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Sample records for hall cooling tower

  1. Calder Hall Cooling Tower Demolition: Landmark Milestone for Decommissioning at Sellafield

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, E.J.

    2008-07-01

    September 2007 saw a very visible change to the Sellafield site following the culmination of a major decommissioning project; the demolition of the four Calder Hall cooling towers. A key part of the UK's nuclear industrial heritage, Calder Hall, the world's first commercial nuclear power station, was opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in October 1953 and continued to generate electricity until its closure in 2003. Following the decision to decommission the Calder Hall site, explosive demolition was identified as the safest and most cost effective route for the removal of the towers. The technique, involving the placement of explosive in 60% of the circumference of both shell and legs, is a tried and tested method which had already been used successfully in more than 200 cooling towers in the UK in the last 30 years. The location and composition of the four 88 metre high towers also created additional challenges. Situated only 40 metres away from the UK's only nuclear Fuel Handling Plant, as well as other sensitive structures on the Sellafield site, the project had to address the impact of a number of key areas, including dust, ground vibration and air over pressure, to ensure that the demolition could be carried out safely and without significant impact on other operational areas on the site. At the same time, the towers had to be prepared for demolition in a way that minimised the amounts of radioactive or hazardous waste materials arising. This paper follows the four year journey from the initial decision to demolish the towers right through to the demolition itself as well as the clean up of the site post demolition. It will also consider the massive programme of work necessary not only to carry out the physical work safely but also to gain regulatory confidence and stakeholder support to carry out the project successfully. In summary: The demolition of the four Calder Hall cooling towers was a highly visible symbol of the changes that are occurring on the

  2. COOLING TOWER PLUME MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of recently reported cooling tower plume models yields none that is universally accepted. The entrainment and drag mechanisms and the effect of moisture on the plume trajectory are phenomena which are treated differently by various investigators. In order to better under...

  3. Legionella in cooling towers.

    PubMed

    Witherell, L E; Novick, L F; Stone, K M; Duncan, R W; Orciari, L A; Kappel, S J; Jillson, D A

    1986-01-01

    Legionellosis (Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever) outbreaks have been associated with aerosols ejected from contaminated cooling towers--wet-type heat rejection units (WTHRUs) used to dissipate unwanted heat into the atmosphere. The Vermont Department of Health undertook a program to inventory, inspect, and sample all WTHRUs in Vermont from April 1981 to April 1982. All WTHRUs were sampled for Legionella pneumophila and data were obtained for location, design, construction, and operating characteristics. Of the 184 WTHRUs operating, statistical analyses were performed on those 130 which were sampled for L. pneumophila only once during the study period. Of these, 11 (8.5%) were positive for L. pneumophila. Sources of makeup water and period of operation had significant association with the recovery of L. pneumophila. Five out of 92 towers (5.4%) utilizing surface water sources for cooling were positive for L. pneumophila, in contrast to 6 positive towers of the 38 units (15.8%) which obtained makeup water from ground water sources (p = .054 by chi-square test). Nearly 15% of the 54 units which operated throughout the year were positive, compared to less than 4% of the 76 towers operating seasonally (p = .03 by chi-square test). The mean pH of the cooling water in units where L. pneumophila was recovered (8.3) was significantly higher than the mean pH of 7.9 in units testing negative (p less than .05 by t-test). In addition, the mean log-transformed turbidity of positive towers, 0.03 nephelometric units (ntu), was significantly lower than the mean of log turbidity of negative towers, 0.69 ntu (p less than .02 by t-test). PMID:10281778

  4. PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. Hot deck of Cooling Tower with fan motors in place. Fan's propeller blades (not in view) rotate within lower portion of vents. Inlet pipe is a left of view. Contractor's construction buildings in view to right. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: June 30, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3781 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Ozonation of cooling tower waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.; Howe, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Continuous ozone injection into water circulating between a cooling tower and heat exchanger with heavy scale deposits inhibits formation of further deposits, promotes flaking of existing deposits, inhibits chemical corrosion and controls algae and bacteria.

  6. Cooling tower hardware corrosion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, S.C.

    1983-01-31

    The data presented in this report are interim results of a continuing investigation into the corrosion resistance of metals in the environment of a large cooling tower. Some of the significant observations are as follows: the corrosion of susceptible metals occurs most rapidly in the warm fog conditions between the deck and mist filters; the application of stainless steel must be made on the basis of alloy chemistry and processing history. Some corrosion resistant alloys may develop cracking problems after improper heat treating or welding; combinations of aluminum bronze, stainless steel, and silicon bronze hardware were not susceptible to galvanic corrosion; the service life of structural steel is extended by coal tar epoxy coatings; aluminum coatings appear to protect structural steel on the tower deck and below the distribution nozzles. The corrosion of cooling tower hardware can be easily controlled through the use of 316 stainless steel and silicon bronze. The use of other materials which exhibit general resistance should be specified only after they have been tested in the form of structural assemblies such as weldments and bolted joints in each of the different tower zones.

  7. Ozone Treatment For Cooling Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwelder, Rick; Baldwin, Leroy V.; Feeney, Ellen S.

    1990-01-01

    Report presents results of study of cooling tower in which water treated with ozone instead of usual chemical agents. Bacteria and scale reduced without pollution and at low cost. Operating and maintenance costs with treatment about 30 percent of those of treatment by other chemicals. Corrosion rates no greater than with other chemicals. Advantage of ozone, even though poisonous, quickly detected by smell in very low concentrations.

  8. 2004 Savannah River Cooling Tower Collection (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Alfred; Parker, Matthew J.; Villa-Aleman, E.

    2005-05-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected ground truth in and around the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area cooling tower during the spring and summer of 2004. The ground truth data consisted of air temperatures and humidity inside and around the cooling tower, wind speed and direction, cooling water temperatures entering; inside adn leaving the cooling tower, cooling tower fan exhaust velocities and thermal images taken from helicopters. The F-Area cooling tower had six cells, some of which were operated with fans off during long periods of the collection. The operating status (fan on or off) for each of the six cells was derived from operations logbooks and added to the collection database. SRNL collected the F-Area cooling tower data to produce a database suitable for validation of a cooling tower model used by one of SRNL's customer agencies. SRNL considers the data to be accurate enough for use in a model validation effort. Also, the thermal images of the cooling tower decks and throats combined with the temperature measurements inside the tower provide valuable information about the appearance of cooling towers as a function of fan operating status and time of day.

  9. Ozone inhibits corrosion in cooling towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, K. R.; Howe, R. D.; Humphrey, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    Commercially available corona discharge ozone generator, fitted onto industrial cooling tower, significantly reduces formation of scales (calcium carbonate) and corrosion. System also controls growth of algae and other microorganisms. Modification lowers cost and improves life of cooling system.

  10. Vortex-augmented cooling tower - windmill combination

    DOEpatents

    McAllister, J.E. Jr.

    1982-09-02

    A cooling tower for cooling large quantities of effluent water from a production facility by utilizing natural wind forces includes the use of a series of helically directed air inlet passages extending outwardly from the base of the tower to introduce air from any direction in a swirling vortical pattern while the force of the draft created in the tower makes it possible to place conventional power generating windmills in the air passage to provide power as a by-product.

  11. Using ozone to treat cooling tower water

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, L.

    1995-07-01

    Ozone is a controversial but promising alternative to chemicals for treating water in cooling towers. A powerful disinfectant, ozone can prevent biofouling of heat exchange surfaces, and may mitigate scale and corrosion. Ozone treatment of cooling towers can cut costs for energy, water, sewage, and regulatory compliance. Ozone treatment is an electrotechnology, but ozone equipment represents only a small electric load. Although ozone has provided excellent results in some cooling tower applications, its effectiveness has not been proven conclusively. Less than 1,000 cooling towers use ozone water treatment in the United States. Acceptance of this technology is increasing, however, as indicated by its use by such large firms as IBM, AT and T, DuPont, and Xerox, and by its adoption by some chemical water treatment suppliers. The energy efficiency implications of ozone treatment are being researched. Southern California Edison found that in some systems, ozone treatment improved chiller efficiency up to 20 percent due to cleaner heat exchange surfaces.

  12. Stripping of phenols in model cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C.D.; Moe, T.A.; Wentz, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cooling towers are used to remove waste heat from unit operations in chemical processing plants. Using cooling towers for wastewater treatment and disposal through internal recycling has become an important alternative because of stricter wastewater discharge standards, the expense of specialized wastewater treatment systems and the limited availability and cost of water in arid regions. Designs for synfuels plants must address the problem of wastewater disposal. Alternative systems under consideration usually include zero discharge designs that incorporate evaporative cooling towers in the system. The mechanisms for contaminant removal in cooling towers are biological oxidation, stripping and chemical precipitation. Chemical precipitation is generally considered undesirable because of losses in heat transfer efficiency. Predicting whether stripping or biological oxidation will be the primary removal mechanism for phenolic compounds from coal conversion wastewaters used as makeup in cooling towers does not appear to be possible based on the results of these tests. The tests do indicate that the biological oxidation of phenol is possible in forced draft cooling towers.

  13. Mycobacteria in Finnish cooling tower waters.

    PubMed

    Torvinen, Eila; Suomalainen, Sini; Paulin, Lars; Kusnetsov, Jaana

    2014-04-01

    Evaporative cooling towers are water systems used in, e.g., industry and telecommunication to remove excess heat by evaporation of water. Temperatures of cooling waters are usually optimal for mesophilic microbial growth and cooling towers may liberate massive amounts of bacterial aerosols. Outbreaks of legionellosis associated with cooling towers have been known since the 1980's, but occurrences of other potentially pathogenic bacteria in cooling waters are mostly unknown. We examined the occurrence of mycobacteria, which are common bacteria in different water systems and may cause pulmonary and other soft tissue infections, in cooling waters containing different numbers of legionellae. Mycobacteria were isolated from all twelve cooling systems and from 92% of the 24 samples studied. Their numbers in the positive samples varied from 10 to 7.3 × 10(4) cfu/L. The isolated species included M. chelonae/abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. mucogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. intracellulare, M. lentiflavum, M. avium/nebraskense/scrofulaceum and many non-pathogenic species. The numbers of mycobacteria correlated negatively with the numbers of legionellae and the concentration of copper. The results show that cooling towers are suitable environments for potentially pathogenic mycobacteria. Further transmission of mycobacteria from the towers to the environment needs examination. PMID:23937212

  14. Rebuild cooling tower after partial collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Michell, F.L.; Demjanenko, W.

    1995-07-01

    When this tower suddenly went down, it forced the associated powerplant out of service. To restore operation required a quick assessment of the damage and fast action to reconstruct the tower. The partial collapse and prompt rebuild of a cooling tower at Columbus Southern Co`s Conesville station Unit 4 is a story of what can go wrong and what can be done to set matters right -- in a hurry. The utility is one of seven operating companies in American Electric Power Co`s system. Unit 4 is jointly owned with Cincinnati Gas and Electric Co and Dayton Power and Light Co. The 780-MW coal-fired unit`s closed-loop cooling-water system is served by two double-flow, seven-cell, mechanical-draft cooling towers (4A and 4B). The design basis calls for operating all 14 cells to maintain full load in the summer months.

  15. Simple model of a cooling tower plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, Cizek; Jiri, Nozicka

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses the possibilities in the area of modeling of the so called cooling tower plume emergent at operating evaporating cooling systems. As opposed to recent publication, this text focuses on the possibilities of a simplified analytic description of the whole problem where this description shall - in the future - form the base of a calculation algorithms enabling to simulate the efficiency of systems reducing this cooling tower plume. The procedure is based on the application of basic formula for the calculation of the velocity and concentration fields in the area above the cooling tower. These calculation is then used to determine the form and the total volume of the plume. Although this approach does not offer more exact results, it can provide a basic understanding of the impact of individual quantities relating to this problem.

  16. Salt water cooling tower retrofit experience

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1994-06-01

    This article describes the experience of engineers at Atlantic Electric Co. with a recent cooling tower fill retrofit at the company's B.L. England Station, Unit 3. Note that this tower is unique. It is the first natural draft salt water tower to be built in the United States. Unit 3's closed-loop saltwater cooling system features a double condenser and two 50% capacity horizontal circulating water pumps. A natural draft cooling tower rejects heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and sensible heat transfer. The tower is 180 ft in diameter at the base and 208 ft high, and features a counterflow design. It was designed to cool 63,500 gpm of circulating salt water through a range of 26 F with an approach of 19.2 degrees at an ambient wet bulb temperature of 76 F and 60% relative humidity. A drift rate of 0.002% of circulating water flow was specified to avoid excessive salt water carryover.

  17. Cooling tower water conditioning study. [using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.

    1979-01-01

    Successful elimination of cooling tower treatment chemicals was demonstrated. Three towers functioned for long periods of time with ozone as the only treatment for the water. The water in the systems was reused as much as 30 times (cycles of concentration) without deleterious effects to the heat exchangers. Actual system blow-down was eliminated and the only makeup water added was that required to replace the evaporation and mist entrainment losses. Minimum water savings alone are approximately 75.1 1/kg/year. Cost estimates indicate that a savings of 55 percent was obtained on the systems using ozone. A major problem experienced in the use of ozone for cooling tower applications was the difficulty of accurate concentration measurements. The ability to control the operational characteristics relies on easily and accurately determined concentration levels. Present methods of detection are subject to inaccuracies because of interfering materials and the rapid destruction of the ozone.

  18. FIELD INVESTIGATION OF COOLING TOWER AND COOLING POND PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements were made relating to the behavior of water-vapor plumes from forced-draft cooling towers and from cooling ponds. There were three categories of measurements. (1) Ambient weather data including temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction. These measurements ...

  19. 50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NONEVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. NORTHERN VIEW OF NON-EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS IN CENTER, AND EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER COOLING TOWERS ON RIGHT. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Alfred Garrett, A; James02 Bollinger, J; Larry Koffman, L

    2009-02-10

    Industrial processes use mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT's) to dissipate waste heat by transferring heat from water to air via evaporative cooling, which causes air humidification. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has cross-flow and counter-current MDCT's consisting of four independent compartments called cells. Each cell has its own fan to help maximize heat transfer between ambient air and circulated water. The primary objective of the work is to simulate the cooling tower performance for the counter-current cooling tower and to conduct a parametric study under different fan speeds and ambient air conditions. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and performed the benchmarking analysis against the integral measurement results to accomplish the objective. The model uses three-dimensional steady-state momentum, continuity equations, air-vapor species balance equation, and two-equation turbulence as the basic governing equations. It was assumed that vapor phase is always transported by the continuous air phase with no slip velocity. In this case, water droplet component was considered as discrete phase for the interfacial heat and mass transfer via Lagrangian approach. Thus, the air-vapor mixture model with discrete water droplet phase is used for the analysis. A series of parametric calculations was performed to investigate the impact of wind speeds and ambient conditions on the thermal performance of the cooling tower when fans were operating and when they were turned off. The model was also benchmarked against the literature data and the SRS integral test results for key parameters such as air temperature and humidity at the tower exit and water temperature for given ambient conditions. Detailed results will be published here.

  1. Legionella in Puerto Rico cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Negron-Alviro, A.; Perez-Suarez, I.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Water samples from air conditioning cooling towers receiving different treatment protocols on five large municipal buildings in San Juan, Puerto Rico were assayed for various species and serogroups of Legionella spp. using direct immunofluorescence. Several water quality parameters were also measured with each sample. Guinea pigs were inoculated with water samples to confirm pathogenicity and recover viable organisms. Legionella pneumophila (1-6), L. bozemanii, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, and L. gormanii were observed in at least one of the cooling towers. L. pneumophila was the most abundant species, reaching 10{sup 5} cells/ml, within the range that is considered potentially pathogenic to humans. A significantly higher density of L. pneumophila was observed in the cooling tower water that was not being treated with biocides. Percent respiration (INT) and total cell activity (AODC), were inversely correlated with bacterial density. This study demonstrates that Legionella spp. are present in tropical air-conditioning cooling systems, and without continuous biocide treatment may reach densities that present a health risk.

  2. Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-01

    Cooling towers are an integral component of many refrigeration systems, providing comfort or process cooling across a broad range of applications. Cooling towers represent the point in a cooling system where heat is dissipated to the atmosphere through evaporation. Cooling towers are commonly used in industrial applications and in large commercial buildings to release waste heat extracted from a process or building system through evaporation of water.

  3. Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-20

    This technology evaluation assesses side stream filtration options for cooling towers, with an objective to assess key attributes that optimize energy and water savings along with providing information on specific technology and implementation options. This information can be used to assist Federal sites to determine which options may be most appropriate for their applications. This evaluation provides an overview of the characterization of side stream filtration technology, describes typical applications, and details specific types of filtration technology.

  4. Aspects of cooling tower biocides and protozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Ashburn, R.J.; Ting, R.S.

    1998-12-31

    Previous work has shown that certain cooling tower amoebae and ciliated protozoa are resistant to several cooling tower biocides, even at the manufacturer`s recommended dosages. For the present study, an Acunthumoeba species was isolated from a cooling tower in Australia. Suspensions of the trophozoites (feeding stages) were exposed to isothiazolones. Cysts were tested separately. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC) for trophozoites was between 31-62 ppm of the biocide product, which is slightly less than the MLC for an amoebae species from the United States; and cyst forms were twofold more resistant than those of the US species, with a MLC of 62,500 ppm. A ciliate and an amoeba species were also exposed to bromochlorodimethylhydantoin. The MLC for the ciliate species was 1 ppm of the biocide product, and the MLC was 30--40 ppm for the amoeba trophozoites. Since amoebae can expel vesicles containing live Legionella, experiments were conducted to determine whether exposure of Acunthamoebu polyphugu to biocides influenced release of such potentially infectious particles. Vesicle release was not inhibited by any of the three biocides: quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), isothiazolones, and a thiocarbamate compound. These results suggest that amoebae from various sources are resistant to recommended levels of biocides, and the amoebae may continue to release potentially infectious vesicles in the presence of biocides.

  5. Water-conserving cooling tower treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mathie, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Water conservation in cooling towers and evaporative coolers can finally become a reality. Also, fouled closed hot and chilled water systems can be restored to near original efficiency using the same technology. The barrier limiting the traditional water treatment industry from serious involvement in water conservation is the lack of a really good chemical to control scale. Poor scale inhibitors are the reason for a heavy bleed. Minerals concentrated by evaporation is wasted to the sewer while low solids make-up water fills the tower. Water conservation is important because of the increasing usable water shortage, the cost to add infrastructure to deliver increasing amounts of water to accommodate growth and the limitations imposed on disposal to the sewer. Now, due to innovations in chemical treatment, users of cooling towers and evaporative coolers can conserve water. In this presentation the author assumes the audience has some knowledge of traditional water treatment. Except for a few general references to establish common understanding, the author confines his remarks to discussing an advanced technology developed by DIAS, Inc., and the economics of its use.

  6. The Damaging Effects of Earthquake Excitation on Concrete Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Abedi-Nik, Farhad; Sabouri-Ghomi, Saeid

    2008-07-08

    Reinforced concrete cooling towers of hyperbolic shell configuration find widespread application in utilities engaged in the production of electric power. In design of critical civil infrastructure of this type, it is imperative to consider all the possible loading conditions that the cooling tower may experience, an important loading condition in many countries is that of the earthquake excitation, whose influence on the integrity and stability of cooling towers is profound. Previous researches have shown that the columns supporting a cooling tower are sensitive to earthquake forces, as they are heavily loaded elements that do not possess high ductility, and understanding the behavior of columns under earthquake excitation is vital in structural design because they provide the load path for the self weight of the tower shell. This paper presents the results of a finite element investigation of a representative 'dry' cooling tower, using realistic horizontal and vertical acceleration data obtained from the recent and widely-reported Tabas, Naghan and Bam earthquakes in Iran. The results of both linear and nonlinear analyses are reported in the paper, the locations of plastic hinges within the supporting columns are identified and the ramifications of the plastic hinges on the stability of the cooling tower are assessed. It is concluded that for the (typical) cooling tower configuration analyzed, the columns that are instrumental in providing a load path are influenced greatly by earthquake loading, and for the earthquake data used in this study the representative cooling tower would be rendered unstable and would collapse under the earthquake forces considered.

  7. Counter-Flow Cooling Tower Test Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Lukáš; Nožička, Jiří

    2014-03-01

    The article contains a design of a functional experimental model of a cross-flow mechanical draft cooling tower and the results and outcomes of measurements. This device is primarily used for measuring performance characteristics of cooling fills, but with a simple rebuild, it can be used for measuring other thermodynamic processes that take part in so-called wet cooling. The main advantages of the particular test cell lie in the accuracy, size, and the possibility of changing the water distribution level. This feature is very useful for measurements of fills of different heights without the influence of the spray and rain zone. The functionality of this test cell has been verified experimentally during assembly, and data from the measurement of common film cooling fills have been compared against the results taken from another experimental line. For the purpose of evaluating the data gathered, computational scripts were created in the MATLAB numerical computing environment. The first script is for exact calculation of the thermal balance of the model, and the second is for determining Merkel's number via Chebyshev's method.

  8. 36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. EASTERN VIEW OF BOTTOM CONE OF GAS COOLING TOWER No. 1 AND TWO GAS COOLING TOWER SERVICE WATER PUMPS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  9. PBF Cooling Tower. View of stairway to fan deck. Vents ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. View of stairway to fan deck. Vents are made of redwood. Camera facing southwest toward north side of Cooling Tower. Siding is corrugated asbestos concrete. Photographer: Kirsh. Date: June 6, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3463 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. A numerical simulation of heat transfer in evaporative cooling towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, D. J.

    1983-09-01

    A phenomenological analysis was developed for the processes which occur within an evaporative cooling tower. The analysis includes the basic principles of mass, momentum, and energy conservation and empirical elationships for component characteristics such as transfer and pressure drop coefficients. A computer model which simulates the processes occurring in evaporative cooling towers was developed. The results of this computer model are compared to field data to verify the analysis and the computer modeling. The computer model may be used to analyze the performance of existing towers or to predict the performance of alternative tower designs.

  11. Enumeration of Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower water systems.

    PubMed

    Türetgen, Irfan; Sungur, Esra Ilhan; Cotuk, Aysin

    2005-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, is known to colonise and frequently grow in cooling tower waters. Disease is acquired by inhaling aerosol contaminated by legionellae. Determination of the count of Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower waters may, therefore, be useful for risk assessment. In our survey, 103 water samples from 50 cooling towers were examined over a five-year period to indicate the seasonal distribution and the ecology of L. pneumophila, as regards temperature and pH. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was found in 44% of the isolated strains, which is primarily responsible for the majority of Legionnaires' disease. The large majority of examined towers had levels of L. pneumophila in the high-risk category. These cooling towers have been linked to many outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease. PMID:15727299

  12. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water usage.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Andres L.; Everett, Randy L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cappelle, Malynda A.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  13. Use of nanofiltration to reduce cooling tower water consumption.

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, Susan Jeanne; Ciferno, Jared

    2010-10-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) can effectively treat cooling-tower water to reduce water consumption and maximize water usage efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. A pilot is being run to verify theoretical calculations. A side stream of water from a 900 gpm cooling tower is being treated by NF with the permeate returning to the cooling tower and the concentrate being discharged. The membrane efficiency is as high as over 50%. Salt rejection ranges from 77-97% with higher rejection for divalent ions. The pilot has demonstrated a reduction of makeup water of almost 20% and a reduction of discharge of over 50%.

  14. Alternative cooling tower water treatment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wilsey, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The factors that contribute to proper water balance include total alkalinity, calcium hardness, and pH. In order to keep the cooling tower from scaling or corroding, a manipulation of these components is often necessary. This has traditionally been achieved with the use of chemicals, including but not limited to the following: acid, soda ash, sodium bicarbonate, calcium bicarbonate, algicide, and bactericide. Extensive research has shown that a balanced water system can also be achieved by using the proper combination of copper with a known halogen. Microbiologists have determined that a small amount of copper, acting as a supplement to chlorine at 0.4 ppm, has the same efficiency as 2.0 ppm free chlorine. Therefore, by using the following combination of components and procedures, the desired results can still be achieved: production of copper compound ions as a supplement to the chemical regimen; analysis and manipulation of make-up water; the use of copper as a coagulant for reduction of scale; copper as a supplemental bacterial disinfectant; and copper as an algicide.

  15. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Problem Statement: Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power…

  16. In Hot Water: A Cooling Tower Case Study. Instructor's Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Justin; Raju, P. K.; Sankar, Chetan

    2005-01-01

    Vogtle Electric Generating Plant operated by Southern Nuclear Operating Company, a subsidiary of Southern Company, has found itself at a decision point. Vogtle depends on their natural draft cooling towers to remove heat from the power cycle. Depending on the efficiency of the towers, the cycle can realize more or less power output. The efficiency…

  17. AIRBORNE MONITORING OF COOLING TOWER EFFLUENTS. VOLUME I. TECHNICAL SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    MRI conducted an airborne plume monitoring program as part of the Chalk Point Cooling Tower Project. Plume measurement included: temperature, dew point, visibility, turbulence, droplet size distribution and concentration, liquid water content, sodium chloride concentration (NaCl)...

  18. 16. SOUTH SIDE OF STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER IN OPERABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. SOUTH SIDE OF STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER IN OPERABLE CONDITION, WITH STACKS OF ORIGINAL BOILERS IN BACKGROUND. June 10, 1941 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF SINGLE AND MULTIPLE CELL COOLING TOWER PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the dilution characteristics of single and multiple port buoyant discharges typical of modern natural and mechanical draft cooling towers. Simultaneous measurements of velocity and tracer concentration profiles were taken a...

  20. 5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTH. SHOWS CURRENT LEVEL OF DISREPAIR. December 4, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 2. Left side of Zinc Plant, from packless Cooling Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Left side of Zinc Plant, from packless Cooling Tower to midpoint of Cell Room, with majority of Upper Plant in view. View is to the east. - Sullivan Electrolytic Zinc Plant, Government Gulch, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  2. 10. STATIC TEST TOWER CLOSEUP OF COOLING PIPES OF FLAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. STATIC TEST TOWER CLOSE-UP OF COOLING PIPES OF FLAME DEFLECTOR PIT ON NORTH ELEVATION. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. 72. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON COOLING TOWERS (3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. BEVATRON COOLING TOWERS (3 SHOWN) AND MOTOR GENERATOR ON RIGHT - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  4. Use of cooling tower blow down in ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, N; Singh, V; Panno, B; Wilcoxon, M

    2010-01-01

    Reducing water consumption in bioethanol production conserves an increasingly scarce natural resource, lowers production costs, and minimizes effluent management issues. The suitability of cooling tower blow down water for reuse in fermentation was investigated as a means to lower water consumption. Extensive chemical characterization of the blow down water revealed low concentrations of toxic elements and total dissolved solids. Fermentation carried out with cooling tower blow down water resulted in similar levels of ethanol and residual glucose as a control study using deionized water. The study noted good tolerance by yeast to the specific scale and corrosion inhibitors found in the cooling tower blow down water. This research indicates that, under appropriate conditions, reuse of blow down water from cooling towers in fermentation is feasible. PMID:21076211

  5. Evaluation of IR technology applied to cooling tower performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNamara, Neal A.; Zayicek, Paul A.

    1999-03-01

    Infrared thermography (IR) is widely used by electric utilities as an integral part of their predictive maintenance program. IR is utilized for inspection of a variety of plant mechanical and electrical components. Additionally, IR can be used to provide thermal performance information for other key plant systems, including assessment of cooling towers. Cooling tower performance directly affects availability and heat rate in fossil and nuclear power plants. Optimal tower performance contributes to efficient turbine operation and maximum power output. It is estimated that up to half of the cooling towers installed have failed to meet their design performance specifications. As a result, any additional degradation of tower performance resulting from fouling, valve degradation, unbalanced flow, or a poor maintenance practice has a direct effect on generation output. We have collected infrared thermography images of mechanical draft cooling towers, as part of Evaluation of IR Technology Applied to Cooling Tower Performance. IR images have been analyzed to provide information regarding general performance conditions and identification of operational deficiencies related to thermal performance. Similarly, IR can be implemented for monitoring of tower flow balance activities and for post-maintenance surveillance. To date, IR images have been used to identify areas of general flow imbalance, flooding or limited flow in individual cells, missing or broken tower fill material, fan performance and other problems related to maintenance or operational issues. Additionally, an attempt is being made to use quantitative thermal data, provided by the IR image analysis software, in conjunction with condenser input/output site ambient information, to evaluate and compare individual tower cell performance.

  6. Environmental Impacts from the Operation of Cooling Towers at SRP

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. III

    2001-06-26

    An assessment has been made of the environmental effects that would occur from the operation of cooling towers at the SRP reactors. A more realistic numerical model of the cooling tower plume has been used to reassess the environmental impacts. The following effects were considered: (1) the occurrence of fog and ice and their impact on nearby structures, (2) drift and salt deposition from the plume, (3) the length and height of the visible plume, and (4) the possible dose from tritium.

  7. Main photoautotrophic components of biofilms in natural draft cooling towers.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Tomáš; Čapek, Petr; Böhmová, Petra

    2016-05-01

    While photoautotrophic organisms are an important component of biofilms that live in certain regions of natural draft cooling towers, little is known about these communities. We therefore examined 18 towers at nine sites to identify the general patterns of community assembly in three distinct tower parts, and we examined how community structures differ depending on geography. We also compared the newly acquired data with previously published data. The bottom sections of draft cooling towers are mainly settled by large filamentous algae, primarily Cladophora glomerata. The central portions of towers host a small amount of planktic algae biomass originating in the cooling water. The upper fourths of towers are colonized by biofilms primarily dominated by cyanobacteria, e.g., members of the genera Gloeocapsa and Scytonema. A total of 41 taxa of phototrophic microorganisms were identified. Species composition of the upper fourth of all towers was significantly affected by cardinal position. There was different species composition at positions facing north compared to positions facing south. West- and east-facing positions were transitory and highly similar to each other in terms of species composition. Biofilms contribute to the degradation of paint coatings inside towers. PMID:26508444

  8. PBF Cooling Tower detail. Camera facing southwest into north side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower detail. Camera facing southwest into north side of Tower. Five horizontal layers of splash bars constitute fill decks, which will break up falling water into droplets, promoting evaporative cooling. Louvered faces, through which air enters tower, are on east and west sides. Louvers have been installed. Support framework for one of two venturi-shaped fan stacks (or "vents") is in center top. Orifices in hot basins (not in view) will distribute water over fill. Photographer: Kirsh. Date: May 15, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3032 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER. PUMP HOUSE (TRA-645) IN SHADOW OF TOWER ON LEFT. AT LEFT OF VIEW, HIGH-BAY BUILDING IS ETR. ONE STORY ATTACHMENT IS ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING. STACK AT RIGHT IS ETR STACK; MTR STACK IS TOWARD LEFT. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3799. Jack L. Anderson, 11/26/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA606. THREE OF SIX SECTIONS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-606. THREE OF SIX SECTIONS OF COOLING TOWER ARE VISIBLE ABOVE RAILING. PUMP HOUSE IN FOREGROUND IS ON SOUTH SIDE OF COOLING TOWER. NOTE THREE PIPES TAKING WATER FROM PUMP HOUSE TO HOT DECK OF COOLING TOWER. EMERGENCY WATER SUPPLY TOWER IS ALSO IN VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6197. Unknown Photographer, 6/27/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Pontiac fever outbreak associated with a cooling tower.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, S; Spitalny, K; Barbaree, J; Faur, Y; McKinney, R

    1987-01-01

    In late April 1984, an outbreak of Pontiac fever was investigated in an office building in lower Manhattan (New York City). The outbreak was characterized by a high attack rate (78 per cent overall); the predominant symptoms were myalgias, chills, fatigue, fever, and headache. There was a clustering of cases in an office that was air cooled by a dedicated cooling tower separate from the remainder of the building. A high concentration of live L. Pneumophila cells in the cooling tower was quantified. Airborne spread via settle plates placed along the air intake system and within the office was demonstrated. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen was found in the urine of two cases, and identical monoclonal antibody reactivity patterns of isolates from all sources was observed. Difficulty was experienced in eliminating the organism from the tower. PMID:3565648

  12. Effectiveness of bromicide against Legionella pneumophila in a cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Fliermans, C.B.; Harvey, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Cooling towers are considered to be man-made amplifiers of Legionella. Thus the proper maintenance and choice of biocides is important. The only biocide that has thus far been shown to be effective in field tests is the judicious use of chlorination. Perturbation studies were conducted on an industrial cooling tower shown to contain Legionella, using 1-bromo-3-chloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (Bromicide, Great Lakes Chemical Corp.). At the manufacturer's recommended concentrations neither the density nor the activity of Legionella was affected. At concentrations greater than 2.0 ppM free residual, the Bromicide was not effective in reducing Legionella to source water concentrations, nor was it effective in reducing the INT activity of the bacterium in situ. The data indicate that at concentrations up to 2.0 ppM, Bromicide is not effective in these tower studies. 23 references, 3 tables.

  13. PBF Cooling Tower under construction. Cold water basin is five ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower under construction. Cold water basin is five feet deep. Foundation and basin walls are reinforced concrete. Camera facing west. Pipe openings through wall in front are outlets for return flow of cool water to reactor building. Photographer: John Capek. Date: September 4, 1968. INEEL negative no. 68-3473 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Indiana State University Graduates to Advanced Plastic Cooling Towers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Perhaps more than many other industries, today's universities and colleges are beset by dramatically rising costs on every front. One of the areas where overhead can be contained or reduced is in the operation of the chilled water systems that support air conditioning throughout college campuses, specifically the cooling towers. Like many…

  15. PBF Cooling Tower detail. Camera facing southwest. Wood fill rises ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower detail. Camera facing southwest. Wood fill rises from foundation piers of cold water basin. Photographer: Kirsh. Date: May 1, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-2826 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. 77. VIEW OF COOLING TOWER NEAR NORTH FACE OR LSB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. VIEW OF COOLING TOWER NEAR NORTH FACE OR LSB (BLDG. 779). MST ELECTRICAL CONNECTION PANEL ON LAUNCH DECK IN CENTER BACKGROUND. MST IN PARKED POSITION VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. LOOKING NORTH AT EVAPORATIVE WASTE WATER TREATMENT COOLING TOWERS, WITH BLOW ENGINE HOUSE No. 3 ON RIGHT, AND FILTER CAKE HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. Cooling tower windage: a new aspect to environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, F. G.; Park, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    Results of the several investigations provided quantitative estimates of windage from Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant cooling towers. Windage water deposited on the ground has the potential to reach nearby streams through runoff. Windage deposited on moisture depleted soils would not be significant. During winter months at Oak Ridge soils generally have a high moisture content such that windage deposition could be quickly transported as runoff. It is during this time that cooling towers are sometimes operated without fan-induced draft. Since windage water contains the same hexavalent chromium concentration (9 ppM) as the recirculating cooling water system, the runoff stream from the K-892J tower constitues a NPDES violation as an unpermitted discharge. As a long-term abatement strategy, concrete aprons were constructed along each side of new cooling towers at the Paducah, Kentucky Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The maximum distance of windage impact is wind dependent. If apron construction is envisioned as an abatement strategy at Oak Ridge, the maximum distance of impact can be inferred graphically from the several points where windage (fans off) and drift (fans on) loss curves intersect under the different meteorological conditions. Once the hexavalent chromium laden runoff stream reaches Poplar Creek, it is diluted well below the standards for drinking water and poses little potential for biological effects to aquatic systems.

  19. Plan now for cold-weather operation of cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Michell, F.L.; Drew, D.H.

    1996-06-01

    This article describes what a midwestern utility has done to keep natural-draft towers running when faced with long bouts of high winds and single-digit temperatures. Severe ice buildup is the biggest threat. American Electric Power Co. (AEP) has six crossflow and eight counterflow natural-draft hyperbolic cooling towers in operation today. In the crossflow designs, subject of this discussion, the fill sections are more exposed to wind and cold. Their design circulating-water flow rates range from 220,000 to 600,000 gal/min; they serve 600-, 800-, and 1,300-MW coal-fired generating units. The towers are located in the Midwest and experience long periods of sub-freezing conditions during the winter months. High winds accompanied by single-digit temperatures often prevail for days at a time. During the record cold spell in January 1994, average temperatures as low as {minus}20 F occurred throughout AEP`s service area. Fill bypass systems have been incorporated into the design of AEP`s natural-draft cooling towers, and can pass between 25 and 50% of full-rated circulating-water flow. These systems prevent ice formation within the fill sections (heat-transfer media) by recirculating water directly to the tower cold-water basin during winter startup, when heat content of the circulating water is relatively low.

  20. Water distribution characteristics of spray nozzles in a cooling tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitkovic, Pavol

    2015-05-01

    Water distribution characteristics of spray nozzles with spray plates used to distribute cooling water to the cooling fills in a cooling tower is one of the important parameters for the selection of nozzles. Water distribution characteristic describes the distribution of water from the axis of the nozzle along a fill. One of the parameters affecting the water distribution characteristic of the nozzle is airflow velocity of counter flow airstream. Water distribution characteristics are commonly measured using by a set of containers. The problem with this method of the measurement of characteristics is block of the airflow with collections of containers. Therefore, this work is using the visualization method.

  1. Analysis of Radiant Cooling System Configurations Integrated with Cooling Tower for Different Indian Climatic Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir S; Jain, Robin; Srivastava, Prateek

    2016-01-01

    Radiant cooling system has proven to be a low energy consumption system for building cooling needs. This study describes the use of cooling tower in radiant cooling system to improve the overall system efficiency. A comprehensive simulation feasibility study of the application of cooling tower in radiant cooling system was performed for the fifteen cities in different climatic zones of India. It was found that in summer, the wet bulb temperature (WBT) of the different climatic zones except warm-humid is suitable for the integration of cooling tower with radiant cooling system. In these climates, cooling tower can provide on average 24 C to 27 C water In order to achieve the energy saving potential, three different configurations of radiant cooling system have been compared in terms of energy consumption. The different configurations of the radiant cooling system integrated with cooling tower are: (1) provide chilled water to the floor, wall and ceiling mounted tubular installation. (2) provide chilled water to the wall and ceiling mounted tabular installation. In this arrangement a separate chiller has also been used to provide chilled water at 16 C to the floor mounted tubular installation. (3) provide chilled water to the wall mounted tabular installation and a separate chiller is used to provide chilled water at 16 C to the floor and ceiling mounted tabular installation. A dedicated outdoor air system is also coupled for dehumidification and ventilation in all three configurations. A conventional all-air system was simulated as a baseline to compare these configurations for assessing the energy saving potential.

  2. Factors stimulating propagation of legionellae in cooling tower water

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Sugiura, Minoru; Kusunoki, Shinji; Ezaki, Takayuki; Ikedo, Masanari; Yabuuchi, Eiko )

    1992-04-01

    The authors survey of cooling tower water demonstrated that the highest density of legionellae, {ge}10{sup 4} CFU/100 ml, appeared in water containing protozoa, {ge}10{sup 2} MPN/100 ml, and heterotrophic bacteria, {ge}10{sup 6} CFU/100 ml, at water temperatures between 25 and 35C. Viable counts of legionellae were detected even in the winter samples, and propagation, up to 10{sup 5} CFU/100 ml, occurs in summer. The counts of legionellae correlated positively with increases in water temperature, pH, and protozoan counts, but not with heterotrophic bacterial counts. The water temperature of cooling towers may promote increases in the viable counts of legionellae, and certain microbes, e.g., protozoa or some heterotrophic bacteria, may be a factor stimulating the propagation of legionellae.

  3. Investigation of Natural Draft Cooling Tower Performance Using Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi, Qasim S.; Saleh, Saad M.; Khalaf, Basima S.

    In the present work Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technique is used to investigate the performance of Natural Draft Wet Cooling Tower (NDWCT). Many factors are affected the rang, approach, pressure drop, and effectiveness of the cooling tower which are; fill type, water flow rate, air flow rate, inlet water temperature, wet bulb temperature of air, and nozzle hole diameter. Experimental data included the effects of these factors are used to train the network using Back Propagation (BP) algorithm. The network included seven input variables (Twi, hfill, mw, Taiwb, Taidb, vlow, vup) and five output variables (ma, Taowb, Two, Δp, ɛ) while hidden layer is different for each case. Network results compared with experimental results and good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results.

  4. PBF Cooling Tower. View from highbay roof of Reactor Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. View from high-bay roof of Reactor Building (PER-620). Camera faces northwest. East louvered face has been installed. Inlet pipes protrude from fan deck. Two redwood vents under construction at top. Note piping, control, and power lines at sub-grade level in trench leading to Reactor Building. Photographer: Kirsh. Date: June 6, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3466 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. CFD MODELING ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Alfred Garrett, A; James02 Bollinger, J; Larry Koffman, L

    2008-03-03

    Industrial processes use mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT's) to dissipate waste heat by transferring heat from water to air via evaporative cooling, which causes air humidification. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has a MDCT consisting of four independent compartments called cells. Each cell has its own fan to help maximize heat transfer between ambient air and circulated water. The primary objective of the work is to conduct a parametric study for cooling tower performance under different fan speeds and ambient air conditions. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to achieve the objective. The model uses three-dimensional steady-state momentum, continuity equations, air-vapor species balance equation, and two-equation turbulence as the basic governing equations. It was assumed that vapor phase is always transported by the continuous air phase with no slip velocity. In this case, water droplet component was considered as discrete phase for the interfacial heat and mass transfer via Lagrangian approach. Thus, the air-vapor mixture model with discrete water droplet phase is used for the analysis. A series of the modeling calculations was performed to investigate the impact of ambient and operating conditions on the thermal performance of the cooling tower when fans were operating and when they were turned off. The model was benchmarked against the literature data and the SRS test results for key parameters such as air temperature and humidity at the tower exit and water temperature for given ambient conditions. Detailed results will be presented here.

  6. Role of bacterial adhesion in the microbial ecology of biofilms in cooling tower systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.; Packman, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    The fate of the three heterotrophic biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. in pilot scale cooling towers was evaluated both by observing the persistence of each species in the recirculating water and the formation of biofilms on steel coupons placed in each cooling tower water reservoir. Two different cooling tower experiments were performed: a short-term study (6 days) to observe the initial bacterial colonization of the cooling tower, and a long-term study (3 months) to observe the ecological dynamics with repeated introduction of the test strains. An additional set of batch experiments (6 days) was carried out to evaluate the adhesion of each strain to steel surfaces under similar conditions to those found in the cooling tower experiments. Substantial differences were observed in the microbial communities that developed in the batch systems and cooling towers. P. aeruginosa showed a low degree of adherence to steel surfaces both in batch and in the cooling towers, but grew much faster than K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium in mixed-species biofilms and ultimately became the dominant organism in the closed batch systems. However, the low degree of adherence caused P. aeruginosa to be rapidly washed out of the open cooling tower systems, and Flavobacterium became the dominant microorganism in the cooling towers in both the short-term and long-term experiments. These results indicate that adhesion, retention and growth on solid surfaces play important roles in the bacterial community that develops in cooling tower systems. PMID:19177226

  7. Role of bacterial adhesion in the microbial ecology of biofilms in cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    The fate of the three heterotrophic biofilm forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. in pilot scale cooling towers was evaluated both by observing the persistence of each species in the recirculating water and the formation of biofilms on steel coupons placed in each cooling tower water reservoir. Two different cooling tower experiments were performed: a short-term study (6 days) to observe the initial bacterial colonization of the cooling tower, and a long-term study (3 months) to observe the ecological dynamics with repeated introduction of the test strains. An additional set of batch experiments (6 days) was carried out to evaluate the adhesion of each strain to steel surfaces under similar conditions to those found in the cooling tower experiments. Substantial differences were observed in the microbial communities that developed in the batch systems and cooling towers. P. aeruginosa showed a low degree of adherence to steel surfaces both in batch and in the cooling towers, but grew much faster than K. pneumoniae and Flavobacterium in mixed-species biofilms and ultimately became the dominant organism in the closed batch systems. However, the low degree of adherence caused P. aeruginosa to be rapidly washed out of the open cooling tower systems, and Flavobacterium became the dominant microorganism in the cooling towers in both the short-term and long-term experiments. These results indicate that adhesion, retention and growth on solid surfaces play important roles in the bacterial community that develops in cooling tower systems. PMID:19177226

  8. NONWATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF CLOSED-CYCLE COOLING SYSTEMS AND THE INTERACTION OF STACK GAS AND COOLING TOWER PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a literature survey of the nonwater quality impacts of closed-cycle cooling systems. Following discussions of cooling tower and stack gas plumes, interactions of these plumes are considered. For cooling tower plumes, plume types, behavior, salt drift g...

  9. Cooling tower irrigator layout with allowances for non-uniformity of the airflow velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushnov, A. S.; Ryabushenko, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    This article covers the results of analysis of aerodynamic processes in the cooling tower irrigator and provides the approaches to optimal layout of preformed packing blocks (of the irrigator) developed based on these results. The analysis of the airflow velocity field in the cooling towers shows that the irrigation space can be broken down into the following zones: the peripheral zone of the cooling tower near the airblast windows, the zone near the cooling tower center, and the intermediate zone. Furthermore, the highest level of nonuniformity of the airflow velocity field in cooling towers is in the zone adjoining the tower's airblast windows. The proposed concept of the cooling tower irrigator's layout is made with allowances for the airflow velocity field characteristics in the cross-section of the irrigation space of the cooling tower. Based on this concept, we suggest that higher irrigator blocks should be placed in the zone of increased airflow consumption, which provides the possibility to enhance the hydraulic resistance and, respectively, decrease the gas flow velocity as well as to boost the efficiency of chilling the circulating water in the cooling tower. For this purpose, additional irrigator blocks can be of the same design as the main irrigator. As an option, it is possible to use blocks of the geometry and design other than the main irrigator block in the cooling tower.

  10. Wastewater reuse as cooling-tower makeup: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.; Wei, I.; Casana, J.

    1987-08-01

    The objectives of this program are to document electric utility experience and concerns on the use of municipal wastewater as makeup to cooling towers and to identify areas lacking sufficient information for their application as well as to identify problem areas. Current users of municipal wastewater in electric utility cooling towers have been contacted and the literature has been reviewed. In addition, literature on the reuse of industrial wastewater has been reviewed. The findings are summarized in this report with emphasis on the use of municipal wastewater in electric utility cooling towers. It was found that this practice has been going on for sufficient time at sufficient places that the problems are fairly well understood. Scale formation by calcium phosphate is a problem. It is controlled by pH reduction or by removal of phosphate and suggested techniques are given. Fouling by slime is a problem. It is controlled by heavy doses of chlorine and other biocides or by mechanical and other non-chemical means without use of any biocide. Foaming, corrosion and blowdown disposal are not problems. There are a number of problem areas where more information is desired to establish a higher level of confidence in using sewage water as makeup. Three areas of research are recommended: (1) a study comparing the technological and environmental problems and costs of various technologies used to control the formation of biological slime, (2) laboratory and pilot scale testing to verify the prediction techniques for phosphate precipitation, and (3) to determine whether the health hazards of using sewage water are worse than the use of normal waters.

  11. Maintenance of cooling towers following two outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in a city.

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, R. S.; Barr, G.

    1990-01-01

    This survey assessed the maintenance of evaporative cooling towers in Glasgow, following two Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. Information was obtained from 76 of 81 premises and a maintenance score was calculated for each of 174 towers. The quality of maintenance was extremely varied (range of maintenance scores, 8-30; mean, 22 (S.D., 5.0); median, 23; maximum possible, 33) and some towers were neglected. Breaches of maintenance principles were mainly structural and organizational, e.g. inadequate drift control, rather than failure to use chemicals. Low maintenance scores were associated with no log book, no guidelines, no change in procedures in last 5 years, solitary cooling towers, and towers on industrial premises. Despite intense publicity the standard of cooling tower maintenance in Glasgow remained a concern. Information campaigns directed at those responsible for cooling-tower maintenance are necessary. PMID:2307183

  12. The efficiency index of mechanical-draft and chimney-type water cooling towers operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnovskii, S. K.; Kravchenko, V. P.

    2014-09-01

    It is shown that the water temperature ranges in cooling towers given in the regulatory documents are not consistent with the standardized heat loads. It is also demonstrated that the existing criteria for estimating the effect from retrofitting of cooling towers are far from being perfect. The notions of cooling tower efficiency index and their operating characteristics with the nominal values of the main parameters are introduced. A procedure for determining these quantities is developed. An algorithm for directly calculating the economic effect from reconstruction of cooling towers is proposed.

  13. Gasifier waste water treatment: Phase I cooling tower assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Willson, W.G.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Winton, S.L.

    1985-02-01

    Details of an advanced study of the treatability of waste waters from the fixed-bed gasification of lignite describe the test equipment and results at a pilot plant in North Dakota using stripped-gas liquor (SGL) as cooling tower makeup. Ammonia, alkalinity, phenol, and other non-hydantoin organics were removed from the cooling water by stripping and/or biological degradation, with the phenol concentration in the exhaust air exceeding the odor threshold. It will be necessary to control foaming of the circulating water, but both glycol and silicon based agents performed well during the test. It will also be necessary to reduce the high level of biofouling on heat transfer surfaces, although stainless steel fouling was not a major problem. The conclusion is that SGL is limited by potentially serious operating problems without additional treatment. 5 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Coagulation chemistries for silica removal from cooling tower water.

    SciTech Connect

    Nyman, May Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Stewart, Tom

    2010-02-01

    The formation of silica scale is a problem for thermoelectric power generating facilities, and this study investigated the potential for removal of silica by means of chemical coagulation from source water before it is subjected to mineral concentration in cooling towers. In Phase I, a screening of many typical as well as novel coagulants was carried out using concentrated cooling tower water, with and without flocculation aids, at concentrations typical for water purification with limited results. In Phase II, it was decided that treatment of source or make up water was more appropriate, and that higher dosing with coagulants delivered promising results. In fact, the less exotic coagulants proved to be more efficacious for reasons not yet fully determined. Some analysis was made of the molecular nature of the precipitated floc, which may aid in process improvements. In Phase III, more detailed study of process conditions for aluminum chloride coagulation was undertaken. Lime-soda water softening and the precipitation of magnesium hydroxide were shown to be too limited in terms of effectiveness, speed, and energy consumption to be considered further for the present application. In Phase IV, sodium aluminate emerged as an effective coagulant for silica, and the most attractive of those tested to date because of its availability, ease of use, and low requirement for additional chemicals. Some process optimization was performed for coagulant concentration and operational pH. It is concluded that silica coagulation with simple aluminum-based agents is effective, simple, and compatible with other industrial processes.

  15. PBF Cooling Tower and it Auxiliary Building (PER624) to left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower and it Auxiliary Building (PER-624) to left of tower. Camera facing west and the east louvered face of the tower. Details include secondary coolant water riser piping and flow control valves (butterfly valves) to distribute water evenly to all sections of tower. Photographer: Holmes. Date: May, 20, 1970. INEEL negative no. 70-2322 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  17. PBF. Oblique and contextual view of PBF Cooling Tower, PER720. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF. Oblique and contextual view of PBF Cooling Tower, PER-720. Camera facing northeast. Auxiliary Building (PER-624) abuts Cooling Tower. Demolition equipment has arrived. Date: August 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-35-11-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. PBF Cooling Tower (PER720). Camera faces east to show west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower (PER-720). Camera faces east to show west facade. Sloped (louvered) panels in this and opposite facade allow air to enter tower and cool water falling on splash bars within. Date: August 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-35-10-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Method and system for simulating heat and mass transfer in cooling towers

    DOEpatents

    Bharathan, Desikan; Hassani, A. Vahab

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method for simulating the performance of a cooling tower. More precisely, the simulator of the present invention predicts values related to the heat and mass transfer from a liquid (e.g., water) to a gas (e.g., air) when provided with input data related to a cooling tower design. In particular, the simulator accepts input data regarding: (a) cooling tower site environmental characteristics; (b) cooling tower operational characteristics; and (c) geometric characteristics of the packing used to increase the surface area within the cooling tower upon which the heat and mass transfer interactions occur. In providing such performance predictions, the simulator performs computations related to the physics of heat and mass transfer within the packing. Thus, instead of relying solely on trial and error wherein various packing geometries are tested during construction of the cooling tower, the packing geometries for a proposed cooling tower can be simulated for use in selecting a desired packing geometry for the cooling tower.

  20. PBF Cooling Tower Auxiliary Building (PER624) interior. Camera facing north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower Auxiliary Building (PER-624) interior. Camera facing north. Deluge valves and automatic fire protection piping for Cooling Tower. Photographer: Holmes. Date: May 20, 1970. INEEL negative no. 70-2323 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE BRAINTREE ELECTRIC LIGHT DEPARTMENT DRY COOLING TOWER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a 5-year evaluation of the performance of a dry cooling tower for the 20-MW steam-electric generation portion of an 85-MW combined-cycle power plant. Objectives of the study were to: demonstrate dry cooling tower technology at a Massachusetts seacoast ...

  2. Analyzing the possibility of achieving more efficient cooling of water in the evaporative cooling towers of the Armenian NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, V. G.; Yeghoyan, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    The specific features of the service cooling water system used at the Armenian NPP and modifications made in the arrangement for supplying water to the water coolers in order to achieve more efficient cooling are presented. The mathematical model applied in carrying out the analyses is described, the use of which makes it possible to investigate the operation of parallel-connected cooling towers having different hydraulic and thermal loads. When the third standby cooling tower is put into operation (with the same flow rate of water supplied to the water coolers), the cooled water temperature is decreased by around 2-3°C in the range of atmospheric air temperatures 0-35°C. However, the introduced water distribution arrangement with a decreased spraying density has limitation on its use at negative outdoor air temperatures due to the hazard intense freezing of the fill in the cooling tower peripheral zone. The availability of standby cooling towers in the shutdown Armenian NPP power unit along with the planned full replacement of the cooling tower process equipment create good possibilities for achieving a deeper water cooling extent and better efficiency of the NPP. The present work was carried out with the aim of achieving maximally efficient use of existing possibilities and for elaborating the optimal cooling tower modernization version. Individual specific heat-andmass transfer processes in the chimney-type evaporative cooling towers are analyzed. An improved arrangement for distributing cooled water over the cooling tower spraying area (during its operation with a decreased flow rate) is proposed with the aim of cooling water to a deeper extent and preserving the possibility of using the cooling towers in winter. The main idea behind improving the existing arrangement is to exclude certain zones of the cooling tower featuring inefficient cooling from operation. The effectiveness of introducing the proposed design is proven by calculations (taking as an

  3. Legionella oakridgensis: unusual new species isolated from cooling tower water.

    PubMed Central

    Orrison, L H; Cherry, W B; Tyndall, R L; Fliermans, C B; Gough, S B; Lambert, M A; McDougal, L K; Bibb, W F; Brenner, D J

    1983-01-01

    We describe a new species of Legionella represented by 10 strains isolated from industrial cooling towers. Legionella oakridgensis differed genetically from the other seven species of Legionella in DNA hybridization studies and differed serologically in direct fluorescent-antibody tests. The new species, unlike all other species except L. jordanis, did not require added L-cysteine for growth in serial transfer on charcoal-yeast extract agar. L. oakridgensis, as well as three other species tested, required L-cysteine for primary isolation from animal tissues. L. oakridgensis was the only species of Legionella that failed to produce alkaline phosphatase at pH 8.5. In all other respects, it resembled other species of Legionella, including having a high content of branched-chain cellular fatty acids and being pathogenic for guinea pigs. These bacteria have not yet been associated with human disease, but they are potential causes of legionellosis. PMID:6830217

  4. Concept of CFD model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyhlík, T.

    2014-03-01

    The article deals with the development of CFD model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow. The physical phenomena taking place within a natural draft wet cooling tower are described by the system of conservation law equations along with additional equations. The heat and mass transfer in the counterflow wet-cooling tower fill are described by model [1] which is based on the system of ordinary differential equations. Utilization of model [1] of the fill allows us to apply commonly measured fill characteristics as shown by [2].The boundary value problem resulting from the fill model is solved separately. The system of conservation law equations is interlinked with the system of ordinary differential equations describing the phenomena occurring in the counterflow wet-cooling tower fill via heat and mass sources and via boundary conditions. The concept of numerical solution is presented for the quasi one dimensional model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow. The simulation results are shown.

  5. Cooling towers for combined cycles: Design philosophy, performance testing, and operating problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauthier, J.

    The characteristics and parameters affecting the choice of a type of cooling tower and its installation in the circuit of a combined cycle are discussed. The different possibilities of water circuits that are encountered are defined. Two modes of exchange and two types of fill are discussed. The various types of wet towers are described and their advantages and disadvantages considered. Factors affecting the selection of a cooling tower include: cost of energy versus cost of tower; performances; water availability and quality; emissions (water, noise, air, and vapor); site locations; and operating conditions.

  6. Synthetic image generation of factory stack and cooling tower plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Shiao D.; Schott, John R.

    1997-07-01

    A new model for generating synthetic images of plumes has been developed using a radiometrically based ray-tracing algorithm. Existing plume models that describe the characteristics of the plume (constituents, concentration, particulate sizing, and temperature) are used to generate AutoCAD models for input into the code. The effects of scattered light using Mie theory and radiative transfer, as well as thermal self-emission/absorption from within the plume, are modeled for different regions of the plume. The ray-tracing accounts for direct sunlight, scattered skylight, reflected sunlight from the background, and thermal self-emission from both the atmosphere and background. Synthetic generated images of a cooling tower plume, composed of water droplets, and a factor stack plume, composed of methyl chloride, are produced for visible, MWIR, and LWIR bands. Images of the plume from different view angles are also produced. Observations are made on the interaction between the plume and its background and possible effects for remote sensing. Images are made of the methyl chloride plume in which the concentration and temperature are varied to determine the sensitivity of the radiance reaching the sensor.

  7. Cooling tower and plume modeling for satellite remote sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, B.J.

    1995-05-01

    It is often useful in nonproliferation studies to be able to remotely estimate the power generated by a power plant. Such information is indirectly available through an examination of the power dissipated by the plant. Power dissipation is generally accomplished either by transferring the excess heat generated into the atmosphere or into bodies of water. It is the former method with which we are exclusively concerned in this report. We discuss in this report the difficulties associated with such a task. In particular, we primarily address the remote detection of the temperature associated with the condensed water plume emitted from the cooling tower. We find that the effective emissivity of the plume is of fundamental importance for this task. Having examined the dependence of the plume emissivity in several IR bands and with varying liquid water content and droplet size distributions, we conclude that the plume emissivity, and consequently the plume brightness temperature, is dependent upon not only the liquid water content and band, but also upon the droplet size distribution. Finally, we discuss models dependent upon a detailed point-by-point description of the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the plume dynamics and those based upon spatially integrated models. We describe in detail a new integral model, the LANL Plume Model, which accounts for the evolution of the droplet size distribution. Some typical results obtained from this model are discussed.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THREE TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF COOLING TOWER BLOWDOWN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of analyses of three methods for treating cooling tower blowdown: vapor compression evaporation (VCE), reverse osmosis (RO), and vertical tube foaming evaporation (VTFE). The two evaporative processes produce pure water (approximately 10 ppm dissolved sol...

  9. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  10. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  11. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  12. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  13. 40 CFR 61.134 - Standard: Naphthalene processing, final coolers, and final-cooler cooling towers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Benzene Emissions from Coke By-Product Recovery Plants § 61.134... are allowed from naphthalene processing, final coolers and final-cooler cooling towers at coke...

  14. Cooling towers for combined cycles: New developments to meet environmental requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouche, M.; Bouton, F.; Lemmens, P.

    Two new developments in dry cooling systems are presented: the single row condenser (SRC) finned tube and the natural draft air-cooled condenser (NDC). The SRC tube is a flat finned tube based on a technology used for compact heat exchangers. This tube was specifically developed for vacuum air-cooled condensers. The serpentine fins of the SRC tube could be made in aluminum or in galvanized steel. The special technique of the brazing of the aluminum fins is described. A technical and economical comparison is made between the classical dry cooling equipment and the NDC. This comparison concludes with the high economic interest in combining the NDC and the single row design. The mechanical draught wet cooling towers with plume abatement are introduced and compared to classical parallel hybrid and reduced plume towers. The environmental impact of wet cooling towers is discussed with regard to heat and mass transfer, plume, bulkiness, and noise.

  15. Vertical sampling flights in support of the 1981 ASCOT cooling tower experiments: field effort and data

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, G.T.

    1982-03-01

    During the month of August 1981, three nights of experimental sampling of tracers released into the cooling tower plume of a geothermal power plant were conducted. In these experiments a tethered balloon was used to lift a payload so as to obtain vertical profiles of the cooling tower plume and the entrained tracers. A description of the equipment used, the field effort and the data acquired are presented here.

  16. Potentially pathogenic amoeba-associated microorganisms in cooling towers and their control.

    PubMed

    Pagnier, Isabelle; Merchat, Michèle; La Scola, Bernard

    2009-06-01

    Cooling towers provide a favorable environment for the proliferation of microorganisms. Cooling towers generate a biofilm and often aerosolize contaminated water, thereby increasing the risk of microorganism dissemination by human inhalation. This pathogen dissemination was first revealed by the epidemics of Legionnaires' disease that were directly related to the presence of cooling towers, and since then, the ecology of Legionella pneumophila has been well studied. Each country has specific standards regarding the acceptable amount of microorganisms in cooling tower systems. However, those standards typically only concern L. pneumophila, even though many other microorganisms can also be isolated from cooling towers, including protozoa, bacteria and viruses. Microbiological control of the cooling tower system can be principally achieved by chemical treatments and also by improving the system's construction. Several new treatments are being studied to improve the efficiency of disinfection. However, as most of these treatments continue to focus solely on L. pneumophila, reports of other types of pathogens continue to increase. Therefore, how their dissemination affects the human populous health should be addressed now. PMID:19492970

  17. Performance prediction of a multi-stage wind tower for indoor cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Roy J.; Chang, Byungik

    2012-08-01

    A theoretical model is developed to establish an in-depth understanding of the performance of a three-stage wind tower with a bypass system for indoor cooling in rural dry and hot climates. Model simulations are presented for a wide range of ambient conditions that include inlet wind speed, inlet temperature and relative humidity. Simulation results provide an insight into the desirable water flow rates and air-to-water loadings for comfort zone temperatures and relative humidity levels at the exit of the wind tower. Simulations show wind towers with variable cross-sections provide an increase in the cooling power for the same inlet wind speed, inlet air temperature and relative humidity when compared to wind towers with a constant cross-section. The study shall lead to a better understanding to designing wind towers that are both environmentally friendly and energy efficient.

  18. Measurement and characterization of emissions from a gas liquor fed cooling tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galegher, Sheila J.; Mann, Michael D.

    Phase I cooling tower testing at the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) was designed to use solvent extracted and steam stripped wastewater from fixed-bed gasification of lignite as makeup. The objective of this test was to simulate the proposed mode of operation at the Great Plains Gasification Associates (GPGA) plant. A crucial part of this study was the characterization of emissions from a stripped gas liquor (SGL) fed cooling tower. Several types of sampling equipment including a multicyclone, cooled impingers, and an XAD resin trap were used for the collection and retention of components in the tower evaporate. Results of this study indicated that a significant portion of the phenol and ammonia, and also some methanol, in the tower makeup stream were stripped into the atmosphere. Concentration levels of 26,900 μg m -3 ammonia, 8000 μg m -3 phenol and 2500 μ m -3 methanol were detected in the lower exhaust.

  19. Engineering evaluation of magma cooling-tower demonstration at Nevada Power Company's Sunrise Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The Magma Cooling Tower (MCT) process utilizes a falling film heat exchanger integrated into an induced draft cooling tower to evaporate waste water. A hot water source such as return cooling water provides the energy for evaporation. Water quality control is maintained by removing potential scaling constituents to make concentrations of the waste water possible without scaling heat transfer surfaces. A pilot-scale demonstration test of the MCT process was performed from March 1979 through June 1979 at Nevada Power Company's Sunrise Station in Las Vegas, Nevada. The pilot unit extracted heat from the powerplant cooling system to evaporate cooling tower blowdown. Two water quality control methods were employed: makeup/sidestream softening and fluidized bed crystallization. The 11 week softening mode test was successful.

  20. Effect of solar radiation on the performance of cross flow wet cooling tower in hot climate of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banooni, Salem; Chitsazan, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In some cities such as Ahvaz-Iran, the solar radiation is very high and the annual-mean-daily of the global solar radiation is about 17.33 MJ m2 d-1. Solar radiation as an external heat source seems to affect the thermal performance of the cooling towers. Usually, in modeling cooling tower, the effects of solar radiation are ignored. To investigate the effect of sunshade on the performance and modeling of the cooling tower, the experiments were conducted in two different states, cooling towers with and without sunshade. In this study, the Merkel's approach and finite difference technique are used to predict the thermal behavior of cross flow wet cooling tower without sunshade and the results are compared with the data obtained from the cooling towers with and without sunshade. Results showed that the sunshade is very efficient and it reduced the outlet water temperature, the approach and the water exergy of the cooling tower up to 1.2 °C, 15 and 1.1 %, respectively and increased the range and the efficiency of the cooling tower up to 29 and 37 %, respectively. Also, the sunshade decreased the error between the experimental data of the cooling tower with sunshade and the modeling results of the cooling tower without sunshade 1.85 % in average.

  1. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P.; Packman, Aaron I.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day−1. Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state. PMID:21547755

  2. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron I

    2011-04-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day(-1). Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state. PMID:21547755

  3. Fouling characteristics of cooling tower water containing corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Santoso, E.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitors investigated included zinc-chromate and phosphates. In addition, additives including polyacrylate and phosphonate (HEDP and AMP) were used to determine their effectiveness as antifoulants. The tests were conducted in a simulated cooling tower water system. The parameters investigated were: test section surface temperature 130, 145 and 160{degree}F, velocity in test section 3.0, 5.5 and 8.5 ft/sec, pH 6.0 -8.0, and material of the fouling surface (stainless steel, carbon steel, 90/10 copper/nickel, and admiralty brass). The water bulk temperature in all tests was 115{degree}F. The water had a total hardness of 800-1000 ppm as CaCO{sub 3}, total sulfate of 800-1000 ppm as SO{sub 4} and silica of 40-45 ppm as SiO{sub 2}. For each test, a fouling resistance - time curve was obtained. This curve was fitted to the equation Rf = Rf (1-exp(-({theta}-{theta}d)/{theta}c)) to yield the values of {theta}c and Rf{sup *}. Rf is the fouling resistance predicted by the regression equation, Rf{sup *} is the asymptotic fouling resistance, {theta} is time, {theta}d is dead time and {theta}c is the time constant for the asymptotic decay. The values of {theta}c and Rf{sup *} from regression analysis have been correlated with the various parameters by the Heat Transfer Research, Inc., (HTRI) fouling model. For the range of conditions studied, the correlation equations relate the fouling resistance, Rf, to the surface temperature, wall shear stress and water quality. Seventeen different water qualities were investigated to determine the values of 5 parameters, which are specific for each water quality. For each of the seventeen water qualities studied threshold curves for three threshold values of Rf{sup *} have been developed as a function of velocity and surface temperature. These curves are useful to obtain the conditions required to maintain a desired value of Rf{sup *} in a heat exchanger.

  4. A case of nosocomial Legionella pneumonia associated with a contaminated hospital cooling tower.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Kayo; Shigemura, Katsumi; Abe, Yasuhisa; Jikimoto, Takumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2014-01-01

    We report the epidemiological investigation of a nosocomial pneumonia case due to Legionella pneumophila linked to a contaminated hospital cooling tower in an immune-compromised patient. A 73-year-old female patient was diagnosed with nosocomial Legionella pneumonia proven by a culture of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Two strains isolated from the patient and two strains isolated from two cooling towers were found to be identical using repetitive-sequence-based-PCR with a 95% probability. This Legionella pneumonia case might be caused by aerosol from cooling towers on the roof of the hospital building which was contaminated by L. pneumophila. We increased up the temperature of hot water supply appropriately for prevention of Legionella breeding in an environment of patients' living. On the other hand, as the maintenance of cooling tower, we increased the frequency of Legionella culture tests from twice a year to three times a year. In addition, we introduced an automated disinfectants insertion machine and added one antiseptic reagent (BALSTER ST-40 N, Tohzai Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., Kawasaki, Japan) after this Legionella disease, and thereafter, we have no additional cases of Legionella disease or detection of Legionella spp. from the cooling tower or hot water supply. This case demonstrates the importance of detecting the infection source and carrying out environmental maintenance in cooperation with the infection control team. PMID:24462430

  5. Emissions characteristics of cooling towers using reclaimed wastewater in california. Final report, July 1979-July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B.; Phillips, A.R.; Guttman, M.A.; Shokes, R.F.; Fargo, L.

    1981-08-11

    Present and planned use of reclaimed municipal wastewater, industrial process water, and geothermal condensate as makeup to cooling towers have raised questions about the potential for atmospheric emissions of pathogenic microorganisms, organic compounds, heavy metals, and other wastewater constituents. In this study, the makeup and circulating water of six towers were sampled and analyzed for indicator bacteria and virus, volatile and nonvolatile organic compounds, metals, and other components of potential concern. Further water sampling and exhaust air emissions tests were then conducted on four of the towers; for the microbiological emissions tests, a special isokinetic sampling device was developed and employed.

  6. Assessing the environmental health relevance of cooling towers--a systematic review of legionellosis outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Walser, Sandra M; Gerstner, Doris G; Brenner, Bernhard; Höller, Christiane; Liebl, Bernhard; Herr, Caroline E W

    2014-03-01

    Bioaerosols from cooling towers are often suspected to cause community-acquired legionellosis outbreaks. Although Legionella infections can mostly be assigned to the emission sources, uncertainty exists about the release and distribution into the air, the occurrence of the respirable virulent form and the level of the infective concentration. Our study aimed to evaluate studies on legionellosis outbreaks attributed to cooling towers published within the last 11 years by means of a systematic review of the literature. 19 legionellosis outbreaks were identified affecting 12 countries. Recurring events were observed in Spain and Great Britain. In total, 1609 confirmed cases of legionellosis and a case-fatality rate of approximately 6% were reported. Duration of outbreaks was 65 days on average. For diagnosis the urinary antigen test was mainly used. Age, smoking, male sex and underlying diseases (diabetes, immunodeficiency) could be confirmed as risk factors. Smoking and underlying diseases were the most frequent risk factors associated with legionellosis in 11 and 10 of the 19 studies, respectively. The meteorological conditions varied strongly. Several studies reported a temporal association of outbreaks with inadequate maintenance of the cooling systems. A match of clinical and environmental isolates by serotyping and/or molecular subtyping could be confirmed in 84% of outbreaks. Legionella-contaminated cooling towers as environmental trigger, in particular in the neighbourhood of susceptible individuals, can cause severe health problems and even death. To prevent and control Legionella contamination of cooling towers, maintenance actions should focus on low-emission cleaning procedures of cooling towers combined with control measurements of water and air samples. Procedures allowing rapid detection and risk assessment in the case of outbreaks are essential for adequate public health measures. Systematic registration of cooling towers will facilitate the

  7. CFD MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR A-AREA AND H-AREA COOLING TOWERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Garrett, A.; Bollinger, J.

    2009-09-02

    Mechanical draft cooling towers are designed to cool process water via sensible and latent heat transfer to air. Heat and mass transfer take place simultaneously. Heat is transferred as sensible heat due to the temperature difference between liquid and gas phases, and as the latent heat of the water as it evaporates. Mass of water vapor is transferred due to the difference between the vapor pressure at the air-liquid interface and the partial pressure of water vapor in the bulk of the air. Equations to govern these phenomena are discussed here. The governing equations are solved by taking a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The purpose of the work is to develop a three-dimensional CFD model to evaluate the flow patterns inside the cooling tower cell driven by cooling fan and wind, considering the cooling fans to be on or off. Two types of the cooling towers are considered here. One is cross-flow type cooling tower located in A-Area, and the other is counterflow type cooling tower located in H-Area. The cooling tower located in A-Area is mechanical draft cooling tower (MDCT) consisting of four compartment cells as shown in Fig. 1. It is 13.7m wide, 36.8m long, and 9.4m high. Each cell has its own cooling fan and shroud without any flow communications between two adjacent cells. There are water distribution decks on both sides of the fan shroud. The deck floor has an array of about 25mm size holes through which water droplet falls into the cell region cooled by the ambient air driven by fan and wind, and it is eventually collected in basin area. As shown in Fig. 1, about 0.15-m thick drift eliminator allows ambient air to be humidified through the evaporative cooling process without entrainment of water droplets into the shroud exit. The H-Area cooling tower is about 7.3 m wide, 29.3 m long, and 9.0 m high. Each cell has its own cooling fan and shroud, but each of two corner cells has two panels to shield wind at the bottom of the cells. There is some

  8. State of the art cooling tower technology in geothermal power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, K.P.

    1996-12-31

    Several cooling tower design configurations, including crossflow and counterflow, splash and film filled, have been used in geothermal applications over the years with varying degrees of longterm success. This paper examines the special water quality conditions expected in geothermal power generation, describes the current theory on materials and fill types most suitable for this application, and relates field experience to the theory. The goal is to arrive at current, but evolving {open_quotes}best practice{close_quotes} application rules for cooling tower designs in geothermal application. This means providing the most economically and thermally efficient cooling towers to end users, and having those selections provide good long-term system viability with reasonable maintenance practices.

  9. Concentration, serotypic profiles, and infectivity of Legionnaires' Disease bacteria populations in cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    At the Philadelphia American Legion Convention in 1976 nearly two hundred people developed pulmonary infection. Of these, twenty-eight died. The causative bacterial agent was subsequently isolated and identified as a previously undiscovered human pathogen, that is, Legionnaires' Disease Bacterium (LDB). Currently it is estimated that over one hundred thousand cases of Legionella occur annually. Cooling towers have been shown to be the source of LDB in some of the outbreaks. Ecological information indicates that the bacteria are present in many natural waters. Moreover, there is strong evidence that algal products can stimulate the growth of LDB. Because cooling tower environments may be conducive for growth and/or dispersal of LDB, a survey of both industrial and air-conditioning cooling towers for the presence of LDB was undertaken.

  10. Biocide usage in cooling towers in the electric power and petroleum refining industries

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.; Rice, J.K.; Raivel, M.E.S.

    1997-11-01

    Cooling towers users frequently apply biocides to the circulating cooling water to control growth of microorganisms, algae, and macroorganisms. Because of the toxic properties of biocides, there is a potential for the regulatory controls on their use and discharge to become increasingly more stringent. This report examines the types of biocides used in cooling towers by companies in the electric power and petroleum refining industries, and the experiences those companies have had in dealing with agencies that regulate cooling tower blowdown discharges. Results from a sample of 67 electric power plants indicate that the use of oxidizing biocides (particularly chlorine) is favored. Quaternary ammonia salts (quats), a type of nonoxidizing biocide, are also used in many power plant cooling towers. The experience of dealing with regulators to obtain approval to discharge biocides differs significantly between the two industries. In the electric power industry, discharges of any new biocide typically must be approved in writing by the regulatory agency. The approval process for refineries is less formal. In most cases, the refinery must notify the regulatory agency that it is planning to use a new biocide, but the refinery does not need to get written approval before using it. The conclusion of the report is that few of the surveyed facilities are having any difficulty in using and discharging the biocides they want to use.

  11. Startup of air-cooled condensers and dry cooling towers at low temperatures of the cooling air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milman, O. O.; Ptakhin, A. V.; Kondratev, A. V.; Shifrin, B. A.; Yankov, G. G.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of startup and performance of air-cooled condensers (ACC) and dry cooling towers (DCT) at low cooling air temperatures are considered. Effects of the startup of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures are described. Different options of the ACC heating up are analyzed, and examples of existing technologies are presented (electric heating, heating up with hot air or steam, and internal and external heating). The use of additional heat exchanging sections, steam tracers, in the DCT design is described. The need for high power in cases of electric heating and heating up with hot air is noted. An experimental stand for research and testing of the ACC startup at low temperatures is described. The design of the three-pass ACC unit is given, and its advantages over classical single-pass design at low temperatures are listed. The formation of ice plugs inside the heat exchanging tubes during the start-up of ACC and DCT at low cooling air temperatures is analyzed. Experimental data on the effect of the steam flow rate, steam nozzle distance from the heat-exchange surface, and their orientation in space on the metal temperature were collected, and test results are analyzed. It is noted that the surface temperature at the end of the heat up is almost independent from its initial temperature. Recommendations for the safe start-up of ACCs and DCTs are given. The heating flow necessary to sufficiently heat up heat-exchange surfaces of ACCs and DCTs for the safe startup is estimated. The technology and the process of the heat up of the ACC with the heating steam external supply are described by the example of the startup of the full-scale section of the ACC at sub-zero temperatures of the cooling air, and the advantages of the proposed start-up technology are confirmed.

  12. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    PubMed

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality. PMID:22380105

  13. ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA645. FOUR SECONDARY COOLANT PUMPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR COOLING TOWER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-645. FOUR SECONDARY COOLANT PUMPS ARE ARRANGED IN A ROW. IN REAR ARE THREE SHUTDOWN EMERGENCY PUMPS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-4176. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 12/21/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. PBF Cooling Tower (PER720). Camera faces south to show north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower (PER-720). Camera faces south to show north facade. Note enclosed stairway. Date: August 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-35-10-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. PBF Cooling Tower (PER720) and its Auxiliary Building (PER625). Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower (PER-720) and its Auxiliary Building (PER-625). Camera facing west shows east facades. Center pipe carried secondary coolant water from reactor. Building to distributor basin. Date: August 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-35-10-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. PBF Cooling Tower (PER720). Closeup detail of louvered wall panels ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower (PER-720). Close-up detail of louvered wall panels on south facade. Date: August 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-35-11-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. In Situ g-PHA Measurements of the 285-3H Cooling Tower Components

    SciTech Connect

    Salaymeh, S.R.

    2001-05-23

    The Analytical Development Section of Savannah River Technology Center was requested by the Facility Disposition Division to conduct in-situ gamma-ray pulse height analysis measurements to provide input toward the decision to unconditionally release the 285-3H cooling tower.

  18. Experimental optimization of cooling-tower-fan control based on field data. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D.L.

    1991-04-01

    Energy costs continue to play an important role in the decision-making process for building design and operation. Since the chiller, cooling tower fans, and associated pumps consume the largest fraction of energy in a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, the control of these components is of major importance in determining building energy use. A significant control parameter for the chilled water system is the minimum entering condenser water set point temperature at which the cooling tower fans are cycled on and off, several studies have attempted to determine the optimum value for this minimum set point temperature, but direct measurements are not available to validate these studies. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the optimum minimum entering condenser water set point temperature from field data based on minimum energy consumption and to validate a chilled water system analytical model previously developed in earlier work. The total chiller system electrical consumption (chiller and cooling tower fan energy) was measured for four entering condensor water set point temperatures (70, 75, 80, and 85 deg F). The field results were compared to results obtained using an analytical model previously developed in a thesis entitled Optimized Design of a Commercial Building Chiller/Cooling Tower System, written by Joyce.

  19. On-line performance monitoring of the natural draft cooling tower at Cardinal Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Michell, F.L.; Miller, M.J.

    1998-12-31

    The paper will provide an overview of the on-line performance monitoring system recently installed on the 630MW coal fired Unit 3 at the Cardinal Plant. Experience with using the on-line monitor to optimize performance of the major circulating water system components including the pumps, condensers and cooling tower will be discussed in the paper.

  20. Evaluation and quantification of the impact of cooling tower emissions on indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderheyden, M.D.; Schuyler, G.D.

    1994-12-31

    Assessment of the potential impact of outdoor pollutant sources on indoor air quality through the reentrainment of pollutants vis-a-vis air-handling units, doorways, and windows has mainly focused on the evaluation of fume hood, boiler, diesel generator, and vehicular pollutant emissions. In recent years, however, gaseous and waterborne pollutants emitted from cooling towers have become an increasing source of concern. Chemicals such as biocides and corrosion and scale inhibitors are used to reduce and/or eliminate algae blooms, decrease bacterial and fungal growth, and reduce the corrosion of equipment. When added to the water used in cooling towers, these chemicals are emitted in both the gaseous phase and as pollutants dissolved in or suspended in water droplets. A qualitative evaluation of exhaust dispersion and droplet deposition rates associated with cooling towers is necessary when conducting an overall review of the environmental impact on indoor air quality. This paper identifies source emission rates to be used in assessing emissions of chemical additives in cooling towers, presents provisional design criteria for evaluating the impact of the chemical additives, and evaluates alternative methodologies for quantifying impact concentrations. These alternative assessment methodologies include numerical models, physical wind tunnel simulations, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Parameters used in comparing the methodologies include relative accuracy (order of magnitude) and modeling and simulation limitations.

  1. PBF Cooling Tower (PER720), and Auxiliary Building (PER624). Camera faces ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower (PER-720), and Auxiliary Building (PER-624). Camera faces north to show south facades. Oblong vertical structure at left of center is weather shield for stairway. Date: August 2003. INEEL negative no. HD-35-10-4 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Prevalence of Legionella strains in cooling towers and legionellosis cases in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lau, Robert; Maqsood, Saadia; Harte, David; Caughley, Brian; Deacon, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Over 3,900 water samples from 688 cooling towers were tested for Legionella in 2008 in New Zealand. Of 80 (2.05% isolation rate) Legionella isolates, 10 (12.5%) were L. pneumophila serogroup 1; 10 (12.5%) were L. anisa; nine (11.2%) were L. pneumophila serogroup 8; and one (1.2%) was L. longbeachae serogroup 2. Forty-one (51.2%) Legionella isolates were L. pneumophila serogroups. Over 3,990 water samples from 606 cooling towers were tested for Legionella in 2009 in New Zealand. Of 51 (1.28% isolation rate) Legionella isolates, 18 (35.3%) were L. pneumophila serogroup 1, and 39 (76.4%) were other L. pneumophila serogroups. L. pneumophila serogroups were significantly associated with legionellosis cases in 2008 and 2009. L. longbeachae serogroups were equally significantly associated with legionellosis cases. This significant association of L. longbeachae with legionellosis particularly of L. longbeachae serogroup 1 is unique in that part of the world. The authors' study also showed that the aqueous environment of the cooling tower is not a natural habitat for pathogenic L. longbeachae. Regular monitoring and maintenance of cooling towers have prevented outbreaks of legionellosis. PMID:23397654

  3. TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF A WET-DRY CROSSFLOW COOLING TOWER, VOLUME II: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the test program and performance analysis of a single-cell mechanical-draft wet/dry cooling tower in Cliffside, NC. Objectives of the program were to obtain performance data and results on mass transfer, heat transfer, fluid flow, plume formation, and acousti...

  4. Pilot-scale treatment of gasification wastewater and reuse in a cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, W.G.; Mayer, G.G.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Winton, S.L.

    1985-04-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy Research Center has operated a 910 kg/hr, oxygen-blown fixed-bed gasifier to produce lignite-derived effluents for characterization, treatment, and reuse studies. Reuse of waste water in a cooling tower was investigated to define environmental and process effects as a function of pretreatment. The gasification wastewater was pretreated in pilot wastewater treatement units which simulate available technology. During the first phase of the program, wastewater was pretreated by solvent extraction and steam stripping to produce phenol and ammonia concentrations comparable to those expected at the Great Plains Gasification Associates plant. This pretreated wastewater was concentrated in a cooling tower to 10 cycles of concentration. No biocides or corrosion inhibitors were added. Severe fouling of heat exchange surfaces and high corrosion rates of carbon steel were encountered. Over 90% of the phenol entering the cooling tower was found to be stripped into the cooling tower exhaust air stream. The high levels of organics remaining in this minimally treated wastewater suggested that further biological treatment and possibly polishing by carbon adsorption would be necessary to prepare a satisfactory feed. In the second phase of the program, the SGL was further treated in an activated sludge process followed by granular activated carbon adsorption. Biotreatment removed 96% of the BOD with a three-day retention time while obtaining satisfactory sludge settling rates in spite of varied influent concentrations. Biorefractory materials were adsorbed on GAC to reach an effuent COD level of 150 mg/l. This upgrading was sufficient to reduce organic emissions from the cooling tower, but corrosion rates were higher than in the previous test, again showing the necessity for corrosion inhibitors. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Magnetic fluid conditioning system allows 3000 ppm hardness without cooling tower scale buildup

    SciTech Connect

    Szostak, R.J.; Toy, D.A.

    1985-08-01

    Big Three Industries, a manufacturer of compressed and liquefied atmospheric gases, operates a large production complex in Bayport, TX which recirculates 100,000 gpm cooling water. Due to regulatory agency guidelines, high costs, and limited effectiveness of conventional chemical treatment methods, Big Three was in need of a treatment method to prevent corrosion and scaling in recirculating water cooling systems. In December 1983 a magnetic fluid conditioner (MFC) was installed in the pump discharge piping of one cooling tower at Bayport. The patented MFC is an 18'' long spool pipe fitted with uranium-based alloy magnets. The MFC has no moving parts and requires no chemicals, external power source, or maintenance. The MFC is designed so that the fluid is accelerated through a magnetic field. The high velocity of the fluid causes nucleation of the salts in the fluid. The salts are separated from the water by precipitation. During eighteen months of using the MFC, the cooling tower has concentrated in excess of 50 cycles. Conductivity is in excess of 10,000 micromhos, and total hardness (CaCO/sub 3/) is above 4000 ppm with pH stabilized between 8 and 9. However, inspections have revealed clean surfaces. The cleaner metal surfaces within the cooling water system provide better heat transfer which has resulted in reduction of tower blowdown, makeup water requirements, and pumping costs. Associated savings will enable the MFC to achieve payback in two and a half years.

  6. Field trial of biocides for control of Legionella in cooling towers.

    PubMed

    Bentham, R H; Broadbent, C R

    1995-03-01

    Legionella and amebae populations in 16 cooling towers were challenged with three commercially available biocide formulations. The active agents were: a chlorinated phenolic thioether (CPTE), bromo-nitro-propane-diol (BNPD), and bromo-chloro-dimethylhydantoin (BCD, in briquette form). The towers were dosed with these biocides for approximately 4 weeks. BCD was effective against Legionella in each of nine challenge experiments, and CPTE in eight of nine challenges. BNPD was effective in only five of 11 challenges. None of the biocides had any significant effect in reducing planktonic amebae concentrations during the challenges. PMID:7765850

  7. An investigation of the operating efficiency of coking plant ventilator cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Mizin, V.A.; Mamrosov, A.D.; Chernyshov, A.A.; Kolivashko, A.S.; Merinkov, V.V.; Romas, V.P.; Kovalenko, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion was given on the problems of clogging of spray nozzles in cooling towers. With continued use, a thick layer of deposits begin to form, first changing the spray pattern, and then clogging the nozzle completely.A study was done on the change in efficiency of tower sections as a function of their service time since overhaul. This proved the correlation between efficiency and spray pattern. Also, a description of a new sprayer for improved efficiency and reliability was given. Some operational data on the new distributors was given showing a reduced operation cost. Three tables of data were included.

  8. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant elevated Legionella

  9. Design, manufacture, and testing of the Armstrong Hall drop tower decelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo, Jaime Andres

    A decelerator was needed for the Armstrong Hall Microgravity tower. Three designs were considered as concepts and the one chosen was an airbag. The airbag is 5 feet tall and 4.5 feet in diameter due to floor constraints. The deceleration was controlled by designing the vent system to provide the needed vent area as a function of time. This dynamics vent area controls the rate at which volume is expelled from the airbag. The volume expelled depends on the pressure inside the airbag, thus, a direct relation between the vent area and the deceleration profile was determined. The airbag and associated infrastructure was designed, manufactured, and tested. This system includes an airbag with a cushion on top to prevent wear, cart and rails, a drop package, and a latch and release system. More than forty tests were done with different drop height and drop weight combinations culminating in three drops of 200 lbs from the third floor. The drop weight was varied by adjusting the water level in a plastic barrel in the drop package. Pressure measurements inside the bag and vent were taken using two pressure transducers. The pressure transducers sampled the pressure at one of the exit vents and at the center of the bottom of the airbag. The signals were low-pass filtered for noise and scaled for pressure. The pressure traces were processed to find the mean deceleration. The deceleration was found to be independent of drop weight, only depending on drop height. The traces were also integrated to find a momentum per unit area. This value was then compared to the momentum of the drop package. From these two results an effective impact area can be found. It was found that the cushion not only reduced wear but also increased the effective impact area substantially. This increase in area reduced the value of the mean deceleration by reducing the pressure inside the airbag. The airbag proved to work well for the drops, decelerating the package and preventing a direct hit with the

  10. An ultrasensitive fouling monitoring system for cooling towers

    SciTech Connect

    Nohata, Y.; Taguchi, H.

    1995-03-01

    Fouling in industrial water has been a serious problem for many years. For example, the deterioration of the efficiency of heat exchangers and the occurrence of corrosion can cause cooling water leakage into the process streams. Biocides, dispersants, and filtration systems typically are used to prevent these problems. However, if these treatment programs are started too late, the early stages of fouling can occur. Here, a simple method for assessing fouling and chemical treatment efficiency is described. An ultrasensitive fouling sensor that uses piezoelectric quartz crystals was developed which detects fouling in the early stages.

  11. Optimization research on the structure of horizontally-arranged indirect air-cooling tower under strong wind condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoyong; Gu, Hongfang; Wang, Haijun; Qin, Yongbo

    2013-07-01

    Strong wind has a significant impact on the heat radiation of the air-cooling system. In this research, a numerical calculation model of 2×1000MW horizontally arranged air-cooling tower is established to simulate the flow distribution and heat exchanging capability of three different structures-horizontally-arranged indirect air-cooling tower, tower with guide wall outside, and tower with a cross wall inside-under high-speed wind and extreme-speed wind conditions. The result reveals that the structure with the guide wall outside the tower only works under strong wind condition while the structure with cross wall inside shows the anti-wind capability under both high-speed wind and extreme-speed wind conditions.

  12. Real world energy performance a look at chiller/cooling tower performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    Traditional selection criteria for chillers has focused on the chiller kW/ton at full-load design conditions, with little or no attention paid to part-load or off-design conditions. This is beginning to change because part-load or off-design conditions account for approximately 98% of chiller operating hours. With a multiple chiller central plant, part-load conditions mean running one or more chillers at or near peak capacity, with the other chillers off. This usually occurs in the fall, winter and spring, or during evening and nighttime hours, when outdoor air temperatures are lower. Consequently, entering condenser water temperatures below design are available. This paper will look at the economies of taking advantage of these conditions, and spend time looking at cooling tower selections. Cooling towers are relatively inexpensive when compared to chillers, and it often makes sense to use a higher capacity tower and lower the design entering condenser water temperature to the chiller. Improved chiller efficiencies will offset the additional tower cost and fan power.

  13. Reuse of pretreated coal gasification condensate in a pilot scale cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.D.; Schweitzer, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The recycle of wastewaters to cooling water systems is practiced in many industrial sectors. The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) located near Beulah, North Dakota, for example, was designed to reuse treated gas liquor as the primary source of makeup water. In other industrial plants, the concentration of contaminants in the makeup water is very low or the wastewater comprises only a small fraction of the total makeup to the cooling system. The Great Plains system is unique in that the stripped gas liquor (SGL) used as makeup contains relatively high concentrations of dissolved organics, ammonia and acid gases. In addition, the SGL constitutes over 90% of the total makeup to the system. The use of pretreated gas liquor in open, circulating cooling systems is an untried approach to wastewater recycle. The plant not only eliminates a large discharge problem but gains a valuable makeup source for the cooling towers. Because of the large heat duties for the cooling system in these types of plants and their location of regions of water shortages, this approach can be very beneficial. However, there are several environmental and operational concerns that have yet to be resolved. These include atmospheric emissions, fouling of heat transfer surfaces and cooling tower equipment, and excessive corrosion of system components.

  14. Reliability Analysis of Cooling Towers: Influence of Rebars Corrosion on Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sudret, Bruno; Pendola, Maurice

    2002-07-01

    Natural-draught cooling towers are used in nuclear power plants as heat exchangers. These structures are submitted to environmental loads such as wind and thermal gradients that are stochastic in nature. A probabilistic framework has been developed by EDF (Electricite de France) for assessing the durability of such structures. In this paper, the corrosion of the rebars due to concrete carbonation and the corresponding weakening of the reinforced concrete sections is considered. Due to the presence of time in the definition of the limit state function associated with the loss of serviceability of the cooling tower, time-variant reliability analysis has to be used. A novel approach is proposed to take into account the random 'initiation time', which corresponds to the time necessary for the carbonation to attain the rebars. Results are given in terms of the probability of failure of the structure over its life time. (authors)

  15. Influence of Flow Rotation Within a Cooling Tower on the Aerodynamic Interaction with Crosswind Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashani, M. M. Hemmasian; Dobrego, K. V.

    2014-03-01

    Environmental crosswind changes the aerodynamic pattern inside a cooling tower, destroys uniform and axisymmetric distribution of flow at its inlet and outlet, and may degrade fill zone performance. In this paper, the effect of flow rotation in the over-shower zone of a natural draft cooling tower (NDCT) on the aerodynamic interaction with crosswind is studied numerically. The 3D geometry of an actual NDCT and three models of induced rotation velocity fields are utilized for simulation. It is demonstrated that flow rotation results in homogenization of the aerodynamic field in the over-shower zone. The inhomogeneity of the velocity field in the outlet cross section decreases linearly with rotation intensification. The effect of main stream switching under strong wind conditions is found. It is shown that even moderate flow rotation eliminates this effect.

  16. Cold weather operating guidelines and experience for natural draft cooling towers on the American Electric Power system

    SciTech Connect

    Michell, F.L.; Drew, D.H.

    1996-10-01

    American Electric Power`s more than 30 years of experience in operating natural draft cooling towers during freezing winter weather conditions is discussed in the paper. Design features incorporated into the specifications for major rebuild/repack projects for crossflow and counterflow towers to facilitate cold weather operation are also reviewed.

  17. Prevalence and Molecular Characteristics of Waterborne Pathogen Legionella in Industrial Cooling Tower Environments.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijie; Qin, Tian; Li, Yun; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Hongmei; Ren, Hongyu; Li, Liping; Li, Yongguang; Zhao, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Cooling towers are a source of Legionnaires' disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey industrial cooling towers for the presence of Legionella. Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at factories in Shijiazhuang, China between March 2011 and September 2012. Overall, 35.7% of 255 industrial cooling tower water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 100 Colony-Forming Units (CFU)/liter to 88,000 CFU/liter, with an average concentration of 9100 CFU/liter. A total of 121 isolates were obtained. All isolates were L. pneumophila, and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 1 (68 isolates, 56.2%), 6 (25, 20.7%), 5 (12, 9.9%), 8 (8, 6.6%), 3 (6, 5.0%) and 9 (2, 1.6%). All 121 isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and 64 different patterns were obtained. All 121 isolates were analyzed sequence-based typing (SBT), a full 7-allele profile was obtained from 117 isolates. One hundred and seventeen isolates were divided into 49 sequence types. Two virulence genes, lvh and rtxA, are analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 92.6% (112/121) and 98.3% (119/121) isolates carried lvh and rtxA respectively and 90.9% (110/121) of tested isolates carried both genes. Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of L. pneumophila in industrial cooling tower environments in Shijiazhang, China, and the SBT and virulence gene PCR results suggested that the isolates were pathogenic. Improved control and prevention strategies are urgently needed. PMID:26473896

  18. Prevalence and Molecular Characteristics of Waterborne Pathogen Legionella in Industrial Cooling Tower Environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lijie; Qin, Tian; Li, Yun; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Hongmei; Ren, Hongyu; Li, Liping; Li, Yongguang; Zhao, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Cooling towers are a source of Legionnaires’ disease. It is important from a public health perspective to survey industrial cooling towers for the presence of Legionella. Prospective surveillance of the extent of Legionella pollution was conducted at factories in Shijiazhuang, China between March 2011 and September 2012. Overall, 35.7% of 255 industrial cooling tower water samples showed Legionella-positive, and their concentrations ranged from 100 Colony-Forming Units (CFU)/liter to 88,000 CFU/liter, with an average concentration of 9100 CFU/liter. A total of 121 isolates were obtained. All isolates were L. pneumophila, and the isolated serogroups included serogroups 1 (68 isolates, 56.2%), 6 (25, 20.7%), 5 (12, 9.9%), 8 (8, 6.6%), 3 (6, 5.0%) and 9 (2, 1.6%). All 121 isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and 64 different patterns were obtained. All 121 isolates were analyzed sequence-based typing (SBT), a full 7-allele profile was obtained from 117 isolates. One hundred and seventeen isolates were divided into 49 sequence types. Two virulence genes, lvh and rtxA, are analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 92.6% (112/121) and 98.3% (119/121) isolates carried lvh and rtxA respectively and 90.9% (110/121) of tested isolates carried both genes. Our results demonstrated high prevalence and genetic polymorphism of L. pneumophila in industrial cooling tower environments in Shijiazhang, China, and the SBT and virulence gene PCR results suggested that the isolates were pathogenic. Improved control and prevention strategies are urgently needed. PMID:26473896

  19. Genome Sequence of Legionella massiliensis, Isolated from a Cooling Tower Water Sample.

    PubMed

    Pagnier, Isabelle; Croce, Olivier; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    We present the draft genome sequence of Legionella massiliensis strain LegA(T), recovered from a cooling tower water sample, using an amoebal coculture procedure. The strain described here is composed of 4,387,007 bp, with a G+C content of 41.19%, and its genome has 3,767 protein-coding genes and 60 predicted RNA genes. PMID:25323728

  20. Extracellular polysaccharides produced by cooling water tower biofilm bacteria and their possible degradation.

    PubMed

    Ceyhan, Nur; Ozdemir, Guven

    2008-01-01

    The extracellular polymers (EPS) of biofilm bacteria that can cause heat and mass transfer problems in cooling water towers in the petrochemical industry were investigated. In addition, these microorganisms were screened for their ability to grow and degrade their own EPS and the EPS of other species. Twelve bacteria producing the most EPS were isolated from cooling water towers and characterized biochemically by classic and commercial systems. These were species of Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Aeromonas, Pasteurella, Pantoea, Alcaligenes and Sphingomonas. EPS of these species were obtained by propan-2-ol precipitation and centrifugation from bacterial cultures in media enriched with glucose, sucrose or galactose. EPS yields were of 1.68-4.95 g l(-1). These EPS materials were characterized for total sugar and protein contents. Their total sugar content ranged from 24 to 56% (g sugar g(-1) EPS), and their total protein content ranged from 10 to 28% (g protein g(-1) EPS). The monosaccharide compositions of EPS were determined by HPLC. Generally, these compositions were enriched in galactose and glucose, with lesser amounts of mannose, rhamnose, fructose and arabinose. All bacteria were investigated in terms of EPS degradation. Eight of the bacteria were able to utilize EPS from Burkholderia cepacia, seven of the bacteria were able to utilize EPS from Pseudomonas sp. and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. The greatest viscosity reduction of B. cepacia was obtained with Pseudomonas sp. The results show that the bacteria in this study are able to degrade EPS from biofilms in cooling towers. PMID:18256966

  1. Cementitious stabilization of chromium, arsenic, and selenium in a cooling tower sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.

    1995-06-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) establishes an aggressive schedule for conducting studies and treatment method development under the treatability exclusion of RCRA for those mixed wastes for which treatment methods and capabilities have yet to be defined. One of these wastes is a radioactive cooling tower sludge. This paper presents some results of a treatability study of the stabilization of this cooling tower sludge in cementitious waste forms. The sample of the cooling tower sludge obtained for this study was found to be not characteristically hazardous in regard to arsenic, barium, chromium, lead, and selenium, despite the waste codes associated with this waste. However, the scope of this study included spiking three RCRA metals to two orders of magnitude above the initial concentration to test the limits of cementitious stabilization. Chromium and arsenic were spiked at concentrations of 200, 2,000, and 20,000 mg/kg, and selenium was spiked at 100, 1,000, and 10,000 mg/kg (concentrations based on the metal in the sludge solids). Portland cement, Class F fly ash, and slag were selected as stabilizing agents in the present study. Perlite, a fine, porous volcanic rock commonly used as a filter aid, was used as a water-sorptive agent in this study in order to control bleed water for high water contents. The highly porous perlite dust absorbs large amounts of water by capillary action and does not present the handling and processing problems exhibited by clays used for bleed water control.

  2. Reuse of refinery's tertiary-treated wastewater in cooling towers: microbiological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Vera Lúcia; Veiga, Andréa Azevedo; Mendonça, Rafael Silva; Alves, Andrea Lima; Pagnin, Sérgio; Santiago, Vânia M J

    2015-02-01

    The study was planned to quantify the distribution of bacteria between bulk water and biofilm formed on different materials in an industrial scale cooling tower system of an oil refinery operating with clarified and chlorinated freshwater (CCW) or chlorinated tertiary effluent (TRW) as makeup water. The sessile and planktonic heterotrophic bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa densities were significantly higher in the cooling tower supplied with clarified and chlorinated freshwater (CTCW) (p < 0.05). In the two towers, the biofilm density was higher on the surface of glass slides and stainless steel coupons than on the surface of carbon steel coupons. The average corrosion rates of carbon steel coupons (0.4-0.8 millimeters per year (mpy)) and densities of sessile (12-1.47 × 10(3) colony-forming unit (CFU) cm(-1)) and planktonic (0-2.36 × 10(3) CFU mL(-1)) microbiota remained below of the maximum values of reference used by water treatment companies as indicative of efficient microbial control. These data indicate that the strategies of the water treatment station (WTS) (free chlorine) and industrial wastewater treatment station (IWTS) followed by reverse electrodialysis system (RES) (free chlorine plus chloramine) were effective for the microbiological control of the two makeup water sources. PMID:25226836

  3. Investigation of Microbial Respirometry for Monitoring Natural Sulfide Abatement in Geothermal Cooling Tower Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    Geothermal plant operators are interested in investigating the ability of micro-organisms found in the cooling tower basin to metabolize and cycle sulfide to less toxic sulfur compounds. If the growth or activity of the organisms participating in sulfur-oxidation could be selectively enhanced, then hydrogen sulfide could be naturally abated in the cooling basin, substantially reducing the costs associated with the chemicals used for abatement. The use of respirometry has been proposed as a technique for monitoring the response of the microbial populations found in geothermal cooling towers to various conditions, including the addition of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Respiro-metry is a manometric measurement of dissolved gases that are in equilibrium in a con-fined sample volume. Since microbes expire varying amounts of carbon dioxide or oxygen as they metabolize nutrients, this technique can be used to evaluate their activities in process streams. This report describes a series of experiments designed to determine the suitability of respirometry for tracking microbial activity for evaluating and enhancing natural abatement processes in geothermal cooling basins.

  4. Minimization of corrosion using activated sodium bromide in a medium-size cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Nalepa, C.J.; Moore, R.M.; Golson, G.L.; Wolfe, T.W.; Puckorius, P.R.

    1996-07-01

    The cooling tower at the Albermarle Process Development Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, historically used chlorine as a biocide in combination with phosphorus-based corrosion/scale inhibitors. Although this regimen provided biocontrol, sludge and iron buildup was a problem in low-velocity, small cross-sectional areas of piping. A general cleanup of the system was performed in April 1995. This cleanup was followed with a switch to a two-component corrosion inhibitor/dispersant package. Alternate biocides were evaluated at this time. Activated sodium bromide was found to be particularly effective in this tower, which operates at pH {approximately}8.4. Relative to chlorine, the use of activated sodium bromide led to a decrease in general and pitting corrosion on mild steel. The reduced corrosion appears to be due to a combination of both chemical (less attack on passivated metal surfaces) and biological factors (better control of heterotrophic and sessile bacteria). These conclusions are supported by chemical analyses, corrosion meter and coupon data, dip slides, biological activity reaction tests, and visual observations of the tower sump and heat exchanger surfaces.

  5. Case study: Minimization of corrosion using activated sodium bromide in a medium-size cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Nalepa, C.J.; Moore, R.M.; Golson, G.L.; Wolfe, T.W.; Puckorius, P.R.

    1996-10-01

    The process loop cooling tower at the Albemarle Process Development Center in Baton Rouge, LA has historically used chlorine as the biocide together with industry accepted phosphorus-based corrosion/scale inhibitors. Although this regimen provided biocontrol, sludge and iron build-up was a recurring problem, especially in low-velocity, small cross-sectional areas of piping. A general clean-up of the system was performed in April, 1995. This clean-up was followed with a switch to a two-component corrosion inhibitor/dispersant package. It was decided to study alternate biocides as well at this time. Activated sodium bromide was found to be particularly effective in this tower, which operates at pH {approximately}8.4. Relative to chlorine, the use of activated sodium bromide led to a decrease in general and pitting corrosion on mild steel while maintaining prior performance on admiralty brass. The reduced corrosion appears to be due to a combination of both chemical (less attack on passivated metal surfaces) and biological factors (better control of heterotrophic and sessile bacteria). These conclusions are supported by chemical analyses, corrosion meter and coupon data, dip slides, BART (biological activity reaction test) tests, and visual observations of the tower sump and heat exchanger surfaces.

  6. Economic and technical assessment of the desiccant wheel effect on the thermal performance of cross flow cooling towers in variable wet bulb temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banooni, Salem; Chitsazan, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Performance improvements of cross flow cooling towers in variable wet bulb temperature were performed. A conventional mathematical model is used to predict desiccant wheel effect on the performance of cooling tower. It is found that by using optimum parameters of desiccant wheel, the inlet air wet bulb temperature into the cooling tower would decrease more than 6 °C and outlet water temperature would decrease more than 4 °C.

  7. Study plan for conducting a section 316(a) demonstration: K-Reactor cooling tower, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.

    1991-02-01

    The K Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS) began operation in 1954. The K-Reactor pumped secondary cooling water from the Savannah River and discharged directly to the Indian Grave Branch, a tributary of Pen Branch which flows to the Savannah River. During earlier operations, the temperature and discharge rates of cooling water from the K-reactor were up to approximately 70{degree}C and 400 cfs, substantially altering the thermal and flow regimes of this stream. These discharges resulted in adverse impacts to the receiving stream and wetlands along the receiving stream. As a component of a Consent Order (84-4-W as amended) with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, the Department of Energy (DOE) evaluated the alternatives for cooling thermal effluents from K Reactor and concluded that a natural draft recirculating cooling tower should be constructed. The cooling tower will mitigate thermal and flow factors that resulted in the previous impacts to the Indian Grave/Pen Branch ecosystem. The purpose of the proposed biological monitoring program is to provide information that will support a Section 316(a) Demonstration for Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch when K-Reactor is operated with the recirculating cooling tower. The data will be used to determine that Indian Grave Branch and Pen Branch support Balanced Indigenous Communities when K-Reactor is operated with a recirculating cooling tower. 4 refs., 1 fig. 1 tab.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Viable Legionella spp. in Cooling Tower Water Samples by Combined Use of Ethidium Monoazide and PCR

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Reiko; Agata, Kunio; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Viable Legionella spp. in environmental water samples were characterized phylogenetically by a clone library analysis combining the use of ethidium monoazide and quantitative PCR. To examine the diversity of Legionella spp., six cooling tower water samples and three bath water samples were collected and analyzed. A total of 617 clones were analyzed for their 16S rRNA gene sequences and classified into 99 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The majority of OTUs were not clustered with currently described Legionella spp., suggesting the wide diversity of not-yet-cultured Legionella groups harbored in cooling tower water environments. PMID:25736979

  9. Molecular characterization of viable Legionella spp. in cooling tower water samples by combined use of ethidium monoazide and PCR.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Reiko; Agata, Kunio; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Viable Legionella spp. in environmental water samples were characterized phylogenetically by a clone library analysis combining the use of ethidium monoazide and quantitative PCR. To examine the diversity of Legionella spp., six cooling tower water samples and three bath water samples were collected and analyzed. A total of 617 clones were analyzed for their 16S rRNA gene sequences and classified into 99 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The majority of OTUs were not clustered with currently described Legionella spp., suggesting the wide diversity of not-yet-cultured Legionella groups harbored in cooling tower water environments. PMID:25736979

  10. Use of treated gasification wastewater in a pilot cooling tower. Phase I. Final report for the period ending January 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, W.G.; Hendrikson, J.G.; Mann, M.D.; Galegher, S.J.; Gallagher, J.R.; Mayer, G.G.; Thomas, W.C.; Winton, S.L.; Nelson, D.F.

    1984-05-16

    During the UNDERC cooling tower tests, data were colleced and evaluated in five major areas: characterization of cooling tower streams, process performance, biofouling, corrosion, and inorganic/organic fouling. A summary of the results and conclusions for each area is presented. Recommendations are provided for research and development programs to further define the pretreatment and operating requirements for the use of wastewater as cooling tower makeup. The results of the Phase I-Pilot Cooling Tower test have revealed several potential problems that may arise from the use of a relatively high organic content gas liquor as cooling tower makeup. Most of the problems identified are related to the presence of organics in the wastewater which promote biofouling/fouling, corrosion, and emissions from the cooling tower. The Phase II-Pilot Cooling Tower Test will address this issue by identifying the advantages of further treatment of stripped gas liquor to reduce the organic content to a lower level before use in the cooling tower. This test will parallel the Phase I test using the same system and monitoring procedures. Comparison of the results of Phase I and Phase II tests will provide an indication of how well problem areas can be avoided with additional makeup water pretreatment. 39 references, 34 tables, and 25 figures.

  11. A mechanistic approach to the development of chemical solutions for fouling of cooling tower film fills

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.S.; Yorke, M.A.; Donlan, R.M.; Gibbon, D.L.; McClung, B.

    1995-02-01

    Since the 1980`s reported incidents of cooling tower film fill fouling have continually increased and many utilities have sought chemical treatment solution for their fouling problems. Specialty chemical companies have been called upon to research the problems and to provide programs and products that address this pressing issue. The process of surface fouling of high efficiency film fill is a complex problem due to the multiple components involved in the fouling. An in depth understanding of the problem is necessary to determine effective treatment approaches. This study defines the mechanisms of film fill fouling by examination of microorganisms, silt particles and inorganic minerals in the fouling process. The investigation of chemical treatment approaches for the effective control of fouling based on the fouling mechanisms also are discussed.

  12. Experimental measurement of cooling tower emissions using image processing of sensitive papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, J.; Kaiser, A. S.; Ballesta, M.; Gil, A.; Lucas, M.

    2013-04-01

    Cooling tower emissions are harmful for several reasons such as air polluting, wetting, icing and solid particle deposition, but mainly due to human health hazards (i.e. Legionella). There are several methods for measuring drift drops. This paper is focussed on the sensitive paper technique, which is suitable in low drift scenarios and real conditions. The lack of an automatic classification method motivated the development of a digital image process algorithm for the Sensitive Paper method. This paper presents a detailed description of this method, in which, drop-like elements are identified by means of the Canny edge detector combined with some morphological operations. Afterwards, the application of a J48 decision tree is proposed as one of the most relevant contributions. This classification method allows us to discern between stains whose origin is a drop and stains whose origin is not a drop. The method is applied to a real case and results are presented in terms of drift and PM10 emissions. This involves the calculation of the main features of the droplet distribution at the cooling tower exit surface in terms of drop size distribution data, cumulative mass distribution curve and characteristic drop diameters. The Log-normal and the Rosin-Rammler distribution functions have been fitted to the experimental data collected in the tests and it can been concluded that the first one is the most suitable for experimental data among the functions tested (whereas the second one is less suitable). Realistic PM10 calculations include the measurement of drift emissions and Total Dissolved Solids as well as the size and number of drops. Results are compared to the method proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency assessing its overestimation. Drift emissions have found to be 0.0517% of the recirculating water, which is over the Spanish standards limit (0.05%).

  13. Cooling tower with concrete support structure, fiberglass panels, and a fan supported by the liquid distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Bardo, C. J.; Clark Jr., J. L.; Dylewski, A. J.; Seawell, J. Q.

    1985-09-24

    A liquid cooling tower includes precast concrete support legs and cross beams and fiberglass reinforced polyester resin side and top panels. A liquid distribution system is supplied with liquid by a vertically extending main pipe, and a fan and fan motor are supported by the main pipe.

  14. Free-living amoebae and their associated bacteria in Austrian cooling towers: a 1-year routine screening.

    PubMed

    Scheikl, Ute; Tsao, Han-Fei; Horn, Matthias; Indra, Alexander; Walochnik, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely spread in the environment and known to cause rare but often serious infections. Besides this, FLA may serve as vehicles for bacterial pathogens. In particular, Legionella pneumophila is known to replicate within FLA thereby also gaining enhanced infectivity. Cooling towers have been the source of outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in the past and are thus usually screened for legionellae on a routine basis, not considering, however, FLA and their vehicle function. The aim of this study was to incorporate a screening system for host amoebae into a Legionella routine screening. A new real-time PCR-based screening system for various groups of FLA was established. Three cooling towers were screened every 2 weeks over the period of 1 year for FLA and Legionella spp., by culture and molecular methods in parallel. Altogether, 83.3 % of the cooling tower samples were positive for FLA, Acanthamoeba being the dominating genus. Interestingly, 69.7 % of the cooling tower samples were not suitable for the standard Legionella screening due to their high organic burden. In the remaining samples, positivity for Legionella spp. was 25 % by culture, but overall positivity was 50 % by molecular methods. Several amoebal isolates revealed intracellular bacteria. PMID:27177720

  15. Legionella species and serogroups in Malaysian water cooling towers: identification by latex agglutination and PCR-DNA sequencing of isolates.

    PubMed

    Yong, Stacey Foong Yee; Goh, Fen-Ning; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of Legionella species in water cooling towers located in different parts of Malaysia to obtain information that may inform public health policies for the prevention of legionellosis. A total of 20 water samples were collected from 11 cooling towers located in three different states in east, west and south Malaysia. The samples were concentrated by filtration and treated with an acid buffer before plating on to BCYE agar. Legionella viable counts in these samples ranged from 100 to 2,000 CFU ml(-1); 28 isolates from the 24 samples were examined by latex agglutination as well as 16S rRNA and rpoB PCR-DNA sequencing. These isolates were identified as Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (35.7%), L. pneumophila serogroup 2-14 (39%), L. pneumophila non-groupable (10.7%), L. busanensis, L. gormanii, L. anisa and L. gresilensis. L. pneumophila was clearly the predominant species at all sampling sites. Repeat sampling from the same cooling tower and testing different colonies from the same water sample showed concurrent colonization by different serogroups and different species of Legionella in some of the cooling towers. PMID:20009251

  16. TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF A WET-DRY CROSSFLOW COOLING TOWER, VOLUME I: TEST PROGRAM AND RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the test program and performance analysis of a single-cell mechanical-draft wet/dry cooling tower in Cliffside, NC. Objectives of the program were to obtain performance data and results on mass transfer, heat transfer, fluid flow, plume formation, and acousti...

  17. Hydraulic design of a low-specific speed Francis runner for a hydraulic cooling tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, H.; Luo, X. Q.; Liao, W. L.; Zhao, Y. P.

    2012-11-01

    The air blower in a cooling tower is normally driven by an electromotor, and the electric energy consumed by the electromotor is tremendous. The remaining energy at the outlet of the cooling cycle is considerable. This energy can be utilized to drive a hydraulic turbine and consequently to rotate the air blower. The purpose of this project is to recycle energy, lower energy consumption and reduce pollutant discharge. Firstly, a two-order polynomial is proposed to describe the blade setting angle distribution law along the meridional streamline in the streamline equation. The runner is designed by the point-to-point integration method with a specific blade setting angle distribution. Three different ultra-low-specificspeed Francis runners with different wrap angles are obtained in this method. Secondly, based on CFD numerical simulations, the effects of blade setting angle distribution on pressure coefficient distribution and relative efficiency have been analyzed. Finally, blade angles of inlet and outlet and control coefficients of blade setting angle distribution law are optimal variables, efficiency and minimum pressure are objective functions, adopting NSGA-II algorithm, a multi-objective optimization for ultra-low-specific speed Francis runner is carried out. The obtained results show that the optimal runner has higher efficiency and better cavitation performance.

  18. Legionnaires' Disease Outbreak at a Long-Term Care Facility Caused by a Cooling Tower Using an Automated Disinfection System--Ohio, 2013.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Celia; Demirjian, Alicia; Watkins, Louise Francois; Tomczyk, Sara; Lucas, Claressa; Brown, Ellen; Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia; Benitez, Alvaro; Garrison, Laurel E; Kunz, Jasen; Brewer, Scott; Eitniear, Samantha; DiOrio, Mary

    2015-12-01

    On July 9, 2013, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) was identified at Long-Term Care Facility A in central Ohio. This article describes the investigation of the outbreak and identification of the outbreak source, a cooling tower using an automated biocide delivery system. In total, 39 outbreak LD cases were identified; among these, six patients died. Water samples from a cooling tower were positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, reactive to monoclonal antibody 2, with matching sequence type to a patient isolate. An electronic control system turned off cooling tower pumps during low-demand periods, preventing delivery of disinfectant by a timed-release system, and leading to amplification of Legionella in the cooling tower. Guidelines for tower maintenance should address optimal disinfection when using automated systems. PMID:26738313

  19. Direct injection GC method for measuring light hydrocarbon emissions from cooling-tower water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Max M; Logan, Tim D; Sun, Kefu; Hurley, N Spencer; Swatloski, Robert A; Gluck, Steve J

    2003-12-15

    A Direct Injection GC method for quantifying low levels of light hydrocarbons (C6 and below) in cooling water has been developed. It is intended to overcome the limitations of the currently available technology. The principle of this method is to use a stripper column in a GC to strip waterfrom the hydrocarbons prior to entering the separation column. No sample preparation is required since the water sample is introduced directly into the GC. Method validation indicates that the Direct Injection GC method offers approximately 15 min analysis time with excellent precision and recovery. The calibration studies with ethylene and propylene show that both liquid and gas standards are suitable for routine calibration and calibration verification. The sampling method using zero headspace traditional VOA (Volatile Organic Analysis) vials and a sample chiller has also been validated. It is apparent that the sampling method is sufficient to minimize the potential for losses of light hydrocarbons, and samples can be held at 4 degrees C for up to 7 days with more than 93% recovery. The Direct Injection GC method also offers <1 ppb (w/v) level method detection limits for ethylene, propylene, and benzene. It is superior to the existing El Paso stripper method. In addition to lower detection limits for ethylene and propylene, the Direct Injection GC method quantifies individual light hydrocarbons in cooling water, provides better recoveries, and requires less maintenance and setup costs. Since the instrumentation and supplies are readily available, this technique could easily be established as a standard or alternative method for routine emission monitoring and leak detection of light hydrocarbons in cooling-tower water. PMID:14717185

  20. Unique seismic controlled sources: Using the demolition of smelter tower stacks and the City Hall in El Paso,TX for a seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montana, C. J.; Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Kaip, G.; Velasco, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    On April 13, 2013 the city of El Paso, TX demolished two old smelter smoke stacks leftover from the smelting days of ASARCO and the following day, demolished the City Hall building. These two events provided a unique opportunity to utilize two complex (demolition of two smoke stack towers plus a sequence of explosions at source site 1 and a sequence of explosions and the demolition of a building at source site 2) seismic sources to provide information about the uppermost subsurface of the surrounding areas of the City of El Paso. We deployed an array of 46 seismographs (Reftek Texans) connected to 4 Hz geophones along 3 survey lines: a NW to SE line extending from the ASARCO smokestacks site through City Hall and extending to a station location near the border (providing a revered profile); a W to E line extending from the ASARCO smoke stack location towards an end point in central El Paso; and a SSW to NNE line from City Hall towards a station location adjacent to the Franklin Mountains Mountain Range. The maximum source to receiver offset is over 5 km. The seismographs where deployed in an urban setting resulting in a challenging deployment in terms of security and integrity of the instruments. The recording mode was set to continuous from several hours before the stacks demolition to several hours after the City Hall building demolition. The data acquired is rich with many phases recorded. The main towers impact is clearly recorded along the length of all lines even though it was at the longest offset. The City Hall demolition site is located at a more central position that made it easier to be recorded. The complexity of the sources will require extensive signal processing to separate and determine specific phases. We will be using the line to develop a preliminary 2-D velocity model, which will be used to identify any faults and other geological structures buried beneath the deep river sediments near downtown El Paso.

  1. AUTOMATED DEAD-END ULTRAFILTRATION FOR ENHANCED SURVEILLANCE OF LEGIONELLA 2 PNEUMOPHILA AND LEGIONELLA SPP. IN COOLING TOWER WATERS

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.; Leskinen, S.; Kearns, E.; Jones, W.; Miller, R.; Betivas, C.; Kingsley, M.; Lim, D.

    2011-10-10

    Detection of Legionella pneumophila in cooling towers and domestic hot water systems involves concentration by centrifugation or membrane filtration prior to inoculation onto growth media or analysis using techniques such as PCR or immunoassays. The Portable Multi-use Automated Concentration System (PMACS) was designed for concentrating microorganisms from large volumes of water in the field and was assessed for enhancing surveillance of L. pneumophila at the Savannah River Site, SC. PMACS samples (100 L; n = 28) were collected from six towers between August 2010 and April 2011 with grab samples (500 ml; n = 56) being collected before and after each PMACS sample. All samples were analyzed for the presence of L. pneumophila by direct fluorescence immunoassay (DFA) using FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies targeting serogroups 1, 2, 4 and 6. QPCR was utilized for detection of Legionella spp. in the same samples. Counts of L. pneumophila from DFA and of Legionella spp. from qPCR were normalized to cells/L tower water. Concentrations were similar between grab and PMACS samples collected throughout the study by DFA analysis (P = 0.4461; repeated measures ANOVA). The same trend was observed with qPCR. However, PMACS concentration proved advantageous over membrane filtration by providing larger volume, more representative samples of the cooling tower environment, which led to reduced variability among sampling events and increasing the probability of detection of low level targets. These data highlight the utility of the PMACS for enhanced surveillance of L. pneumophila by providing improved sampling of the cooling tower environment.

  2. Detection of Legionella pneumophila by PCR-ELISA method in industrial cooling tower water.

    PubMed

    Soheili, Majid; Nejadmoghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Babashamsi, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Jamileh; Jeddi Tehrani, Mahmood

    2007-11-15

    Water supply and Cooling Tower Water (CTW) are among the most common sources of Legionella pneumophila (LP) contamination. A nonradio active method is described to detect LP in industrial CTW samples. DNA was purified and amplified by nested -PCR with amplimers specific for the 16s rRNA gene of LP. The 5' end biotinylated oligomer probe was immobilized on sterptavidin B coated microtiter plates. The nested-PCR product was labeled with digoxigenin and then hybridized with 5'-biotinylated probes. The amplification products were detected by using proxidase-labled anti dioxygenin antibody in a colorimetric reaction. The assay detected LP present in 1 L of 5 CTW samples examined. All of the samples were Legionella positive in both culture and PCR-ELISA methods. The PCR-ELISA assay appears to exhibit high specificity and is a more rapid technique in comparison with bacterial culture method. Thus could prove suitable for use in the routine examination of industrial CTW contamination. PMID:19090273

  3. Treatment of cooling tower blowdown water containing silica, calcium and magnesium by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Z; Gu, Z; Schulz, M C; Davis, J R; Baygents, J C; Farrell, J

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the effectiveness of electrocoagulation using iron and aluminium electrodes for treating cooling tower blowdown (CTB) waters containing dissolved silica (Si(OH)(4)), Ca(2 + ) and Mg(2 + ). The removal of each target species was measured as a function of the coagulant dose in simulated CTB waters with initial pH values of 5, 7, and 9. Experiments were also performed to investigate the effect of antiscaling compounds and coagulation aids on hardness ion removal. Both iron and aluminum electrodes were effective at removing dissolved silica. For coagulant doses < or =3 mM, silica removal was a linear function of the coagulant dose, with 0.4 to 0.5 moles of silica removed per mole of iron or aluminium. Iron electrodes were only 30% as effective at removing Ca(2 + ) and Mg(2 + ) as compared to silica. There was no measurable removal of hardness ions by aluminium electrodes in the absence of organic additives. Phosphonate based antiscaling compounds were uniformly effective at increasing the removal of Ca(2 + ) and Mg(2 + ) by both iron and aluminium electrodes. Cationic and amphoteric polymers used as coagulation aids were also effective at increasing hardness ion removal. PMID:19901466

  4. Improved facility and sensitivity in the use of guinea pigs for the isolation of Legionella pneumophila from cooling tower water

    SciTech Connect

    Leinbach, E.D.; Winkler, H.H.; Wood, D.O.; Coggin, J.H. Jr.

    1983-03-01

    The established criteria for the determination of the optimum time for the sacrifice of guinea pigs inoculated with samples of cooling tower water were found to be inadequate for the detection of low levels of Legionella pneumophila. By ignoring the requirement for fever and by sequentially sacrificing the infected guinea pigs on days 3 through 5 postinoculation, we simplified the procedure, and the sensitivity of detection was improved a great deal.

  5. Mutagenic activity associated with cooling tower waters treated with a biocide containing 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one

    SciTech Connect

    Woodall, G.M.; Pancorbo, O.C.; Blevins, R.D.; Ferslew, K.E.

    1987-08-01

    With the Ames Salmonella-mammalian microsome test, significant mutagenic activity was detected in cooling tower water shortly (same day) after treatment with a biocide (CL2150) containing 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one(5-chloro-IT). Dose-related mutagenic responses with TA97 (-S9) and TA100 (-S9) were produced with the acid fraction (extracted at pH <2 with methylene chloride) of this cooling water sample (specific mutagenic activities of 281,000 and 188,000 net revertants/L equiv of water, respectively). This mutagenic activity detected in cooling water sampled in mid-summer did not persist beyond the first day of CL2150 treatment. The mutagenic activity displayed by the cooling waters with TA97 (-S9) exceeded that associated with the extractable 5-chloro-IT concentration (determined by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). 24 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Technology to Facilitate the Use of Impaired Waters in Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The project goal was to develop an effective silica removal technology and couple that with existing electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) technology to achieve a cost effective treatment for impaired waters to allow for their use in the cooling towers of coal fired power plants. A quantitative target of the program was a 50% reduction in the fresh water withdrawal at a levelized cost of water of $3.90/Kgal. Over the course of the program, a new molybdenum-modified alumina was developed that significantly outperforms existing alumina materials in silica removal both kinetically and thermodynamically. The Langmuir capacity is 0.11g silica/g adsorbent. Moreover, a low cost recycle/regeneration process was discovered to allow for multiple recycles with minimal loss in activity. On the lab scale, five runs were carried out with no drop in performance between the second and fifth run in ability to absorb the silica from water. The Mo-modified alumina was successfully prepared on a multiple kilogram scale and a bench scale model column was used to remove 100 ppm of silica from 400 liters of simulated impaired water. Significant water savings would result from such a process and the regeneration process could be further optimized to reduce water requirements. Current barriers to implementation are the base cost of the adsorbent material and the fine powder form that would lead to back pressure on a large column. If mesoporous materials become more commonly used in other areas and the price drops from volume and process improvements, then our material would also lower in price because the amount of molybdenum needed is low and no additional processing is required. There may well be engineering solutions to the fine powder issue; in a simple concept experiment, we were able to pelletize our material with Boehmite, but lost performance due to a dramatic decrease in surface area.

  7. Legionella detection and subgrouping in water air-conditioning cooling tower systems in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Matawah, Qadreyah; Al-Zenki, Sameer; Al-Azmi, Ahmad; Al-Waalan, Tahani; Al-Salameen, Fadila; Hejji, Ahmad Ben

    2015-07-01

    The main aim of the study was to test for the presence of Legionnaires' disease-causing microorganisms in air-conditioned buildings in Kuwait using molecular technologies. For this purpose, 547 samples were collected from 38 cooling towers for the analysis of Legionella pneumophila. These samples included those from water (n = 178), air (n = 231), and swabs (n = 138). Out of the 547 samples, 226 (41%) samples were presumptive positive for L. pneumophila, with L. pneumophila viable counts in the positive water samples ranging from 1 to 88 CFU/ml. Of the Legionella culture-positive samples, 204 isolates were examined by latex agglutination. These isolates were predominately identified as L. pneumophila serogroup (sg) 2-14. Using the Dresden panel of monoclonal antibodies, 74 representatives isolates were further serogrouped. Results showed that 51% of the isolates belonged to serogroup 7 followed by 1 (18%) and 3 (18%). Serogroups 4 (4%) and 10 (7%) were isolated at a lower frequency, and two isolates could not be assigned to a serogroup. These results indicate the wide prevalence of L. pneumophila serogroup 7 as the predominant serogroup at the selected sampling sites. Furthermore, the 74 L. pneumophila (sg1 = 13; sg3 = 13; sg4 = 3; sg7 = 38; sg10 = 5; sgX = 2) isolates were genotyped using the seven gene protocol sequence-based typing (SBT) scheme developed by the European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI). The results show that Legionella isolates were discriminated into nine distinct sequence typing (ST) profiles, five of which were new to the SBT database of EWGLI. Additionally, all of the ST1 serogroup 1 isolates were of the OLDA/Oxford subgroup. These baseline data will form the basis for the development of a Legionella environmental surveillance program and used for future epidemiological investigations. PMID:25701245

  8. Analysis of construction conditions affecting the structural response of the cooling tower at Willow Island, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, H.S.; Fattal, S.G.

    1980-07-01

    The initial investigation of the Willow Island cooling tower collapse (NBSIR 78-1578) established that the most probable cause of the collapse was the imposition of construction loads on the tower before the concrete had gained adequate strength. The analysis presented herein responds to questions outside the scope of that investigation which considered only actual conditions existing at the time of the collapse. The present investigation shows that failure would initiate in lift 28 if the concrete strength in that lift is 100 psi (6.9 MPa) or less, and to maintain a safety factor of 2.0, the concrete strength in that lift should be 4000 psi (27.6 MPa). This study also reveals that even if an additional bolt had been introduced between each exterior jumpform beam and the tower, the stresses would not have been relieved enough to prevent failure of lift 28. Finally, it is shown, that if the ground anchor point of the static line had been kept at the location occupied just prior to its last move to a location near the center of the tower, the stresses in the shell due to construction loads would have been relieved to the extent that failure of lift 28 would probably not have occurred.

  9. Legionnaires’ disease from a cooling tower in a community outbreak in Lidköping, Sweden- epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigation supported by meteorological modelling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An outbreak of Legionnaires’ Disease took place in the Swedish town Lidköping on Lake Vänern in August 2004 and the number of pneumonia cases at the local hospital increased markedly. As soon as the first patients were diagnosed, health care providers were informed and an outbreak investigation was launched. Methods Classical epidemiological investigation, diagnostic tests, environmental analyses, epidemiological typing and meteorological methods. Results Thirty-two cases were found. The median age was 62 years (range 36 – 88) and 22 (69%) were males. No common indoor exposure was found. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was found at two industries, each with two cooling towers. In one cooling tower exceptionally high concentrations, 1.2 × 109 cfu/L, were found. Smaller amounts were also found in the other tower of the first industry and in one tower of the second plant. Sero- and genotyping of isolated L. pneumophila serogroup 1 from three patients and epidemiologically suspected environmental strains supported the cooling tower with the high concentration as the source. In all, two L. pneumophila strains were isolated from three culture confirmed cases and both these strains were detected in the cooling tower, but one strain in another cooling tower as well. Meteorological modelling demonstrated probable spread from the most suspected cooling tower towards the town centre and the precise location of four cases that were stray visitors to Lidköping. Conclusions Classical epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigation of an LD outbreak can be supported by meteorological modelling methods. The broad competence and cooperation capabilities in the investigation team from different authorities were of paramount importance in stopping this outbreak. PMID:23171054

  10. The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel in cooling tower water containing a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Minnoş, Bihter; Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Çotuk, Ayşın; Güngör, Nihal Doğruöz; Cansever, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of galvanized steel in cooling tower water containing a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor was investigated over a 10-month period in a hotel. Planktonic and sessile numbers of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and heterotrophic bacteria were monitored. The corrosion rate was determined by the weight loss method. The corrosion products were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. A mineralized, heterogeneous biofilm was observed on the coupons. Although a biocide and a corrosion inhibitor were regularly added to the cooling water, the results showed that microorganisms, such as SRB in the mixed species biofilm, caused corrosion of galvanized steel. It was observed that Zn layers on the test coupons were completely depleted after 3 months. The Fe concentrations in the biofilm showed significant correlations with the weight loss and carbohydrate concentration (respectively, p < 0.01 and p < 0.01). PMID:23439037

  11. Acidity of vapor plume from cooling tower mixed with flue gases emitted from coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Korszun, Katarzyna; Fudala, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Acidity of products resulting from the reaction of flue gas components emitted from a coal-fired power plant with water contained in a vapor plume from a wet cooling tower was analyzed in a close vicinity of a power plant (710 m from the stack and 315 m from the cooling tower). Samples of this mixture were collected using a precipitation funnel where components of the mixed plumes were discharged from the atmosphere with the rainfall. To identify situations when the precipitation occurred at the same time as the wind directed the mixed vapor and flue gas plumes above the precipitation funnel, an ultrasound anemometer designed for 3D measurements of the wind field located near the funnel was used. Precipitation samples of extremely high acidity were identified - about 5% of samples collected during 12 months showed the acidity below pH=3 and the lowest recorded pH was 1.4. During the measurement period the value of pH characterizing the background acidity of the precipitation was about 6. The main outcome of this study was to demonstrate a very high, and so far completely underestimated, potential of occurrence of episodes of extremely acid depositions in the immediate vicinity of a coal-fired power plant. PMID:26950639

  12. 93. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, WEST TABERNACLE FRAME. DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, WEST TABERNACLE FRAME. DETAIL OF DOG EAR AND TRUSS (BRACKET) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Wastewater reuse in a cascade based system of a petrochemical industry for the replacement of losses in cooling towers.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Everton; Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira; Aquim, Patrice Monteiro de

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses the mapping of opportunities for the water reuse in a cascade based system in a petrochemical industry in southern Brazil. This industrial sector has a large demand for water for its operation. In the studied industry, for example, approximately 24 million cubic meters of water were collected directly from the source in 2014. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the reuse of water in cascade in a petrochemical industry, focusing on the reuse of aqueous streams to replenish losses in the cooling towers. This is an industrial scale case study with real data collected during the years 2014 and 2015. Water reuse was performed using heuristic approach based on the exploitation of knowledge acquired during the search process. The methodology of work consisted of the construction of a process map identifying the stages of production and water consumption, as well as the characterization of the aqueous streams involved in the process. For the application of the industrial water reuse as cooling water, mass balances were carried out considering the maximum concentration levels of turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters turbidity, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, calcium hardness, chlorides, sulfates, silica, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids as parameters. The adopted guideline was the fulfillment of the water quality criteria for each application in the industrial process. The study showed the feasibility for the reuse of internal streams as makeup water in cooling towers, and the implementation of the reuse presented in this paper totaled savings of 385,440 m(3)/year of water, which means a sufficient volume to supply 6350 inhabitants for a period of one year, considering the average water consumption per capita in Brazil; in addition to 201,480 m(3)/year of wastewater that would no longer be generated. PMID

  14. Comparison of plate counts, Petrifilm, dipslides, and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence for monitoring bacteria in cooling-tower waters.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sherry A; Anderson, James E; Kim, Byung R; Ball, James C

    2009-04-01

    Effective bacterial control in cooling-tower systems requires accurate and timely methods to count bacteria. Plate-count methods are difficult to implement on-site, because they are time- and labor-intensive and require sterile techniques. Several field-applicable methods (dipslides, Petrifilm, and adenosine triphosphate [ATP] bioluminescence) were compared with the plate count for two sample matrices--phosphate-buffered saline solution containing a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens and cooling-tower water containing an undefined mixed bacterial culture. For the pure culture, (1) counts determined on nutrient agar and plate-count agar (PCA) media and expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter were equivalent to those on R2A medium (p = 1.0 and p = 1.0, respectively); (2) Petrifilm counts were not significantly different from R2A plate counts (p = 0.99); (3) the dipslide counts were up to 2 log units higher than R2A plate counts, but this discrepancy was not statistically significant (p = 0.06); and (4) a discernable correlation (r2 = 0.67) existed between ATP readings and plate counts. For cooling-tower water samples (n = 62), (1) bacterial counts using R2A medium were higher (but not significant; p = 0.63) than nutrient agar and significantly higher than tryptone-glucose yeast extract (TGE; p = 0.03) and PCA (p < 0.001); (2) Petrifilm counts were significantly lower than nutrient agar or R2A (p = 0.02 and p < 0.001, respectively), but not statistically different from TGE, PCA, and dipslides (p = 0.55, p = 0.69, and p = 0.91, respectively); (3) the dipslide method yielded bacteria counts 1 to 3 log units lower than nutrient agar and R2A (p < 0.001), but was not significantly different from Petrifilm (p = 0.91), PCA (p = 1.00) or TGE (p = 0.07); (4) the differences between dipslides and the other methods became greater with a 6-day incubation time; and (5) the correlation between ATP readings and plate counts varied from system to system, was poor

  15. Mathematical Model of Two Phase Flow in Natural Draft Wet-Cooling Tower Including Flue Gas Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyhlík, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    The previously developed model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer is extended to be able to take into account the flow of supersaturated moist air. The two phase flow model is based on void fraction of gas phase which is included in the governing equations. Homogeneous equilibrium model, where the two phases are well mixed and have the same velocity, is used. The effect of flue gas injection is included into the developed mathematical model by using source terms in governing equations and by using momentum flux coefficient and kinetic energy flux coefficient. Heat and mass transfer in the fill zone is described by the system of ordinary differential equations, where the mass transfer is represented by measured fill Merkel number and heat transfer is calculated using prescribed Lewis factor.

  16. Quasi One-Dimensional Model of Natural Draft Wet-Cooling Tower Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyhlík, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    The article deals with the development of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer. The moist air flow is described by the system of conservation laws along with additional equations. Moist air is assumed to be homogeneous mixture of dry air and water vapour. Liquid phase in the fill zone is described by the system of ordinary differential equations. Boundary value problem for the system of conservation laws is discretized in space using Kurganov-Tadmor central scheme and in time using strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta scheme. Initial value problems in the fill zone is solved by using standard fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme. The interaction between liquid water and moist air is done by source terms in governing equations.

  17. Testing and analysis of a wet-dry crossflow cooling tower. Volume II. Appendices. Final report, July 1977-May 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, D.L.; Hogan, M.R.; Hribar, A.E.; Lucheta, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    The report discusses the test program and performance analysis of a single-cell mechanical-draft wet/dry cooling tower in Cliffside, NC. Objectives of the program were to obtain performance data and results on mass transfer, heat transfer, fluid flow, plume formation, and acoustic characteristics for comparison with models/theories. Correlations are presented for the wet-fill mass transfer coefficient, wet-fill water loss, Colburn j-factor for the finned tubes, and fan efficiency in terms of one or more of the following: water loading in the tubes, air loading over the fins, log mean humidity difference, outlet water temperature, Reynolds number, and airflow rate. Acoustic data were fitted to a series of curves for each of the eight octave bands. Attempts to model plume data failed. The report also describes the test facility, test procedures, instrumentation, data acquisition, and data reduction.

  18. Distribution of Sequence-Based Types of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Strains Isolated from Cooling Towers, Hot Springs, and Potable Water Systems in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea. PMID:24463975

  19. Distribution of sequence-based types of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems in China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tian; Zhou, Haijian; Ren, Hongyu; Guan, Hong; Li, Machao; Zhu, Bingqing; Shao, Zhujun

    2014-04-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea. PMID:24463975

  20. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

  1. Legionella pneumophila in cooling water systems. Report of a survey of cooling towers in London and a pilot trial of selected biocides.

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, J. B.; Bartlett, C. L.; Newton, U. A.; White, R. A.; Jones, N. L.

    1982-01-01

    Fourteen recirculating cooling water systems were surveyed during the summer, 1981, to see what factors might influence the prevalence of Legionella pneumophila. The effect on the organism of three anti-microbials was studied, each in two systems, by intermittent treatment at two week intervals. L. pneumophila was isolated from six of the 14 cooling systems at the beginning of the trial but by the end was present in ten. An association was found between the presence of the organism and the concentration of dissolved solids, and chlorides and the pH. There also appeared to be associations with exclusion of light and higher water temperatures. Repeated tests on eight untreated systems showed that two were consistently infected, three became and remained infected, one was infected on a single occasion and two were never infected with L. pneumophila. Treatment of a contaminated system, either with a 10 p.p.m mixture of a quaternary ammonium compound and tributyltinoxide or slow release chlorine briquettes (maximum recorded free chlorine level 1.2 p.p.m.), did not eliminated legionellae. Treatment of two infected towers with a chlorinated phenol (100 p.p.m.) eliminated legionellae for at least three days, but after 14 days the organism was again found. PMID:7086112

  2. Horizontal cooling towers: riverine ecosystem services and the fate of thermoelectric heat in the contemporary Northeast US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Robert J.; Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Miara, Ariel; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Fekete, Balazs; Lammers, Richard B.; Rosenzweig, Bernice

    2013-06-01

    The electricity sector is dependent on rivers to provide ecosystem services that help regulate excess heat, either through provision of water for evaporative cooling or by conveying, diluting and attenuating waste heat inputs. Reliance on these ecosystem services alters flow and temperature regimes, which impact fish habitat and other aquatic ecosystem services. We demonstrate the contemporary (2000-2010) dependence of the electricity sector on riverine ecosystem services and associated aquatic impacts in the Northeast US, a region with a high density of thermoelectric power plants. We quantify these dynamics using a spatially distributed hydrology and water temperature model (the framework for aquatic modeling in the Earth system), coupled with the thermoelectric power and thermal pollution model. We find that 28.4% of thermoelectric heat production is transferred to rivers, whereas 25.9% is directed to vertical cooling towers. Regionally, only 11.3% of heat transferred to rivers is dissipated to the atmosphere and the rest is delivered to coasts, in part due to the distribution of power plants within the river system. Impacts to the flow regime are minimal, while impacts to the thermal regime include increased river lengths of unsuitable habitats for fish with maximum thermal tolerances of 24.0, 29.0, and 34.0 ° C in segments downstream of plants by 0.6%, 9.8%, and 53.9%, respectively. Our analysis highlights the interactions among electricity production, cooling technologies, aquatic impacts, and ecosystem services, and can be used to assess the full costs and tradeoffs of electricity production at regional scales.

  3. Evaporation Tower With Prill Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Tower more efficient than conventional evaporation equipment. Liquids such as milk and fruit juice concentrated by passing them through tiny nozzle to form droplets, then allowing droplets to fall through evacuated tower with cooled walls.

  4. Corrosion-induced Whole Effluent Toxicity from a cooling tower: A toxicity reduction evaluation case study

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L.; Talley, J.M.; Copenhaver, M.B.

    1996-11-01

    As the result of Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) test failures with Daphnia pulex, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) required an industrial facility discharging approximately 5 million gallons per day (MGD) of recirculating cooling water obtained from a large freshwater river to conduct a Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) program. Under the terms of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, the facility was required to conduct 48-hour acute toxicity tests with D. pulex and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow). Although effluent toxicity to D. pulex was consistently observed, no toxicity was induced to the fathead minnow during the TRE program. The situation was further complicated by the fact that the recirculating cooling water was discharged back into the same river. The objectives of the TRE program were to investigate the causes of toxicity, locate potential sources of the suspected toxicant(s), and identify practicable toxicity reduction methodologies to be used. The TRE program approach and results from the associated studies are presented in this report, including a successful remedy for the WET problem.

  5. Heat-transfer characteristics of a dry and wet/dry advanced condenser for cooling towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, H. D.; McIlroy, K.; Webster, D. J.

    1982-06-01

    An experimental evaluation of two types of advanced, air cooled ammonia condensers for a phase change dry/wet cooling system for electric power plants is described. Condensers of similar design, but much bigger, are being tested in a 15 MWe demonstration plant. These condensers, featuring different air side augmentation, were tested in an ammonia phase change pilot plant (0.3 MWe). The first unit consisted of the integral shaved fin extruded aluminum tubing designed for dry operation. Heat transfer and air side pressure loss characteristics were measured under varying air face velocities (600 to 1000 FPM) and initial temperature differences, ITD (20 to 60 F). Overall heat transfer coefficients (based on air side surface), U, ranged between 7.0 to 8.6 Btu/hr sq ft. F. The second configuration constituted the Hoterv aluminum plate fin/tube assembly of which two different sizes (5 sq ft and 58 sq ft frontal area) were performance tested; in both dry and wet modes at 200 to 800 FPM air face velocities, ITD's of 10 to 60 F and at water deluge rates up to 3.0 gpm/ft. of core width.

  6. Corrosion control when using secondary treated municipal wastewater as alternative makeup water for cooling tower systems.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Monnell, Jason D; Chowdhury, Indranil; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2010-12-01

    Secondary treated municipal wastewater is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water, especially in arid regions. Laboratory and field testing was conducted in this study to evaluate the corrosiveness of secondary treated municipal wastewater for various metals and metal alloys in cooling systems. Different corrosion control strategies were evaluated based on varied chemical treatment. Orthophosphate, which is abundant in secondary treated municipal wastewater, contributed to more than 80% precipitative removal of phosphorous-based corrosion inhibitors. Tolyltriazole worked effectively to reduce corrosion of copper (greater than 95% inhibition effectiveness). The corrosion rate of mild steel in the presence of free chlorine 1 mg/L (as Cl2) was approximately 50% higher than in the presence of monochloramine 1 mg/L (as Cl2), indicating that monochloramine is a less corrosive biocide than free chlorine. The scaling layers observed on the metal alloys contributed to corrosion inhibition, which could be seen by comparing the mild steel 21-day average corrosion rate with the last 5-day average corrosion rate, the latter being approximately 50% lower than the former. PMID:21214028

  7. Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov. isolated from a biofilm sample obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Edagawa, Akiko; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Strain K-20(T), a Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming and strictly aerobic coccobacillus, which produces a pale pink pigment (R2A agar medium, 30℃, seven days) was isolated from a sample of biofilm obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA partial gene sequences (1,439 bp) showed that the strain (accession number: AB297501) was related to Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) and Roseomonas stagni HS-69(T) with 97.4% and 96.9% sequence similarity, respectively. Strain K-20(T) formed a distinct cluster with Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) in the phylogenetic tree at a high bootstrap value (93%); however, distance was recognized between the strains. In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridization level between strain K-20(T) and Roseomonas frigidaquae JCM 15073(T) was 33%. The taxonomic data indicate that K-20(T) (=JCM 14634(T) =KCTC 32152(T)) should be classified in the genus Roseomonas as the type strain of a novel species, Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov. PMID:24366626

  8. Investigation of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecule production in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from cooling tower water and biofilm samples.

    PubMed

    Haslan, Ezgi; Kimiran-Erdem, Ayten

    2013-09-01

    In this study, 99 Gram-negative rod bacteria were isolated from cooling tower water, and biofilm samples were examined for cell-to-cell signaling systems, N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signal molecule types, and biofilm formation capacity. Four of 39 (10 %) strains isolated from water samples and 14 of 60 (23 %) strains isolated from biofilm samples were found to be producing a variety of AHL signal molecules. It was determined that the AHL signal molecule production ability and the biofilm formation capacity of sessile bacteria is higher than planktonic bacteria, and there was a statistically significant difference between the AHL signal molecule production of these two groups (p < 0.05). In addition, it was found that bacteria belonging to the same species isolated from cooling tower water and biofilm samples produced different types of AHL signal molecules and that there were different types of AHL signal molecules in an AHL extract of bacteria. In the present study, it was observed that different isolates of the same strains did not produce the same AHLs or did not produce AHL molecules, and bacteria known as AHL producers did not produce AHL. These findings suggest that detection of signal molecules in bacteria isolated from cooling towers may contribute to prevention of biofilm formation, elimination of communication among bacteria in water systems, and blockage of quorum-sensing controlled virulence of these bacteria. PMID:23250628

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Daily III, W D

    2010-02-24

    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300 should be

  10. Epidemiological investigation and case-control study: a Legionnaires' disease outbreak associated with cooling towers in Warstein, Germany, August-September 2013.

    PubMed

    Maisa, Anna; Brockmann, Ansgar; Renken, Frank; Lück, Christian; Pleischl, Stefan; Exner, Martin; Daniels-Haardt, Inka; Jurke, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Between 1 August and 6 September 2013, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) with 159 suspected cases occurred in Warstein, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The outbreak consisted of 78 laboratory-confirmed cases of LD, including one fatality, with a case fatality rate of 1%. Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 1, subtype Knoxville, sequence type 345, was identified as the epidemic strain. A case-control study was conducted to identify possible sources of infection. In univariable analysis, cases were almost five times more likely to smoke than controls (odds ratio (OR): 4.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.33-9.93; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, cases were twice as likely to live within a 3 km distance from one identified infection source as controls (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.09-4.20; p < 0.027). This is the largest outbreak of LD in Germany to date. Due to a series of uncommon events, this outbreak was most likely caused by multiple sources involving industrial cooling towers. Quick epidemiological assessment, source tracing and shutting down of potential sources as well as rapid laboratory testing and early treatment are necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality. Maintenance of cooling towers must be carried out according to specification to prevent similar LD outbreaks in the future. PMID:26607018

  11. 107. TOWER STAIRHALL, SECOND FLOOR LANDING, SOUTH WALL, ENTABLATURE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. TOWER STAIRHALL, SECOND FLOOR LANDING, SOUTH WALL, ENTABLATURE SHOWING SECTION WITH ALL PAINT REMOVED RANGING FROM TWENTY-FIVE TO FIFTY COATS OF PAINT ON SECTIONS - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 95. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, DIRECTLY WEST OF WINDOW, DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. TOWER STAIRHALL, SOUTH WALL, DIRECTLY WEST OF WINDOW, DETAIL OF COMPOSITION MOLDED DRAPES OF BELLFLOWERS ON OPEN PILASTER (DONE DURING 1897-98 RESTORATION) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Testing and analysis of a wet-dry crossflow cooling Tower. Volume I: test program and results. Final report Jul 77-May 81

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, D.L.; Hogan, M.R.; Hibar, A.E.; Lucheta, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    The report discusses the test program and performance analysis of a single-cell mechanical-draft wet/dry cooling tower in Cliffside, NC. Objectives of the program were to obtain performance data and results on mass transfer, heat transfer, fluid flow, plume formation, and acoustic characteristics for comparison with models/theories. Correlations are presented for the wet-fill mass transfer coefficient, wet-fill water loss, Colburn j-factor for the finned tubes, and fan efficiency in terms of one or more of the following: water loading in the tubes, air loading over the fins, log mean humidity difference, outlet water temperature, Reynolds number, and air-flow rate. Acoustic data were fitted to a series of curves for each of the eight octave bands. Attempts to model plume data failed. The report also describes the test facility, test procedures, instrumentation, data acquisition, and data reduction.

  14. Modeling of the Evaporative Cooling of Running-Down Liquid Films in the Slit Channel of the Spraying Device of a Cooling Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashkov, G. V.; Malenko, G. L.; Solodukhin, A. D.; Tyutyuma, V. D.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the results of computational modeling of the nonstationary evaporative cooling of a liquid film running down a vertical surface cooled by a turbulent vapor-air counterflow. The heat and mass transfer problem has been formulated in conjugate form. The calculation data on the total heat flow density at the interface for various instants of time are given.

  15. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1994-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode.

  16. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1996-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  17. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, Melvin L.

    1995-01-01

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water.

  18. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1996-01-16

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air, of generating electricity, and of producing fresh water utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity, and condensers produce fresh water. 6 figs.

  19. The Physics of Shot Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipscombe, Trevor C.; Mungan, Carl E.

    2012-04-01

    In the late 18th and throughout the 19th century, lead shot for muskets was prepared by use of a shot tower. Molten lead was poured from the top of a tower and, during its fall, the drops became spherical under the action of surface tension. In this article, we ask and answer the question: How does the size of the lead shot depend on the height of the tower? In the process, we explain the basic technology underlying an important historical invention (the shot tower) and use simple physics (Newtonian mechanics and the thermodynamic laws of cooling) to model its operation.

  20. A study of a desuperheater heat recovery system complete with a reversibly used water cooling tower (RUWCT) for hot water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kunxiong

    Recovering heat rejected from the condenser in a refrigeration system to generate service hot water for buildings is commonly seen in both tropics and subtropics. This study included a critical literature review on heat recovery from air-conditioning/refrigeration systems, with particular emphasis on the direct condenser heat recovery and its related mathematical simulation models. The review identified many applications of desuperheaters to small-scaled residential air-conditioning or heat pump units. The heat and mass transfer characteristics of a RUWCT have been studied in detail, which is based on the theory of direct contact heat and mass transfer between moist air and water. The thesis reports on the differences in the heat and mass transfer process that takes place in a RUWCT, a standard water cooling tower and a spray room. A corrective factor that accounts for the change of chilled water mass flow rate is incorporated into the theoretical analysis of a RUWCT. The algorithms developed from the theoretical analysis are capable of predicting the heat exchange capacity of a RUWCT at any operating conditions. This theoretical analysis is the first of its kind. Extensive field experimental work on the heat and mass transfer characteristics of a RUWCT has been carried out in a hotel building in Haikou, Hainan province of China, where the RUWCT is installed. Results from the experimental work indicate that the theoretical analysis can represent the heat and mass transfer characteristics in a RUWCT with an acceptable accuracy. A numerical analysis for a RUWCT is undertaken to determine both air and water states at intermediate horizontal sections along the tower height. Field experimental data confirm that the predicted air and water conditions at the tower inlet and outlet are of acceptable accuracy. A steady-state mathematical model is developed to simulate the operational performance of a water chiller plant complete with a desuperheater heat recovery system and

  1. Convection towers

    DOEpatents

    Prueitt, M.L.

    1994-02-08

    Convection towers which are capable of cleaning the pollution from large quantities of air and of generating electricity utilize the evaporation of water sprayed into the towers to create strong airflows and to remove pollution from the air. Turbines in tunnels at the skirt section of the towers generate electricity. Other embodiments may also provide fresh water, and operate in an updraft mode. 5 figures.

  2. Distribution of monoclonal antibody subgroups and sequence-based types among Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates derived from cooling tower water, bathwater, and soil in Japan.

    PubMed

    Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kikukawa, Kiyomi; Helbig, Jürgen H; Kaneko, Satoko; Suzuki-Hashimoto, Atsuko; Furuhata, Katsunori; Chang, Bin; Murai, Miyo; Ichinose, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Makoto; Kura, Fumiaki

    2012-06-01

    Legionella pneumophila serogroup (SG) 1 is the most frequent cause of legionellosis. This study analyzed environmental isolates of L. pneumophila SG 1 in Japan using monoclonal antibody (MAb) typing and sequence-based typing (SBT). Samples were analyzed from bathwater (BW; n = 50), cooling tower water (CT; n = 50), and soil (SO; n = 35). The distribution of MAb types varied by source, with the most prevalent types being Bellingham (42%), Oxford (72%), and OLDA (51%) in BW, CT, and SO, respectively. The ratios of MAb 3/1 positive isolates were 26, 2, and 14% from BW, CT, and SO, respectively. The environmental isolates from BW, CT, and SO were divided into 34 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD] = 0.973), 8 STs (IOD = 0.448), and 11 STs (IOD = 0.879), respectively. Genetic variation among CT isolates was smaller than seen in BW and SO. ST1 accounted for 74% of the CT isolates. The only common STs between (i) BW and CT, (ii) BW and SO, and (iii) CT and SO were ST1, ST129, and ST48, respectively, suggesting that each environment constitutes an independent habitat. PMID:22492442

  3. Collapsible Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA needed a means of orbiting a large radio telescope antenna. Astro Research Corporation developed a new structure that was strong, lightweight, folded into a small storage space, and could be erected by rotation. Later they adapted it to commercial use. Today the "Astromast" tower consists of tubular aluminum alloy and stainless steel members that deploy into small three-sided bays, each made rigid by six diagonal cables. All joints are flexible to permit folding and unfolding. Tower packs into container 5% of its height, can be erected without tools and is reusable. Tower has won "Design of the Year" award from Machine Design. Variations include portable emergency bridges and commercial scaffolding.

  4. SOUTH ELEVATION, TOWER, UPPER LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION, TOWER, UPPER LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ST-5 157.4651. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. SOUTH ELEVATION, TOWER, UPPER LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA1430139 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION, TOWER, UPPER LEFT. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-ST-5 157.4651. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Development of a new seminested PCR method for detection of Legionella species and its application to surveillance of legionellae in hospital cooling tower water.

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, H; Yamamoto, H; Arima, K; Fujii, J; Maruta, K; Izu, K; Shiomori, T; Yoshida, S

    1997-01-01

    The presence of PCR inhibitors in water samples is well known and contributes to the fact that a practical PCR assay has not been developed for legionella surveillance. In this study, we devised a new seminested PCR assay for detection of Legionella spp. in water samples as a means of overriding the PCR inhibitors without loss of sensitivity. The seminested PCR assay utilized primers to amplify the 16S rRNA gene (LEG primers) of 39 Legionella spp. The assay was specific to legionellae, and the sensitivity was 1 fg of extracted Legionella DNA in laboratory examination. To evaluate the feasibility and sensitivity of the PCR assay in identifying the presence of legionellae, it was used to survey Legionella contamination in the water of 49 cooling towers of 32 hospitals. A commercially available EnviroAmp Legionella kit and a culture method were also used in the survey for comparison with the seminested PCR assay. The detection rates of legionellae in the samples were 91.8% (45 of 49) by the PCR assay and 79.5% (39 of 49) by the culture method. The EnviroAmp kit revealed that 30.6% of the water samples (15 of 49) contained inhibitors of the PCR amplification. However, the seminested PCR assay could produce the Legionella-specific DNA bands in 14 of the 15 samples. Although 8 of the 14 samples were positive in the first-step PCR, 6 of the 14 samples became positive in the second-step PCR. These results suggest that the effect of PCR inhibitors in samples, if any, can be reduced because of the dilution of the sample in the second-step PCR and that sensitivity of detection can be increased by the second-step PCR. Thus, the seminested PCR assay with LEG primers to amplify the 16S rRNA gene of 39 Legionella spp. was a practical and sensitive method to detect Legionella spp. in water samples. PMID:9212400

  7. Effect of chlorine and temperature on free-living protozoa in operational man-made water systems (cooling towers and hot sanitary water systems) in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Canals, Oriol; Serrano-Suárez, Alejandra; Salvadó, Humbert; Méndez, Javier; Cervero-Aragó, Sílvia; Ruiz de Porras, Vicenç; Dellundé, Jordi; Araujo, Rosa

    2015-05-01

    In recent decades, free-living protozoa (FLP) have gained prominence as the focus of research studies due to their pathogenicity to humans and their close relationship with the survival and growth of pathogenic amoeba-resisting bacteria. In the present work, we studied the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems, i.e. cooling towers (CT) and hot sanitary water systems (HSWS), related to a high risk of Legionella spp. outbreaks, as well as the effect of the biocides used, i.e. chlorine in CT and high temperature in HSWS, on FLP. In CT samples, high-chlorine concentrations (7.5 ± 1.5 mg chlorine L(-1)) reduced the presence of FLP by 63.8 % compared to samples with low-chlorine concentrations (0.04 ± 0.08 mg chlorine L(-1)). Flagellates and amoebae were observed in samples collected with a level of 8 mg chlorine L(-1), which would indicate that some FLP, including the free-living amoeba (FLA) Acanthamoeba spp., are resistant to the discontinuous chlorine disinfection method used in the CT studied. Regarding HSWS samples, the amount of FLP detected in high-temperatures samples (53.1 ± 5.7 °C) was 38 % lower than in low-temperature samples (27.8 ± 5.8 °C). The effect of high temperature on FLP was chiefly observed in the results obtained by the culture method, in which there was a clear reduction in the presence of FLP at temperatures higher than 50 °C, but not in those obtained by PCR. The findings presented here show that the presence of FLP in operational man-made water systems should be taken into account in future regulations. PMID:25410311

  8. 9. SOUTH ELEVATION, MAIN TOWERS Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SOUTH ELEVATION, MAIN TOWERS Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS07-T-935-104R. - Antioch College, Main Hall, Livermore Street & North College Avenue, Yellow Springs, Greene County, OH

  9. Rapunzel's Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depp, Sheryl

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature often inspires the author's lessons, and reading to her primary students motivates their participation. In this article, the author presents and describes her lesson which is based on the book "Falling for Rapunzel" by Leah Wilcox. Students created a fairy tale tower in this lesson, which took place over three class periods.…

  10. Application of the hampel's method to approximate a theoretical model of the cooling tower in the two-dimensional approach. (Polish Title: Zastosowanie metody Hampela do aproksymacji modelu teoretycznego chłodni kominowej w podejściu dwuwymiarowym)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muszyński, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Correct assessment of construction safety requires reliable information about geometrical shape of the analyzed object. The least square method is the most popular method to calculate object deviation between theoretical geometry and the real object shape measured with geodetic methods. The paper presents the possibility of using robust estimation methods on the example of Hampel's method. Deviation values obtained in this way are resistant to outliers influence and are more reliable. This problem is illustrated by a hyperbola which is approximated in survey points (measured by terrestrial laser scanning) localized on the generating line of the cooling tower shell in one of its axial vertical cross-section.

  11. New Directions for Evaporative Cooling Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1981-01-01

    New energy saving technology can be applied to older cooling towers; in addition, evaporative chilling, a process that links a cooling tower to the chilling equipment, can reduce energy use by 80 percent. (Author/MLF)

  12. Virtual Tower

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems.

  13. TOWER STAIRHALL; SOUTH SOFFIT, SOUTH WEST (R). Glass plate stereopair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER STAIRHALL; SOUTH SOFFIT, SOUTH WEST (R). Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-TS-D-26 (R) 157.4815. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. TOWER STAIRHALL; SOUTH SOFFIT, SOUTH WEST (R). Glass plate stereopair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER STAIRHALL; SOUTH SOFFIT, SOUTH WEST (R). Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-TS-D-26 (R) 157.4815. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. INTERIOR; VIEW OF ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTH. Naval Computer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR; VIEW OF ENTRY HALL, LOOKING SOUTH. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Marine Barracks, Intersection of Tower Drive & Morse Street, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Drop tower with no aerodynamic drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Cooling air accelerated to match velocity of falling object eliminates drag. 3 meter drop tower with suction fan and specific geometry causes air to accelerate downward at 1 g. Although cooling of molten material released from top is slow because surrounding air moves with it, drop remains nearly spherical.

  17. Cellular Phone Towers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the call. How are people exposed to the energy from cellular phone towers? As people use cell ... where people can be exposed to them. The energy from a cellular phone tower antenna, like that ...

  18. TOWER, 1750'S STAIRWAY; ANGLE VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. Glass plate stereopair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER, 1750'S STAIRWAY; ANGLE VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-TR-D-3 157.4895. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. TOWER, 1750'S STAIRWAY; WEST ELEVATION, RIGHT (R). Glass plate stereopair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER, 1750'S STAIRWAY; WEST ELEVATION, RIGHT (R). Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-TR-D-2 157.4894. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. TOWER, 1750'S STAIRWAY; WEST ELEVATION, RIGHT (R). Glass plate stereopair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER, 1750'S STAIRWAY; WEST ELEVATION, RIGHT (R). Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-TR-D-2 157.4894. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. TOWER, 1750'S STAIRWAY; ANGLE VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. Glass plate stereopair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER, 1750'S STAIRWAY; ANGLE VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-TR-D-3 157.4895. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. TOWER, 1750'S STAIRWAY; WEST ELEVATION, LEFT (R). Glass plate stereopair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER, 1750'S STAIRWAY; WEST ELEVATION, LEFT (R). Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-TR-D-1 157.4893. Right (not printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. TOWER, 1750'S STAIRWAY; WEST ELEVATION, LEFT (R). Glass plate stereopair ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOWER, 1750'S STAIRWAY; WEST ELEVATION, LEFT (R). Glass plate stereopair number PA-1430-139 LC-HABS-GS05-TR-D-1 157.4893. Left (printed) - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Hall viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Viscosity is a transport coefficient relating to transport of momentum, and usually thought of as the analog of friction that occurs in fluids and solids. More formally, it is the response of the stress to the gradients of the fluid velocity field, or to the rate of change of strain (derivatives of displacement from a reference state). In general, viscosity is described by a fourth-rank tensor. Invoking rotation invariance, it reduces to familiar shear and bulk viscosity parts, which describe dissipation, but it can also contain an antisymmetric part, analogous to the Hall conductivity part of the conductivity tensor. In two dimensions this part is a single number, the Hall viscosity. Symmetry of the system under time reversal (or, in two dimensions, reflections) forces it to vanish. In quantum fluids with a gap in the bulk energy spectrum and which lack both time reversal and reflection symmetries the Hall viscosity can be nonzero even at zero temperature. For integer quantum Hall states, it was first calculated by Avron, Seiler, and Zograf, using a Berry curvature approach, analogous to the Chern number for Hall conductivity. In 2008 this was extended by the present author to fractional quantum Hall states and to BCS states in two dimensions. I found that the general result is given by a simple formula ns / 2 , where n is the particle number density, and s is the ``orbital spin'' per particle. The spin s is also related to the shift S, which enters the relation between particle number and magnetic flux needed to put the ground state on a surface of non-trivial topology with introducing defect excitations, by S = 2 s ; the connection was made by Wen and Zee. The values of s and S are rational numbers, and are robust--unchanged under perturbations that do not cause the bulk energy gap to collapse--provided rotation as well as translation symmetry are maintained. Hall viscosity can be measured in principle, though a simple way to do so is lacking. It enters various

  5. 43. TOP OF SOUTHEAST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. TOP OF SOUTHEAST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING EAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 37. NORTH TOWER UPPER ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. NORTH TOWER UPPER ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 19. NORTH TOWER, PORTE COCHERE & FLAG TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. NORTH TOWER, PORTE COCHERE & FLAG TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 47. NORTHWEST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. NORTHWEST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH BY NORTHWEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 36. FLAG TOWER CLOCK ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. FLAG TOWER CLOCK ZONE FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTH - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 40. CAMPANILE & SOUTHEAST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. CAMPANILE & SOUTHEAST TOWER FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING EAST BY NORTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 18. NORTH TOWER, PORTE COCHERE & FLAG TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. NORTH TOWER, PORTE COCHERE & FLAG TOWER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST BY WEST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Confusion at the Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Loretta F.

    2014-01-01

    This study will explore the omission of the Tower of Babel narrative from middle and secondary school world history, world studies, and world geography textbooks and will consider what might be learned from inclusion of the story in the curriculum. A total of 17 textbooks are analyzed. The Tower of Babel narrative is examined within the context of…

  13. Drop Tower Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

  14. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  15. Drop Tower Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, William A. Toby

    2014-10-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in The Physics Teacher1 in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Using these drop towers, one can briefly investigate various physical systems operating in this near zero-g environment. The resulting "Drop Tower Physics" is a new and exciting way to challenge students with a physical example that requires solid knowledge of many basic physics principles, and it forces them to practice the scientific method. The question is, "How would a simple toy, like a pendulum, behave when it is suddenly exposed to a zero-g environment?" The student must then postulate a particular behavior, test the hypothesis against physical principles, and if the hypothesis conforms to these chosen physical laws, the student can formulate a final conclusion. At that point having access to a drop tower is very convenient, in that the student can then experimentally test his or her conclusion. The purpose of this discussion is to explain the response of these physical systems ("toys") when the transition is made to a zero-g environment and to provide video demonstrations of this behavior to support in-class discussions of Drop Tower Physics.

  16. Extensible Wind Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinagra, Marco; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    The diffusion of wind energy generators is restricted by their strong landscape impact. The PERIMA project is about the development of an extensible wind tower able to support a wind machine for several hundred kW at its optimal working height, up to more than 50 m. The wind tower has a telescopic structure, made by several tubes located inside each other with their axis in vertical direction. The lifting force is given by a jack-up system confined inside a shaft, drilled below the ground level. In the retracted tower configuration, at rest, tower tubes are hidden in the foundation of the telescopic structure, located below the ground surface, and the wind machine is the only emerging part of the system. The lifting system is based on a couple of oleodynamic cylinders that jack-up a central tube connected to the top of the tower by a spring, with a diameter smaller than the minimum tower diameter and with a length a bit greater than the length of the extended telescopic structure. The central tube works as plunger and lifts all telescopic elements. The constraint between the telescopic elements is ensured by special parts, which are kept in traction by the force of the spring and provide the resisting moment. The most evident benefit of the proposed system is attained with the use of a two-blade propeller, which can be kept horizontal in the retracted tower configuration.

  17. Tower Camera Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Moudry, D

    2005-01-01

    The tower camera in Barrow provides hourly images of ground surrounding the tower. These images may be used to determine fractional snow cover as winter arrives, for comparison with the albedo that can be calculated from downward-looking radiometers, as well as some indication of present weather. Similarly, during spring time, the camera images show the changes in the ground albedo as the snow melts. The tower images are saved in hourly intervals. In addition, two other cameras, the skydeck camera in Barrow and the piling camera in Atqasuk, show the current conditions at those sites.

  18. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS SEVEN,EIGHT, NINE, TEN, AND BREAK OVER TOWER IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTH. TOWER SIX IS THE LAST BEFORE A DEEP CHASM, AS IS SEEN BY THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TOWERS SIX AND SEVEN. SEE CA-291-48 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER SIX WITH TOWERS SEVEN, EIGHT, NINE, TEN, AND BREAK OVER TOWER IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTH. TOWER SIX IS THE LAST BEFORE A DEEP CHASM, AS IS SEEN BY THE DISTANCE BETWEEN TOWERS SIX AND SEVEN. SEE CA-291-21 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. Aquarius: Tower Rollback

    NASA Video Gallery

    The mobile service tower at NASA's Launch Complex-2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California is being moved away from the ULA Delta II rocket with the Aquarius/SAC-D spacecraft atop, in preparati...

  1. Drop Tower Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Ground based microgravity facilities are an important proving ground for space experiments, ground-based research and space hardware risk mitigation. An overview of existing platforms will be discussed with an emphasis on drop tower capabilities. The potential for extension to partial gravity conditions will be discussed. Input will be solicited from attendees for their potential to use drop towers in the future and the need for enhanced capabilities (e.g. partial gravity)

  2. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  3. 69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE ABSORPTION TOWER BUILDING, ABSORPTION TOWER UNDER CONSTRUCTION. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER TWO, WITH TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF AERIAL TRAM SUPPORT TOWER TWO, WITH TOWERS THREE,FOUR, FIVE AND SIX IN DISTANCE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. 8. GENERAL VIEW OF TOWER 32, LEFT, AND TOWER 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. GENERAL VIEW OF TOWER 32, LEFT, AND TOWER 31, RIGHT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWING AERIAL WIRE DESIGN WITH VERTICAL 'TOP HAT' WIRES IN CENTER. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  6. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  7. 46. OCTAGONAL & WEST TOWERS FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. OCTAGONAL & WEST TOWERS FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING NORTHWEST, WITH WEST WING ROOF - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 42. SOUTHEAST TOWER & EAST WING ROOF FROM SOUTH TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. SOUTHEAST TOWER & EAST WING ROOF FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING EAST BY NORTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 41. SOUTHEAST TOWER & EAST WING FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. SOUTHEAST TOWER & EAST WING FROM SOUTH TOWER ROOF, LOOKING EAST BY NORTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. View of the north tower porte cochere and flag tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the north tower porte cochere and flag tower, looking southwest (duplicate of HABS No. DC-141-19) - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC