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Sample records for hall tokyo japan

  1. Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Tokyo, (35.5N, 140.0E) the capital city of Japan, Tokyo Bay and the neighboring cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Chiba are seen in this view of Japan. This great international seaport facility covers almost all of the bayfront and is home to over thirty million people.

  2. 78 FR 78338 - Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Japan-U.S. Decommissioning and Remediation Fukushima Recovery Forum Tokyo, Japan February 18-19, 2014 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Event Description The...

  3. Factors Contributing to Plate Waste among Elementary School Children in Tokyo, Japan: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify the aspects of the Theory of Planned Behavior with the greatest relevance to plate waste (PW) among elementary school children in Tokyo, Japan. Methods: A total of 111 fifth- and sixth-grade students at an elementary school in Tokyo, Japan responded to a self-report questionnaire. The…

  4. Using a Mobile Phone Tour to Visit the Ueno Zoological Gardens and the National Science Museum in Tokyo, Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arita-Kikutani, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Japanese mobile phones are increasingly being used as multimedia players. In response to this, some museums in Japan have introduced mobile phone audiovisual guides. This paper presents a trial run of a cross-institutional mobile phone audiovisual guide tour at Ueno Zoological Gardens and the National Science Museum in Tokyo, Japan.…

  5. Recent concert halls and opera house in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Takayuki

    2001-05-01

    Since we invited Dr. Beranek to Japan for the first time in 1989, we had been working together with him for a period of 13 years, until 2001, on seven hall projects as acoustic design consultants. All of these halls are of premium importance to Japan. Dr. Beranek always came up with innovative concepts and helped create halls endowed with high acoustic originality. These halls are now loved by music-related people and music fanciers and regarded as the pride of Japan. The reviews and studies achieved through these projects were published as seven J. Acoust Soc. Am papers to disclose the outcome in an objective way to the public. A brief outline of the history of our collaboration and its background are presented.

  6. The effect of wind on long-term summer water temperature trends in Tokyo Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Li-Feng; Onishi, Ryo; Takahashi, Keiko

    2015-06-01

    The effect of wind on summer water temperature trends in a semi-closed bay (Tokyo Bay, Japan) is examined through several numerical experiments using a high-resolution three-dimensional ocean model. The model is executed under no-wind and uniform southerly/northerly wind conditions, and monthly mean currents and temperature distributions and heat transport in Tokyo Bay for July are calculated. The model results show that wind has a significant effect on heat transport and temperature distribution in the bay. (1) When a southerly wind prevails northward cool water transport intensifies while southward warm water transport declines, thus decreasing the water temperature in the central bay area while increasing temperature at the bay head. (2) A northerly wind has an opposing effect and decreases the water temperature in coastal bay head area while increase the temperature along the southwest coast. The results also suggest that the trend of increasing southerly wind amplitude may have affected water temperature trends in Tokyo Bay from 1979 to 1997. The model results demonstrated that the an intensified southerly wind lowers water temperatures in most areas of the bay by enhancing upwelling and open ocean-water intrusion near the bay mouth while increases temperatures in the bottom layer of the bay head by suppressing southward warm water transport.

  7. PROCEEDINGS: UNITED STATES/JAPAN CONFERENCE ON SEWAGE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY (11TH), HELD IN TOKYO, JAPAN ON OCTOBER 12-14, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    The publication contains Japanese and American papers presented at the Eleventh United States-Japan Conference on Sewage Treatment Technology held in Tokyo, Japan, October 12-14, 1987. The proceedings of the conference comprise a useful body of knowledge on advances in wastewater...

  8. Inventory of the Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) in Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, a highly urbanized area in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masayuki U.; Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kato, Toshihide; Kurashima, Osamu; Ito, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Heteroptera, or true bugs, forms one of the major insect groups with respect to the very diverse habitat preferences, including both aquatic and terrestrial species, as well as a variety of feeding types. The first comprehensive inventory of the Heteroptera at Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, or an urban green space in the center of the Tokyo Metropolis, Japan, was conducted. New information A total of 115 species in 29 families of the suborder Heteroptera were identified. The area had a high species richness compared with other urbanized and suburbanized localities in Tokyo. The campus is found to show a substantial difference in heteropteran species compositions, despite being close to the other localities surrounded by highly urbanized zones in central Tokyo. PMID:25941455

  9. Legionella thermalis sp. nov., isolated from hot spring water in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Naoto; Sogawa, Kazuyuki; Inoue, Hiroaki; Agata, Kunio; Edagawa, Akiko; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Masafumi; Furuhata, Katsunori

    2016-03-01

    Strain L-47(T) of a novel bacterial species belonging to the genus Legionella was isolated from a sample of hot spring water from Tokyo, Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequences (1477 bp) of this strain (accession number AB899895) had less than 95.0% identity with other Legionella species. The dominant fatty acids of strain L-47(T) were a15:0 (29.6%) and the major ubiquinone was Q-12 (71.1%). It had a guanine-plus-cytosine content of 41.5 mol%. The taxonomic description of Legionella thermalis sp. nov. is proposed to be type strain L-47(T) (JCM 30970(T)  = KCTC 42799(T)). PMID:26865126

  10. Two new species of Mediomastus (Annelida, Capitellidae) from Tokyo Bay, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Shinri; Nishi, Eijiroh; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two undescribed species of polychaetes in Mediomastus (Annelida: Capitellidae) were collected from intertidal to shallow habitats in Tokyo Bay, Japan. These are M. duobalteus sp. n. and M. hanedaensis sp. n. Mediomastus duobalteus sp. n. is distinguishable from all congeners by the following characters: 1) segments 3, 4, 8–11 stainable with methyl green, 2) thoracic capillary chaetae unilimbate, 3) abdominal capillary chaetae absent, 4) paddle-like chaetae in the thorax absent, and 5) abdominal hooded hooks not flared. Mediomastus hanedaensis sp. n. is similar to M. warrenae Green, 2002, but differs from the latter in the shapes of the thoracic capillary chaetae and the abdominal hooded hooks, and the staining pattern with methyl green. In addition, a key to all Mediomastus species is provided. PMID:25061392

  11. Fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels in Tokyo caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Akira; Ishihara, Shigeyuki; Amaguchi, Hideo; Takasaki, Tadakatsu

    2016-04-01

    The hourly groundwater levels have been observed at 42 sites in Tokyo Metropolis since 1952. The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred at 14:46 JST on March 11, 2011. It was the strongest earthquake on record with a magnitude of 9.0 (Mw) and large fluctuations of unconfined and confined groundwater levels were observed at 102 observation wells in Tokyo, around 400 km away from the epicenter. Abrupt rises and sharp drawdowns of groundwater levels were observed right after the earthquake for most of the wells, although some did not show a change. In this study, taking full advantage of the unique rare case data from the dense groundwater monitoring network in Tokyo, we investigate the fluctuation patterns of unconfined and confined groundwater levels caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. The groundwater level data used in this study consist of one month time series in March 2011 with one-hour interval. The fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels caused by the earthquake were identified using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The SOM, developed by Kohonen, can project high-dimensional, complex target data onto a two-dimensional regularly arranged map in proportion to the degree of properties. In general, the objective of the SOM application is to obtain useful and informative reference vectors. These vectors can be acquired after iterative updates through the training of the SOM. Design of the SOM structure, selection of a proper initialization method, and data transformation methods were carried out in the SOM application process. The reference vectors obtained from the SOM application were fine-tuned using cluster analysis methods. The optimal number of clusters was selected by the Davies-Bouldin index (DBI) using the k-means algorithm. Using the optimal number of cluster, a final fine-tuning cluster analysis was carried out by Ward's method. As a result, the fluctuation patterns of the confined and unconfined groundwater level were classified into eight clusters

  12. Microbiological survey of mice (Mus musculus) purchased from commercial pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayashimoto, Nobuhito; Morita, Hanako; Ishida, Tomoko; Uchida, Ritsuki; Tanaka, Mai; Ozawa, Midori; Yasuda, Masahiko; Itoh, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding the prevalence of infectious agents in mice in pet shops in Japan is scarce. This information is particularly useful for minimizing the risk of potential transmission of infections to laboratory mice. Therefore, we surveyed infectious agents in mice from pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan. The survey was conducted in 28 mice from 5 pet shops to screen for 47 items (17 viruses, 22 bacteria and fungi, 10 parasites) using culture tests, serology, PCR, and microscopy. The most common viral agent detected was murine norovirus (17 mice; 60.7%), followed by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (13 mice; 46.4%), and mouse hepatitis virus (12 mice; 42.8%). The most common agent amongst the bacteria and fungi was Pasteurella pneumotropica (10 mice; 35.7%), followed by Helicobacter ganmani and Pneumocystis murina (8 mice; 28.5%, for both). Tritrichomonas muris was the most common parasite (19 mice; 67.8%), followed by Spironucleus muris (13 mice; 46.4%), Aspiculuris tetraptera, and Syphacia obvelata (8 mice each; 28.5%). Remarkably, a zoonotic agent, Hymenolepis nana, was found in 7 mice (25%). Given these results, we suggest that the workers in laboratory animal facilities should recognize again the potential risks of mice outside of the laboratory animal facilities as an infectious source, and avoid keeping mice as pets or as feed for carnivorous reptiles as much as possible for risk management. PMID:25502736

  13. Microbiological survey of mice (Mus musculus) purchased from commercial pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHIMOTO, Nobuhito; MORITA, Hanako; ISHIDA, Tomoko; UCHIDA, Ritsuki; TANAKA, Mai; OZAWA, Midori; YASUDA, Masahiko; ITOH, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Information regarding the prevalence of infectious agents in mice in pet shops in Japan is scarce. This information is particularly useful for minimizing the risk of potential transmission of infections to laboratory mice. Therefore, we surveyed infectious agents in mice from pet shops in Kanagawa and Tokyo, Japan. The survey was conducted in 28 mice from 5 pet shops to screen for 47 items (17 viruses, 22 bacteria and fungi, 10 parasites) using culture tests, serology, PCR, and microscopy. The most common viral agent detected was murine norovirus (17 mice; 60.7%), followed by Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (13 mice; 46.4%), and mouse hepatitis virus (12 mice; 42.8%). The most common agent amongst the bacteria and fungi was Pasteurella pneumotropica (10 mice; 35.7%), followed by Helicobacter ganmani and Pneumocystis murina (8 mice; 28.5%, for both). Tritrichomonas muris was the most common parasite (19 mice; 67.8%), followed by Spironucleus muris (13 mice; 46.4%), Aspiculuris tetraptera, and Syphacia obvelata (8 mice each; 28.5%). Remarkably, a zoonotic agent, Hymenolepis nana, was found in 7 mice (25%). Given these results, we suggest that the workers in laboratory animal facilities should recognize again the potential risks of mice outside of the laboratory animal facilities as an infectious source, and avoid keeping mice as pets or as feed for carnivorous reptiles as much as possible for risk management. PMID:25502736

  14. Zinc Pollution Level in Sediments of Old Nakagawa River, Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakir, H. M.; Shikazono, N.

    2008-02-01

    Sediments from Old Nakagawa River in Tokyo were collected and analysed for the study of zinc (Zn) pollution level in the less than 63 μm grain size fraction. The geochemical fractionation of Zn was examined with a widely used sequential extraction scheme and the concentrations were measured in the liquid extracts by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A certified reference stream sediment sample (JSd-2) provided by the Geological Survey of Japan was also analysed using the same procedure as a check. The association of Zn was comparatively higher with carbonatic and oxide phases, and the ranges were 333-1811 and 269-1114 μg g-1, respectively. The sediments of Old Nakagawa River was considered to be polluted on the basis of unpolluted sediments and geochemical background values with respect to Zn. According to the Zn enrichment factors (EFc), the most points have several times higher values than the standard. The geoaccumulation indexes for most of the sampling points also indicate Zn contamination in Old Nakagawa River sediment. Finally, the pollution in sediments of Old Nakagawa River could be linked to anthropogenic activities such as industrialization, urbanization, deposition of industrial wastes and others.

  15. Tokyo story. A British nurse is setting up an infection control service in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nevill, Michael

    Tokyo is an amazing capital city, just as you would expect: tall buildings, bright lights, overcrowded and fast paced. Japan was a bit of a culture shock at first, but things have settled down since I learned a few key Japanese phrases for such questions as 'Can I have... ?' and 'Where is... ?' There are many places to visit in this city of almost 15 million people. Getting around is straightforward, as there is an efficient underground system with the station names in English as well as Japanese. The trains are on time and fully air-conditioned, but during rush hours it can get very uncomfortable with so many people squashed inside the carriages. The food ranges from inexpensive pavement cafes serving batter-fried octopus to exclusive sushi restaurants. Every type of food is available in the many restaurants, but I enjoy trying traditional Japanese dishes. The food is always fresh, well presented and tasty. Some of the more unusual dishes include raw horse, raw eggs, sea urchins and live fish. I have been taken to a karaoke bar by my work colleagues and it was great, but very different from what I had expected. You only sing to the people you are with and there are a number of rooms in the bar, depending on how many of you there are, which reduces the public humiliation factor. PMID:15819325

  16. Determination of degradation products of alkylphenol polyethoxylates in municipal wastewaters and rivers in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomohiko; Takada, Hideshige

    2004-03-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP1EC), nonylphenol monoethoxy acetic acid (NP2EC), nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), and nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) was developed. The method was applied to environmental samples to demonstrate the distribution and behavior of nonylphenol polyethoxylates and their degradation intermediates in aquatic environments in Tokyo, Japan. In sewage treatment plants, more than 85% of NP, OP, and NP1EO were removed, whereas NP1EC and NP2EC were generated during the treatment. Concentrations of NP1EC and NP2EC in secondary effluents (1.9-2.9 microg/L) were higher than those of NP and NPIEO (0.12-0.63 microg/L). In river waters. NPIEC and NP2EC concentrations (0.11-2.8 microg/L) were higher than NP and NP1EO concentrations (<0.015-3.4 microg/L). with some exceptions. In surface sediments, neither NPIEC nor NP2EC was detectable (<0.01 microg/g dry wt) whereas NP and NPIEO were detected significantly (0.03-1.82 microg/g dry wt and 0.04-0.46 microg/g dry wt, respectively). PMID:15285351

  17. Variations of 129I in the atmospheric fallout of Tokyo, Japan: 1963-2003.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Chiaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Yuka; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric fallout samples collected from Tokyo between 1963 and 2003 were analyzed using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in order to determine (129)I/(127)I ratios and to examine the deposition rate of (129)I and its secular variation in Tokyo. The (129)I/(127)I ratios in the atmosphere during 1963-1977 ranged from 1 × 10(-8) to 2 × 10(-8). This is roughly 4 orders of magnitude higher than pre-atomic levels, possibly due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The calculated monthly atmospheric deposition rates of (129)I differed from those produced by nuclear fallout of (90)Sr and (137)Cs, indicating that the variations in (129)I deposition are not influenced exclusively by either nuclear bomb testing or by the Chernobyl accident. After 1978, high (129)I depositions (up to 0.13 mBq/m(2)/month) were observed. The (129)I depositions started to increase markedly at the latter half of the 1970s. The secular variation of the estimated annual (129)I deposition in Tokyo showed a close relationship between the annual atmospheric discharge of (129)I from the Tokai Reprocessing plant. Therefore, the atmospheric fallout collected from Tokyo after the late 1970s is influenced primary by the (129)I discharge from the Tokai Reprocessing plant. PMID:22694935

  18. Identification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl sources in Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Masunaga, Shigeki; Takada, Hideshige; Nakanishi, Junko

    2002-05-01

    A dated sediment core collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was used to assess the historical inputs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) from multiple sources. The levels, patterns, and profiles of these compounds in the core were congener-specifically investigated, and the results show that the PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) and the Co-PCB inputs increased abruptly from the late 1950s and peaked during the period 1967 to 1972. From 1972 to 1981, the inputs decreased continuously and then generally leveled off. Using principal component analysis, two herbicides widely used in the past, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chloronitrofen (CNP), as well as combustion processes were identified as the major dioxin sources in Tokyo Bay. The PCB formulations and combustion processes were estimated to be the major sources of Co-PCBs. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed for dioxin-source apportioning, and it was found that the herbicides PCP and CNP have mainly contributed to the PCDD/F burdens since the late 1950s. This study suggests that herbicide-derived PCDD/Fs remaining in agricultural land will continue to run off and pollute the aquatic environment in Japan for a long time. PMID:12013146

  19. Comparison of tropospheric NO2 observations by GOME and ground stations over Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Itoh, H.; Shibasaki, T.; Hayashida, S.; Uno, I.; Ohara, T.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) are anthropogenically emitted as a form of NO in the high-temperature burning processes of fossil fuels mainly in energy generations and vehicles. Because NOx is a precursor of ozone, which is composed of a so-called photochemical smog, and is a health-hazard matter, the monitoring of NO2 is important to control air quality. The satellite observation is one of the most suitable methods for the monitoring of air pollution because satellite observations can obtain a global distribution of the pollutants. However, the observation of tropospheric gases by satellites still includes technically challenging problems, and the field is developing. To test whether satellite observations could successfully detect the behavior of tropospheric NO2, we compared satellite and ground-based observations of tropospheric NO2 over the Tokyo region. The satellite data were tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) derived from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) spectrometer measurements (hereafter GOME-NO2) [Richter et al., 2005], and the ground-based data were surface NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) observed by the network of air-quality monitoring stations in Tokyo. The analysis was performed for the data from January 1996 to June 2003. We found a strong correlation between GOME-NO2 and the surface VMR. They showed a similar seasonal variation with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer. The result suggested that GOME was observing the behavior of NO2 near the surface in the Tokyo region. A more rigorous comparison was conducted by scaling the surface NO2 VMR to the tropospheric VCD with vertical NO2 VMR profiles. The NO2 profiles were calculated by using the chemical transport model CMAQ/REAS [Uno et al., 2007; Ohara et al., 2007]. This second comparison indicated that the GOME observations represent the behavior of NO2 more closely at the relatively unpolluted ground stations than at the highly polluted ground stations of the air

  20. Shallow subsurface control on earthquake damage patterns: first results from a 3D geological voxel model study (Tokyo Lowland, Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafleu, Jan; Busschers, Freek; Tanabe, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    comparison of this map with a published map of the damage-ratio of wooden houses that were destroyed during the Kanto earthquake in 1923, shows a remarkable relation between zones of maximum destruction and the occurrence of the so-called 'zero' muds, the latter representing the sediments most sensitive for ground motion amplification. Our results show that the 3D geological voxel modelling approach presented here is able to make a spatial analysis of earth quake damage sensitivity in the Tokyo Lowland. This makes our workflow also is a promising tool for seismic hazard assessments in other areas in Japan were detailed insights in earth quake damage from historical records are absent.

  1. Intercomparison of tropospheric NO2 concentration by GOME and the air-quality monitoring network in the Tokyo region, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Itoh, H.; Shibasaki, T.; Hayashida, S.; Uno, I.; Ohara, T.; Morino, Y.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    The monitoring of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) abundance forms a key part of air-quality control as NO2 plays an important role of producing tropospheric ozone, which is a main component of photochemical smog and an active greenhouse gas. Currently, a huge network of air-quality monitoring stations measuring NO2 throughout Japan is maintained by both the Ministry of the Environment and local governments. Satellite observations are also useful for obtaining the global distribution of compounds. However, the observation of tropospheric species from space remains a challenging problem, and the field is still developing. In order to confirm whether satellite observations could successfully detect the behavior of tropospheric NO2, we compared satellite and ground-based observations of tropospheric NO2. The satellite data were tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) derived from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) spectrometer measurements (hereafter GOME-NO2), and the ground-based data were surface NO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) observed by the network of air-quality monitoring stations in Japan. The analysis was performed over the Tokyo region during 1996-2003. For the comparison, we scaled the surface NO2 VMR to the tropospheric VCD by using vertical NO2 VMR profiles, which were calculated by the chemical transport model CMAQ/REAS. The comparison indicated that the GOME observations represent the behavior of NO2 more closely at the relatively unpolluted stations than at the highly polluted stations in the network of air-quality monitoring. This tendency was thought to result from the horizontal heterogeneity within a GOME footprint. Comparison with a previous study in the northern Italy showed that the GOME-NO2 measurements over Tokyo tended to be smaller than those over northern Italy. Because Tokyo is located in a coastal land region with a gulf, areas of ocean intruding into the GOME pixels could lower the observed GOME-NO2. The pollution in Tokyo is so

  2. Prevalence and contamination levels of listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    SHIMOJIMA, Yukako; IDA, Miki; NAKAMA, Akiko; NISHINO, Yukari; FUKUI, Rie; KURODA, Sumiyo; HIRAI, Akihiko; KAI, Akemi; SADAMASU, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed prevalence and contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods between 2000 and 2012 in Tokyo. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 52 (1.7%) out of 2,980 samples. Comparing the prevalence in the study period, 2.2% were positive in the former period (2000–2005) and 1.2% in the latter (2006–2012). Using the most probable number (MPN) technique, 32 samples were contaminated with fewer than 0.3 L. monocytogenes/g, 10 samples with 0.3–1.0/g and 4 samples with more than 1.0/g (the maximum was 2.3/g). The most common serovar was 1/2a, followed by 1/2b, 4b and 1/2c. We revealed that ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, although the contamination levels were low. PMID:27000951

  3. Prevalence and contamination levels of listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimojima, Yukako; Ida, Miki; Nakama, Akiko; Nishino, Yukari; Fukui, Rie; Kuroda, Sumiyo; Hirai, Akihiko; Kai, Akemi; Sadamasu, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We surveyed prevalence and contamination levels of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods between 2000 and 2012 in Tokyo. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 52 (1.7%) out of 2,980 samples. Comparing the prevalence in the study period, 2.2% were positive in the former period (2000-2005) and 1.2% in the latter (2006-2012). Using the most probable number (MPN) technique, 32 samples were contaminated with fewer than 0.3 L. monocytogenes/g, 10 samples with 0.3-1.0/g and 4 samples with more than 1.0/g (the maximum was 2.3/g). The most common serovar was 1/2a, followed by 1/2b, 4b and 1/2c. We revealed that ready-to-eat foods in Tokyo were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, although the contamination levels were low. PMID:27000951

  4. Mega-thrust and Intra-slab Earthquakes beneath Tokyo Metropolitan Area around subduction and collision zones in JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Kasahara, K.; Hagiwara, H.; Satow, H.; Shimazaki, K.; Koketsu, K.; Wu, F.; Okaya, D.

    2004-12-01

    In central Japan the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). The vertical proximity of this down going lithospheric plate is of concern because the greater Tokyo urban region has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's economic activities. A M7+ earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions.The M7+ earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan.We started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo metropolitan areas, a project to improve information needed for seismic hazards analyses of the largest urban centers. Under the project we will deploy a 400-sation dense seismic array in metropolitan Tokyo and Kanto, referred to as the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) in next 4 years. The target area of the present project is unique in tectonic setting because two oceanic plates, Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and Pacific plate (PAC), are subducting beneath the Kanto and also a volcanic arc, Izu-Bonin arc, is colliding with Honshu arc. The situation makes the tectonics complicated: there are both zones of smooth subduction and collision of the oceanic plate with the landward plate, either the Eurasian plate or the North American plate. Furthermore, the PSP encounters the PAC at shallow depth in the eastern Kanto region. The newly developing MeSO-net will contribute to understand the generation mechanism associated with the plate subduction and collision. Assessment in Kanto of the seismic hazard requires identification of all significant faults and possible earthquake scenarios and rupture behavior, regional characterizations of the PSP geometry and

  5. Mega-thrust and Intra-slab Earthquakes beneath Tokyo Metropolitan Area around subduction and collision zones in JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Kasahara, K.; Hagiwara, H.; Satow, H.; Shimazaki, K.; Koketsu, K.; Wu, F.; Okaya, D.

    2007-12-01

    In central Japan the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). The vertical proximity of this down going lithospheric plate is of concern because the greater Tokyo urban region has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's economic activities. A M7+ earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions.The M7+ earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan.We started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo metropolitan areas, a project to improve information needed for seismic hazards analyses of the largest urban centers. Under the project we will deploy a 400-sation dense seismic array in metropolitan Tokyo and Kanto, referred to as the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) in next 4 years. The target area of the present project is unique in tectonic setting because two oceanic plates, Philippine Sea plate (PSP) and Pacific plate (PAC), are subducting beneath the Kanto and also a volcanic arc, Izu-Bonin arc, is colliding with Honshu arc. The situation makes the tectonics complicated: there are both zones of smooth subduction and collision of the oceanic plate with the landward plate, either the Eurasian plate or the North American plate. Furthermore, the PSP encounters the PAC at shallow depth in the eastern Kanto region. The newly developing MeSO-net will contribute to understand the generation mechanism associated with the plate subduction and collision. Assessment in Kanto of the seismic hazard requires identification of all significant faults and possible earthquake scenarios and rupture behavior, regional characterizations of the PSP geometry and

  6. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  7. Report of the Fifth Meeting of the Steering Committee, SEAMEC Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics (Tokyo, Japan, March 31-April 7, 1969). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (Singapore). Regional Center for Education in Science and Mathematics.

    This document details the proceedings of the Fifth Meeting of the Steering Committee of the SEAMEC Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics (RECSAM) convened in Tokyo, Japan, from March 31-April 7, 1969. From this meeting, steps were taken to broaden the membership of the International Advisory Council, ways and means of…

  8. Deep seismic reflection profiling of the subduction megathrust across the Sagimi trough and Tokyo bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takaya; Abe, Susumu; Saito, Hideo; Kawanaka, Taku; Hirata, Naoshi

    2010-05-01

    Beneath the metropolitan Tokyo, the Philippine Sea plate, in particular the fore arc portion of the Izu-Bonin island arc, has been subducted. Subduction megathrust beneath Tokyo generated M-8 class earthquakes, such as the 1923 Kanto (M7.9) and 1703 Genroku (M8.0) earthquakes. Due to the buyant subduction of the Izu-Bonin arc, the megathrust lies very shallow part of the crust. The Kozu-Matsuda fault, probable spray fault from the megathrust, emerged at the surface. In 2009, we acquired the deep seismic reflection data across the toe of the thrust system to reveal the connectivity of the probable spray fault to the megathrust. Together with the deep seismic section acquired in 2003, we show a 120-km-long deep seismic reflection profile from the front to 30 km in depth and discuss the geometry and characteristics of the thrust system. We performed deep seismic profiling across the Sagami trough for a 70-km-long seismic line in September 2009, using two ships for offshore seismic data acquisition: a gun-ship with a 3020 cu. inch air-gun and a cable-ship with a 2-km-long, streamer cable and a 480 cu. inch air-gun. The seismic signals were recorded at Miura and Izu peninsulas located both ends of the seismic line. At both sides of the onshore line, off-line recorders were deployed along total 20-km-long seismic lines at a 50m interval. Seismic reflection data were acquired by different offset of ships making large-offset gathers. The northeast end of the seismic line connected with the 2003 Tokyo bay seismic line (Sato et al., 2005: Science). The obtained seismic sections portray the detailed geometry of the spray faults, suggesting an emergent thrust with 4 km thick landward dipping strata. It merges to the megathrust at 6-7 sec (TWT). Judging from the geometry of fault-related fold in the trough fill sediments, the tip of the megathrust is located at 3 sec (TWT) beneath the trough axis. According to the co-seismic crustal deformation, the slip of the 1923 Kanto

  9. Environmental control of short-term variation in the plankton community of inner Tokyo Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakane, Toru; Nakaka, Kisaburo; Bouman, Heather; Platt, Trevor

    2008-07-01

    Water temperature, salinity, nutrient concentrations and the composition of the plankton community were recorded at three stations in inner Tokyo Bay over a period of 328 days (from June 8, 1995 to April 30, 1996) with a nominal sampling frequency of once per day. Inspection of the results revealed that the data could be divided into two blocs as an aid to analysis: the period from June to October was characterized by the development of stratification of temperature and salinity (stratification period), and November to March was characterized by uniform temperature and salinity in the water column due to vertical mixing (mixing period). Oxygen-depleted water forms in the bottom layer during the stratification period, but vertical mixing of the water column, due to changing wind and rainfall conditions caused by passing weather fronts, results in the breakdown of the oxygen-depleted water mass. Nutrient loads are high in the surface water due to the freshwater supply, but occasional pulses of primary production cause a depletion of phosphate in the surface water, suggesting that the phosphorus becomes a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth in this period. Several short-term peaks of plankton abundance (blooms) occurred as responses to temporal changes in water quality from June to November, with consequent species succession. Significant fluctuations in the densities of the diatom Skeletonema costatum and several species of ciliates corresponded to the daily changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the coastal environment. During the mixing period, when water temperature and solar radiation decreased, there were no short-term variations in water quality and although nutrient concentrations gradually increased from November to February, primary production remained low. This study shows that the short-term dynamics of the phytoplankton community are closely coupled to fluctuations in environmental forcing, and that the degree of coupling is

  10. Population-level ecological risk assessment of planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) around Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mariko; Masunaga, Shigeki; Nakanishi, Junko

    2003-10-01

    Assessment of population-level ecological risk posed by planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PCAHs; including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxintike polychlorinated biphenyls) in sediment of Tokyo Bay (Japan) and rivers via fish ingestion to the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) population was conducted by means of a probabilistic approach. Population decline risk was used as an indicator of population-level effects and compared with other indicators of effects. The increment of egg mortality risk posed by current p-PCAH levels was estimated to be 11.7%. This risk was interpreted in terms of both the increase of the risk of population decline in a 10-year period on a recently abundant cormorant population, and the reduction in population growth rate (r). Population decline risks of 20% and below were estimated to be 16% for the reference population and 32% for the exposed population, whereas the reduction in r was estimated to be 10%. The risk expressed in terms of population viability is a more susceptible measure and a more easily understandable indicator than both egg mortality risk as an individual-level risk and the reduction in r. Translating the effects due to pollutants into the risk on population viability will make ecological risk assessment more conductive to risk management. PMID:14552017

  11. Case Series of Imported Enteric Fever at a Referral Center in Tokyo, Japan: Antibiotic Susceptibility and Risk Factors for Relapse.

    PubMed

    Matono, Takashi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatomo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Yamamoto, Kei; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Kawamura, Maho; Konishi, Noriko; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2016-07-01

    Owing to the increase in Salmonella strains with decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility in the endemic areas, we have been treating enteric fever with intravenous ceftriaxone empirically since 2007. In this study, we reevaluated our treatment protocol. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single institute in Tokyo, Japan, between January 2006 and December 2013. Enteric fever was defined as isolation of Salmonella Typhi or Salmonella Paratyphi A, B, and C from the blood and/or stool of patients with fever. Of the 35 patients with imported enteric fever, 28 (80%) had returned from south Asia. Ciprofloxacin-susceptible strains were detected in only 12% of the cases. The isolates showed excellent susceptibility to ampicillin (91%), chloramphenicol (94%), ceftriaxone (97%), and azithromycin (97%). One case of Salmonella Paratyphi B was excluded, and of the remaining 34 patients, 56% were treated with ceftriaxone alone, 26% with ceftriaxone then fluoroquinolone, and 9% with levofloxacin alone. The overall relapse rate was 6.1%; however, among those receiving ceftriaxone monotherapy, the relapse rate was 11% (N = 2). The relapse group was characterized by longer times to treatment initiation (P = 0.035) and defervescence (> 7 days) after treatment initiation (P = 0.022). In such cases, we recommend that ceftriaxone treatment be continued for > 4 days after defervescence or be changed to fluoroquinolone if the strains are found to be susceptible to prevent relapse. Furthermore, ampicillin and chloramphenicol, which are no longer prescribed, may be reconsidered as treatment options in Asia. PMID:27162265

  12. Isolation and characterization of benzo[a]pyrene-degrading bacteria from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okai, Masahiko; Kihara, Ikumi; Yokoyama, Yuto; Ishida, Masami; Urano, Naoto

    2015-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and has serious detrimental effects on human health and aquatic environments. In this study, we isolated nine bacterial strains capable of degrading BaP from the Tokyo Bay area and Tama River in Japan. The isolated bacteria belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, indicating that the BaP-degrading bacteria were widely present in the hydrosphere. ITB11, which shared 100% 16S rRNA identity with Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens in the phylum Bacteroidetes, showed the highest degradation of BaP (approximately 86%) among the nine isolated strains after 42 days. Moreover, it was found that three of the nine isolated strains collectively removed 50-55% of BaP during the first 7 days. Growth measurement of M. zeaxanthinifaciens revealed that the strain utilized BaP as a sole carbon and energy source and salicylate acted only as an inducer of BaP degradation. PMID:26316544

  13. Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov. isolated from a biofilm sample obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Edagawa, Akiko; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Strain K-20(T), a Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming and strictly aerobic coccobacillus, which produces a pale pink pigment (R2A agar medium, 30℃, seven days) was isolated from a sample of biofilm obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA partial gene sequences (1,439 bp) showed that the strain (accession number: AB297501) was related to Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) and Roseomonas stagni HS-69(T) with 97.4% and 96.9% sequence similarity, respectively. Strain K-20(T) formed a distinct cluster with Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) in the phylogenetic tree at a high bootstrap value (93%); however, distance was recognized between the strains. In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridization level between strain K-20(T) and Roseomonas frigidaquae JCM 15073(T) was 33%. The taxonomic data indicate that K-20(T) (=JCM 14634(T) =KCTC 32152(T)) should be classified in the genus Roseomonas as the type strain of a novel species, Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov. PMID:24366626

  14. Surface Albedo in Cities: Case Study in Sapporo and Tokyo, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Hirofumi; Takamura, Tamio

    2014-12-01

    The surface albedo of two large cities in Japan was measured using a pyranometer mounted on a helicopter to avoid the bidirectional reflectance distribution. The daytime albedo was 0.12 in the cities, which was less than that of a nearby forest (0.16). The albedo was dependent on building structure in the cities; the albedo was lower in areas with more buildings, and decreased as the aspect ratio of street canyons increased. There are two reasons for this dependency: the multiple reflection of radiation in the building canopy, as has been shown in many previous studies, and the sparse vegetation in urban areas. These two factors concurrently determine the albedo in a real city, where the vegetation amount decreases as the plan roof ratio increases.

  15. A comparison of temporal variation of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) concentration in different urban environments: Tokyo, Japan, and Bangkok, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetwittayachan, T.; Shimazaki, D.; Yamamoto, K.

    A comparative study of the real-time ambient concentrations of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) in the vicinity of roads in Tokyo (Japan) and in Bangkok (Thailand) in summertime was carried out by using a photoelectric aerosol sensor (PAS), which gives continuous signal in relation to the total amount of pPAHs concentration. The PAS output gave a good correlation to the total concentration of the selected PAHs determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This technique was then employed to observe temporal variation of total pPAHs. The measurements at roadside and general areas in Tokyo and in Bangkok were performed for seven consecutive days in August 2000, and in March 2001, respectively. The diurnal profiles of pPAHs concentrations in both cities were generally similar; explicit peak concentrations were observed in early morning in association with the traffic growth in the morning rush hours. A significant reduction occurred during the daytime was probably due to rising in the mixing zone. At roadside areas, the average pPAHs concentrations throughout the sampling period in Bangkok were significantly higher than those of Tokyo, owing to the larger contribution of vehicular traffic, especially heavy-duty vehicles, on the roads near the sampling site. Otherwise, all average concentrations in the general area in Tokyo were slightly higher than that of Bangkok. This was probably due to the percentage of road coverage in Tokyo being higher than that in Bangkok, creating a higher possibility for pPAHs evolving from road traffic, and the transportation pattern of the pPAHs in Tokyo showed a more broadly diffused profile than that of Bangkok. This suggests the widespread dispersion of pPAHs over the entire study area in Tokyo. At this study scale especially at the roadside, however, a high pPAHs concentration observed in Tokyo and in Bangkok was predominantly located at low wind speed, <1.0 and 0.4 m s -1, respectively, and along

  16. Acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and infant mortality in Tokyo, Japan (2002-2013).

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effect of short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5) or to coarse particles on infant mortality. We evaluated the association between short-term exposure to PM and infant mortality in Japan and assessed whether adverse health effects were observable at PM concentrations below Japanese air quality guidelines. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. The participants included 2086 infants who died in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained measures of PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PM<7μm in diameter) from one general monitoring station. As a measure of coarse particles, we calculated PM7-2.5 by subtracting PM2.5 from SPM. We then used conditional logistic regression to analyze the data. Same-day PM2.5 was associated with increased risks of infant and postneonatal mortality, especially for mortality related to respiratory causes. For a 10μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5, the odds ratios were 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.12) for infant mortality and 1.10 (1.02-1.19) for postneonatal mortality. PM7-2.5 was also associated with an increased risk of postneonatal mortality, independent of PM2.5. Even when PM2.5 and SPM concentrations were below Japanese air quality guidelines, we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles (PM7-2.5) is associated with an increased risk of infant mortality. Further, rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles is needed. PMID:26874762

  17. Comparison of plasma levels of obesity-related biomarkers among Japanese populations in Tokyo, Japan, São Paulo, Brazil, and Hawaii, USA

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Marchand, Loïc Le; Franke, Adrian A.; Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki; Miyajima, Nelson Tomio; Sharma, Sangita; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Although Japanese in Japan and the U.S. are high risk populations for colorectal cancer, the prevalence of obesity, one of the established risk factors for this disease, is low in these populations compared to other populations with high rates for this disease. Methods To understand this inconsistency, we compared plasma obesity-related biomarkers in cross-sectional studies conducted in Tokyo, São Paulo and Hawaii. We measured plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-3, C-peptide, adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by immunoassay and total C-reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides using a clinical chemistry autoanalyzer. A total of 299 subjects were included in the present analysis, comprising 142 Japanese in Tokyo, 79 Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo, and 78 Japanese Americans in Hawaii. Results We found significantly lower plasma levels of C-peptide and IGF-I in Japanese in Tokyo than in Japanese Americans; and lower levels of leptin and triglycerides, and higher levels of adiponectin, IGFBP-3 and HDL cholesterol in Japanese in Tokyo than in the other two populations. We also observed significantly higher plasma IGFBP-1 level in Japanese Brazilians, and lower plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL in Japanese Americans than in the other two populations. Conclusion We observed significant differences in obesity-related biomarkers between the three Japanese populations. If our results are confirmed, the colorectal cancer risk predicted based on these biomarkers would be lowest for Japanese in Tokyo, followed by Japanese Brazilians and Japanese Americans. PMID:25714650

  18. Characterization of Pollen Dispersion in the Neighborhood of Tokyo, Japan in the Spring of 2005 and 2006

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Ohno, Hideki; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Kizaki, Takako; Yoshizumi, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) pollens in an urban area was examined through the measurements of the dispersion characteristics at the various sampling locations in both outdoor and indoor environments. Airborne pollens were counted continuously for three months during the Japanese cedar pollen and Japanese cypress seasons in 2005 and 2006 by the use of Durham’s pollen trap method in and around Tokyo, Japan. The dispersion of pollens at the rooftop of Kyoritsu Women’s University was observed to be at extremely high levels in 2005 compared with previously reported results during the past two decades. As for Japanese cedar pollen, the maximum level was observed as 440 counts cm−2 day−1 on 18 March 2005. Japanese cypress pollen dispersed in that area in the latter period was compared with the Japanese cedar pollen dispersions. The maximum dispersion level was observed to be 351 counts cm−2 day−1 on 7 April 2005. Total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 5,552 and 1,552 counts cm−2 for the three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2005, respectively. However, the dispersion of both pollens in 2006 was very low. The total accumulated dispersions of Japanese cedar and Japanese cypress pollens were 421 and 98 counts cm−2 for three months (Feb., Mar. and Apr.) in 2006, respectively. Moreover, the pollen deposition on a walking person in an urban area showed that the pollen counts on feet were observed to be extremely high compared with the ones on the shoulder, back and legs. These findings suggested that pollen fell on the surface of the paved road at first, rebounded to the ambient air and was deposited on the residents again. Furthermore, the regional distribution of the total pollen dispersion in the South Kanto area was characterized on 15–16 March 2005 and on 14–15 March 2006. Although the pollen levels in 2005 were much higher than in 2006, it

  19. Comparison of Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Shelter Cats and Dogs during 1999–2001 and 2009–2011 in Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Oi, Masaaki; Yoshikawa, Souichi; Maruyama, Soichi; Nogami, Sadao

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important human health concern with respect to abortion, congenital hydrocephalus, and encephalitis in immunocompromised people. Cats and dogs both are potential sources of T. gondii because they have close contact with humans. However, no epidemiological surveys have been conducted in Tokyo over the past decade. Therefore, the present study investigated and compared the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in shelter cats and dogs during 1999–2001 and 2009–2011 in Tokyo, Japan. Serum samples were collected from 337 shelter cats and 325 shelter dogs in urban and suburban areas of Tokyo, during 1999–2001 (233 cats and 219 dogs) and 2009–2011 (104 cats and 106 dogs). T. gondii antibodies were measured in the serum samples using a commercial latex agglutination test. Data were compared using the Fisher’s exact test, and significance was indicated at P < 0.05. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in cats was 5.6% (13 of 233) in 1999–2001 and 6.7% (7 of 104) in 2009–2011, and that in dogs was 1.8% (4 of 219) and 1.9% (2 of 106), respectively. Significantly higher seroprevalence was observed in cats from suburban areas compared with cats in urban areas during both periods (P < 0.05). These results reveal that there has been little change in the feline and canine seroprevalence over the past decade, indicating that the risk of T. gondii exposure for cats and dogs in Tokyo is considerably low as the seroprevalence has reached a steady state. PMID:26284780

  20. Objective evaluation of chamber-music halls in Europe and Japan.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Takayuki; Nishihara, Noriko

    2004-07-01

    The room acoustical parameters reverberation time, RT; early decay time, EDT; clarity, C80; time gravity, Tg; bass ratio, BR; strength, G; initial time delay gap, ITDG; interaural cross-correlation coefficient, IACC(E), the where binaural quality index BQI equals [1-IACC(E3)]; and stage support, ST1 were measured in 18 major chamber-music halls in Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Czech Republic, Switzerland, and Japan, employing procedures in accordance with ISO 3382 (1997). In combination with the architectural data, the intrinsic objective parameters for the acoustics of chamber-music halls and their variation range were examined. The results of these studies reveal four pertinent orthogonal parameters: RT, G, ITDG, BQI. General design guidelines for a chamber-music hall are presented. PMID:15295996

  1. Objective evaluation of chamber-music halls in Europe and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Takayuki; Nishihara, Noriko

    2004-07-01

    The room acoustical parameters reverberation time, RT; early decay time, EDT; clarity, C80; time gravity, Tg; bass ratio, BR; strength, G; initial time delay gap, ITDG; interaural cross-correlation coefficient, IACCE, the where binaural quality index BQI equals [1-IACCE3] and stage support, ST1 were measured in 18 major chamber-music halls in Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Czech Republic, Switzerland, and Japan, employing procedures in accordance with ISO 3382 (1997). In combination with the architectural data, the intrinsic objective parameters for the acoustics of chamber-music halls and their variation range were examined. The results of these studies reveal four pertinent orthogonal parameters: RT, G, ITDG, BQI. General design guidelines for a chamber-music hall are presented.

  2. Temporal trends for inflow of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to Tokyo Bay, Japan, estimated by a receptor-oriented approach.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takeo; Serizawa, Shigeko; Kobayashi, Jun; Kodama, Keita; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Maki, Hideaki; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Sevilla-Nastor, Janice Beltran; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Shiraishi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We estimated inflow rates of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to Tokyo Bay, Japan, between February 2004 and February 2011 by a receptor-oriented approach based on quarterly samplings of the bay water. Temporal trends in these inflow rates are an important basis for evaluating changes in PFOS and PFOA emissions in the Tokyo Bay catchment basin. A mixing model estimated the average concentrations of these compounds in the freshwater inflow to the bay, which were then multiplied by estimated freshwater inflow rates to obtain the inflow rates of these compounds. The receptor-oriented approach enabled us to comprehensively cover inflow to the bay, including inflow via direct discharge to the bay. On a logarithmic basis, the rate of inflow for PFOS decreased gradually, particularly after 2006, whereas that for PFOA exhibited a marked stepwise decrease from 2006 to 2007. The rate of inflow for PFOS decreased from 730kg/y during 2004-2006 to 160kg/y in 2010, whereas that for PFOA decreased from 2000kg/y during 2004-2006 to 290kg/y in 2010. These reductions probably reflected reductions in the use and emission of these compounds and their precursors in the Tokyo Bay catchment basin. Our estimated per-person inflow rates (i.e., inflow rates divided by the estimated population in the basin) for PFOS were generally comparable to previously reported per-person waterborne emission rates in Japan and other countries, whereas those for PFOA were generally higher than previously reported per-person waterborne emission rates. A comparison with previous estimates of household emission rates of these compounds suggested that our inflow estimates included a considerable contribution from point industrial sources. PMID:26363401

  3. What Triggers a Diagnosis of HIV Infection in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area? Implications for Preventing the Spread of HIV Infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Takano, Misao; Matsumoto, Shoko; Koyama, Miki; Sugino, Yuko; Ogane, Miwa; Ikeda, Kazuko; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Japan has not succeeded in reducing the annual number of new HIV-infected patients, although the prevalence of HIV infection is low (0.02%). Methods A single-center observational study was conducted at the largest HIV clinic in Tokyo, which treats 15% of the total patients in Japan, to determine the reasons for having diagnostic tests in newly infected individuals. HIV-infected patients who visited our clinic for the first time between 2011 and 2014 were analyzed. Results The 598 study patients comprised one-third of the total reported number of new patients in Tokyo during the study period. 76% were Japanese MSM. The reasons for being tested which led to the diagnosis was voluntary testing in 32%, existing diseases in 53% (AIDS-defining diseases in 22%, sexually transmitted infections (STI) in 8%, diseases other than AIDS or STIs in 23%) and routine pre-surgery or on admission screening in 15%. 52% and 74% of the study patients and patients presented with AIDS, respectively, had never been tested. The median CD4 count in patients with history of previous testing (315/μL) was significantly higher than that of patients who had never been tested (203/μL, p<0.001). Conclusions Only 32% of the newly HIV diagnosed patients were diagnosed because of voluntary testing, and 53% were diagnosed due to presence of other diseases. These results remain unchanged from our previous report 10 years earlier (2000–2004) on newly diagnosed patients at the same clinic. HIV testing has not been widely used by newly diagnosed patients in the Tokyo metropolitan area. PMID:26606382

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Tokyovirus, a Member of the Family Marseilleviridae Isolated from the Arakawa River of Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Marseilleviridae family are large DNA viruses with icosahedral particles that infect Acanthamoeba cells. This report presents a new Marseilleviridae family member discovered in a water/soil sample from a river in Tokyo, named Tokyovirus, with genome size of 370 to 380 kb. PMID:27284144

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Tokyovirus, a Member of the Family Marseilleviridae Isolated from the Arakawa River of Tokyo, Japan

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Marseilleviridae family are large DNA viruses with icosahedral particles that infect Acanthamoeba cells. This report presents a new Marseilleviridae family member discovered in a water/soil sample from a river in Tokyo, named Tokyovirus, with genome size of 370 to 380 kb. PMID:27284144

  6. MANAGEMENT OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS CONTAINING TOXIC SUBSTANCES. PROCEEDINGS OF THE U. S.-JAPAN EXPERTS' MEETING (4TH) HELD AT TOKYO, JAPAN ON OCTOBER, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States-Japan Ministerial Agreement of May 1974 provided for the exchange of environmental information in several areas of mutual concern. This report is the compilation of papers presented at the Fourth U.S.-Japan Experts' Meeting on the Management of Bottom Sediments ...

  7. Future projections of labor hours based on WBGT for Tokyo and Osaka, Japan, using multi-period ensemble dynamical downscale simulations.

    PubMed

    Suzuki-Parker, Asuka; Kusaka, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Following the heatstroke prevention guideline by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan, "safe hours" for heavy and light labor are estimated based on hourly wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) obtained from the three-member ensemble multi-period (the 2000s, 2030s, 2050s, 2070s, and 2090s) climate projections using dynamical downscaling approach. Our target cities are Tokyo and Osaka, Japan. The results show that most of the current climate daytime hours are "light labor safe,", but these hours are projected to decrease by 30-40% by the end of the twenty-first century. A 60-80% reduction is projected for heavy labor hours, resulting in less than 2 hours available for safe performance of heavy labor. The number of "heavy labor restricted days" (days with minimum daytime WBGT exceeding the safe level threshold for heavy labor) is projected to increase from ~5 days in the 2000s to nearly two-thirds of the days in August in the 2090s. PMID:25935576

  8. Future projections of labor hours based on WBGT for Tokyo and Osaka, Japan, using multi-period ensemble dynamical downscale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki-Parker, Asuka; Kusaka, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Following the heatstroke prevention guideline by the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan, "safe hours" for heavy and light labor are estimated based on hourly wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) obtained from the three-member ensemble multi-period (the 2000s, 2030s, 2050s, 2070s, and 2090s) climate projections using dynamical downscaling approach. Our target cities are Tokyo and Osaka, Japan. The results show that most of the current climate daytime hours are "light labor safe,", but these hours are projected to decrease by 30-40 % by the end of the twenty-first century. A 60-80 % reduction is projected for heavy labor hours, resulting in less than 2 hours available for safe performance of heavy labor. The number of "heavy labor restricted days" (days with minimum daytime WBGT exceeding the safe level threshold for heavy labor) is projected to increase from ~5 days in the 2000s to nearly two-thirds of the days in August in the 2090s.

  9. InCoB2010 - 9th International Conference on Bioinformatics at Tokyo, Japan, September 26-28, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), the annual conference of the Asia-Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), is hosted in one of countries of the Asia-Pacific region. The 2010 conference was awarded to Japan and has attracted more than one hundred high-quality research paper submissions. Thorough peer reviewing resulted in 47 (43.5%) accepted papers out of 108 submissions. Submissions from Japan, R.O. Korea, P.R. China, Australia, Singapore and U.S.A totaled 43.8% and contributed to 57.4% of accepted papers. Manuscripts originating from Taiwan and India added up to 42.8% of submissions and 28.3% of acceptances. The fifteen articles published in this BMC Bioinformatics supplement cover disease informatics, structural bioinformatics and drug design, biological databases and software tools, signaling pathways, gene regulatory and biochemical networks, evolution and sequence analysis. PMID:21106116

  10. PROCEEDINGS: UNITED STATES/JAPAN CONFERENCE ON SEWAGE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY (9TH) HELD AT TOKYO, JAPAN ON SEPTEMBER 19-21, 1983

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of joint interests in environmental matters between the United States and Japan, a Conference on Sewage Treatment Technology is held at intervals of about every 18 months. The publication contains papers from the Japanese group and from the American side that were present...

  11. International Symposium on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, Tokyo, Japan, June 10-12, 1992, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujiuchi, Jumpei

    This volume discusses the basic technology in optical and optoelectronic instrumentation, including optical fabrication and machining, surface metrology, X-ray optics, advanced optical technology, and advanced interferometry. Individual papers include those on supersmooth surface polishing on aspherical optics, the development of an ultraprecise injection molding method for thermoplastic lenses, noncontact measuring methods of optical surface roughness, a fringe-scanning white-light microscope for surface profile measurement and material identification, X-ray imaging optics in Japan, and the thickness dependence of the optical constants of thin Pt, Au, and Rh films in the soft-X-ray region. Particular attention is given to a zone-plate null interferometer for measuring aspherical mirrors with large aperture, the measurement of 2D birefringence distribution, error sources in phase-measuring interferometry, the surface condition measurement using an optical heterodyne method, and a crystal streak camera for infrared light pulse. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)

  12. ASTER Images Tokyo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the city of Tokyo was acquired on March 22, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    This false color infrared image covers an area 60 km wide and 75 km long in three bands of the short wavelength infrared region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. It shows part of the Tokyo metropolitan area extending south to Yokohama; included are the Ginza District, Haneda airport and the Imperial Palace. To the west, Tokyo is hemmed in by mountains, covered with forests (displayed in red); on the southeast, Tokyo Bay is one of the world's great harbors.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change

  13. Comparison of plasma levels of nutrient-related biomarkers among Japanese populations in Tokyo, Japan, São Paulo, Brazil, and Hawaii, USA.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Franke, Adrian A; Hamada, Gerson S; Miyajima, Nelson T; Sharma, Sangita; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of Japanese migrants have suggested that the increase in colorectal cancer rates occurring after migration is slower among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese Americans. We hypothesized that this difference may partly reflect differences in vegetable and fruit intake between the populations. Using data from validation studies of food frequency questionnaires being used in comparative case-control studies of colorectal adenoma in Tokyo, São Paulo, and Hawaii, plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and coenzyme Q10 levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma levels were compared by analysis of covariance between 142 Japanese in Tokyo, 79 Japanese Brazilians in São Paulo, and 78 Japanese Americans in Hawaii. Overall, we found significantly lower plasma carotenoid levels, except for lycopene levels, and retinol levels in Japanese Americans compared with Japanese in Tokyo and Japanese Brazilians. The plasma total carotenoid level was highest in Japanese Brazilians. Compared with the mean level among Japanese Brazilians (1741.2 ng/ml), P for difference was 0.03 among Japanese in Tokyo (1514.4 ng/ml) and less than 0.01 for Japanese Americans (1257.7 ng/ml). Plasma lycopene and tocopherol levels did not substantially differ between the three populations. We also found significantly lower plasma levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D and total coenzyme Q10 in Japanese in Tokyo than in Japanese Americans and Japanese Brazilians. Higher levels of plasma carotenoids among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese in Tokyo and Hawaii may have contributed to the slower pace of the increase in colorectal cancer rates observed in that population after migration. PMID:25633435

  14. Waveform through the subducted plate under the Tokyo region in Japan observed by a ultra-dense seismic network (MeSO-net) and seismic activity around mega-thrust earthquakes area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nanjo, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Morita, Y.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Hirata, N.; Tanada, T.; Obara, K.; Sekine, S.; Kurashimo, E.

    2009-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area, the Kanto region, where it causes mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. We had started the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan area (2007-2012). Under this project, the construction of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) that consists of about 400 observation sites was started [Kasahara et al., 2008; Nakagawa et al., 2008]. Now, we had 178 observation sites. The correlation of the wave is high because the observation point is deployed at about 2 km intervals, and the identification of the later phase is recognized easily thought artificial noise is very large. We also discuss the relation between a deformation of PSP and intra-plate M7+ earthquakes: the PSP is subducting beneath the Honshu arc and also colliding with the Pacific plate. The subduction and collision both contribute active seismicity in the Kanto region. We are going to present a high resolution tomographic image to show low velocity zone which suggests a possible internal failure of the plate; a source region of the M7+ intra-plate earthquake. Our study will contribute a new assessment of the seismic hazard at the Metropolitan area in Japan. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  15. A Case Study of Governance at Rikkyo University in Tokyo, Japan: Implications for the Reform of Japanese Higher Education. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barretta, Mary Jane Trout

    A 1985-1986 case study of governance conducted at Rikkyo University, a private university in Tokyo, is considered, along with weaknesses in the organizational framework of governance and how these organizational weaknesses are linked to problems in reforming Japanese higher education. The governance structure provides that each college of a…

  16. Subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata around Tokyo bay, Japan: from geological survey on damaged part at the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaoka, O.; Kameyama, S.; Shigeno, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Morisaki, M.; Kagawa, A.; Yoshida, T.; Kimura, M.; Sakai, Y.; Ogura, T.; Kusuda, T.; Furuno, K.

    2015-11-01

    Geological disaster by liquefaction-fluidization happened on southern part of the Quaternary Paleo-Kanto submarine basin at the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku. Liquefaction-fluidization phenomena occurred mainly in man-made strata over shaking 5+ intensity of Japan Meteorological Agency scale. Many subsided spots, 10-50 m width, 20-100 m length and less than 1 m depth, by liquefaction-fluidization distributed on reclaimed land around northern Tokyo bay. Large amount of sand and groundwater spouted out in the terrible subsided parts. But there are little subsidence and no jetted sand outside the terrible subsided part. Liquefaction-fluidization damaged part at the 1987 earthquake east off Chiba prefecture re-liquefied and fluidized in these parts at the 2011 great earthquake. The damaged area were more wide on the 2011 earthquake than the 1987 quake. Detailed classification maps of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization on the 2011 grate earthquake were made by fieldwork in Chiba city around Tokyo bay. A mechanism of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata was solved by geological survey with continuous large box cores on the ACE Liner and large relief peals of the cores at a typical subsided part.

  17. EFFECTS OF LONG-TIME COMMUTING AND LONG-HOUR WORKING ON LIFESTYLE AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG SCHOOL TEACHERS IN TOKYO, JAPAN.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Marino; Hara, Akiko; Kikuchi, Kimiyo

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of long-time commuting and long-hour working on lifestyle including sleeping, physical exercise, breakfast, smoking, alcohol intake and mental health. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 146 school teachers in Tokyo. The binary associations of commuting time and working hours with lifestyle, mental stress measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and stress coping measured by the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scores were examined. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Our results indicated that the mean commuting time and working hours per week of the respondents were 42.1 (SD 22.5) minutes and 50.4 (SD 8.6) hours, respectively. Longer commuting time was significantly associated with shorter working hours (p = 0.023), less physical exercise (p < 0.001) and shorter sleeping hours (p = 0.001). Longer working hours were significantly associated with more frequent working on holidays (p = 0.001), higher SOC scores (p = 0.001) and more smoking (p = 0.028). The negative association between GHQ and SOC scores was also significant (p < 0.001). Our findings revealed that long-time commuters were more likely to sleep less, exercise less and work less long. Long-hour workers were more likely to commute shorter, work on holidays more frequently, smoke more and their stress coping potentials were higher. Some kinds of strategies are required to improve the healthy lifestyle for long-time com- muters or long-hour workers. Key words: stress; stress coping; general health questionnaire; sense of coherence PMID:27281916

  18. (Identification and report on Japanese research in statistical process control for assuring product and process quality, Tokyo, Tsukuba, Yokosuka, and Osaka, Japan, May 19--31, 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, K.O.

    1989-06-15

    During a trip that extended from May 17 to June 1, 1989, I was a member of the survey team organized by the National Institute of Standard and Technology. We learned how total quality control (TQC) is conducted at the Japanese industries and its general philosophy which is quite different from that of the US industries. We found the Taguchi method is not as popular in Japan as it is in the US. A detailed report will be prepared later for publication in the ONR Scientific Bulletin.

  19. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Rita; And Others

    The document offers practical and motivating techniques for studying Japan. Dedicated to promoting global awareness, separate sections discuss Japan's geography, history, culture, education, government, economics, energy, transportation, and communication. Each section presents a topical overview; suggested classroom activities; and easily…

  20. Water flow pathway and the organic carbon discharge during rain storm events in a coniferous forested head watershed, Tokyo, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriizumi, Mihoko; Terajima, Tomomi

    2010-05-01

    The current intense discussion of the green house effect, that has been one of the main focuses on the carbon cycle in environmental systems of the earth, seems to be weakened the importance related to the effect of carbonic materials on substance movement in the aquatic environments; though it has just begun to be referred recently. Because dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in stream flows believes to play a main role of the carbon cycle in the fresh water environment, seasonal changes in DOC discharge were investigated in catchments with various scale and land use, especially in forested catchments which are one of the important sources of DOC. In order to understand the fundamental characteristics of the discharge of dissolved organic materials, stream flows, DOC, and fulvic acid like materials (FA) included in stream flows were measured in a coniferous forested head watershed. The watershed is located at the southeast edge of the Kanto mountain and is 40 km west of Tokyo with the elevation from 720 to 820 m and mean slope gradient of 38 degrees. Geology of the watershed is underlain by the sequence of mud and sand stones in Jurassic and the soil in the watershed is Cambisol (Inceptisols). The watershed composes of a dense cypress and cedar forest of 45 years old with poor understory vegetation. Observations were carried out for 6 rain storms of which the total precipitations ranged between 16.2 and 117.4 mm. The magnitude of the storms was classified into small, middle, and big events on the basis of the total precipitation of around 20, 40, and more than 70 mm. Stream flows were collected during the storm events by 1 hour interval and were passed through the 0.45 μm filters, and then the DOC concentrations in the flows were measured with a total organic carbon analyzer. The relative concentrations of fulvic acid (FA) in the flows were monitored with three dimensional excitations emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy, because fulvic acid shows distinctive

  1. Japan.

    PubMed

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship. PMID:12178004

  2. Japan.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  3. Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Savannah C.

    Materials for a secondary level, interdisciplinary social studies course on Japan are divided into introductory information, 14 classroom units, and study and evaluation materials. Introductory material includes lists of objectives and skills, an outline of Japanese history, and an explanation of Japan's name and flag. The units cover the…

  4. Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  5. Maturational Rate of Tokyo Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)

  6. Tokyo, Yokohama and Tokoy Bay as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Japan's modern megalopolis is seen in this nadir view in great detail. More than 80 vessels can be seen at the anchorage's in Tokyo Bay. The gardens of the Emperor's Palace are seen in this circular area in the upper left quadrant.

  7. Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993

    PubMed Central

    Keim, Paul; Kaufmann, Arnold F.; Keys, Christine; Smith, Kimothy L.; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Inouye, Sakae; Kurata, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    In July 1993, a liquid suspension of Bacillus anthracis was aerosolized from the roof of an eight-story building in Kameido, Tokyo, Japan, by the religious group Aum Shinrikyo. During 1999 to 2001, microbiologic tests were conducted on a liquid environmental sample originally collected during the 1993 incident. Nonencapsulated isolates of B. anthracis were cultured from the liquid. Multiple-locus, variable-number tandem repeat analysis found all isolates to be identical to a strain used in Japan to vaccinate animals against anthrax, which was consistent with the Aum Shinrikyo members’ testimony about the strain source. In 1999, a retrospective case-detection survey was conducted to identify potential human anthrax cases associated with the incident, but none were found. The use of an attenuated B. anthracis strain, low spore concentrations, ineffective dispersal, a clogged spray device, and inactivation of the spores by sunlight are all likely contributing factors to the lack of human cases. PMID:15112666

  8. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  9. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ross S; Toda, Shinji; Parsons, Tom; Grunewald, Elliot

    2006-08-15

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M approximately 8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M > or = 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9 g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations

  10. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  11. Potential for rooftop photovoltaics in Tokyo to replace nuclear capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, B. L.; Smith, T. A.; Deinert, M. R.

    2013-03-01

    In 2010, nuclear power accounted for 27% of electricity production in Japan. The March 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station resulted in the closure of all of Japan’s nuclear power plants and it remains an open question as to how many will reopen. Even before the loss of nuclear capacity, there were efforts in Japan to foster the use of renewable energy, including large scale solar power. Nuclear power plants in Japan provided more than just base-load by storing energy in large scale pumped hydroelectric storage systems, which was then released to provide some peaking capacity. If this storage were instead coupled to current generation rooftop solar systems in Tokyo, the combined system could help to meet peak requirements while at the same time providing ˜26.5% of the electricity Tokyo used to get from nuclear output, and do so 91% of the time. Data from a study of rooftop space and a 34 yr data set of average daily irradiance in the Tokyo metropolitan area were used. Using pumped hydroelectric storage with 5.6 times this rooftop area could completely provide for TEPCO’s nuclear capacity.

  12. Supercomputer makers of Tokyo

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, N.

    1987-03-01

    Computers manufactured by the Japanese companies NEC, Hitachi and Fujitsu are encroaching on the capabilities of supercomputers produced by Cray. The Japan National Aerospace Lab is to receive a supercomputer, while other machines are being applied to fast breeder reactor and fusion studies. A 140 Mflop device is being used by a jet-engine and turbo-pump manufacturer and several national universities are buying mainframes for cut-rate prices from Japanese manufacturers who wish to encourage engineering students to work for the manufacturers. A Cray X-MP is now owned by Nissan and used to accelerate car RandD. The same company will design and produce the strap-on boosters for the H-II launch vehicle. Also noted are research efforts to develop machines an order of magnitude more powerful than current supercomputers.

  13. Development of evaluation metod of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2012-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of climate change adaptation strategy. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data, we constructed a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software.Based on these flood data , we created flood risk curve, representing the relation ship between damage and exceedbability of flood for the period 1976-2008. Based on the flood risk cruve, we aim to evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause of regional difference in flood risk at Tokyo metropolitan area by considering effect of socio-economic change and climate change

  14. Niobium Production at Tokyo Denkai

    SciTech Connect

    Umezawa, Hiroaki

    2011-03-31

    In recent years, single-crystal/large-grain niobium has received much attention. It has the following advantages: rolling-annealing is unnecessary, and superconducting cavities made from large-grain niobium discs may not require electropolishing. However, to obtain a large-grain disc, an ingot must be sliced using a saw and finished smooth by using a lathe. Slicing a disc takes several hours and produces niobium shavings. KEK, Tokyo Denkai, and TKX Corporation have developed a new niobium ingot slicing technique, and Tokyo Denkai has installed the slicing machine. This study describes the new ingot slicing technology, which ensures state-of-the-art productivity for the superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity material industry.

  15. Impact on ambient dose rate in metropolitan Tokyo from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Van Le, Tan; Arai, Moeko; Saito, Kyoko; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    A car-borne survey was made in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan, in December 2014 to estimate external dose. This survey was conducted for all municipalities of Tokyo and the results were compared with measurements done in 2003. The ambient dose rate measured in the whole area of Tokyo in December 2014 was 60 nGy h(-1) (23-142 nGy h(-1)), which was 24% higher than the rate in 2003. Higher dose rates (>70 nGy h(-1)) were observed on the eastern and western ends of Tokyo; furthermore, the contribution ratio from artificial radionuclides ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) to ambient dose rate in eastern Tokyo was twice as high as that of western Tokyo. Based on the measured ambient dose rate, the effective dose rate after the accident was estimated to be 0.45 μSv h(-1) in Tokyo. This value was 22% higher than the value before the accident as of December 2014. PMID:27055250

  16. Tokyo Metropolitan Earthquake Preparedness Project - A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.

    2010-12-01

    Munich Re once ranked that Tokyo metropolitan region, the capital of Japan, is the most vulnerable area for earthquake disasters, followed by San Francisco Bay Area, US and Osaka, Japan. Seismologists also predict that Tokyo metropolitan region may have at least one near-field earthquake with a probability of 70% for the next 30 years. Given this prediction, Japanese Government took it seriously to conduct damage estimations and revealed that, as the worst case scenario, if a7.3 magnitude earthquake under heavy winds as shown in the fig. 1, it would kill a total of 11,000 people and a total of direct and indirect losses would amount to 112,000,000,000,000 yen(1,300,000,000,000, 1=85yen) . In addition to mortality and financial losses, a total of 25 million people would be severely impacted by this earthquake in four prefectures. If this earthquake occurs, 300,000 elevators will be stopped suddenly, and 12,500 persons would be confined in them for a long time. Seven million people will come to use over 20,000 public shelters spread over the impacted area. Over one millions temporary housing units should be built to accommodate 4.6 million people who lost their dwellings. 2.5 million people will relocate to outside of the damaged area. In short, an unprecedented scale of earthquake disaster is expected and we must prepare for it. Even though disaster mitigation is undoubtedly the best solution, it is more realistic that the expected earthquake would hit before we complete this business. In other words, we must take into account another solution to make the people and the assets in this region more resilient for the Tokyo metropolitan earthquake. This is the question we have been tackling with for the last four years. To increase societal resilience for Tokyo metropolitan earthquake, we adopted a holistic approach to integrate both emergency response and long-term recovery. There are three goals for long-term recovery, which consists of Physical recovery, Economic

  17. Earthquake Risk Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic disaster risk mitigation in urban areas constitutes a challenge through collaboration of scientific, engineering, and social-science fields. Examples of collaborative efforts include research on detailed plate structure with identification of all significant faults, developing dense seismic networks; strong ground motion prediction, which uses information on near-surface seismic site effects and fault models; earthquake resistant and proof structures; and cross-discipline infrastructure for effective risk mitigation just after catastrophic events. Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (magnitude M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that the M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. This earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70% in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (2007-2011) was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. The results that are obtained in the respective fields will be integrated until project termination to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area. In this talk, we give an outline of our project as an example of collaborative research on earthquake risk mitigation. Discussion is extended to our effort in progress and

  18. A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Kasahara, K.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo metropolitan region. Devastating M8-class earthquakes occurred on the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate (SPS), examples of which are the Genroku earthquake of 1703 (magnitude M=8.0) and the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M=7.9), which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions although it is smaller than the megathrust type M8-class earthquakes. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. The M7+ earthquakes may occur either on the upper surface or intra slab of PSP. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo

  19. Factor analysis on implementation of domiciliary dental care in Metropolitan Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hirata, SoIchiro; Sakayori, Takaharu; Maki, Yoshinobu; Takano, Naohisa; Ishii, Takuo

    2013-01-01

    The need for domiciliary dental care has increased with the aging of Japanese society. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government and Tokyo Dental Association conducted a survey of dental institutions within Tokyo in order to clarify which factors influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care by dental institutions. The proportion was significantly higher in (1) dentists in their 50s or older, (2) those working in cooperation with primary care physicians, (3) those providing dysphagia rehabilitation, (4) those who give information on prevention of aspiration pneumonia, (5) those who attended training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care, and (6) those who attended training workshops and seminars provided by the Tokyo Dental Association in 2010. In the logistic regression analysis, a significant odds ratio was obtained for the same items, excluding age. Attendance at training on medical or domiciliary dental care for the elderly in need of nursing care had the highest odds ratio. Those who attended any kind of training course implemented domiciliary dental care significantly more often. Training conducted by the Tokyo Metropolitan Center for Oral Health of Persons with Disabilities, Tokyo Dental Association, and local dental associations showed a significant odds ratio, with the highest by the Tokyo Dental Association. Traditionally, education on domiciliary dental care in the elderly is not provided at the college level. The present results indicate the importance of educating students with regard to the unique challenges such work poses. Attending seminars hosted by the Tokyo Dental Association also significantly influenced implementation of domiciliary dental care. This seems to be an important result, suggesting the effectiveness of training provided by dental associations with regard to the promotion of domiciliary dental care. This indicates the need for dental associations to provide such training throughout Japan. PMID

  20. Candidates of M7-Class Earthquake Beneath Greater Tokyo Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Y.

    2003-12-01

    In greater Tokyo area, the occurrence of M7-class earthquake is thought to be imminent by the following reasons. (1) In these 20 years, maximum size of shallow microearthquakes beneath Tokyo is steadily increasing. (2) In recent 80 years after Kanto earthquake, maximum size of the earthquakes in Kanto region is gradually increasing. (3) In these 400 years, it was observed twice that two M7-class earthquakes precede the M8 interplate earthquakes in the latter half of the interseismic period. Taking into consideration these background, the Central Disaster Management Council, Japan issued _gGuideline for Countermeasures to the Earthquakes Beneath Southern Kanto Region _h on August 1994, and proposed 19 fault models along the upper boundary of Philippine Sea plate as the candidates of the forthcoming M7-class earthquake. At present, we have no data of abnormal seismic activity or crustal movement to select preferable one among these 19 fault models. Here, we will try to constrain the candidates which may have relatively higher possibility of the occurrence by a elimination method. It seems to be possible to exclude some of the fault models by the following ways. (1) Adopting characteristic earthquake concept, we can exclude 5 models which overlap to the focal region of 1923 Kanto earthquake. (2) A belt like zone of serpentine are found from tomography results at 30-40km depth along the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Kanto Plain and no microearthquake activities are generated along this zone (Kamiya and Kobayashi, GRL, 2000). We can eliminate 4 models which lie in this zone. (3) Beneath the eastern Boso Peninsula, it was found that slow slips of M6.5-class are repeated every 5-6 years. We can exclude 2 models in the area (4) Since plate collision is undertaken beneath eastern Yamanashi Prefecture, we can exclude 1 model in this area. Finally, it remains 7 fault models as the possible candidates of M7-class earthquake beneath Tokyo area. They are 3 models just beneath

  1. Flood risk analysis in the Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2011-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area is highly vulnerable to flood, because densely populated area is located along mouth of major rivers. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. We aim to evaluate potential flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use change, land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. For this purpose, it is necessary to build up a consistent flood database system, which contains long-term consistent flood data for the past. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data documented in "Statistics of flood", we construct a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software. In this database, each flood record is linked to municipal polygons. By using this flood database, we can refer to a specific flood record for each year at small municipal level. We can also calculate total amount of damage for each flood cause such as innuduation inside the levee, over flow,innunduation by river water. First, we analyze long-term variations of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area based on this flood database. Then, we aim to evaluate influence of socio-economic and climatic change on flood risk variations by comparing flood variations in the past with rainfall data and socio-economic indicators. Finally, we construct a flood risk curve representing exceedance probability for total damage of flood by using past flood data. Based on the flood risk curve, we discuss potential vulnerability to flooding and risk of economic losses in Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation.

  2. Anthropogenic water vapor emissions in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriwaki, Ryo; Kanda, Manabu; Senoo, Hiroshi; Hagishima, Aya; Kinouchi, Tsuyoshi

    2008-11-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in anthropogenic water vapor (AWV) emissions and anthropogenic heat (AH) in Tokyo were estimated using data from a geographic information system (GIS) and an energy-consumption database. The maximum value of AWV exceeded 500 W m-2 in summer in central Tokyo. Estimations of AWV were validated with field-measured data. The estimated and measured data agreed well, indicating that anthropogenic sources such as district cooling systems release large amounts of water vapor into the atmosphere.

  3. Towards more stable operation of the Tokyo Tier2 center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Mashimo, T.; Matsui, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Ueda, I.

    2014-06-01

    The Tokyo Tier2 center, which is located at the International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP) in the University of Tokyo, was established as a regional analysis center in Japan for the ATLAS experiment. The official operation with WLCG was started in 2007 after the several years development since 2002. In December 2012, we have replaced almost all hardware as the third system upgrade to deal with analysis for further growing data of the ATLAS experiment. The number of CPU cores are increased by factor of two (9984 cores in total), and the performance of individual CPU core is improved by 20% according to the HEPSPEC06 benchmark test at 32bit compile mode. The score is estimated as 18.03 (SL6) per core by using Intel Xeon E5-2680 2.70 GHz. Since all worker nodes are made by 16 CPU cores configuration, we deployed 624 blade servers in total. They are connected to 6.7 PB of disk storage system with non-blocking 10 Gbps internal network backbone by using two center network switches (NetIron MLXe-32). The disk storage is made by 102 of RAID6 disk arrays (Infortrend DS S24F-G2840-4C16DO0) and served by equivalent number of 1U file servers with 8G-FC connection to maximize the file transfer throughput per storage capacity. As of February 2013, 2560 CPU cores and 2.00 PB of disk storage have already been deployed for WLCG. Currently, the remaining non-grid resources for both CPUs and disk storage are used as dedicated resources for the data analysis by the ATLAS Japan collaborators. Since all hardware in the non-grid resources are made by same architecture with Tier2 resource, they will be able to be migrated as the Tier2 extra resource on demand of the ATLAS experiment in the future. In addition to the upgrade of computing resources, we expect the improvement of connectivity on the wide area network. Thanks to the Japanese NREN (NII), another 10 Gbps trans-Pacific line from Japan to Washington will be available additionally with existing two 10 Gbps lines

  4. Education for Earthquake Disaster Prevention in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year

  5. [Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].

    PubMed

    Zhang, R; Kashima, Y; Matsui, M; Okabe, T; Doi, R

    2001-07-01

    Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay. PMID:11519183

  6. New tomographic images of P- , S- wave velocity and Q on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo: Implication to seismotectonics and seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kasahara, Keiji; Kimura, Hisanor; Honda, Ryou

    2013-04-01

    The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake in the Tokyo metropolitan region will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) and Q tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo region. Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we interpreted the tomographic images as petrologic images. Tomographic images revealed the presence of two stepwise velocity increase of the top layer of the subducting PSP slab. Rock velocity data reveals that subducting PSP crust transforms from blueschists to amphibolites at depth of 30km and amphibolites to eclogites at depth of 50km, which suggest that dehydration reactions occurs in subducting crust of basaltic compositions during prograde metamorphism and water is released from the subducting PSP crust. Tomograms show evidence for a low-velocity zone (LVZ) beneath the area just north of Tokyo bay. A Q tomogram show a low Q zone in PSP slab. We interpret the LVZ as a

  7. Little Tokyo: Yet Another Chapter of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuman, Dwight

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the history and current status of the long-time Southern California community base of Japanese Americans, Los Angeles' Little Tokyo district. Focuses on the role that Los Angeles' urban renewal agency, the Community Redevelopment Agency, has played in that community. (Author/JM)

  8. Social Experiments in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Convection Study for Extreme Weather Resilient Cities(TOMACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuyoshi, Nakatani; Nakamura, Isao; MIsumi, Ryohei; Shoji, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Introduction TOMACS research project has been started since 2010 July in order to develop the elementary technologies which are required for the adaptation of societies to future global warming impacts that cannot be avoided by the reduction of greenhouse gases. In collaboration with related government institutions, local governments, private companies, and residents, more than 25 organizations and over 100 people are participated. TOMACS consists of the following three research themes: Theme 1: Studies on extreme weather with dense meteorological observations Theme 2: Development of the extreme weather early detection and prediction system Theme 3: Social experiments on extreme weather resilient cities Theme 1 aims to understand the initiation, development, and dissipation processes of convective precipitation in order to clarify the mechanism of localized heavy rainfall which are potential causes of flooding and landslides. Theme 2 aims to establish the monitoring and prediction system of extreme phenomena which can process real-time data from dense meteorological observation networks, advanced X-band radar network systems and predict localized heavy rainfalls and strong winds. Through social experiments, theme 3 aims to establish a method to use information obtained by the monitoring system of extreme phenomena to disaster prevention operations in order to prevent disasters and reduce damage. Social Experiments Toyo University is the core university for the social experiments accomplishment. And following organizations are participating in this research theme: NIED, the Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection (TMRIEP), University of Tokyo, Tokyo Fire Department (TFD), Edogawa Ward in Tokyo, Yokohama City, Fujisawa City and Minamiashigara City in Kanagawa, East Japan Railway Company, Central Japan Railway Company, Obayashi Corporation, and Certified and Accredited Meteorologists of Japan(CAMJ). The social experiments have carried out

  9. Hall viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Viscosity is a transport coefficient relating to transport of momentum, and usually thought of as the analog of friction that occurs in fluids and solids. More formally, it is the response of the stress to the gradients of the fluid velocity field, or to the rate of change of strain (derivatives of displacement from a reference state). In general, viscosity is described by a fourth-rank tensor. Invoking rotation invariance, it reduces to familiar shear and bulk viscosity parts, which describe dissipation, but it can also contain an antisymmetric part, analogous to the Hall conductivity part of the conductivity tensor. In two dimensions this part is a single number, the Hall viscosity. Symmetry of the system under time reversal (or, in two dimensions, reflections) forces it to vanish. In quantum fluids with a gap in the bulk energy spectrum and which lack both time reversal and reflection symmetries the Hall viscosity can be nonzero even at zero temperature. For integer quantum Hall states, it was first calculated by Avron, Seiler, and Zograf, using a Berry curvature approach, analogous to the Chern number for Hall conductivity. In 2008 this was extended by the present author to fractional quantum Hall states and to BCS states in two dimensions. I found that the general result is given by a simple formula ns / 2 , where n is the particle number density, and s is the ``orbital spin'' per particle. The spin s is also related to the shift S, which enters the relation between particle number and magnetic flux needed to put the ground state on a surface of non-trivial topology with introducing defect excitations, by S = 2 s ; the connection was made by Wen and Zee. The values of s and S are rational numbers, and are robust--unchanged under perturbations that do not cause the bulk energy gap to collapse--provided rotation as well as translation symmetry are maintained. Hall viscosity can be measured in principle, though a simple way to do so is lacking. It enters various

  10. Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Mikkel B.; Sessions, October; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come. PMID:26711518

  11. Dissecting Japan's Dengue Outbreak in 2014.

    PubMed

    Quam, Mikkel B; Sessions, October; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Rocklöv, Joacim; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2016-02-01

    Despite Japan's temperate climate, a dengue outbreak occurred in Tokyo for the first time in over 70 years in 2014. We dissected this dengue outbreak based on phylogenetic analysis, travel interconnectivity, and environmental drivers for dengue epidemics. Comparing the available dengue virus 1 (DENV1) E gene sequence from this outbreak with 3,282 unique DENV1 sequences in National Center for Biotechnology Information suggested that the DENV might have been imported from China, Indonesia, Singapore, or Vietnam. With travelers arriving into Japan, Guangzhou (China) may have been the source of DENV introduction, given that Guangzhou also reported a large-scale dengue outbreak in 2014. Coinciding with the 2014 outbreak, Tokyo's climate conditions permitted the amplification of Aedes vectors and the annual peak of vectorial capacity. Given suitable vectors and climate conditions in addition to increasing interconnectivity with endemic areas of Asia, Tokyo's 2014 outbreak did not come as a surprise and may foretell more to come. PMID:26711518

  12. Astrogeodetic geoid of Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganeko, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Three kinds of astrogeodetic geoid maps for Japan are presented: one referred to the global (18, 18) geoid of the 1973 Smithsonian Standard Earth (III) (SE III), referred to the best-fitting ellipsoid of SE III, and one referred to the reference ellipsoid of the Tokyo datum. Interpolations of the deflection of the vertical are carried out by a least squares estimation method. The geoid height differences obtained are compared with solutions of satellite-derived station positions. Good agreement is found in a comparison with Doppler tracking stations.

  13. Tokyo terror and chemical arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The nerve gas attack in the Tokyo subway underscores the extreme vulnerability of urban society to terrorist attacks. The best defense is improved intelligence of potential terrorists and domestic laws permitting pre-emptive action when there is probable cause. If the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) were in force, all 159 signatories would be required to have such laws. The author examies the threat and provides some political insights.

  14. Distant Mt. Fuji, Island of Honshu Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This distant view of Mt. Fuji, on the main home island of Honshu, Japan (34.0N, 139.0E) was taken from about 450 miles to the south. Evan at that great distance, the majestic and inspiring Mt. Fuji is still plainly visible and easily recognized as a world renowned symbol of Japan. The snow capped extinct volcano lies just a few miles south of Tokyo.

  15. A 35-40% Likelihood of a Highly Damaging Tokyo Earthquake in Next 30 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Bozkurt, S. B.

    2005-12-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Reoccurrence of any of these shocks today would cost about one trillion dollars, of which perhaps 10% is insured. Fueled by Tokyo's rich data trove but hindered by its complexity, we carried out a new hazard assessment. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved in uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M~8 shocks in the past 7,000 years), historical shaking (10,000 intensity observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and the world's best geodetic array (150 GPS vectors spanning the past 10 years). We propose that a dislodged block of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath Tokyo, and controls much of Tokyo's seismic behavior for M≤7.5 shocks, including the damaging 1855 M~7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of frequency-magnitude curves, earthquakes similar to the Ansei-Edo event should be quite frequent (25-35% likelihood in an average 30-yr period), and so such events dominate the combined probabilities. In contrast, our renewal model for the great 1703 and 1923 type plate boundary shocks yields a ~1% probability for the next 30 yr, with a time-averaged 30-yr probability of ~8%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama for the next 30 years is 25%-40%, but how can it be validated? The long historical record in Kanto affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner, based almost exclusively on intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates for the spatial distribution of shaking, even for sites with few observations. The resulting probability of severe shaking over an average 30-yr period is ~35% in the Tokyo, Kawasaki

  16. [Kiken drugs: current status of abuse among youth in the nightlife areas of Tokyo].

    PubMed

    Shimane, Takuya

    2015-09-01

    The abuse of "Kiken drugs," including synthetic cannabinoids, is a serious and growing social problem in Japan. Kiken drugs is the general term for novel psychoactive substances that have not been designated as illegal by Japanese law. The aim of this article is to describe the current status of the abuse of Kiken drugs by youth in the nightlife areas of Tokyo. An anonymous field-based survey was conducted using laptop computers at four dance parties in Tokyo, Japan. The questionnaires were completed by 307(44% female, mean age 30.9 years) young adults at the dance parties. Among the survey participants, 24.4% reported Kiken drug use (herbs 22.8%, powders 7.2%, and liquids 3.3%) in their lifetime. The primary reasons for Kiken drug use were peer pressure (37.3%), and avoiding penalties for possession of illegal drugs under Japanese laws (28.0%). In addition, 61.3% reported obtaining Kiken drugs from close friends. Our results clearly suggest that young adults at dance parties have a higher lifetime prevalence of Kiken drug use than the Japanese general population (0.4% reported in 2013). As the social stigma associated with drug use is extremely high in Japan, avoiding illegal drugs prohibited by law by using easily available Kiken drugs may be more socially acceptable among youth in the nightlife areas. PMID:26394509

  17. Farm Hall: The Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  18. Seasonal variations in concentration and composition of dissolved organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, A.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.; Kanda, J.

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations of recalcitrant and bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and their seasonal variations were investigated at three stations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, and in two freshwater sources flowing into the bay to evaluate the significance of DOC degradation for the carbon budget in coastal waters and carbon export to the open ocean. Recalcitrant DOC (RDOC) was differentiated from bioavailable DOC (BDOC) as a remnant of DOC after 150 days of bottle incubation. On average, RDOC accounted for 78% of the total DOC in Shibaura sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent, 67% in the upper Arakawa River water, 66% in the lower Arakawa River water, and 78% in surface bay water. RDOC concentrations were higher than BDOC at all stations. In freshwater environments, RDOC concentrations were almost constant throughout the year. In the bay, RDOC was higher during spring and summer than during autumn and winter. The relative abundance of RDOC in the bay derived from phytoplankton, terrestrial, and open oceanic waters was estimated to be 9%, 33%, and 58%, respectively, by multiple regression analysis of RDOC, salinity, and chl a. In addition, comparison with previous data from 1972 revealed that concentrations of RDOC and BDOC have decreased by 33% and 74% at freshwater sites and 39% and 76% at Tokyo Bay, while the ratio of RDOC to DOC has increased. The change in DOC concentration and composition was probably due to increased amounts of sewage treatment plant effluent entering the system. Tokyo Bay exported DOC, mostly RDOC, to the open ocean because of remineralization of BDOC.

  19. Seasonal variations in concentration and lability of dissolved organic carbon in Tokyo Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, A.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.; Kanda, J.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of recalcitrant and bioavailable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and their seasonal variations were investigated at three stations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, and in two freshwater sources flowing into the bay. On average, recalcitrant DOC (RDOC), as a remnant of DOC after 150 days of bottle incubation, accounted for 78% of the total DOC in Shibaura sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent, 67% in the upper Arakawa River water, 66% in the lower Arakawa River water, and 78% in surface bay water. Bioavailable DOC (BDOC) concentrations, defined as DOC minus RDOC, were lower than RDOC at all stations. In freshwater environments, RDOC concentrations were almost constant throughout the year. In the bay, RDOC was higher during spring and summer than in autumn and winter because of freshwater input and biological production. The relative concentration of RDOC in the bay derived from phytoplankton, terrestrial, and open-oceanic waters was estimated to be 8-10, 21-32, and 59-69%, respectively, based on multiple regression analysis of RDOC, salinity, and chl a. In addition, comparison with previous data from 1972 revealed that concentrations of RDOC and BDOC have decreased by 33 and 74% at freshwater sites and 39 and 76% in Tokyo Bay, while the ratio of RDOC to DOC has increased. The change in DOC concentration and composition was probably due to increased amounts of STP effluent entering the system. Tokyo Bay exported mostly RDOC to the open ocean because of the remineralization of BDOC.

  20. Forecasting probabilistic seismic shaking for greater Tokyo from 400 years of intensity observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bozkurt, S.B.; Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.

    2007-01-01

    The long recorded history of earthquakes in Japan affords an opportunity to forecast seismic shaking exclusively from past shaking. We calculate the time-averaged (Poisson) probability of severe shaking by using more than 10,000 intensity observations recorded since AD 1600 in a 350 km-wide box centered on Tokyo. Unlike other hazard-assessment methods, source and site effects are included without modeling, and we do not need to know the size or location of any earthquake nor the location and slip rate of any fault. The two key assumptions are that the slope of the observed frequency-intensity relation at every site is the same, and that the 400-year record is long enough to encompass the full range of seismic behavior. Tests we conduct here suggest that both assumptions are sound. The resulting 30-year probability of IJMA ??? 6 shaking (??? PGA ??? 0.4 g or MMI ??? IX) is 30%-40% in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Yokohama, and 10% 15% in Chiba and Tsukuba. This result means that there is a 30% chance that 4 million people will be subjected to IJMA ??? 6 shaking during an average 30-year period. We also produce exceedance maps of PGA for building-code regulations, and calculate short-term hazard associated with a hypothetical catastrophe bond. Our results resemble an independent assessment developed from conventional seismic hazard analysis for greater Tokyo. ?? 2007, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  1. P wave attenuation structure below the Tokyo Metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panayotopoulos, Y.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.; Hirata, N.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Lee, C.

    2010-12-01

    The material properties of the complex subduction zone beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan can be estimated by the seismic attenuation Q-1 of seismic waves observed at local seismic stations. The attenuation of seismic waves is represented by the t* attenuation operator that can be estimated by fitting the observed P wave amplitude spectrum to a theoretical spectrum using an ω2 source model. The waveform data used in this study are recorded at the dense seismic array of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net). The station network is distributed on five lines with an average spacing of 3 km and in an area with a spacing of 5 km in the central part of Kanto plane. The MeSO-net stations are equipped with a three-component accelerometer at a bottom of a 20-m-deep borehole, signals from which are digitized at a sampling rate of 200 Hz with a dynamic range of 135 dB.The waveforms of 141 earthquakes observed at 226 stations were selected from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) unified earthquake list from January 1st 2010 to August 4th 2010. Only high-quality amplitude spectra of earthquakes with M > 3 were used for the estimation of reliable attenuation parameters. The acceleration waveforms were integrated twice to yield the corresponding displacement vectors, applying a high pass filter to remove the effect of the low-frequency background noise. Taking into account that the majority of the events occurred at depth greater than 30 km a search window of 5 sec starting 1 sec before the P wave arrival was implemented for the creation of the dataset. The t* values were estimated from the amplitude spectra of approximately 33800 P wave waveforms conducting a fast Fourier transform analysis. The Q values for the Tokyo Metropolitan area estimate by this study range from 100 to 500 in the upper 30 km of the crust. A site effect on the attenuation near stations inside a densely populated area is also a possible reason for the large Q variations observed.

  2. Dietary exposure to organophosphorus pesticides for young children in Tokyo and neighboring area.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Junko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2007-06-01

    Dietary ingestion is a significant pathway of human exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. This study aims to determine the occurrence of OP pesticide in the diet of young children in Japan and estimate their exposure. The study was conducted by analyzing duplicate diet samples collected from 33 children aged 3 to 6 years old in Tokyo and the nearby area in Japan. Seven OP pesticides that are mainly used for agriculture in Japan (fenitrothion, trichlorfon, dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and EPN) were targeted for analysis. As a result of the study, fenitrothion was frequently found in the week's diet (21%) of children, followed by diazinon (14%), chlorpyrifos (11%), and malathion (4%); the daily intake of pesticides was also estimated to range from < 110 to 180 ng/day, < 70 to 800 ng/day, < 70 to 100 ng/day, and < or = 110 ng/day, respectively. Daily intake of diazinon per kg body weight was relatively higher than other target pesticides and the maximum value was 50 times below the acceptable daily intake set by Japan Ministry of Health and Labor Welfare. Occurrence of malathion in the diet of children in the present study was lower than that reported in 1980s, supposed due to the decreasing level of malathion in wheat and wheat products. Frequent detection of fenitrothion in diet is a significant trend observed in Japan, and is considered due to the high and widespread usage of the pesticide inside of the country. PMID:17412399

  3. Towards Formulating Goals, Aims, and Objectives of Secondary Education for the Twenty-First Century. Final Report of a Regional Seminar on Goals, Aims and Objectives of Secondary Education in Asia and the Pacific (Tokyo, Japan, October 16-31, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    A regional seminar examined and defined the goals of secondary education in countries of the Asia and Pacific region seminar; it also analyzed causes for changes in secondary education goals and emerging trends. A total of 20 participants from the following countries--Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Nepal, New…

  4. Seasonal Changes in Hospital Admissions for Pulmonary Embolism in Metropolitan Areas of Tokyo (from the Tokyo Cardiovascular Care Unit Network).

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Ayano; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tanabe, Yasuhiro; Obayashi, Toru; Takayama, Morimasa; Nagao, Ken

    2015-12-15

    Although several studies have shown the relation between temperature/atmospheric pressure and pulmonary embolism (PE), their results are inconsistent. Furthermore, diurnal temperature range (DTR) and diurnal pressure range (DPR) were not fully evaluated for their associations with hospital admissions for PE. Study subjects comprised cases of 1,148 PE treated at institutions belonging to the Tokyo Cardiovascular Care Unit Network from January 2005 to December 2012. Patient data were combined with a variety of daily local climate parameters obtained from the Japan Meteorological Agency. Every 1°C increase in the DTR at lag0 corresponded to an increased relative risk of hospital admission for PE (odds ratio [OR] 1.036, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.003 to 1.070). In the cooler season (November to April), an increase of 1 hPa (barometric pressure) in the DPR at lag4 and lag5 was associated with an increased relative risk of hospital admission for PE (OR 1.042, 95% CI 1.007 to 1.077 and OR 0.952, 95% CI 0.914 to 0.992, respectively). An increase in the PE hospitalization rate was seen only in the cool season. Using a metropolitan database, we showed that DTR and DPR have different impacts on hospital admissions for PE. In conclusion, we found that an increase in the DTR increases the PE hospitalization rate, especially during the cooler season. The impact of DTR and DPR on PE incidence and related hospitalizations needs to be further evaluated. PMID:26602077

  5. Groundwater pollution by perfluorinated surfactants in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Kuroda, Keisuke; Sato, Nobuyuki; Fukushi, Tetsuo; Takizawa, Satoshi; Takada, Hideshige

    2009-05-15

    Perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) in groundwater were analyzed to reveal their distribution and sources. Sixteen groundwater and spring samples were collected from the Tokyo metropolitan area, and nine PFSs, including perfluorooctane-sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A column test using artificial street runoff was also performed to study their behavior. PFSs were detected in all groundwater samples, some at concentrations comparable to those in wastewater and street runoff, suggesting widespread contamination of groundwater by PFSs. In particular, PFOS -was more abundant in groundwater than in rivers, wastewater, and street runoff. This was attributed to its production from the degradation of its precursors, as supported by the column test. The occurrence of short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) in groundwater was also consistent with the results of the column test, showing that limited amounts of short-chain PFCAs were removed by soil, as the efficiency of removal increased with the chain length. We evaluated the contributions of PFCAs from wastewater and surface runoff to groundwater by using two indicators, the long/(short + long) ratio and the even(even + odd) ratio. Both ratios showed good agreement in their calculated contributions in heavily contaminated groundwater where breakthroughs likely occurred. Wastewater and surface runoff contributed to 54-86% and 16-46% of PFCAs, respectively, in groundwater. PMID:19544843

  6. The first vineyard concert hall in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Christopher; Rivera, Carlos

    2002-11-01

    The first vineyard or surround concert hall designed and built in the Western Hemisphere is the Sala Nezahualcoyotl in Mexico City. The Hall was completed in 1976 and is part of the Cultural Center at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. The hall was named after a Toltec poet, architect, and musician who lived in the 15th century and was the Renaissance man of his day. In order to provide the familiar traditional sound of the rectangular (shoebox) European Hall, the acoustic designers set the criteria for reverberation times through the frequency spectrum and the Initial Time Delay Gap at every seat in the house to match the measurements taken at the Grosser Musik vereinssaal in Vienna and Boston Symphony Hall. In this paper we discuss the techniques used to create the traditional sound in a vineyard hall and the reaction of musicians and audiences to the completed facility. The Sala was the model for Suntory Hall in Japan which in turn spawned a number of vineyard halls in Japan. Most recently, the vineyard style seems to be appealing to more and more symphonic organizations in Europe and North America.

  7. Culture and Unrealistic Expectations Challenge American Campuses in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Examines difficulties faced by American university branches in Japan. Notes that 30 institutions developed programs offering American-style college education during the 1980s and 1990s but that only five have survived, due primarily to culture clashes. Focuses on experiences of the Temple University branch in Tokyo, which survives, and Minnesota…

  8. [Neurology in Japan before World War II].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Modern Western medicine was introduced into Japan by a Dutch doctor Pompe van Meerdervoort in 1855. A German physician EOE von Balz devoted himself to educating medicine at Tokyo Medical School, the predecessor of the present University of Tokyo for 25 years. Hiroshi Kawahara and Kinnosuke Miura, pioneers of Japan Neurology, received their education by him. Kawahara first described X-linked bulvo-spinal muscular atrophy, and published the first Japanese textbook of clinical neurology in 1897. In 1902, Miura and others founded the Japanese Society of Neuro-Psychiatry, the forerunner of the present " Japanese Society of Neurology ". Both Seizo Katsunuma, Professor of Nagoya University, and Junnjiro Kato, Professor of Tohoku University, succeeded Miura's neurology. Miura investigated into the cause of beriberi, but ended in failure. Hasegawa's proposal at the Diet in 1894 that the Japan Government should found an independent department of neurology in the University of Tokyo was unfortunately rejected. There was no foundation of independent institute, department and clinic of neurology before World War II. Consequently Japanese neurology was on the ebb at that time. PMID:24291835

  9. Carbonaceous aerosol and its characteristics observed in Tokyo and south Kanto region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minoura, Hiroaki; Morikawa, Tazuko; Mizohata, Akira; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

    2012-12-01

    Due to enforcing vehicle emission reduction requirements in Japan, particulate matter (PM) concentration, especially elemental carbon (EC) concentration in roadside atmosphere, obviously decreased in the last decade. In spite of the previous vehicle emission reduction, EC concentration was not shown a clear decrease, recently. To achieve the PM2.5 environmental standard, measurements based on emission source contribution are desirable. However, source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol was ambiguous because chemical components are complicated, and the components change through photochemical reaction. The goal of this study is to determine source apportionment for carbonaceous aerosols. Examination of PM2.5 was performed in south Kanto including Tokyo in the summer of 2008 and the winter of 2009. Emissions from the industrial area around Tokyo Bay and the agricultural northern area showed transportation and accumulation due to the seasonal prevailing wind. The emissions formed a geographical distribution due to photochemical reactions. The characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol were obtained using carbon profile analysis and carbon isotope analysis, including the source information such as fossil fuel emission origin, vegetation origin, and combustion product, photochemical reaction product, etc. Soot-EC was found as a substance with fossil fuel origin which did not contain biomass combustion matter, and since it is stable, there was no observed difference by site and a uniform concentration was observed in winter. It became apparent from the carbon isotope analysis using 14C that the carbon from the biomass origin involved 29% in total carbon in the summer, and 48% in winter even at Kudan of central Tokyo.

  10. The emperor of Japan and the aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S. I.

    On October 3, 1985, I gave a special lecture on the aurora for the Emperor of Japan in his palace in Tokyo. It seems the Emperor, a marine biologist, has an unusual interest in the aurora. After my slide presentation, he asked how we confirm ancient sighting reports of the aurora in Japan. He was not satisfied with my response that anomalous events in the sky were well documented in an ancient publication entitled Japanese Meteorological Data and asked further how one could confirm such sightings as auroral events. He was visibly pleased to learn that the dates of these sightings coincided with those recorded elsewhere in the world.

  11. Mass psychogenic systemic illness in school children in relation to the Tokyo photochemical smog

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, S.; Honma, T.

    1986-05-01

    To clarify the pathogenic mechanism of epidemics with acute systemic neurobehavioral illness associated with photochemical air pollution in Japan, we re-examined our past records in sixteen junior high school children, and compared them with major epidemics that occurred in 1970-1972 during which time Japanese society faced a new and unusual type of air pollution (Tokyo smog). Dysfunction of alveolar-arterial gas exchange, together with respiratory alkalosis, was newly found in these children, who suffered from chest discomfort, ocular irritation, emotional distress, tetany, and unconsciousness. It was concluded that anxiety reaction, precipitated by the physical effects of photochemical oxidants and athletic performance, possibly led to many outbreaks of mass psychogenic systemic illness (hyperventilation syndrome) among school children.

  12. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey)

    PubMed Central

    Kanata, Sho; Koike, Shinsuke; Ando, Shuntaro; Nishida, Atsushi; Usami, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Syudo; Morimoto, Yuko; Toriyama, Rie; Fujikawa, Shinya; Sugimoto, Noriko; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-01-01

    Background Enuresis (9% at age 9.5) negatively affects children’s psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age) is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems. Methods Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old) and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS), a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children’s enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire), were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention. Results The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD) = 3.8 (2.3), non-enuretic: M (SD) = 3.0 (2.1), Hedge’s g = 0.39, p < .001). This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), low birth weight and parents’ education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028–.080], p < .001). Conclusions Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention. PMID:27414399

  13. Development of magnetically levitated high speed transport system in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, Kazuo

    1996-07-01

    In Japan, huge passenger traffic moves through the Tokyo-Osaka corridor and the demand is mounting on one more high speed line besides the Tokaido Shinkansen. A magnetically levitated vehicle (JR Maglev) using superconducting magnets has been developed for the Tokyo-Osaka superspeed express. JR Maglev has many advantages over conventional rail systems. This paper describes the necessity of one more high speed line in this corridor, the reason the author chose Maglev, the scheme of this system, history of the development and outline of the new Yamanashi test line project.

  14. Mt. Fuji, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the movie

    The nearly perfectly conical profile of Fuji soars 3,776 meters (12,388 feet) above sea level on southern Honshu, near Tokyo. The highest mountain in Japan, Fuji is the country's most familiar symbol. The summit of this graceful, dormant volcano is broken by a crater 610 meters (2,000 feet) in diameter. The crater is ringed by eight jagged peaks. The five Fuji Lakes lie on the northern slopes of the mountain, all formed in the wake of lava flows. Mirrored in the still waters of Kawaguchi-ko, the most beautiful of the five lakes, is a reflection of Fuji. Part of Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Fuji last erupted for a two-month period starting in November 1707, covering Tokyo, some 100 kilometers (60 miles) away, with a layer of ash. According to legend, Fuji arose from the plain during a single night in 286 BC. Geologically, the mountain is much older than this.

    Considered sacred by many, Fuji is surrounded by temples and shrines. Thousands of pilgrims climb the mountain each year as part of their religious practice, hoping to reach the summit by dawn to watch the sunrise. This animated fly-by was created by draping visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's stereo bands. The spatial resolution of both the image and topography is 15 m. The image is centered at 35.3 degrees north latitude, 138.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. The chemical disaster response system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Ninomiya, Norifumi; Ohta, Muneo

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, Japan has experienced the largest burden of chemical terrorism-related events in the world, including the: (1) 1994 Matsumoto sarin attack; (2) 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack; (3) 1998 Wakayama arsenic incident; (4) 1998 Niigata sodium-azide incident; and (5) 1998 Nagano cyanide incident. Two other intentional cyanide releases in Tokyo subway and railway station restrooms were thwarted in 1995. These events spurred Japan to improve the following components of its chemical disaster-response system: (1) scene demarcation; (2) emergency medical care; (3) mass decontamination; (4) personal protective equipment; (5) chemical detection; (6) information-sharing and coordination; and (7) education and training. Further advances occurred as result of potential chemical terrorist threats to the 2000 Kyushu-Okinawa G8 Summit, which Japan hosted. Today, Japan has an integrated system of chemical disaster response that involves local fire and police services, local emergency medical services (EMS), local hospitals, Japanese Self-Defense Forces, and the Japanese Poison Information Center. PMID:15141857

  16. Contributions of regional and intercontinental transport to surface ozone in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, M.; Wild, O.; Akimoto, H.

    2011-04-01

    Japan lies downwind of the Asian continent and for much of the year air quality is directly influenced by emissions of ozone precursors over these heavily-populated and rapidly-industrializing regions. This study examines the extent to which oxidant transport from regional and distant anthropogenic sources influences air quality in Japan in springtime, when these contributions are largest. We find that European and North American contributions to surface ozone over Japan in spring are persistent, averaging 3.5±1.1 ppb and 2.8±0.5 ppb respectively, and are greatest in cold continental outflow conditions following the passage of cold fronts. Contributions from China are larger, 4.0±2.8 ppb, and more variable, as expected for a closer source region, and are generally highest near cold fronts preceding the influence of more distant sources. The stratosphere provides a varying but ever-present background of ozone of about 11.2±2.5 ppb during spring. Local sources over Japan and Korea have a relatively small impact on mean ozone, 2.4±7.6 ppb, but this masks a strong diurnal signal, and local sources clearly dominate during episodes of high daytime ozone. By examining the meteorological mechanisms that favour transport from different source regions, we demonstrate that while maximum foreign influence generally does not occur at the same time as the greatest buildup of oxidants from local sources, it retains a significant influence under these conditions. It is thus clear that while meteorological boundaries provide some protection from foreign influence during oxidant outbreaks in Tokyo, these distant sources still make a substantial contribution to exceedance of the Japanese ozone air quality standard in springtime.

  17. Contributions of regional and intercontinental transport to surface ozone in the Tokyo area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, M.; Wild, O.; Akimoto, H.

    2011-08-01

    Japan lies downwind of the Asian continent and for much of the year air quality is directly influenced by emissions of ozone precursors over these heavily-populated and rapidly-industrializing regions. This study examines the extent to which oxidant transport from regional and distant anthropogenic sources influences air quality in Japan in springtime, when these contributions are largest. We find that European and North American contributions to surface ozone over Japan in spring are persistent, averaging 3.5±1.1 ppb and 2.8±0.5 ppb respectively, and are greatest in cold continental outflow conditions following the passage of cold fronts. Contributions from China are larger, 4.0±2.8 ppb, and more variable, as expected for a closer source region, and are generally highest near cold fronts preceding the influence of more distant sources. The stratosphere provides a varying but ever-present background of ozone of about 11.2±2.5 ppb during spring. Local sources over Japan and Korea have a relatively small impact on mean ozone, 2.4±7.6 ppb, but this masks a strong diurnal signal, and local sources clearly dominate during episodes of high daytime ozone. By examining the meteorological mechanisms that favour transport from different source regions, we demonstrate that while maximum foreign influence generally does not occur at the same time as the greatest buildup of oxidants from local sources, it retains a significant influence under these conditions. It is thus clear that while meteorological boundaries provide some protection from foreign influence during oxidant outbreaks in Tokyo, these distant sources still make a substantial contribution to exceedance of the Japanese ozone air quality standard in springtime.

  18. Enhanced Surveillance for the Sports Festival in Tokyo 2013: Preparation for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Shimatani, Naotaka; Sugishita, Yoshiyuki; Sugawara, Tamie; Nakamura, Yuuki; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Yamagishi, Takuya; Matsui, Tamano; Kawano, Masashi; Watase, Hirotoshi; Morikawa, Yukiko; Oishi, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced surveillance was conducted during the Sports Festival in Tokyo 2013 (September 28-October 14, 2013) for early detection of outbreaks of infectious diseases and other health emergencies. Through this enhanced surveillance, 15 cases were found that required additional gathering of information outside the routine process of creating/evaluating the Daily Report. However, none of these was assessed as critical. Through the enhanced surveillance, we structured a framework that allows for earlier response when detecting aberrations. It includes the role of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government in communications and contacts with relevant parties such as public health centers, as well as in monitoring of surveillance data. However, some issues need to be further considered toward the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games, such as establishing the criteria for additional response steps, increasing the number of participating bodies in syndromic surveillance, and strengthening of cooperation with related departments, including those for crisis management assuming potential biological/chemical terrorism. PMID:25672404

  19. 5. View of Community Hall, first floor interior, entrance hall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Community Hall, first floor interior, entrance hall on east side of building, facing southeast. Ticket booth center foreground, stairway to auditorium right foreground. - Community Hall, Rainier Avenue & View Drive, Port Gamble, Kitsap County, WA

  20. Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-01-15

    The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

  1. 52. GREAT HALL, LOOKING NORTH THROUGH STAIR HALL TO NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. GREAT HALL, LOOKING NORTH THROUGH STAIR HALL TO NORTH VESTIBULE DOORS - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. International Family Profiles and Parental School Choice in Tokyo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velliaris, Donna M.; Willis, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of being an "international" citizen is one that describes an increasing number of people worldwide. This has implications for the educational experiences of many students, which can be reflected in the school choices made by their parents. As part of this study, "international" parents residing in Tokyo were…

  3. Japan's Poetry Boxers Get Ready to Grumble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that in Japan, a scholar of communications, in the hope of getting people to talk with one another, holds "boxing" competitions in which the blows are thrown verbally, in verse. In a crowded Yokohama hall, boxers file into a ring watched by cheering students and a panel of university professors. Nobody is predicting a winner,…

  4. Hall effect in hopping regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonin, A.; Skupiński, P.; Grasza, K.

    2016-02-01

    A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO.

  5. Evolution from education to practical use in University of Tokyo's nano-satellite activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasuka, Shinichi; Sako, Nobutada; Sahara, Hironori; Nakamura, Yuya; Eishima, Takashi; Komatsu, Mitsuhito

    2010-04-01

    The paper overviews recent nano-satellite development activities of University of Tokyo, Intelligent Space Systems Laboratory (ISSL). Development of real satellites and actually launching them provides excellent materials for space engineering education as well as project management, which is rather difficult to teach in usual class lectures. In addition, it may lead to a new way of space development with its cheap and quick access to space. Two educational CubeSats were launched successfully in 2003 and 2005, and they have been surviving in space more than 5 years, which showed that the COTS (commercial off the shelf) can be reliably used in space if the system is designed appropriately. Based on the experiences and technologies obtained in CubeSat projects, ISSL initiated practical applications of nano-satellite, starting with PRISM, 8 kg remote sensing satellite aiming for 30 m ground resolution and Nano-JASMINE, 20 kg astrometry satellite, which will be launched in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In order to support these kinds of student-oriented activities in Japan, University Space Engineering Consortium (UNISEC) was founded in 2002 by the author's group, which has had large effect of further facilitating students' space-related activities in Japan. Significance and history of such activities are reviewed briefly, followed by the objectives and future vision of such nano-satellite activities.

  6. Seismic activity of Tokyo area and Philippine Sea plate under Japanese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Nanjo, K.; Kasahara, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.; Kurashimo, E.; Obara, K.; Hirata, N.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Japanese government has estimated the probability of earthquake occurrence with magnitude 7-class during the next 30 years as 70 %. This estimation is based on five earthquakes that occurred in this area in the late 120 years. However, it has been revealed that this region is lying on more complicated tectonic condition due to the two subducted plates and the various types of earthquakes which have been caused by. Therefore, it is necessary to classify these earthquakes into inter-plate earthquakes and intra-plate ones. Then, we have been constructing a seismic observation network since 5 years ago. Tokyo Metropolitan area is a densely populated region of about 40 million people. It is the center of Japan both in politics and in economy. So that human activities have been conducting quite busily, this region is unsuitable for seismic observation. Then, we have decided to make an ultra high dense seismic observation network. We named it the Metropolitan Seismometer Observation Network; MeSO-net. MeSO-net consists of 296 seismic stations. Minimum interval is about 2km and average interval is about 5km.We picked the P- and S-wave arrival times manually. We applied double-difference tomography method to the dataset and estimated the velocity structure. We depicted the plate boundaries from the newly developed velocity model. And, we referred to the locations of the repeating earthquakes, the distributions of normal hypocenters and the focal mechanisms. Our plate model became relatively flat and a little shallower than previous one.Seismicity of Metropolitan area after the M9 event was compared to the one before M9 event. The seismic activity is about 4 times as high as before the M9 event occurred. We examined spatial distribution of the activated seismicity with respect to the newly developed plate configuration. The activated events are located on upper boundaries and they have almost thrust type mechanisms. Recently, a slow slip event has occurred on October in

  7. Hall of Fame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Rancho Unified School District, Pico Rivera, CA.

    A Hall of Fame was established by the El Rancho Unified School District (California) to identify and honor graduates of the school district who have graduated more than 15 years ago, who have achieved recognition in their chosen field, and who would bring honor to the school district in its honoring of them. Nominees for the Hall of Fame were…

  8. Pulsed hall thruster system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, Vladimir J. (Inventor); Pote, Bruce M. (Inventor); Gamero-Castano, Manuel (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A pulsed Hall thruster system includes a Hall thruster having an electron source, a magnetic circuit, and a discharge chamber; a power processing unit for firing the Hall thruster to generate a discharge; a propellant storage and delivery system for providing propellant to the discharge chamber and a control unit for defining a pulse duration .tau.<0.1d.sup.3.rho./m, where d is the characteristic size of the thruster, .rho. is the propellant density at standard conditions, and m is the propellant mass flow rate for operating either the power processing unit to provide to the Hall thruster a power pulse of a pre-selected duration, .tau., or operating the propellant storage and delivery system to provide a propellant flow pulse of duration, .tau., or providing both as pulses, synchronized to arrive coincidentally at the discharge chamber to enable the Hall thruster to produce a discreet output impulse.

  9. [Identification of Psychotropic Drugs Attributed to Fatal Overdose--A Case-control Study by Data from the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office and Prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Hikiji, Wakako; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Suzuki, Hideto; Takeshima, Tadashi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2016-01-01

    Drug overdose is a serious public health issue and fatal cases have been reported from various fields of medicine. This case-control analysis assessed the comparison between fatal overdose cases in the special wards of Tokyo Metropolitan area and prescribed psychotropic drugs in Tokyo in 2009-2010. It was suggested that the prescribed drugs serve as a direct cause of death in overdose cases. Furthermore, pentobarbital calcium, chlorpromazine-promethazine-phenobarbital, levomepromazine and flunitrazepam were identified as drugs with a high risk of fatal overdose. It is encouraged to prudently verify the intended application and usage of such psychotropic drugs in each case upon their prescription. This is the first study in Japan to identify psychotropic drugs with a high risk of fatal overdose by case-control study. PMID:27192786

  10. Effect of Environmental Factors on the Relationship between Concentrations of Coprostanol and Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Tropical (Mekong Delta) and Temperate (Tokyo) Freshwaters

    PubMed Central

    Isobe, Kei O.; Tarao, Mitsunori; Chiem, Nguyen H.; Minh, Le Y.; Takada, Hideshige

    2004-01-01

    A reliable assessment of microbial indicators of fecal pollution (total coliform, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococcus) is critical in tropical environments. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between concentrations of indicator bacteria and a chemical indicator, coprostanol (5β-cholestan-3β-ol), in tropical and temperate regions. Water samples were collected from the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, during wet and dry seasons, and from Tokyo, Japan, during summer, the aftermath of a typhoon, and winter. During the wet season in the Mekong Delta, higher bacterial densities were observed in rivers, probably due to the higher bacterial inputs from soil particles with runoff. In Tokyo, higher bacterial densities were usually observed during summer, followed by those in the typhoon aftermath and winter. A strong logarithmic correlation between the concentrations of E. coli and coprostanol was demonstrated in all surveys. Distinctive seasonal fluctuations were observed, as concentrations of coprostanol corresponding to 1,000 CFU of E. coli/100 ml were at their lowest during the wet season in the Mekong Delta and the typhoon aftermath in Tokyo (30 ng/liter), followed by the dry season in the Mekong Delta and the summer in Tokyo (100 ng/liter), and they were much higher during the winter in Tokyo (400 ng/liter). These results suggested that E. coli is a specific indicator of fecal contamination in both tropical and temperate regions but that the densities are affected by elevated water temperature and input from runoff of soil particles. The concurrent determination of E. coli and coprostanol concentrations could provide a possible approach to assessing the reliability of fecal pollution monitoring data. PMID:14766559

  11. Absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Hosoda, M; Fukushi, M; Furukawa, M; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    The monitoring of absorbed dose rate in air has been carried out continually at various locations in metropolitan Tokyo after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. While the data obtained before the accident are needed to more accurately assess the effects of radionuclide contamination from the accident, detailed data for metropolitan Tokyo obtained before the accident have not been reported. A car-borne survey of the absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was carried out during August to September 2003. The average absorbed dose rate in air in metropolitan Tokyo was 49±6 nGy h(-1). The absorbed dose rate in air in western Tokyo was higher compared with that in central Tokyo. Here, if the absorbed dose rate indoors in Tokyo is equivalent to that outdoors, the annual effective dose would be calculated as 0.32 mSv y(-1). PMID:25944962

  12. Subjective evaluation of a concert hall's acoustics using a free-format-type questionnaire and comparison with objective measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Toshiyuki; Beranek, Leo L.

    2002-11-01

    A free-format type of audiences' judgment of the acoustical properties of a hall and music critics' writings were used as the basis for this study. These subjective responses are related to the Dai-Ichi Seimei Hall in Tokyo. This hall is an oval-shaped, one-balcony space, seating 767 persons. Its primary use is for various types of chamber music and solo-instrument performances. Eight acoustical attributes were investigated, ''reverberation,'' ''clarity,'' ''loudness,'' ''intimacy,'' ''spaciousness,'' ''balance,'' ''localization,'' and ''timbre,'' plus ''general impression.'' Subjective comments about these attributes were obtained. Objective measurements were made in the hall and are compared with those made in several similar-sized halls of two shapes. In the rear seats of two oval-shaped halls the strength factor GE (determined in the first 80 ms of the impulse response) was greater than the GE found in the rear seats of similar-sized rectangular halls. The subjective results and the objective measurements were closely correlated, especially for reverberation, clarity, and warmth (a subcomponent of timbre). It was suggested that the greater strength GE in the rear seats made the hall seem smaller and thus more intimate. The subjective comments also confirmed the hall's wide applicability, indicating that the acoustical characteristics used for its design were well chosen.

  13. Simmons Hall, Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amelar, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of Simmons Hall, an undergraduate dormitory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects, as well as floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  14. Spontaneous Quantum Hall Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan

    2012-02-01

    Driven by electron-electron interactions, bilayer graphene and its thicker cousins, chirally (ABC) stacked multilayers, exhibit a variety of distinct broken symmetry states in which each spin-valley flavor spontaneously transfers charge between layers, because of their flat touching bands and large pseudospin chiralities. These gapped states are accompanied by large momentum space Berry curvatures and different types of topological orders. These competing ground states are distinguished by their flavor Hall conductivities, orbital magnetizations, edge state properties, and response to external fields. These spontaneous quantum Hall (SQH) states at zero field smoothly evolve into quantum Hall ferromagnet states at finite field. Various phase transitions occur by tuning carrier densities, temperature, and external fields. Recently, SQH states have started to be observed and explored in transport and Hall experiments on suspended devices with dual gates.

  15. Facilty Focus: Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnewell, James F., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Western Ridge Residence at Colorado College and Beard Hall at Wheaton College. The buildings feature multiple levels that take advantage of views and also help create a "homey" feeling. (EV)

  16. Atmospheric fallout of (129)I in Japan before the Fukushima accident: regional and global contributions (1963-2005).

    PubMed

    Toyama, Chiaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    Atmospheric (129)I deposition was studied in different locations of Japan (Akita, Tsukuba, Tokyo, and Ishigaki Island) with samples collected between 1963 and 2005 in order to understand the distribution and sources of this nuclide and provide a reference deposition level prior to the Fukushima accident. Over this time period, the deposition pattern of (129)I in Tsukuba and Tokyo (on the Pacific side) differed from that of Akita (on the Japan Sea side). The primary source of deposition in Tsukuba and Tokyo is related to the (129)I discharge from domestic reprocessing in Tokai-mura. In contrast, the time-series pattern of deposition in Akita seems to have been influenced by (129)I discharges from reprocessing facilities in Europe and the transport of this radionuclide by westerly winds to coastlines of the Japan Sea. The (129)I deposition in Ishigaki (one of the southernmost islands in Japan) is influenced primarily by oceanic air masses (easterly winds), and deposition was 1 order of magnitude lower than that observed in Tsukuba and Tokyo. Cumulative (129)I deposition in Tokyo before the Fukushima accident was estimated at 13 mBq/m(2). The results of this study on deposition contribute to understanding the deposition levels of (129)I prior to the accident. PMID:23829385

  17. Japan Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     ... 2011, and its subsequent tsunami, several oil refineries and industrial complexes caught fire, including facilities in the Port of Sendai ...

  18. Numerical Fluid Dynamics Symposium, 5th, Tokyo, Japan, Dec. 19-21, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    Various papers on numerical fluid dynamics are presented. Individual topics discussed include: numerical analysis (NA) of shock structure problems, CFD development and a future high-speed computer, simulating vortex motion by 3D method, application of CFD to turbomachine design, numerical simulation (NS) of converging shock waves, NS of unsteady 3D shock wave phenomenon, 5th-order accurate compact upwind scheme, development of a multidimensional upwind scheme, fortified solution algorithm, large-eddy simulation of a bound jet, construction of collision model of diatomic molecules, VSL analysis of nonequilibrium flows around a hypersonic body, NA of chemically nonequilibrium flow, topological transition of flow past some axisymmetric bodies, modeling of scalar transport in free turbulence, a contribution to general application of the vortex method. Also addressed are: vortex simulation of artificial control of mixing layers, 3D motion of vortex filaments, Navier-Stokes simulation of 2D mixing layer, active control of vortex shedding frequency by a jet, direct NS of homogeneous turbulent sheer flow, NA of fuel spray jet by Eulerian method, NS of ignition using a premixed pulsed jet, NS of a scram jet combustor flow, numerical simulation of supersonic flow CO chemical laser, adaptive grid generation using optimal control theory, NS of characteristics of the Stalker tube, imcompressible flow solver using velocity vector and a new variable, unsteady analysis of helicopter rotor.

  19. Space Energy Symposium, 3rd, Tokyo, Japan, March 26, 1984, Selected Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are: laser propulsion tests onboard the Space Station; a theoretical and experimental study of a rectenna array for microwave power transmission; and a solar pumped laser for use on the Space Station. Consideration is also given to: cryogenic power distribution on a space-based power station; microwave energy transmission tests for use on the Space Station; a space semiconductor processing factory; and an advanced scheme of CO2 laser propulsion. A conceptual design of a solar-ray supply system; an electric propulsions test on board the Space Station; and a design concept of a offshore receiving station for collecting energy from a space-based power system are also discussed.

  20. Proceedings of the Asian Reading Conference (Tokyo, Japan, August 3-4, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japan Reading Association, Tokyo.

    This proceedings of the 1993 Asian Reading Conference contains the following 20 papers: "Adverse Effects of Lower Cognitive Processing Capacity on Achievement: What Can We Do?" (James M. Furukawa); "The Impact of Foreign Language Literacy on Higher Education in Thailand" (Uthai Piromruen); "Reading Achievement of Students in Selected Secondary…

  1. Diversification of Women's Employment and Training. ILO/Japan Tripartite Seminar Report (Tokyo, Japan, December 8-12, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the work of a seminar that focused attention on the occupational segregation of men and women in developing nations in Asia. Chapters I and II give a summary of the seminar proceedings and the full text of its findings. Chapter III is devoted to five resource papers: "Diversification of Women's Occupations: A Regional…

  2. Characteristics of Japanese and Japanese Americans in Psychotherapy in Japan and the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishio, Kazumi

    In spite of the growing volume of research on Asian Americans since the late 1960's, very little examination in the mental health field has been done of specific groups of Asian Americans. To compare the mental health treatment characteristics of Japanese in Japan and Japanese Americans in the United States, 27 Tokyo therapists and their 120…

  3. Verrucostoma, a new genus in the Bionectriaceae from the Bonin Islands, Japan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verrucostoma freycinetiae gen. et sp. nov. collected on dead leaves of Freycinetia boninensis (Pandanaceae) in Hahajima, Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, Tokyo, Japan, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by having pale orange perithecia with protuberances around the perithecial ap...

  4. Consequences of a Recent Campaign of Criticism against School Sex Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into recent events concerning school sex education in Japan. A campaign of criticism against school sex education emerged in 2002 at both national and regional levels, and included a court case in Tokyo. Despite leaving a depressing atmosphere regarding sex education teaching practices, this campaign also…

  5. Impact of the 2001 Tohoku-oki earthquake to Tokyo Metropolitan area observed by the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, N.; Hayashi, H.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kasahara, K.; Obara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Sato, H.; Okaya, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake brought a great impact to the Tokyo metropolitan area in both seismological aspect and seismic risk management although Tokyo is located 340 km from the epicenter. The event generated very strong ground motion even in the metropolitan area and resulted severe requifaction in many places of Kanto district. National and local governments have started to discuss counter measurement for possible seismic risks in the area taking account for what they learned from the Tohoku-oki event which is much larger than ever experienced in Japan Risk mitigation strategy for the next greater earthquake caused by the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducting beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area is of major concern because it caused past mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. In order to mitigate disaster for greater Tokyo, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area was launched in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions. We will discuss the main results that are obtained in the respective fields which have been integrated to improve information on the strategy assessment for seismic risk mitigation in the Tokyo metropolitan area; the project has been much improved after the Tohoku event. In order to image seismic structure beneath the Metropolitan Tokyo area we have developed Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net; Hirata et al., 2009). We have installed 296 seismic stations every few km (Kasahara et al., 2011). We conducted seismic

  6. Regional Characterization of Tokyo Metropolitan area using a highly-dense seismic network (MeSO-net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Naoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Panayotopoulos, Yannis; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Ishibe, Takeo; Kimura, Hisanori; Honda, Ryou

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a dense seismic network, MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network), which consists of about 300 seismic stations, since 2007 in the greater Tokyo urban region(Hirata et al., 2009). Using MeSO-net data, we obtain P- and S- wave velocity tomograms (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and Qp, Qs tomograms (Panayotopoulos et al., 2014) which show a clear image of Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) and PAcific Plate (PAP). A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 km beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the hypocenter distribution (Ishida, 1992). Based on elastic wave velocities of rocks and minerals, we constructed a petrologic model. The Vp steps in subducting Izu forearc crust occurs at a depth of 30km (blueschist or greenschist to garnet amphibolite transformation) and a depth of 50km (garnet amphibolite to eclogite transformation). Both temperatures are estimated to be 500 and 600 degree C, respectively. The high Vp/Vs anomaly (>1.9) implies large amounts of fluid H2O released by garnet amphibolite to eclogite dehydration reactions. This study is supported by MEXT Japan under the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters.

  7. Prehospital management of sarin nerve gas terrorism in urban settings: 10 years of progress after the Tokyo subway sarin attack.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Kikuchi, Makiko; Takahashi, Osamu; Stein, Gerald H

    2006-02-01

    Chemical agents have been used previously in wartime on numerous occasions, from World War I to the Gulf War. In 1994 and 1995, sarin nerve gas was used first in peacetime as a weapon of terrorism in Japan. The Tokyo subway sarin attack was the first large-scale disaster caused by nerve gas. A religious cult released sarin gas into subway commuter trains during morning rush hour. Twelve passengers died and about 5500 people were harmed. Sarin is a highly toxic nerve agent that can be fatal within minutes to hours. It causes the clinical syndrome of cholinergic hyperstimulation by inhibition of the crucial enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Therapy of nerve agent toxicity is divided into three categories, decontamination, respiratory support, and antidotes. All of these therapies may be given simultaneously. This article reviews toxicology and management of this acute chemical emergency. To help minimize the possible catastrophic impact on the public, we make several recommendations based on analysis of the Tokyo subway sarin attack and systematically review the current scientific literature. PMID:16325985

  8. [Civil engineering education at the Imperial College of Engineering in Tokyo: an analysis based on Ayahiko Ishibashi's memoirs].

    PubMed

    Wada, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    The Imperial College of Engineering (ICE or Kobu-Daigakko) in Tokyo, founded in 1873 under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Works, was one of the most prominent modern institutions of engineering education in early Meiji Japan. Previous studies have revealed that the ICE offered large scale practical training programs at enterprises of the Ministry, which sometimes lasted several months, and praised their ideal combination of theory and practice. In reality, it has been difficult to evaluate the quality of education at the ICE mainly because of scarcity of sources. ICE students published a collection of memoirs for alumni members, commemorating the fiftieth-year of the history of the Tokyo Imperial University. Drawing on the previously neglected collection of students' memoires, this paper appraises the education of civil engineering offered by the ICE. The paper also compares this collection with other official records of the college, and confirms it as a reliable source, even though it contains some minor errors. The author particularly uses the memoirs by Ayahiko Ishibashi, one of the first graduates from its civil engineering course, who left sufficient reminiscences on education that he received. This paper, as a result, illustrates that the main practical training for the students of civil engineering was limited to designing process, including surveying. Furthermore, practical training that Ishibashi received at those enterprises often lacked a plan, and its effectiveness was questionable. PMID:25087447

  9. Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.

  10. Conducting Wall Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Dotson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A unique configuration of the magnetic field near the wall of Hall thrusters, called Magnetic Shielding, has recently demonstrated the ability to significantly reduce the erosion of the boron nitride (BN) walls and extend the life of Hall thrusters by orders of magnitude. The ability of magnetic shielding to minimize interactions between the plasma and the discharge chamber walls has for the first time enabled the replacement of insulating walls with conducting materials without loss in thruster performance. The boron nitride rings in the 6 kW H6 Hall thruster were replaced with graphite that self-biased to near the anode potential. The thruster efficiency remained over 60% (within two percent of the baseline BN configuration) with a small decrease in thrust and increase in Isp typical of magnetically shielded Hall thrusters. The graphite wall temperatures decreased significantly compared to both shielded and unshielded BN configurations, leading to the potential for higher power operation. Eliminating ceramic walls makes it simpler and less expensive to fabricate a thruster to survive launch loads, and the graphite discharge chamber radiates more efficiently which increases the power capability of the thruster compared to conventional Hall thruster designs.

  11. NASA's Hall Thruster Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Jacobson, David T.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Mason, Lee S.; Mantenieks, Maris A.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Hall thruster program has base research and focused development efforts in support of the Advanced Space Transportation Program, Space-Based Program, and various other programs. The objective of the base research is to gain an improved understanding of the physical processes and engineering constraints of Hall thrusters to enable development of advanced Hall thruster designs. Specific technical questions that are current priorities of the base effort are: (1) How does thruster life vary with operating point? (2) How can thruster lifetime and wear rate be most efficiently evaluated? (3) What are the practical limitations for discharge voltage as it pertains to high specific impulse operation (high discharge voltage) and high thrust operation (low discharge voltage)? (4) What are the practical limits for extending Hall thrusters to very high input powers? and (5) What can be done during thruster design to reduce cost and integration concerns? The objective of the focused development effort is to develop a 50 kW-class Hall propulsion system, with a milestone of a 50 kW engineering model thruster/system by the end of program year 2006. Specific program wear 2001 efforts, along with the corporate and academic participation, are described.

  12. [Two Outbreaks of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Infections in Tokyo and the Characterization of Isolates].

    PubMed

    Konishi, Noriko; Ishitsuka, Rie; Yokoyama, Keiko; Saiki, Dai; Akase, Satoru; Monma, Chie; Hirai, Akihiko; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kai, Akemi

    2016-01-01

    Although the number of outbreaks caused by Yersinia enterocolitica has been very small in Japan, 4 outbreaks were occurred during the 2 years between 2012 and 2013. We describe herein 2 outbreaks which were examined in Tokyo in the present study. Outbreak 1: A total of 39 people (37 high school students and 2 staff) stayed at a hotel in mountain area in Japan had experienced abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever in August, 2012. The Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:8 was isolated from 18 (64.3%) out of 28 fecal specimens of 28 patients. The infection roots could not be revealed because Y. enterocolitica was not detected from any meals at the hotel or its environment. Outbreak 2: A total of 52 students at a dormitory had diarrhea and fever in April, 2013. The results of the bacteriological and virological examinations of fecal specimens of patients showed that the Y. enterocolitica serogroup O:8 was isolated from 24 fecal specimens of 21 patients and 3 kitchen staff. We performed bacteriological and virological examination of the stored and preserved foods at the kitchen of the dormitory to reveal the suspect food. For the detection of Y. enterocolitica, food samples. together with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were incubated at 4 degrees C for 21 days. Then, a screening test for Y. enterocolitica using realtime-PCR targeting the ail gene was performed against the PBS culture. One sample (fresh vegetable salad) tested was positive on realtime-PCR. No Y. enterocolitica was isolated on CIN agar from the PBS culture because many bacteria colonies other than Y. enterocolitica appeared on the CIN agar. After the alkaline-treatments of the culture broth or the immunomagnetic beads concentration method using anti-Y. enterocolitica O:8 antibodies, Y. enterocolitica O:8 which was the same serogroup as the patients' isolates was successfully isolated from the PBS culture. The fresh vegetable salad was confirmed as the incrimination food of this outbreak. PMID:27032176

  13. Insomnia as a sequela of sarin toxicity several years after exposure in Tokyo subway trains.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Katsumata, Masao; Suzuki, Hiroko; Li, Qing; Inagaki, Hirofumi; Nakadai, Ari; Shimizu, Takako; Hirata, Kimiko; Hirata, Yukiyo

    2005-06-01

    More than 5,000 passengers on Tokyo subway trains were injured with toxic chemicals including the nerve gas "sarin" on March 20, 1995. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of sarin exposure on insomnia in a cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire concerning sleep-related items was distributed to victims of sarin exposure in October and November, 2003. Questionnaires were completed by 161 of the 163 participants (98.8%), who were selected from 1,500 subjects. Among them, the authors selected 75 women 30 to 69 years of age. Control participants were collected from inhabitants living in Maebachi City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. For the younger exposed group (under 50 yr. of age), percentages of poor sleep, difficulty falling asleep, intermittent awakening, early morning awakening, a feeling of light overnight sleep, and insomnia were significantly higher than those for the control group. In contrast, the older exposed group (ages 50 to 69 years) had significantly higher prevalence of poor sleep, a feeling of light overnight sleep, and early morning awakening for the exposed group when compared with the control group. The high prevalence of insomnia and insomnia-related factors for victims especially under 50 years of age suggests a need for research on sleep quality after sarin exposure. Although posttraumatic stress disorder is assumed to be a psychological effect of exposure to a toxic substance, a cause-and-effect relationship has not been established. PMID:16158698

  14. Cluster analysis for characterization of rainfalls and CSO behaviours in an urban drainage area of Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Kojima, Keisuke; An, Kyoungjin; Furumai, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Combined sewer overflow (CSO) from urban areas is recognized as a major pollutant source to the receiving waters during wet weather. This study attempts to categorize rainfall events and corresponding CSO behaviours to reveal the relationship between rainfall patterns and CSO behaviours in the Shingashi urban drainage areas of Tokyo, Japan where complete service by a combined sewer system (CSS) and CSO often takes place. In addition, outfalls based on their annual overflow behaviours were characterized for effective storm water management. All 117 rainfall events recorded in 2007 were simulated by a distributed model InfoWorks CS to obtain CSO behaviours. The rainfall events were classified based on two sets of parameters of rainfall pattern as well as CSO behaviours. Clustered rainfall and CSO groups were linked by similarity analysis. Results showed that both small and extreme rainfalls had strong correlations with the CSO behaviours, while moderate rainfall had a weak relationship. This indicates that important and negligible rainfalls from the viewpoint of CSO could be identified by rainfall patterns, while influences from the drainage area and network should be taken into account when estimating moderate rainfall-induced CSO. Additionally, outfalls were finally categorized into six groups indicating different levels of impact on the environment. PMID:23925181

  15. Education and management of diabetes at The University of Tokyo Hospital.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Yoko; Ohashi, Ken; Tsukamoto, Kazuhisa; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2011-06-01

    Along with reduced physical activity, increased fat intake, and intensified psychological stresses associated with work and social life, the number of diabetic patients and diabetes-related complications has increased significantly in Japan. Our aim at The University of Tokyo Hospital is to provide comprehensive diabetes treatment, including the use a diabetes handbook with guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes consistent with evidence-based medicine. Diabetes specialists and certified diabetes educators work together to provide the best possible treatment. In addition, we have established a diabetic foot care service for outpatients, with the objective of preventing diabetes-related foot disease. The inpatients wards offer the most ideal diabetes treatments, including diet therapy, exercise therapy, guided self-monitoring of blood glucose, daily body weight measurement, and diabetes seminars. All these services provide guidelines that encourage patient self-management even after discharge from hospital. Management dietitians use food samples and a Food Exchange Table to brief patients about nutrition guidelines. Exercise therapy programs are developed according to the specific needs of each individual patient. We have also established a diabetes seminar series for the patients, to which physicians, nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, clinical laboratory technicians, and other professionals are invited to give talks on their respective areas of expertise. The aim of our ongoing efforts to implement diet and exercise therapies and improve the living habits of the patients is to achieve an ideal standard for diabetes education and management. PMID:21599864

  16. Early psychosis in Asia: Insights from Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Masafumi; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tsujino, Naohisa; Funatogawa, Tomoyuki; Takeshi, Kiyoaki

    2012-03-01

    The largest task for psychiatry in Japan today is the deinstitutionalization of patients with psychiatric disorders. In Japan, all citizens are covered by a national health plan, and about 70% of the total cost is covered by the national health insurance scheme. At present, however, there is still no category for early intervention in the national health reimbursement schedule. Recent research has shown that the mean duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) at seven university hospitals in Japan was 17.6 months. We present data using case vignettes suggesting that pharmacotherapy might be overused in prodromal cases. The concept of an At-Risk Mental State (ARMS)/prodromal state might not yet be widely recognized among Japanese psychiatrists. We outline early intervention initiatives in Japan; The Japanese Society for Prevention and Early Intervention in Psychiatry (JSEIP), and a representative early intervention facility for young people is the "Il Bosco" in Tokyo. There are several leading centers for early intervention research and practice in Japan. Most of them are driven by university departments of psychiatry with respect to both research and clinical activities. The development of services for early intervention is expected to reduce stigmatization, prevent suicide among young persons, and promote general knowledge about mental health. There are several common or similar issues among Asian countries, including service systems, community attitudes to psychiatric illness including stigma, and dependence on pharmacotherapy. PMID:26878953

  17. High Power Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert; Tverdokhlebov, Sergery; Manzella, David

    1999-01-01

    The development of Hall thrusters with powers ranging from tens of kilowatts to in excess of one hundred kilowatts is considered based on renewed interest in high power. high thrust electric propulsion applications. An approach to develop such thrusters based on previous experience is discussed. It is shown that the previous experimental data taken with thrusters of 10 kW input power and less can be used. Potential mass savings due to the design of high power Hall thrusters are discussed. Both xenon and alternate thruster propellant are considered, as are technological issues that will challenge the design of high power Hall thrusters. Finally, the implications of such a development effort with regard to ground testing and spacecraft intecrati'on issues are discussed.

  18. Extraordinary hall balance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. L.; Liu, Y.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Hesjedal, T.; Zhang, J. Y.; Wang, S. G.; Yu, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) effects are at the heart of modern information technology. However, future progress of giant and tunnelling MR based storage and logic devices is limited by the usable MR ratios of currently about 200% at room-temperature. Colossal MR structures, on the other hand, achieve their high MR ratios of up to 106% only at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. We introduce the extraordinary Hall balance (EHB) and demonstrate room-temperature MR ratios in excess of 31,000%. The new device concept exploits the extraordinary Hall effect in two separated ferromagnetic layers with perpendicular anisotropy in which the Hall voltages can be configured to be carefully balanced or tipped out of balance. Reprogrammable logic and memory is realised using a single EHB element. PACS numbers: 85.75.Nn,85.70.Kh,72.15.Gd,75.60.Ej. PMID:23804036

  19. Model of Hall reconnection.

    PubMed

    Malyshkin, Leonid M

    2008-11-28

    The rate of quasistationary, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection is calculated in the framework of incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics, which includes the Hall and electron pressure terms in Ohm's law. The Hall-magnetohydrodynamics equations are solved in a local region across the reconnection electron layer, including only the upstream region and the layer center. In the case when the ion inertial length di is larger than the Sweet-Parker reconnection layer thickness, the dimensionless reconnection rate is found to be independent of the electrical resistivity and equal to di/L, where L is the scale length of the external magnetic field in the upstream region outside the electron layer and the ion layer thickness is found to be di. PMID:19113486

  20. Model of Hall Reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Malyshkin, Leonid M.

    2008-11-28

    The rate of quasistationary, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection is calculated in the framework of incompressible Hall magnetohydrodynamics, which includes the Hall and electron pressure terms in Ohm's law. The Hall-magnetohydrodynamics equations are solved in a local region across the reconnection electron layer, including only the upstream region and the layer center. In the case when the ion inertial length d{sub i} is larger than the Sweet-Parker reconnection layer thickness, the dimensionless reconnection rate is found to be independent of the electrical resistivity and equal to d{sub i}/L, where L is the scale length of the external magnetic field in the upstream region outside the electron layer and the ion layer thickness is found to be d{sub i}.

  1. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2015-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  2. Hall Effect in a Plasma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, W. B.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an apparatus and procedure for conducting an undergraduate laboratory experiment to quantitatively study the Hall effect in a plasma. Includes background information on the Hall effect and rationale for conducting the experiment. (JN)

  3. Hybrid electric vehicles in Europe and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Wyczalek, F.A.

    1996-12-31

    Beginning in 1990, the major automotive passenger vehicle manufacturers once again reexamined the battery powered electric vehicle (EV). This intensive effort to reduce the battery EV to commercial practice focused attention on the key issue of limited vehicle range, resulting from the low energy density and high mass characteristics of batteries, in comparison to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Consequently, by 1995, vehicle manufacturers turned their attention to hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). This redirection of EV effort is highlighted by the focus on experimental hybrid EV displayed at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Tokyo Motor Show in Japan. In Europe the 56th IAA in Frankfurt included twelve or more EV designed for personnel transportation, and among them, two featured hybrid-electric (HEV) systems: the Peugeot turboelectric HEV, and the Opel Ermscher Selectra HEV. In Japan, at the 31st Tokyo Motor Show, among the twenty or more EV on display, seven were hybrid HEV by: Daihatsu, Mitsubishi, Toyota: and, the Suburu, Suzuki, and the Kia KEV4 parallel type HEV. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the key features of these hybrid propulsion systems. Among the conclusions, two issues are evident: one, the focus is on series-type hybrid systems, with the exception of the parallel Suburu and Suzuki HEV, and, two, the major manufacturers are turning to the hybrid concept in their search for solutions to two key EV Issues: limited driving range; and, heating and air conditioning, associated with the low energy density characteristic of batteries.

  4. Deep sequencing analysis of the heterogeneity of seed and commercial lots of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) tuberculosis vaccine substrain Tokyo-172.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takayuki; Maruyama, Fumito; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Maeda, Shinji; Yamamoto, Taro; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Saburo; Ohara, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    BCG, only vaccine available to prevent tuberculosis, was established in the early 20th century by prolonged passaging of a virulent clinical strain of Mycobacterium bovis. BCG Tokyo-172, originally distributed within Japan in 1924, is one of the currently used reference substrains for the vaccine. Recently, this substrain was reported to contain two spontaneously arising, heterogeneous subpopulations (Types I and II). The proportions of the subpopulations changed over time in both distributed seed lots and commercial lots. To maintain the homogeneity of live vaccines, such variations and subpopulational mutations in lots should be restrained and monitored. We incorporated deep sequencing techniques to validate such heterogeneity in lots of the BCG Tokyo-172 substrain without cloning. By bioinformatics analysis, we not only detected the two subpopulations but also detected two intrinsic variations within these populations. The intrinsic variants could be isolated from respective lots as colonies cultured on plate media, suggesting analyses incorporating deep sequencing techniques are powerful, valid tools to detect mutations in live bacterial vaccine lots. Our data showed that spontaneous mutations in BCG vaccines could be easily monitored by deep sequencing without direct isolation of variants, revealing the complex heterogeneity of BCG Tokyo-172 and its daughter lots currently in use. PMID:26635118

  5. Modeling the Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N.J.; Fruchtman, A.

    1998-08-01

    The acceleration of the plasma in the Hall thruster to supersonic velocities is examined by the use of a steady state model. Flows that are smooth across the sonic transition plane are found. The possibility of generating flows in which the acceleration across the sonic plane is abrupt, is also studied.

  6. Laurance David Hall.

    PubMed

    Coxon, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    An account is given of the life, scientific contributions, and passing of Laurance David Hall (1938-2009), including his early history and education at the University of Bristol, UK, and the synthesis and NMR spectroscopy of carbohydrates and other natural products during ∼20 years of research and teaching at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. Lists of graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and sabbatical visitors are provided for this period. Following a generous endowment by Dr. Herchel Smith, Professor Hall built a new Department of Medicinal Chemistry at Cambridge University, UK, and greatly expanded his researches into the technology and applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and zero quantum NMR. MRI technology was applied both to medical problems such as the characterization of cartilage degeneration in knee joints, the measurement of ventricular function, lipid localization in animal models of atherosclerosis, paramagnetic metal complexes of polysaccharides as contrast agents, and studies of many other anatomical features, but also to several aspects of materials analysis, including food analyses, process control, and the elucidation of such physical phenomena as the flow of liquids through porous media, defects in concrete, and the visualization of fungal damage to wood. Professor Hall's many publications, patents, lectures, and honors and awards are described, and also his successful effort to keep the Asilomar facility in Pacific Grove, California as the alternating venue for the annual Experimental NMR Conference. Two memorial services for Professor Hall are remembered. PMID:21763510

  7. Hall Sweet Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2011-01-01

    Many urban and commuter universities have their sights set on students who are unlikely to connect with the college and likely to fail unless the right strategies are put in place to help them graduate. In efforts to improve retention rates, commuter colleges are looking to an unusual suspect: residence halls. The author discusses how these…

  8. The Monty Hall Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Donald; Brown, Thad A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines people's behavior in the Monty Hall Dilemma (MHD), in which a person must make two decisions to win a prize. In a series of five studies, found that people misapprehend probabilities in the MHD. Discusses the MHD's relation to illusion of control, belief perseverance, and the status quo bias. (RJM)

  9. Particulate matter modifies the association between airborne pollen and daily medical consultations for pollinosis in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Shoko; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Stickley, Andrew; Nishihata, Shinichi; Shinsugi, Chisa; Ueda, Kayo; Takami, Akinori; Watanabe, Chiho

    2014-11-15

    Pollen from Japanese cedar (sugi) and cypress (hinoki) trees is responsible for the growing prevalence of allergic rhinitis, especially pollinosis in Japan. Previous studies have suggested that air pollutants enhance the allergic response to pollen in susceptible individuals. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to examine the potential modifying effects of PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the association between pollen concentration and daily consultations for pollinosis. A total of 11,713 daily pollinosis cases (International Classification of Diseases, ICD-10, J30.1) from January to May, 2001-2011, were obtained from a clinic in Chiyoda, Tokyo. Daily pollen counts and the daily mean values of air pollutants (PM2.5, SPM, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) were collected from monitoring stations across Tokyo. The effects of pollen were stratified by the level of PM2.5 and SPM to examine the interaction effect of pollen and particulate pollutants. We found a statistically significant interaction between pollen concentration and PM2.5/SPM. On days with a high level of PM2.5 (>95th percentile), an interquartile increase in the mean cumulative pollen count (an average of 28 pollen grains per cm(2) during lag-days 0 to 5) corresponded to a 10.30% (95%CI: 8.48%-12.16%) increase in daily new pollinosis cases, compared to 8.04% (95%CI: 7.28%-8.81%) on days with a moderate level of PM2.5 (5th-95th percentile). This interaction persisted when different percentile cut-offs were used and was robust to the inclusion of other air pollutants. A similar interaction pattern was observed between SPM and pollen when a less extreme cut-off for SPM was used to stratify the effect of pollen. Our study showed the acute effect of pollen was greater when the concentration of air particulate pollutant, specifically PM2.5 and SPM, was higher. These findings are consistent with the notion that particulate air pollution may act as an adjuvant that promotes allergic disease (i

  10. Nonlocal anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shulei; Vignale, Giovanni

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is a distinctive transport property of ferromagnetic metals arising from spin orbit coupling (SOC) in concert with spontaneous spin polarization. Nonetheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also appears in a nonmagnetic metal in contact with a magnetic insulator. The main puzzle lies in the apparent absence of spin polarized electrons in the non-magnetic metal. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that the scattering of electrons from a rough metal-insulator interface is generally spin-dependent, which results in mutual conversion between spin and charge currents flowing in the plane of the layer. It is the current-carrying spin polarized electrons and the spin Hall effect in the bulk of the metal layer that conspire to generate the AH current. This novel AHE differs from the conventional one only in the spatial separation of the SOC and the magnetization, so we name it as nonlocal AHE. In contrast to other previously proposed mechanisms (e.g., spin Hall AHE and magnetic proximity effect (MPE)), the nonlocal AHE appears on the first order of spin Hall angle and does not rely on the induced moments in the metal layer, which make it experimentally detectable by contrasting the AH current directions of two layered structures such as Pt/Cu/YIG and β -Ta/Cu/YIG (with a thin inserted Cu layer to eliminate the MPE). We predict that the directions of the AH currents in these two trilayers would be opposite since the spin Hall angles of Pt and β -Ta are of opposite signs. Work supported by NSF Grants DMR-1406568.

  11. NASA's 2004 Hall Thruster Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Hall thruster research and development tasks conducted during fiscal year 2004 is presented. These tasks focus on: raising the technology readiness level of high power Hall thrusters, developing a moderate-power/ moderate specific impulse Hall thruster, demonstrating high-power/high specific impulse Hall thruster operation, and addressing the fundamental technical challenges of emerging Hall thruster concepts. Programmatic background information, technical accomplishments and out year plans for each program element performed under the sponsorship of the In-Space Transportation Program, Project Prometheus, and the Energetics Project are provided.

  12. Spin Hall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical

  13. Circadian Variation in Suicide Attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motohashi, Yutaka

    1990-01-01

    Analyzed circadian variations in suicide attempts in Tokyo from 1978 to 1985 from records of Ambulance Service of Tokyo. Findings showed significant circadian variation in suicide attempts which seemed to be associated with endogenous rhythms, such as mood, and daily variation in social activities. Established peak time for suicide attempts as…

  14. Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The southern half of the island of Okinawa, Japan (26.5N, 128.0E) can be seen in this nearly cloud free view. Okinawa is part of the Ryuku Islands which extend from Taiwan northeastward to Kyushu, southernmost of the Japanese Home Islands. The large military base at Kadena, with large runways, is visible near the center of the scene. Kadena is one of several emergency landing sites around the world for the space shuttle.

  15. The Power of Implicit Teaching Practices: Continuities and Discontinuities in Pedagogical Approaches of Deaf and Hearing Preschools in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Akiko; Tobin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Meisei Gakuen, a private school for the deaf in Tokyo, is the only school for the deaf in Japan that uses Japanese Sign Language (JSL) as the primary language of instruction and social interaction. We see Meisei as a useful case for bringing out core issues in Japanese deaf and early childhood education, as well as for making larger arguments…

  16. Relativistic Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco

    2012-03-23

    We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin-Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices and mechanical flywheels and also discuss various fundamental aspects of this phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales, from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black holes. PMID:22540559

  17. Cylindrical geometry hall thruster

    DOEpatents

    Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with a cylindrical geometry, wherein ions are accelerated in substantially the axial direction. The apparatus is suitable for operation at low power. It employs small size thruster components, including a ceramic channel, with the center pole piece of the conventional annular design thruster eliminated or greatly reduced. Efficient operation is accomplished through magnetic fields with a substantial radial component. The propellant gas is ionized at an optimal location in the thruster. A further improvement is accomplished by segmented electrodes, which produce localized voltage drops within the thruster at optimally prescribed locations. The apparatus differs from a conventional Hall thruster, which has an annular geometry, not well suited to scaling to small size, because the small size for an annular design has a great deal of surface area relative to the volume.

  18. Towards the Realization of Geo-Referencing Infrastructure for Dynamic Japan (GRID-Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Hiromichi; Komaki, Kazuo

    2005-03-01

    The recent change of the geodetic reference system of Japan from the Tokyo Datum to the Japanese geodetic Datum 2000 (JGD2000) is an ongoing process to keep the system precise and up-to-date for the various demands of modern society. In the rapidly changing archipelago over tectonic plate converging zones and with the advent of an information society, future directions of the national geodetic reference system require special thought. A combination of GPS and information technology is now leading to the emergence of a Location Base Service (LBS) where positional information plays a key role to relate real space to cyberspace, opening up a geo-information society. Although the basic role of the geodetic reference system to control precise coodinates for surveying never change, a new role to support precise, real-time positioning should be developed. In addition, incessant crustal deformation in Japan should be properly handled by a semi-dynamic correction system for precise surveys with GPS. This paper presents a future design of the national geodetic reference system, introducing the concept of Geo-Referencing Infrastructure for Dynamic Japan (GRID-Japan). Through the partnership of local governments and the private sector, GSI will start the process of realizing the concept of GRID-Japan in the next ten years.

  19. Formation of atmospheric particulate mercury in the Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Masahiro; Marumoto, Kohji

    The sources and formation of atmospheric particulate mercury, Hg(p), in the Tokyo metropolitan area were investigated. Nine municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators are located within 10 km of the study site. Airborne particles >10 μm in diameter were collected on a quartz fiber filter, and Hg(p) was measured by AAS following thermal desorption and gold trap amalgamation. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was also determined using a continuous analyzer employing gold trap amalgamation and AAS. An average Hg(p) level of 0.098±0.051 ng m -3 (3.5±1.4% for total Hg=Hg(p)+TGM) was observed during the period from April 2000-March 2001, and Hg(p) levels tended to decrease during the summer. We investigated the relationship between concentrations of Hg(p) and Pb, a marker element for particles from MSW incineration. The propriety of using Pb as the marker element was verified based on the lead isotope ratios and the relationship between Pb, Cd and Zn concentrations. The results showed that Hg(p) concentration was correlated positively with Pb concentration and negatively with air temperature. On the other hand, the results of chemical leaching treatment for airborne particles indicated that most of the Hg in the particles might exist in the elemental form, Hg 0. This suggests that some of the Hg 0 emitted from MSW incinerators was adsorbed onto MSW incinerator particles in the atmosphere due to an abrupt decrease in temperature after emission, depending on air temperature. Thus, it is likely that the Hg(p) level in the Tokyo metropolitan area is closely related to the gaseous Hg 0 emissions from MSW incinerators. In addition, from the thermodynamic analysis, it is inferred that the formation of Hg(p) is governed by the physical adsorption equilibrium of Hg 0 between gas and particle phases.

  20. Quantum hall ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Akshay

    We study several quantum phases that are related to the quantum Hall effect. Our initial focus is on a pair of quantum Hall ferromagnets where the quantum Hall ordering occurs simultaneously with a spontaneous breaking of an internal symmetry associated with a semiconductor valley index. In our first example ---AlAs heterostructures--- we study domain wall structure, role of random-field disorder and dipole moment physics. Then in the second example ---Si(111)--- we show that symmetry breaking near several integer filling fractions involves a combination of selection by thermal fluctuations known as "order by disorder" and a selection by the energetics of Skyrme lattices induced by moving away from the commensurate fillings, a mechanism we term "order by doping". We also study ground state of such systems near filling factor one in the absence of valley Zeeman energy. We show that even though the lowest energy charged excitations are charge one skyrmions, the lowest energy skyrmion lattice has charge > 1 per unit cell. We then broaden our discussion to include lattice systems having multiple Chern number bands. We find analogs of quantum Hall ferromagnets in the menagerie of fractional Chern insulator phases. Unlike in the AlAs system, here the domain walls come naturally with gapped electronic excitations. We close with a result involving only topology: we show that ABC stacked multilayer graphene placed on boron nitride substrate has flat bands with non-zero local Berry curvature but zero Chern number. This allows access to an interaction dominated system with a non-trivial quantum distance metric but without the extra complication of a non-zero Chern number.

  1. Hall effect magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, J. A.; Beale, H. A.; Spain, I. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A magnetometer which uses a single crystal of bismuth selenide is described. The rhombohedral crystal structure of the sensing element is analyzed. The method of construction of the magnetometer is discussed. It is stated that the sensing crystal has a positive or negative Hall coefficient and a carrier concentration of about 10 to the 18th power to 10 to the 20th power per cubic centimeter.

  2. 27. THIRD FLOOR MAIN HALL FROM SIDE HALL LEADING TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. THIRD FLOOR MAIN HALL FROM SIDE HALL LEADING TO SERVICE STAIRS This hall is lit by three natural sources, the lightwell window of the main stairs visible in the distance, the skylight in the linen closet at the extreme left, and from the glazed openings in the interior and exterior doors of the nurse's room, out of sight to the right. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Modelling Psychological Responses to the Great East Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Incident

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Robin; Takahashi, Masahito; Sun, Shaojing; Gaines, Stanley O.

    2012-01-01

    The Great East Japan (Tōhoku/Kanto) earthquake of March 2011was followed by a major tsunami and nuclear incident. Several previous studies have suggested a number of psychological responses to such disasters. However, few previous studies have modelled individual differences in the risk perceptions of major events, or the implications of these perceptions for relevant behaviours. We conducted a survey specifically examining responses to the Great Japan earthquake and nuclear incident, with data collected 11–13 weeks following these events. 844 young respondents completed a questionnaire in three regions of Japan; Miyagi (close to the earthquake and leaking nuclear plants), Tokyo/Chiba (approximately 220 km from the nuclear plants), and Western Japan (Yamaguchi and Nagasaki, some 1000 km from the plants). Results indicated significant regional differences in risk perception, with greater concern over earthquake risks in Tokyo than in Miyagi or Western Japan. Structural equation analyses showed that shared normative concerns about earthquake and nuclear risks, conservation values, lack of trust in governmental advice about the nuclear hazard, and poor personal control over the nuclear incident were positively correlated with perceived earthquake and nuclear risks. These risk perceptions further predicted specific outcomes (e.g. modifying homes, avoiding going outside, contemplating leaving Japan). The strength and significance of these pathways varied by region. Mental health and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the continuing uncertainties in Japan following the March 2011 events. PMID:22666380

  4. A 5-year activity report from the Oral Cancer Center, Tokyo Dental College.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuharu; Sato, Kazumichi; Yamauchi, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Taiki; Osaka, Ryuta; Kin, Mira; Yoshida, Yoshifumi; Noguchi, Sunaki; Ishizaki, Ken; Takano, Masayuki; Katakura, Akira; Tanaka, Yoichi; Shibahara, Takahiko; Takano, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    The Tokyo Dental College Oral Cancer Center was established on April 1st, 2006 at our Ichikawa General Hospital for the purpose of providing multimodal treatment for oral cancer. This report summarizes the Center's activities over the last 5 years. The total number of oral cancer patients treated was 360 (April 2006 to March 2011), with 205 primary cases. We investigated the following treatment-related items: 1) site, 2) age, 3) sex, 4) pathological examination, 5) staging, 6) systemic disorder, 7) double cancer, 8) treatment, and 9) prognosis. Out of 205 patients, 60% were men and 40% were women. Men in their 60s and women in their 80s were seen the most. The most common site was the tongue, at 42%, followed by the mandibular gingiva, maxillary gingiva, oral floor, and buccal mucosa. Squamous cell carcinomas were seen most frequently, at 94% (15% were stage I, 33% stage II, 15% stage III, and 34% stage IV). The most common treatment method was surgical treatment, at 83%. The 5-year survival rate at all stages was 85.4%. At the Oral Cancer Center, oral surgeons take the initiative in establishing treatment in cooperation with other departments and branches. Since the establishment of the Ambulatory Center for Maxillary Prosthetics in October 2011, 26 patients have undergone treatment. Related departments and branches work in teams, enabling comprehensive treatment, from the preoperative state to postoperative functional recovery. We wish to use these strengths to improve oral cancer treatment in Japan and will continue to work toward providing the best possible care for our patients. PMID:24521553

  5. [Illegal sale of tobacco to minors in Japan].

    PubMed

    Minowa, M; Satomi, H

    1993-01-01

    "The Act for Prohibition of Minors from Smoking" which was enacted in 1990 in Japan, states that a parent who tacitly permits smoking by his/her child, and those who sell tobacco to minors knowing that it is for their own use shall be punished. It is, however, unlikely that retailers is ascertaining the age of buyers who appear to be minors and whether the tobacco is for his/her own use. Purchase of tobacco by minors was tested at tobacco retail shops in Tokyo and Omiya city, a suburban city near Tokyo. A 17-year-old senior high school girl in Omiya and a 14-year-old junior high school boy in Tokyo, both dressed in school uniforms, were asked to buy a pack of Mild Seven, one of the most popular brands of domestic cigarettes in Japan. Both students were instructed to tell their age honestly if they were asked, and if asked, they should say that they themselves would smoke it. In Omiya, among 18 shops attempted, the student was refused tobacco, because of being a minor, at only one shop. At one shop, the student was told to buy tobacco from a vending machine. In Tokyo, at 19 out of 20 shops attempted, the student was able to buy tobacco without any problems. At the only shop where he had problems, he was instructed to buy it from the vending machine belonging to the shop. Although prohibition of sale of tobacco to minors is important, it is clear that such prohibition is by no means effective without a strict enforcement system by both the health sector as well as the police. PMID:8453117

  6. The birth of cosmic ray work in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Systematic studies of cosmic rays in Japan were started when the Nishina Laboratory was established in Riken in 1931, after Nishina came back from the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen. He was already known as an author of Klein-Nishina formula. He spent a great deal of effort to spread modern physics in Japan, inviting Dirac and Heisenberg to give series of lectures at the university of Tokyo, which later established the strong group of theoretical physicists including Yukawa, Tomonaga, Sakata and others. He also spent a great deal of effort in comprehensive studies of cosmic-rays including the precise measurements of the mass of mesons, of the intensity at the deepest underground of 3000 m.w.e., and of other research to be discussed. It is to be noted that the encouragement by the theoretical group of Yukawa, Tomonaga and others stimulated the recovery of the research after World War II in Japan.

  7. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area. PMID:22927655

  8. Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Cities mingle with rugged hills and a dormant volcano in this image of Hokkaido, Japan. This three-dimensional image comes from observations made by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on July 23, 2006. The view is toward the north and slightly east. Green indicates vegetation; beige and gray indicate bare ground, paved surfaces, or buildings; and dark blue indicates water. The water body at the top of the image is the Pacific Ocean. Now dormant, Mount Yotei is a stratovolcano--a symmetrical cone composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks ejected in previous eruptions. It reaches a height of 1,898 meters (6,227 feet), and its summit sports a 700-meter- (2,297-foot-) wide crater. Snow often caps this volcano, but in this summertime shot, the volcano's summit is snow-free. The volcano is also known as Ezo-Fuji for its resemblance to Mount Fuji. As angular patches of gray and beige indicate, urban areas surround the volcano, most notably the city of Kutchan to the northwest. Even when volcanoes remain active, people often settle close to them, drawn by benefits of good soil and mild climates that appear to outweigh the risks. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  9. Teaching Mills in Tokyo: Developing a Sociological Imagination through Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storrs, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    Here I emphasize the applicability of the sociological imagination to an international audience by sharing my journey of teaching sociology in Japan. I found my own sociological imagination helpful in critically evaluating the literature on Japanese higher education and the construction of the Japanese student as a form of Orientalism. As I…

  10. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  11. Hall Effect Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jatin; Balaban, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new imaging method based on the classical Hall effect (HE), which describes the origin of a detectable voltage from a conductive object moving in a magnetic field. HE images are formed using ultrasound imaging techniques in a magnetic field. These images reflect the electrical properties of the sample. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method, images of plastic and biological samples are collected. The contrast mechanism and signal-to-noise issues are discussed. Since electrical parameters vary widely among tissue types and pathological states, HE imaging may be a useful tool for biological research and medical diagnosis. PMID:9444846

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Sheldon-Hall syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions Sheldon-Hall syndrome Sheldon-Hall syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Print All Open All Close All Description Sheldon-Hall syndrome , also known as distal arthrogryposis type 2B, ...

  13. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In the Plains of Tokachi, where the scale of agricultural field was comparatively large in Japan, LANDSAT data with its accuracy have proved to be useful enough to observe the actual condition of agricultural land use and changes more accurately than present methods. Species and ages of grasses in pasture were identified and soils were classified into several types. The actual land cover and ecological environment were remarkably changeable at the rapidly industrialized area by the urbanization in the flat plane and also by the forest works and road construction in the mountainous area. The practical use of the recognition results was proved as the base map of the field survey or the retouching work of the vegetation and land use. There was a 10% cut in cost, labor, and time. Vegetation cover in Tokyo districts was estimated by both the multiregression model and the parametric model. Multicorrelation coefficient between observed value and estimated value was 0.87 and standard deviation was + or - 15%. Vegetation cover in Tokyo was mapped into five levels with equal intervals of 20%.

  14. The University of Tokyo Atacama 1.0-m telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Handa, Toshihiro; Kawara, Kimiaki; Kohno, Kotaro; Minezaki, Takeo; Mitani, Natsuko; Miyata, Takashi; Motohara, Kentaro; Soyano, Takao; Tanabe, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Masuo; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Yoshii, Yuzuru; Bronfman, Leonard; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2008-07-01

    The current status of the University of Tokyo Atacama 1.0m telescope project being constructed at the summit of Co. Chajnantor (5,640m) in Atacama, Chile, will be presented. This is an optical/infrared telescope at the world's highest site. A precipitable water vapor (PWV) amount of 0.4 to 1.3 mm at the summit, much lower than that of 0.9 to 2.8 mm at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. provides excellent atmospheric transmission from the near- to the mid-infrared wavelength. Seeing and weather conditions are confirmed to be suitable for infrared observations at the summit. The telescope is an f/12 Ritchey-Chrétien type with a field of view of 10 arcmin. The telescope is installed in a 6-m dome and controlled from an operation room in a container separated from the dome. The operation room will be directly connected to a base support facility in San Pedro de Atacama by a wireless LAN and a satellite link. A power generator and solar panels are equipped for a main and a back-up power supply, respectively. The ANIR near-infrared camera and the MAX38 mid-infrared camera are equipped on the Cassegrain focus. This telescope will start operation at the beginning of 2009, and will be operated remotely from the base facility in the near future.

  15. Urban earthquake simulation of Tokyo metropolis using full K computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Kohei; Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Hori, Muneo

    2016-04-01

    Reflecting detailed urban geographic information data to earthquake simulation of cities is expected to improve the reliability of damage estimates for future earthquakes. Such simulations require high resolution computation of large and complex domains and thus fast and scalable finite element solver capable of utilizing supercomputers are needed. Targeting massively parallel scalar supercomputers, we have been developing a fast low-ordered unstructured finite element solver by combining multi-precision arithmetic, multi-grid method, predictors, and techniques for utilizing multi-cores and SIMD units of CPUs. In this talk, I will show the developed method and its scalability/performance on the K computer. Together, I will show some small scale measurement results on Intel Haswell CPU servers for checking performance portability. As an application example, I will show an urban earthquake simulation targeted on a 10 km by 9 km area of central Tokyo with 320 thousand structures. Here the surface ground is modeled by 33 billion elements and 133 billion degrees-of-freedom, and its seismic response is computed using the whole K computer with 82944 compute nodes. The fast and scalable finite element method can be applied to earthquake wave propagation problems through earth crust or elastic/viscoelastic crustal deformation analyses and is expected to be useful for improving resolution of such simulations in the future.

  16. Effects of Road Traffic Noise on Inhabitants of Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, T.; Osada, Y.; Kawaguchi, T.; Hoshiyama, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    1997-08-01

    A questionnaire-based study was performed in an area of about 16 ha near a main road in Tokyo to elucidate any relations between road traffic noise and the effects of this noise among women living on both sides of the road. Questions concerned annoyance, sleep disturbance, interference with daily activities, health-related symptoms and disease histories. 366 inhabitants were analyzed. Dose-response relationships were found in high reported responses to noisiness, annoyance, dissatisfaction with the nearby environment and interference with listening to TV, conversation and reading. It was also found that the number of high responses to questions increases clearly at noise levels above 70 dB(A),Leq(24h), with regard to interference with thinking and sleep disturbance (waking during the night), fatigue, headache, gastroenteric disorders, loss of appetite, depression and irritation. Furthermore, there was an increase in reports of disease histories with noise above 70 dB(A) for climacteric disturbances, and at noise above 65 dB(A) for deafness, heart disease and hypercholestrolemia. These all suggest that noise may be related to the health status of inhabitants living in areas with heavy road traffic. A noise level of 65 dB(A) or 70 dB(A) inLeq(24h)was the critical point above which respondents indicated increased effects on health and reports of disease increased.

  17. Residence Hall Seating That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiens, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Describes the seating chosen for residence halls at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of New England. The seating required depends on ergonomics, aesthetics, durability, cost, and code requirements. In addition, residence halls must have a range of seating types to accommodate various uses. (SLD)

  18. Chapin Hall Center for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Univ., IL. Chapin Hall Center for Children.

    This document consists of two separate publications: (1) "The Power of Knowing", a brief 12-page description of the Chapin Hall Center for Children, and (2) "Projects and Publications", a 67-page list of the center's projects and publications as of Autumn 1997. "The Power of Knowing" describes the Chapin Hall Center for Children at the University…

  19. Predictors of Residence Hall Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arboleda, Ana; Wang, Yongyi; Shelley, Mack C., II; Whalen, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    Residence hall students' (N = 1,186, 52% male, 90% White, 66% freshmen) involvement in their living community is influenced significantly by precollege student characteristics (gender, ethnicity), classification, attitudes (toward hall director, house cabinet, academic comfort, social environment, group study), and environmental variables (noise,…

  20. NASA's Hall Thruster Program 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Jacobson, David T.; Pinero, Luis R.; Manzella, David H.; Hofer, Richard R.; Peterson, Peter Y.

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Hall thruster program currently supports a number of tasks related to high power thruster development for a number of customers including the Energetics Program (formerly called the Space-based Program), the Space Solar Power Program, and the In-space Propulsion Program. In program year 2002, two tasks were central to the NASA Hall thruster program: 1) the development of a laboratory Hall thruster capable of providing high thrust at high power-, and 2) investigations into operation of Hall thrusters at high specific impulse. In addition to these two primary thruster development activities, there are a number of other on-going activities supported by the NASA Hall thruster program. These additional activities are related to issues such as high-power power processor architecture, thruster lifetime, and spacecraft integration.

  1. Outline of geophysical investigations on the great earthquake in the south-west Japan on Dec. 21, 1946

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagata, Takeshi

    1947-01-01

    In in the early morning of Dec. 21, 1946, a great destructive earthquake occurred in southern-western Japan. According to the seismogram obtained in our university, the earthquake motion began at Tokyo from 4 h 20 m 10.4 s on Dec. 21, 1946. The maximum amplitude of NS, EW, and up-down components of the earthquake motion at Tokyo was 12.0 mm, 14.0 mm and 3.0 mm respectively, while the initial motion was composed of 80 μ south, 67 μ west and 20 μ down movements.

  2. Changing population structure and commuting situation in Tokyo Megalopolis: a municipality-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, R; Umezaki, M

    1993-06-01

    Census data was analyzed for 20 municipalities along the Tohoku Line in Tokyo Megalopolis to elucidate the changes in the population structure and the commuting situation in the last two decades. The major findings were: (1) the changing pattern of population structure markedly varied among the municipalities, and (2) the long-distance commuting workers have increased particularly among those 50 km or more from central Tokyo. PMID:8064153

  3. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

  4. Improved Hall type thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetch, Joseph R.; See-pok Wong, Britt, Edward J.; McCracken, Kevin J.; Lin, Raymond; Petrosov, Valeri; Koroteev, Anatoli

    1995-01-01

    An improved design of the Hall type stationary plasma thruster has been tested in 1994. The test results are presented. The test measures performance, EMI and beam divergence of two models of thrusters from the Russian Keldysh Scientific-Research Institute of Thermal Processes. The first of these engines, T-100 produces 80 mN thruster with power of 1.35 kWe. The other thruster, T-160 is larger and produces 280 nM thrust with 4.5 kWe. Endurance testing of the T-100 for 2000 hours was completed at NIITP. Post operation wear measurements indicate that the insulator life expectency will exceed the 8000 hour design life objective. Improved efficiencies of 48 to 52% were measured for the T-100 and 58-62% (with elevated tank pressure) for the T-160 at specific impulse Isp of 1600 seconds and 2000 seconds respectively.

  5. Oxidation of Reactive Nitrogen and Ozone Production in Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, M.; Kondo, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.; Morino, Y.; Takegawa, N.; Miyakawa, T.; Komazaki, Y.; Tanimoto, H.; Yokouchi, Y.; Kanaya, Y.; McKenzie, R.; Johnston, P.

    2005-12-01

    Ground based measurements of NOx (NO + NO2), nitric acid (HNO3), particulate nitrate (NO3-), peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs), and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) were conducted in Tokyo in winter (January-February 2004), summer (July-August 2003 and 2004), and fall (October 2003). Carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and actinic flux were also measured during these periods. Average mixing ratios of these species and the NOx/NOy, HNO3/NOy, NO3-/NOy, and PANs/NOy ratios showed distinct diurnal-seasonal variations. The NOx/NOy ratios were 0.63-0.95 on high J(O1D) days, and 0.77-0.94 on low J(O1D) days. In summer and winter, total nitrate (TN = HNO3 + NO3-) was the dominant form of the NOx oxidation products (NOz = NOy - NOx) during the daytime on high J(O1D) days, and PANs were minor component species. The partitioning of TN was controlled mainly by temperature and the shit of the partitioning to NO3- at low temperature suppressed removal of NOy by dry deposition of HNO3. Removal rate of NOy is estimated using CO as a tracer. The estimated loss of NOy (LNOy) was largest during the daytime in summer (35%), while smallest (0%) in winter. The corrected ozone production efficiency (OPEx), which is defined as the linear regression slope of the observed Ox (= O3 + NO2) versus NOz* (= NOz + LNOy), is estimated to be 2.5. The estimated OPEx is slightly lower than those obtained in the U.S. urban air, which is probably due to lower ratios of NMHCs to NOx in this study. Possible factors controlling the OPEx will be discussed in detail.

  6. Seismic velocity discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area inferred from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, T.; Sakai, S.; Hirata, N.

    2010-12-01

    We apply receiver function (RF) analyses to estimate the seismic velocity structure and seismic velocity discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, central Japan. Destructive earthquakes often occurred at various places including the subducting Philippine Sea plate (PSP), the subducting Pacific plate (PAP), and inland earthquake in this area. Investigation on the crustal structure and configurations of the subducting plates is the key to understanding the stress and strain concentration process and important to mitigate future earthquake disasters. A RF analysis is widely used to estimate velocity discontinuities in the crust and mantle beneath each seismic station. However, crustal structure beneath the Kanto plain could not be analyzed for lack of applicable seismic stations. Recently, comprehensive surveys are conducted as the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area from 2007. The Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) is constructed under this project. In this study, we searched for the best correlated velocity structure model between an observed RF at each station and synthetic ones by using a grid search method. Synthetic RFs calculated from assumed many one-dimensional velocity structures which consisting of four layers. We further constructed the vertical cross-sections of depth converted RF images transformed the lapse time of time series to depth by using the estimated structure models. MeSO-net data and telemetric seismographic network data operated by NIED, JMA and ERI are used. We used events with magnitudes greater or equal to 5.0 and epicentral distances between 30 and 90 degrees based on USGS catalogues. As a result, we clarify spatial distributions of the crustal S-wave velocities. The Boso Peninsula and Kanto plain are covered in the thick low-velocity sediment layers. We image standard velocity distributions in the deep crust of the Boso Peninsula

  7. Tuning giant anomalous Hall resistance ratio in perpendicular Hall balance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J. Y.; Yang, G.; Wang, S. G. E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Liu, J. L.; Wang, R. M.; Amsellem, E.; Kohn, A.; Yu, G. H. E-mail: ghyu@mater.ustb.edu.cn

    2015-04-13

    Anomalous Hall effect at room temperature in perpendicular Hall balance with a core structure of [Pt/Co]{sub 4}/NiO/[Co/Pt]{sub 4} has been tuned by functional CoO layers, where [Pt/Co]{sub 4} multilayers exhibit perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. A giant Hall resistance ratio up to 69 900% and saturation Hall resistance (R{sub S}{sup P}) up to 2590 mΩ were obtained in CoO/[Pt/Co]{sub 4}/NiO/[Co/Pt]{sub 4}/CoO system, which is 302% and 146% larger than that in the structure without CoO layers, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy shows highly textured [Co/Pt]{sub 4} multilayers and oxide layers with local epitaxial relations, indicating that the crystallographic structure has significant influence on spin dependent transport properties.

  8. Even-denominator fractional quantum Hall physics in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smet, Jurgen

    2015-03-01

    The study of even denominator fractional quantum Hall physics has for a long time been the exclusive privilege of the III-V semiconductor community. Its discovery at filling 5/2 and 7/2 in GaAs unleashed a flood of theoretical as well as experimental work, because these states are in essence thought to be p-wave superconducting ground states possessing non-abelian excitations. Recently however even-denominator fractional quantum Hall physics has been observed outside of the realm of III-V heterostructures in the emergent ZnO 2D electron system. ZnO not only exhibits a robust quantum Hall state at filling 7/2, but also at unconventional fillings. There is an incipient 9/2 state in perpendicular field and a fully resolved 3/2-state emerges when tilting. The latter is believed to be, just like the 7/2 state, a genuine single component state analogous to the 5/2 and 7/2 states in GaAs. Alternatively, it could be a two component spin state, a variant two-component state that has not previously been reported. The use of ZnO for investigating this even denominator FQH-physics offers a powerful additional degree of freedom. Because the Zeeman splitting and the cyclotron energy are comparable, it is possible to alter the orbital character of the partially filled level at fixed filling by tilting the sample. Our studies show unequivocally that the orbital nature of the partially filled level is crucial for the appearance of even-denominator fractional quantum Hall physics. While a basic understanding has been developed, key features remain to be understood with the spin degree of freedom likely playing a prominent role. This work has been performed together with J. Falson (University of Tokyo), D. Maryenko (RIKEN), B. Friess (MPI-FKF), D. Zhang (MPI-FKF), Y. Kozuka (University of Tokyo), A. Tsukazaki (Tohuku University and JST), M. Kawasaki (University of Tokyo and RIKEN).

  9. Multilayer thin film Hall effect device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N. (Inventor); Sisk, R. Charles (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A Hall effect device and a method of obtaining a magnetic field map of a magnetic body with the Hall effect device are presented. The device comprises: (1) a substrate, (2) a first layer having a first Hall coefficient deposited over the substrate, and (3) a second layer having a second Hall coefficient deposited over the first layer, the first and second layers cooperating to create, in the Hall effect device, a third Hall coefficient different from the first and second Hall coefficients. Creation of the third Hall coefficient by cooperation of the first and second layers allows use of materials for the first and second layers that were previously unavailable for Hall effect devices due to their relatively weak Hall coefficient.

  10. Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008: The need of Asian pharmaceutical researchers' cooperation.

    PubMed

    Nakata, M; Tang, W

    2008-10-01

    The Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008 (JCMWDDT 2008) was held from September 29 to October 1, 2008 at The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. JCMWDDT is an international workshop that is mainly organized by Asian editorial members of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (http://www.ddtjournal.com/home) for the purpose of promoting research exchanges in the field of drug discovery and therapeutic. This year's JCMWDDT is the second workshop and focused particularly on novel development and technological innovation of anti-influenza agents. The workshop began with an announcement by the Japanese Co-chairperson, Dr. Sekimizu (Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editorin- Chief of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics, DDT) followed by a speech by the Chinese Co-chairperson, Dr. Wenfang Xu (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Editor in China Office of DDT), with additional speeches by Dr. Norio Matsuki (The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editor of DDT) and Dr. Guanhua Du (Chinese Academy of Medical Science, China; Editor of DDT). Fifty-nine titles were presented in 6 specialized sessions (Research Advances in Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics, Drug Synthesis/Clinical Therapeutics, Medicinal Chemistry/Natural Products, Anti-influenza Drugs, Anti-infection/antiviral Drugs, Biochemistry/Molecular Biology /Pharmacology) and a poster session (Drug Discov Ther 2008; 2, Suppl; available at http://www.ddtjournal.com/Announce/index.htm). An annual outbreak of avian influenza in Asian countries including China and Japan has sparked fears that the virus will mutate and then cause an epidemic in humans. Therefore, Asian researchers need to work together to control this infection. This year's JCMWDDT helped provide an

  11. [Tuberculosis control of urban areas in Japan].

    PubMed

    2000-10-01

    The rates of tuberculosis remain high in urban areas. The declining speed of tuberculosis incidence rate in urban areas has been slower than other areas. Efforts and resources to tuberculosis control must be concentrated on urban locations to eradicate tuberculosis in Japan. 1. Tuberculosis control in a public health center of urban area: Teru OGURA and Chiyo INOGUCHI (Toshima City, Ikebukuro Public Health Center, Tokyo Metropolitan) A wide range of TB control measures is implemented by public health centers, such as a patient registration, home-visit guidance, contact examination in urban areas. Directors of every health center have the direct responsibility for tuberculosis control measures in their jurisdiction. Ikebukuro is urban areas where there are many offices, shopping and amusement facilities. Urban people is often on the move looking for job, so public health centers are often not easy to carry out contact examinations as planned. In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem. Their incidence of tuberculosis is high. Special TB control program must be carried out in urban areas. 2. Tuberculosis Control in Tokyo Metropolitan: Kazumasa MATSUKI (Department of Infectious Diseases and Tuberculosis, Bureau of Public Health, Tokyo Metropolitan) There has been a steady decline in the TB wards. The beds for TB patients are running short and even smear positive TB cases cannot be put in a hospital without waiting several days. Staffs of an urban emergency department must protect tuberculosis infection by environmental controls of emergency room. Tokyo Metropolitan government supports the engineering improvements of emergency room to hospitals. Directly observed therapy for tuberculosis patients at a district has been implemented to complete their therapy. On DOT, a trained health worker observes the patient take anti-TB medication. 3. Usefulness of Molecular Epidemiologic approach on Tuberculosis Control: Atsushi HASE (Osaka

  12. Martin Hall Receives Inventors Award

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    In this photograph, Marshall Space Flight Center Director, Dr. Wernher von Braun, presents a Co-Inventor's award to MSFC employee Martin Hall of the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory during the NASA Anniversary ceremony.

  13. Assessing change of environmental dynamics by legislation in Japan, using red tide occurrence in Ise Bay as an indicator.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chika

    2016-01-30

    Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay, and the Seto Inland Sea are the total pollutant load control target areas in Japan. A significant correlation between the incidence of red tides and water quality has been observed in the Seto Inland Sea (Honjo, 1991). However, while red tides also occur in Ise Bay and Tokyo Bay, similar correlations have not been observed. Hence, it is necessary to understand what factors cause red tides to effectively manage these semi-closed systems. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the dynamics of the Red Tide Index and nitrogen regulation as well as phosphorus regulation, even in Ise Bay where, unlike Tokyo Bay, there are few observation items, by selecting a suitable objective variable. The introduction of a new technique that uses the Red Tide Index has revealed a possibility that the total pollution load control has influenced the dynamics of red tide blooms in Ise Bay. PMID:26337227

  14. [Epidemiological studies of air pollution and health effects in areas near roadways with heavy traffic in Tokyo].

    PubMed

    Ono, M; Murakami, M; Nitta, H; Nakai, S; Maeda, K

    1990-05-01

    Recent concern regarding health effects of air pollution in Japan has concentrated mainly on traffic-induced air pollution and its health effects in large cities. In Japan, where many people in large cities have been living near major roadways, the increase of automobile exhaust due to heavy traffic congestion will predictably cause a greater impact on people living near major roadways. We surveyed the characterization of residential suspended particulate matter (SPM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations along the major roadways in Tokyo, along with a health survey on the respiratory conditions of residents living in the same area, to examine the relationships between indoor pollutant levels, prevalence of respiratory symptoms and distance from roadways. The environmental monitoring was conducted in five phases. Using a newly developed SPM sampler and NO2 filter badge, continuous 4 day (96 hours) measurements were conducted in two hundred residential homes for four weeks. NO2 was measured in the living room, kitchen and outside of each home, while SPM was monitored in the living room. Health information was collected in October 1987 using ATS-DLD self-administered questionnaires. Of the 1,093 homes investigated, responses from 805 homes were received. The following results were obtained. SPM and NO2 concentrations showed large variations. Indoor pollution levels mostly depended on indoor sources, i.e. cigarette smoking and unventilated space heaters, and the effects of those indoor sources were influenced by the building structure with respect to air tightness. An association between increase in pollutant levels and the distance from the roadway was observed. However its effect is small compared to indoor source effects. The prevalence rate of respiratory symptoms was higher in those areas nearest roadways with heavy traffic both in children and adults. These results suggest the presence of a relationship between automobile exhaust and health effects. PMID

  15. Anomalous Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaosa, Naoto; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, Shigeki; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.

    2010-04-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) occurs in solids with broken time-reversal symmetry, typically in a ferromagnetic phase, as a consequence of spin-orbit coupling. Experimental and theoretical studies of the AHE are reviewed, focusing on recent developments that have provided a more complete framework for understanding this subtle phenomenon and have, in many instances, replaced controversy by clarity. Synergy between experimental and theoretical works, both playing a crucial role, has been at the heart of these advances. On the theoretical front, the adoption of the Berry-phase concepts has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall currents. On the experimental front, new experimental studies of the AHE in transition metals, transition-metal oxides, spinels, pyrochlores, and metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors have established systematic trends. These two developments, in concert with first-principles electronic structure calculations, strongly favor the dominance of an intrinsic Berry-phase-related AHE mechanism in metallic ferromagnets with moderate conductivity. The intrinsic AHE can be expressed in terms of the Berry-phase curvatures and it is therefore an intrinsic quantum-mechanical property of a perfect crystal. An extrinsic mechanism, skew scattering from disorder, tends to dominate the AHE in highly conductive ferromagnets. The full modern semiclassical treatment of the AHE is reviewed which incorporates an anomalous contribution to wave-packet group velocity due to momentum-space Berry curvatures and correctly combines the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic (skew-scattering and side-jump) scattering-related mechanisms. In addition, more rigorous quantum-mechanical treatments based on the Kubo and Keldysh formalisms are reviewed, taking into account multiband effects, and demonstrate the equivalence of all three linear response theories in the metallic regime. Building on results from recent experiment and theory, a

  16. Screening examination and treatment of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in judo athletes affiliated with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Suganami, Morio; Ogawa, Yumi Shiraki; Hiruma, Masataro; Ogawa, Hideoki

    2011-07-01

    In Japan, Trichophyton tonsurans infection has become an increasing problem among combat sports participants. We investigated the prevalence of T. tonsurans infection in athletes affiliated to judo clubs in the 21 First Division universities that were registered with the University Judo Federation of Tokyo in 2008. Study procedures performed by the subjects included (i) completion of a questionnaire concerning lifestyle, risk factors for tinea corporis and medical history; (ii) scrubbing the scalp with a circular hairbrush to obtain samples for fungal culture; (iii) anti-fungal treatment as recommended by a dermatologist, based on the number of fungal colonies isolated from the hairbrush; and (iv) repeat testing using the hairbrush method 3 months after treatment recommendations were received. Of 902 study subjects, 102 (11.3%) yielded positive hairbrush culture results. Of these, 14 individuals (13.7%) had tinea corporis; the remainder were asymptomatic. Conversion to negative fungal culture was observed in 85 of 96 culture-positive individuals who performed the second hairbrush culture test following treatment. Control of T. tonsurans infection among judo athletes could be achieved by educating athletes, trainers and coaches in judo clubs concerning detection, prevention, and treatment of T. tonsurans infection. PMID:20002880

  17. Effects of combined sewer overflow and stormwater on indicator bacteria concentrations in the Tama River due to the high population density of Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Ham, Young-Sik; Kobori, Hiromi; Takasago, Masahisa

    2009-05-01

    The indicator bacteria (standard plate count, total coliform, and fecal coliform bacteria) concentrations have been investigated using six ambient habitats (population density, percent sewer penetration, stream flow rate (m(3)/sec), percent residential area, percent forest area and percent agricultural area) in the Tama River basin in Tokyo, Japan during June 2003 to January 2005. The downstream and tributary Tama River showed higher concentrations of TC and FC bacteria than the upstream waters, which exceeded an environmental quality standard for rivers and a bathing water quality criterion. It was estimated that combined sewer overflow (CSO) and stormwater effluents contributed -4-23% to the indicator bacteria concentrations of the Tama River. The results of multiple regression analyses show that the indicator bacteria concentrations of Tama River basin are significantly affected by population density. It is concluded that the Tama River received a significant bacterial contamination load originating from the anthropogenic source. PMID:18484184

  18. Optimization of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Yevgeny Raitses, Artem Smirnov, Erik Granstedt, and Nathaniel J. Fi

    2007-07-24

    The cylindrical Hall thruster features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, and ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel with performance comparable with the state-of-the-art annular Hall thrusters. These characteristics were demonstrated in low and medium power ranges. Optimization of miniaturized cylindrical thrusters led to performance improvements in the 50-200W input power range, including plume narrowing, increased thruster efficiency, reliable discharge initiation, and stable operation. __________________________________________________

  19. Optimization of Cylindrical Hall Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    Yevgeny Raitses, Artem Smirnov, Erik Granstedt, and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2007-11-27

    The cylindrical Hall thruster features high ionization efficiency, quiet operation, and ion acceleration in a large volume-to-surface ratio channel with performance comparable with the state-of-the-art annular Hall thrusters. These characteristics were demonstrated in low and medium power ranges. Optimization of miniaturized cylindrical thrusters led to performance improvements in the 50-200W input power range, including plume narrowing, increased thruster efficiency, reliable discharge initiation, and stable operation.

  20. Automated quantum Hall resistance standard

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, B.

    1994-12-31

    For precision quantized Hall resistance measurements quantum Hall effect samples have to be checked according to the CCE-guidelines. To perform these checks an automated measuring system is described, which is able to examine and characterize various samples. With these measurements a calibration of a precision 10 k{Omega} resistance standard is obtained with an uncertainty of better than 5 x 10{sup -8} (1 {sigma}) using a long-scale digital multimeter.

  1. Not your grandfather's concert hall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Russell; Malenka, Richard; Griffith, Charles; Friedlander, Steven

    2001-05-01

    The opening of Judy and Arthur Zankel Hall on 12 September 2003, restores Andrew Carnegie's original 1891 concept of having three outstanding auditoriums of different sizes under one roof, and creates a 21st-century venue for music performance and education. With concerts ranging from early music to avant-garde multimedia productions, from jazz to world music, and from solo recitals to chamber music, Zankel Hall expands the breadth and depth of Carnegie Hall's offerings. It allows for the integration of programming across three halls with minifestivals tailored both to the size and strengths of each hall and to the artists and music to be performed. The new flexible space also provides Carnegie Hall with an education center equipped with advanced communications technology. This paper discusses the unique program planned for this facility and how the architects, theatre consultants, and acousticians developed a design that fulfilled the client's expectations and coordinated the construction of the facility under the floor of the main Isaac Stern Auditorium without having to cancel a single performance.

  2. Japan wields industrial policy to try to become the world leader in environmental technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jubak, J.; D`Amico, M.

    1993-12-31

    From the Shinkansen, the famous Japanese bullet train, it is hard to see much besides the urban and industrial sprawl of twentieth-century Japan. As the rain speeds out of Tokyo, it passes miles of undistinguished houses on narrow, drab streets. Even the few remaining tilled gardens seem dispirited. Mt. Fuji rises out of this techno-industrial plain like a half-remembered woodcut of traditional Japan, the Japan of spring green rice fields, an bunraku puppets, and purple iris against century-old pines. At the right hour, even from the train, the sun seems to guild its peak. Of course, nobody who knows Japan would be surprised to learn that the government is seriously considered a proposal to build a four-story, 500-vehicle parking garage halfway up the slope.

  3. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE DAMAGE RATIOS OF WOODEN HOUSES AND WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPES AFTER THE SCENARIO TOKYO METROPOLITAN EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Yoshihisa; Yamazaki, Fumio

    This study estimated the damage ratios of wooden houses and water distribution pipes in Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, and Chiba prefectures after the scenario Tokyo Metropolitan earthquake. Since the damage ratios were evaluated by common fragility functions, the amount of damage can be compared seamlessly for the areas around Tokyo Metropolis. This study also considers the correlations between the damage ratios of wooden houses and water distribution pipes with respect to the postal address areas (cho-cho-moku) along the Tokyo Bay. The areas associated with higher damage ratios of wooden houses and water pipes were detected and the delay of restoration work is anticipated in these areas.

  4. PHOTOCOPY OF EARLY STEREO VIEW OF CARPENTERS' HALL. Date and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTOCOPY OF EARLY STEREO VIEW OF CARPENTERS' HALL. Date and photographer unknown. Original in Carpenters' Hall - Carpenters' Company Hall, 320 Chestnut Street & Carpenters' Court, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. Scientists Examine Challenges and Lessons From Japan's Earthquake and Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    A week after the magnitude 9.0 great Tohoku earthquake and the resulting tragic and damaging tsunami of 11 March struck Japan, the ramifications continued, with a series of major aftershocks (as Eos went to press, there had been about 4 dozen with magnitudes greater than 6); the grim search for missing people—the death toll was expected to approximate 10,000; the urgent assistance needed for the more than 400,000 homeless and the 1 million people without water; and the frantic efforts to avert an environmental catastrophe at Japan's damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, about 225 kilometers northeast of Tokyo, where radiation was leaking. The earthquake offshore of Honshu in northeastern Japan (see Figure 1) was a plate boundary rupture along the Japan Trench subduction zone, with the source area of the earthquake estimated at 400-500 kilometers long with a maximum slip of 20 meters, determined through various means including Global Positioning System (GPS) and seismographic data, according to Kenji Satake, professor at the Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo. In some places the tsunami may have topped 7 meters—the maximum instrumental measurement at many coastal tide gauges—and some parts of the coastline may have been inundated more than 5 kilometers inland, Satake indicated. The International Tsunami Information Center (ITIC) noted that eyewitnesses reported that the highest tsunami waves were 13 meters high. Satake also noted that continuous GPS stations indicate that the coast near Sendai—which is 130 kilometers west of the earthquake and is the largest city in the Tohoku region of Honshu—moved more than 4 meters horizontally and subsided about 0.8 meter.

  6. Iodine Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  7. The Aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident: a Perspective from the British Embassy in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, R J; Franklin, K C

    2016-04-01

    The British Embassy in Tokyo was at the heart of providing information in the immediate aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Richard Oppenheim, who was present at the time, and Keith Franklin, who joined the Embassy shortly afterwards, give their perspectives on communicating information on radiation to the public and what lessons can be learned. Richard Oppenheim was head of the Climate Change and Energy team at the British Embassy in Tokyo from 2011 to 2015 and part of the Embassy team responding to the crisis. He travelled to Sendai on 12 March 2011. Keith Franklin has been on secondment to the British Embassy in Tokyo from the National Nuclear Laboratory since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi. PMID:27386586

  8. Academic Libraries in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  9. A Brief Test of the Tokyo Sokushin VSE-355G3 Strong Motion Velocity Seismometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutt, Charles R.; Evans, John R.; Yokoi, Isamu

    2008-01-01

    The VSE-355G3 seismometer is a broadband seismometer (called a 'servo velocity meter' by Tokyo Sokushin) with a specified clip level of 2 m/s and a flat response to earth velocity from 0.008 Hertz (Hz) to 70 Hz. Mr. Yokoi and Mr. Kurahashi of Tokyo Sokushin shipped one instrument to the U. S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) for testing in early September 2007. They gave a presentation on this instrument and some of their other products to the authors and others on September 6, 2007. Testing of the VSE-355G3, Serial Number 70520, commenced on Friday, September 7, 2007.

  10. Hall thruster with grooved walls

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hong; Ning Zhongxi; Yu Daren

    2013-02-28

    Axial-oriented and azimuthal-distributed grooves are formed on channel walls of a Hall thruster after the engine undergoes a long-term operation. Existing studies have demonstrated the relation between the grooves and the near-wall physics, such as sheath and electron near-wall transport. The idea to optimize the thruster performance with such grooves was also proposed. Therefore, this paper is devoted to explore the effects of wall grooves on the discharge characteristics of a Hall thruster. With experimental measurements, the variations on electron conductivity, ionization distribution, and integrated performance are obtained. The involved physical mechanisms are then analyzed and discussed. The findings help to not only better understand the working principle of Hall thruster discharge but also establish a physical fundamental for the subsequent optimization with artificial grooves.

  11. Spin Hall controlled magnonic microwaveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Demidov, V. E.; Urazhdin, S.; Rinkevich, A. B.; Reiss, G.; Demokritov, S. O.

    2014-04-14

    We use space-resolved magneto-optical spectroscopy to study the influence of spin Hall effect on the excitation and propagation of spin waves in microscopic magnonic waveguides. We find that the spin Hall effect not only increases the spin-wave propagation length, but also results in an increased excitation efficiency due to the increase of the dynamic susceptibility in the vicinity of the inductive antenna. We show that the efficiency of the propagation length enhancement is strongly dependant on the type of the excited spin-wave mode and its wavelength.

  12. International Symposium on Space Technology and Science, 17th, Tokyo, Japan, May 20-25, 1990, Proceedings. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi

    Various papers on space technology and science are presented. The general topics addressed include: national space programs; propulsion; materials and structure, flight dynamics and astrodynamics; fluid dynamics; thermal environment and thermochemistry; electronic components and devices; computer and data systems; guidance, navigation, and control; robotics; systems engineering. Also discussed are: space transportation systems; spacecraft systems; space station and manned flight; balloons; satellite communications and broadcasting; lunar and planetary exploration; space science; earth observations; space medicine; space biology; microgravity; space industrialization; space law and international cooperation.

  13. 1984 International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Tokyo, Japan, October 16-18, 1984, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subjects related to the EMI (electromagnetic interference)/EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) Test are discussed, taking into account an analysis of TE(10) cutoff in TEM cells using the boundary element method, a three-dimensional analysis of a TEM cell model by a mixed boundary element method, small obstacle loading in a TEM cell, antenna calibrations with a TEM cell, error analysis of radiation characteristics of an unknown interference source based on power measurements, the implementation of MIL-STD-1541 (USAF) specification, and a French test facility. Other topics explored are related to noise, EM sensor and antenna, EM interference, EMC in mobile and communication, immunity, biological interactions of EM energy, EMI measurement, EMI/EMC in device and equipment, EM wave propagation, EM shield and absorber, filter and signal processing, and scattering and ghost. Attention is given to lightning surge, standard and measurement, EMC in communication systems, EM coupling and crosstalk, and the electromagnetic environment.

  14. WESTPAC Workshop on Coastal Transport of Pollutants (Tokyo, Japan, March 27-31, 1980). Summary Report. Workshop Report No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    Provided is a 4-page summary of the WESTPAC (Western Pacific) Workshop On Coastal Transport of Pollutants and five appendices. Workshop objectives were to review present knowledge of the physical dispersion, accumulation, and transportation of pollutants, and analytical methods and data processing in the Western Pacific Region; identify major…

  15. Dissemination and Utilization of Educational Research. Report of a Regional Seminar (Tokyo, Japan, November 9-25, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    Research from 14 Asian and Pacific countries suggests that the outcome of educational research is not sufficiently utilized by educators in those countries. Several recommendations for the development of information exchange were discussed at an educational research seminar. It was recommended that research projects be worthy and be…

  16. Finite groups with Hall {pi}-subgroups

    SciTech Connect

    Vedernikov, Victor A

    2012-03-31

    New classes of finite groups with Hall {pi}-subgroups that have the Sylow properties are constructed and studied. The classes of groups C{sub {pi}} and D{sub {pi}} introduced by P. Hall are substantially extended. Necessary and sufficient conditions are established under which a finite group has Hall {pi}-subgroups. D-Theorems generalizing D-theorems of P. Hall, Wielandt, Baer, and Hartley are obtained. Bibliography: 30 titles.

  17. A Gift for Reading Hall No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bryon

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes Reading Hall No. 1 of the Russian State Library. He was placed in the first reading hall in the mid-1990s, when the Russian government still honored Soviet traditions of granting certain privileges to certain foreigners. In the first hall, the rules are different. He can request as many books as he wants. He…

  18. The Other Hall Effect: College Board Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Keith; Gunning, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938), discoverer of the Hall effect, was one of the first winners of the AAPT Oersted Medal for his contributions to the teaching of physics. While Hall's role in establishing laboratory work in high schools is widely acknowledged, his position as chair of the physics section of the Committee on College Entrance…

  19. Dissecting Analogical Leveling Quantitatively: The Case of the Innovative Potential Suffix in Tokyo Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Kenjiro

    1993-01-01

    Analogical leveling in progress of a potential suffix in Tokyo Japanese is analyzed within a quantitative model. The phenomenon is shown to be controlled by five factors: sociological variable complex, verb stem length, verb conjugation pattern, the following inflectional form, and embeddedness of the clause containing the suffix. (Contains 70…

  20. Japanese Projections: A Trip to Tokyo Provides a Glimpse into the Technology of Tomorrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    This article briefly describes one person's experience with the juxtaposition of ancient religion, pop culture, and high technology of Tokyo. She describes the amazing sights she saw at the Hitachi Central Research Laboratory on a tour of the company's digital projector factory and development labs.

  1. APPLICATION OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG FORMATION MODEL TO THE TOKYO METROPOLITAN AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relatively high O3 concentrations were observed during an episode on July 16 and 17, 1981 in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. The stagnant meteorological conditions which existed then were mainly caused by the local sea and land wind circulation systems. To better understand the phys...

  2. The Medical Library and Media Center of Keio University in Tokyo: report on a visit.

    PubMed Central

    Accart, J P

    1995-01-01

    The Medical Library and Media Center at Keio University in Tokyo offers many facilities to its users: access to medical information within a large catalog of monographs and journals, online searching and CD-ROM databases, and a dynamic interlibrary loan service. This article is a report of a professional visit to the library on September 30, 1993. PMID:7703947

  3. Atlanta's Own "Hall" of Famer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesil A.

    2008-01-01

    This article features Beverly L. Hall, poised to become one of the longest-serving superintendents of the Atlanta schools. When she came to Atlanta in 1999, student achievement was sliding downward, teacher morale was dismal, and enrollment was falling as parents pulled their children out of the school system. Under the superintendent's driving…

  4. Cleaner in Hall of Residence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).

    This syllabus is intended for the use of training personnel in drawing up training programs for cleaners in halls of residence. Its main objective is to produce fully trained cleaners, thereby maintaining and raising standards. The syllabus is divided into three sections: Introduction to Housekeeping Employees, and Tasks Performed by the Majority…

  5. 75 FR 7467 - Gary E. Hall and Rita C. Hall; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gary E. Hall and Rita C. Hall; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Applicant: Gary E. Hall and Rita C. Hall. e. Name of Project: Potter Creek Hydroelectric Project. f...: Mr. Gary E. Hall and Ms. Rita C. Hall, P.O. Box 133, Olney, MT 59927, (406) 881-2345. i. FERC...

  6. Entering the lesbian world in Japan: debut stories.

    PubMed

    Kamano, Saori

    2005-01-01

    Conceiving of a "lesbian community" as the process and/or the end product of a lesbian's going outside herself or her intimate relationship to connect with other lesbians, this paper explores the experiences of lesbians in entering the community in Tokyo, Japan, which lesbians refer to as "community debut." Based on the personal accounts gathered through interviewing 24 women in 2002 in the Tokyo area, this paper examines the personal contexts in which the women entered a lesbian community, which included searching for and defining themselves, accepting themselves, and acting out the new identity to make changes in their lives. Some of the women interviewed were prompted by a need to understand themselves as lesbians. Others with a lesbian identity searched for further affirmation through connecting with "the world of lesbians" beyond their immediate contexts. For some other women interviewed, entering the community was a way to help them start their lives anew by getting out of their previous (married) lives. The paper also specifically touches on the significance of the Internet as a source of information for individual women and as a way of creating a lesbian community, identifying both positive and negative aspects. Although the research reported in this paper leaves for further exploration how boundaries of the communities are negotiated and drawn, the norms of the communities, and conflicts and negotiations among individuals and groups, it has provided one piece of the mosaic of lesbian communities in Japan. The communities, while still largely invisible in the mainstream society, are nonetheless an important part of life, albeit in different ways, of many lesbians. The research process leads the author to anticipate greater visibility of lesbians and lesbian communities in Japan in the not too distant future. PMID:19780261

  7. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, A. D.; Dalslet, B. T.; Skieller, D. H.; Lee, K. H.; Okkels, F.; Hansen, M. F.

    2010-07-05

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can be significantly enhanced by a geometric factor. For the samples in the present study, we demonstrate an enhancement of the sensor output by a factor of about 100 compared to cross-shaped sensors. The presented construction opens a new design and application area of the planar Hall effect, which we term planar Hall effect bridge sensors.

  8. The Other Hall Effect: College Board Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Keith; Gunning, Amanda M.

    2013-09-01

    Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938), discoverer of the Hall effect, was one of the first winners of the AAPT Oersted Medal for his contributions to the teaching of physics. While Hall's role in establishing laboratory work in high schools is widely acknowledged, his position as chair of the physics section of the Committee on College Entrance Requirements was contentious and his involvement in launching College Board Physics, what we call the "other Hall effect," has largely been overlooked. This article details Hall's role in the development of College Board Physics.

  9. A retrospective histopathological survey on canine and feline liver diseases at the University of Tokyo between 2006 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Naoki; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Ohno, Koichi; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-01

    To determine the incidence of hepatic diseases in dogs and cats in Japan, a retrospective study was performed using data of 463 canine and 71 feline liver biopsies at the Veterinary Medical Center of the University of Tokyo. The most common canine hepatic disease was microvascular dysplasia (MVD) and occupied 29.4% of all diagnoses. This terminology might contain "real" MVD and primary portal vein hypoplasia, because these two conditions were difficult to be clearly distinguished histopathologically. Parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis and primary hepatic tumors accounted for 23.5% and 21.0% of the diagnoses, respectively. Parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis occupied 34.1% of non-proliferative canine hepatic diseases, while hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma were 26.6% and 24.5% of proliferative hepatic diseases, respectively. Breed-specificity was seen in MVD for Yorkshire terrier, Papillon and Toy poodle, in hepatitis for Doberman pinscher and Labrador retriever, in cholangiohepatitis for American cocker spaniel, Miniature schnauzer and Pomeranian, in hepatocellular adenoma for Golden retriever and Shiba and in hepatocellular carcinoma for Shih Tzu. The most common feline liver disease was parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis (45.1% of all diagnoses). Among feline hepatitis, neutrophilic cholangiohepatitis (23.9%), lymphocytic cholangiohepatitis (14.1%) and chronic hepatitis (5.6%) were recorded. Adult polycystic liver disease was 5.6%. Among proliferative diseases in the feline liver (11.3% of the all), lymphoma (4.2%) and primary epithelial tumors (4.2%) including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocellular adenoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma were observed. Hepatic degeneration was 14.1%, and MVD was 12.7%, respectively. PMID:24717415

  10. A Retrospective Histopathological Survey on Canine and Feline Liver Diseases at the University of Tokyo between 2006 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    HIROSE, Naoki; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; KANEMOTO, Hideyuki; OHNO, Koichi; CHAMBERS, James K.; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To determine the incidence of hepatic diseases in dogs and cats in Japan, a retrospective study was performed using data of 463 canine and 71 feline liver biopsies at the Veterinary Medical Center of the University of Tokyo. The most common canine hepatic disease was microvascular dysplasia (MVD) and occupied 29.4% of all diagnoses. This terminology might contain “real” MVD and primary portal vein hypoplasia, because these two conditions were difficult to be clearly distinguished histopathologically. Parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis and primary hepatic tumors accounted for 23.5% and 21.0% of the diagnoses, respectively. Parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis occupied 34.1% of non-proliferative canine hepatic diseases, while hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma were 26.6% and 24.5% of proliferative hepatic diseases, respectively. Breed-specificity was seen in MVD for Yorkshire terrier, Papillon and Toy poodle, in hepatitis for Doberman pinscher and Labrador retriever, in cholangiohepatitis for American cocker spaniel, Miniature schnauzer and Pomeranian, in hepatocellular adenoma for Golden retriever and Shiba and in hepatocellular carcinoma for Shih Tzu. The most common feline liver disease was parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis (45.1% of all diagnoses). Among feline hepatitis, neutrophilic cholangiohepatitis (23.9%), lymphocytic cholangiohepatitis (14.1%) and chronic hepatitis (5.6%) were recorded. Adult polycystic liver disease was 5.6%. Among proliferative diseases in the feline liver (11.3% of the all), lymphoma (4.2%) and primary epithelial tumors (4.2%) including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocellular adenoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma were observed. Hepatic degeneration was 14.1%, and MVD was 12.7%, respectively. PMID:24717415