a wide range of applications.

  15. Gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  16. Gas gangrene

    MedlinePlus

    ... of shock. Tests that may be done include: Tissue and fluid cultures to test for bacteria including clostridial species Blood culture to determine the bacteria causing the infection Gram ... X-ray , CT scan, or MRI of the area may show gas in the tissues.

  17. Gas Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.; Peterson, Devin G.; Reineccius, Gary A.

    The first publication on gas chromatography (GC) was in 1952 (1), while the first commercial instruments were manufactured in 1956. James and Martin (1) separated fatty acids by GC, collected the column effluent, and titrated the individual fatty acids for quantitation. GC has advanced greatly since that early work and is now considered to be a mature field that is approaching theoretical limitations.

  18. GAS SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Monson, H.; Hutter, E.

    1961-07-11

    A seal is described for a cover closing an opening in the top of a pressure vessel that may house a nuclear reactor. The seal comprises a U-shaped trough formed on the pressure vessel around the opening therein, a mass of metal in the trough, and an edge flange on the cover extending loosely into the trough and dipping into the metal mass. The lower portion of the metal mass is kept melted, and the upper portion, solid. The solid pontion of the metal mass prevents pressure surges in the vessel from expelling the liquid portion of the metal mass from the trough; the liquld portion, thus held in place by the solid portion, does not allow gas to go through, and so gas cannot escape through shrinkage holes in the solid portion.

  19. Natural gas marketing II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of gas marketing, from the basic regulatory structure to the latest developments in negotiating agreements and locating markets. Topics include: Federal regulation of the gas industry; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; FERC actions encouraging competitive markets; Marketing conditions from the pipelines' perspective; State non-utility regulation of natural gas production, transportation, and marketing; Natural gas wellhead agreements and tariffs; Natural gas processing agreements; Effective management of producer's natural gas contracts; Producer-pipeline litigation; Natural gas purchasing from the perspective of industrial gas users; Gas marketing by co-owners: problems of disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners; Alternatives and new directions in marketing.

  20. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  1. Gas Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.

    Gas chromatography (GC) has many applications in the analysis of food products. GC has been used for the determination of fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, gases, water, alcohols, pesticides, flavor compounds, and many more. While GC has been used for other food components such as sugars, oligosaccharides, amino acids, peptides, and vitamins, these substances are more suited to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. GC is ideally suited to the analysis of volatile substances that are thermally stable. Substances such as pesticides and flavor compounds that meet these criteria can be isolated from a food and directly injected into the GC. For compounds that are thermally unstable, too low in volatility, or yield poor chromatographic separation due to polarity, a derivatization step must be done before GC analysis. The two parts of the experiment described here include the analysis of alcohols that requires no derivatization step, and the analysis of fatty acids which requires derivatization. The experiments specify the use of capillary columns, but the first experiment includes conditions for a packed column.

  2. Noble gas fractionation during subsurface gas migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathaye, Kiran J.; Larson, Toti E.; Hesse, Marc A.

    2016-09-01

    Environmental monitoring of shale gas production and geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage requires identification of subsurface gas sources. Noble gases provide a powerful tool to distinguish different sources if the modifications of the gas composition during transport can be accounted for. Despite the recognition of compositional changes due to gas migration in the subsurface, the interpretation of geochemical data relies largely on zero-dimensional mixing and fractionation models. Here we present two-phase flow column experiments that demonstrate these changes. Water containing a dissolved noble gas is displaced by gas comprised of CO2 and argon. We observe a characteristic pattern of initial co-enrichment of noble gases from both phases in banks at the gas front, followed by a depletion of the dissolved noble gas. The enrichment of the co-injected noble gas is due to the dissolution of the more soluble major gas component, while the enrichment of the dissolved noble gas is due to stripping from the groundwater. These processes amount to chromatographic separations that occur during two-phase flow and can be predicted by the theory of gas injection. This theory provides a mechanistic basis for noble gas fractionation during gas migration and improves our ability to identify subsurface gas sources after post-genetic modification. Finally, we show that compositional changes due to two-phase flow can qualitatively explain the spatial compositional trends observed within the Bravo Dome natural CO2 reservoir and some regional compositional trends observed in drinking water wells overlying the Marcellus and Barnett shale regions. In both cases, only the migration of a gas with constant source composition is required, rather than multi-stage mixing and fractionation models previously proposed.

  3. Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Huston, Gregg C.

    1992-01-01

    A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

  4. Coalbed gas development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book includes: Overview of coalbed gas development; Coalbed gas development in the West Coalbed gas development on Indian lands; Multi-mineral development conflicts; Statutory solutions to ownership disputes; State and local regulation; Environmental regulations; Status of the section 29 tax credit extension; Using the section 29 credit; Leasing coalbed gas prospects; Coalbed gas joint operating agreements and Purchase and sale agreements for coalbed gas properties.

  5. CONTINUOUS GAS ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Katz, S.; Weber, C.W.

    1960-02-16

    A reagent gas and a sample gas are chemically combined on a continuous basis in a reaction zone maintained at a selected temperature. The reagent gas and the sample gas are introduced to the reaction zone at preselected. constant molar rates of flow. The reagent gas and the selected gas in the sample mixture combine in the reaction zone to form a product gas having a different number of moles from the sum of the moles of the reactants. The difference in the total molar rates of flow into and out of the reaction zone is measured and indicated to determine the concentration of the selected gas.

  6. MedlinePlus: Gas

    MedlinePlus

    ... International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders) Living With Foods That May Cause Gas (International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders) Health Check Tools Excessive Gas (DSHI ...

  7. Anaesthesia gas supply: gas cylinders.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Uma

    2013-09-01

    Invention of oxygen cylinder was one of the most important developments in the field of medical practice. Oxygen and other gases were compressed and stored at high pressure in seamless containers constructed from hand-forged steel in1880. Materials technology has continued to evolve and now medical gas cylinders are generally made of steel alloys or aluminum. The filling pressure as well as capacity has increased considerably while at the same time the weight of cylinders has reduced. Today oxygen cylinder of equivalent size holds a third more oxygen but weighs about 20 kg less. The cylinders are of varying sizes and are color coded. They are tested at regular intervals by the manufacturer using hydraulic, impact, and tensile tests. The top end of the cylinder is fitted with a valve with a variety of number and markings stamped on it. Common valve types include: Pin index valve, bull nose, hand wheel and integral valve. The type of valve varies with cylinder size. Small cylinders have a pin index valve while large have a bull nose type. Safety features in the cylinder are: Color coding, pin index, pressure relief device, Bodok seal, and label attached etc., Safety rules and guidelines must be followed during storage, installation and use of cylinders to ensure safety of patients, hospital personnel and the environment. PMID:24249883

  8. Anaesthesia Gas Supply: Gas Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Invention of oxygen cylinder was one of the most important developments in the field of medical practice. Oxygen and other gases were compressed and stored at high pressure in seamless containers constructed from hand-forged steel in1880. Materials technology has continued to evolve and now medical gas cylinders are generally made of steel alloys or aluminum. The filling pressure as well as capacity has increased considerably while at the same time the weight of cylinders has reduced. Today oxygen cylinder of equivalent size holds a third more oxygen but weighs about 20 kg less. The cylinders are of varying sizes and are color coded. They are tested at regular intervals by the manufacturer using hydraulic, impact, and tensile tests. The top end of the cylinder is fitted with a valve with a variety of number and markings stamped on it. Common valve types include: Pin index valve, bull nose, hand wheel and integral valve. The type of valve varies with cylinder size. Small cylinders have a pin index valve while large have a bull nose type. Safety features in the cylinder are: Color coding, pin index, pressure relief device, Bodok seal, and label attached etc., Safety rules and guidelines must be followed during storage, installation and use of cylinders to ensure safety of patients, hospital personnel and the environment. PMID:24249883

  9. Compressed gas manifold

    DOEpatents

    Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  10. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  11. Cavernous sinus gas.

    PubMed

    Chen, S S; Shao, K N; Chiang, J H; Chang, C Y; Luo, C B; Lirng, J F; Teng, M M

    2000-07-01

    Gas within the cavernous sinus is an unusual finding. We report three patients who demonstrated gas in the cavernous sinus on computerized tomography (CT). The clinical information of these patients was reviewed for the possible source of the gas and the symptoms induced by the gas. Cavernous sinus gas was seen in two patients with sphenoid sinus fracture and in one patient after intravenous fluid infusion. None of the patients had symptoms referable to the cavernous sinus gas, but one patient had a grave prognosis due to trauma. Identification of cavernous sinus gas on CT and correlation with the clinical information is mandatory for further management. PMID:10934814

  12. Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

  13. Variable leak gas source

    DOEpatents

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A variable leak gas source and a method for obtaining the same which includes filling a quantity of hollow glass micro-spheres with a gas, storing said quantity in a confined chamber having a controllable outlet, heating said chamber above room temperature, and controlling the temperature of said chamber to control the quantity of gas passing out of said controllable outlet. Individual gas filled spheres may be utilized for calibration purposes by breaking a sphere having a known quantity of a known gas to calibrate a gas detection apparatus.

  14. Homicide by methane gas.

    PubMed

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Vetrugno, Giuseppe; Rossi, Riccardo; Fucci, Nadia; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2012-09-10

    Methane is a suffocating gas, and "methane deaths" are largely the result of suffocation by gas-air displacement after accidental or deliberate exposure. Neither methane gas nor other suffocating gases are a common means of homicide, with the potential exception of the use of gas in chemical weapons or gas chambers. Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old woman who was killed by her husband with methane gas. The man had given his wife a dose of Lorazepam before setting up a hose that conveyed methane from the kitchen into the apartment's bedroom. The man subsequently faked his own suicide, which was later discovered. PMID:22721935

  15. World Natural Gas Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based onmore » a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.« less

  16. Fiber optic gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  17. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  18. Fuel gas from biodigestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. C.; Wolverton, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Biodigestion apparatus produces fuel gas (primarily methane) for domestic consumption, by anaerobic bacterial digestion of organic matter such as aquatic vegetation. System includes 3,786-1 cylindrical container, mechanical agitator, and simple safe gas collector for short term storage.

  19. FUEL GAS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of continued investigation and further definition of the potential environmental and economic benefits of integrated coal gasification/gas cleanup/combined gas and steam cycle power plants. Reported refinements in plant operating characteristics lower hea...

  20. Gas gangrene (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Gas gangrene is a severe form of gangrene (tissue death) caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. It ... causing painful swelling and destruction of involved tissue. Gas gangrene is rapidly progressive and often fatal.

  1. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOEpatents

    Yu, C.M.

    1996-12-10

    A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

  2. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  3. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    1996-01-01

    A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

  4. Gas gangrene (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Gas gangrene is a severe form of gangrene (tissue death) caused by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens. Patients ... vascular diseases are more prone to spontaneously develop gas gangrene, which is rapidly progressive and often fatal.

  5. Natural Gas Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  6. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-17

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  7. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  8. Liquid propellant gas generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design of gas generators intended to provide hot gases for turbine drive is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the design and operation of bipropellant gas generators because of their wider use. Problems and limitations involved in turbine operation due to temperature effects are analyzed. Methods of temperature control of gas turbines and combustion products are examined. Drawings of critical sections of gas turbines to show their operation and areas of stress are included.

  9. Residual gas analysis device

    DOEpatents

    Thornberg, Steven M.

    2012-07-31

    A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

  10. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  11. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOEpatents

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  12. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOEpatents

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  13. Geopolitics of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.

    1983-01-01

    This examines the role of gas in the world energy supply/demand. Special attention is paid to Western Europe, the Soviet Union, and the natural gas exporting countries. Forecasts of global energy demand until 2000 and data on Western Europe's proven natural gas reserves as per January 1982 are provided.

  14. Natural Gas Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... before you dig on your property. If you smell gas outdoors, move away from the area until you no longer smell the gas and call 911. Do not return ... it is safe to do so. If you smell gas indoors, get outside immediately, leaving doors open ...

  15. Microscale Gas Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Bruce; Anderson, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The development of syringes having free movement while remaining gas-tight enabled methods in chemistry to be changed. Successfully containing and measuring volumes of gas without the need to trap them using liquids made it possible to work with smaller quantities. The invention of the LuerLok syringe cap also allowed the gas to be stored for a…

  16. Gas dynamics in residual gas analyzer calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Santeler, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Residual gas analyzers are used for measuring partial flow rates as well as for measuring partial pressures. The required calibration may also be obtained with either known flow rates or known pressures. The calibration and application procedures are straightforward when both are of the same type; however, substantial errors may occur if the two types are mixed. This report develops the basic equations required to convert between partial pressure calibrations and partial flow rate calibrations. It also discusses the question of fractionating and nonfractionating gas flow in various gas inlet and pumping systems.

  17. Experimental Characterization of Gas/Gas Injector Flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.; Cramer, John M.; Pal, Sibtosh; Santoro, Robert J.; Turner, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on activities pertaining to the experimental characterization of gas/gas injector flowfields. An experimental testbed for uni-element gas/gas injector studies at realistic conditions has been fabricated and verified. Experiments for characterizing mixing/combustion of gas/gas injectors with raman spectroscopy have been initiated.

  18. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  19. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOEpatents

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Luong, Amy Khai; Kulp, Thomas J.; Devdas, Sanjay

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  20. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Im, Kwan H.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    1985-01-01

    A process and apparatus for removing sulfur oxide from combustion gas to form Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and for reducing the harmful effects of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 on auxiliary heat exchangers in which a sodium compound is injected into the hot combustion gas forming liquid Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 in a gas-gas reaction and the resultant gas containing Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is cooled to below about 1150.degree. K. to form particles of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 prior to contact with at least one heat exchanger with the cooling being provided by the recycling of combustion gas from a cooled zone downstream from the introduction of the cooling gas.

  1. Fundamentals of gas measurement I

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, D.E.

    1995-12-01

    To truly understand gas measurement, a person must understand gas measurement fundamentals. This includes the units of measurement, the behavior of the gas molecule, the property of gases, the gas laws, and the methods and means of measuring gas. Since the quality of gas is often the responsibility of the gas measurement technician, it is important that he or she have a knowledge of natural gas chemistry.

  2. Liquid/Gas Vortex Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, B. G.

    1986-01-01

    Liquid/gas separator vents gas from tank of liquid that contains gas randomly distributed in bubbles. Centrifugal force separates liquid and gas, forcing liquid out of vortex tube through venturi tube. Gas vented through exhaust port. When liquid detected in vent tube, exhaust port closed, and liquid/gas mixture in vent tube drawn back into tank through venturi.

  3. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  4. 78 FR 11638 - Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice of Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice... Docket Nos. PR13-29-000, and PR13-30-000 (not consolidated), Michigan Consolidated Gas Company (MichCon) and DTE Gas Company (DTE Gas) filed to institute a name change to both itself from MichCon to DTE...

  5. 75 FR 73071 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... Abandonment Project proposed by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... affecting the quality of the human environment. The EA has been placed in the public files of the FERC...

  6. GAS METERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  7. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  8. Gas in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2008-01-01

    Gas makes up the bulk of the mass in a protoplanetary disk, but it is much more difficult to observe than the smaller dust component. The l ifetime of gas in a disk has far-reaching consequences. including lim iting the time available for giant planet formation and controlling t he migration of planetary bodies of all sizes, from Jupiters to meter-sized planetesimals. Here I will discuss what is known about the gas component of protoplanetary disks, highlighting recent results from i nfrared studies with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Exciting upcoming o pportunities for gas studies will also be discussed. In particular, the first large far-IR survey of gas tracers from young disks will be p erformed using the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems" (GASPS) Open Time Key Project.

  9. Gas in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2008-01-01

    Gas makes up the bulk of the mass in a protoplanetary disk, but it is much more difficult to observe than the smaller dust component. The lifetime of gas in a disk has far-reaching consequences, including limiting the time available for giant planet formation and controlling the migration of planetary bodies of all sizes, from Jupiters to meter-sized planetesimals. Here I will discuss what is known about the gas component of protoplanetary disks, highlighting recent results from infrared studies with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Exciting upcoming opportunities for gas studies will also be discussed. In particular, the first large far-IR survey of gas tracers from young disks will be performed using the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the 'Gas in Protoplanetary Systems' (GASPS) Open Time Key Project.

  10. Gas stream purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    A gas stream purifier has been developed that is capable of removing corrosive acid, base, solvent, organic, inorganic, and water vapors as well as particulates from an inert mixed gas stream using only solid scrubbing agents. This small, lightweight purifier has demonstrated the ability to remove contaminants from an inert gas stream with a greater than 99 percent removal efficiency. The Gas Stream Purifier has outstanding market and sales potential in manufacturing, laboratory and science industries, medical, automotive, or any commercial industry where pollution, contamination, or gas stream purification is a concern. The purifier was developed under NASA contract NAS9-18200 Schedule A for use in the international Space Station. A patent application for the Gas Stream Purifier is currently on file with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

  11. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  12. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOEpatents

    Hahs, Charles A.; Burbage, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  13. GAS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Arrol, W.J.; Jefferson, S.

    1957-08-27

    The construction of gas discharge devices where the object is to provide a gas discharge device having a high dark current and stabilized striking voltage is described. The inventors have discovered that the introduction of tritium gas into a discharge device with a subsequent electrical discharge in the device will deposit tritium on the inside of the chamber. The tritium acts to emit beta rays amd is an effective and non-hazardous way of improving the abovementioned discharge tube characteristics

  14. Gas purifier unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, J.

    1984-09-18

    A liquid contact type gas purifier unit in which gases to be treated are passed upwardly through a bath cleansing fluid to impart a circular and radially outward movement alone a central perforate support plate, the periphery of which has a circular rim with an adjacent collecting and reciprocating trough to provide for an even outward flow of cleansing fluid and stability of flow of the interacting fluid and gas streams and wider latitude of operable gas and pressure and flows.

  15. Hydrogen rich gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A process and apparatus is described for producing a hydrogen rich gas by introducing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel in the form of a spray into a partial oxidation region and mixing with a mixture of steam and air that is preheated by indirect heat exchange with the formed hydrogen rich gas, igniting the hydrocarbon fuel spray mixed with the preheated mixture of steam and air within the partial oxidation region to form a hydrogen rich gas.

  16. Pulsed gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Louis W.; Fitzsimmons, William A.

    1978-01-01

    A pulsed gas laser is constituted by Blumlein circuits wherein space metal plates function both as capacitors and transmission lines coupling high frequency oscillations to a gas filled laser tube. The tube itself is formed by spaced metal side walls which function as connections to the electrodes to provide for a high frequency, high voltage discharge in the tube to cause the gas to lase. Also shown is a spark gap switch having structural features permitting a long life.

  17. Waste gas storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, Brian D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Method for storing a waste gas mixture comprised of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert gases, the gas mixture containing corrosive contaminants including inorganic acids and bases and organic solvents, and derived from space station operations. The gas mixture is stored under pressure in a vessel formed of a filament wound composite overwrap on a metal liner, the metal liner being pre-stressed in compression by the overwrap, thereby avoiding any tensile stress in the liner, and preventing stress corrosion cracking of the liner during gas mixture storage.

  18. Gas venting system

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  19. Portable Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Michromonitor M500 universal gas analyzer contains a series of miniature modules, each of which is a complete gas chromatograph, an instrument which separates a gaseous mixture into its components and measures the concentrations of each gas in the mixture. The system is manufactured by Microsensor Technology, and is used for environmental analysis, monitoring for gas leaks and chemical spills, compliance with pollution laws, etc. The technology is based on a Viking attempt to detect life on Mars. Ames/Stanford miniaturized the system and NIOSH funded further development. Three Stanford researchers commercialized the technology, which can be operated by unskilled personnel.

  20. Gas-Recovery System

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, R. A.

    1971-12-14

    Nuclear explosions have been proposed as a means for recovering gas from underground gas-bearing rock formations. In present practice, the nuclear device is positioned at the end of a long pipe which is subsequently filled with grout or concrete. After the device is exploded, the grout is drilled through to provide a flow path for the released gas to the ground surface. As settled grout is brittle, often the compressive shock of the explosion fractures the grout and deforms the pipe so that it may not be removed nor reused. In addition, the pipe is sometimes pinched off completely and the gas flow is totally obstructed. (2 claims)

  1. Gas-recovery system

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, R.A.

    1971-12-14

    Nuclear explosions have been proposed as a means for recovering gas from underground gas-bearing rock formations. In present practice, the nuclear device is positioned at the end of a long pipe which is subsequently filled with grout or concrete. After the device is exploded, the grout is drilled through to provide a flow path for the released gas to the ground surface. As settled grout is brittle, often the compressive shock of the explosion fractures the grout and deforms the pipe so that it may not be removed nor reused. In addition, the pipe is sometimes pinched off completely and the gas flow is totally obstructed. (2 claims)

  2. Dubai gas lift automation

    SciTech Connect

    Coltharp, E.D.; Khokhar, M.

    1984-09-01

    Dubai Petroleum Company has recently installed a computer gas lift surveillance and gas lift gas injection control system in the Fateh and S.W. Fateh Fields located in the southern part of the Arabian Gulf. This system is the fourth generation of the computer control system installed in California in 1971 by Conoco, Inc. This paper describes the advantages and problems in this system to monitor and control the gas lift operation of 116 wells through 30 intelligent remote terminal units (RTU). In addition, this system monitors the condition of critical operational

  3. Polyport atmospheric gas sampler

    DOEpatents

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic

    1995-01-01

    An atmospheric gas sampler with a multi-port valve which allows for multi, sequential sampling of air through a plurality of gas sampling tubes mounted in corresponding gas inlet ports. The gas sampler comprises a flow-through housing which defines a sampling chamber and includes a gas outlet port to accommodate a flow of gases through the housing. An apertured sample support plate defining the inlet ports extends across and encloses the sampling chamber and supports gas sampling tubes which depend into the sampling chamber and are secured across each of the inlet ports of the sample support plate in a flow-through relation to the flow of gases through the housing during sampling operations. A normally closed stopper means mounted on the sample support plate and operatively associated with each of the inlet ports blocks the flow of gases through the respective gas sampling tubes. A camming mechanism mounted on the sample support plate is adapted to rotate under and selectively lift open the stopper spring to accommodate a predetermined flow of gas through the respective gas sampling tubes when air is drawn from the housing through the outlet port.

  4. Gas hydrate and humans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    The potential effects of naturally occurring gas hydrate on humans are not understood with certainty, but enough information has been acquired over the past 30 years to make preliminary assessments possible. Three major issues are gas hydrate as (1) a potential energy resource, (2) a factor in global climate change, and (3) a submarine geohazard. The methane content is estimated to be between 1015 to 1017 m3 at STP and the worldwide distribution in outer continental margins of oceans and in polar regions are significant features of gas hydrate. However, its immediate development as an energy resource is not likely because there are various geological constraints and difficult technological problems that must be solved before economic recovery of methane from hydrate can be achieved. The role of gas hydrate in global climate change is uncertain. For hydrate methane to be an effective greenhouse gas, it must reach the atmosphere. Yet there are many obstacles to the transfer of methane from hydrate to the atmosphere. Rates of gas hydrate dissociation and the integrated rates of release and destruction of the methane in the geo/hydro/atmosphere are not adequately understood. Gas hydrate as a submarine geohazard, however, is of immediate and increasing importance to humans as our industrial society moves to exploit seabed resources at ever-greater depths in the waters of our coastal oceans. Human activities and installations in regions of gas-hydrate occurrence must take into account the presence of gas hydrate and deal with the consequences of its presence.

  5. Water gas furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaro, C.

    1985-12-03

    A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

  6. Gas utilization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-09-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ``Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD&D Priorities`` indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ``Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,`` clearly identify the market sectors driving today`s technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors.

  7. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  8. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This report presents data on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the USA during July 1982, as well as data on production, storage, imports, exports, and consumption. Selected data are also presented on the activities of the major interstate pipeline companies. Volumes of natural gas in storage continue to run slightly ahead of year-ago levels, especially for interstate operators. Weighted average prices received for gas sold by major interstate pipeline companies during July of 19982 ranged from a low of $2.61 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) for Kansas-Nebraska to a high of $7.09 per Mcf for Pacific Gas. These variations are attributable to the sources of supply available to the various pipeline companies and the market structures of each. September 1982 applications for determination of a maximum lawful price under the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) increased slightly for new gas (Section 102) and decreased significantly for high-cost gas (Section 107) when compared to August. Natural gas ceiling prices prescribed by the NGPA continued to move upward through the application of prescribed monthly inflation adjustments. In the 3-year period from November 1979 through November 1982, the price ceiling for new gas, for example, increased from $2.314 to $3.249 per million (MM) Btu's. The highest ceiling price permitted under the NGPA is natural gas produced from tight formations set for November 1982 at $5.396 per MMBtu. Market natural gas production during September of 1982 was 1444 billion cubic feet (Bcf) compared to the September 1981 level of 1578 Bcf. Consumption during the same period also declined from 1266 Bcf to 1176 Bcf.

  9. Inhalation of chlorine gas.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G

    1997-11-01

    The clinical features of acute chlorine gas inhalation, and its management are reviewed. Current medical views on the chronic effects of an acute overwhelming exposure on lung function (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome), and the more controversial field of lung disease secondary to repeated inhalations of lower concentrations of chlorine gas are discussed. PMID:9519180

  10. Gas Sensor Test Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Ryan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    The use of organic polymers to detect gasses has been known for several years to be an effective means for gas detection via conductivity changes. These chemoresistors offer significant advantages over other gas detectors in that they operate near room temperature and thus can be used in compact, low-power applications.

  11. Waste gas recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Lintonbon, R.F.; Shore, D.

    1981-06-02

    A waste gas recovery system employs a compressor which takes in raw waste gas from an inlet knock-out drum and passes compressed gas through a heat exchanger to an outlet knock-out drum. The temperature at the outlet of the compressor is sensed by a device which operates valves to inject liquid coolant into the compressor inlet and to re-circulate gas back from the outlet of the outlet knock-out drum to inhibit an excessive temperature rise. A pressure-sensing device senses the pressure of the gas passing into the compressor and controls both the speed of the compressor and an adjustable throttle valve to regulate the gas flow. The throttle valve is closed automatically should there be a fall in the pressure of the gas at the inlet below a safe level. In this event, further pressure-sensing devices act additionally to close the recirculating gas valve and a further valve in the main inlet flow path to reliably isolate the compressor.

  12. Gas sensing in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, M A; Hallem, E A

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all animals are capable of sensing changes in environmental oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, which can signal the presence of food, pathogens, conspecifics, predators, or hosts. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model system for the study of gas sensing. C. elegans detects changes in O2 and CO2 levels and integrates information about ambient gas levels with other internal and external cues to generate context-appropriate behavioral responses. Due to its small nervous system and amenability to genetic and genomic analyses, the functional properties of its gas-sensing microcircuits can be dissected with single-cell resolution, and signaling molecules and natural genetic variations that modulate gas responses can be identified. Here, we discuss the neural basis of gas sensing in C. elegans, and highlight changes in gas-evoked behaviors in the context of other sensory cues and natural genetic variations. We also discuss gas sensing in other free-living nematodes and parasitic nematodes, focusing on how gas-sensing behavior has evolved to mediate species-specific behavioral requirements. PMID:24906953

  13. Small Gas Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    Instructional materials are provided for a small gas engine course. A list of objectives appears first, followed by a list of internal parts and skills/competencies related to those parts for engine work, ignition and electrical systems, fuel system, crankcase lubrication system, arc welding skills, and gas welding skills. Outlines are provided…

  14. STACK GAS REHEAT EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of technical and economic evaluations of stack gas reheat (SGR) following wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired power plants. The evaluations were based on information from literature and a survey of FGD users, vendors, and architect/engineer ...

  15. Standard gas hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Stan

    1995-01-01

    The Sierra College Space Technology Program is currently building their third GAS payload in addition to a small satellite. The project is supported by an ARPA/TRP grant. One aspect of the grant is the design of standard hardware for Get Away Specials (GAS) payloads. A standard structure has been designed and work is progressing on a standard battery box and computer.

  16. Fission gas detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  17. Gas Detectors, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The report contains annotated references on gas detectors compiled from the Defense Documentation Center's data bank. The range of the topics deals with detection of toxic propellants, odors, gas leaks, oxygen, etc. Included with the bibliographic reference are the corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, and title indexes. (Author/JR)

  18. Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels

    DOEpatents

    Osher, J.L.

    Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.

  19. Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels

    DOEpatents

    Osher, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.

  20. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, O.M.

    1987-11-10

    An improved process for converting all natural gas hydrocarbon components with carbon numbers of 1 to 4 into liquid hydrocarbons with carbon numbers equal to or greater than 5, and into a hydrogen-rich gaseous by-product which is described comprising the following steps: A. Splitting the natural gas feed into a rich gas stream comprising C/sub 2/, C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons and a lean gas stream comprising C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/ hydrocarbons; B. Catalytically converting the rich gas stream in a catalytic bed reactor in which the gas-suspended solid phase is a catalyst maintained at a temperature not exceeding 600/sup 0/C.; Separating the gaseous effluent from the catalytic bed reactor into (1) a hydrogen-rich stream; (2) a lean gas stream comprising hydrogen, C/sub 1/ and C/sub 2/ hydrocarbons, (3) a rich gas stream comprising C/sub 2/ and C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons and (4) a liquid product stream comprising C/sub 5/ + hydrocarbons; D. Pre-heating all lean gas streams, including recycle, in a furnace; E. Transferring the catalyst into a short residence time reactor; F. Reacting an ionized plasma derived from the hydrogen stream with the pre-heated lean gas stream; G. Separating the gas-solid stream resulting from the reaction into a spent catalyst phase stream and a gaseous effluent stream; H. Separating the gaseous effluent stream from the disengagement means into four streams; I. Regenerating the spent catalyst stream in a regenerator by combustion of the carbon build-up on the spent catalyst in an oxidizing gas stream; J. Transferring the regenerated catalyst back into the catalytic bed reactor and into the short residence time reactor; K. Recycling all rich gas streams obtained in steps C and H back to the catalytic bed reactor; L. Recycling the lean gas stream obtained in step H back to the pre-heating furnace of step D.

  1. Supersonic gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Novaresi, Mark A.; Cornelius, Charles C.

    2007-11-13

    A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by the use of a pre-swirl compressor, and using a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the intermediate pressure gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor back to the inlet of the pre-swirl compressor. Inlet guide vanes to the compression ramp enhance overall efficiency.

  2. Fastrac Gas Generator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tomas E.; Dennis, Jay

    1999-01-01

    A rocket engine gas generator component development test was recently conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This gas generator was intended to power a rocket engine turbopump by the combustion of Lox and RP-1. The testing demonstrated design requirements for start sequence, wall compatibility, performance, and stable combustion. During testing the gas generator injector was modified to improve distribution of outer wall coolant and the igniter boss was modified to investigate the use of a pyrotechnic igniter, Expected chamber pressure oscillations at longitudinal acoustic modes were measured for three different chamber lengths tested. High amplitude discrete oscillations occurred in the chamber-alone configurations when chamber acoustic modes coupled with feed-system acoustics modes. For the full gas generator configuration, which included the turbine inlet manifold simulator, high amplitude oscillations occurred only at off-design very low power levels. This testing led to a successful gas generator design for the Fastrac 60,000 lb thrust engine.

  3. HIGH PRESSURE GAS REGULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Ramage, R.W.

    1962-05-01

    A gas regulator operating on the piston and feedback principle is described. The device is particularly suitable for the delicate regulation of high pressure, i.e., 10,000 psi and above, gas sources, as well as being perfectly adaptable for use on gas supplies as low as 50 psi. The piston is adjustably connected to a needle valve and the movement of the piston regulates the flow of gas from the needle valve. The gas output is obtained from the needle valve. Output pressure is sampled by a piston feedback means which, in turn, regulates the movement of the main piston. When the output is other than the desired value, the feedback system initiates movement of the main piston to allow the output pressure to be corrected or to remain constant. (AEC)

  4. Residual gas analyzer calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilienkamp, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    A technique which employs known gas mixtures to calibrate the residual gas analyzer (RGA) is described. The mass spectra from the RGA are recorded for each gas mixture. This mass spectra data and the mixture composition data each form a matrix. From the two matrices the calibration matrix may be computed. The matrix mathematics requires the number of calibration gas mixtures be equal to or greater than the number of gases included in the calibration. This technique was evaluated using a mathematical model of an RGA to generate the mass spectra. This model included shot noise errors in the mass spectra. Errors in the gas concentrations were also included in the valuation. The effects of these errors was studied by varying their magnitudes and comparing the resulting calibrations. Several methods of evaluating an actual calibration are presented. The effects of the number of gases in then, the composition of the calibration mixture, and the number of mixtures used are discussed.

  5. Cryoresistive gas insulated line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Kouno, T.

    An insulation strength of more than 16 kV mm -1 has been realized using nitrogen gas at 133 K and 0.4 MPa with the application of a.c. and impulse voltages. A cryoresistive gas insulated line (CRGIL) using nitrogen gas is proposed on the basis of the measured insulation strength. An efficient method for use of the cooling heat of liquefied natural gas is also proposed so that no refrigerator is required and the cost of cooling is reduced. The CRGIL has the advantages of having a large current carrying capacity, small power loss and small capacitance. Moreover, a given transmission capacity is achieved by a CRGIL whose rated voltage is about half that in a conventional gas insulated line.

  6. Eastern Gas Shales Project

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP), the DOE study to obtain reliable estimates of economically recoverable gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin, has determined that between 20 and 50 TCF of gas can be recovered from the region. The EGSP final report states that the expected (mean) total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 TCF, with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well spacing. If shooting technology is used and 160-acre well spacing maintained a 95% probability exists that the total recoverable gas from Appalachian basin Devonian shale is between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF.

  7. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    DOEpatents

    Bravo, Jose Luis; Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-04-03

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  8. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.; Hayden, M.; Radebaugh, R.; Wollan, J.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project sought to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It should have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The thermoacoustic natural-gas liquefier (TANGL) is based on our recent invention of the first no-moving-parts cryogenic refrigerator. In short, our invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat, with no moving parts. The required apparatus comprises nothing more than heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. Its initial experimental success in a small size lead us to propose a more ambitious application: large-energy liquefaction of natural gas, using combustion of natural gas as the energy source. TANGL was designed to be maintenance-free, inexpensive, portable, and environmentally benign.

  9. Fastrac Gas Generator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tomas E.; Dennis, Jay

    2001-01-01

    A rocket engine gas generator component development test was recently conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This gas generator is intended to power a rocket engine turbopump by the combustion of Lox and RP-1. The testing demonstrated design requirements for start sequence, wall compatibility, performance, and stable combustion. During testing the gas generator injector was modified to improve distribution of outer wall coolant and the igniter boss was modified to investigate the use of a pyrotechnic igniter. Expected chamber pressure oscillations at longitudinal acoustic mode were measured for three different chamber lengths tested. High amplitude discrete oscillations resulted in the chamber-alone configurations when chamber acoustic modes coupled with feed-system acoustics modes. For the full gas generator configuration, which included a turbine inlet manifold, high amplitude oscillations occurred only at off-design very low power levels. This testing led to a successful gas generator design for the Fastrac 60,000 lb thrust engine.

  10. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison

    2005-09-14

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

  11. Gas flow control valve

    SciTech Connect

    Phlipot, J.R.; Pinkston, S.R.; Nurre, H.

    1988-02-09

    A compact gas flow control valve is described comprising a valve body having a first, rotor cavity-defining portion and a second cover portion covering the rotor cavity, at least one of the body portions including inlet means communicating with the rotor chamber for receiving gas under pressure for providing the gas to the rotor chamber, at least one of the body portions including outlet means for delivery of the gas by the flow control valve, a rotor within the rotor cavity, the rotor including a flat surface, a flow control plate carried by the rotor, the flow control plate covering and lying against the flat surface of the rotor, the rotor having ports opening through the rotor surface, the ports being of sufficiently large size as not to limit the flow of the gas therethrough. The flow control plate comprises a thin, flat metal disc provided with gas flow control orifices extending therethrough and spaced circumferentially around the disc and in registry with respective ones of the ports, the rotor being of substantially greater thickness than the disc, the gas flow control being of different sizes and passage means for providing communication between the outlet means and at least a selected one of the flow control plate origices, selector means for orienting the rotor to permit flow only through selected flow control plate orifices and a corresponding rotor port for delivery by the outlet means.

  12. Hydrodynamic gas mixture separation

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyarov, A.A.

    1982-02-10

    The separation of gas mixtures is the basis of many chemical, petrochemical, and gas processes. Classical separation methods (absorption, adsorption, condensation, and freezing) require cumbersome and complex equipment. No adequate solution is provided by the cheapening and simplification of gas-processing apparatus and separation methods by hydration and diffusion. For example, an apparatus for extracting helium from natural gas by diffusion has a throughput of gas containing 0.45% helium of 117,000 m/sup 3//h and in the first stage has teflon membranes working at a pressure difference of 63.3x10/sup 5/ Pa of area 79,000 m/sup 2/, and the specific cost of the apparatus was 8500 dollars per m/sup 3//h of helium. Therefore, vigorous studies are being conducted on new ways of efficient separation of gas mixtures that are cheaper and simpler. Here we consider a novel method of physically essentially reversible separation of gas mixtures, which involves some features of single-phase supersonic flows.

  13. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC, Enterprise Field Services, LLC; Notice of Application March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas...

  14. The Gorgon gas field

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, L.J.; Sayers, M.J.; Tait, A.M. )

    1990-09-01

    The Gorgon gas field was discovered by West Australian Petroleum Pty Limited (WAPET) in 1980 with the 1 Gorgon well, and appraised by 1 North Gorgon in 1982 and 1 Central Gorgon in 1983. The gas field is situated on the North West Shelf of Western Australia, 65 km northwest of WAPET's Barrow Island oil field, itself 65 km offshore. The Gorgon gas field is at the southwestern end of the Rankin Platform, which contains several giant gas fields. Water depth at the Gorgon gas field is around 250 m. The top of the Triassic Mungaroo Formation reservoir sequence is at approximately 3,500 m subsea. Individual meander-belt sandstones are up to 50 m thick and occur either interbedded with interchannel claystones or stacked to form sand bodies up to 220 m thick. The Triassic sediments form a tilted horst sealed by Cretaceous Barrow Group shales. Gross gas columns and net gas pays in the 1 Gorgon, 1 Central Gorgon, and 1 North Gorgon wells are 409 and 106 m, 441 and 45 m, and 761 and 136 m, respectively. The field is 5 km wide and at least 30 km long. Gas reserves are estimated at 232 {times} 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}, of which around 17% is carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The reservoir sandstones have porosities of 15 to 20% and permeabilities from tens to thousands of millidarcys. Individual zones have flowed gas at rates of up to 1.06 million m{sup 3}/day through a 31.75 mm choke.

  15. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  16. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-07-06

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission & distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1 to June 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract agreements for the eight projects selected for cofunding at the February 2006 GSTC Meeting; (2) Compiling and distributing the three 2004 project final reports to the GSTC Full members; (3) Develop template, compile listserv, and draft first GSTC Insider online newsletter; (4) Continue membership recruitment; (5) Identify projects and finalize agenda for the fall GSTC/AGA Underground Storage Committee Technology Transfer

  17. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  18. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  19. Western Gas Sands Subprogram

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    The Western Gas Sands Subprogram (WGSS) is a multidisciplinary research effort within the US Department of Energy program on Unconventional Gas Recovery. The subprogram, managed by DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is directed towards the development of tight (very low permeability) lenticular gas sands in the western United States. The purpose of the subprogram is to demonstrate the feasibility of economically producing natural gas from low-permeability reservoirs. The subprogram has two broad goals: (1) to reduce the uncertainty of the reservoir production potential and (2) to improve the extraction technology. With input from the gas industry, universities, and geologic and engineering consulting firms, the WGSS was broadened to include more fundamental research and development. Consequently, for the last five years it has focused on improving diagnostic instrumentation, geophysical and engineering interpretation, and stimulation techniques. Integrated geologic studies of the three priority basins containing tight sands and selected by DOE as research targets have also been pursued as part of this new effort. To date, the following tentative conclusions have evolved: Permeability of the tight gas sands can be as much as three to four orders of magnitude lower than conventional gas deposits. Nineteen western geologic basins and trends containing significant amounts of tight gas have been identified. Gas resources in the priority geologic basins are Piceance Basin, 49 tcf., Uinta Basin, 20 tcf., and Greater Green River Basin, 136 tcf. The presence of natural micro-fractures within the production zone of a reservoir and the effective propped length of hydraulically-induced fractures are the critical parameters for successful development of tight sand resources. 8 figures.

  20. Western gas sands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of economically producing natural gas from low-permeability reservoirs. Two broad research goals have been defined: (1) reducing the uncertainty of the reservoir production potential, and (2) improving the extraction technology. These goals are being pursued by conducting research and encouraging industrial efforts in developing the necessary technology, including: (1) providing fundamental research into the nature of tight, lenticular gas sands and the technologies for diagnosing and developing them: (2) developing and verifying the technology for effective gas production; and (3) promoting the transfer of research products and technology advances to the gas industry in usable forms. The focus of the research for the last several years has been improving diagnostic instrumentation for reservoir and stimulation performance evaluation, geophysical and engineering interpretation, and stimulation techniques. Integrated geologic studies of three basins containing tight lenticular sands, which were selected by DOE as priority research targets, have also been pursued as part of this new effort. To date, the following tentative conclusions have been formed: Permeability of the tight gas sands can be as much as three to four orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional gas deposits. Nineteen western geologic basins and trends containing significant volumes of tight gas have been identified. Gas resources in the priority geologic basins have been estimated - Piceance Basin 49 Tcf.; Greater Green River Basin, 136 Tcf.; Uinta Basin, 20 Tcf. Presence of natural micro-fractures within a reservoir and the effective propped length of hydraulically induced fratures are the critical parameters for successful development of tight sand resources. Stimulation technology at the present time is insufficient to efficiently recover gas from lenticular tight reservoirs. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Deep source gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    Three separate emplacement concepts could explain the occurrence of gas at extreme depths: abiogenesis (a primordial, nonbiologic origin source); subducted, organic-origin gas (involving the deep, tectonic subduction emplacement of hydrocarbon-generating ocean sediments); and deep sedimentary basin gas (the more conventional emplacement of sedimentary rocks by deep downwarping of the Earth's crust). Of these concepts, Deep Source Gas research focuses on the subducted, organic-origin concept. The purpose of Deep Source Gas research is to verify natural gas arising from depths in excess of 30,000 feet, to relate these occurrences to conceptual models, to define the limits of target areas, to quantify the resource, and to determine the significance of the gas to the nation's reserves. The research emphasizes an Earth science study (geology, geochemistry, and geophysics) of the Cordilleran Geologic Province of western North America. This area is considered a prospective source largely because of known and suspected plate tectonic structures and their youthful emplacement, which increase the likelihood of a timely entrapment of deep-source generated hydrocarbons. Detailed geochemical studies indicate that the deep-source-gas generating capacity of the Aleutian Trench area of southern Alaska is high. Furthermore, geophysical studies show that an apparent fossil subduction zone exists in western Washington. This zone appears to have very thick sedimentary rock units, the existence of which will be evaluated through a more detailed seismic study and possibly through drilling activities. Structural observations made in the northern Brooks Range and central Alaskan Range indicate that overthrusting and compressional features may serve as large-scale target areas for deep source gas generation and occurrence. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Gas treating process

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, R.H.

    1990-01-09

    This patent describes a process for preventing oxygen from deactivating a catalyst susceptible to deactivation by oxygen. It comprises: scavenging oxygen contained in a feed gas stream comprising carbon monoxide and water vapor as reactant gases in the presence of an oxidation catalyst under conditions which remove essentially all of the oxygen by reaction with hydrogen sulfide and contacting the resultant gas stream, containing the reactants but essentially free of oxygen, with a catalyst susceptible to deactivation by oxygen but active for the water gas shift reaction. The contacting being under conditions resulting in the conversion of at least some of the carbon monoxide and water vapor to hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

  3. Gas only nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, William Theodore; Fitts, David Orus; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  4. Supersonic gas jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulov, V. G.

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of the current state of research in the gas dynamics of jet flows. In particular, attention is given to free supersonic jets and to the interaction of supersonic jets with one another and with obstacles under stationary and nonstationary flow conditions. Papers are presented on a method for calculating a weakly anisotropic supersonic turbulent jet in a subsonic slipstream; composite supersonic jets; the principal gas-dynamic characteristics of the processes occurring in gas-jet-driven shock-wave generators; and the construction of models for supersonic jet flows. For individual items see A84-16902 to A84-16918

  5. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOEpatents

    Gay, D.D.

    1985-02-02

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  6. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Don D.

    1986-01-01

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one end and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  7. Gas and Shadow Swing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chi-Hung; Lai, Mei-Yi; Liu, Che-Wei; Huang, Shiang-Yin; Lin, Che-Yu; Yeh, Jeng-Sheng

    In our digital art, we design a folding fan as an interactive magic device. You can use it to play with gas around the world of illusions. Although gas could not be seen in our real world, we still want to interact with it in our illusions by the element of bubble shadows. Opening and swinging the folding fan can blow the bubble shadows away; closing and swinging it can break bubbles. If the magic fan touches the shadow of gas, the bubble shadows will explode and release colorful particles to surround you. Those actions are controlled and located by our circuits with Arduino board.

  8. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  9. Hydrogen rich gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Rupe, J. H.; Kushida, R. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A process and apparatus is described for producing a hydrogen rich gas by injecting air and hydrocarbon fuel at one end of a cylindrically shaped chamber to form a mixture and igniting the mixture to provide hot combustion gases by partial oxidation of the hydrocarbon fuel. The combustion gases move away from the ignition region to another region where water is injected to be turned into steam by the hot combustion gases. The steam which is formed mixes with the hot gases to yield a uniform hot gas whereby a steam reforming reaction with the hydrocarbon fuel takes place to produce a hydrogen rich gas.

  10. INTENSE ENERGETIC GAS DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-03-01

    A method and apparatus for initiating and sustaining an energetic gas arc discharge are described. A hollow cathode and a hollow anode are provided. By regulating the rate of gas flow into the interior of the cathode, the arc discharge is caused to run from the inner surface of the cathode with the result that adequate space-charge neutralization is provided inside the cathode but not in the main arc volume. Thus, the gas fed to the cathode is substantially completely ionized before it leaves the cathode, with the result that an energetic arc discharge can be maintained at lower operating pressures.

  11. Gas pipe explorer robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

  12. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Natural gas marketing and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Overview of the natural gas industry; Federal regulation of marketing and transportation; State regulation of transportation; Fundamentals of gas marketing contracts; Gas marketing options and strategies; End user agreements; Transportation on interstate pipelines; Administration of natural gas contracts; Structuring transactions with the nonconventional source fuels credit; Take-or-pay wars- a cautionary analysis for the future; Antitrust pitfalls in the natural gas industry; Producer imbalances; Natural gas futures for the complete novice; State non-utility regulation of production, transportation and marketing; Natural gas processing agreements and Disproportionate sales, gas balancing, and accounting to royalty owners.

  14. Fundamentals of gas measurement III

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, J.W.

    1995-12-01

    Gas measurement people are concerned with gas laws. To become proficient in all phases of gas measurement, one must fully understand what natural gas is and the theory of its properties. The theories about natural gas properties are the gas laws, and their application is essential to gas measurement. Quantities of natural gas for custody transfer are stated in terms of standard cubic feet. To arrive at standard cubic feet from actual flowing conditions requires application of correction factors that are defined by the as laws.

  15. Gas-separation process

    DOEpatents

    Toy, Lora G.; Pinnau, Ingo; Baker, Richard W.

    1994-01-01

    A process for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material.

  16. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  17. Gas from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, T.

    1980-12-01

    The bioenergy anaerobic system, processes liquid wastes from the food and drink industry and produces a high grade methane rich gas. Some of the main design features and advantages of the system are described.

  18. Gas processing handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Brief details are given of processes including: BGC-Lurgi slagging gasification, COGAS, Exxon catalytic coal gasification, FW-Stoic 2-stage, GI two stage, HYGAS, Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi pressure gasification, Saarberg-Otto, Shell, Texaco, U-Gas, W-D.IGI, Wellman-Galusha, Westinghouse, and Winkler coal gasification processes; the Rectisol process; the Catacarb and the Benfield processes for removing CO/SUB/2, H/SUB/2s and COS from gases produced by the partial oxidation of coal; the selectamine DD, Selexol solvent, and Sulfinol gas cleaning processes; the sulphur-tolerant shift (SSK) process; and the Super-meth process for the production of high-Btu gas from synthesis gas.

  19. WebGasEOS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-10-01

    WebGasEOS provides quick, user-friendly access to real gas physical properties. Using the real gas properties modules of the TOUGH-Fx project, WebGasEOS allows any user, though a web- based application, to define a multicornponent system, specify temperature and pressure, select an equation of state, and compute volumetric, thermodynamic, and fluid properties. Additional functions allow the inclusion of gaseous or liquid water, with or without added salts. The user may choose the format of the results, performmore » repeat calculations or calculations over a range of temperature and pressure, or vary compositions by simply changing form parameters, The application is publicly available on the internet and can be used at any time by anyone with a standards-compliant web browser.« less

  20. Safer Liquid Natural Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After the disaster of Staten Island in 1973 where 40 people were killed repairing a liquid natural gas storage tank, the New York Fire Commissioner requested NASA's help in drawing up a comprehensive plan to cover the design, construction, and operation of liquid natural gas facilities. Two programs are underway. The first transfers comprehensive risk management techniques and procedures which take the form of an instruction document that includes determining liquid-gas risks through engineering analysis and tests, controlling these risks by setting up redundant fail safe techniques, and establishing criteria calling for decisions that eliminate or accept certain risks. The second program prepares a liquid gas safety manual (the first of its kind).

  1. Gas compression apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terp, L. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus for transferring gas from a first container to a second container of higher pressure was devised. A free-piston compressor having a driving piston and cylinder, and a smaller diameter driven piston and cylinder, comprise the apparatus. A rod member connecting the driving and driven pistons functions for mutual reciprocation in the respective cylinders. A conduit may be provided for supplying gas to the driven cylinder from the first container. Also provided is apparatus for introducing gas to the driving piston, to compress gas by the driven piston for transfer to the second higher pressure container. The system is useful in transferring spacecraft cabin oxygen into higher pressure containers for use in extravehicular activities.

  2. Gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Roberts, II, William Byron

    2016-03-08

    A gas turbine engine with a compressor rotor having compressor impulse blades that delivers gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes a one or more aerodynamic ducts that each have a converging portion and a diverging portion for deceleration of the selected gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure oxidant containing gas to flameholders. The flameholders may be provided as trapped vortex combustors, for combustion of a fuel to produce hot pressurized combustion gases. The hot pressurized combustion gases are choked before passing out of an aerodynamic duct to a turbine. Work is recovered in a turbine by expanding the combustion gases through impulse blades. By balancing the axial loading on compressor impulse blades and turbine impulse blades, asymmetrical thrust is minimized or avoided.

  3. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  4. High Velocity Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  5. Natural Gas Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the Cass (ND) and Clay (MN) Emergency Planning Partnerships. Adapted with funding provided by Fargo Cass Public Health through the Cities Readiness Initiative (CRI) English – Natural Gas Emergencies - Last ...

  6. Paraelectric gas flow accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Daniel M. (Inventor); Wilkinson, Stephen P. (Inventor); Roth, J. Reece (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A substrate is configured with first and second sets of electrodes, where the second set of electrodes is positioned asymmetrically between the first set of electrodes. When a RF voltage is applied to the electrodes sufficient to generate a discharge plasma (e.g., a one-atmosphere uniform glow discharge plasma) in the gas adjacent to the substrate, the asymmetry in the electrode configuration results in force being applied to the active species in the plasma and in turn to the neutral background gas. Depending on the relative orientation of the electrodes to the gas, the present invention can be used to accelerate or decelerate the gas. The present invention has many potential applications, including increasing or decreasing aerodynamic drag or turbulence, and controlling the flow of active and/or neutral species for such uses as flow separation, altering heat flow, plasma cleaning, sterilization, deposition, etching, or alteration in wettability, printability, and/or adhesion.

  7. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Korosy, L.B.; Senatore, P.J.

    1982-12-28

    A regenerative process for the desulfurization of gas containing from about 100 ppm to about 30 volume percent sulfur dioxide in which the gas is contacted at from about 15/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/C with an about 0.1 molar to saturated aqueous solution of potassium citrate at a ph of from about 3 to 9 and the contacted solution is then heated to strip sulfur dioxide therefrom.

  8. Gas bubble detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Bruce E. (Inventor); Burchfield, David E. (Inventor); Hagey, John M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A gas bubble detector having a modulated IR source focused through a bandpass filter onto a venturi, formed in a sample tube, to illuminate the venturi with modulated filtered IR to detect the presence of gas bubbles as small as 0.01 cm or about 0.004 in diameter in liquid flowing through the venturi. Means are provided to determine the size of any detected bubble and to provide an alarm in the absence of liquid in the sample tube.

  9. Gas compression trends

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, L.

    1996-06-01

    This paper reviews the new technologies available for compressors to the natural gas industry. As natural gas fields start to have production declines, new equipment is needed to maintain the economic viability of the field. This paper discusses new advances in computerized control and remote control of compressors, the development of the compressor sales and rental market, and the new emission standards and efficiency of new equipment upgrades.

  10. Gas chromatography in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akapo, S. O.; Dimandja, J. M.; Kojiro, D. R.; Valentin, J. R.; Carle, G. C.

    1999-01-01

    Gas chromatography has proven to be a very useful analytical technique for in situ analysis of extraterrestrial environments as demonstrated by its successful operation on spacecraft missions to Mars and Venus. The technique is also one of the six scientific instruments aboard the Huygens probe to explore Titan's atmosphere and surface. A review of gas chromatography in previous space missions and some recent developments in the current environment of fiscal constraints and payload size limitations are presented.

  11. Gas gun dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2013-09-01

    The mechanics and thermodynamics of one- and two-stage gas guns are developed. Very high projectile muzzle speed can be obtained by the two-stage version. The physics of simple gas guns, such as air rifles, is accessible to undergraduates and the same level of presentation is used here to understand more complex designs. Numerical solutions to the equations of motion are shown, along with insightful analytic approximations.

  12. Methanol simplifies gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Minkkinen, A.; Jonchere, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    Recent development of a simple single solvent technology goes far to meet the complete gas processing needs. The use of methanol, as practiced in the IPFEXOL process, where it is used not only as a hydrate inhibitor and antifreeze agent but as an acid gas extraction solvent makes the complete gas processing scheme simple and probably the most cost effective as well. This paper presents several gas processing applications where water, hydrocarbon liquids and acid gases are removed from natural wellhead production gases. Water and hydrocarbon liquids removal is achieved to the extent necessary to make a pipeline transportable gas or meet downstream cryogenic processing demands. These are illustrated with recent applications of the IFPEX-1 process successfully operating today in North America and the Far East. A recent North Sea offshore project is highlighted showing the particular advantages in offshore applications. For the removal of water and hydrocarbon liquids together with a substantial quantity of not only CO{sub 2} but H{sub 2}S, the most complete methanol use scheme is presented. This is illustrated with the development of an advanced version of the IFPEX-2 process containing some innovative but simple equipment concepts which yields high pressure dry acid gases for reinjection or a high quality acid gas destined to Claus type sulfur recovery.

  13. Future natural gas supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled “U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000,” released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

  14. Retained gas inventory comparison

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON, W.B.

    1999-05-18

    Gas volume data derived from four different analytical methods were collected and analyzed for comparison to volumes originally used in the technical basis for the Basis for Interim Operations (BIO). The original volumes came from Hodgson (1996) listed in the reference section of this document. Hodgson (1996) screened all 177 single and double-shell tanks for the presence of trapped gas in waste via two analytical methods: Surface Level Rise (SLR), and Barometric Pressure Effect (BPE). More recent gas volume projections have been calculated using different analytical techniques along with updates to the parameters used as input to the SLR and BPE models. Gas volumes derived from new analytical instruments include those as measured by the Void Fraction Instrument (VFI) and Retained Gas Sampler (RGS). The results of this comparison demonstrate that the original retained gas volumes of Hodgson (1996) used as a technical basis in developing the BIO were conservative, and were conservative from a safety analysis standpoint. These results represent only comparisons to the original reported volumes using the limited set of newly acquired data that is available.

  15. Soap film gas flowmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Lalin, H.S.; Bermudez, J.E.; Fleming, W.T.

    1987-09-08

    A soap film gas flowmeter is described comprising: a flow tube having a hollow body with opposite open ends through which a soap film is propelled and a first closed chamber housing a soap solution. It also includes means for supporting the flow tube in a substantially vertical position with the open bottom end of the flow tube disposed in the first chamber above the soap solution; a second closed chamber into which the open top end of the flow tube extends and gas inlet means for introducing gas into the first chamber at a flow rate to be measured using the flowmeters. A gas exit means is included for discharging the gas introduced into the first chamber through the second chamber. Plus there are means for generating a single soap bubble from the soap solution substantially at the bottom end of the flow tube and a relatively large opening in the flowtube for providing an open passageway for inlet gas to pass through the flowtube when the bottom open end of the flowtube is covered by the soap solution.

  16. Hanford gas dispersion analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, R.K.; Travis, J.R.

    1994-07-01

    An analysis was performed to verify the design of a waste gas exhauster for use in support of rotary core sampling activities at the Westinghouse Hanford Waste Tank Farm. The exhauster was designed to remove waste gases from waste storage tanks during the rotary core drilling process of the solid materials in the tank. Some of the waste gases potentially are very hazardous and must be monitored during the exhauster`s operation. If the toxic gas concentrations in specific areas near the exhauster exceed minimum Threshold Limit Values (TLVs), personnel must be excluded from the area. The exhauster stack height is of interest because an increase in stack height will alter the gas concentrations at the critical locations. The exhaust stack is currently {approximately}4.6 m (15 ft) high. An equipment operator will be located within a 6.1 m (20 ft) radius of the exhaust stack, and his/her head will be at an elevation 3.7 m (12 ft) above ground level (AGL). Therefore, the maximum exhaust gas concentrations at this location must be below the TLV for the toxic gases. Also, the gas concentrations must be within the TLV at a 61 m (200 ft) radius from the stack. If the calculated gas concentrations are above the TLV, where the operator is working below the stack at the 61 m (200 ft) radius location, the stack height may need to be increased.

  17. Gas sampling system for reactive gas-solid mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Daum, Edward D.; Downs, William; Jankura, Bryan J.; McCoury, Jr., John M.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sampling gas containing a reactive particulate solid phase flowing through a duct and for communicating a representative sample to a gas analyzer. A sample probe sheath 32 with an angular opening 34 extends vertically into a sample gas duct 30. The angular opening 34 is opposite the gas flow. A gas sampling probe 36 concentrically located within sheath 32 along with calibration probe 40 partly extends in the sheath 32. Calibration probe 40 extends further in the sheath 32 than gas sampling probe 36 for purging the probe sheath area with a calibration gas during calibration.

  18. Gas sampling system for reactive gas-solid mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Daum, Edward D.; Downs, William; Jankura, Bryan J.; McCoury, Jr., John M.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sampling a gas containing a reactive particulate solid phase flowing through a duct and for communicating a representative sample to a gas analyzer. A sample probe sheath 32 with an angular opening 34 extends vertically into a sample gas duct 30. The angular opening 34 is opposite the gas flow. A gas sampling probe 36 concentrically located within sheath 32 along with calibration probe 40 partly extend in the sheath 32. Calibration probe 40 extends further in the sheath 32 than gas sampling probe 36 for purging the probe sheath area with a calibration gas during calibration.

  19. Gasotransmitters, poisons, and antimicrobials: it's a gas, gas, gas!

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We review recent examples of the burgeoning literature on three gases that have major impacts in biology and microbiology. NO, CO and H2S are now co-classified as endogenous gasotransmitters with profound effects on mammalian physiology and, potentially, major implications in therapeutic applications. All are well known to be toxic yet, at tiny concentrations in human and cell biology, play key signalling and regulatory functions. All may also be endogenously generated in microbes. NO and H2S share the property of being biochemically detoxified, yet are beneficial in resisting the bactericidal properties of antibiotics. The mechanism underlying this protection is currently under debate. CO, in contrast, is not readily removed; mounting evidence shows that CO, and especially organic donor compounds that release the gas in biological environments, are themselves effective, novel antimicrobial agents. PMID:23967379

  20. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-09-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created-the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2006 to September 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: {lg_bullet} Subaward contracts for all 2006 GSTC projects completed; {lg_bullet} Implement a formal project mentoring process by a mentor team; {lg_bullet} Upcoming Technology Transfer meetings: {sm_bullet} Finalize agenda for the American Gas Association Fall Underground Storage Committee/GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting in San Francisco, CA. on October 4, 2006; {sm_bullet} Identify projects and finalize agenda for the Fall GSTC Technology

  1. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-07-15

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with

  2. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLGOY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-23

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for

  3. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-17

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for

  4. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  5. Isothermal-Gas-Transfer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Don I.

    1989-01-01

    Isothermal Gas Transfer program (GASXFER) solves variety of problems in which gas or gas mixture transferred between two containers. Special features of program include ease of entering data and ease of obtaining output. Program displays, prints, or graphs complete pressure history of each gas as function of time. Written in Lotus Symphony macrolanguage.

  6. Gas intrusion into SPR caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkebein, T.E.; Bauer, S.J.; Ehgartner, B.L.; Linn, J.K.; Neal, J.T.; Todd, J.L.; Kuhlman, P.S.; Gniady, C.T.; Giles, H.N.

    1995-12-01

    The conditions and occurrence of gas in crude oil stored in Strategic Petroleum Reserve, SPR, caverns is characterized in this report. Many caverns in the SPR show that gas has intruded into the oil from the surrounding salt dome. Historical evidence and the analyses presented here suggest that gas will continue to intrude into many SPR caverns in the future. In considering why only some caverns contain gas, it is concluded that the naturally occurring spatial variability in salt permeability can explain the range of gas content measured in SPR caverns. Further, it is not possible to make a one-to-one correlation between specific geologic phenomena and the occurrence of gas in salt caverns. However, gas is concluded to be petrogenic in origin. Consequently, attempts have been made to associate the occurrence of gas with salt inhomogeneities including anomalies and other structural features. Two scenarios for actual gas intrusion into caverns were investigated for consistency with existing information. These scenarios are gas release during leaching and gas permeation through salt. Of these mechanisms, the greater consistency comes from the belief that gas permeates to caverns through the salt. A review of historical operating data for five Bryan Mound caverns loosely supports the hypothesis that higher operating pressures reduce gas intrusion into caverns. This conclusion supports a permeability intrusion mechanism. Further, it provides justification for operating the caverns near maximum operating pressure to minimize gas intrusion. Historical gas intrusion rates and estimates of future gas intrusion are given for all caverns.

  7. Natural gas: An international perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Mabro, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book is concerned with: the prospects for trade in Western Europe, Japan, the USA and the Third World; the controversial gas pricing issue; and the influence of politics on gas investment and trade. The difficulties of devising fair and enforceable gas contracts between producing and importing countries and the problems arising from government intervention in international negotiations on gas contracts are also considered.

  8. Gas cleaning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Newby, Richard Allen

    2006-06-06

    A gas cleaning system for removing at least a portion of contaminants, such as halides, sulfur, particulates, mercury, and others, from a synthesis gas (syngas). The gas cleaning system may include one or more filter vessels coupled in series for removing halides, particulates, and sulfur from the syngas. The gas cleaning system may be operated by receiving gas at a first temperature and pressure and dropping the temperature of the syngas as the gas flows through the system. The gas cleaning system may be used for an application requiring clean syngas, such as, but not limited to, fuel cell power generation, IGCC power generation, and chemical synthesis.

  9. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the ongoing

  10. Elements of gas contracts

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, J.

    1995-12-01

    The gas marketing scene has taken on a new look from the days of the {open_quotes}Long Term{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Life of Lease{close_quotes} Contracts. In the past natural gas was of ten sold direct from the wellhead or a producer-owned facility to a pipeline company at a flat rate price and the only parties involved were producer or seller and buyer. Today, the parties involved in the marketing process might include a gathering entity to gather gas at a central point and provide gathering, compression and/or dehydration services; multiple pipeline companies for transportation; sales representatives or marketing brokers to negotiate a sale of the available gas on a monthly basis; and purchasers or end users. New terms have also been introduced in the process such as: {open_quotes}LDC{close_quotes} (local distribution company), {open_quotes}FERC Order 636{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Price Delivered-to-Pipeline{close_quotes} and the various {open_quotes}levels of Service{close_quotes} under Gas Sales and Purchase Agreements. Four common levels of service are: {open_quotes}Firm{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Baseload{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Swing{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Baseload/Operational{close_quotes}. It is evident that current marketing plans often require a separate contract for each service or commitment. Contract contents vary greatly, but most contain the following elements.

  11. Geopolitics of natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-09

    With almost as many vital economic interests as there were attendees, two natural gas international conferences were held in North America during September and October, to share experience and forecasts. On September 26, the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) and the Calgary Chamber of Commerce sponsored the International Gas Markets Conference and drew 400 persons. And on October 5-6, at the University of Colorado at Boulder, USA, the International Research Center for Energy and Economic Development (ICEED) held its Tenth International Energy Conference on Economic and Political Issues of Natural Gas in International Trade, drawing some 200 experts. The latter seminar was preceded by a two-day seminar on Asian Energy Supplies and Requirements, which also featured natural gas in many of its presentations. To provide an overview of some of these pressing questions, Energy Detente reports on these two comprehensive seminars on natural gas. This issue also presents the fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices for the Eastern Hemisphere for November 1983.

  12. Gas-powered integration

    SciTech Connect

    Hawrylyshyn, G.

    1993-05-01

    Popularly known as the Brazil/Bolivia Gas Deal, the project consists of a 20-year agreement to supply Bolivian natural gas to heavily industrialized southern Brazil. This is an inter-regional undertaking comparable in scope and significance to pipeline projects in Europe and the gas networks between the USA and Canada and Mexico. The Brazil/Boliviz agreement call foe a 10-month period to obtain financing and 30 months to build the 1,376 mile main pipeline, a job that will be undertaken individually by each country within its territory. The pipelines will meet at the border in Corumba. Aside from the main gasline, the 20-year agreement will also require the laying of 1,184 kilometers (736 miles) of additional feeder and distribution pipelines in Brazil, raising the total pipe mileage to 3,389 kilometers. Then there is the need to build the whole infrastructure for gas distribution facilities and to switch to gas to power the equipment in thousands of industrial plants, commercial establishments and residences. The total investment in this undertaking is estimated to surpass US$10 billion.

  13. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1996-11-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to I kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than I nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and wave forms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. We have applied this technology to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. For example, we have developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia- designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > 1 kHz at > 100 kV/m E field.

  14. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to 1 kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than 1 nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and waveforms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and technology to practical systems antennas and bounded wave developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia-designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > Khz at > 100 kV/m E field.

  15. Oil and gas amass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Current estimates of future reserve growth of existing U.S. oil and gas fields are significantly larger than previous estimates, according to a new assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey. In fact, they may be twice as big as those estimated in a 1989 assessment. USGS Director Gordon Eaton largely attributes the nearly two-fold difference to "the use of newly available data from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA)." The new study estimates that 110 billion barrels of crude oil are "technically recoverable in the United States." This includes 20 billion barrels in "proved reserves," future growth of reserves of 60 billion barrels, undiscovered conventional resources between 23 and 40 barrels, and nearly 2 billion barrels from "unconventional" sources. Meanwhile, the study estimates that about 1,074 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of natural gas are recoverable, compared to about half that estimated in the 1989 assessment. The tally includes about 268 Tcf from undiscovered conventional accumulations, potential reserve growth in existing fields of about 322 Tcf, about 318 Tcf in continuous type accumulations in shales, sandstones, and chalks, and about 50 Tcf in coal beds. "This USGS assessment differs significantly from previous assessments because it includes more categories of oil and gas resources, including tight gas sandstones, coal bed gas and fractured shales," which required the USGS to develop new methods, Eaton explains.

  16. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wynn, Nicholas P; Fulton, Donald A.

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  17. GAS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Jefferson, S.

    1958-11-11

    An apparatus utilized in introducing tritium gas into envelope of a gas discharge device for the purpose f maintaining the discharge path in ionized condition is described. ln addition to the cathode and anode, the ischarge device contains a zirconium or tantalum ilament arranged for external excitation and a metallic seed containing tritium, and also arranged to have a current passed through it. Initially, the zirconium or tantalum filament is vaporized to deposit its material adjacent the main discharge region. Then the tritium gas is released and, due to its affinity for the first released material, it deposits in the region of the main discharge where it is most effective in maintaining the discharge path in an ionized condition.

  18. Chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the reactions of synthesis gas, many of which have been developed in the last few years. The subject matter is treated primarily from the point of view of chemicals manufacture. Although both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of synthesis gas are covered here, there is a bias towards the former mainly because recent developments largely involve homogeneous catalysis. Drawing extensively from both the journal and patent literature through the end of 1981, the book provides an overview of this developing area of chemistry. Contents: Glossary. Chapter 1. Introduction to Petrochemicals. 2. Mechanistic Principles. 3. Hydrocarbon Synthesis. 4. Olefin Hydroformulation. 5. Olefin Carbonylation and Related Reactions. 6. Methanol and Formaldehyde. 7. Methanol Carbonylation and Related Chemistry. 8. Nitrogen-Containing Systems. 9. Direct Conversion of Synthesis Gas to Oxygenates. 10. Summary-Directions for the Future.

  19. Gas flow through rotameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, H.; Escorza, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    Using data available for small rotameters that use spherical floats in gas flow, a linear relationship is derived. It is noted that the relationship provides a good fit for variable volumetric flow, density, and viscosity at constant flow height. With low Reynolds numbers (Re being less than 1), the product of the variable volumetric flow and the viscosity becomes constant; at high Reynolds numbers (Re being greater than 2000), the product of the variable volumetric flow and the square root of the density becomes constant. It is pointed out that the equation given here can be used to obtain an indirect calibration with any gas of known density and viscosity. The constancy of the product of the variable volumetric flow and viscosity at low variable volumetric flows is seen as suggesting the development of simple, inexpensive gas viscometers using rotameter technology.

  20. Gas-sensing optrode

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1988-04-12

    An optrode is provided for sensing dissolved gases or volatile components of a solution. A fiber optic is provided through which light from an associated light source is transmitted from a first end to a second end. A bubble forming means, such as a tube, is attached to the second end of the fiber optic, and an indicator material is disposed in cooperation with the bubble forming means adjacent to the second end of the fiber optic such that it is illuminated by light emanating from the second end. The bubble forming means causes a gas bubble to form whenever the optrode is immersed in the fluid. The gas bubble separates the indicator material from the fluid. Gases, or other volatile components, of the fluid are sensed as they diffuse across the gas bubble from the fluid to the indicator material. 3 figs.

  1. Gas-sensing optrode

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1988-01-01

    An optrode is provided for sensing dissolved gases or volatile components of a solution. A fiber optic is provided through which light from an associated light source is transmitted from a first end to a second end. A bubble forming means, such as a tube, is attached to the second end of the fiber optic, and an indicator material is disposed in cooperation with the bubble forming means adjacent to the second end of the fiber optic such that it is illuminated by light emanating from the second end. The bubble forming means causes a gas bubble to form whenever the optrode is immersed in the fluid. The gas bubble separates the indicator material from the fluid. Gases, or other volatile components, of the fluid are sensed as they diffuse across the gas bubble from the fluid to the indicator material.

  2. The interstellar gas experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, D. L.; Geiss, J.; Buehler, F.; Eugster, O.

    1992-01-01

    The Interstellar Gas Experiment (IGE) exposed thin metallic foils to collect neutral interstellar gas particles. These particles penetrate the solar system due to their motion relative to the sun. Thus, it is possible to entrap them in the collecting foils along with precipitating magnetospheric and perhaps some ambient atmospheric particles. For the entire duration of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission, seven of these foils collected particles arriving from seven different directions as seen from the spacecraft. In the mass spectroscopic analysis of the noble gas component of these particles, we have detected the isotopes of He-3, He-4, Ne-20, and Ne-22. In the foil analyses carried out so far, we find a distribution of particle arrival directions which shows that a significant part of the trapped particles are indeed interstellar atoms. The analysis needed to subtract the competing fluxes of magnetospheric and atmospheric particles is still in progress.

  3. GAS COOLED NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Rodwell, W.

    1958-06-10

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor consisting of a graphite reacting core and reflector structure supported in a containing vessel is described. A gas sealing means is included for sealing between the walls of the graphite structure and containing vessel to prevent the gas coolant by-passing the reacting core. The reacting core is a multi-sided right prismatic structure having a pair of parallel slots around its periphery. The containing vessel is cylindrical and has a rib on its internal surface which supports two continuous ring shaped flexible web members with their radially innermost ends in sealing engagement within the radially outermost portion of the slots. The core structure is supported on ball bearings. This design permits thermal expansion of the core stracture and vessel while maintainirg a peripheral seal between the tvo elements.

  4. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  5. The CARIBU gas catcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, G.; Levand, A. F.; Zabransky, B. J.

    2016-06-01

    The CARIBU upgrade of the ATLAS facility provides radioactive beams of neutron-rich isotopes for experiments at low and Coulomb barrier energies. It creates these beam using a large RF gas catcher that collects and cools fission fragments from an intense 252 Cf fission source and transforms them into a low-emittance monoenergetic beam. This beam can then be purified, reaccelerated and delivered to experiments. This technique is fast and universal, providing access to all fission fragment species independently of their chemical properties. The CARIBU gas catcher has been built to operate at high ionization density and in the presence of the contamination from the source. A brief overview of the CARIBU concept is given below, together with a more detailed description of the CARIBU gas catcher and the performance it has now achieved.

  6. Life-cycle analysis of shale gas and natural gas.

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.E.; Han, J.; Burnham, A.; Dunn, J.B.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-27

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. Using the current state of knowledge of the recovery, processing, and distribution of shale gas and conventional natural gas, we have estimated up-to-date, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we have developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps - such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings - that need to be addressed further. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than those of conventional natural gas. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty regarding whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas emissions. This life-cycle analysis provides insight into the critical stages in the natural gas industry where emissions occur and where opportunities exist to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  7. Role of stranded gas in increasing global gas supplies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    This report synthesizes the findings of three regional studies in order to evaluate, at the global scale, the contribution that stranded gas resources can make to global natural gas supplies. Stranded gas, as defined for this study, is natural gas in discovered conventional gas and oil fields that is currently not commercially producible for either physical or economic reasons. The regional studies evaluated the cost of bringing the large volumes of undeveloped gas in stranded gas fields to selected markets. In particular, stranded gas fields of selected Atlantic Basin countries, north Africa, Russia, and central Asia are screened to determine whether the volumes are sufficient to meet Europe’s increasing demand for gas imports. Stranded gas fields in Russia, central Asia, Southeast Asia, and Australia are also screened to estimate development, production, and transport costs and corresponding gas volumes that could be supplied to Asian markets in China, India, Japan, and South Korea. The data and cost analysis presented here suggest that for the European market and the markets examined in Asia, the development of stranded gas provides a way to meet projected gas import demands for the 2020-to-2040 period. Although this is a reconnaissance-type appraisal, it is based on volumes of gas that are associated with individual identified fields. Individual field data were carefully examined. Some fields were not evaluated because current technology was insufficient or it appeared the gas was likely to be held off the export market. Most of the evaluated stranded gas can be produced and delivered to markets at costs comparable to historical prices. Moreover, the associated volumes of gas are sufficient to provide an interim supply while additional technologies are developed to unlock gas diffused in shale and hydrates or while countries transition to making a greater use of renewable energy sources.

  8. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, Billy Joe; Whidden, Graydon Lane

    1999-01-01

    A method of converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit.

  9. Gas turbine combustor transition

    DOEpatents

    Coslow, B.J.; Whidden, G.L.

    1999-05-25

    A method is described for converting a steam cooled transition to an air cooled transition in a gas turbine having a compressor in fluid communication with a combustor, a turbine section in fluid communication with the combustor, the transition disposed in a combustor shell and having a cooling circuit connecting a steam outlet and a steam inlet and wherein hot gas flows from the combustor through the transition and to the turbine section, includes forming an air outlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit and providing for an air inlet in the transition in fluid communication with the cooling circuit. 7 figs.

  10. Exhaust gas afterburner

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, S.J. Jr.

    1986-12-23

    This patent describes an exhaust gas afterburner device adapted for installation between an exhaust manifold and a corresponding portion of the engine block of an internal combustion engine. The device comprises: a spacer sandwiched between portions of two sheet metal members forming a gasket section of the device, the gasket section surrounding at least one exhaust gas port, a plenum section formed by remaining portions of the members, and wall sections defining passageways extending from the interior of the plenum section to the port and an air supply inlet on the plenum.

  11. Gas separation membranes

    DOEpatents

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  12. Therapeutic Antioxidant Medical Gas

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Atsunori; Sugimoto, Ryujiro; Billiar, Timothy R; McCurry, Kenneth R

    2009-01-01

    Medical gases are pharmaceutical gaseous molecules which offer solutions to medical needs and include traditional gases, such as oxygen and nitrous oxide, as well as gases with recently discovered roles as biological messenger molecules, such as carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulphide. Medical gas therapy is a relatively unexplored field of medicine; however, a recent increasing in the number of publications on medical gas therapies clearly indicate that there are significant opportunities for use of gases as therapeutic tools for a variety of disease conditions. In this article, we review the recent advances in research on medical gases with antioxidant properties and discuss their clinical applications and therapeutic properties. PMID:19177183

  13. Automated gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, Curtis D.; Blair, Dianna S.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Reber, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute.

  14. Underwater gas tornado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byalko, Alexey V.

    2013-07-01

    We present the first experimental observation of a new hydrodynamic phenomenon, the underwater tornado. Simple measurements show that the tornado forms a vortex of the Rankine type, i.e. the rising gas rotates as a solid body and the liquid rotates with a velocity decreasing hyperbolically with the radius. We obtain the dependence of the tornado radius a on the gas stream value j theoretically: a ∼ j2/5. Processing of a set of experiments yielded the value 0.36 for the exponent in this expression. We also report the initial stages of the theoretical study of this phenomenon.

  15. Heated Gas Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Fluid Physics is study of the motion of fluids and the effects of such motion. When a liquid is heated from the bottom to the boiling point in Earth's microgravity, small bubbles of heated gas form near the bottom of the container and are carried to the top of the liquid by gravity-driven convective flows. In the same setup in microgravity, the lack of convection and buoyancy allows the heated gas bubbles to grow larger and remain attached to the container's bottom for a significantly longer period.

  16. Gas production apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Winsche, Warren E.; Miles, Francis T.; Powell, James R.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the production of gases, and more particularly to the production of tritium gas in a reliable long operating lifetime systems that employs solid lithium to overcome the heretofore known problems of material compatibility and corrosion, etc., with liquid metals. The solid lithium is irradiated by neutrons inside low activity means containing a positive (+) pressure gas stream for removing and separating the tritium from the solid lithium, and these means are contained in a low activity shell containing a thermal insulator and a neutron moderator.

  17. Gas cooking range

    SciTech Connect

    Narang, R.K.; Narang, K.

    1984-02-14

    An energy-efficient gas cooking range features an oven section with improved heat circulation and air preheat, a compact oven/broiler burner, a smoke-free drip pan, an efficient piloted ignition, flame-containing rangetop burner rings, and a small, portable oven that can be supported on the burner rings. Panels spaced away from the oven walls and circulation fans provide very effective air flow within the oven. A gas shutoff valve automatically controls the discharge of heated gases from the oven so that they are discharged only when combustion is occurring.

  18. Occupational arsine gas exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Pullen-James, Shayla; Woods, Scott E.

    2006-01-01

    Arsine gas exposure is a rare occupational event and can be completely prevented with the use of appropriate protective gear. Exposure often occurs when arsine gas is generated while arsenic-containing crude ores or metals are treated with acid. Cases of toxicity require an index of suspicion and a good history. In particular, it should be in the differential diagnosis in patients who present acutely with red/bronze skin and hemoglobinuria. Treatment is supportive and may include transfusions and dialysis in severe cases. Clinical severity is proportionate to the level of exposure, and severity is directly related to the onset of symptoms. Images Figure 2 PMID:17225850

  19. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. PMID:22107036

  20. Gas-separation process

    DOEpatents

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.; Baker, R.W.

    1994-01-25

    A process is described for separating condensable organic components from gas streams. The process makes use of a membrane made from a polymer material that is glassy and that has an unusually high free volume within the polymer material. 6 figures.

  1. Natural Gas Annual

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years.

  2. The Gas Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Inquires into the individual names and dates which are associated with the various perfect gas laws on the basis of published and historically researched works. Indicates the presence of eight features in giving a scientist credit for a scientific discovery. (CC)

  3. Gas Sensor Test Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M.; Ryan, M.

    1995-01-01

    A new test chip is being developed to characterize conducting polymers used in gas sensors. The chip, a seven-layer cofired alumina substrate with gold electrodes, contains 11 comb and U- bend test structures. These structures are designed to measure the sheet resistance, conduction anisotropy, and peripheral conduction of spin-coated films that are not subsequently patterned.

  4. On gas detonation limits

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, Yu.A.; Gapanov, O.A.

    1995-11-01

    A one-dimensional model for a multiheaded detonation has been constructed with account for friction, heat losses, and the decay of gas velocity pulsations. The existence of detonation limits in narrow channels has been numerically shown. The calculation results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data.

  5. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  6. Oil and Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights worldwide oil and gas developments during 1982, focusing on production, drilling, and other activities/projects in specific countries and regional areas. Indicates that the most political actions (other than the U.S. decision not to protest further the Siberian pipeline project) were the continued Afghanistan and Iraq-Iran wars.…

  7. FLUE GAS CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of available flue gas conditioning agents and user experience. Many existing chemicals have been used as conditioning agents in power plants or have been studied in the laboratory as potential agents. The particle collection efficiency of an e...

  8. World Natural Gas, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    World marketed production of natural gas in 1978 totaled 51.749 trillion CF (up from 50.1 TCF in 1977); this 3.3% increase, however, was slightly lower than 1977's 3.7% rise. US production, which fell 0.3% dropped to 38.6% of the world total, while the USSR share (13.137 TCF) accounted for 25.4% (for a growth rate of 7.5%). Of the world gross production of 62.032 TCF, 69.7% came from gas wells; the remainder was associated with oil. Thirty-one percent of the 10.282 TCF difference between gross and marketed gas production was used for oil reservoir repressuring, while the balance (7.094 TCF) was vented and flared. Internationally traded gas movements rose to 11.6% of production. The Netherlands, the USSR, and Canada accounted for 30.6%, 20.1% and 14.7%, respectively, of total 1978 exports. At 0.956 TCF, LNG shipments accounted for 15.9% of world trade, a 35.2% higher share than in 1977; most of this growth was due to increased Indonesia-to-Japan volumes.

  9. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development and progress of the Advanced Gas Turbine engine program is examined. An analysis of the role of ceramics in the design and major engine components is included. Projected fuel economy, emissions and performance standards, and versatility in fuel use are also discussed.

  10. Fuel gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T.; Shen, Ming-Shing

    1981-01-01

    A method for removing sulfurous gases such as H.sub.2 S and COS from a fuel gas is disclosed wherein limestone particulates containing iron sulfide provide catalytic absorption of the H.sub.2 S and COS by the limestone. The method is effective at temperatures of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. in particular.

  11. Polymide gas separation membranes

    DOEpatents

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  12. Chlorine Dioxide (Gas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas is registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a sterilant for use in manufacturing, laboratory equipment, medical devices, environmental surfaces, tools and clean rooms. Aqueous ClO2 is registered by the EPA as a surface disinfectant and sanitizer fo...

  13. HOT GAS CLEANUP PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to identify and classify 22 hot gas cleanup (HGC) processes for desulfurizing reducing gases at above 430 C according to absorbent type into groups employing solid, molten salt, and molten metal absorbents. It describes each process in terms of...

  14. Gas tungsten arc welder

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  15. Protecting Gas Chromatographic Syringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruekberg, Ben

    1995-12-01

    This article describes the construction of a device which protects gas chromatographic syringes. The device lessens the likelihood of syringes rolling off tables and breaking. If the syringe is dropped, the glass barrel is less apt to be struck and shattered.

  16. Pressurized gas filled tendons

    SciTech Connect

    Silcox, W. H.

    1985-06-04

    Pressurized gas filled tubular tendons provide a means for detecting leaks therein. Filling the tendon with a gaseous fluid provides increased buoyancy and reduces the weight supported by the buoyant structure. The use of a corrosion inhibiting gaseous fluid reduces the corrosion of the interior tendon wall.

  17. Trace Gas Analyzer (TGA) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and test of a breadboard trace gas analyzer (TGA) is documented. The TGA is a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system. The gas chromatograph subsystem employs a recirculating hydrogen carrier gas. The recirculation feature minimizes the requirement for transport and storage of large volumes of carrier gas during a mission. The silver-palladium hydrogen separator which permits the removal of the carrier gas and its reuse also decreases vacuum requirements for the mass spectrometer since the mass spectrometer vacuum system need handle only the very low sample pressure, not sample plus carrier. System performance was evaluated with a representative group of compounds.

  18. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  19. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. Acidic gas capture by diamines

    DOEpatents

    Rochelle, Gary; Hilliard, Marcus

    2011-05-10

    Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

  3. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  4. Natural gas monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Gas centrifuge purge method

    DOEpatents

    Theurich, Gordon R.

    1976-01-01

    1. In a method of separating isotopes in a high speed gas centrifuge wherein a vertically oriented cylindrical rotor bowl is adapted to rotate about its axis within an evacuated chamber, and wherein an annular molecular pump having an intake end and a discharge end encircles the uppermost portion of said rotor bowl, said molecular pump being attached along its periphery in a leak-tight manner to said evacuated chamber, and wherein end cap closure means are affixed to the upper end of said rotor bowl, and a process gas withdrawal and insertion system enters said bowl through said end cap closure means, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and end cap defining an upper zone at the discharge end of said molecular pump, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and rotor bowl defining a lower annular zone at the intake end of said molecular pump, a method for removing gases from said upper and lower zones during centrifuge operation with a minimum loss of process gas from said rotor bowl, comprising, in combination: continuously measuring the pressure in said upper zone, pumping gas from said lower zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a first preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a second preselected value, said first preselected value being greater than said second preselected value, and continuously pumping gas from said upper zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a third preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a fourth preselected value, said third preselected value being greater than said first, second and fourth preselected values.

  6. Gas-absorption process

    DOEpatents

    Stephenson, Michael J.; Eby, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an improved gas-absorption process for the recovery of a desired component from a feed-gas mixture containing the same. In the preferred form of the invention, the process operations are conducted in a closed-loop system including a gas-liquid contacting column having upper, intermediate, and lower contacting zones. A liquid absorbent for the desired component is circulated through the loop, being passed downwardly through the column, regenerated, withdrawn from a reboiler, and then recycled to the column. A novel technique is employed to concentrate the desired component in a narrow section of the intermediate zone. This technique comprises maintaining the temperature of the liquid-phase input to the intermediate zone at a sufficiently lower value than that of the gas-phase input to the zone to effect condensation of a major part of the absorbent-vapor upflow to the section. This establishes a steep temperature gradient in the section. The stripping factors below this section are selected to ensure that virtually all of the gases in the downflowing absorbent from the section are desorbed. The stripping factors above the section are selected to ensure re-dissolution of the desired component but not the less-soluble diluent gases. As a result, a peak concentration of the desired component is established in the section, and gas rich in that component can be withdrawn therefrom. The new process provides important advantages. The chief advantage is that the process operations can be conducted in a single column in which the contacting zones operate at essentially the same pressure.

  7. Gas Exchange of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Elizabeth C. B.; Lynch, Victoria H.

    1966-01-01

    Changes in the oxygen partial pressure of air over the range of 8 to 258 mm of Hg did not adversely affect the photosynthetic capacity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Gas exchange and growth measurements remained constant for 3-week periods and were similar to air controls (oxygen pressure of 160 mm of Hg). Oxygen partial pressures of 532 and 745 mm of Hg had an adverse effect on algal metabolism. Carbon dioxide consumption was 24% lower in the gas mixture containing oxygen at a pressure 532 mm of Hg than in the air control, and the growth rate was slightly reduced. Oxygen at a partial pressure of 745 mm of Hg decreased the photosynthetic rate 39% and the growth rate 37% over the corresponding rates in air. The lowered metabolic rates remained constant during 14 days of measurements, and the effect was reversible after this time. Substitution of helium or argon for the nitrogen in air had no effect on oxygen production, carbon dioxide consumption, or growth rate for 3-week periods. All measurements were made at a total pressure of 760 mm of Hg, and all gas mixtures were enriched with 2% carbon dioxide. Thus, the physiological functioning and reliability of a photosynthetic gas exchanger should not be adversely affected by: (i) oxygen partial pressures ranging from 8 to 258 mm of Hg; (ii) the use of pure oxygen at reduced total pressure (155 to 258 mm of Hg) unless pressure per se affects photosynthesis, or (iii) the inclusion of helium or argon in the gas environment (up to a partial pressure of 595 mm of Hg). PMID:5927028

  8. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1997-05-01

    Cryenco and Los Alamos are collaborating to develop a natural-gas-powered natural-gas liquefier that will have no moving parts and require no electrical power. It will have useful efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. The liquefaction of natural gas, which occurs at only 115 Kelvin at atmospheric pressure, has previously required rather sophisticated refrigeration machinery. The 1990 invention of the thermoacoustically driven orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (TA-DOPTR) provides cryogenic refrigeration with no moving parts for the first time. In short, this invention uses acoustic phenomena to produce refrigeration from heat. The required apparatus consists of nothing more than helium-filled heat exchangers and pipes, made of common materials, without exacting tolerances. In the Cryenco-Los Alamos collaboration, the authors are developing a version of this invention suitable for use in the natural-gas industry. The project is known as acoustic liquefier for short. The present program plans call for a two-phase development. Phase 1, with capacity of 500 gallon per day (i.e., approximately 40,000 scfd, requiring a refrigeration power of about 7 kW), is large enough to illuminate all the issues of large-scale acoustic liquefaction without undue cost, and to demonstrate the liquefaction of 60--70% of input gas, while burning 30--40%. Phase 2 will target versions of approximately 10{sup 6} scfd = 10,000 gallon per day capacity. In parallel with both, they continue fundamental research on the technology, directed toward increased efficiency, to build scientific foundations and a patent portfolio for future acoustic liquefiers.

  9. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1994-06-07

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber.

  10. Gas-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation with gas gate

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1994-06-07

    Disclosed is a dynamic vacuum insulation comprising sidewalls enclosing an evacuated chamber and gas control means for releasing hydrogen gas into a chamber to increase gas molecule conduction of heat across the chamber and retrieving hydrogen gas from the chamber. The gas control means includes a metal hydride that absorbs and retains hydrogen gas at cooler temperatures and releases hydrogen gas at hotter temperatures; a hydride heating means for selectively heating the metal hydride to temperatures high enough to release hydrogen gas from the metal hydride; and gate means positioned between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively allowing hydrogen to flow or not to flow between said metal hydride and said chamber. 25 figs.

  11. 35. VIEW OF DUAL VENTURI GAS WASHER IN THE GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF DUAL VENTURI GAS WASHER IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING NORTHEAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  13. Retained Gas Sampling Results for the Flammable Gas Program

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Bates; L.A. Mahoney; M.E. Dahl; Z.I. Antoniak

    1999-11-18

    The key phenomena of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue are generation of the gas mixture, the modes of gas retention, and the mechanisms causing release of the gas. An understanding of the mechanisms of these processes is required for final resolution of the safety issue. Central to understanding is gathering information from such sources as historical records, tank sampling data, tank process data (temperatures, ventilation rates, etc.), and laboratory evaluations conducted on tank waste samples.

  14. Primer on gas integrated resource planning

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, C.; Comnes, G.A.; Busch, J.; Wiel, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report discusses the following topics: gas resource planning: need for IRP; gas integrated resource planning: methods and models; supply and capacity planning for gas utilities; methods for estimating gas avoided costs; economic analysis of gas utility DSM programs: benefit-cost tests; gas DSM technologies and programs; end-use fuel substitution; and financial aspects of gas demand-side management programs.

  15. Gas supplies of interstate/natural gas pipeline companies 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-18

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas during calendar year 1989, for use by the FERC for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years. 5 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Reducing gas generators and methods for generating a reducing gas

    SciTech Connect

    Scotto, Mark Vincent; Perna, Mark Anthony

    2015-11-03

    One embodiment of the present invention is a unique reducing gas generator. Another embodiment is a unique method for generating a reducing gas. Other embodiments include apparatuses, systems, devices, hardware, methods, and combinations for generating reducing gas. Further embodiments, forms, features, aspects, benefits, and advantages of the present application will become apparent from the description and figures provided herewith.

  17. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to jointly host

  18. Egypt to boost gas incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Shawkat, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Egyptian government recently announced plans to increase gas exploration incentives to foreign operators in the hope of stimulating gas exploration and development. This article shows what has been accomplished.

  19. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  20. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Natural gas monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  4. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  5. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Natural gas monthly, June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Gas-heat-pump development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creswick, F. A.

    Incentives for the development of gas heat pumps are discussed. Technical progress made on several promising technologies was reviewed. The status of development of gas-engine-driven heat pumps, the absorption cycle for the near- and long-term gas heat pump systems, the Stirling engine, the small Rankine-cycle engines, and gas-turbine-driven heat pump systems were briefly reviewed. Progress in the US, Japan, and Europe is noted.

  9. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Natural gas monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  11. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Feasibility of flare gas reformation to practical energy in Farashband gas refinery: no gas flaring.

    PubMed

    Rahimpour, Mohammad Reaza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2012-03-30

    A suggested method for controlling the level of hazardous materials in the atmosphere is prevention of combustion in flare. In this work, three methods are proposed to recover flare gas instead of conventional gas-burning in flare at the Farashband gas refinery. These methods aim to minimize environmental and economical disadvantages of burning flare gas. The proposed methods are: (1) gas to liquid (GTL) production, (2) electricity generation with a gas turbine and, (3) compression and injection into the refinery pipelines. To find the most suitable method, the refinery units that send gas to the flare as well as the required equipment for the three aforementioned methods are simulated. These simulations determine the amount of flare gas, the number of GTL barrels, the power generated by the gas turbine and the required compression horsepower. The results of simulation show that 563 barrels/day of valuable GTL products is produced by the first method. The second method provides 25 MW electricity and the third method provides a compressed natural gas with 129 bar pressure for injection to the refinery pipelines. In addition, the economics of flare gas recovery methods are studied and compared. The results show that for the 4.176MMSCFD of gas flared from the Farashband gas refinery, the electricity production gives the highest rate of return (ROR), the lowest payback period, the highest annual profit and mild capital investment. Therefore, the electricity production is the superior method economically. PMID:22305604

  14. Maintaining gas cooling equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, J.D.

    1997-05-01

    An often overlooked key to satisfactory operation and longevity of any mechanical device is proper operation and maintenance in accordance with the manufacturer`s written instructions. Absorption chillers, although they use a different technology than the more familiar vapor compression cycle to produce chilled water, operate successfully in a variety of applications if operated and maintained properly. Maintenance procedures may be more frequent than those required for vapor compression chillers, but they are also typically less complex. The goal of this article is to describe the basic operation of an absorption chiller to provide an understanding of the relatively simple tasks required to keep the machine operating at maximum efficiency for its design life and beyond. A good starting point is definitions. Gas cooling equipment is generally defined as alternative energy, non-electric cooling products. This includes absorption chillers, engine-drive chillers and packaged desiccant units, among others. Natural gas combustion drives the equipment.

  15. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John Joseph; Wessell, Brian J.; Liang, George

    2013-03-05

    A sealing apparatus in a gas turbine. The sealing apparatus includes a seal housing apparatus coupled to a disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable therewith during operation of the gas turbine. The seal housing apparatus comprises a base member, a first leg portion, a second leg portion, and spanning structure. The base member extends generally axially between forward and aft rows of rotatable blades and is positioned adjacent to a row of stationary vanes. The first leg portion extends radially inwardly from the base member and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The second leg portion is axially spaced from the first leg portion, extends radially inwardly from the base member, and is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly. The spanning structure extends between and is rigidly coupled to each of the base member, the first leg portion, and the second leg portion.

  16. GAS PHOTOTUBE CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Richardson, J.H.

    1958-03-01

    This patent pertains to electronic circuits for measuring the intensity of light and is especially concerned with measurement between preset light thresholds. Such a circuit has application in connection with devices for reading-out information stored on punch cards or tapes where the cards and tapes are translucent. By the novel arrangement of this invention thc sensitivity of a gas phototube is maintained at a low value when the light intensity is below a first threshold level. If the light level rises above the first threshold level, the tube is rendered highly sensitive and an output signal will vary in proportion to the light intensity change. When the light level decreases below a second threshold level, the gas phototube is automatically rendered highly insensitive. Each of these threshold points is adjustable.

  17. Hydrogen gas relief valve

    DOEpatents

    Whittlesey, Curtis C.

    1985-01-01

    An improved battery stack design for an electrochemical system having at least one cell from which a gas is generated and an electrolyte in communication with the cell is described. The improved battery stack design features means for defining a substantially closed compartment for containing the battery cells and at least a portion of the electrolyte for the system, and means in association with the compartment means for selectively venting gas from the interior of the compartment means in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. The venting means includes a relief valve having a float member which is actuated in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. This float member is adapted to close the relief valve when the level of the electrolyte is above a predetermined level and open the relief valve when the level of electrolyte is below this predetermined level.

  18. Automated gas chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Mowry, C.D.; Blair, D.S.; Rodacy, P.J.; Reber, S.D.

    1999-07-13

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute. 7 figs.

  19. Multiplex gas chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentin, Jose R.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the multiplex gas chromatography (GC) technique, which is a possible candidate for chemical analysis of planetary atmospheres, are discussed. Particular attention is given to the chemical modulators developed by present investigators for multiplex GC, namely, the thermal-desorption, thermal-decomposition, and catalytic modulators, as well as to mechanical modulators. The basic technique of multiplex GC using chemical modulators and a mechanical modulator is demonstrated. It is shown that, with the chemical modulators, only one gas stream consisting of the carrier in combination with the components is being analyzed, resulting in a simplified instrument that requires relatively few consumables. The mechanical modulator demonstrated a direct application of multiplex GC for the analysis of gases in atmosphere of Titan at very low pressures.

  20. (Gas discharges and applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, I.

    1988-10-04

    The traveler attended the Ninth International Conference on Gas Discharges and Their Applications, which was held in Venice, Italy, on September 19--23, 1988; presented two papers, (1) Ion Chemistry in SF{sub 6} Corona'' and (2) Production of S{sub 2}F{sub 10} by SF{sub 6} Spark Discharge''; and participated in numerous discussions with conference participants on gas discharges related to his work on SF{sub 6}. The traveler visited the Centre de Physique Atomique at the University Paul Sabatier in Toulouse, France, to discuss with Dr. J. Casanovas his work on SF{sub 6} decomposition. Following that visit, the traveler visited the Laboratoire de Photoelectricite at the University of Dijon to discuss with Dr. J.-P. Goudonnet his work on surface studies and on the use of tunneling electron spectroscopy for the chemical analysis of surfaces.

  1. Water-gas shift reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    A review covers the industrial applications of the water-gas shift reaction in hydrogen manufacturing, removing CO from ammonia synthesis feeds, and detoxifying town gas; and the catalyst characteristics, reaction kinetics, and reaction mechanisms of the water-gas shift reactions catalyzed by iron-based, copper-based, or sulfided cobalt-molybdenum catalysts.

  2. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  3. Variable gas leak rate valve

    DOEpatents

    Eernisse, Errol P.; Peterson, Gary D.

    1976-01-01

    A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.

  4. Denitrification of a gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    Tamony, A.E.; Youngson, C.R.

    1981-10-13

    Nitric oxide and other oxides of nitrogen is removed from a gas stream by contacting the gas stream with chlorine in the presence of water in the liquid phase and scrubbing the gas stream with an aqueous mixture of a hydrochloride and a hypochlorite.

  5. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  7. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. Understanding gas hydrate dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapham, Laura; Chanton, Jeffrey; MacDonald, Ian; Martens, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    In order to understand the role gas hydrates play in climate change or their potential as an energy source, we must first understand their basic behaviors. One such behavior not well understood is their dissolution and the factors that control it. Theoretically, hydrates are stable in areas of high pressure, low temperature, moderate salt concentrations, and saturated methane. Yet in nature, we observe hydrate to outcrop seafloor sediments into overlying water that is under-saturated with respect to methane. How do these hydrates not dissolve away? To address this question, we combine both field and laboratory experiments. In the field, we have collected pore-waters directly surrounding gas hydrate outcrops and measured for in situ methane concentrations. This gives us an understanding of the concentration gradients, and thus methane flux, directly from the hydrate to the surrounding environment. From these samples, we found that methane concentrations decreased further from hydrate yet are always under-saturated with respect to methane hydrate. The resulting low methane gradients were then used to calculate low dissolution rates. This result suggests that hydrates are meta-stable in the environment. What controls their apparent meta-stability? We hypothesize that surrounding oils or microbial slimes help protect the hydrate and slow down their dissolution. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments where hydrate was formed at in situ pressure and temperature and the source gas removed; first with no oils, then with oils. Dissolved methane concentrations were then measured in surrounding fluids over time and dissolution rates calculated. To date, both methane and mixed gas hydrate (methane, ethane, and propane) have similar dissolution rates of 0.12 mM/hr. Future experiments will add oils to determine how different hydrate dissolves with such contaminants. This study will further our understanding of factors that control hydrate

  9. High pressure gas target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B.

    2012-12-01

    Compact, high pressure, high current gas target features all metal construction and semi-automatic window assembly change. The unique aspect of this target is the domed-shaped window. The Havar alloy window is electron beam welded to a metal ring, thus forming one, interchangeable assembly. The window assembly is sealed by knife-edges locked by a pneumatic toggle allowing a quick, in situ window change.

  10. THE DARK MOLECULAR GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfire, Mark G.; Hollenbach, David; McKee, Christopher F. E-mail: dhollenbach@seti.or

    2010-06-20

    The mass of molecular gas in an interstellar cloud is often measured using line emission from low rotational levels of CO, which are sensitive to the CO mass, and then scaling to the assumed molecular hydrogen H{sub 2} mass. However, a significant H{sub 2} mass may lie outside the CO region, in the outer regions of the molecular cloud where the gas-phase carbon resides in C or C{sup +}. Here, H{sub 2} self-shields or is shielded by dust from UV photodissociation, whereas CO is photodissociated. This H{sub 2} gas is 'dark' in molecular transitions because of the absence of CO and other trace molecules, and because H{sub 2} emits so weakly at temperatures 10 K gas and far-infrared/submillimeter wavelength dust continuum radiation. In this paper, we theoretically model this dark mass and find that the fraction of the molecular mass in this dark component is remarkably constant ({approx}0.3 for average visual extinction through the cloud A-bar{sub V{approx_equal}}8) and insensitive to the incident ultraviolet radiation field strength, the internal density distribution, and the mass of the molecular cloud as long as A-bar{sub V}, or equivalently, the product of the average hydrogen nucleus column and the metallicity through the cloud, is constant. We also find that the dark mass fraction increases with decreasing A-bar{sub V}, since relatively more molecular H{sub 2} material lies outside the CO region in this case.

  11. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, B.T.; Arasteh, D.K.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1993-12-14

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation. 18 figures.

  12. Gas filled panel insulation

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Brent T.; Arasteh, Dariush K.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1993-01-01

    A structural or flexible highly insulative panel which may be translucent, is formed from multi-layer polymeric material in the form of an envelope surrounding a baffle. The baffle is designed so as to minimize heat transfer across the panel, by using material which forms substantially closed spaces to suppress convection of the low conductivity gas fill. At least a portion of the baffle carries a low emissivity surface for suppression of infrared radiation.

  13. Flue gas duct assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Montana, F.J.

    1984-08-28

    A length of longitudinally extending duct assembly for heated corrosive gases includes an outer support duct and a substantially gas-tight liner. The liner is spaced from the outer support duct by a relatively yielding spacer material that accommodates expansion of the liner in directions parallel to the inner surface of the outer support duct and in directions normal to the inner surface of the outer support duct without imposing any substantial resistance to such thermal expansion.

  14. A Chiral Granular Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, J.-C.; Ye, Fangfu; Rodriguez, Juan; Gollub, J. P.; Lubensky, T. C.

    2005-05-01

    Inspired by rattleback toys, we created small chiral wires that rotate in a preferred direction on a vertically oscillating platform and quantified their motion with experiment and simulation. We demonstrate experimentally that angular momentum of rotation about particle centers of mass is converted to collective angular momentum of center-of-mass motion in a granular gas of these wires, and we introduce a continuum model that explains our observations.

  15. A chiral granular gas.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J-C; Ye, Fangfu; Rodriguez, Juan; Gollub, J P; Lubensky, T C

    2005-06-01

    Inspired by rattleback toys, we created small chiral wires that rotate in a preferred direction on a vertically oscillating platform and quantified their motion with experiment and simulation. We demonstrate experimentally that angular momentum of rotation about particle centers of mass is converted to collective angular momentum of center-of-mass motion in a granular gas of these wires, and we introduce a continuum model that explains our observations. PMID:16090323

  16. Optimize acid gas removal

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, D.M.; Wilkins, J.T.

    1983-09-01

    Innovative design of physical solvent plants for acid gas removal can materially reduce both installation and operating costs. A review of the design considerations for one physical solvent process (Selexol) points to numerous arrangements for potential improvement. These are evaluated for a specific case in four combinations that identify an optimum for the case in question but, more importantly, illustrate the mechanism for use for such optimization elsewhere.

  17. Gas-driven microturbine

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.; McWhorter, P.J.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Miller, W.M.

    1996-06-27

    This paper describes an invention which relates to microtechnology and the fabrication process for developing microelectrical systems. It describes a means for fabricating a gas-driven microturbine capable of providing autonomous propulsion in which the rapidly moving gases are directed through a micromachined turbine to power devices by direct linkage or turbo-electric generators components in a domain ranging from tenths of micrometers to thousands of micrometers.

  18. Exhaust gas purification device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Hibi, T.; Sayo, S.; Sugiura, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1980-02-19

    The exhaust gas purification device includes an exhaust manifold , a purification cylinder connected with the exhaust manifold through a first honey-comb shaped catalyst, and a second honeycomb shaped catalyst positioned at the rear portion of the purification cylinder. Each catalyst is supported by steel wool rings including coarse and dense portions of steel wool. The purification device further includes a secondary air supplying arrangement.

  19. Gas turbine premixing systems

    DOEpatents

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Evulet, Andrei Tristan; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-31

    Methods and systems are provided for premixing combustion fuel and air within gas turbines. In one embodiment, a combustor includes an upstream mixing panel configured to direct compressed air and combustion fuel through premixing zone to form a fuel-air mixture. The combustor includes a downstream mixing panel configured to mix additional combustion fuel with the fule-air mixture to form a combustion mixture.

  20. uv preilluminated gas switches

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.

    1980-06-03

    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10/sup 12/ amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters.

  1. Quantifying capture efficiency of gas collection wells with gas tracers.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, Ramin; Imhoff, Paul; Han, Byunghyun; Mei, Changen; Augenstein, Don

    2015-09-01

    A new in situ method for directly measuring the gas collection efficiency in the region around a gas extraction well was developed. Thirteen tests were conducted by injecting a small volume of gas tracer sequentially at different locations in the landfill cell, and the gas tracer mass collected from each test was used to assess the collection efficiency at each injection point. For 11 tests the gas collection was excellent, always exceeding 70% with seven tests showing a collection efficiency exceeding 90%. For one test the gas collection efficiency was 8±6%. Here, the poor efficiency was associated with a water-laden refuse or remnant daily cover soil located between the point of tracer injection and the extraction well. The utility of in situ gas tracer tests for quantifying landfill gas capture at particular locations within a landfill cell was demonstrated. While there are certainly limitations to this technology, this method may be a valuable tool to help answer questions related to landfill gas collection efficiency and gas flow within landfills. Quantitative data from tracer tests may help assess the utility and cost-effectiveness of alternative cover systems, well designs and landfill gas collection management practices. PMID:26148643

  2. Gas Blowing: Mass Transfer in Gas and Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sortland, Øyvind Sunde; Tangstad, Merete

    2014-09-01

    Metallurgical routes for solar grade silicon production are being developed as alternatives to chemical processes for their potential to achieve cost reductions, increased production volume, and reduced environmental and safety concerns. An important challenge in the development of metallurgical routes relates to the higher impurity concentrations in the silicon product, particularly for boron and other elements that are not efficiently segregated in solidification techniques. The reactive gas refining process is studied for its potential to remove boron below the solar grade silicon target concentration in a single step by blowing steam and hydrogen gas jets onto the melt surface. Boron in a silicon melt is extracted to HBO gas in parallel to active oxidation of silicon. The literature is not unified regarding the rate determining step in this process. Relevant theories and equations for gas blowing in induction furnaces are combined and used to explain mass transfer in experiments. Mass transfer in the melt and gas is investigated by comparing resistance and induction heating of the melt, and varying gas flow rate, crucible diameter, diameter of the gas lance, and the position of the gas lance above the melt surface. The rate of boron removal is found to increase with increasing gas flow rate and crucible diameter. A relatively high fraction of the reactive gas is utilized in the process, and supply of steam in the bulk gas is the only identified rate determining step.

  3. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roode, M. van

    1995-10-01

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  4. Automated Gas Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Allen; Clark, Henry

    2012-10-01

    The cyclotron of Texas A&M University is one of the few and prized cyclotrons in the country. Behind the scenes of the cyclotron is a confusing, and dangerous setup of the ion sources that supplies the cyclotron with particles for acceleration. To use this machine there is a time consuming, and even wasteful step by step process of switching gases, purging, and other important features that must be done manually to keep the system functioning properly, while also trying to maintain the safety of the working environment. Developing a new gas distribution system to the ion source prevents many of the problems generated by the older manually setup process. This developed system can be controlled manually in an easier fashion than before, but like most of the technology and machines in the cyclotron now, is mainly operated based on software programming developed through graphical coding environment Labview. The automated gas distribution system provides multi-ports for a selection of different gases to decrease the amount of gas wasted through switching gases, and a port for the vacuum to decrease the amount of time spent purging the manifold. The Labview software makes the operation of the cyclotron and ion sources easier, and safer for anyone to use.

  5. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Roode, M. van

    1995-12-31

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  6. Inert gas thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Inert gas thrusters considered for space propulsion systems were investigated. Electron diffusion across a magnetic field was examined utilizing a basic model. The production of doubly charged ions was correlated using only overall performance parameters. The use of this correlation is therefore possible in the design stage of large gas thrusters, where detailed plasma properties are not available. Argon hollow cathode performance was investigated over a range of emission currents, with the positions of the inert, keeper, and anode varied. A general trend observed was that the maximum ratio of emission to flow rate increased at higher propellant flow rates. It was also found that an enclosed keeper enhances maximum cathode emission at high flow rates. The maximum cathode emission at a given flow rate was associated with a noisy high voltage mode. Although this mode has some similarities to the plume mode found at low flows and emissions, it is encountered by being initially in the spot mode and increasing emission. A detailed analysis of large, inert-gas thruster performance was carried out. For maximum thruster efficiency, the optimum beam diameter increases from less than a meter at under 2000 sec specific impulse to several meters at 10,000 sec. The corresponding range in input power ranges from several kilowatts to megawatts.

  7. Gas stream cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.; Cicero, D.C.; Zeh, C.M.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of gas stream cleanup (GSCU) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Gas Stream Cleanup Program is to develop contaminant control strategies that meet environmental regulations and protect equipment in advanced coal conversion systems. Contaminant control systems are being developed for integration into seven advanced coal conversion processes: Pressurized fludized-bed combustion (PFBC), Direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT), Intergrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), Gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), Gasification/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Coal-fueled diesel (CFD), and Mild gasification (MG). These advanced coal conversion systems present a significant challenge for development of contaminant control systems because they generate multi-contaminant gas streams at high-pressures and high temperatures. Each of the seven advanced coal conversion systems incorporates distinct contaminant control strategies because each has different contaminant tolerance limits and operating conditions. 59 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Gas flow meter and method for measuring gas flow rate

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Eric P.

    2006-08-01

    A gas flow rate meter includes an upstream line and two chambers having substantially equal, fixed volumes. An adjustable valve may direct the gas flow through the upstream line to either of the two chambers. A pressure monitoring device may be configured to prompt valve adjustments, directing the gas flow to an alternate chamber each time a pre-set pressure in the upstream line is reached. A method of measuring the gas flow rate measures the time required for the pressure in the upstream line to reach the pre-set pressure. The volume of the chamber and upstream line are known and fixed, thus the time required for the increase in pressure may be used to determine the flow rate of the gas. Another method of measuring the gas flow rate uses two pressure measurements of a fixed volume, taken at different times, to determine the flow rate of the gas.

  9. Natural gas monthly, June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-24

    The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

  10. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  12. Natural gas monthly: April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article focuses on preliminary highlights from the 1995 natural gas industry. 7 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  14. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Gas and humidity sensing element

    SciTech Connect

    Komine, Y.; Sawada, T.

    1984-06-26

    A gas and humidity sensing element in a single integral structure made of a base plate of apatite ceramics, on which a particular metal oxide such as tin oxide, zinc oxide, or composite oxide of titanium and niobium is provided. The sensing element has a function of sensing gas and humidity with outstanding sensitivity to bad smell gas and alcoholic gas, in which the humidity is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the apatite ceramic base plate and the bad smell gas such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, etc. is sensed and measured by variations in electrical resistance of the metal oxide.

  20. 75 FR 19963 - Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Florida Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line... Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC (Transco) in the above referenced dockets. The EA assesses the... pig launcher in Grand Bay, Alabama (MP 8.8); One new Over Pressure Protection Regulator Station...

  1. Low-temperature gas from marine shales: wet gas to dry gas over experimental time

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Marine shales exhibit unusual behavior at low temperatures under anoxic gas flow. They generate catalytic gas 300° below thermal cracking temperatures, discontinuously in aperiodic episodes, and lose these properties on exposure to trace amounts of oxygen. Here we report a surprising reversal in hydrocarbon generation. Heavy hydrocarbons are formed before light hydrocarbons resulting in wet gas at the onset of generation grading to dryer gas over time. The effect is moderate under gas flow and substantial in closed reactions. In sequential closed reactions at 100°C, gas from a Cretaceous Mowry shale progresses from predominately heavy hydrocarbons (66% C5, 2% C1) to predominantly light hydrocarbons (56% C1, 8% C5), the opposite of that expected from desorption of preexisting hydrocarbons. Differences in catalyst substrate composition explain these dynamics. Gas flow should carry heavier hydrocarbons to catalytic sites, in contrast to static conditions where catalytic sites are limited to in-place hydrocarbons. In-place hydrocarbons and their products should become lighter with conversion thus generating lighter hydrocarbon over time, consistent with our experimental results. We recognize the similarities between low-temperature gas generation reported here and the natural progression of wet gas to dry gas over geologic time. There is now substantial evidence for natural catalytic activity in source rocks. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium and the results reported here add to that evidence. Natural catalysis provides a plausible and unique explanation for the origin and evolution of gas in sedimentary basins. PMID:19900271

  2. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  3. Natural Gas Hydrates Update 1998-2000

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    Significant events have transpired on the natural gas hydrate research and development front since "Future Supply Potential of Natural Gas Hydrates" appeared in Natural Gas 1998 Issues and Trends and in the Potential Gas Committee's 1998 biennial report.

  4. Rare earth gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-10-31

    A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

  5. Chemoresistive gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1987-01-01

    A chemoresistive gas sensor is provided which has improved sensitivity. A layer of organic semiconductor is disposed between two electrodes which, in turn, are connected to a voltage source. High conductivity material is dispersed within the layer of organic semiconductor in the form of very small particles, or islands. The average interisland spacing is selected so that the predominant mode of current flow is by way of electron funneling. Adsorption of gaseous contaminant onto the layer of organic semiconductor modulates the tunneling current in a quantitative manner.

  6. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Work continued on Task No. 3. Particular attention was given to the back pressure control at the two gaseous effluent outlets and to the incineration of these effluents prior to their disposal. Temperature of the riser/regenerator and steam requirements were predicted from the gasification kinetics of coke and of coal char experimentally determined at atmospheric pressure, but at somewhat lower temperatures by H. Heinemann. The results of interactions of CH4 molecules with a Hydrogen Plasma in the adsorbed layer at the surface of refractory oxides were compared with those in the gas phase in order to select the optimum temperature range in the Cyclone reactor.

  7. Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Flueckiger, Jonas; Ko, Frank K.; Cheung, Karen C.

    2009-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation. PMID:22291561

  8. Chemoresistive gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-09-30

    A chemoresistive gas sensor is provided which has improved sensitivity. A layer of organic semiconductor is disposed between two electrodes which, in turn, are connected to a voltage source. High conductivity material is dispersed within the layer of organic semiconductor in the form of very small particles, or islands. The average interisland spacing is selected so that the predominant mode of current flow is by way of electron tunneling. Adsorption of gaseous contaminant onto the layer of organic semiconductor modulates the tunneling current in a quantitative manner.

  9. Chemoresistive gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1987-06-23

    A chemoresistive gas sensor is provided which has improved sensitivity. A layer of organic semiconductor is disposed between two electrodes which, in turn, are connected to a voltage source. High conductivity material is dispersed within the layer of organic semiconductor in the form of very small particles, or islands. The average interisland spacing is selected so that the predominant mode of current flow is by way of electron funneling. Adsorption of gaseous contaminant onto the layer of organic semiconductor modulates the tunneling current in a quantitative manner. 2 figs.

  10. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  11. Gas transfer - A gas tension method for studying equilibration across a gas-water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Meredith L.; Johnson, Bruce D.

    1992-11-01

    New strategies are required in the study of gas exchange under energetic and changeable conditions where current techniques are limited, especially in their ability to represent the contribution of injected bubbles. We have developed a gas tension device (GTD) that uses a solid-state differential pressure sensor to make continuous in situ measurements of the difference between pressure of dissolved gas (gas tension, for succinctness) and pressure of gas in the gas phase above a water parcel. This information allows the determination of the rate of approach to a dynamic equilibrium and of the degree of water phase saturation at steady state. The method is demonstrated in the lab by following the invasion of CO2 into seawater with bubble injection. The GTD introduces a new and versatile measurement method for the study of gas transfer across air-water interfaces, one which avoids many of the sampling and bias problems of traditional approaches.

  12. Gas evolution from geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    The process of gas evolution from geopressured brine is examined using as a basis the many past studies of gas evolution from liquids in porous media. A discussion of a number of speculations that have been made concerning gas evolution from geopressured brines is provided. According to one, rapid pressure reduction will cause methane gas to evolve as when one opens a champagne bottle. It has been further speculated that evolved methane gas would migrate up to form an easily producible cap. As a result of detailed analyses, it can be concluded that methane gas evolution from geopressured brines is far too small to ever form a connected gas saturation except very near to the producing well. Thus, no significant gas cap could ever form. Because of the very low solubility of methaned in brine, the process of methane gas evolution is not at all analogous to evolution of carbon dioxide from champagne. A number of other speculations and questions on gas evolution are analyzed, and procedures for completing wells and testing geopressured brine reservoirs are discussed, with the conclusion that presently used procedures will provide adequate data to enable a good evaluation of this resource.

  13. High potential recovery -- Gas repressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, M.P.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate that small independent oil producers can use existing gas injection technologies, scaled to their operations, to repressurize petroleum reservoirs and increase their economic oil production. This report gives background information for gas repressurization technologies, the results of workshops held to inform small independent producers about gas repressurization, and the results of four gas repressurization field demonstration projects. Much of the material in this report is based on annual reports (BDM-Oklahoma 1995, BDM-Oklahoma 1996, BDM-Oklahoma 1997), a report describing the results of the workshops (Olsen 1995), and the four final reports for the field demonstration projects which are reproduced in the Appendix. This project was designed to demonstrate that repressurization of reservoirs with gas (natural gas, enriched gas, nitrogen, flue gas, or air) can be used by small independent operators in selected reservoirs to increase production and/or decrease premature abandonment of the resource. The project excluded carbon dioxide because of other DOE-sponsored projects that address carbon dioxide processes directly. Two of the demonstration projects, one using flue gas and the other involving natural gas from a deeper coal zone, were both technical and economic successes. The two major lessons learned from the projects are the importance of (1) adequate infrastructure (piping, wells, compressors, etc.) and (2) adequate planning including testing compatibility between injected gases and fluids, and reservoir gases, fluids, and rocks.

  14. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2002-06-01

    A new project was initiated this quarter to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading. Efforts have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

  15. Combustion gas properties. 2: Natural gas fuel and dry air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Jones, R. E.; Trout, A. M.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    A series of computations has been made to produce the equilibrium temperature and gas composition for natural gas fuel and dry air. The computed tables and figures provide combustion gas property data for pressures from 0.5 to 50 atmospheres and equivalence ratios from 0 to 2.0. Only samples tables and figures are provided in this report. The complete set of tables and figures is provided on four microfiche films supplied with this report.

  16. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaguo; Lu, Yonggi; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  17. Gas sampling system for matrix of semiconductor gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Strzelczyk, Anna; Koscinski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor gas sensors are popular commercial sensors applied in numerous gas detection systems. They are reliable, small, rugged and inexpensive. However, there are a few problem limiting the wider use of such sensors. Semiconductor gas sensor usually exhibits a low selectivity, low repeatability, drift of response, strong temperature and moisture influence on sensor properties. Sample flow rate is one of the parameters that influence sensors response what should be considered in the measurement system. This paper describes low cost module for controlling measured gas flow rate. The proposed equipment will be used as a component of electronic nose system employed for classifying and distinguishing different levels of contamination in air.

  18. Stellar dynamics in gas: the role of gas damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.; Böker, Torsten

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we consider how gas damping affects the dynamical evolution of gas-embedded star clusters. Using a simple three-component (i.e. one gas and two stellar components) model, we compare the rates of mass segregation due to two-body relaxation, accretion from the interstellar medium, and gas dynamical friction in both the supersonic and subsonic regimes. Using observational data in the literature, we apply our analytic predictions to two different astrophysical environments, namely galactic nuclei and young open star clusters. Our analytic results are then tested using numerical simulations performed with the NBSymple code, modified by an additional deceleration term to model the damping effects of the gas. The results of our simulations are in reasonable agreement with our analytic predictions, and demonstrate that gas damping can significantly accelerate the rate of mass segregation. A stable state of approximate energy equilibrium cannot be achieved in our model if gas damping is present, even if Spitzer's Criterion is satisfied. This instability drives the continued dynamical decoupling and subsequent ejection (and/or collisions) of the more massive population. Unlike two-body relaxation, gas damping causes overall cluster contraction, reducing both the core and half-mass radii. If the cluster is mass segregated (and/or the gas density is highest at the cluster centre), the latter contracts faster than the former, accelerating the rate of core collapse.

  19. Thermoacoustic natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    In collaboration with Cryenco Inc. and NIST-Boulder, we intend to develop a natural gas-powered natural-gas liquefier which has absolutely no moving parts and requires no electrical power. It will have high efficiency, remarkable reliability, and low cost. Progress on the liquefier to be constructed at Cryenco continues satisfactorily. The thermoacoustic driver is still ahead of the pulse tube refrigerator, because of NIST`s schedule. We completed the thermoacoustics design in the fall of 1994, with Los Alamos providing physics input and checks of all aspects, and Cryenco providing engineering to ASME code, drafting, etc. Completion of this design represents a significant amount of work, especially in view of the many unexpected problems encountered. Meanwhile, Cryenco and NIST have almost completed the design of the pulse tube refrigerator. At Los Alamos, we have assembled a half-size scale model of the thermoacoustic portion of the 500 gal/day TANGL. This scale model will enable easy experimentation in harmonic suppression techniques, new stack geometries, new heat-exchanger geometries, resonator coiling, and other areas. As of March 1995, the scale model is complete and we are performing routine debugging tests and modifications.

  20. Multi-Gas Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glenn W. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor); LeBel, Peter J. (Inventor); Steele, Tommy C. (Inventor); Rana, Mauro (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A multi-gas sensor is provided which modulates a polarized light beam over a broadband of wavelengths between two alternating orthogonal polarization components. The two orthogonal polarization components of the polarization modulated beam are directed along two distinct optical paths. At least one optical path contains one or more spectral discrimination element, with each spectral discrimination element having spectral absorption features of one or more gases of interest being measured. The two optical paths then intersect, and one orthogonal component of the intersected components is transmitted and the other orthogonal component is reflected. The combined polarization modulated beam is partitioned into one or more smaller spectral regions of interest where one or more gases of interest has an absorption band. The difference in intensity between the two orthogonal polarization components is then determined in each partitioned spectral region of interest as an indication of the spectral emission/absorption of the light beam by the gases of interest in the measurement path. The spectral emission/absorption is indicative of the concentration of the one or more gases of interest in the measurement path. More specifically, one embodiment of the present invention is a gas filter correlation radiometer which comprises a polarizer, a polarization modulator, a polarization beam splitter, a beam combiner, wavelength partitioning element, and detection element. The gases of interest are measured simultaneously and, further, can be measured independently or non-independently. Furthermore, optical or electronic element are provided to balance optical intensities between the two optical paths.

  1. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies

  2. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  3. Method of Liquifying a gas

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.; Bingham, Dennis N.; McKellar, Michael G.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Klingler, Kerry M.

    2006-02-14

    A method of liquefying a gas is disclosed and which includes the steps of pressurizing a liquid; mixing a reactant composition with the pressurized liquid to generate a high pressure gas; supplying the high pressure gas to an expansion engine which produces a gas having a reduced pressure and temperature, and which further generates a power and/or work output; coupling the expansion engine in fluid flowing relation relative to a refrigeration assembly, and wherein the gas having the reduced temperature is provided to the refrigeration assembly; and energizing and/or actuating the refrigeration assembly, at least in part, by supplying the power and/or work output generated by the expansion engine to the refrigeration assembly, the refrigeration assembly further reducing the temperature of the gas to liquefy same.

  4. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Wozniak, John J.; Tiller, Dale B.; Wienhold, Paul D.; Hildebrand, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  6. Gas release in comet nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prialnik, Dina; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    1990-01-01

    Processes taking place during the evolution of a comet nucleus are examined, taking into account the release of gas on crystallization and the gas flow through the porous nucleus. In particular, the stresses caused by the gas pressure, the contribution of gas flow to the heat transfer, and the rate of gas emission by the comet along its orbit were determined using a model of spherically symmetric comet nucleus made of porous amorphous ice, with 10 percent CO gas trapped in it. Several values of density and pore size are considered, and for each combination of parameters, the model is evolved for 20-30 revolutions in Comet P/Halley's orbit. It is shown that a model of 0.2 g/cu cm density reproduces well many of the light-curve and activity characteristics of Comet P/Halley.

  7. Coal Cleaning by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Meiyu Shen; Royce Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1998-03-01

    The gas agglomeration method of coal cleaning was demonstrated with laboratory scale mixing equipment which made it possible to generate microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions of coal particles. A small amount of i-octane was introduced to enhance the hydrophobicity of the coal. Between 1.0 and 2.5 v/w% i-octane was sufficient based on coal weight. Coal agglomerates or aggregates were produced which were bound together by small gas bubbles.

  8. Natural gas monthly, May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-24

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Natural gas monthly, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  10. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  11. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  12. System of treating flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-12-01

    A system is described for treating or cleaning incinerator flue gas containing acid gases and radioactive and fissionable contaminants. Flue gas and a quench solution are fed into a venturi and then tangentially into the lower portion of a receptacle for restricting volumetric content of the solution. The upper portion of the receptacle contains a scrub bed to further treat or clean the flue gas.

  13. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  14. Laser-induced gas vortices.

    PubMed

    Steinitz, Uri; Prior, Yehiam; Averbukh, Ilya Sh

    2012-07-20

    Recently, several femtosecond-laser techniques have demonstrated molecular excitation to high rotational states with a preferred sense of rotation. We consider collisional relaxation in a dense gas of such unidirectionally rotating molecules, and suggest that due to angular momentum conservation, collisions lead to the generation of macroscopic vortex gas flows. This argument is supported using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method, followed by a computational gas-dynamic analysis. PMID:22861845

  15. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  16. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-04-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Potting and module materials testing were initiated. Preliminary design

  17. Genesis Noble Gas Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, Charles M.

    2005-01-01

    The original thrust of our Genesis funding was to extend and refine the noble gas analytical capabilities of this laboratory to improve the precision and accuracy of noble gas measurements in order to optimize the scientific return from the Genesis Mission. This process involved both instrumental improvement (supplemented by a SRLIDAP instrument grant) and refinement of technique. The Genesis landing mishap shifted our emphasis to the irregular aluminum heat shield material from the flat collector wafers. This has required redesign of our laser extraction cells to accommodate the longer focal lengths required for laser extraction from non-flat surfaces. Extraction of noble gases from solid aluminum surfaces, rather than thin coatings on transparent substrates has required refinement of controlled-depth laser ablation techniques. Both of these bring new problems, both with potentially higher blanks form larger laser cells and the larger quantities of evaporated aluminum which can coat the sapphire entrance ports. This is mainly a problem for the heavy noble gases where larger extraction areas are required, necessitating the new aluminum vapor containment techniques described below. With the Genesis Mission came three new multiple multiplier noble gas mass spectrometers to this laboratory, one built solely by us (Supergnome-M), one built in collaboration with Nu-Instruments (Noblesse), and one built in collaboration with GVI (Helix). All of these have multiple multiplier detection sections with the Nu-Instruments using a pair of electrostatic quad lenses for isotope spacing and the other two using mechanically adjustable positions for the electron multipliers. The Supergnome-M and Noblesse are installed and running. The GVI instrument was delivered a year late (in March 2005) and is yet to be installed by GVI. As with all new instruments there were some initial development issues, some of which are still outstanding. The most serious of these are performance issues

  18. Flammable gas project topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1997-01-29

    The flammable gas safety issue was recognized in 1990 with the declaration of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) by the U. S. Department of Energy as a result of the behavior of the Hanford Site high-level waste tank 241-SY-101. This tank exhibited episodic releases of flammable gas that on a couple of occasions exceeded the lower flammability limit of hydrogen in air. Over the past six years there has been a considerable amount of knowledge gained about the chemical and physical processes that govern the behavior of tank 241-SY-1 01 and other tanks associated with the flammable gas safety issue. This report was prepared to provide an overview of that knowledge and to provide a description of the key information still needed to resolve the issue. Items covered by this report include summaries of the understanding of gas generation, retention and release mechanisms, the composition and flammability behavior of the gas mixture, the amounts of stored gas, and estimated gas release fractions for spontaneous releases. `Me report also discusses methods being developed for evaluating the 177 tanks at the Hanford Site and the problems associated with these methods. Means for measuring the gases emitted from the waste are described along with laboratory experiments designed to gain more information regarding rates of generation, species of gases emitted and modes of gas storage and release. Finally, the process for closing the USQ is outlined as are the information requirements to understand and resolve the flammable gas issue.

  19. Welding torch gas cup extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The invention relates to a gas shielded electric arc welding torch having a detachable gas cup extension which may be of any desired configuration or length. The gas cup extension assembly is mounted on a standard electric welding torch gas cup to enable welding in areas with limited access. The gas cup assembly has an upper tubular insert that fits within the gas cup such that its lower portion protrudes thereform and has a lower tubular extension that is screwed into the lower portion. The extension has a rim to define the outer perimeter of the seat edge about its entrance opening so a gasket may be placed to effect an airtight seal between the gas cup and extension. The tubular extension may be made of metal or cermaic material that can be machined. The novelty lies in the use of an extension assembly for a standard gas cup of an electric arc welding torch which extension assembly is detachable permitting the use of a number of extensions which may be of different configurations and materials and yet fit the standard gas cup.

  20. Ternary gas plasma welding torch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor); Mcgee, William F. (Inventor); Waldron, Douglas J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A plasma arc welding torch is discussed. A first plasma gas is directed through the body of the welding torch and out of the body across the tip of a welding electrode disposed at the forward end of the body. A second plasma gas is disposed for flow through a longitudinal bore in the electrode. The second plasma gas enters one end of the electrode and exits the electrode at the tip thereof for co-acting with the electric welding arc to produce the desired weld. A shield gas is directed through the torch body and circulates around the head of the torch adjacent to the electrode tip.

  1. Gas turbine compressor unit repowering

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents how a major US gas transmission and storage company restored gas storage peaking capacity by repowering obsolete gas turbine compressor units. Consumers Power Company`s Ray Field located in Macomb County, Michigan, USA, was developed as a 44 BCF working capacity gas storage field in 1966. Due to the high deliverability, the field is operated as a peaking reservoir, handling rates as high as 500 MMCFD on injection and 1,200 MMCFD on withdrawal. Ten 2,750 horsepower gas turbine driven 4-stage centrifugal compressor units were installed in the mid to late 1960`s at the field. The compression is operated 2, 4 and 8 stage, as needed, to cover storage pressures of 450 to 1,800 psig. Each centrifugal compressor is driven by a Pratt Whitney (PW) GG-12 Gas Generator firing into a Cooper-Bessemer (CB) RT-27 Power Turbine. By 1980 parts and maintenance services for the PW GG-12 Gas Generator became very expensive to non-existent. In 1994 Consumers Power committed to a gas turbine unit repowering program as the preferred choice over unit replacement. Two refurbished Solar Centaur T4500 Gas Turbine drives were purchased and installed to repower 2 of the obsolete turbine units. This paper describes the retrofit.

  2. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

    1996-05-07

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

  3. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D.; Bounds, John A.; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W.

    1996-01-01

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.

  4. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  5. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  6. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  7. Neutral gas dynamics in fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-06-01

    Fireballs are local discharge phenomena on positively biased electrodes in partially ionized plasmas. Electrons, energized at a double layer, heat neutral gas which expands. The gas pressure exceeds the plasma pressure, hence becomes important to the stability and transport in fireballs. The flow of gas moves the electrode and sensors similar to a mica pendulum. Flow speed and directions are measured. A fireball gun has been developed to partially collimate the flow of hot gas and heat objects in its path. New applications of fireballs are suggested.

  8. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  9. Uniform quantized electron gas.

    PubMed

    Høye, Johan S; Lomba, Enrique

    2016-10-19

    In this work we study the correlation energy of the quantized electron gas of uniform density at temperature T  =  0. To do so we utilize methods from classical statistical mechanics. The basis for this is the Feynman path integral for the partition function of quantized systems. With this representation the quantum mechanical problem can be interpreted as, and is equivalent to, a classical polymer problem in four dimensions where the fourth dimension is imaginary time. Thus methods, results, and properties obtained in the statistical mechanics of classical fluids can be utilized. From this viewpoint we recover the well known RPA (random phase approximation). Then to improve it we modify the RPA by requiring the corresponding correlation function to be such that electrons with equal spins can not be on the same position. Numerical evaluations are compared with well known results of a standard parameterization of Monte Carlo correlation energies. PMID:27546166

  10. Detection of gas leakage

    DOEpatents

    Thornberg, Steven M; Brown, Jason

    2015-02-17

    A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as a device, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), provides a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement. The PPM is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr) using a venturi pump, perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    Power plants were the largest stationary source of direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States in 2010, according to data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) GHG Reporting Program, the agency announced on 11 January. The GHG data set, which includes reports from more than 6700 facilities, provides information that the public can search to identify local sources of emissions and that businesses can use to track emissions. Gina McCarthy, assistant administrator for EPA's Office of Air and Radiation, said the program is “a transparent, powerful data resource available to the public” and that it provides “a critical tool” for businesses and others to find efficiencies to reduce emissions.

  12. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  13. Gas in void galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreckel, Kathryn Joyce

    Void galaxies, residing within the deepest underdensities of the Cosmic Web, present an ideal population for the study of galaxy formation and evolution in an environment undisturbed by the complex processes modifying galaxies in clusters and groups, and provide an observational test for theories of cosmological structure formation. We investigate the neutral hydrogen properties (i.e. content, morphology, kinematics) of void galaxies, both individually and systematically, using a combination of observations and simulations, to form a more complete understanding of the nature of these systems. We investigate in detail the H I morphology and kinematics of two void galaxies. One is an isolated polar disk galaxy in a diffuse cosmological wall situated between two voids. The considerable gas mass and apparent lack of stars in the polar disk, coupled with the general underdensity of the environment, supports recent theories of cold flow accretion as an alternate formation mechanism for polar disk galaxies. We also examine KK 246, the only confirmed galaxy located within the nearby Tully Void. It is a dwarf galaxy with an extremely extended H I disk and signs of an H I cloud with anomalous velocity. It also exhibits clear misalignment between the kinematical major and minor axes, and a general misalignment between the H I and optical major axes. The relative isolation and extreme underdense environment make these both very interesting cases for examining the role of gas accretion in galaxy evolution. To study void galaxies as a population, we have carefully selected a sample of 60 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the SDSS. We have imaged this new Void Galaxy Survey in H I at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope with a typical resolution of 8 kpc, probing a volume of 1.2 Mpc and 12,000 km s^-1 surrounding each galaxy. We reach H I mass limits of 2 x 10^8 M_sun and column density sensitivities of 5 x 10^19 cm^-2

  14. Gas turbine combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burd, Steven W. (Inventor); Cheung, Albert K. (Inventor); Dempsey, Dae K. (Inventor); Hoke, James B. (Inventor); Kramer, Stephen K. (Inventor); Ols, John T. (Inventor); Smith, Reid Dyer Curtis (Inventor); Sowa, William A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a combustor module including an annular combustor having a liner assembly that defines an annular combustion chamber having a length, L. The liner assembly includes a radially inner liner, a radially outer liner that circumscribes the inner liner, and a bulkhead, having a height, H1, which extends between the respective forward ends of the inner liner and the outer liner. The combustor has an exit height, H3, at the respective aft ends of the inner liner and the outer liner interior. The annular combustor has a ratio H1/H3 having a value less than or equal to 1.7. The annular combustor may also have a ration L/H3 having a value less than or equal to 6.0.

  15. Inert gas ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    Inert gas performance with three types of 12 cm diameter magnetoelectrostatic containment (MESC) ion thrusters was tested. The types tested included: (1) a hemispherical shaped discharge chamber with platinum cobalt magnets; (2) three different lengths of the hemispherical chambers with samarium cobalt magnets; and (3) three lengths of the conical shaped chambers with aluminum nickel cobalt magnets. The best argon performance was produced by a 8.0 cm long conical chamber with alnico magnets. The best xenon high mass utilization performance was obtained with the same 8.0 cm long conical thruster. The hemispherical thruster obtained 75 to 87% mass utilization at 185 to 205 eV/ion of singly charged ion equivalent beam.

  16. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Janos; Dowdy, Thomas E.; Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1997-01-01

    A combustor for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone.

  17. OTEC gas desorption studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F. C.; Golshani, A.

    1982-02-01

    Experiments on deaeration in packed columns and barometric intake systems, and with hydraulic air compression for open-cycle OTEC systems are reported. A gas desorption test loop consisting of water storage tanks, a vacuum system, a liquid recirculating system, an air supply, a column test section, and two barometric leg test sections was used to perform the tests. The aerated water was directed through columns filled with either ceramic Raschig rings or plastic pall rings, and the system vacuum pressure, which drives the deaeration process, was found to be dependent on water velocity and intake pipe height. The addition of a barometric intake pipe increased the deaeration effect 10%, and further tests were run with lengths of PVC pipe as potential means for noncondensibles disposal through hydraulic air compression. Using the kinetic energy from the effluent flow to condense steam in the noncondensible stream improved the system efficiency.

  18. Inert gas thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Some advances in component technology for inert gas thrusters are described. The maximum electron emission of a hollow cathode with Ar was increased 60-70% by the use of an enclosed keeper configuration. Operation with Ar, but without emissive oxide, was also obtained. A 30 cm thruster operated with Ar at moderate discharge voltages give double-ion measurements consistent with a double ion correlation developed previously using 15 cm thruster data. An attempt was made to reduce discharge losses by biasing anodes positive of the discharge plasma. The reason this attempt was unsuccessful is not yet clear. The performance of a single-grid ion-optics configuration was evaluated. The ion impingement on the single grid accelerator was found to approach the value expected from the projected blockage when the sheath thickness next to the accelerator was 2-3 times the aperture diameter.

  19. Detection of gas leakage

    DOEpatents

    Thornberg, Steven; Brown, Jason

    2012-06-19

    A method of detecting leaks and measuring volumes as well as an apparatus, the Power-free Pump Module (PPM), that is a self-contained leak test and volume measurement apparatus that requires no external sources of electrical power during leak testing or volume measurement, where the invention is a portable, pneumatically-controlled instrument capable of generating a vacuum, calibrating volumes, and performing quantitative leak tests on a closed test system or device, all without the use of alternating current (AC) power. Capabilities include the ability is to provide a modest vacuum (less than 10 Torr), perform a pressure rise leak test, measure the gas's absolute pressure, and perform volume measurements. All operations are performed through a simple rotary control valve which controls pneumatically-operated manifold valves.

  20. Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixture for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below about 0.5 eV; whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  1. Gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; McCorkle, Dennis L.; Maxey, David V.; Carter, James G.

    1982-01-05

    Improved binary and ternary gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one molecular gas or mixture of two molecular gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a noble gas having a very small cross section at and below about 1.0 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electric field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  2. Improved gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Maxey, D.V.; Carter, J.G.

    1980-03-28

    Improved binary and ternary gas mixtures for gas-filled radiation detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one molecular gas or mixture of two molecular gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a noble gas having a very small cross section at and below about 1.0 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electric field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  3. Gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; McCorkle, Dennis L.; Maxey, David V.; Carter, James G.

    1980-01-01

    Improved binary and tertiary gas mixtures for gas-filled particle detectors are provided. The components are chosen on the basis of the principle that the first component is one gas or mixture of two gases having a large electron scattering cross section at energies of about 0.5 eV and higher, and the second component is a gas (Ar) having a very small cross section at and below aout 0.5 eV, whereby fast electrons in the gaseous mixture are slowed into the energy range of about 0.5 eV where the cross section for the mixture is small and hence the electron mean free path is large. The reduction in both the cross section and the electron energy results in an increase in the drift velocity of the electrons in the gas mixtures over that for the separate components for a range of E/P (pressure-reduced electron field) values. Several gas mixtures are provided that provide faster response in gas-filled detectors for convenient E/P ranges as compared with conventional gas mixtures.

  4. Potential gas panel finds plenty of gas in United States

    SciTech Connect

    O'Driscoll, M.

    1993-06-15

    The Potential Gas Committee estimates the US natural gas resource base at 1,019 trillion cubic feet (tcf). The biennial PGC report, based on information gathered as of January 1, 1993, largely reaffirms other such recent natural gas resource estimates from the National Petroleum Council, Enron Corp., the Gas Research Institute and the federal government's National Energy Strategy. But the PGC differs from the other reports in several ways. PGC bases its estimates on research done in geologic basins instead of computer modeling, takes a conservative approach by eliminating such non-conventional gas sources as tight sands formations, does not factor in specific price thresholds and does not account for political and policy considerations that make some gas reserves off limits to production. The committee couples the Energy Department's proved reserves estimate of 165 tcf with its own estimate of 717 tcf of conventional resources and 135 tcf of coal-bed methane for an arithmetic summation of the most likely volumes of natural gas to be found. The conventional gas resources are comprised of 185 tcf of probable resources in current fields, 267 tcf of possible resources in new fields and 265 tcf of speculative resources. Coalbed methane resources include probable resources of 11.6 tcf, possible resources of 40.2 tcf and speculative resources of 83.2 tcf.

  5. Gas loading system for LANL two-stage gas guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Lee; Bartram, Brian; Dattelbaum, Dana; Lang, John; Morris, John

    2015-06-01

    A novel gas loading system was designed for the specific application of remotely loading high purity gases into targets for gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. The high purity gases are loaded into well-defined target configurations to obtain Hugoniot states in the gas phase at greater than ambient pressures. The small volume of the gas samples is challenging, as slight changing in the ambient temperature result in measurable pressure changes. Therefore, the ability to load a gas gun target and continually monitor the sample pressure prior to firing provides the most stable and reliable target fielding approach. We present the design and evaluation of a gas loading system built for the LANL 50 mm bore two-stage light gas gun. Targets for the gun are made of 6061 Al or OFHC Cu, and assembled to form a gas containment cell with a volume of approximately 1.38 cc. The compatibility of materials was a major consideration in the design of the system, particularly for its use with corrosive gases. Piping and valves are stainless steel with wetted seals made from Kalrez and Teflon. Preliminary testing was completed to ensure proper flow rate and that the proper safety controls were in place. The system has been used to successfully load Ar, Kr, Xe, and anhydrous ammonia with purities of up to 99.999 percent. The design of the system, and example data from the plate impact experiments will be shown. LA-UR-15-20521

  6. Economic gas chromatograph system for subambient pressure gas sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, S. M.

    1970-01-01

    Gas chromatograph sampling system consists of a manifold with a gas-sample valve, a minimum-volume pressure transducer with a portable monitor, a vacuum-source valve, and a sample inlet valve. Increased accuracy of analysis is obtained by better control of sample size.

  7. Computational reacting gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    In the study of high speed flows at high altitudes, such as that encountered by re-entry spacecrafts, the interaction of chemical reactions and other non-equilibrium processes in the flow field with the gas dynamics is crucial. Generally speaking, problems of this level of complexity must resort to numerical methods for solutions, using sophisticated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. The difficulties introduced by reacting gas dynamics can be classified into three distinct headings: (1) the usually inadequate knowledge of the reaction rate coefficients in the non-equilibrium reaction system; (2) the vastly larger number of unknowns involved in the computation and the expected stiffness of the equations; and (3) the interpretation of the detailed reacting CFD numerical results. The research performed accepts the premise that reacting flows of practical interest in the future will in general be too complex or 'untractable' for traditional analytical developments. The power of modern computers must be exploited. However, instead of focusing solely on the construction of numerical solutions of full-model equations, attention is also directed to the 'derivation' of the simplified model from the given full-model. In other words, the present research aims to utilize computations to do tasks which have traditionally been done by skilled theoreticians: to reduce an originally complex full-model system into an approximate but otherwise equivalent simplified model system. The tacit assumption is that once the appropriate simplified model is derived, the interpretation of the detailed numerical reacting CFD numerical results will become much easier. The approach of the research is called computational singular perturbation (CSP).

  8. Characterization of Gas Amplification in Varied Gas Mixtures for Stacked Gas Electron Multiplier and Micromegas Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Raymond

    2015-04-01

    Micropattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs) represent a promising group of gas amplification technologies. Utilizing large electric fields over geometries on the order of tens of micrometers, these elements can achieve large gas amplification while minimizing field distortions by minimizing the number of ions escaping from the amplification stage. Such properties are extremely useful for readout in gaseous detectors such as Time Projection Chambers. Two types of MPGDs are of particular interest, Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) and Micro-mesh Gaseous Structure (Micromegas) detectors. These elements may be stacked, which allows for the utilization of the best properties of both, further improving the amplification performance. We report here on the characterization of 2 GEMs stacked on top of a Micromegas. In particular, I will present the dependence of gas amplification on Micromegas voltage in various gas mixtures, as well as an investigation into stability of the elements against sparking.

  9. Apparatus for gas sorption measurement with integrated gas composition measurement device and gas mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Micklash. II, Kenneth James; Dutton, Justin James; Kaye, Steven

    2014-06-03

    An apparatus for testing of multiple material samples includes a gas delivery control system operatively connectable to the multiple material samples and configured to provide gas to the multiple material samples. Both a gas composition measurement device and pressure measurement devices are included in the apparatus. The apparatus includes multiple selectively openable and closable valves and a series of conduits configured to selectively connect the multiple material samples individually to the gas composition device and the pressure measurement devices by operation of the valves. A mixing system is selectively connectable to the series of conduits and is operable to cause forced mixing of the gas within the series of conduits to achieve a predetermined uniformity of gas composition within the series of conduits and passages.

  10. Flammable Gas Detection for the D-Zero Gas System

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, L.D.; Foglesong, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-02-11

    The use of flammable gas and high voltage in detector systems is common in many experiments at Fermilab. To mitigate the hazards associated with these systems, Fermilab Engineering Standard SD-45B (Ref. 1) was adopted. Since this note is meant to be a guide and not a mandatory standard, each experiment is reviewed for compliance with SD-45B by the flammable gas safety subcommittee. Currently, there are only two types of flammable gas in use, ethane (Appendix A) and methane (Appendix B). The worst flammable-gas case is C2H6 (ethane), which has an estimated flow rate that is 73% of the CH4 (methane) flow but a heat of combustion (in kcal/g-mole) that is 173% of that of methane. In the worst case, if ethane were to spew through its restricting orifice into its gas line at 0 psig and then through a catastrophic leak into Room 215 (TRD) or Room 511 (CDC/FDCNTX), the time that would be required to build up a greater than Class 1 inventory (0.4kg H2 equivalent) would be 5.2 hours (Ref. 2). Therefore a worst-case flammable gas leak would have to go undetected for over 5 hours in order to transform a either mixing room to an environment with a Risk Class greater than Class 1. The mixing systems, gas lines, and detectors themselves will be thoroughly leak checked prior to active service. All vessels that are part of the mixing systems will be protected from overpressure by safety valves vented outside the building. Both the input and output of all detector volumes are protected from overpressure in the same way. The volume immediately outside the central tracking detectors is continuously purged by nitrogen from boiloff from the main nitrogen dewar at the site. However, if flammable gas were to build up in the mixing rooms or particular detector areas, no matter how unlikely, flammable gas detectors that are part of the interlock chain of each gas mixing system will shut down the appropriate system. This includes shutting off the output of flammable gas manifolds within the

  11. Hydrocarbon Processing`s gas processes `96

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This review summarizes 71 processes, describing the process, its application, products, operating conditions, economics, installations, and licensor. Processes include desulfurization, CO{sub 2} removal, sulfur recovery, NGL recovery, deoxygenation, hydrogen production and separation, cryogenic separation of hydrocarbon fractions, dehydration, liquefaction of natural gas, LPG recovery, denitrogenation, and synthesis gas production. While most processes apply to natural gas, some are also useful for refinery gas, synthesis gas, coal mine gas, and tail gas from other processes.

  12. Getting the gas out - developing gas networks in magmatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, Katharine; Rust, Alison; Oppenheimer, Julie; Belien, Isolde

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruption style, and explosive potential, are strongly controlled by the pre-eruptive history of the magmatic volatiles: specifically, the more efficient the gas loss prior to eruption, the lower the likelihood of primary (magmatic) explosive activity. Commonly considered gas loss mechanisms include separated flow, where individual bubbles (or bubble clouds) travel at a rate that is faster than the host magma, and permeable flow, where gas escapes through permeable (connected) pathways developed within a (relatively) static matrix. Importantly, gas loss via separated flow is episodic, while gas loss via permeable flow is likely to be continuous. Analogue experiments and numerical models on three phase (solid-liquid-gas) systems also suggest a third mechanism of gas loss that involves the opening and closing of 'pseudo fractures'. Pseudo fractures form at a critical crystallinity that is close to the maximum particle packing. Fractures form by local rearrangement of solid particles and liquid to form a through-going gas fracture; gas escape is episodic, and modulated by the available gas volume and the rate of return flow of interstitial liquid back into the fracture. In all of the gas escape scenarios described above, a fundamental control on gas behaviour is the melt viscosity, which affects the rate of individual bubble rise, the rate of bubble expansion, the rate of film thinning (required for bubble coalescence), and the rate of melt flow into gas-generated fractures. From the perspective of magma degassing, rates of gas expansion and film thinning are key to the formation of an interconnected (permeable) gas pathway. Experiments with both analogue and natural materials show that bubble coalescence is relatively slow, and, in particle-poor melts, does not necessarily create permeable gas networks. As a result, degassing efficiency is modulated by the time scales required either (1) to produce large individual bubbles or bubble clouds (in low viscosity

  13. Trinity Gas to explore for gas in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Trinity Gas Corp. officials signed an agreement on May 20, 1997, with the Cauca Valley Corp. (CVC) allowing Trinity to use CVC data to explore for natural gas in the Cauca Valley of Colombia. CVC, Colombia`s Valle del Cauca water resources and environmental division, is evaluating Colombia`s underground water reserves to protect, control and preserve fresh water aquifers, some of which contain natural gas pockets that cause blowouts in farmers` water wells. Preparations now are underway for drilling Trinity`s first well at the Palmira 1 site on the San Jose Hacienda, the largest privately owned sugar cane plantation in the valley. Trinity also entered into an agreement with the Cauca Valley Natural Gas and Electricity Project to furnish natural gas, generated electricity and energy fuel for the industrial district in the region. According to this contract, many valley residents will have electric service for the first time.

  14. Unconventional gas resources. [Eastern Gas Shales, Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, Methane from Geopressured Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Komar, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This document describes the program goals, research activities, and the role of the Federal Government in a strategic plan to reduce the uncertainties surrounding the reserve potential of the unconventional gas resources, namely, the Eastern Gas Shales, the Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, and methane from Geopressured Aquifers. The intent is to provide a concise overview of the program and to identify the technical activities that must be completed in the successful achievement of the objectives.

  15. 75 FR 73076 - National Gas Supply Association, American Forest and Paper Association, Inc., American Public Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...., American Public Gas Association, Independent Petroleum Association of America, Process Gas Consumers Group... Petroleum Association of America, and Process Gas Consumers Group (collectively, the Associations), filed...

  16. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-15

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  17. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-01-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

  18. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2002-06-30

    Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

  19. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2002-06-01

    Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment has been initiated. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

  20. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2002-10-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. KPS and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues.

  1. A bubble-based microfluidic gas sensor for gas chromatographs.

    PubMed

    Bulbul, Ashrafuzzaman; Kim, Hanseup

    2015-01-01

    We report a new proof-of-concept bubble-based gas sensor for a gas chromatography system, which utilizes the unique relationship between the diameters of the produced bubbles with the gas types and mixture ratios as a sensing element. The bubble-based gas sensor consists of gas and liquid channels as well as a nozzle to produce gas bubbles through a micro-structure. It utilizes custom-developed software and an optical camera to statistically analyze the diameters of the produced bubbles in flow. The fabricated gas sensor showed that five types of gases (CO2, He, H2, N2, and CH4) produced (1) unique volumes of 0.44, 0.74, 1.03, 1.28, and 1.42 nL (0%, 68%, 134%, 191%, and 223% higher than that of CO2) and (2) characteristic linear expansion coefficients (slope) of 1.38, 2.93, 3.45, 5.06, and 5.44 nL/(kPa (μL s(-1))(-1)). The gas sensor also demonstrated that (3) different gas mixture ratios of CO2 : N2 (100 : 0, 80 : 20, 50 : 50, 20 : 80 and 0 : 100) generated characteristic bubble diameters of 48.95, 77.99, 71.00, 78.53 and 99.50 μm, resulting in a linear coefficient of 10.26 μm (μL s(-1))(-1). It (4) successfully identified an injection (0.01 μL) of pentane (C5) into a continuous carrier gas stream of helium (He) by monitoring bubble diameters and creating a chromatogram and demonstrated (5) the output stability within only 5.60% variation in 67 tests over a month. PMID:25350655

  2. 78 FR 38309 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida Gas Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Florida... Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124; on behalf of itself, Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C., and Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, (collectively,...

  3. Gas in the Digestive Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... digestive tract when you swallow air and when bacteria in your large intestine break down certain undigested foods. ​​​​ Diagnosis of Gas Doctors may diagnose the causes of gas with a medical history and physical exam. If your doctor suspects you ...

  4. Natural Gas Industry and Markets

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004.

  5. Automotive gas turbine fuel control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A fuel control system is reported for automotive-type gas turbines and particulary advanced gas turbines utilizing variable geometry components to improve mileage and reduce pollution emission. The fuel control system compensates for fuel density variations, inlet temperature variations, turbine vane actuation, acceleration, and turbine braking. These parameters are utilized to control various orifices, spool valves and pistons.

  6. Enviropower hot gas desulfurization pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Ghazanfari, R.; Feher, G.; Konttinen, J.; Ghazanfari, R.; Lehtovaara, A.; Mojtahedi, W.

    1994-11-01

    The objectives of the project are to develop and demonstrate (1) hydrogen sulfide removal using regenerable zinc titanate sorbent in pressurized fluidized bed reactors, (2) recovery of the elemental sulfur from the tail-gas of the sorbent regenerator and (3) hot gas particulate removal system using ceramic candle filters. Results are presented on pilot plant design and testing and modeling efforts.

  7. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  8. Gas-filled hohlraum fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.A.; Gobby, P.L.; Foreman, L.R.; Bush, H. Jr.; Gomez, V.M.; Moore, J.E.; Stone, G.F.

    1995-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have fabricated and fielded gas-filled hohlraums at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nova laser. Fill pressures of 1--5 atmospheres have been typical. We describe the production of the parts, their assembly and fielding. Emphasis is placed on the production of gas-tight polyimide windows and the fielding apparatus and procedure.

  9. Monitoring Welding-Gas Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, Kevin L.

    1988-01-01

    System monitors welding gas to ensure characteristics within predetermined values. Responds to changes that might go unnoticed by human operator and acts quickly to prevent weld defects. Electronic pressure controller employs various amounts of gain, equalization, and compensation to respond to changes in gas-supply pressure. Works in conjuction with pressure/oxygen/moisture monitor.

  10. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  11. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  12. Miniature Gas-Circulating Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swift, Walter L.; Valenzuela, Javier A.; Sixsmith, Herbert; Nutt, William E.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed gas-circulating machine consists essentially of centrifugal pump driven by induction motor. Noncontact bearings suppress wear and contamination. Used to circulate helium (or possibly hydrogen or another gas) in regeneration sorption-compressor refrigeration system aboard spacecraft. Also proves useful in terrestrial applications in which long life, reliability, and low contamination essential.

  13. Gas Centrifuges and Nuclear Proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, David

    2004-09-15

    Gas centrifuges have been an ideal enrichment method for a wide variety of countries. Many countries have built gas centrifuges to make enriched uranium for peaceful nuclear purposes. Other countries have secretly sought centrifuges to make highly enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. In more recent times, several countries have secretly sought or built gas centrifuges in regions of tension. The main countries that have been of interest in the last two decades have been Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, and North Korea. Currently, most attention is focused on Iran, Pakistan, and North Korea. These states did not have the indigenous abilities to make gas centrifuges, focusing instead on illicit and questionable foreign procurement. The presentation covered the following main sections: Spread of centrifuges through illicit procurement; Role of export controls in stopping proliferation; Increasing the transparency of gas centrifuge programs in non-nuclear weapon states; and, Verified dismantlement of gas centrifuge programs. Gas centrifuges are important providers of low enriched uranium for civil nuclear power reactors. They also pose special nuclear proliferation risks. We all have special responsibilities to prevent the spread of gas centrifuges into regions of tension and to mitigate the consequences of their spread into the Middle East, South Asia, and North Asia.

  14. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  15. Laboratory Connections. Gas Monitoring Transducers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses three types of sensors; pressure, gas detection, and relative humidity. Explains their use for laboratory measurements of gas pressure and detection of specific gaseous species. Shows diagrams of devices and circuits along with examples and applications including microcomputer interfacing. (RT)

  16. Update on Texas gas proration

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, J.E. )

    1992-06-01

    On April 27th the Railroad Commission unanimously adopted what has been called Interim Rule Revisions for our gas proration. We had already started the oil and gas staff and data processing division working on the mechanics of the proposals months earlier.

  17. Gas Hydrate and Pore Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinivella, Umberta; Giustiniani, Michela

    2014-05-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to quantify excess pore pressures related to gas hydrate dissociation in marine sediments below the BSR using several approaches. Dissociation of gas hydrates in proximity of the BSR, in response to a change in the physical environment (i.e., temperature and/or pressure regime), can liberate excess gas incrising the local pore fluid pressure in the sediment, so decreasing the effective normal stress. So, gas hydrate dissociation may lead to excess pore pressure resulting in sediment deformation or failure, such as submarine landslides, sediment slumping, pockmarks and mud volcanoes, soft-sediment deformation and giant hummocks. Moreover, excess pore pressure may be the result of gas hydrate dissociation due to continuous sedimentation, tectonic uplift, sea level fall, heating or inhibitor injection. In order to detect the presence of the overpressure below the BSR, we propose two approachs. The fist approach models the BSR depth versus pore pressure; in fact, if the free gas below the BSR is in overpressure condition, the base of the gas hydrate stability is deeper with respect to the hydrostatic case. This effect causes a discrepancy between seismic and theoretical BSR depths. The second approach models the velocities versus gas hydrate and free gas concentrations and pore pressure, considering the approximation of the Biot theory in case of low frequency, i.e. seismic frequency. Knowing the P and S seismic velocity from seismic data analysis, it is possibile to jointly estimate the gas hydrate and free gas concentrations and the pore pressure regime. Alternatively, if the S-wave velocity is not availbale (due to lack of OBS/OBC data), an AVO analysis can be performed in order to extract information about Poisson ratio. Our modeling suggests that the areas characterized by shallow waters (i.e., areas in which human infrastructures, such as pipelines, are present) are significantly affected by the presence of overpressure condition

  18. Galactic Fountains and Gas Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinacci, F.; Binney, J.; Fraternali, F.; Nipoti, C.; Ciotti, L.; Londrillo, P.

    2010-06-01

    Star-forming disc galaxies such as the Milky Way need to accrete >~1 Msolar of gas each year to sustain their star formation. This gas accretion is likely to come from the cooling of the hot corona, however it is still not clear how this process can take place. We present simulations supporting the idea that this cooling and the subsequent accretion are caused by the passage of cold galactic-fountain clouds through the hot corona. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability strips gas from these clouds and the stripped gas causes coronal gas to condense in the cloud's wake. For likely parameters of the Galactic corona and of typical fountain clouds we obtain a global accretion rate of the order of that required to feed the star formation.

  19. Methodology for flammable gas evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, J.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    There are 177 radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste generates flammable gases. The waste releases gas continuously, but in some tanks the waste has shown a tendency to trap these flammable gases. When enough gas is trapped in a tank`s waste matrix, it may be released in a way that renders part or all of the tank atmosphere flammable for a period of time. Tanks must be evaluated against previously defined criteria to determine whether they can present a flammable gas hazard. This document presents the methodology for evaluating tanks in two areas of concern in the tank headspace:steady-state flammable-gas concentration resulting from continuous release, and concentration resulting from an episodic gas release.

  20. Gas shale/oil shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, N.S.; Bereskin, S.R.; Bowker, K.A.; Cardott, B.J.; Chidsey, T.C., Jr.; Dubiel, R.F.; Enomoto, C.B.; Harrison, W.B.; Jarvie, D.M.; Jenkins, C.L.; LeFever, J.A.; Li, Peng; McCracken, J.N.; Morgan, C.D.; Nordeng, S.H.; Nyahay, R.E.; Schamel, Steven; Sumner, R.L.; Wray, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides information about specific shales across North America and Europe from which gas (biogenic or thermogenic), oil, or natural gas liquids are produced or is actively being explored. The intent is to re?ect the recently expanded mission of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) Gas Shales Committee to serve as a single point of access to technical information on shales regardless of the type of hydrocarbon produced from them. The contents of this report were drawn largely from contributions by numerous members of the EMD Gas Shales Advisory Committee, with much of the data being available from public websites such as state or provincial geological surveys or other public institutions. Shales from which gas or oil is being produced in the United States are listed in alphabetical order by shale name. Information for Canada is presented by province, whereas for Europe, it is presented by country.

  1. Compressed natural gas measurement issues

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Kinast, J.A.; Freeman, P.M.

    1993-12-31

    The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition`s Measurement and Metering Task Group (MMTG) was established on July 1st, 1992 to develop suggested revisions to National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) Handbook 44-1992 (Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices) and NIST Handbook 130-1991 (Uniform Laws & Regulations). Specifically, the suggested revisions will address the sale and measurement of compressed natural gas when sold as a motor vehicle fuel. This paper briefly discusses the activities of the MMTG and its interaction with NIST. The paper also discusses the Institute of Gas Technology`s (IGT) support of the MMTG in the area of natural gas composition, their impact on metering technology applicable to high pressure fueling stations as well as conversion factors for the establishment of ``gallon gasoline equivalent`` of natural gas. The final portion of this paper discusses IGT`s meter research activities and its meter test facility.

  2. Environmental Dimensions of Shale Gas Extraction and Stray Gas Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Shale gas extraction is growing rapidly in the United States and elsewhere, developed in part through advances in technologies such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Concerns over potential environmental impacts have accompanied the boom in natural gas extraction. For several years we have studied drinking water quality, asking the question, ``Is water quality different for homeowners living near natural gas wells?'' We have sampled shallow groundwater systems of > 300 homeowners, the majority of them in the Marcellus formation of Pennsylvania and New York, for brines, dissolved gases, and other attributes. We have also examined how much methane reaches the atmosphere during the extraction and distribution of natural gas. In a study published in May of 2011 (Osborn et al. 2011, PNAS 108:8172-8176), we found no evidence of increase salt concentrations or fracturing fluids with distance to gas wells for 68 sampled homes. However, dissolved methane concentrations were 17 times higher on average for water wells found within 1km distance of them. A subset of homeowners also had groundwater that indicated the presence of natural hydraulic connections to deeper formations, suggesting specific structural and hydrodynamic regimes where shallow drinking water resources might be at greater risk of contamination with fugitive gases during drilling and hydraulic fracturing of shale gas (Warner et al. 2012, PNAS 109:11961-11966). This presentation will discuss new results from shale gas sampling in 2011 and 2012.

  3. [High Pressure Gas Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintana, Rolando

    2002-01-01

    Four high-pressure gas tanks, the basis of this study, were especially made by a private contractor and tested before being delivered to NASA Kennedy Space Center. In order to insure 100% reliability of each individual tank the staff at KSC decided to again submit the four tanks under more rigorous tests. These tests were conducted during a period from April 10 through May 8 at KSC. This application further validates the predictive safety model for accident prevention and system failure in the testing of four high-pressure gas tanks at Kennedy Space Center, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM). It is apparent from the variety of barriers available for a hazard control that some barriers will be more successful than others in providing protection. In order to complete the Barrier Analysis of the system, a Task Analysis and a Biomechanical Study were performed to establish the relationship between the degree of biomechanical non-conformities and the anomalies found within the system on particular joints of the body. This relationship was possible to obtain by conducting a Regression Analysis to the previously generated data. From the information derived the body segment with the lowest percentage of non-conformities was the neck flexion with 46.7%. Intense analysis of the system was conducted including Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), and Barrier Analysis. These analyses resulted in the identification of occurrences of conditions, which may be becoming hazardous in the given system. These conditions, known as dendritics, may become hazards and could result in an accident, system malfunction, or unacceptable risk conditions. A total of 56 possible dendritics were identified. Work sampling was performed to observe the occurrence each dendritic. The out of control points generated from a Weighted c control chart along with a Pareto analysis indicate that the dendritics "Personnel not

  4. 77 FR 26534 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ..., Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC, Enterprise Field Services, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that..., Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC, and Enterprise Field Services, LLC, filed an application in Docket No... Matagorda Island Areas in Federal offshore waters of Texas (MOPS Phase III Facilities). Any...

  5. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  6. Gas controlled hydrogen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan-Rodrigo; Mohd-Zaki, Zuhaida; Zeng, Raymond J; Bernet, Nicolas; Pratt, Steven; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Batstone, Damien John

    2012-04-01

    Acidogenic fermentation is an anaerobic process of double purpose, while treating organic residues it produces chemical compounds, such as hydrogen, ethanol and organic acids. Therefore, acidogenic fermentation arises as an attractive biotechnology process towards the biorefinery concept. Moreover, this process does not need sterile operating conditions and works under a wide range of pH. Changes of operating conditions produce metabolic shifts, inducing variability on acidogenic product yield. To induce those changes, experiments, based on reactor headspace N(2)-flushing (gas phase), were designed. A major result was the hydrogen yield increase from 1 to 3.25±0.4 ( [Formula: see text] ) at pH 4.5 and N(2)-flushing of 58.4 (L·d(-1)). This yield is close to the theoretical acidogenic value (4 [Formula: see text] ). The mechanisms that explain this increase on hydrogen yield shifts are related to the thermodynamics of three metabolic reactions: lactate hydrogenase, NADH hydrogenase and homoacetogenesis, which are affected by the low hydrogen partial pressures. PMID:22342590

  7. Calorimetric gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Smith, J.H.; Moreno, D.J.; Manginell, R.P.; Senturia, S.D.; Huber, R.J.

    1998-11-10

    A combustible gas sensor is described that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. The filaments tested to date are 2 {micro}m thick {times} 10{micro}m wide {times} 100, 250, 500, or 1000 {micro}m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 {micro}m-thick protective CVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layer. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac){sub 2} onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500 C; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. Using a constant-resistance-mode feedback circuit, Pt-coated filaments operating at ca. 300 C (35 mW input power) respond linearly, in terms of the change in supply current required to maintain constant resistance (temperature), to H{sub 2} concentrations between 100 ppm and 1% in an 80/20 N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixture. Other catalytic materials can also be used. 11 figs.

  8. Calorimetric gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Hughes, Robert C.; Smith, James H.; Moreno, Daniel J.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Senturia, Stephen D.; Huber, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    A combustible gas sensor that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. The filaments tested to date are 2 .mu.m thick.times.10 .mu.m wide.times.100, 250, 500, or 1000 .mu.m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 .mu.m-thick protective CVD Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 layer. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac).sub.2 onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500.degree. C.; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. Using a constant-resistance-mode feedback circuit, Pt-coated filaments operating at ca. 300.degree. C. (35 mW input power) respond linearly, in terms of the change in supply current required to maintain constant resistance (temperature), to H.sub.2 concentrations between 100 ppm and 1% in an 80/20 N.sub.2 /O.sub.2 mixture. Other catalytic materials can also be used.

  9. Flue gas conditioning today

    SciTech Connect

    Southam, B.J.; Coe, E.L. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Many relatively small electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s) exist which collect fly ash at remarkably high efficiencies and have been tested consistently at correspondingly high migration velocities. But the majority of the world`s coal supplies produce ashes which are collected at much lower migration velocities for a given efficiency and therefore require correspondingly large specific collection areas to achieve acceptable results. Early trials of flue gas conditioning (FGC) showed benefits in maximizing ESP performance and minimizing expense which justified continued experimentation. Trials of several dozen ways of doing it wrong eventually developed a set of reliable rules for doing it right. One result is that the use of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) for adjustment of the resistivity of fly ash from low sulfur coal has been widely applied and has become an automatically accepted part of the option of burning low sulfur coal for compliance with the Clean Air Act of l990 in the U.S.A. Currently, over 100,000 MW of generating capacity is using FGC, and it is estimated that approximately 45,800 MW will utilize coal-switching with FGC for Clean Air Act emission compliance. Guarantees that this equipment will be available to operate at least 98 percent of the time it is called upon are routinely fulfilled.

  10. Inert gas thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    Inert gas thrusters have continued to be of interest for space propulsion applications. Xenon is of interest in that its physical characteristics are well suited to propulsion. High atomic weight and low tankage fraction were major factors in this choice. If a large amount of propellant was required, so that cryogenic storage was practical, argon is a more economical alternative. Argon was also the preferred propellant for ground applications of thruster technology, such as sputter etching and deposition. Additional magnetic field measurements are reported. These measurements should be of use in magnetic field design. The diffusion of electrons through the magnetic field above multipole anodes was studied in detail. The data were consistent with Bohm diffusion across a magnetic field. The theory based on Bohm diffusion was simple and easily used for diffusion calculations. Limited startup data were obtained for multipole discharge chambers. These data were obtained with refractory cathodes, but should be useful in predicting the upper limits for starting with hollow cathodes.

  11. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for assistance, under the DOE's Industrial Visitor Exchange Program. Pr. Heinz Heinemann (Catalysis), Dr. John Apps (Geochemistry) and Dr. Robert Fulton (Mechanical Engineering) have expressed interest in supporting our request. Pr. Heinemann's recent results on the conversion of Petroleum Coke residues into CO2 and H2 mixtures using highly basic metal oxides catalysts, similar to ours, are very encouraging regarding the possibility of converting the Coke residue on our catalyst into Syngas in the Regenerator/riser, as proposed. To minimize Coke formation in the vapor phase, by the Plasmapyrolytic Methane Conversion reactions, the experimental data of H. Drost et al. (Ref. 12) have been reviewed. Work is underway to design equipment for the safe and non-polluting disposal of the two gaseous product streams of the flow loop. 2 refs.

  12. Cryogenic gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, E.P.

    1984-04-24

    Higher boiling constituents are separated from a normally gaseous feed mixture, predominating in lower boiling constituents and containing significant amounts of such higher boiling constituents, such as natural gas by fractionally distilling a feed mixture having a temperature substantially below atmospheric temperature at a pressure substantially above atmospheric pressure at which temperature and pressure the feed mixture comprises both vapor and liquid phases to produce a first vapor phase substantially enriched in lower boiling constituents and a first liquid phase substantially enriched in higher boiling constituents, expanding at least a part of the first vapor phase to reduce the pressure and temperature and produce an expanded fluid stream comprising a second vapor phase and a second liquid phase, separating the second vapor phase from the second liquid phase, recycling the second liquid phase to the fractional distillation step as a reflux, recovering the second vapor phase as a product and recovering the first liquid phase as a product. In another embodiment, at least a part of the feed mixture is expanded prior to fractional distillation. In other embodiments, the feed mixture is separated into a vapor phase and a liquid phase and at least a part of the vapor phase is expanded and/or the feed mixture is first cooled by indirect heat exchange with the second vapor phase prior to recovery of the latter as a product.

  13. Thermionic gas switch

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.

    1984-04-05

    The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.

  14. Gas Exchange of Algae

    PubMed Central

    Ammann, Elizabeth C. B.; Lynch, Victoria H.

    1965-01-01

    Continuously growing cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Starr 252, operating at constant density and under constant environmental conditions, produced uniform photosynthetic quotient (PQ = CO2/O2) and O2 values during 6 months of observations. The PQ for the entire study was 0.90 ± 0.024. The PQ remained constant over a threefold light-intensity change and a threefold change in O2 production (0.90 ± 0.019). At low light intensities, when the rate of respiration approached the rate of photosynthesis, the PQ became extremely variable. Six lamps of widely different spectral-energy distribution produced no significant change in the PQ (0.90 ± 0.025). Oxygen production was directly related to the number of quanta available, irrespective of spectral-energy distribution. Such dependability in producing uniform PQ and O2 values warrants a consideration of algae to maintain a constant gas environment for submarine or spaceship use. Images Fig. 1 PMID:14339260

  15. Gas turbine topping combustor

    DOEpatents

    Beer, J.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1997-06-10

    A combustor is described for burning a mixture of fuel and air in a rich combustion zone, in which the fuel bound nitrogen in converted to molecular nitrogen. The fuel rich combustion is followed by lean combustion. The products of combustion from the lean combustion are rapidly quenched so as to convert the fuel bound nitrogen to molecular nitrogen without forming NOx. The combustor has an air radial swirler that directs the air radially inward while swirling it in the circumferential direction and a radial fuel swirler that directs the fuel radially outward while swirling it in the same circumferential direction, thereby promoting vigorous mixing of the fuel and air. The air inlet has a variable flow area that is responsive to variations in the heating value of the fuel, which may be a coal-derived fuel gas. A diverging passage in the combustor in front of a bluff body causes the fuel/air mixture to recirculate with the rich combustion zone. 14 figs.

  16. Exhaust gas ignition

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This article describes a system developed for rapid light-off of underbody catalysts that has shown potential to meet Euro Stage III emissions targets and to be more cost-effective than some alternatives. Future emissions legislation will require SI engine aftertreatment systems to approach full operating efficiency within the first few seconds after starting to reduce the high total-emissions fraction currently contributed by the cold phase of driving. A reduction of cold-start emissions during Phase 1 (Euro) or Bag 1 (FTP), which in many cases can be as much as 80% of the total for the cycle, has been achieved by electrical heating of the catalytic converter. But electrically heated catalyst (EHC) systems require high currents (100--200 A) to heat the metallic substrate to light-off temperatures over the first 15--20 seconds. Other viable approaches to reducing cold-start emissions include use of a fuel-powered burner upstream of the catalyst. However, as with EHC, the complexity of parts and the introduction of raw fuel into the exhaust system make this device unsatisfactory. Still another approach, an exhaust gas ignition (EGI) system, was first demonstrated in 1991. The operation of a system developed by engineers at Ford Motor Co., Ltd., Cambustion Ltd., and Tickford Ltd. is described here.

  17. Inert gas thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Inert gases, particularly argon and xenon, are of interest as possible alternatives to the usual electric thruster propellants of mercury and cesium. Hollow cathode data were obtained for a wide range of operating conditions. Some test conditions gave plasma coupling voltages at or below the sputtering threshold, hence should permit long operating lifetimes. All observations of hollow cathode operation were consistent with a single theory of operation, in which a significant amount of the total electron emission is from localized areas within the orifice. This mode of emission is also supported by scanning electron microscope photographs that indicate local temperatures at or near the melting temperature of the tungsten tip. Experimental hollow cathode performance was correlated for two orifice diameters, three inert gas propellants, and a range of flow rates for each propellant. The basic theory for the production of doubly ionized argon and xenon was completed. Experimental measurements of the doubly ionized fraction agree with theory within about plus or minus 20 percent. High voltage isolators were studied for the propellant feed line. The breakdown voltage per segment ranged from 300 to over 500 V with argon.

  18. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  19. Microscale Gas-Surface Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, W. M.; Rader, D. J.; Gallis, M. A.; Torczynski, J. R.

    2004-11-01

    In gas-filled microsystems, noncontinuum phenomena such as velocity slip and temperature jump become increasingly important as devices become smaller or packaging pressures are reduced. These phenomena are governed by the interaction of gas molecules with the adjacent solid surfaces. Experiments are performed to quantify the interaction of common gases (e.g., nitrogen, argon, helium) with solids of interest for microsystems (e.g., stainless steel, aluminum, gold, silicon dioxide, silicon). The gas is confined between two parallel plates at unequal temperatures, and the gas-phase heat flux is inferred from temperature measurements (radiation is accounted for). For comparison purposes, heat-flux values are also inferred from electron-beam-fluorescence measurements of the gas-phase density gradient. Heat-flux values at several pressures allow the accommodation coefficient to be determined. As well as being useful in its own right, this type of information enables molecular gas dynamics simulations of microscale gas flow using Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Crude oil and natural gas pricing. Chapters 300 to 499: natural gas liquids, natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.D.

    1980-01-01

    This text analyzes the federal statutes and regulations that affect the pricing and allocation of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. It does not cover refined products or imported crude oil except where necessary to place major decisions in historical context. Chapter 300 concerns natural gas liquids. For historical rather than logical reasons, these are regulated as an offshoot of crude oil controls rather than as a by-product of natural gas production. In December 1979, the Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) deregulated butane and natural gasoline. However, it did not amend 10 CFR 212.161-212.173, and it did not deregulate propane or propane mixtures. Decontrol will be covered in the first update to this book. Chapters 400 to 468 concern natural gas. Although a great deal of attention has been focused on the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA), there has been no satisfactory description of the extent to which the Natural Gas Act (NGA; passed in 1938 and amended by the Phillips decision in 1954) still applies. This is quite a problem, since the NGPA is written in vague terms that encourage producers to disregard the NGA. The problem is compounded by the Federal Power Commission's (FPC) approach to regulatory development, which has scattered crucial regulations throughout 18 CFR. All Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) natural gas production regulations should be repealed, arranged into a systematic grouping, and reissued in a consolidated subpart of 18 CFR. Shortly after the publication of this text, the author will petition the FERC to commence a rulemaking proceeding to that effect. Chapters 480 to 498 will cover the use of natural gas. These chapters will be issued in the first revision to this text as general summaries since the programs do not directly affect gas producers.

  1. Sequential gas delivery provides precise control of alveolar gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Joseph A; Iscoe, Steve; Duffin, James

    2016-05-01

    Of the factors determining blood gases, only alveolar ventilation (V˙A) is amenable to manipulation. However, current physiology text books neither describe how breath-by-breath V˙A can be measured, nor how it can be precisely controlled in spontaneously breathing subjects. And such control must be effected independent of minute ventilation (V˙E) and the pattern of breathing. Control of V˙A requires the deliberate partition of inhaled gas between the alveoli and the anatomical deadspace. This distribution is accomplished by sequential gas delivery (SGD): each breath consists of a chosen volume of 'fresh' gas followed by previously exhaled gas. Control of V˙A through SGD is a simple, inexpensive, yet powerful tool with many applications. Here we describe how to implement SGD, how it precisely controls V˙A, and consequently how it controls arterial blood gases. PMID:26840836

  2. Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and methods of making

    SciTech Connect

    Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

    2014-07-15

    A gas sensitive material comprising SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals doped with In.sub.2O.sub.3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO.sub.2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.

  3. Gas sensitive materials for gas detection and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Trakhtenberg, Leonid Israilevich; Gerasimov, Genrikh Nikolaevich; Gromov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Rozenberg, Valeriya Isaakovna

    2012-12-25

    A gas sensitive material comprising SnO2 nanocrystals doped with In2O3 and an oxide of a platinum group metal, and a method of making the same. The platinum group metal is preferably Pd, but also may include Pt, Ru, Ir, and combinations thereof. The SnO2 nanocrystals have a specific surface of 7 or greater, preferably about 20 m2/g, and a mean particle size of between about 10 nm and about 100 nm, preferably about 40 nm. A gas detection device made from the gas sensitive material deposited on a substrate, the gas sensitive material configured as a part of a current measuring circuit in communication with a heat source.

  4. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-10-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. A Haz

  5. GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING

    SciTech Connect

    Howard S. Meyer

    2003-07-01

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50-70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project. Efforts this quarter have concentrated on field site selection. ChevronTexaco has nominated their Headlee Gas Plant in Odessa, TX for a commercial-scale dehydration test. Design and cost estimation for this new site are underway. Potting

  6. Towards a Noble Gas Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korver, Anna; Walker, Thad

    2014-05-01

    Noble gas NMR detected by alkali co-magnetometers has the potential for measurement of precession frequencies at the pHz level. This is done by eliminating the dominant known sources of systematic errors: alkali frequency shifts and quadrupole shifts. We present results of successful synchronous pumping of noble gas nuclei and measurements of alkali co-magnetometer sensitivity levels that project a 131-Xe noise level of 100 nHz /√{ Hz} . Future dual noble-gas co-magnetometry promises to improve the noise level by a factor of 10 or more. This research is supported by the NSF and Northrop-Grumman Corp.

  7. Gas only nozzle fuel tip

    DOEpatents

    Bechtel, William Theodore; Fitts, David Orus; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne

    2002-01-01

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  8. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean

    2007-10-09

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  9. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  10. Gas transmission through microporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turel, Tacibaht

    2008-10-01

    An ideal protective clothing material should be a good barrier against harmful gases or vapor while allowing moisture vapor and air passage through the material. In the study and design of barrier materials, one of the critical issues is to balance these requirements, which may sometimes be mutually exclusive. Therefore it is critical to understand the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the attack mechanisms as well as the barrier materials and the transport phenomena in such systems. In this study, air and gas transmission through barrier systems consisting of porous membranes was investigated experimentally and a molecular-level probabilistic model was constructed to evaluate the effect of various parameters on the gas flow. The effect of membrane parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, thickness as well as gas parameters such as molecule diameters were examined at single layer as well as multiple layers. To understand the gas behavior for harmful chemicals and to ensure safety during experimental studies, mimics of such gases were obtained which were comparable to the actual gases in shape, molecular weight and other chemical properties. Air, ammonia and several mimic gases of harmful chemical agents were studied. Beta-pinene was used as a mimic of sarin and prenol was used as a mimic of nitrogen mustard. Gas transmission experiments were conducted on polyester, nylon and polypropylene membranes each of which had different porosity and pore size distributions. Experiments were done at different pressure values and a comparison was made between permeability testing machines based on volumetric and manometric principles as to their ability to accommodate high permeability membranes. Physical and chemical adsorption of such gases on porous membranes was also investigated after the addition of active elements on the membrane surfaces which can interact with the gas molecules. An experimental setup was developed to measure concentration changes

  11. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  12. Batch Gas-Sampling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Vernon, Jr.; Miller, E. L.; Rollins, F. P.

    1986-01-01

    Sampler collects air or other gases in consistent way and stabilizes them for later chemical analysis. Device used for concentrations ranging from few parts per million to 100 percent. Also separates and collects particles in gas for analysis. Gas flows into vacuum sphere when solenoid valve opened. As it passes through conversion tube, constituent of gas forms stable compound that remains in conversion tube for analysis at later time. Sampler parts made of glass, polytetrafluoroethylene, and stainless steel so they do not react with sample.

  13. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Joseph S.

    1993-03-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  14. Gas storage and recovery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr.

    1994-11-01

    A system for recovering and recycling gases is disclosed. The system is comprised of inlet and outlet flow lines, controllers, an inflatable enclosure, and inflatable rib stiffeners which are inflatable by the gas to be stored. The system does not present gas at an undesirable back pressure to the gas source. A filtering relief valve is employed which prevents environmental airborne contamination from flowing back into the system when the relief valve is closing. The system is for storing and re-using helium.

  15. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Pridgen, V.

    1984-11-01

    This report provides information on the total reserves, production, and deliverability capabilities of the 86 interstate pipeline companies required to file the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Form 15, Interstate Pipeline's Annual Report of Gas Supply. Total dedicated domestic gas reserves, owned by or under contract to the interstate pipeline companies, decreased in 1983 by 4.2 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), or 4.3%, from 98.7 Tcf at the beginning of the year to 94.5 Tcf at the end of the year. A 5-year tabulation shows that dedicated domestic gas reserves increased slightly from 94.0 Tcf at the beginning of 1979 to 94.5 Tcf at the end of 1983, an increase of 0.5 Tcf, or 0.5%. Total gas purchased and produced from the dedicated domestic gas reserves in 1983 was 9.5 Tcf, down 13.1% from the 10.9 Tcf reported in the preceding year. The 1983 ratio of total dedicated domestic reserves to production was 10.0, significantly above the 9.0 ratio reported for 1982. Net revisions to dedicated domestic gas reserves during 1983 are calculated at -0.5 Tcf, as compared to 1.4 Tcf in 1982. Total interstate reserve additions during 1983 are reported to be 5.8 Tcf, compared to additions of 9.9 Tcf in 1982. Total natural gas imported by interstate pipeline companies from two foreign sources, Canada and Mexico, was 0.8 Tcf, 7.4% of the total gas produced and purchased in 1983. Imports of LNG from Algeria totaled only 0.09 Tcf. Total deliveries are projected to decline from 12.9 Tcf in 1984 to 7.1 Tcf by 1988. This decline is driven by the projected decline in domestic reserve deliverability. Deliveries from foreign and other sources are expected to remain relatively constant over the 5-year period. 8 figures, 18 tables.

  16. Gas Transfer in Cellularized Collagen-Membrane Gas Exchange Devices

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Justin H.; Bassett, Erik K.; Penson, Elliot J. N.; Hoganson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lower respiratory disease is highly prevalent in the United States, and there remains a need for alternatives to lung transplant for patients who progress to end-stage lung disease. Portable or implantable gas oxygenators based on microfluidic technologies can address this need, provided they operate both efficiently and biocompatibly. Incorporating biomimetic materials into such devices can help replicate native gas exchange function and additionally support cellular components. In this work, we have developed microfluidic devices that enable blood gas exchange across ultra-thin collagen membranes (as thin as 2 μm). Endothelial, stromal, and parenchymal cells readily adhere to these membranes, and long-term culture with cellular components results in remodeling, reflected by reduced membrane thickness. Functionally, acellular collagen-membrane lung devices can mediate effective gas exchange up to ∼288 mL/min/m2 of oxygen and ∼685 mL/min/m2 of carbon dioxide, approaching the gas exchange efficiency noted in the native lung. Testing several configurations of lung devices to explore various physical parameters of the device design, we concluded that thinner membranes and longer gas exchange distances result in improved hemoglobin saturation and increases in pO2. However, in the design space tested, these effects are relatively small compared to the improvement in overall oxygen and carbon dioxide transfer by increasing the blood flow rate. Finally, devices cultured with endothelial and parenchymal cells achieved similar gas exchange rates compared with acellular devices. Biomimetic blood oxygenator design opens the possibility of creating portable or implantable microfluidic devices that achieve efficient gas transfer while also maintaining physiologic conditions. PMID:26020102

  17. Cosmogenic noble gas paleothermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Marissa M.; Shuster, David L.; Balco, Greg

    2014-08-01

    We present a theoretical basis for reconstructing paleotemperatures from the open-system behavior of cosmogenic noble gases produced in minerals at Earth's surface. Experimentally-determined diffusion kinetics predicts diffusive loss of cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne from common minerals like quartz and feldspars at ambient temperatures; incomplete retention has also been observed empirically in field studies. We show that the theory of simultaneous production and diffusion that applies to radiogenic noble gases in minerals-the basis of thermochronology-can also be applied to cosmogenic noble gases to reconstruct past surface temperatures on Earth. We use published diffusion kinetics and production rates for 3He in quartz and 21Ne in orthoclase to demonstrate the resolving power of cosmogenic noble gas paleothermometry with respect to exposure duration, temperature, and diffusion domain size. Calculations indicate that, when paired with a quantitatively retained cosmogenic nuclide such as 21Ne or 10Be, observations of cosmogenic 3He in quartz can constrain temperatures during surface exposure in polar and high altitude environments. Likewise, 21Ne retention in feldspars is sensitive to temperatures at lower latitudes and elevations, expanding the potential geographic applicability of this technique to most latitudes. As an example, we present paired measurements of 3He and 10Be in quartz from a suite of Antarctic sandstone erratics to test whether the abundances of cosmogenic 3He agree with what is predicted from first principles and laboratory-determined diffusion kinetics. We find that the amounts of cosmogenic 3He present in these samples are consistent with the known mean annual temperature (MAT) for this region of Antarctica between -25 and -30 °C. These results demonstrate the method's ability to record paleotemperatures through geologic time.

  18. Process gas solidification system

    DOEpatents

    Fort, William G. S.; Lee, Jr., William W.

    1978-01-01

    It has been the practice to (a) withdraw hot, liquid UF.sub.6 from various systems, (b) direct the UF.sub.6 into storage cylinders, and (c) transport the filled cylinders to another area where the UF.sub.6 is permitted to solidify by natural cooling. However, some hazard attends the movement of cylinders containing liquid UF.sub.6, which is dense, toxic, and corrosive. As illustrated in terms of one of its applications, the invention is directed to withdrawing hot liquid UF.sub.6 from a system including (a) a compressor for increasing the pressure and temperature of a stream of gaseous UF.sub.6 to above its triple point and (b) a condenser for liquefying the compressed gas. A network containing block valves and at least first and second portable storage cylinders is connected between the outlet of the condenser and the suction inlet of the compressor. After an increment of liquid UF.sub.6 from the condenser has been admitted to the first cylinder, the cylinder is connected to the suction of the compressor to flash off UF.sub.6 from the cylinder, thus gradually solidifying UF.sub.6 therein. While the first cylinder is being cooled in this manner, an increment of liquid UF.sub.6 from the condenser is transferred into the second cylinder. UF.sub.6 then is flashed from the second cylinder while another increment of liquid UF.sub.6 is being fed to the first. The operations are repeated until both cylinders are filled with solid UF.sub.6, after which they can be moved safely. As compared with the previous technique, this procedure is safer, faster, and more economical. The method also provides the additional advantage of removing volatile impurities from the UF.sub.6 while it is being cooled.

  19. Permanent gas analysis using gas chromatography with vacuum ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ling; Smuts, Jonathan; Walsh, Phillip; Fan, Hui; Hildenbrand, Zacariah; Wong, Derek; Wetz, David; Schug, Kevin A

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of complex mixtures of permanent gases consisting of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, inert gases, and toxic species plays an increasingly important role in today's economy. A new gas chromatography detector based on vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopy (GC-VUV), which simultaneously collects full scan (115-240 nm) VUV and UV absorption of eluting analytes, was applied to analyze mixtures of permanent gases. Sample mixtures ranged from off-gassing of decomposing Li-ion and Li-metal batteries to natural gas samples and water samples taken from private wells in close proximity to unconventional natural gas extraction. Gas chromatography separations were performed with a porous layer open tubular column. Components such as C1-C5 linear and branched hydrocarbons, water, oxygen, and nitrogen were separated and detected in natural gas and the headspace of natural gas-contaminated water samples. Of interest for the transport of lithium batteries were the detection of flammable and toxic gases, such as methane, ethylene, chloromethane, dimethyl ether, 1,3-butadiene, CS2, and methylproprionate, among others. Featured is the capability for deconvolution of co-eluting signals from different analytes. PMID:25724098

  20. Gas tagging and cover gas combination for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Laug, Matthew T.

    1985-01-01

    The invention discloses the use of stable isotopes of neon and argon, that are grouped in preselected different ratios one to the other and are then sealed as tags in different cladded nuclear fuel elements to be used in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Failure of the cladding of any fuel element allows fission gases generated in the reaction and these tag isotopes to escape and to combine with the cover gas held in the reactor over the fuel elements. The isotopes specifically are Ne.sup.20, Ne.sup.21 and Ne.sup.22 of neon and Ar.sup.36, Ar.sup.38 and Ar.sup.40 of argon, and the cover gas is helium. Serially connected cryogenically operated charcoal beds are used to clean the cover gas and to separate out the tags. The first or cover gas cleanup bed is held between approximately 0.degree. and -25.degree. C. operable to remove the fission gases from the cover gas and tags and the second or tag recovery system bed is held between approximately -170.degree. and -185.degree. C. operable to isolate the tags from the cover gas. Spectrometric analysis further is used to identify the specific tags that are recovered, and thus the specific leaking fuel element. By cataloging the fuel element tags to the location of the fuel elements in the reactor, the location of the leaking fuel element can then be specifically determined.

  1. Improved gas tagging and cover gas combination for nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.

    1983-09-26

    The invention discloses the use of stable isotopes of neon and argon, sealed as tags in different cladding nuclear fuel elements to be used in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Cladding failure allows fission gases and these tag isotopes to escape and to combine with the cover gas. The isotopes are Ne/sup 20/, Ne/sup 21/ and Ne/sup 22/ and Ar/sup 36/, Ar/sup 38/ and Ar/sup 40/, and the cover gas is He. Serially connected cryogenically operated charcoal beds are used to clean the cover gas and to separate out the tags. The first or cover gas cleanup bed is held between 0 and -25/sup 0/C to remove the fission gases from the cover gas and tags, and the second or tag recovery system bed between -170 and -185/sup 0/C to isolate the tags from the cover gas. Spectrometric analysis is used to identify the specific tags that are recovered, and thus the specific leaking fuel element. By cataloging the fuel element tags to the location of the fuel elements in the reactor, the location of the leaking fuel element can then be determined.

  2. Gravitational Thermodynamics for Interstellar Gas and Weakly Degenerate Quantum Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ding Yu; Shen, Jian Qi

    2016-03-01

    The temperature distribution of an ideal gas in gravitational fields has been identified as a longstanding problem in thermodynamics and statistical physics. According to the principle of entropy increase (i.e., the principle of maximum entropy), we apply a variational principle to the thermodynamical entropy functional of an ideal gas and establish a relationship between temperature gradient and gravitational field strength. As an illustrative example, the temperature and density distributions of an ideal gas in two simple but typical gravitational fields (i.e., a uniform gravitational field and an inverse-square gravitational field) are considered on the basis of entropic and hydrostatic equilibrium conditions. The effect of temperature inhomogeneity in gravitational fields is also addressed for a weakly degenerate quantum gas (e.g., Fermi and Bose gas). The present gravitational thermodynamics of a gas would have potential applications in quantum fluids, e.g., Bose-Einstein condensates in Earth’s gravitational field and the temperature fluctuation spectrum in cosmic microwave background radiation.

  3. Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

    1999-04-01

    Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double

  4. Unconventional shallow biogenic gas systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shurr, G.W.; Ridgley, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Unconventional shallow biogenic gas falls into two distinct systems that have different attributes. Early-generation systems have blanketlike geometries, and gas generation begins soon after deposition of reservoir and source rocks. Late-generation systems have ringlike geometries, and long time intervals separate deposition of reservoir and source rocks from gas generation. For both types of systems, the gas is dominantly methane and is associated with source rocks that are not thermally mature. Early-generation biogenic gas systems are typified by production from low-permeability Cretaceous rocks in the northern Great Plains of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Montana. The main area of production is on the southeastern margin of the Alberta basin and the northwestern margin of the Williston basin. The huge volume of Cretaceous rocks has a generalized regional pattern of thick, non-marine, coarse clastics to the west and thinner, finer grained marine lithologies to the east. Reservoir rocks in the lower part tend to be finer grained and have lower porosity and permeability than those in the upper part. Similarly, source beds in the units have higher values of total organic carbon. Patterns of erosion, deposition, deformation, and production in both the upper and lower units are related to the geometry of lineament-bounded basement blocks. Geochemical studies show that gas and coproduced water are in equilibrium and that the fluids are relatively old, namely, as much as 66 Ma. Other examples of early-generation systems include Cretaceous clastic reservoirs on the southwestern margin of Williston basin and chalks on the eastern margin of the Denver basin. Late-generation biogenic gas systems have as an archetype the Devonian Antrim Shale on the northern margin of the Michigan basin. Reservoir rocks are fractured, organic-rich black shales that also serve as source rocks. Although fractures are important for production, the relationships to specific geologic structures are

  5. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  6. Etiology of gas bubble disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bouck, G.R.

    1980-11-01

    Gas bubble disease is a noninfectious, physically induced process caused by uncompensated hyperbaric pressure of total dissolved gases. When pressure compensation is inadequate, dissolved gases may form emboli (in blood) and emphysema (in tissues). The resulting abnormal physical presence of gases can block blood vessels (hemostasis) or tear tissues, and may result in death. Population mortality is generally skewed, in that the median time to death occurs well before the average time to death. Judged from mortality curves, three stages occur in gas bubble disease: (1) a period of gas pressure equilibrium, nonlethal cavitation, and increasing morbidity; (2) a period of rapid and heavy mortality; and (3) a period of protracted survival, despite lesions, and dysfunction that eventually terminates in total mortality. Safe limits for gas supersaturation depend on species tolerance and on factors that differ among hatcheries and rivers, between continuous and intermittent exposures, and across ranges of temperature and salinity.

  7. Gas in the Digestive Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... is primarily composed of carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, and sometimes methane. Flatus, gas passed through the ... by bacteria in the large intestine, which release hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the process. Other types ...

  8. Space Shuttle Trace Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dencker, W.

    1975-01-01

    A Trace Gas Analyzer (TGA) with the ability to detect the presence of toxic contaminants in the Space Shuttle atmosphere within the subparts-per-million range is under development. The design is a modification of the miniaturized Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) developed for the Viking Mars Lander. An ambient air sample is injected onto the GC column from a constant volume sample loop and separated into individual compounds for identification by the MS. The GC-MS interface consists of an effluent divider and a silver-paladium separator, an electrochemical cell which removes more than 99.99% of the hydrogen carrier gas. The hydrogen is reclaimed and repressurized without affecting the separator efficiency, a feature which enables a considerable weight reduction in the carrier gas supply system.

  9. Gas-path seal technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    Improved gas-path seals are needed for better fuel economy, longer performance retention, and lower maintenance, particularly in advanced, high-performance gas turbine engines. Problems encountered in gas-path sealing are described, as well as new blade-tip sealing approaches for high-pressure compressors and turbines. These include a lubricant coating for conventional, porous-metal, rub-strip materials used in compressors. An improved hot-press metal alloy shows promise to increase the operating surface temperatures of high-pressure-turbine, blade-tip seals to 1450 K (2150 F). Three ceramic seal materials are also described that have the potential to allow much higher gas-path surface operating temperatures than are possible with metal systems.

  10. Compressor solves solution gas bottleneck

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, K.J.; Lowe, F.

    1996-08-05

    A new turbine-driven, centrifugal compressor installation increased gas handling capacity in the Westerose D-3 oil reservoir, about 100 km south of Edmonton. Gulf Canada Resources Ltd.`s Westerose D-3 oil reservoir has prolifically produced oil for the last 3 decades. Produced gas has been reinjected into the gas cap to maintain heterogeneity and reservoir fluid interfaces. As oil production continues, increased quantities of solution gas must be handled by the Westerose facility. The cost-effective design of the new compressor installation was based on Gulf`s aggressive drilling program for recovering oil as quickly and economically as possible to reach full blowdown. The paper describes the design considerations, auxiliary equipment, costs, process flow, construction contracts, equipment and systems, and startup.

  11. Trends in gas turbine development

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.H.

    1999-07-01

    This paper represents the Gas Turbine Association's view of the gas turbine industry's R and D needs following the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Some of this information was discussed at the workshop Next Generation Gas Turbine Power Systems, which was held in Austin, TX, February 9--10, 1999, sponsored by DOE-Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), reference 1. The general idea is to establish public-private partnerships to reduce the risks involved in the development of new technologies which results in public benefits. The recommendations in this paper are focused on gas turbines > 30 MW output. Specific GTA recommendations on smaller systems are not addressed here. They will be addressed in conjunction with DOE-Energy Efficiency.

  12. G2 Gas Cloud Simulation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This simulation shows the future behavior of the G2 gas cloud now approaching Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way. X-ray emission from the cloud's tidal interaction w...

  13. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, Jr., Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  14. Backscatter absorption gas imaging system

    DOEpatents

    McRae, T.G. Jr.

    A video imaging system for detecting hazardous gas leaks. Visual displays of invisible gas clouds are produced by radiation augmentation of the field of view of an imaging device by radiation corresponding to an absorption line of the gas to be detected. The field of view of an imager is irradiated by a laser. The imager receives both backscattered laser light and background radiation. When a detectable gas is present, the backscattered laser light is highly attenuated, producing a region of contrast or shadow on the image. A flying spot imaging system is utilized to synchronously irradiate and scan the area to lower laser power requirements. The imager signal is processed to produce a video display.

  15. Gas-phase chemical dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, R.E. Jr.; Sears, T.J.; Preses, J.M.

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program is directed towards the spectroscopy of small free radicals and reactive molecules and the state-to-state dynamics of gas phase collision, energy transfer, and photodissociation phenomena. Work on several systems is summarized here.

  16. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  17. EVALUATION OF PORTABLE GAS CHROMATOGRAPHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limits of detection, linearity of responses, and stability of response factors and retention times for five commercially-available portable gas chromatographs (PGC) were determined during laboratory evaluation. he PGCs were also operated at the French Limited Superfund site near ...

  18. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K. T.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E. C.; Gaddy, J. L.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H2 from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in the first task are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; evaluation of biological synthetic gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema

    Anderson, Diana

    2013-04-19

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  20. Molecular wake shield gas analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for measuring and characterizing the ultrahigh vacuum in the wake of an orbiting spacecraft are studied. A high sensitivity mass spectrometer that contains a double mass analyzer consisting of an open source miniature magnetic sector field neutral gas analyzer and an identical ion analyzer is proposed. These are configured to detect and identify gas and ion species of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide and any other gas or ion species in the 1 to 46 amu mass range. This range covers the normal atmospheric constituents. The sensitivity of the instrument is sufficient to measure ambient gases and ion with a particle density of the order of one per cc. A chemical pump, or getter, is mounted near the entrance aperture of the neutral gas analyzer which integrates the absorption of ambient gases for a selectable period of time for subsequent release and analysis. The sensitivity is realizable for all but rare gases using this technique.

  1. Process for absorbing toxic gas

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.G.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a process for removing sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen halides from a gas contaminated with same in which the gas is contacted at a temperature below 250/sup 0/C with particulate solid acceptor comprising a mineral support having a coating containing divalent metal oxide, hydroxide, or both, the support being water-moistened particles selected from the group consisting of exfoliated vermiculite, expanded perlite, or a mixture thereof, the improvement which comprises: heating the acceptor before its first use at a temperature of at least about 400/sup 0/C until it is conditioned for the accepting purpose; dampening the conditioned acceptor with water; contacting contaminated gas with the acceptor; and separating resulting cleansed gas from the acceptor.

  2. Gas Hydrate Petroleum System Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    In a gas hydrate petroleum system, the individual factors that contribute to the formation of gas hydrate accumulations, such as (1) gas hydrate pressure-temperature stability conditions, (2) gas source, (3) gas migration, and (4) the growth of the gas hydrate in suitable host sediment can identified and quantified. The study of know and inferred gas hydrate accumulations reveal the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate is mostly controlled by the presence of fractures and/or coarser grained sediments. Field studies have concluded that hydrate grows preferentially in coarse-grained sediments because lower capillary pressures in these sediments permit the migration of gas and nucleation of hydrate. Due to the relatively distal nature of the deep marine geologic settings, the overall abundance of sand within the shallow geologic section is usually low. However, drilling projects in the offshore of Japan, Korea, and in the Gulf of Mexico has revealed the occurrence of significant hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs. The 1999/2000 Japan Nankai Trough drilling confirmed occurrence of hydrate-bearing sand-rich intervals (interpreted as turbidite fan deposits). Gas hydrate was determined to fill the pore spaces in these deposits, reaching saturations up to 80% in some layers. A multi-well drilling program titled "METI Toaki-oki to Kumano-nada" also identified sand-rich reservoirs with pore-filling hydrate. The recovered hydrate-bearing sand layers were described as very-fine- to fine-grained turbidite sand layers measuring from several centimeters up to a meter thick. However, the gross thickness of the hydrate-bearing sand layers were up to 50 m. In 2010, the Republic of Korea conducted the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate (UBGH2) Drilling Expedition. Seismic data clearly showed the development of a thick, potential basin wide, sedimentary sections characterized by mostly debris flows. The downhole LWD logs and core data from Site UBGH2-5 reveal that each debris flows is

  3. Flexible Transparent Electronic Gas Sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Yunlong; Wan, Pengbo; Zhang, Han; Chen, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    Flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors capable of real-time, sensitive, and selective analysis at room-temperature, have gained immense popularity in recent years for their potential to be integrated into various smart wearable electronics and display devices. Here, recent advances in flexible transparent sensors constructed from semiconducting oxides, carbon materials, conducting polymers, and their nanocomposites are presented. The sensing material selection, sensor device construction, and sensing mechanism of flexible transparent sensors are discussed in detail. The critical challenges and future development associated with flexible and transparent electronic gas sensors are presented. Smart wearable gas sensors are believed to have great potential in environmental monitoring and noninvasive health monitoring based on disease biomarkers in exhaled gas. PMID:27276698

  4. Assembly for directing combustion gas

    DOEpatents

    Charron, Richard C.; Little, David A.; Snyder, Gary D.

    2016-04-12

    An arrangement is provided for delivering gases from a plurality of combustors of a can-annular gas turbine combustion engine to a first row of turbine blades including a first row of turbine blades. The arrangement includes a gas path cylinder, a cone and an integrated exit piece (IEP) for each combustor. Each IEP comprises an inlet chamber for receiving a gas flow from a respective combustor, and includes a connection segment. The IEPs are connected together to define an annular chamber extending circumferentially and concentric to an engine longitudinal axis, for delivering the gas flow to the first row of blades. A radiused joint extends radially inward from a radially outer side of the inlet chamber to an outer boundary of the annular chamber, and a flared fillet extends radially inward from a radially inner side of the inlet chamber to an inner boundary of the annular chamber.

  5. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  6. EPA Protocol Gas Verification Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate compressed gas calibration standards are needed to calibrate continuous emission monitors (CEMs) and ambient air quality monitors that are being used for regulatory purposes. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established its traceability protocol to ensure that co...

  7. Landfill gas project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The methane gas recovered from the landfill is used for space heating and water heating for the Florence-Lauderdale Humane Shelter 600 feet from the well head. The project to date and future development are described briefly. (MHR)

  8. High Power Pulsed Gas Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witteman, W. J.

    1987-09-01

    Gas lasers have shown to be capable of delivering tens of terrawatt aspeak power or tens of kilowatt as average power. The efficiencies of most high power gas lasers are relatively high compared with other types of lasers. For instance molecular lasers, oscillating on low lying vibrational levels, and excimer lasers may have intrinsic efficiencies above 10%.The wavelengths of these gas lasers cover the range from the far infrared to the ultra-violet region, say from 12000 to 193 nm. The most important properties are the scalability, optical homogeneity of the excited medium, and the relatively low price per watt of output power. The disadvantages may be the large size of the systems and the relatively narrow line width with limited tunability compared with solid state systems producing the same peak power. High power gas lasers group into three main categories depending on the waste-heat handling capacity.

  9. Externally Pressurized Journal Gas Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, John H.

    1959-01-01

    Externally pressurized gas-lubricated bearings with multiple orifice feed are investigated. An analytical treatment is developed for a semi-cylindrical bearing with 9 orifices and for a cylindrical journal bearing with 192 radial and 24 axial orifices. Experiments are described on models of the two bearing configurations with specially designed fixtures which incorporate pneumatic loading and means for determining pressure profiles, gas flow and gap height. The correlation between theory and experiment is satisfactory.

  10. Gas cooled traction drive inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

    2013-10-08

    The present invention provides a modular circuit card configuration for distributing heat among a plurality of circuit cards. Each circuit card includes a housing adapted to dissipate heat in response to gas flow over the housing. In one aspect, a gas-cooled inverter includes a plurality of inverter circuit cards, and a plurality of circuit card housings, each of which encloses one of the plurality of inverter cards.

  11. Gas cooled traction drive inverter

    DOEpatents

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

    2016-04-19

    The present invention provides a modular circuit card configuration for distributing heat among a plurality of circuit cards. Each circuit card includes a housing adapted to dissipate heat in response to gas flow over the housing. In one aspect, a gas-cooled inverter includes a plurality of inverter circuit cards, and a plurality of circuit card housings, each of which encloses one of the plurality of inverter cards.

  12. Flammable gas program topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1996-10-30

    The major emphasis of this report is to describe what has been learned about the generation, retention, and release of flammable gas mixtures in high-level waste tanks. A brief overview of efforts to characterize the gas composition will be provided. The report also discusses what needs to be learned about the phenomena, how the Unreviewed Safety Question will be closed, and the approach for removing tanks from the Watch List.

  13. (Gas-cooled reactor materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, P.L.

    1988-06-30

    The meeting of the managers of the US/FRG/CH cooperative subprogram on materials for gas-cooled reactors is described and the status of each of the work packages comprising this cooperation is summarized. Four proposals for new areas of cooperative work were developed. Briefings by sponsoring organizations on the status of gas-cooled reactor programs in the FRG are discussed and experimental efforts being conducted at KFA on materials are reviewed.

  14. Simulating VIIRS Observed Gas Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    VIIRS Nightfire (VNF) had been proved being able to effectively detect gas flares at night, and characterize their temperature and source size. [1] However, limited access to generally confidential gas flare operation measurements made it difficult to verify the output. Although flared gas volume is occasionally available, it is not common to log the temperature and flames size which directly links to VNF output. To understand the mechanism of gas flare and how VIIRS perceives the event, a platform is proposed to simulate the gas flare being observed by VIIRS. The methodology can be described in three steps. (1) Use CFD simulation software ISIS-3D to simulate a simple gas flare. [2] Scalar fields of temperature and species concentration related to combustion are extracted from the simulation. The instantaneous scalar can be determined from time-averaging or guess by stochastic time and space series (TASS) from single-point statistics [3]. (2) Model spectral radiance intensity of simulated gas flare using RADCAL. [4] RADCAL developed by NIST can accurately model the spectral radiance emitted on the direction of lineof-sight given the spatial profile of temperature and concentration of species. (3) Use radiative transfer modeling to calculate the energy propagated to VIIRS. The modeled radiation will then be weighted by the MODTRAN [5] modeled transmissivity over predefined atmosphere to the satellite, with geometrical effects considered. Such platform can help understanding how exactly VNF is measuring gas flares, and thus lead to more precise characterization of combustion events. [1] C. D. Elvidge et al, Remote Sensing, 2013[2] IRSN ISIS-3D[3] M. E. Kounalakis et al, ASME J. Heat Transfer, 1991 [4] W. L. Grosshandler, NIST Technical Note 1402, 1993 [5] A. Berk et al, MODTRAN 5.2.0.0 User's Manual

  15. Steady State Dense Gas Dispersion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-03-01

    SLAB-LLNL is a steady-state one-dimensional program which calculates the atmospheric dispersion of a heavier than air gas that is continuously released at ground level. The model is based on the steady-state crosswind-averaged conservation equations of species, mass, energy, and momentum. It uses the air entrainment concept to account for the turbulent mixing of the gas cloud with the surrounding atmosphere and similarity profiles to determine the crosswind dependence.

  16. High power gas laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Leland, Wallace T.; Stratton, Thomas F.

    1981-01-01

    A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  17. Barometric pressure and gas composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malkin, V. B.

    1975-01-01

    Many factors affecting artificial gas atmosphere, which is used to maintain life during space flight, are considered. The wide variability of barometric pressure in spacecraft, due in large measure to spacecraft design is discussed. Explosive decompression is described; this develops from instantaneous depressurization of the cabin. Decompression sickness is reviewed, including bubble growth and evolution of gas bubbles in organisms. Dysbarism, hypoxia, and hypercapnia are also discussed.

  18. Surviving gas expulsion with substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Paweł L.; Goodwin, Simon P.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the reaction of clumpy stellar distributions to gas expulsion. We show that regions containing highly unbound substructures/subclusters after gas expulsion can produce a significant final bound cluster. The key quantity in determining if a region is able to form a bound cluster is the global virial ratio, and so regions must be looked at as a whole rather than by an individual substructure/subclusters, when determining if they might survive as a bound cluster.

  19. Trace gas effects on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Callis, L. B., Jr.; Cess, R. D.; Hansen, J. E.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Kuhn, W. R.; Lacis, A.; Luther, F. M.; Mahlman, J. D.; Reck, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The two primary objectives are to describe the new scientific challenges posed by the trace gas-climate problem and to summarize current strategies, and to make an assessment of the trace gas effects on troposphere-stratosphere temperature trends. Numerous reports on CO2-climate problems are examined with respect to climate modeling issues. The role of the oceans in governing the transient climate response to time varying CO2 concentrations is discussed.

  20. Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.; Hedgecock, Jud; Nienaber, Terry; Cooper, Bonnie; Allen, Carlton; Ming, Doug

    2000-01-01

    The Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA) is a high-temperature furnace and mass spectrometer instrument for determining the mineralogical composition and reactivity of soil samples. REGA provides key mineralogical and reactivity data that is needed to understand the soil chemistry of an asteroid, which then aids in determining in-situ which materials should be selected for return to earth. REGA is capable of conducting a number of direct soil measurements that are unique to this instrument. These experimental measurements include: (1) Mass spectrum analysis of evolved gases from soil samples as they are heated from ambient temperature to 900 C; and (2) Identification of liberated chemicals, e.g., water, oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine. REGA would be placed on the surface of a near earth asteroid. It is an autonomous instrument that is controlled from earth but does the analysis of regolith materials automatically. The REGA instrument consists of four primary components: (1) a flight-proven mass spectrometer, (2) a high-temperature furnace, (3) a soil handling system, and (4) a microcontroller. An external arm containing a scoop or drill gathers regolith samples. A sample is placed in the inlet orifice where the finest-grained particles are sifted into a metering volume and subsequently moved into a crucible. A movable arm then places the crucible in the furnace. The furnace is closed, thereby sealing the inner volume to collect the evolved gases for analysis. Owing to the very low g forces on an asteroid compared to Mars or the moon, the sample must be moved from inlet to crucible by mechanical means rather than by gravity. As the soil sample is heated through a programmed pattern, the gases evolved at each temperature are passed through a transfer tube to the mass spectrometer for analysis and identification. Return data from the instrument will lead to new insights and discoveries including: (1) Identification of the molecular masses of all of the gases

  1. Discontinuous gas exchange in insects.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Michael C; Gibbs, Allen G

    2006-11-01

    Insect respiratory physiology has been studied for many years, and interest in this area of insect biology has become revitalized recently for a number of reasons. Technical advances have greatly improved the precision, accuracy and ease with which gas exchange can be measured in insects. This has made it possible to go beyond classic models such as lepidopteran pupae and examine a far greater diversity of species. One striking result of recent work is the realization that insect gas exchange patterns are much more diverse than formerly recognized. Current work has also benefited from the inclusion of comparative methods that rigorously incorporate phylogenetic, ecological and life history information. We discuss these advances in the context of the classic respiratory pattern of insects, discontinuous gas exchange. This mode of gas exchange was exhaustively described in moth pupae in the 1950s and 1960s. Early workers concluded that discontinuous gas exchange was an adaptation to reduce respiratory water loss. This idea is no longer universally accepted, and several competing hypotheses have been proposed. We discuss the genesis of these alternative hypotheses, and we identify some of the predictions that might be used to test them. We are pleased to report that what was once a mature discipline, in which the broad parameters and adaptive significance of discontinuous gas exchange were thought to be well understood, is now a thriving and vigorous field of research. PMID:16870512

  2. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  3. Gas hydrates: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) assumed the responsibility for expanding the knowledge base and for developing methods to recover gas from hydrates. These are ice-like mixtures of gas and water where gas molecules are trapped within a framework of water molecules. This research is part of the Unconventional Gas Recovery (UGR) program, a multidisciplinary effort that focuses on developing the technology to produce natural gas from resources that have been classified as unconventional because of their unique geologies and production mechanisms. Current work on gas hydrates emphasizes geological studies; characterization of the resource; and generic research, including modeling of reservoir conditions, production concepts, and predictive strategies for stimulated wells. Complementing this work is research on in situ detection of hydrates and field tests to verify extraction methods. Thus, current research will provide a comprehensive technology base from which estimates of reserve potential can be made, and from which industry can develop recovery strategies. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Form 6 - gas balancing agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, a special Committee of the Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation undertook a project to draft a model from gas balancing agreement. This project was initiated at the request of a number of Foundation members who felt that a model form gas balancing agreement would facilitate the negotiation of operating agreement, since gas balancing issues had become sticking points in the process. The Committee was composed of attorneys representing a wide cross-section of the oil and gas industry including both major and independent oil companies, production companies with interstate pipeline affiliates, and private practitioners. The Committee attempted to address the more controversial issues in gas balancing with optional provisions in the Form. To facilitate the negotiation process, the number of optional provisions was minimized. This form may be used as an Appendix to the new A.A.P.L. Form 610-1989 Model Form Operating Agreement. This book includes provision of this Form which are: Ownership of gas production; Balancing of production accounts; Cash balancing upon depletion; Deliverability tests; Nominations; Statements; Payment of taxes; Operating expenses; Overproducing allowable; Payment of leasehold burdens; Operator's liability; Successors and assigns; Audits; Arbitration; and Operator's fees.

  5. New Gas Polarographic Hydrogen Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Jesus A.; Barile, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Polarography is the measurement of the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The actual form of the observed polarographic current depends upon the manner in which the voltage is applied and on the characteristics of the working electrode. The new gas polarographic H2 sensor shows a current level increment with concentration of the gaseous H2 similar to those relating to metal ions in liquid electrolytes in well-known polarography. This phenomenon is caused by the fact that the diffusion of the gaseous H2 through a gas diffusion hole built in the sensor is a rate-determining step in the gaseous-hydrogen sensing mechanism. The diffusion hole artificially limits the diffusion of the gaseous H2 toward the electrode located at the sensor cavity. This gas polarographic H2 sensor. is actually an electrochemical-pumping cell since the gaseous H2 is in fact pumped via the electrochemical driving force generated between the electrodes. Gaseous H2 enters the diffusion hole and reaches the first electrode (anode) located in the sensor cavity to be transformed into an H+ ions or protons; H+ ions pass through the electrolyte and reach the second electrode (cathode) to be reformed to gaseous H2. Gas polarographic 02 sensors are commercially available; a gas polarographic 02 sensor was used to prove the feasibility of building a new gas polarographic H2 sensor.

  6. Identifying compartmentalization in gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Junkin, J.; Cooper, K.; Sippel, M.

    1997-01-01

    Compartmentalization as a function of depositional systems is now recognized as a common type of reservoir heterogeneity that limits recovery from oil and gas reservoirs. US Department of Energy (DOE) estimates indicate that substantial quantities of gas resources will not be recovered from presently identified reservoirs under historic development practices. The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), state of Texas and DOE quantified compartmentalization over intervals as large as 2,000 feet in several different fluvial deltaic reservoirs. Early recognition of compartmentalized behavior can be used to pursue a more rapid development plan including efficient well spacing and elimination of redundant wells. Three classes of reservoir compartment sizes were delineated in the SGR project using methods discussed in this article. Forward stochastic modeling of gas recovery from these compartment-size classes established well spacing requirements that would yield maximum gas contact efficiency. The presence of reservoir compartmentalization was also shown to correlate with reserve growth. Also, those reservoirs classified as having smaller compartment sizes exhibited the greatest reserve growth potential. Utilization of tools, such as personal computer-based methods discussed, enables better engineering interpretation of actual field behavior. Some of these tools require minimal production data, which is readily available on CD-ROM or via modem at very low cost.

  7. Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Acccord, or Midwestern Greenhouse gas Accord (MGA), is a regional agreement by governors of the states in the US Midwest and one Canadian province to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change. Signatories to the accord include the US states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Kansas, Ohio and South Dakota, and the Canadian Province of Manitoba. The accord, signed on November 15, 2007, established the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program, which aims to: establish greenhouse gas reduction targets and timeframes consistent with MGA member states' targets; develop a market-based and multi-sector cap-and-trade mechanism to help achieve those reduction targets; establish a system to enable tracking, management, and crediting for entities that reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and develop and implement additional steps as needed to achieve the reduction targets, such as a low-carbon fuel standards and regional incentives and funding mechanisms. The GHG registry will be managed by the Climate Registry, which manages the registry for other US state schemes. One of the first actions was to convene an Energy Security under Climate Stewardship Platform to guide future development of the Midwest's energy economy.

  8. Dissolved gas - the hidden saboteur

    SciTech Connect

    Magorien, V.G.

    1993-12-31

    Almost all hydraulic power components, to properly perform their tasks, rely on one basic, physical property, i.e., the incompressibility of the working fluid. Unfortunately, a frequently overlooked fluid property which frustrates this requirement is its ability to absorb, i.e., dissolve, store and give off gas. The gas is, most often but not always, air. This property is a complex one because it is a function not only of the fluid`s chemical make-up but temperature, pressure, exposed area, depth and time. In its relationshiop to aircraft landing-gear, where energy is absorbed hydraulically, this multi-faceted fluid property can be detrimental in two ways: dynamically, i.e., loss of energy absorption ability and statically, i.e., improper aircraft attitude on the ground. The pupose of this paper is to bring an awareness to this property by presenting: (1) examples of these manifestations with some empirical and practical solutions to them, (2) illustrations of this normally `hidden saboteur` at work, (3) Henry`s Dissolved Gas Law, (4) room-temperature, saturated values of dissolved gas for a number of different working fluids, (5) a description of the instrument used to obtain them, (6) some `missing elements` of the Dissolved Gas Law pertaining to absoption, (7) how static and dynamic conditions effect gas absorption and (8) some recommended solutions to prevent becoming a victim of this `hidden saboteur`

  9. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  10. BTU reduction in gas plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bieda, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Btu reduction in gas plants refers to the measurable amount of energy removed from the gas stream during processing. The unit of measure is the {open_quotes}Btu{close_quotes} (British thermal unit) and it can be calculated for any gas stream by measuring the volume and analyzing the composition. The Btu`s removed in processing represent the gas components converted to natural gas liquids (NGL`s), the fuel burned to effect the gas-phase-to-liquid-phase conversion, and any unmeasured losses between the plant`s inlet meter and residue meter. The sum total of these components is referred to as Plant Btu Reduction, or {open_quotes}PBR{close_quotes}. PBR plays a key role in the plant`s profitability, appearing as the single greatest debit on the plant`s balance sheet. Accordingly, it is critical that the contributing elements are measured accurately. This paper will further attempt to explain the significance of PBR and to demonstrate its calculation.

  11. Gasification Evaluation of Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Battelle

    2003-12-30

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the potential for use in gas turbines and reciprocating gas engines of gases derived from biomass by pyrolysis or partial oxidation with air. Consideration was given to the use of mixtures of these gases with natural gas as a means of improving heating value and ensuring a steady gas supply. Gas from biomass, and mixtures with natural gas, were compared with natural gas reformates from low temperature partial oxidation or steam reforming. The properties of such reformates were based on computations of gas properties using the ChemCAD computational tools and energy inputs derived from known engine parameters. In general, the biomass derived fuels compare well with reformates, so far as can be judged without engine testing. Mild reforming has potential to produce a more uniform quality of fuel gas from very variable qualities of natural gas, and could possibly be applied to gas from biomass to eliminate organic gases and condensibles other than methane.

  12. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. The Noble Gas Fingerprint in a UK Unconventional Gas Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKavney, Rory; Gilfillan, Stuart; Györe, Domokos; Stuart, Fin

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, there has been an unprecedented expansion in the development of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Concerns have arisen about the effect of this new industry on groundwater quality, particularly focussing on hydraulic fracturing, the technique used to increase the permeability of the targeted tight shale formations. Methane contamination of groundwater has been documented in areas of gas production1 but conclusively linking this to fugitive emissions from unconventional hydrocarbon production has been controversial2. A lack of baseline measurements taken before drilling, and the equivocal interpretation of geochemical data hamper the determination of possible contamination. Common techniques for "fingerprinting" gas from discrete sources rely on gas composition and isotopic ratios of elements within hydrocarbons (e.g. δ13CCH4), but the original signatures can be masked by biological and gas transport processes. The noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) are inert and controlled only by their physical properties. They exist in trace quantities in natural gases and are sourced from 3 isotopically distinct environments (atmosphere, crust and mantle)3. They are decoupled from the biosphere, and provide a separate toolbox to investigate the numerous sources and migration pathways of natural gases, and have found recent utility in the CCS4 and unconventional gas5 industries. Here we present a brief overview of noble gas data obtained from a new coal bed methane (CBM) field, Central Scotland. We show that the high concentration of helium is an ideal fingerprint for tracing fugitive gas migration to a shallow groundwater. The wells show variation in the noble gas signatures that can be attributed to differences in formation water pumping from the coal seams as the field has been explored for future commercial development. Dewatering the seams alters the gas/water ratio and the degree to which noble gases degas from the formation water. Additionally the

  14. RADIOLYTIC GAS PRODUCTION RATES OF POLYMERS EXPOSED TO TRITIUM GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.

    2013-08-31

    Data from previous reports on studies of polymers exposed to tritium gas is further analyzed to estimate rates of radiolytic gas production. Also, graphs of gas release during tritium exposure from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, a trade name is Teflon®), and Vespel® polyimide are re-plotted as moles of gas as a function of time, which is consistent with a later study of tritium effects on various formulations of the elastomer ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM). These gas production rate estimates may be useful while considering using these polymers in tritium processing systems. These rates are valid at least for the longest exposure times for each material, two years for UHMW-PE, PTFE, and Vespel®, and fourteen months for filled and unfilled EPDM. Note that the production “rate” for Vespel® is a quantity of H{sub 2} produced during a single exposure to tritium, independent of length of time. The larger production rate per unit mass for unfilled EPDM results from the lack of filler- the carbon black in filled EPDM does not produce H{sub 2} or HT. This is one aspect of how inert fillers reduce the effects of ionizing radiation on polymers.

  15. Gas Flow Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at

  16. Nitrogen removal from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

  17. Gas hydrates in the ocean environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.

    2002-01-01

    A GAS HYDRATE, also known as a gas clathrate, is a gas-bearing, icelike material. It occurs in abundance in marine sediments and stores immense amounts of methane, with major implications for future energy resources and global climate change. Furthermore, gas hydrate controls some of the physical properties of sedimentary deposits and thereby influences seafloor stability.

  18. Recession curbs gas pipeline construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1983-01-24

    This paper shows how after 5 yrs. of inflation, gas pipeline construction costs have finally felt the effects of a severe building recession. First quarter (1982) construction activity, compressor equipment and drive units, and high-pressure gas-station piping are discussed. Graphs of OGJ-Morgan composite gas pipeline cost, and gas pipeline cost component indexes are presented.

  19. 21 CFR 868.6400 - Calibration gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calibration gas. 868.6400 Section 868.6400 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6400 Calibration gas. (a) Identification. A calibration gas is a device consisting of a container of gas of known concentration intended to calibrate...

  20. 21 CFR 868.6400 - Calibration gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calibration gas. 868.6400 Section 868.6400 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6400 Calibration gas. (a) Identification. A calibration gas is a device consisting of a container of gas of known concentration intended to calibrate...