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1

Food Policy Institute at Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established as a research unit of Rutgers University, the Food Policy Institute is interested in "supporting public and private decision makers who shape aspects of the food system within which government, agriculture, industry and the consumer interact." Interested parties can get the basic sense of what the Institute does on a regular basis by looking over the short introductory essay in the "About Us" area. Moving on, users can look over the "Research Projects" area, and then make their way to the "Publications" area. Policymakers and agricultural specialists will be delighted to learn about reports such as "The U.S. Food Import System: Issues, Processes and Proposals" and "The Economic Impact of Agritourism in New Jersey: A 2006 Assessment". The site is rounded out by the "Resources" section, which contains handy links to government agencies, academic institutions, and industry groups working in this area.

2

Astronomy Research at Rutgers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Astrophysics research at Rutgers ranges from late stages of stellar evolution to the early universe, and includes both observational studies at many wavelengths and theoretical work." After listing the 15 astrophysics research interests, this website summarizes the university's projects and instrumentation. Some of the summaries contain links to more in-depth information about the specific investigation. Visitors can learn about gravitational lensing; the Ultraviolet Detector Lab, which develops and tests space image sensors; and much more.

3

The Rutgers Conference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Representatives of school foodservice programs, the food industry, and the USDA met to hear the final report of a study made to examine the effectiveness of school lunch programs in New Jersey. (Author)|

School Foodservice Journal, 1973

1973-01-01

4

Rutgers Physics Teacher Preparation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk I will describe my experiences in the Rutgers Physics Teacher Preparation program as a future physics teacher and share how these experiences shaped my career as a physics teacher. The uniqueness of the Rutgers Program is that it prepares physics teachers separately from other science teachers, thus providing them with a firm foundation of how to engage high school students in deep conceptual and quantitative learning of physics concepts. While in the program I was exposed to the findings from the physics education research and science education that helped me not only understand how students learn in general but also how they learn physics, what ideas they have to begin with and how to engage them in the active construction of physics knowledge. After I finished the program I have been involved in the induction program that helped me overcome many difficulties that beginning teachers have.

D'Amato, Chris; Etkina, Eugenia

2009-05-01

5

Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Law schools are known for their efforts to create online law journals, and the Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion was the Âfirst online legal journal dedicated to the study of the dynamic interaction between law and religion. Started in 1999, the journal has published dozens of articles written by law students at Rutgers, and they have covered subjects such as the role of faith-based institutions in community development and the status of female refugees. Visitors can browse through their online archives to read these articles, and they may also wish look over their ÂNew Developments section. Here they will find brief summaries of current issues in law and religion. With its broad scope, this online journal will be of interest to those in the legal field, or those who might be looking for inspiration to start their own journal in this area.

6

Rutgers Strategy for Composting: Process Design and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A strategy for sludge composting was developed to counter the tendency of other composting systems to operate at high temperatures that inhibit and slow decomposition. This method, known as the Rutgers strategy, can be implemented in a static pile configu...

F. C. Miller K. M. Psarianos M. S. Finstein S. T. MacGregor

1985-01-01

7

Mentoring Graduate Students in Physics and Astronomy at Rutgers University  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Graduate Program in Physics and Astronomy at Rutgers University involves about 100 graduate students and over 70 faculty members. Research opportunities include experimental and theoretical activities in astronomy, condensed matter, high-energy, and nuclear physics, as well as new initiatives in biological and nano physics and physics education research. Faculty and peer mentors, as well as an academic advisor, are

Jolie A. Cizewski

2002-01-01

8

Rutgers U. Clinic Helps Students Come to Grips with Addiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rutgers University's alcohol and drug abuse program aids New Jersey college students while they live in special facilities and continue to attend class. Previously, students referred to off-campus clinics had to choose either recovery or college. However, some say help with addictions is not a college responsibility. (MSE)|

Collison, Michelle N-K

1991-01-01

9

RUTGERS STRATEGY FOR COMPOSTING: PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

A strategy for sludge composting was developed to counter the tendency of other composting systems to operate at high temperatures that inhibit and slow decomposition. This method, known as the Rutgers strategy, can be implemented in a static pile configuration to retain structur...

10

The Rutgers Undergraduate Physics Program: Preparing Students for Varied Careers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Rutgers University we offer three main physics major tracks, each tailored towards different kinds of career aspirations. The Professional Option is for students who intend to go on to physics graduate study. The Applied Option is for students who desire technical jobs in industry, but without graduate study. The General Option is for students who have an interest in physics, but do not aspire to a technical career. I will discuss how these Options prepare students for their desired careers, and will give specific examples of jobs obtained. I will especially focus on the Applied Option, explaining how it has evolved based on lessons learned, and what further steps we need to take at Rutgers. I will close by briefly discussing a new, fourth physics major track we have just introduced, our Ocean Physics Option. I will describe this new Option and discuss prospects for its success.

Kalelkar, Mohan

2009-03-01

11

Rutgers Oral History Archive of World War II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Begun in 1994 by the history department of Rutgers University, the Oral History Archive of World War II site (last mentioned in the April 7, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences) features transcriptions of interviews with 238 veterans (both men and women) of the war. While the project began with members of the Rutgers class of 1942, it was later expanded to involve many more alumni. The interviews are listed in alphabetical order on the site and feature the personal and intimate recollections of a diverse set of veterans on a variety of topics. There is also a small picture gallery and a complete listing of the military units in which each interviewee served. Finally, there is a listing of related links and a section featuring the most recent interviews that have been conducted.

12

Rutgers relation for the analysis of superfluid density in superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the thermodynamic Rutgers relation for the second-order phase transitions can be used for the analysis of the superfluid density data irrespective of complexities of the Fermi surface, structure of the superconducting gap, pairing strength, or scattering. The only limitation is that critical fluctuations should be weak so that the mean-field theory of the second-order phase transitions is applicable. By using the Rutgers relation, the zero-temperature value of the London penetration depth ?(0) is related to the specific heat jump ?C and the slope of upper critical field dHc2/dT at the transition temperature Tc, provided the data on ??=?(T)??(0) are available in a broad temperature domain. We then provide a way to determine ?(0), the quantity difficult to determine within many techniques.

Kim, H.; Kogan, V. G.; Cho, K.; Tanatar, M. A.; Prozorov, R.

2013-06-01

13

Ankle control and strength training for children with cerebral palsy using the Rutgers Ankle CP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study described here was to develop and feasibility test the Rutgers Ankle CP, aimed at ankle strengthening and improved control for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The system was an upgrade in hardware (new foot attachment, new robot controller) and software (new games and programming language) of the earlier Rutgers Ankle in order to permit training

Daniel Cioi; Angad Kale; Grigore Burdea; Jack Engsberg; William Janes; Sandy Ross

2011-01-01

14

Rehabilitation of Musculoskeletal Injuries Using the Rutgers Ankle Haptic Interface: Three Case Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of virtual reality-based rehabilitation for orthopedic patients needs to be determined. This paper presents three case studies in which the use of the Rutgers Ankle haptic interface for ankle rehabilitation is evaluated. The Rutgers Ankle is a computer-controlled compact robotic platform that measures foot position and orientation and provides resistive forces and torques, It has been integrated with

Judith E. Deutsch; Jason Latonio; Grigore Burdea; Rares Boian

2001-01-01

15

Rutgers University: New Jersey Mosquito Homepage-Mosquito Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the weather warms and the pre-summer rains fall, the familiar buzz of the mosquito can be heard in our ears. This website from entomologists at Rutgers University provides a nice overview of Mosquito Biology including sections on Life Cycle, Anatomy, Habitats, and Behavior. The site also includes some New Jersey-specific sections such as A Classification System for the Life Cycles of Mosquitoes in New Jersey, a fact sheet about the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey, a Morphological Comparison of Ochlerotatus Species in New Jersey, and a New Jersey Species List. The Species List contains profiles for 63 species of mosquitoes found in New Jersey, and provides information about their geographic distribution, larval habitat, larval identification, anatomical features, and more.

16

Economics of sugar production with Trichoderma reesei Rutgers C-30  

SciTech Connect

The economics of sugar production from bioconversion of corn stover utilizing cellulase obtained from Trichoderma reesei strain Rutgers C-30 were investigated. The cost of manufacturing sugar is 10.5 cents per pound. This reduced cost is due to cellulase activities ranging from 7 to 14 IU/ml from batch cultures and from 3.5 to 6 IU/ml from continuous cultures. Hydrolysis can be carried out at substrate concentrations up to 25% and give product streams containing up to 15% sugars. This corresponds to a maximum yield of 86%. A sensitivity analysis indicates that sugar can be produced at near competitive prices from corn stover costing $0 to $50 per ton. By utilizing new fermentation technology, sugar at these prices can be used to produce 95% alcohol at a cost ranging from $1.80 to $3.00 per gallon.

Perez, J.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

1980-08-01

17

Mentoring Graduate Students in Physics and Astronomy at Rutgers University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Graduate Program in Physics and Astronomy at Rutgers University involves about 100 graduate students and over 70 faculty members. Research opportunities include experimental and theoretical activities in astronomy, condensed matter, high-energy, and nuclear physics, as well as new initiatives in biological and nano physics and physics education research. Faculty and peer mentors, as well as an academic advisor, are identified for each graduate student upon arrival at Rutgers. All first-year graduate students, without regard to background, are required to participate in the Seminar in Physics, which introduces the graduate students to the breadth of research opportunities, as well as advising students about the academic requirements and preparing for the broad spectrum of future career opportunities. Annual activities in this seminar include sessions at which recent graduates of the program discuss their careers outside of academia or basic research. The course requirements for the Ph.D. in Physics include 2 courses outside of the area of research, one of which can be a course outside of the departmental offerings. Since most students have the option to register for many courses after completing the formal requirements, most students take courses in computer science, engineering, or finance as part of their education. Within one year of advancement to Ph.D. candidacy, students are expected to have the first meeting with their research committee, at which the results of a trial project are presented both orally and in a short written report, and which also serves as a test of the student's aptitude for study in the chosen area and with the chosen advisor. Subsequently, every student is required to meet at least annually with this committee. As a result of these mentoring activities, the time to Ph.D. is now less than 6 years on average. Although about 1/2 of the students assume post-doctoral positions upon completion of the Ph.D., our alumni obtain careers in a broad range of fields, including finance and management consulting.

Cizewski, Jolie A.

2002-04-01

18

Applying the NISO Metasearch Initiative Scheme to Enhance E-Resources Management at Rutgers University Library  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses problems in the management of library e-resources and attempts to identify potential solutions to the problems. By describing an e-resources enhancement project taken by Rutgers University Libraries, this article points to the importance of providing contextually rich metadata and reorganizing the accessibility of e-resources on a library's website. It introduces how this Rutgers project adopted the National

Li Sun

2011-01-01

19

Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: undergraduate student outcomes.  

PubMed

Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students. PMID:22767090

Ralston, Sarah L

2012-07-05

20

Pushing to the Edge: Rutgers Astrophysics Institute Motivates Talented High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Rutgers Astrophysics Institute is a program in which gifted high school students learn about contemporary science and its methods, and conduct independent authentic research using real-time data. The students use the processes of science to acquire knowledge, and serve as cognitive apprentices to an expert astrophysicist. A variety of…

Etkina, Eugenia; Matilsky, Terry; Lawrence, Michael

2003-01-01

21

Women Accuse Rutgers Political-Science Department of Bias and Hostility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female faculty members and graduate students at Rutgers University in New Brunswick's political-science department feel unfairly compensated and shut out of leadership positions by their male counterparts, says an internal university report obtained by "The Chronicle." In at least one case, a woman has been afraid to complain about sexual…

Moser, Kate

2008-01-01

22

Women Accuse Rutgers Political-Science Department of Bias and Hostility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Female faculty members and graduate students at Rutgers University in New Brunswick's political-science department feel unfairly compensated and shut out of leadership positions by their male counterparts, says an internal university report obtained by "The Chronicle." In at least one case, a woman has been afraid to complain about sexual…

Moser, Kate

2008-01-01

23

Pushing to the Edge: Rutgers Astrophysics Institute Motivates Talented High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rutgers Astrophysics Institute is a program in which gifted high school students learn about contemporary science and its methods, and conduct independent authentic research using real-time data. The students use the processes of science to acquire knowledge, and serve as cognitive apprentices to an expert astrophysicist. A variety of…

Etkina, Eugenia; Matilsky, Terry; Lawrence, Michael

2003-01-01

24

Ethnicity, Race, and Nationality in Education: A Global Perspective. The Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume contains 12 papers originally presented at the 14th Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education in 1999. The symposium explored contemporary issues of ethnic, cultural, and national identities and their influence on the social construction of identity. Papers include: (1) "Reconceptualizing Ethnicity and Educational Achievement"…

Shimahara, N. Ken, Ed.; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra, Ed.

25

Keeping Current. The Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries--CISSL at Rutgers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a research center established by Professors Carol Kuhlthau and Ross Todd of Rutgers University in New Brunswick to promote the study of the impact of school library media centers on student learning and the dynamics of effective school library programs. The Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries (CISSL) is…

Kuhlthau, Carol C.

2005-01-01

26

Operational Overview and Procedures Manual of the Rutgers University Library Annex Storage Facility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Rutgers University Library's Annex, a compact library storage facility opened in 1982, is designed to house approximately one-half million volumes of varying sizes, including monographs, serials, and containerized items in permanent storage boxes. By using the high density, economical storage at the annex for little-used library materials,…

Epple, Margie

27

INTROSPECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY, PURE AND APPLIED: Henry Rutgers Marshall on Pain and Pleasure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henry Rutgers Marshal (1852–1927), architect and psychologist, in his aesthetic theory opposed the severing of pain from pleasure in neurological theories in the 1890s. He held that pain and pleasure are poles of the same quale of experience. Marshall’s was an introspective psychology, which he used in his architectural criticism and support of the City Beautiful ideal. The practice of

Robert Kugelmann

2001-01-01

28

The Professions and Ethics: Views and Realities in New Jersey. Professions Forum Proceedings (Rutgers, New Jersey, November 17, 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Papers and summaries from Rutgers University's 1981 Professions Forum, "The Professions and Ethics: Views and Realities in New Jersey," are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: an introduction (Louis H. Orzack and Annell L. Simcoe); "Do Special Ethical Norms Apply to Professions?" (Daniel Callahan); "Ethical Issues in the Work of…

Orzack, Louis H., Ed.; Simcoe, Annell L., Ed.

29

Rutgers-Somerset Counseling Program: Preventing Violence and Decreasing Risky Behaviors among Adolescent Girls--A Training Manual  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The violence prevention group component of the Rutgers-Somerset Counseling Program, a prevention program for multi-problem youth based in a local junior high school, was established in response to appeals made by school staff for help addressing surges in school and community violence and the rising incidence of aggression among female students.…

Batista, Melissa Lynn

2009-01-01

30

Economics of sugar production with Trichoderma reesei Rutgers C-30. [Corn stover  

SciTech Connect

The economics of sugar production from bioconversion of corn stover utilizing cellulase obtained from Trichoderma reesei strain Rutgers C-30 were investigated. The cost of manufacturing sugar is 10.5 cents per pound. This reduced cost is due to cellulase activities ranging from 7 to 14 IU/ml from batch cultures. Hydrolysis can be carried out at substrate concentrations up to 25% and give product streams containing up to 9% sugars. Conversions up to 61% of theoretical have been observed. A sensitivity analysis indicates that sugar can be produced at near competitive prices from corn stover costing $0 to $50 per ton. By utilizing new fermentation technology, sugar at these prices can be used to product 95% alcohol at a cost ranging from $1.80 to $3.00 per gallon.

Perez, J.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

1980-08-01

31

Using the theory of planned behavior to predict intention to comply with a food recall message.  

PubMed

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has provided considerable insight into the public's intention to comply with many different health-related messages, but has not been applied previously to intention to comply with food safety recommendations and recalls ( Hallman & Cuite, 2010 ). Because food recalls can differ from other health messages in their urgency, timing, and cessation, the applicability of the TPB in this domain is unknown. The research reported here attempted to address this gap using a nationally representative consumer panel. Results showed that, consistent with the theory's predictions, attitudes and subjective norms were predictive of the intention to comply with a food recall message, with attitudes having a much greater impact on intent to comply than subjective norms. Perceived behavioral control failed to predict intention to comply. Implications of these results for health public relations and crisis communications and recommendations for future research were discussed. PMID:22746283

Freberg, Karen

2012-07-02

32

The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI): A Comparison of Cut-Points in First Nations Mi'kmaq and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents in Rural Nova Scotia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Important to the assessment of adolescent alcohol misuse is examination of alcohol-related problems. However, most measurement tools have only been validated among Euro-American cultures. The present study assessed the ability of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) to identify problem drinkers among groups of First Nations Mi'kmaq and…

Noel, Melanie; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Boudreau, Brock; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Stevens, Doreen; Stewart, Sherry H.

2010-01-01

33

Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ... and store foods properly. Continue Do I Have Food Poisoning? Someone who has food poisoning might: have ...

34

Food Allergens  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Department of Agriculture. Food Allergy Educational Materials - WIC Works Resource System; Food Allergies and Intolerances - Nutrition.gov. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodallergens

35

Rutgers Physics Teaching Technology Resource  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains more than 200 videotaped experiments to be used in labs, homeworks, class discussions and assessment. Topics covered include kinematics, mechanics, states of matter, electricity and magnetism, and optics. Each video includes a learning goal, a list of prior knowledge needed to understand the material, a description, and questions for learners. The videos are connected in sequences that can form a learning cycle to build student understanding.

Etkina, Eugenia; Brookes, David T.

2008-06-23

36

Food Allergies  

MedlinePLUS

... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system makes ... a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for food ...

37

Food additives  

MedlinePLUS

... food additives have to do with man-made ingredients that are added to foods, including: Antibiotics given to food producing animals Antioxidants in oily or fatty foods Artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame, saccharine, and sodium cyclamate ...

38

Food Groups  

MedlinePLUS

Choose a Food Group MyPlate illustrates the five food groups that are the building blocks for a healthy diet using a ... half your grains whole. >> See Grains Group Protein Foods Go lean with protein. >> See Protein Foods Group ...

39

Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)|

Pelletier, Jean-Francois

1980-01-01

40

Food Authenticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food adulteration is as old as the marketing of food. Discusses the work of the Ministry of Food working party on food authenticity who are working to develop tests to enable some modern food frauds being perpetrated to be detected. Comments too on recent reports on detecting fraud in fish products, emanating from the Steering Group on Chemical Aspects of

D. C. E. Roberts

1994-01-01

41

Food Industry  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Shell Egg Producer Registration; Reportable Food Registry for Industry; Acidified and Low-Acid Canned Foods. -. -. Items of Interest. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/industry

42

Food Irradiation  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... radiation to food) is a technology that improves the safety and extends the ... Sterilized foods are useful in hospitals for patients with severely impaired ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

43

Food Allergies  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... FDA guidance for the food industry states that food allergen advisory statements, eg, “may contain [allergen]” or “produced in a facility that also uses ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

44

Food allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical expression of food hypersensitivity or food allergy is usually the end-result of a series of complex interactions among ingested food antigens, the digestive tract, tissue mast cells and circulating basophils, and food antigen-specific IgE. In some well-defined, food-induced diseases, such as gluten-induced enteropathy, additional immunologic mechanisms are involved. An understanding of the nature of antigens in foods capable

Dean D. Metcalfe

1985-01-01

45

Food Master Files & Food Additive Petitions  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Food. ... Food Master Files & Food Additive Petitions. Food Master File 000763 - Bt 10 Evaluation. Sponsor: Syngenta Seeds; ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/biotechnology

46

Food Justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's food system, farm workers face difficult and hazardous conditions, low-income neighborhoods lack supermarkets but abound in fast-food restaurants and liquor stores, food products emphasize convenience rather than wholesomeness, and the international reach of American fast-food franchises has been a major contributor to an epidemic of \\

Robert Gottlieb; Anupama Joshi

2010-01-01

47

Food allergies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food\\u000a proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies,\\u000a implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young\\u000a children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in

Paula F. G. O’Leary; Fergus Shanahan

2002-01-01

48

Food masquerade.  

PubMed

Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself. PMID:21539044

Bermingham, Ann

2010-01-01

49

Food allergy.  

PubMed

Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%-4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the development of several novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies is underway and showing promise. PMID:21364287

Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A

2011-03-01

50

Food Irradiation  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... longevity. • Sterilization – irradiation can be used to sterilize foods, which can then be stored for years without refrigeration. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/resourcesforyou

51

FOOD FACILITIES  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... and harvesting crops (washing, trimming outer leaves, and ... candy (including chewing gum) • Live food animals ... a US agent, who lives or maintains a ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

52

Food Allergy  

MedlinePLUS

... on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Food Allergy Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share ... Process View Slides What's New in NIAID Food Allergy Research New Mouse Model Developed for Eosinophilic Esophagitis ...

53

Food Allergies  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... The law applies to all foods whose labeling is regulated by FDA, both domestic and imported. (FDA regulates the labeling ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/resourcesforyou

54

Food Defense  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... in charge of domestic or foreign facilities that manufacture, process, pack, or hold food for consumption in the United States must register with FDA. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/fooddefense

55

Food Tampering  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... In today's world, we're all being more cautious as we go about our daily routines. ... Carefully examine all food product packaging. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/fooddefense

56

Food Chains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...

Hammond, Ms.

2009-10-21

57

Food additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized:(1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack;(2) to even out seasonal supplies;(3) to improve their eating quality;(4) to improve their nutritional value.The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives.

Michael Spencer

1974-01-01

58

Food Scorecard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A,…

Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

59

Fried foods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.

Sakurai Midori (None;)

2006-10-31

60

Food contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing use of a large variety of chemicals, opportunities for contamination of food are becoming greater. Food may be involved following some accidental occurrence or from more general environmental contamination. Three examples are given: an outbreak of paralysis in Morocco involved 10,000 people who had ingested food adulterated with triorthocresyl phosphate; an epidemic of jaundice in London followed

G. Kazantzis

1974-01-01

61

Finding food  

PubMed Central

A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data.

Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

2011-01-01

62

Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available

R. P. Roetter; H. VAN KEULEN

2007-01-01

63

The food \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disjunction between market surpluses of food and worldwide nutritional shortfalls appears to be symptomatic of underlying vulnerabilities, raising questions about the sustainability of agricultural production.

David F. Durham; Jim C. Fandrem

1988-01-01

64

Best Food Choices  

MedlinePLUS

Weight Loss Food Choices The Best Food Choices Plan Your Meals Portion Distortion How Many Calories Do I Need? Tips ... Enroll today. Home > Food and Fitness > Fitness > Weight Loss > Food Choices > The Best Food Choices The Best Food ...

65

Food, novel foods, and allergenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. \\u000aMain allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish,\\u000amilk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always\\u000aproteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy\\u000a(gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory). Severe and life threatening\\u000asituations can occur. The prevalence is about 2% of the population;

Loveren H van

2007-01-01

66

Food Allergy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...

67

Organic food  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Organic” or “organically grown” foods are commonly represented as “food grown without pesticides; grown without artificial fertilizers; grown in soil whose humus content is increased by the additions of organic matter; grown in soil whose mineral content is increased with applications of natural mineral fertilizers; which has not been treated with preservatives, hormones, antibiotics, etc.” The substitution of “organic” for

Thomas H. Jukes; Zoe E. Anderson Stout

1977-01-01

68

Food Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... dehydration may have made you weak and tired. Don't use anti-diarrheal medications. Drugs intended to treat diarrhea, ... are cooked to a safe temperature is to use a food thermometer. You can kill harmful organisms in most foods by cooking them to the right temperature. ...

69

Food Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research paper investigated foodservice operators' food terrorism risk perception and the perceptional gap between importance and performance of food terrorism preventive measures. Cluster analysis was performed using 35 gap scores. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to compare clusters and address research questions. The largest discrepancy between importance and practice was found for practices related to communication. Smaller incongruities

Eunju Yoon; Carol W. Shanklin

2007-01-01

70

Food porn.  

PubMed

Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

McBride, Anne E

2010-01-01

71

Food Labeling & Nutrition Reports  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Food. Print; Share; E-mail. Home; Food; Science & Research (Food); Consumer Behavior Research. Section Contents Menu. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/consumerbehaviorresearch

72

Food Craving and Food “Addiction”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although certain commonalities exist between eating and drug use (mood effects, external cue-control of appetites, reinforcement, etc.), it is argued that the vast majority of cases of (self-reported) food craving and food “addiction” should not be viewed as addictive behavior. An explanation is proposed that instead gives a prominent role to the psychological processes of ambivalence and attribution, operating together

Peter J Rogers; Hendrik J Smit

2000-01-01

73

Food additives.  

PubMed

The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI cannot always be ingested as a single dose on an empty stomach with impunity. PMID:277126

Berglund, F

1978-01-01

74

Food Grab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners design devices that will catch prey or gather plants. After testing their devices, learners investigate the food-gathering adaptations of animals in their activity site. Activity background information gives multiple examples of real animals and their food-grabbing mechanisms including shark jaws, rodent teeth, hawk talons, etc. Learners consider the concept of food-gathering adaptations of animals and compare them with human methods. An extension of this activity is observing various animals around the neighborhood as they capture prey and eat plants.

Science, Lawrence H.

1979-01-01

75

Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

Bornmann, Priscilla G.

1973-01-01

76

Food safety.  

PubMed

Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer. PMID:19911313

Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

2010-10-01

77

Food Safety  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Many older adults have also been diagnosed with one or more chronic conditions, such as diabetes, arthritis, cancer, or cardiovascular disease ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants

78

Food Labels  

MedlinePLUS

... you eat give you some protein. Vitamins and Minerals It goes without saying that you want to ... are high in a variety of vitamins and minerals. The FDA requires food manufacturers to include information ...

79

Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases,\\u000a algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae,\\u000a such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of\\u000a the last century and

Andrea Borchers; Suzanne S. Teuber; Carl L. Keen; M. Eric Gershwin

2010-01-01

80

Rutgers Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located in New Brunswick, New Jersey, IMCS provides national and international leadership in marine science and is New Jersey's focal point for education, research, and service efforts in estuarine, coastal, and ocean environments. Site features all the latest IMCS news, information on seminars and internships, faculty, students, and IMCS research. Also includes information on the academic programs, facilities, and professional development for teachers.

81

Rutgers' TREC7 Interactive Track Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present results of a study comparing two different interactive information retrieval systems: one which supports positive relevance feedback as a term- suggestion device; the other which supports both positive and negative relevance feedback in this same context. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness and usability of a specific implementation of negative relevance feedback in interactive

Nicholas J. Belkin; Jose Perez Carballo; Colleen Cool; Diane Kelly; Shin-jeng Lin; Soyeon Park; Soo Young Rieh; Pamela A. Savage-knepshield; C. Sikora

1998-01-01

82

Protein Data Bank Project at Rutgers University  

SciTech Connect

The central activities of the Protein Data Base continue to be the collection, archiving and distribution of high quality structural data to the scientific community on a timely basis. The systems that have been developed for doing this has become increasingly reliable and stable. We have completed the inventory of magnetic and paper media that was received from Brookhaven National Laboratory.

Berman, Helen

2002-07-18

83

Organic Foods vs Supermarket Foods: Element Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic food has been noted in various studies as having similar nutritional value as commercial foods. These studies usually look at the dry ashed concentration and are designed for the food producer. In this study the average elemental concentration in organic foods on afresh weight basis was found to be about twice that of commercial foods.

Bob L. Smith

84

Food processing: a food scientist's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans generally are not eating enough foods that meet dietary guidelines. More choices for consumers would be available if food processors were to manufacture more foods and ingredients that met dietary guidelines. The food industry, for the most part, has the technology to develop and sell foods that meet dietary guidelines and further has the capacity to market them in

Robert E. Smith

1999-01-01

85

Weaning Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…

Chauliac, Michel; And Others

1987-01-01

86

Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... are usually OK for use in the microwave, don't use lighter plastics like margarine tubs or cottage cheese containers. The heat can melt them, which means that some of the chemicals in the plastic can be transferred into your food. Most glass and ceramic containers are OK for use ...

87

Special Foods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This videotape gives details about innovative special food programs that are available through the VCS. A clever technique is used to present the information: the audience actually sits in on a meeting of VCS chiefs and their medical center directors as t...

1994-01-01

88

Food & Color Additive Petitions  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Resources related to food and color additive petitions, including petitions currently held in abeyance. Quick ... Food. Print; ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

89

Selected Food Products  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Guidance & Regulation. Retail Food Protection. Training Resources. -. Selected Food Products. Dairy Products. Information from FDA. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

90

FDA 2001 Food Code - Chapter 3: Food  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... of this paragraph only, children who are age 9 or less and receive food in a school, day care ... (1) Raw animal foods such as raw fish, raw-marinated ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

91

Fast Food to Healthy Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent headline in the Nation's Restaurant News (2002) asked the question: “Should Restaurants Bear the Burden of Monitoring Americans' Diets?”. Society has grown increasingly conscientious about health care costs and the question is consistent with this trend. In light of some highly publicized cases of litigation and debates between consumer groups and food service professionals, this question is the

Susan Gregory; Carmela McTyre; Robin B. Dipietro

2006-01-01

92

Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

93

Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

94

Food Protection Plan  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... possibly unsafe food from entering US markets. ... is refused admission into the United States, such as ... pose food safety and food defense threats from ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/foodprotectionplan2007

95

FDA Food Code  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

The Food Code represents FDA's best advice for a system of provisions that address the safety and protection of food offered at retail and in food ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

96

Food Court  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit of four lessons from NCTM's Illuminations lets students conduct surveys and represent data in a variety of ways. They also find and compare measures of center. The lessons center around a food court, where students create and use menus in a meaningful way. Topics covered include bar graphs, line plots, and pictographs, measures of center, and probability of events. Individual lessons link to related tools where appropriate, and include questions for students, assessment options, and teacher reflection questions.

Burton, Grace M.

2008-01-01

97

Introduction to Food Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Investigations in food science and technology, whether by the food industry, governmental agencies, or universities, often\\u000a require determination of food composition and characteristics. Trends and demands of consumers, the food industry, and national\\u000a and international regulations challenge food scientists as they work to monitor food composition and to ensure the quality\\u000a and safety of the food supply. All food products

S. Suzanne Nielsen

2010-01-01

98

FOOD ESTABLISHMENT PLAN REVIEW GUIDELINE  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Preparing food in advance requires more refrigeration space for thawing foods, cooling hot foods, and storing of cold foods. ... 4. Hot processed foods ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

99

The new food policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food and food policies are becoming more central in the social policy arena. not least because of their impact on health and poverty. This paper reviews some of the key trends in the food system notably the over production of food in the west ,the growing domination odf the food industries by hugecorporations and the rediscovery of the links between

Tim Lang

1987-01-01

100

The Food Guide Pyramid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food Guide Pyramid Automated Analysis System (FGPAAS) would classify foods under the appropriate categories of the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP). Further, it would provide an estimation of the serving size(s) of the food group(s) for the food being analyzed, per the FGP guidelines provided by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). In the development of this automated analysis

J. Muthukannan

1995-01-01

101

9. Food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allergies affect as many as 6% of young children, most of whom “outgrow” the sensitivity, and about 2% of the general population. Although any food may provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of food allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Many of these food allergens have been characterized at

Hugh A. Sampson

2003-01-01

102

Materialism and food security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored\\/hoarded more food at home, and that

M. W. Allen; M. Wilson

2005-01-01

103

Forest Food Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Food webs are an interconnection of producers, consumers, and decomposers. It is important to understand that a change to any level of the food web directly and indirectly affects other organisms within the food web.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-07-14

104

Food Defense Awareness Workshops  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... workshop, please visit New Mexico State Southwest Border Food Safety and ... held in cooperation with the International Dairy Foods Association at ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/fooddefense

105

Practical Food Defense Considerations  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Food Security – the reliable availability of a sufficient quantity and quality of nutritious food for a population ... Italy on alert for water poisoner 2002 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/fooddefense

106

Diabetes food pyramid (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The Diabetes Food Pyramid divides food into six groups, which vary in size to show relative amounts of servings for ... Guide Pyramid released by the USDA. In the Diabetes Food Pyramid, the groups are based on protein content ...

107

Food Facts for Consumers  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Bottled Water: FDA Regulates the Safety of Bottled Water. Buffets: Easy Tips for Food Safety When Entertaining. ... Holiday Food Safety. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/consumers

108

Food Safety Summit 2012  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Speakers: Marion Allen, FDA's Food Defense Oversight Team. Jason Bashura, FDA's Food Defense Oversight Team. Nick Bauer, USDA's FSIS. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/newsevents/workshopsmeetingsconferences

109

Food Facility - Kubli Freres  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... the color additives using the terms required in the ... or by an equally informative term that makes ... US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/complianceenforcement/untitledletters

110

Safe Food Handling  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Safe Food Handling What You Need to Know The food supply in the United States is among the safest in the world. However ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants

111

Food Code 2005  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

The Food Code is a model for safeguarding public health and ensuring food is unadulterated and honestly presented when offered to the consumer. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

112

Safe Food Handling  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Safe Food Handling What You Need to Know The food supply in the United States is among the safest in the world. However ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/resourcesforyou

113

FDA Food Code 2009: Chapter 3 - Food  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Pf. 3-6 Food Identity, Presentation, and On-premises Labeling. Subparts. ... Accurate Representation. 3-601.11 Standards of Identity. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

114

Food Safety in Fast Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that health department inspections of fast-food restaurants may not be sufficient to ensure compliance with food safety regulations, managers must be vigilant in ensuring conformity with practices that safeguard public health. This case study of one fast-food employee's experience at three different fast-food restaurants suggests that employees' training and supervision require more attention to safety procedures. Greater manager accountability

Lauren Dundes; Tamiko Swann

2008-01-01

115

Food for thought on food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

foodlink’s National Food Safety Week provides a focus for communicating messages designed to help people understand and initiate the basic precautions which can be taken to reduce the risk of food poisoning and in the process provide fun and entertainment for thousands throughout the UK. There were over 100,000 reported cases of food poisoning last year and there has been

Carol Elsasser

1999-01-01

116

FOOD AID AND COMMERCIAL INTERNATIONAL FOOD TRADE  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. This paper was commissioned by the Trade and Markets Division of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to address the relationship between food aid and commercial international food trade as background to an anticipated OECD study on the export competition aspects of food aid. The terms of reference for this study call for \\

Christopher B. Barrett

2002-01-01

117

National Food Policies Impacting on Food Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

India accounts for 16.7 per cent of the world's food consumers. With the exception of China, India's size in terms of food consumers is many times larger than the average size of the rest of the countries. At the time of independence in 1947, India was in the grip of a serious food crisis, which was accentuated by the partition

S. S. Acharya

118

Color Additives in Food  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Radiation-Emitting Products; Vaccines, Blood & Biologics; Animal & Veterinary; Cosmetics; Tobacco Products. Food. Print; Share; E ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

119

Food Preferences of Users of the Emergency Food System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined food and beverage preferences of emergency food program (EFP) clients of the Food Bank of Central New York (Food Bank). Findings suggest that food pantry clients prefer to receive meat\\/poultry\\/fish, vegetables, and fruit over soda, candy, and snack foods. This new information supports the effort being made by the Food Bank to limit foods of minimal nutritional

Elizabeth Campbell; Heather Hudson; Karen Webb; Patricia B. Crawford

2011-01-01

120

21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

2013-04-01

121

Food sustainability : Diverging interpretations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In sessions on food security – the focus in developing countries – and food safety – primarily a preoccupation

Harry Aiking; Joop de Boer

2004-01-01

122

Retailing organic foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past five years consumer demand for organic food has risen dramatically in the wake of a series of high profile scares about food safety. This paper provides a case study of the retailing of organic foods. The case study includes an outline of the characteristics and development of the organic food market, an examination of the different players

Peter Jones; Colin Clarke-Hill; Peter Shears; David Hillier

2001-01-01

123

Thrifty Food Plan, 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Thrifty Food Plan (TFP), a fundamental part of the U.S. food guidance system and the basis for maximum food stamp allotments, has been revised by USDA's Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (CNPP), with assistance from USDA's Food and Nutrition S...

A. Carlson K. Hanson M. Lino P. P. Basiotis W. Y. Juan

2007-01-01

124

Prevention of Food Poisoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

125

Methods of Food Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all foods are derived from living cells from animals and plant origin and in some cases from some microorganisms by biotechnology methods. Thus, foods are for the most part composed of “edible biochemicals”. One of the most important goals of the food scientist is to make foods as safe as possible whether they are used fresh or processed. The

Tsvetko Prokopov; Stoyan Tanchev

126

Failure of food power  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was fashionable during the 1972 to 1975 period of global food scarcity to describe food as an invaluable instrument of diplomacy, particularly for the United States. The US Secretary of Agriculture argued that food had become one of the most useful tools in our diplomatic kit. The case has been weakened by the return of the world food market,

Paarlberg

2009-01-01

127

Reasons to Do Food Challenges  

MedlinePLUS

... Fleischer, MD Dept. of Pediatrics View full profile Food Allergy: Diagnosis Reasons to Do Food Challenges Food challenges ... Daily Pollen Count Receive Health-e-News Pediatric Food Allergy Program The Pediatric Food Allergy Program brings together ...

128

Food Allergy to Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food proteins. Class 1 food allergens are represented by peanut, egg white, and cow’s milk; they are heat- and acid-stable glycoproteins that induce allergic sensitization via gastrointestinal tract and cause systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are homologous to proteins in birch tree pollen and class 2 food allergy

A. Nowak-Wegrzyn

2007-01-01

129

Biotechnology and food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of genetically modified foods for an increasingly informed and selective consumer requires the coordinated\\u000a activities of both the companies developing the transgenic food and regulatory authorities to ensure that these foods are\\u000a at least as safe as the traditional foods they are supplementing in the diet. Although the size and complexity of the food\\u000a sector ensures that no

Ricki M. Helm

2002-01-01

130

Fast Food Facts: Interactive Food Finder  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before grabbing a quick bite at a fast food eatery, curious diners may want to check this site, provided by Olen Publishing, and based on the Fast Food Facts handbook, which is published by the Minnesota Attorney General's Office. Food Finder allows users to search any of nineteen fast food restaurants from Arby's to White Castle. Any or all restaurants can be searched on food names, maximum calories, percent calories from fat, and maximum sodium, fat, and cholesterol. Then simply "fire up the deep fryer." To browse all products of all restaurants, simply fire up the deep fryer without entering any search terms. This fun and informative (if slightly frightening) site tallies the cost of that next fast food meal to your health.

1998-01-01

131

Radioactivity and food  

SciTech Connect

Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. (Laboratorio Unificado de Control de Alimentos y Medicamentos (LUCAM) (Guatemala))

1990-03-01

132

Government perspective: food labeling.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration acknowledges the severity of the obesity epidemic. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the importance of food labeling as a vehicle for dietary messages and, thus, enforces stringent guidelines to maintain the integrity of the food label. As food labels await another upgrade to make them more effective and easier to understand, the Food and Drug Administration considers what information will be most useful for consumers to make healthy choices. The causal relationship between food labels and subsequent diet choice is not well understood; more research in this area is needed. The Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration has recently appointed an Obesity Working Group to develop proposals on pertinent topics of obesity, including the role of food labeling as a dietary guide. PMID:16002834

Philipson, Tomas

2005-07-01

133

Is fast food addictive?  

PubMed

Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

2011-09-01

134

Home Hearth Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Home Hearth Food is primarily for people who grow or raise their own foods, depending on prepackaged and/or convenience foods as little as possible. Topics include butchering, preserving, smoking, culinary herbs, sausage, household formulas, homemade soda pop and other beverages, baking, equipment and supplies, solutions to food allergies, and allowable foods for those with other illnesses, intertwined with family chit-chat. Religious and political discussions are considered off-topic unless directly food-related in a preparatory, historical, or cultural sense.

1999-01-01

135

Food safety information and food demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how news about food-related health risks affects consumers’ demands for safe food products. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – By identifying structural breaks in an econometrically estimated demand model, news with permanent impact on demand is distinguished from news with temporary impact. The Danish demand for pasteurized versus shell eggs is used as an

Sinne Smed; Jørgen Dejgaard Jensen

2005-01-01

136

Potentially Hazardous Food 2005 Food Code  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... sample with calibrated equipment. Heat-treatment must destroy ... w = 0.68 – 0.76; pH = 6.5; curd heated to ~ 130 ... illness; The food is heat-treated/cured ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

137

Food Composition Databases for Bioactive Food Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search of the scientific literature and other sources was undertaken to identify and locate data and databases on the presence and amount of bioactive components in foods. The goals were to determine the availability of such data and databases; develop an annotated bibliography; and suggest the next steps to be taken with regard to the development of food composition

Jean A. T. Pennington

2002-01-01

138

Retail Food Risk Factor Studies  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Guidance & Regulation. Retail Food Protection. Foodborne Illness & Risk Factor Reduction. -. Retail Food Risk Factor Studies. Backgrounders. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

139

Refrigeration & Safe Handling of Food  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Surplus, Salvaged, and Donated Foods: Safety Tips; Serving Up Safe Buffets; Eating Outdoors, Handling Food Safely. -. -. Related Links. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood

140

Agriculture and Food  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text VersionPage 1. Agriculture and Food Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan* as input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/fooddefense

141

Food Irradiator and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method and apparatus is provided for the irradiation pasteurization of food packages of uniform size and shape. Fish is eviscerated, scaled, filleted, trimmed and packaged. The packaged food is passed through a source of gamma rays.

O. A. Kuhl A. B. Oltmann

1965-01-01

142

Food Processing Criteria  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Many now desire to alter the atmospheres within food packages, or apply federally regulated chemical ... (2) Controlled Atmosphere Packaging (CAP ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

143

CHAPTER 32. CEREAL FOODS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

AOAC International is the international professional organization that is largely responsible for the development of analytical chemical methods that apply to food, agriculture, marine organisms, dietary supplements, and food allergens. Methods traditionally arise from the collaborative efforts of ...

144

Food for Thought  

MedlinePLUS

... healthcare costs of those empty calories and the "super-size" seems like less of a bargain. Food ... sauce Marinara sauce Extra cheese pizza Veggie pizza Super-sized fast food Regular size, occasionally Avoid the ...

145

Food Applications and Regulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

146

Food Allergies and Travel  

MedlinePLUS

... Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Allergies, Asthma & the Immune System > Food Allergies and Travel Print A A A Text Size ... travel, and she's determined not to let her food allergies stop her. She says feelings of awkwardness and ...

147

Food allergies (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

148

Fun With Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of online activities consists of matching games about meadow, arctic and pond food webs. Intended for younger students, each game involves placing images of various plants and animals into their proper places in the food webs.

149

Retail Food Protection  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... and the industries they regulate by providing a model Food Code, scientifically-based guidance, training, program evaluation, and technical ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

150

Share Food Case Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Share Food Case Study was prepared for use in the 2007 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Examiner Preparation Course. The Share Food Case Study describes a fictitious nonprofit organization. There is no connection between the fictitious Share Fo...

2007-01-01

151

Fast food (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

152

Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)|

Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

1993-01-01

153

Food Compliance Programs  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... PDF. 7304.019, Toxic Elements in Food & Foodware - Import and Domestic Implementation Date: "Upon Receipt", PDF. 7304.839, ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/complianceenforcement/foodcomplianceprograms

154

Holiday Food Safety  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Eating these kinds of foods right out of ... Cooking them according to the package directions before you eat them kills bacteria that could make you ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood

155

Food Defense Plan Builder  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... How do I get the Food Defense Plan Builder? ... FDA does not track or monitor its use and does not have access to any content or documents ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/fooddefense/toolseducationalmaterials

156

Food as Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns over food security have emphasized food while appearing to give less attention to the meaning and significance of\\u000a security. Consequently, the valuation and perceptions of food have not secured its place at the top of a state’s priorities\\u000a and at the heart of development. Many states have already bargained food production for resource extraction in their quest\\u000a for revenues

David Fullbrook

2010-01-01

157

Food Business Entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting\\u000a a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making,\\u000a and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards,\\u000a career progression, and

Peter Weber

2008-01-01

158

Global Food Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of global modernity, the organisation of food production and consumption is changing. These changes have two important consequences, new food-related risks and concerns are emerging while conventional nation-state-based regulatory practices can no longer deal satisfactorily with food risks and concerns, either old or new. Consequently, innovative arrangements are needed to respond to the challenges facing food governance

P. J. M. Oosterveer

2005-01-01

159

A Food Labeling  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text VersionPage 1. ???? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? / ????? ???? 2009 Page 2. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

160

Genetics of food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allergic reactions to foods are an important medical problem throughout the industrialized world. The occurrence of food allergy\\u000a appears to be strongly in.uenced by genetics, but the basis of the genetic predisposition to food allergy has not been differentiated\\u000a from that for atopy in general. In addition, genetic susceptibility alone does not explain the prevalence of food allergy\\u000a satisfactorily, leaving

Stephen C. Dreskin

2006-01-01

161

Food and energy resources  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on energy consumption in the food industry. Topics considered at the conference included solar energy, energy flow in the food system, energy sources and conversions relating to food, the role of energy in world agriculture and food availability, forecasting, energy use in crop systems in northeastern China, developing countries, socio-economic factors, ethical aspects, solar process heat, biomass energy, prices, land use, and conservation.

Pimentel, D.; Hall, C.W.

1984-01-01

162

A Food Labeling  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text VersionPage 1. ???? ??????? ? ????? ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? / ????? ???? 2009 Page 2. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

163

FDA Announces Draft Guidance on Food Categories in Food ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Food. ... News & Events. Constituent Updates. -. FDA Announces Draft Guidance on Food Categories in Food Facility Registrations. August 14, 2012. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/newsevents/constituentupdates

164

Food CGMP Modernization — A Focus on Food Safety  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... foods and foods held hot should be harmonized with the Retail Food Code ... 21 CFR 110.10(b)(1) "...should indicate that no street clothing would be ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/cgmp

165

The Biology of Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses "The Biology of Food" course. This course--a large lecture course with no laboratory section--is a mixture of kitchen chemistry, post-eating food metabolism, origins of different foods (from crop breeding to evolution), and ecological and environmental impacts of farming and harvesting practices. Nearly every…

Bonner, J. Jose

2004-01-01

166

Irradiation Nation [food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron beams and X-rays might make some foods safer to eat. But is irradiation a silver bullet or an industrial-strength placebo for killer contaminants in the food chain? This paper discusses the technology and issues involved in this aspect of food safety. Even though it is highly effective at killing bugs and bacteria, irradiation is at best only a partial

H. Goldstein

2003-01-01

167

Food Stamps and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economics of food stamps - the America's major food assistance program is investigated in order to answer the following questions: (1) whether malnutrition be solved by food supplements or cash allowances; (2) what the benefits to recipients are; (3) whether eligibility requirements permit participation by the needy and exclude higher income…

Clarkson, Kenneth W.

168

Fast food: dietary perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration is given to the fast food debate in the context of a healthy diet. Fast food products readily available in retail outlets in the London area are reported on. It is apparent from this exercise that consumers can make informed choices in accord with the Balance of Good Health. Quantitative ingredient declarations on packaging clearly show, which foods are

G. Jill Davies; Jennifer L. Smith

2004-01-01

169

ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foods, especially liquid foods, conduct electricity. Unlike in metals, the charge carriers in foods are ions, instead of electrons. Under normal applications, ions carry the charges as the mass of ions moves along the electrical field. The concentration and mobility of ions determine the electrical ...

170

Food irradiation: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope for preservation of foods by irradiation is reviewed. The ; ability of ionizing radiations, such as gamma rays and fast electrons in the ; preservation of food and the sources of ionizing energy, high and low dose ; process and combination treatments are discussed. An important aspect of food ; irradiation relates to the demonstration of safety of

Sreenivasan

1972-01-01

171

Immunotherapy for food allergies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  The future certainly holds promise for the treatment of food allergies. Generally, future treatments can be divided into immunological\\u000a manipulation of the food-allergic subject (mucosal vaccines, new immunotherapies, cytokine level alterations) or manipulation\\u000a of the food through genetic engineering to diminish or abolish its allergenic activity.

Samuel B. Lehrer; Laurianne G. Wild; Kenneth L. Bost; Ricardo U. Sorensen

1999-01-01

172

Food safety for babies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young babies are vulnerable to food-borne disease. Examines the results of a questionnaire survey of parents and carers in day nurseries to examine the practices used to sterilize feeding equipment, reconstitute infant milk feeds and prepare weaning foods. Reports on observations of infant feeding practices carried out in six day nurseries. Standards of food handling in the nurseries were high

Denise Worsfold

1996-01-01

173

Addressing Food Allergies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

2008-01-01

174

Food allergy: current concerns  

SciTech Connect

This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

Fries, J.H.

1981-05-01

175

[Undesirable impurities in food].  

PubMed

An estimation of the food adulteration situation through unwanted foreign matter, especially insecticides, traces of veterinary medicines, of food additives, heavy metals, organic chlorides in food is followed by an investigation into permissible levels of impurity or health due to toxicological medical considerations. PMID:3442086

Hapke, H J

1987-01-01

176

Language in Food Advertisements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyses 476 food advertisements in newspapers from 3 different sized cities. Finds that brand names, food names, and descriptive vocabulary comprise the majority of language in food ads across newspaper groups. Offers suggestions for using newspaper ads in the classroom. (RS)

Plata, Maximino

1992-01-01

177

Licensing: food for thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looks at the challenges involved in creating partnerships between food and licensed products; the McDonald’s Happy Meal revolutionised how brands appealed to children, and made licensing central to fast food marketing. Shows how broadcast advertising restrictions on unhealthy foods will adversely affect licensed products; the issue underlying these restrictions is the rise of child obesity in the UK. Argues that

Jason Dawn

2005-01-01

178

Determination of food folate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trienzyme treatment appears to be essential for obtaining the maximum possible value of folate in food items. Trienzyme treatment is performed using protease and ?-amylase treatment for the extraction of food folate trapped or bound to protein or carbohydrate matrices, and using traditional folate conjugase for the hydrolysis of polyglutamyl folates that are regularly present in foods. Because the conditions

Tsunenobu Tamura

1998-01-01

179

Addressing Food Allergies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

2008-01-01

180

Religion and Food Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

If a food-service operator does something in the preparation or service of a meal that violates the rules of a religion, a guest who partakes of that food may feel that her or his religious identity, security, or personal passage to heaven may be at stake. This article outlines some religions' rules pertaining to food content, preparation, and service. Some

Beth Dugan

1994-01-01

181

Models for Food Webs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food webs are complex systems of many interacting biological species. After summarizing some of their properties, this contribution presents different ways of modeling food webs. It briefly mentions static models and discusses dynamical models and their population dynamics equations. The complexity-stability debate is mentioned, and evolutionary food web models are presented as a natural way of obtaining large stable webs.

Barbara Drossel

182

MyFoodAdvisor  

MedlinePLUS

... Fitness Food MyFoodAdvisor FREE Diabetes Support On Your Cell Phone Receive info, recipes, tips and reminders from Care4life ... healthy when time is tight MyFoodAdvisor Online Tool Tracking what you eat can help manage your diabetes ...

183

Food and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of food on mood have long been observed, ranging from increases in happiness, contentment and alertness to feelings of depression, anxiety, failure and guilt. The reasons for these effects, however, appear increasingly complex. Traditionally, the effects of foods on mood have been attributed to a number of pharmacological and\\/or nutritional components of the foods consumed. Further research has also

Katherine M Appleton; Peter J Rogers

2004-01-01

184

Food losses in food service institutions Examples from Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lowering food losses is a potential measure to overcome hunger and reduce the ecological side effects from the food system. However, few observations of food losses have been reported in the literature during recent years. We studied food losses in four food service institutions in Stockholm, Sweden. The results show that about one-fifth of the food is lost. Plate waste

Rebecka Engström; Annika Carlsson-Kanyama

2004-01-01

185

Linking food aid and food security in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This research program aims to contribute to ongoing reforms in food aid and food security policies through studying the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) and surrounding food security policies in Ethiopia. Since 1984, annually more than 5 million people have received food aid in this country, creating a situation of chronic food insecurity. The new Food Security Policy has

Gerrit Jan van Uffelen

186

Federal/State Food Programs  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... FoodSafety.gov: Your Gateway to Federal Food Safety Information Gateway to Government Food Safety Information. -. ? -. Recalls & Alerts. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/federalstatefoodprograms

187

Food Protection Has Many Facets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developments in food protection are described for microbiological contaminants, delicatessen foods, seafoods, mycotoxins, food additives, and regulatory surveillance. Proposed and advocated is a cooperative, basic data, monitoring program focusing on microbiological, chemical, nutritional, toxicological, and related food quality indices. (BL)|

Walker, Bailus, Jr.; And Others

1972-01-01

188

Food Security Learning Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From World Hunger Year (WHY), this online Food Security Learning Center was created to provide site visitors "with an in-depth look at common hunger and poverty issues facing many U.S. communities." The Food Security Learning Center contains subject categories regarding Rural Poverty, Domestic Hunger & Federal Food Programs, Family Farms, Migrant & Seasonal Farms Workers, and Nutrition. The site also contains a Community Food Security section with subcategories pertaining to Community Supported Agriculture, Community Gardens, Food Policy Councils, Farmers' Markets, Farm to Cafeteria, and more. In addition, the Center links to several funding opportunities, an extensive Hunger & Poverty Resource Guide, and current Action Alerts.

189

Food Signs in Radiology  

PubMed Central

Objective: Certain diseases show classic radiological signs that resemble various types of food items like fruits, meat, vegetables, eggs, bakery, grocery and confectionary items. In this article various food signs are discussed and correlated with the various food items in a pictorial way. The objective of this pictorial essay is to provide the information and learn the characteristic radiological signs resembling various food items. These food signs are easy to recognize and allows a confident diagnosis on the basis of imaging findings alone or can narrow down the differential diagnosis.

Hussain, Mehboob; Al Damegh, Saleh

2007-01-01

190

Folklore and food habits.  

PubMed

The folklore surrounding food habits developed from uncertainty and fear in mankind's quest for food. In an attempt to gain control of his destiny, man developed various magical practices which would perhaps assure an abundance of food. The practice and beliefs did not develop haphazardly, but, on examination, reveal a type of "folk logic" explained by Sir James Frazer's concepts of contagious and homeopathic magic. The "logic" was extended to specific practices in preparing foods, eating of foods on special days, the use of food in curing certain diseases, and forbidding foods at certain times. The folk were attempting to coordinate the phenomena of their world according to cause and effect much the same as modern Americans coordinate their world. However, the basic assuptions were different. PMID:1254878

Shifflett, P A

1976-04-01

191

Keep Food Safe: By Types of Food  

MedlinePLUS

... Don't cross-contaminate! When handling raw meat, poultry, seafood and eggs, keep these foods and their ... Cooking Temperatures chart for details on cooking meats, poultry, eggs, leftovers, and casseroles. CHILL: At room temperature, ...

192

Healthy food, unhealthy food and obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine whether the latent behavioral mechanisms embedded in two “price effects” explanations of the obesity problem are operative. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that falling food price is one likely cause of the obesity epidemic.

Xiaoyong Zheng; Chen Zhen

2008-01-01

193

Food Facts: Gluten and Food Labeling  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... may be labeled in a variety of ways: • “Gluten-free” • “No gluten” • “Free of gluten” • “Without gluten” The new FDA regulation applies to all of these ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/resourcesforyou

194

FDA 1997 Food Code - Chapter 3: Food  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... (4) As allowed by law, for field-dressed wild game animals under ... (G) Under leaking water lines, including leaking automatic fire sprinkler heads, or ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

195

FoodQuest for Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the WebQuest framework developed to help students investigate the topic of nutrition. Highlights include food labels; the Food Guide Pyramid; three levels of inquiry related to nutrition and ingredients in foods; how food choices affect health; historical background of food and food companies; and online grocery shopping. (LRW)|

Joseph, Linda C.

2000-01-01

196

Factors Affecting Food Away from Home: Are Food Secure and Food Insecure Households Different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers interaction among participation in the Food Stamp Program (FSP), food security status and food away from home expenditures. Current Population Survey-Food Security Supplement data and a Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System with a bootstrapping two-step method are used. The results show that FSP participation is endogenously related with food security status and significantly affects total food expenditure.

Suwen Pan; Helen H. Jensen; Jaime Malaga

2007-01-01

197

Radioactivity and foods  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food--on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undersirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chenobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods.

Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. (Unified Lab. of Food and Drug Control, Guatemala City (Guatemala))

1991-01-01

198

[New food allergies].  

PubMed

RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml). PMID:10526567

Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

1999-09-25

199

Nutrients in vegetarian foods.  

PubMed

Persons who use tables of food composition have often found that foods that vegetarians commonly eat are not included. To help remedy this situation, a table is presented which includes the 49 foods on the vegetarian Exchange Lists and 18 additional nonmeat foods. Nutrient contents of household measures of these foods are given for water, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, zinc, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, and folacin. Nutrient amounts were derived from USDA sources and from other published research when available. Nutrient amounts from foods assumed to be identical to those in the table were placed in parentheses. When nutrient amounts were not available, they were estimated from similar foods and placed in brackets. When values found for a single nutrient in a food varied by 20% or more, the total range was shown. When a dash was found in a literature reference and the amount of the nutrient was known to be insignificant, a zero was presented in the table. Thus, there are no gaps in the table. Until accurate laboratory-derived data are available for the nutrients in vegetarian foods, this table, used with appropriate judgment, should be useful for estimating the nutrient intakes of persons who eat vegetarian foods. PMID:6361102

Truesdell, D D; Whitney, E N; Acosta, P B

1984-01-01

200

Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings

Frans J. Kok; Cees de Graaf

2010-01-01

201

1990 LIST 2003 LIST FOOD CATEGORY FOOD # FOOD ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... raw" X X X X X V 265 "Eggplant, fresh, peeled, boiled" X X X X X X V 266 "Turnip, fresh/frozen, boiled" X X X X X V 267 "Okra, fresh/frozen, boiled" X ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/foodscienceresearch

202

Novel natural food antimicrobials.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. These compounds are naturally produced and isolated from various sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, in which they constitute part of host defense systems. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as nisin, plant essential oils, and natamycin, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective in their potential role as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Although some of these natural antimicrobials are commercially available and applied in food processing, their efficacy, consumer acceptance and regulation are not well defined. This manuscript reviews natural antimicrobial compounds with reference to their applications in food when applied individually or in combination with other hurdles. It also reviews the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobials, factors affecting their antimicrobial activities, and future prospects for use of natural antimicrobials in the food industry. PMID:22385168

Juneja, Vijay K; Dwivedi, Hari P; Yan, Xianghe

2012-01-01

203

Food-Borne Trematodiases  

PubMed Central

Summary: An estimated 750 million people are at risk of infections with food-borne trematodes, which comprise liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola gigantica, Fasciola hepatica, Opisthorchis felineus, and Opisthorchis viverrini), lung flukes (Paragonimus spp.), and intestinal flukes (e.g., Echinostoma spp., Fasciolopsis buski, and the heterophyids). Food-borne trematodiases pose a significant public health and economic problem, yet these diseases are often neglected. In this review, we summarize the taxonomy, morphology, and life cycle of food-borne trematodes. Estimates of the at-risk population and number of infections, geographic distribution, history, and ecological features of the major food-borne trematodes are reviewed. We summarize clinical manifestations, patterns of infection, and current means of diagnosis, treatment, and other control options. The changing epidemiological pattern and the rapid growth of aquaculture and food distribution networks are highlighted, as these developments might be associated with an elevated risk of transmission of food-borne trematodiases. Current research needs are emphasized.

Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jurg

2009-01-01

204

Exploring the Food Pyramid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will introduce students to the food pyramid by using the My Food Pyramid Website. Materials Needed: You will be using this worksheet to do the lesson. My Pyramid Worksheet Lesson Your body needs fuel to survive. By eating a healthy balanced diet, you get energy and you can have a healthy body. To stay healthy you need to eat foods out of each of the five ...

Kern, Miss

2010-05-04

205

Mechanisms of food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of food allergy continues to rise, particularly in ‘westernized’ societies; it has been linked to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ and the increased diversity of food consumption worldwide. The pathogenic mechanisms and Th1\\/Th2 paradigm are being closely examined with respect to the occurrence of inflammatory and injury\\/repair responses at different mucosal sites. Genetically modified plants as potential food sources and

Ricki M Helm; A Wesley Burks

2000-01-01

206

Food Intake and Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will find out about eating healthy, what calories are, and how many calories you burn when you excercise. First you need to find out what is healthy and what is not. You\\'ve probably all seen the food pyramid before. Here is the newest version of the food pyramid. Please click on the link below. new food pyramid Now you can find out how many calories you burn per one ...

Sharece01

2006-10-04

207

Food-Induced Anaphylaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Food allergy is the most common single cause of anaphylaxis. About 4–6% of children and 3% of adults suffer from confirmed\\u000a food allergy, which places a huge population at risk for anaphylaxis. This chapter provides an overview of the epidemiology,\\u000a pathophysiology, clinical presentation, pediatric considerations, risk factors, treatment, diagnosis, prevention, and natural\\u000a history of food-induced anaphylaxis. With a growing population

Kirsi M. Järvinen-Seppo; Anna Nowak-W?grzyn

208

Food Additives & Ingredients  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers About the Petition Process. -. -. Petition Guidance - Chemistry. ... Chemistry Reference Documents. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

209

Food Safety Grants  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Cooperative Agreement to Support the North Carolina State University, Prestage Department of Poultry Science and the Piedmont Research ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/newsevents/foodsafetygrants

210

Selected Food Products  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 2001. Information from FDA and Other Government Agencies. ... more. Information from FDA and Other Government Agencies. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

211

Keeping food safe.  

PubMed

Legislation passed during this year's legislative session will help the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) identify the source of food-borne illness outbreaks. Senate Bill 81 increases the number of food wholesalers and warehouse operators that must obtain licenses from DSHS. DSHS enforcement activities include follow-up inspections at establishments that have problems, sending warning letters, holding management meetings with the firms, and providing technical assistance. When a food-borne illness outbreak involves a Texas manufacturer, wholesaler, or warehouse, DSHS can recall contaminated products, close establishments temporarily until they can ensure their food is safe or close them permanently, and levy fines. PMID:22714694

Conde, Crystal

2011-11-01

212

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Fruiting Vegetables: eggplant, peppers (hot and sweet), okra (including Chinese okra and luffa), tomatillos and tomatoes. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/complianceenforcement

213

Food Security vs. Food Self-Sufficiency: The Indonesian Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food security is an important social objective and relying on international food markets to meet the needs of Indonesia's growing population is precarious. The policy of restricting food imports through tariffs or quantitative restrictions promotes the goal of food self-sufficiency, but does so at the cost of reducing the food security of the most vulnerable people – the poorest net

Peter Warr

2011-01-01

214

Function of Traditional Foods and Food Culture in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese people have exploited traditional foods through their long history, and developed an abundant food culture. Especially, preserving health by dieting has been an important part of the traditional food culture in China, which is based on the theory of Chinese medicine. Some of the traditional foods are on the verge of being lost, but improvements in traditional foods will

Li-Te LI; Li-Jun YIN; Masayoshi SAITO

2004-01-01

215

Food Supply Chain Management under Conditions of Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food safety and food supply chain management has become a hot research at home and abroad. This article describes the background of the food supply chain, and puts forward a new idea to solve the food safety problems in the food supply chain induced by the causes according to the problem. Analysis based on the quality and safety of the

Wang Dianhua; Huang Douxuan

2010-01-01

216

Biogenic amines in foods: Histamine and food processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic amines, e.g. histamine, occur in many different foods. At high concentrations, they are risk factors for food intoxication, whereas moderate levels may lead to food intolerance. Sensitive persons, with insufficient diamine oxidase activity, suffer from numerous undesirable reactions after intake of histamine containing foods. Besides spoiled foodstuffs, especially fermented foods tend to contain elevated levels of biogenic amines, although

S. Bodmer; C. Imark; M. Kneubühl

1999-01-01

217

CONSUMER AND FOOD STORE MANAGER PERCEPTIONS OF FOOD INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal and state governments operate inspection systems to help assure consumers of the wholesomeness and cleanliness of food products. Each major outbreak of human illness attributed to foodborne pathogens or to cancer-causing residues in foods raises questions as to the effectiveness of this food inspection. How do food store managers and consumers differ in their perceptions of needed food inspection?

Harold Potakey; Alvin R. Schupp; Donna E. Montgomery

1994-01-01

218

USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program: Food Sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program (NFNAP) is designed to develop robust estimates of the mean nutrient content of important foods in the food supply and significantly improve the quality of food composition data in the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Nutrient Databank. The program objectives are: (1) evaluation of existing data; (2) identification of Key Foods and

P. R. Pehrsson; D. B. Haytowitz; J. M. Holden; C. R. Perry; D. G. Beckler

2000-01-01

219

FOODS FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS. II. FOOD STORAGE, PACKAGING, AND SURVEILLANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stability of various food products, stockpiled for long periods in ; fallout shelters, is considered in relation to packaging, periodic sampling, and ; replacement. Among the most stable foods are highly refined foods, such as salt ; and sugar. With adequate package protection, they remain unchanged indefinitely. ; Unprocessed cereals and seed foods (beans and peas) retain acceptable food ;

M. E. Juilly; V. F. Kaufman; R. L. Olson; E. C. Taylor

1962-01-01

220

Food Safety, Farm to Fork.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to growing threat of food-borne illness, the federal government launched the Food Safety Initiative. A key element is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system (HACCP), designed to make everyone in the food-delivery chain responsible for ensuring a safe food supply. The Food and Drug Administration also announced a beef…

Jones, Rebecca

1998-01-01

221

WASTING FOOD - AN INSISTENT BEHAVIOUR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wastage of food occurs at all stages of the life cycle of food, starting from harvesting, through processing and production via trade and finally consumption. Some of the incurred food wastes are not suitable for human consumption any more, while others could be eaten without restrictions. The paper focuses on the latter food waste and reports about food waste

F. Schneider

222

Functional foods: some relevant considerations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unambiguous and agreed definition of what a functional food is does not exist. However, broadly speaking, a food is said to be functional if it contains a food component which affects one or more targeted functions of the body in a positive way. Functional foods often fall into the grey area between foods and medicine, but from a regulatory

Lars Ovesen

1999-01-01

223

Food selection changes under stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigate the effect of stress on food choice. Experiment 1 demonstrates experimentally that stress causes changes in food choice away from healthy low fat foods (grapes) to less healthy high fat foods (M&Ms), confirming previous survey research. Experiment 2, a survey study, finds that more females than males report increasing food consumption when stressed. A much larger percentage

Debra A. Zellner; Susan Loaiza; Zuleyma Gonzalez; Jaclyn Pita; Janira Morales; Deanna Pecora; Amanda Wolf

2006-01-01

224

Food Safety, Farm to Fork.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In response to growing threat of food-borne illness, the federal government launched the Food Safety Initiative. A key element is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system (HACCP), designed to make everyone in the food-delivery chain responsible for ensuring a safe food supply. The Food and Drug Administration also announced a beef…

Jones, Rebecca

1998-01-01

225

Public perception of food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although studies that use the double-blind placebo-controled food challenge (DBPCFC) suggest that the prevalence of food allergy is about 2%, public belief in food allergy appears to be considerably higher. The study was undertaken to determine the magnitude and features of the American public's belief in food allergy by surveying a large, demographically balanced population. A simple question about food

D. R Altman; L. T Chiaramonte

1997-01-01

226

Food Miles: Starving the Poor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractFood miles measure the distance food travels to reach consumers’ plates. Although substituting local food for imported produce will not necessarily reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the food miles movement is widely supported by consumers and import-competing producers, especially in some parts of Western Europe. We investigate the economic implications of food miles preference changes in the UK, France and

John Ballingall; Niven Winchester

2010-01-01

227

Food analysis and consumer protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of food safety and quality control are described, with a focus on consumer protection. On the assumption that there can be no ‘zero-risk’, not only in life generally but even in food, appropriate food control is required in order to assess compliance with labelling (e.g. in the case of functional food) and to ensure the safety of food. People

Elke Anklam; Reto Battaglia

2001-01-01

228

Psychological burden of food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

One fi fth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient

Martin Teufel; Tilo Biedermann; Nora Rapps; Constanze Hausteiner; Peter Henningsen; Paul Enck; Stephan Zipfel

2007-01-01

229

Niigugim Qalgadangis (Atkan Food).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A history of food gathering and food preparation techniques of Alaska natives on Atka Island in the Aleutians are presented in Western Aleut and English with illustrations by J. Leslie Boffa and Mike Dirks. Directions are given for preparing: various plants, including wild rice; salted, dried, or smoked fish; baked flour; fried dough; boiled…

Dirks, Moses; Dirks, Lydia

230

Plant Genebanks: Food Security  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article shows how genebanks are like an insurance policy for the future of agriculture, for they: conserve the diversity of plant species, offer resources for breeding of hardier crop varieties, provide food solutions in times of disaster, and safeguard food supplies for future generations.

Geoffrey C. Hawtin and Jeremy Cherfas (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute;)

2003-04-01

231

Food hypersensitivity by inhalation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food.

Daniel A Ramirez Jr; Sami L Bahna

2009-01-01

232

Food Affects Human Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)|

Kolata, Gina

1982-01-01

233

Food Affects Human Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

Kolata, Gina

1982-01-01

234

Encapsulation of food ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microencapsulation is a relatively new technology that is used for protection, stabilization, and slow release of food ingredients. The encapsulating or wall materials used generally consist of starch, starch derivatives, proteins, gums, lipids, or any combination of them. Methods of encapsulation of food ingredients include spraydrying, freeze?drying, fluidized bed?coating, extrusion, cocrystallization, molecular inclusion, and coacervation. This paper reviews techniques for

Fereidoon Shahidi

1993-01-01

235

Food Prices in Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Retail food prices in the United States rose an average of over 9 percent annually from 1973 to 1979. The authors examine why these increases occurred and what can be done to slow the rate of increase. They also provide an overview of the food delivery sy...

L. E. Salathe W. T. Boehm

1979-01-01

236

2020 Global food outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report shows just how, and how much, certain policy decisions and social changes will affect the world's future food security. It projects the likely food situation in 2020 if the world continues on more or less its present course, and it then shows how alternative choices could produce a different future. Even rather small changes in agricultural and development

Mark W. Rosegrant; Michael S. Paisner; Siet Meijer; Julie Witcover

2001-01-01

237

Rebuilding the Food Pyramid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the old food guide pyramid released in 1992 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Contradicts the message that fat is bad, which was presented to the public by nutritionists, and the effects of plant oils on cholesterol. Introduces a new food pyramid. (YDS)

Willet, Walter C.; Stampfer, Meir J.

2003-01-01

238

Man and his food  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractThere are many specific aspects of developments in the food industries that could be discussed, such as artificial meats, single cell protein production, the direct extraction and utilization of protein from plant material, the lack of adequate research on human nutrition, the increasing importance of food technology, or on a more national scale, the steps we in New Zealand must

A. T. Johns

1975-01-01

239

Functional foods innovations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ERRC, ARS, USDA, is to improve human health and well being by developing functional food and consumer products that utilize milk and fruit and vegetable processing residues of specialty crops. Major research approaches involve: biotec...

240

Yersiniosis and food safety  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This special issue of journal of food pathogens was designed to share some of the interested scientific studies published on yersiniosis, a foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of food contaminated with Yersinia. In this issue, the focus was on yersiniosis related foodborne illnesses, beh...

241

Food Service Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on food service fundamentals is designed to provide a general background in the basic aspects of the food service program in the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

242

Food Exposures to Lead  

PubMed Central

Exposures to lead have emanated from various sources, including food, throughout human history. Occupational and environmental exposures (especially pica) appear to account for much of the identified human disease, however, food-borne exposures deserve further investigation. Lead residues in food can result from: biological uptake from soils into plants consumed by food animals or man, usage of lead arsenate pesticides, inadvertent addition during food processing, and by leaching them improperly glazed pottery used as food storage or dining utensils. Estimates of total dietary exposure should reflect frequency distribution data on lead levels in specific food commodities in relation to the quantities actually ingested by various sample populations to distinguish degrees of risk associated with particular dietary habits. Earlier estimates of average total dietary intake of lead by adults have been reported to range from above 500 ?g/day downward with more recent estimates suggesting averages of 200 ?g/day or lower. The strengths and weaknesses of these data are discussed along with analytical and sampling considerations. FDA programs related to food surveillance, epidemiology, and toxicological investigation are briefly described.

Kolbye, Albert C.; Mahaffey, Kathryn R.; Fiorino, John A.; Corneliussen, Paul C.; Jelinek, Charles F.

1974-01-01

243

Update on food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of food-based allergic disorders over the past 5 years. Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that nearly 4% of Americans are afflicted with food allergies, a prevalence much higher than appreciated in the past. In addition, the prevalence of peanut allergy was found to have doubled in American children less than 5 years of

Hugh A. Sampson

2004-01-01

244

Fast food: friendly?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast food is routinely blamed for the obesity epidemic and consequentially excluded from professional dietary recommendations. However, several sections of society including senior citizens, low-income adult and children, minority and homeless children, or those pressed for time appear to rely on fast food as an important source of meals. Considering the dependence of these nutritionally vulnerable population groups on fast

S Rice; E J McAllister; N V Dhurandhar

2007-01-01

245

Who Buys Local Food?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from a national survey of food shoppers, a Lancaster-Weinstein model is estimated using probit analysis to investigate the characteristics of local food buyers. Because there is no standard for what “local food†is, consumer research is used to define the term fairly narrowly as buying from farmers’ markets, buying directly from farmers, and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) membership.

Lydia Zepeda; Jinghan Li

2006-01-01

246

The power of food  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the developmentalist era,industrialization has simultaneously transformedagriculture and degraded its natural and culturalbase. Food production and consumption embodies thecontradictory aspects of this transformation. Thispaper argues that the crisis of development hasgenerated two basic responses: (1) the attempt toredefine development as a global project, includingharnessing biotechnology to resolve the food securityquestion, and (2) a series of countermovementsattempting to simultaneously reassert the

Philip McMichael

2000-01-01

247

Improving Food Frequency Questionnaires  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to improve data quality and ease of administration of standard self-administered food frequency questionnaires, various alternative approaches were tried for inquiring about frequency of consumption, portion size, seasonal intake, and food preparation. Evaluation consisted of a cognitive interviewing method in which respondents verbalize their thought process while completing several variations of a questionnaire. Interviewers observed and asked

AMY F SUBAR; FRANCES E THOMPSON; ALBERT F SMITH; JARED B JOBE; REGINA G ZIEGLER; NANCY POTISCHMAN; ARTHUR SCHATZKIN; ANNE HARTMAN; CHRISTINE SWANSON; LAURA KRUSE; RICHARD B HAYES; DENISE RIEDEL LEWIS; LINDA C HARLAN

1995-01-01

248

Cariogenic Potential of Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of rat caries experiments was carried out to test the relative cariogenic potential and to identify the major cariogenic elements of 22 popular snack foods. Parameters that were measured included rat caries, number of cariogenic bacteria in plaque, salivary parameters including flow rate, buffering capacity, total protein, lysozyme and amylase content, and composition of test foods including protein,

S. A. Mundorff-Shrestha; J. D. B. Featherstone; A. D. Eisenberg; E. Cowles; M. E. J. Curzon; M. A. Espeland; C. P. Shields

1994-01-01

249

Foods that fuel performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation will discuss the physiological mechanisms that convert food to energy required for powerful performance. Nutrition science will be translated to practical food choices for maximising energy utilisation for training and competition in endurance and resistance sports. Issues to be discussed include the fundamental importance of carbohydrates and hydration, the role of fats in daily training, how proteins optimise

Carole A Conn

2010-01-01

250

Trends in Food Packaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

Ott, Dana B.

1988-01-01

251

Lipid oxidation in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the basic chemical reactions that affect food flavor quality. Although there are many reactions that can lead to the deterioration of quality in foods, this review focuses on lipid oxidation and how it adversely affects flavor principles. It also presents technological advances for studying the basic mechanism of lipid oxidation, for measuring its intensity, and for retaining

Allen J. St. Angelo; John Vercellotti; Tom Jacks; Michael Legendre

1996-01-01

252

Cyclodextrins as food ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper deals with the practical aspects of the utilization of cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin complexes in the food industry. The molecular encapsulation of lipophilic food ingredients with cyclodextrin improves the stability of flavours, vitamins, colourants and unsaturated fats, etc., both in physical and chemical sense leading to extended product shelf-life. Accelerated and long-term storage stability test results showed that

Lajos Szente; Jozsef Szejtli

2004-01-01

253

Consumers and Food Labeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study presents the results of a survey of consumer attitudes toward various types of food labeling - in particular, food ingredient labeling. Generally, shoppers are aware of the importance and benefits of labeling - and they would like to see the sys...

M. Poprik

1975-01-01

254

Geospatial Revolution: Food Deserts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Food deserts refer to a lack of easy access to nutritious food. They exist all over America as an outcome of poverty. This video from Penn State Public Broadcasting’s Geospatial Revolution shows how geospatial technology can help change this reality.

Wpsu

2010-11-11

255

Food industry scoping study  

SciTech Connect

This Scoping Study provides an analysis of market and economic forces affecting food industry manufacturing processes, and the current and potential role of electrotechnologies in improving productivity and competitiveness. The research and development activities of food trade associations and research institutions are examined. EPRI-sponsored activities and utility programs affecting food industry customers are reviewed. These analyses indicate that significant opportunities exist for the application of various electrotechnologies in most food processing sectors. Due to the processing methods, energy use characteristics and industry growth trends, the dairy, fruit and vegetables, grain and beverage processing sectors present the most promising applications. However, not all of this potential is being effectively tapped. utilities need better-defined programs to help their food industry customers identify efficient energy utilization options and technologies. The appropriate use of electrotechnologies could help improve food industry productivity, processing efficiency and product quality. This Scoping Study recommends the establishment of an EPRI food electrotechnology office. The office will work with affiliated organizations in major food processing regions to design education and technical support, R D and technology transfer programs for EPRI-member utilities. 24 figs., 23 tabs.

Not Available

1990-03-01

256

Processing of food wastes.  

PubMed

Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy. PMID:19878858

Kosseva, Maria R

2009-01-01

257

Food Insufficiency, Food Stamp Participation, and Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether the mental health consequences associated with food insufficiency vary by food stamp participation status and\\/or the value of the food stamp benefit received. Copyright (c) 2008 by the Southwestern Social Science Association.

Colleen M. Heflin; James P. Ziliak

2008-01-01

258

Letter to Food Labeling and Standards Concerning Food ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... As you know, the FDA is concerned about food allergies as they affect an ... This will be a major health benefit to the food allergy sensitive consumer. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

259

Food Intolerance vs. Food Allergy: What's the Difference?  

MedlinePLUS

... com /health /food-allergy /AN01109 ">Food allergy vs. food intolerance: What's the difference? Guidelines for sites linking to MayoClinic.com Advertisement Mayo Clinic Store Check out these best-sellers ...

260

Food allergy in children  

PubMed Central

Food allergy is being increasingly recognised with the highest prevalence being in preschool children. Pathogenesis varies so diagnosis rests on careful history and clinical examination, appropriate use of skin prick and serum-specific IgE testing, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. A double blind placebo controlled food challenge is the gold standard diagnostic test. Avoidance of the allergenic food is the key towards successful management. IgE mediated food allergy may present as a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction, and management consists of the appropriate use of adrenaline (epinephrine) and supportive measures. Sensitisation remains a key target for intervention. Disease modifying agents are currently under trial for managing difficult allergies. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach and follow up.

Baral, V; O'B, H

2005-01-01

261

Mechanisms of food allergy.  

PubMed

Allergy type sensitization occurring in the gut results from a break in oral tolerance, mostly occurring in early childhood. In these patients, a minute amount of the large load of potential food allergens not only will result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) type sensitization mostly, but also in food allergies resulting from other mechanisms including eosinophil-driven disease or resulting from T-cell-mediated inflammation. Symptoms elicited by subsequent exposure to foods in these patients will be mostly in relation to the mechanism of the disease. In this educational review series, we described three cases of food allergy, first, a child with typical IgE-mediated food allergy, second, a child with eosinophilic proctocolitis and in the third patient, we will address tolerance acquisition mechanisms. These cases are discussed with regards to their specific immune events. PMID:19154253

Eigenmann, Philippe A

2009-02-01

262

[Problems of food authenticity].  

PubMed

In this review the several data concerning food authenticity were presented. Typical examples of food adulteration were described. The most known are adulteration of vegetable and fruit products, adulteration of wine, honeys, olive oil etc. The modern analytical techniques for detection of food adulteration were discussed. Among physicochemical methods isotopic techniques (SCIRA, IRMS, SNIF-NMR) were cited. The main spectral methods are: IACPAES, PyMs, FTIR, NIR. The chromatographic techniques (GC, HPLC, HPAEC, HPTLC) with several kinds of detectors were described and the ELISA and PCR techniques are mentioned, too. The role of chemometrics as a way of several analytical data processing was highlighted. It was pointed out at the necessity of more rigorous control of food to support of all activity in area of fight with fraud in food industry. PMID:15307611

Czerwiecki, Ludwik

2004-01-01

263

Food for thought.  

PubMed

Do certain kinds of food contain pharmacologically active substances in concentrations that are high enough to have druglike effects when consumed? Are biologically active compounds in food indicative of therapeutic value? Is traditional drug development suitable for testing the merits of food? Is it ethical to test food as a drug on patients? Will dietary disease management remain a pipedream? Is it a fact or fantasy that the Mediterranean diet is beneficial to health? Is a vegetarian diet an elimination therapy, or one of supplementation? What can be learned from animals? Are humans losing the capability of listening to their bodies? In this review, we will address these questions--providing food for thought. PMID:17129831

Tulp, Martin; Bruhn, Jan G; Bohlin, Lars

2006-11-02

264

Food sustainability, food security and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development requires a deliberate choice in the direction of societal transition, but the options are narrowed down by the obligation to feed a growing world population. At present sufficient food is produced, but large differences exist in per capita supply. Poverty prevents many people from attaining a sufficient diet, while growing economic welfare pushes meat consumption conversely. To meet

Martine Helms

2004-01-01

265

Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to

Fernando P. Carvalho

2006-01-01

266

FDA Food Code 2009: Preface  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... as retail food stores, food service establishments, health care facilities, schools and other ... the public health by assuring the safety and security of our ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

267

Recalls of Foods & Dietary Supplements  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 28, 2013, Premier Foods, LLC Announces The Recall Of Products Sold At Williams-Sonoma For Undeclared Allergens. -. Food Safety App and ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/recalls

268

Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

Rapp, Doris J.

1979-01-01

269

Reportable Food Registry Annual Report  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... tool to help prevent contaminated food from reaching ... public-health risks from reportable foods, the Registry ... FDA, its state- and local-level partners ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/complianceenforcement/rfr

270

GM Foods: Are They Safe?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson examines potential benefits and risks of genetically modified foods. Students can interview a biotech company, design enhanced GM food products or packaging labels, form a GM food lobby group and more!

Ronald Brian Watts (CEGEP De La Gaspesie et Des Iles;)

2002-05-01

271

Regional Food Hub Resource Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The target audiences for this guide are food entrepreneurs and their supporters who are interested in starting food hubs and operators of food hubs who are interested in expanding. This guide will also help philanthropic foundations, public agencies, lend...

D. Tropp J. Barham J. Farbman J. Fisk K. Enterline S. Kiraly

2012-01-01

272

FDA 1997 Food Code - Introduction  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... the Lead Deputy Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, but in the strong support from the US Department of Agriculture's Food Safety ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

273

Reportable Food Registry for Industry  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

The Reportable Food Registry is an electronic portal for Industry to report that an article of food will cause serious adverse health consequences. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/complianceenforcement/rfr

274

The food challenge risk index  

Microsoft Academic Search

RationaleSuspected food allergy is commonly encountered. Proper diagnosis may require skin testing, RAST testing and ultimately a food challenge. In previous studies, food specific IgE threshold levels have predicted greater than 95% of the patients with a positive food challenge. However, in patients with food specific IgE antibodies less than the threshold, a food challenge is still required to exclude

S. Kearney; H. Israel; K. Ververeli; S. Kimmel; B. Silverman; A. Schneider

2004-01-01

275

Children's food preferences: effects of weight status, food type, branding and television food advertisements (commercials).  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts. PMID:17963122

Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E

2008-01-01

276

Measuring Beelines to Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Bees are known to communicate the distance from the hive to a new source of food through the waggle dance (if the food source is far away) or the round dance (if the food source is nearby). But how do bees measure the distance in the first place? Collett explains in a Perspective that recent findings (Srinivasan et al.) demonstrate decisively that bees measure distance visually, integrating over time the optic flow of images that cross the retina as they fly through a landscape.

Thomas Collett (Sussex Centre for Neuroscience;School of Biological Sciences)

2000-02-04

277

World Food Situation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1945, The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is concerned with defeating hunger through a broad range of strategic and targeted programs. One of their public service and awareness initiatives includes this site, which is designed to provide high-quality and rigorously researched information on the state of food and agricultural production across the world. Scholars will want to click on over to the "Analyses and Reports" area, which includes short, medium, and long-term reports on crop prospects, the rice market, and the overall world food market.

2008-01-01

278

Constructing Food Choice Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Food choice decisions are frequent, multifaceted, situational, dynamic, and complex and lead to food behaviors where people\\u000a acquire, prepare, serve, give away, store, eat, and clean up. Many disciplines and fields examine decision making.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  Several classes of theories are applicable to food decision making, including social behavior, social facts, and social definition\\u000a perspectives. Each offers some insights but also makes

Jeffery Sobal; Carole A. Bisogni

2009-01-01

279

Waste from food processors  

SciTech Connect

Food processing companies, by nature of the commodities they deal in and the products they provide, generate a much higher percentage of biodegradable, organic wastes than they do nonorganic wastes. The high percentage of food materials, and to a lesser extent, paper, found in a food processor's waste stream makes composting a highly cost-effective way to manage the wastes. This is the last in a series of articles that discussed solid waste management in various public arenas. Each segment highlighted particulars -- the waste stream; how the waste is handled; waste reduction and recovery programs; and the direction of future waste management -- that are specific to that area.

Sheehan, K.

1993-12-01

280

Do television food advertisements portray advertised foods in a 'healthy' food context?  

PubMed

Exposure to food promotion influences food preferences and diet. As food advertisements tend to promote 'less healthy' products, food advertising probably plays some role in the 'obesity epidemic'. Amid calls for increased regulation, food manufacturers are beginning to engage in a variety of health-promoting marketing initiatives. Positioning products in the context of a 'healthy', balanced diet in television advertisements is one such initiative. We explored whether the wider food context in which foods are advertised on television are 'healthier' than the advertised foods themselves. All foods shown in food advertisements broadcast during 1 week on one commercial UK channel were identified and classified as 'primary' (i.e. the focus of advertisements) or 'incidental'. The nutritional content of all foods was determined and that of primary and incidental foods were compared. Almost two-thirds of food advertisements did not include any incidental foods. When a wider food context was present, this tended to be 'healthier' than the primary foods that were the focus of food advertisements - particularly in terms of the food groups represented. It is not yet clear what effect this may have on consumers' perceptions and behaviour, and whether or not this practice should be encouraged or discouraged from a public health perspective. PMID:21078214

Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; White, Martin

2010-11-16

281

Food, Hunger, and Insecurity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Of the world's current population of 6.8 billion, 5 billion are living at levels of poverty that deprive them of their basic needs, and more than 1 billion are going hungry. In a world where âÂÂsecurityâ has lately taken on great significance, it should come as no surprise that âÂÂfood securityâ is firmly established in the vocabulary of policy and science. The expression has been defined and used for years, perhaps most succinctly by the United Nations' (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): âÂÂFood security means access by all people at all times to the food needed for a healthy life." The term is also defined by its opposite, food insecurity, in which some or all of food security's âÂÂfour pillars,â as described by the FAO, are missing: availability, access, utilization, and stability.

Fred Powledge (freelancer;)

2010-04-07

282

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Child Health and Human Development ... arises early on this scheme of things and it is the ... mentioned earlier, food can sometimes reduce drug ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

283

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionFOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) Center for Drug Evaluation and ... for triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray, including local nasal effects ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

284

Food Code 1997  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... AND ENFORCEMENT ANNEX 2 REFERENCES ANNEX 3 PUBLIC HEALTH REASONS/ADMINISTRATIVE ... 1-101 Title 1-102 Intent 1-103 Scope. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

285

Food Safety Modernization Act  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... perform standardized molecular subtyping (or “fingerprinting”) of foodborne ... DNA “fingerprints” are submitted electronically to a database at the CDC ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

286

Registration of Food Facilities  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... a guidance document stating that because there was a delay in FDA's implementation of biennial registration renewal for the 2012 cycle, and ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/foodfacilityregistration

287

Household food security, Ghana.  

PubMed

Two major projects incorporating household food security components have been implemented since the ICN. The first is a UNICEF-funded project that addresses community participation in development. The second is a FAO-funded project: "Promoting Household Food Security and Improving Nutrition through Nutrition Education and Training." This project examines the effects of processing and storage procedures on the nutrient quality of traditional and indigenous fruits and vegetables. It is a young project, but much is being learned from it. Other projects aim to minimize food wastage during processing and storage by developing new processing machinery for use by rural households. Women's issues have become central since the ICN and there is increased support from both government and nongovernment sources to help women with food production and processing. PMID:12293183

Tetebo, R

1997-12-01

288

Keep Your Food Safe  

MedlinePLUS

... best: Milk and other dairy products, eggs, meat, poultry, seafood, fruits and vegetables. Foods likely to have ... that are refrigerated in the store. Raw meat, poultry, and seafood sometimes drip. The juices that drip ...

289

Balance Food and Activity  

MedlinePLUS

... eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is another word for "calories." Your ... adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages. Energy Balance in Real Life Think of it as ...

290

Food Advisory Committee  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... and evaluating available data and making recommendations on matters such as those relating to: (1) broad scientific and technical food or ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/foodadvisorycommittee

291

A Food Labeling  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... ????????????????????21 CFR 101.30(j), 21 CFR 101.30(h) ... 28 ??????????? ????????????? 21 CFR 101.22(j) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

292

Irradiated Food & Packaging  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... August 16, 2005: Final Rule 70 FR 48057 Ionizing radiation for control of Vibrio species and other foodborne pathogens in fresh or frozen ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

293

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Moderator Carolyn Jeletic Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of ... 12:00-1:00 pm Lunch (on your own, local restaurants see handout) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/aboutadvisorycommittees

294

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION Center for Drug Evaluation and ... injection) for intravenous infusion, Centocor Ortho Biotech Products, LP ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

295

Food and Drug Administration  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Sciences Psychiatric Research Institute- Center for Addiction Research Little ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Drug Evaluation and ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

296

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. PRECISE REPORTING, LLC FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION 1 CENTER FOR DRUG EVALUATION AND RESEARCH 2 3 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

297

Share Food Scorebook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This case study scorebook was developed as an instructional tool for the 2007 Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Examiner Preparation Course. A team of experienced Baldrige Examiners evaluated the Share Food Case Study, using the Independent and Cons...

2007-01-01

298

Vitamin food fortification today  

PubMed Central

Historically, food fortification has served as a tool to address population-wide nutrient deficiencies such as rickets by vitamin D fortified milk. This article discusses the different policy strategies to be used today. Mandatory or voluntary fortification and fortified foods, which the consumer needs, also have to comply with nutritional, regulatory, food safety and technical issues. The ‘worldwide map of vitamin fortification’ is analysed, including differences between develop and developing countries. The vitamins, folate and vitamin D, are taken as practical examples in the review of the beneficial effect of different strategies on public health. The importance of the risk–benefit aspect, as well as how to identify the risk groups, and the food vehicles for fortification is discussed.

de Lourdes Samaniego-Vaesken, Maria; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

2012-01-01

299

Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods  

MedlinePLUS

... their requirements for things like protein, vitamins, and minerals are unchanged, so that means that calorie for ... Narrator: This means eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, ...

300

Economics of Food Labeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Federal intervention in food labeling is often proposed with the aim of achieving a social goal such as improving human health and safety, mitigating environmental hazards, averting international trade disputes, or supporting domestic agricultural and foo...

A. Jessup C. Greene E. Golan F. Kuchler L. Mitchell

2000-01-01

301

Making Healthy Food Choices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will see that food advertisements may not be the best information to use when deciding what to eat. They will investigate several resources for good information about foods and nutrition. Allow several weeks to complete this unit. UEN Core CurriculumStandard 1 Students will develop a sense of self. Objective 1 Describe and practice responsible behaviors for health and safety. a. Practice appropriate personal hygiene (e.g., bathe, wash hands, clean clothes). b. Describe the benefits of eating a variety of nutritious foods. c. Describe the benefits of physical activity. d. Describe substances that are helpful and harmful to the body. e. Practice basic safety and identify hazards. Making Healthy Food Choices #1 Task Definition - ...

Fox, Miss

2011-12-15

302

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Q&A. 10:30-10:45 Break. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION. ... Center for Drugs Evaluation and Research: Diane D. Aronson and Merrill Goozner. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/aboutadvisorycommittees

303

Registration of Food Facilities  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Login / Create Account OMB Approval Number: 0910-0502 OMB Expiration Date: 08/31/2013 See OMB Burden Statement. NOTE: ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/foodfacilityregistration

304

Food Defense Programs  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Page Last Updated: 07/16/2013 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading Viewers and ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/fooddefense/fooddefenseprograms

305

Food commodities from microalgae.  

PubMed

The prospect of sustainable production of food ingredients from photoautotrophic microalgae was reviewed. Clearly, there is scope for microalgal oils to replace functions of major vegetable oils, and in addition to deliver health benefits to food products. Furthermore, with a limited production surface, a substantial portion of the European Union market could be supplied with edible oils and proteins from microalgae. Yet, before microalgal ingredients can become genuinely sustainable and cost effective alternatives for current food commodities, major breakthroughs in production technology and in biorefinery approaches are required. Moreover, before market introduction, evidence on safety of novel microalgal ingredients, is needed. In general, we conclude that microalgae have a great potential as a sustainable feedstock for food commodities. PMID:23084075

Draaisma, René B; Wijffels, René H; Slegers, P M Ellen; Brentner, Laura B; Roy, Adip; Barbosa, Maria J

2012-10-18

306

Immunotherapy in food allergy  

PubMed Central

Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritis to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities.

Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J

2010-01-01

307

Soy Foods and Health  

MedlinePLUS

... change - Use this tool to play your goals. Hot Topics Prom Pressure Rejection and How to Handle ... vegetarian products such as soy burgers and soy hot dogs. Foods that contain whole soy are a ...

308

Food Contact Notification  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... occurs at a moderately slow pace; 33% in 28 days, based on information provided by the manufacturer (MSDS) using the 28 day test method OECD ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

309

Organic Food and the Plural Moralities of Food Provisioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic food may, or may…

Andersen, Anne Holst

2011-01-01

310

Food Citizenship and Community Food Security: Lessons from Toronto, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Toronto Food Policy Council (TFPC) was created in 1990 as a vehicle for “food citizenship.” Its creators challenged the assumptions that hunger was mainly a problem of income and that the food system was nourishing all Canadians adequately. Working from a vision of food security based on both social justice and environmental sustainability, the TFPC was designed to be

Jennifer Welsh; Rod MacRae

1998-01-01

311

Food microbiologyBacteriocins: developing innate immunity for food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriocins are bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides with narrow or broad host ranges. Many bacteriocins are produced by food-grade lactic acid bacteria, a phenomenon which offers food scientists the possibility of directing or preventing the development of specific bacterial species in food. This can be particularly useful in preservation or food safety applications, but also has implications for the development of

Paul D. Cotter; R. Paul Ross; Colin Hill

2005-01-01

312

Rising Food Prices and Declining Food Security: Evidence from Afghanistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Afghanistan, the 2007\\/08 rapid rise in wheat prices impacted urban and rural household food security, with observed declines in food consumed, calories, protein, and dietary diversity. Households traded off quality for quantity, moving away from micronutrient-rich foods like meat, fruit, and vegetables toward staples. Food price shocks can exacerbate chronically low levels of nutrient intake in countries with large

Anna DSouza

2011-01-01

313

Effect of the Food Guide Pyramid on Food Advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in advertising frequency of foods classified into the food group categories of the Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition claims in response to the release of the Pyramid. Using content analysis, food advertisements in selected issues of two culinary magazines (Bon Appetit and Gourmet) and two health-oriented magazines (Cooking Light and Eating

Janet Lohmann; Ashima K. Kant

1998-01-01

314

Beyond Food Security to Realizing Food Rights in the US  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The right to food is widely accepted by nations, with the notable exception of the United States (US) and four other countries. The US government deals with domestic food insecurity through an array of needs-based food assistance programs instead of rights-based approaches; and administration officials have resisted the right to food for several…

Anderson, Molly D.

2013-01-01

315

Polish consumer food choices and beliefs about organic food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine consumers' motives for food choice and to reveal beliefs about organic food. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on results of a survey conducted on a sample of 1,010 Polish consumers. The questionnaire included items to identify food choice motives, attributes of organic food and barriers to buy organic products.

Sylwia ?akowska-Biemans

2011-01-01

316

Food Terrorism and Food Defense on the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global food supplies are at risk of both accidental and deliberate contamination. As past incidents have demonstrated, food terrorism may cause social, economic, and political disruption. The United States increased its efforts to protect its food after 9\\/11 by broadening the roles of existing agencies, including the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration, and by making

Mary Kay Taylor

2008-01-01

317

Crediting Foods in the Child Care Food Program. [Revised].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This modified version of a previously published title provides additional information on foods for which reimbursement may be obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) by child care centers and family day care homes participating in the Child Care Food Program. Such foods, called creditable foods, are those that may be…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Robbinsville, NJ. Mid-Atlantic Regional Office.

318

Discovering The Food Pyramid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will teach students the basic food groups by linking them to the My Food Pyramid Website. Note: This lesson plan can be used in a variety of different settings. I created this lesson plan to be accessible for students with severe disabilities to complete with help from a peer tutor. Materials Needed: Print out the following sheet for students to complete while completing this lesson. My Pyramid Worksheet Also, ...

Carlee

2009-09-30

319

Food price volatility  

PubMed Central

The high food prices experienced over recent years have led to the widespread view that food price volatility has increased. However, volatility has generally been lower over the two most recent decades than previously. Variability over the most recent period has been high but, with the important exception of rice, not out of line with historical experience. There is weak evidence that grains price volatility more generally may be increasing but it is too early to say.

Gilbert, C. L.; Morgan, C. W.

2010-01-01

320

The Antarctic Food Chain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan introduces students to the animals of Antarctica and to the Antarctic food chain. Students will draw pictures of a variety of animals and attach the pictures to a wall collage. They will then listen to or read statements about the diet of each animal and draw arrows to show which animals eat which other animals. Students will end up with a food web that illustrates the importance of krill to the Antarctic ecosystem.

321

Agriculture and Food Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture provides more than 99.7% of the world food supply; the oceans and aquatic ecosystems contribute less than 0.3%.\\u000a With the human population projected to grow from its 2005 level of 6.5 billion to 9–11 billion by 2050, it will be increasingly\\u000a diffi cult to meet future basic human food needs given the fi nite resources of the earth.\\u000a \\u000a The

David Pimentel

322

Food for the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners dissect a piece of pizza to learn about nutrients important for health. This activity emphasizes the nutrients that the brain and nervous system need from food as well as the importance of eating breakfast and appropriate serving sizes. This activity also includes an optional demonstration related to serving sizes and the Food Pyramid. This lesson guide includes background information, extensions, and handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.

2003-01-01

323

Bubble-Containing Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of bubbles in a number of food products, such as bread, champagne, ice cream and beer, has dominated our perception\\u000a of product quality. Novel bubble-containing products occupy a greater proportion of supermarket shelf space. The inclusion\\u000a of bubbles in foods permits the creation of very novel structures while offering lighter alternatives in terms of calories.\\u000a Manufacturers generally find

K. Niranjan; S. F. J. Silva

324

Food Product Dating  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Product Dating / Food Product Dating Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

325

Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security.  

PubMed

Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

Swaminathan, M S; Bhavani, R V

2013-09-01

326

MTII attenuates ghrelin- and food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding and food intake.  

PubMed

Food deprivation triggers a constellation of physiological and behavioral changes including increases in peripherally-produced ghrelin and centrally-produced agouti-related protein (AgRP). Upon refeeding, food intake is increased in most species, however hamsters primarily increase food hoarding. Food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding by Siberian hamsters are mimicked by peripheral ghrelin and central AgRP injections. Because food deprivation stimulates ghrelin as well as AgRP synthesis/release, food deprivation-induced increases in hoarding may be mediated by melanocortin 3 or 4 receptor (MC3/4-R) antagonism via AgRP, the MC3/4-R inverse agonist. Therefore, we asked: Can a MC3/4-R agonist block food deprivation- or ghrelin-induced increases in foraging, food hoarding and food intake? This was accomplished by injecting melanotan II (MTII), a synthetic MC3/4-R agonist, into the 3rd ventricle in food deprived, fed or peripheral ghrelin injected hamsters and housed in a running wheel-based food delivery foraging system. Three foraging conditions were used: a) no running wheel access, non-contingent food, b) running wheel access, non-contingent food or c) a foraging requirement for food (10 revolutions/pellet). Food deprivation was a more potent stimulator of foraging and hoarding than ghrelin. Concurrent injections of MTII completely blocked food deprivation- and ghrelin-induced increases in food intake and attenuated, but did not always completely block, food deprivation- and ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding. Collectively, these data suggest that the MC3/4-R are involved in ghrelin- and food deprivation-induced increases in food intake, but other neurochemical systems, such as previously demonstrated with neuropeptide Y, also are involved in increases in food hoarding as well as foraging. PMID:17826779

Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

2007-08-10

327

Multiple food allergy.  

PubMed

This paper is devoted to a study of multiple food allergy, here defined as sensitivity to three or more foods. The purpose of the study is to report findings obtained from a study of 250 private patients and to show what type of persons develop this condition, how it affects them, and what their common allergens are. It was found that multiple food allergy occurs in both sexes and at all ages but is more common in boys than in girls and more common in women then in men. The clinical manifestations were much like those caused by the more familiar inhalant allergy but with a much more widespread constitutional disturbance. The great majority of patients (86%) also reacted to such air-borne allergens as molds, pollens, house dust, and animal epithelials. This indicates that food allergy and inhalant allergy are fundamentally the same phenomenon. The common food allergens were such everyday foods as milk, chocolate, corn, egg, tomato, peanut, and citrus fruits. PMID:1173207

Speer, F

1975-02-01

328

Food and energy resources  

SciTech Connect

The rapidly expanding human population needs more nutritious food. Our ability to produce more food depends on sufficient arable land, water, and various forms of energy. Supplies of these basic agricultural resources are under pressure from the human population, because, as it grows, more land is required for forests, houses, and roads, as well as for agriculture. At the same time, demands on energy supplies increase for various activities that include production of food crops. To some extent, energy in the form of fertilizers or irrigation water can be substituted for more land, or land can be substituted for energy inputs in crop production. These trade-offs are complex and illustrate not only the close interrelationships among the various factors but also the interdependencies of these relationships. Contributors try here to put in perspective the influence that energy, land, and water resources have a food production. Clearly, future supplies of energy resources will have a major impact on the ability of humans to provide themselves with food. A better understanding of these issues will help society make sound choices and enable government leaders to develop and organize the necessary programs for the effective use of energy and food resources.

Pimental, D.; Hall, C.W.

1984-01-01

329

Food and Drug Administration Regulation of Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food-borne illness remains a major public health challenge in the United States, causing an estimated 48 million illness episodes and 3000 deaths annually. The FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), enacted in 2011, gives the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) new tools to regulate food safety. The act emphasizes prevention, enhanced recall authority, and oversight of imported food.\\u000aThe FSMA

Lawrence O. Gostin; Katie F. Stewart

2011-01-01

330

FOOD INSECURITY AND INSUFFICIENCY AT LOW LEVELS OF FOOD EXPENDITURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigate the external validity of the food insecurity and insufficiency measures—specifically, how these measures correlate with food expenditures—using the December 2003 Food Security Supplement of the Current Population Survey. We focus on a special segment of the population—households with low incomes and low food expenditures. If reports of food problems are based on a lack of

CRAIG GUNDERSEN; David C. Ribar

2011-01-01

331

Food Policy Old and New  

Microsoft Academic Search

The character of the food system and the nature of food policy are both changing, as urbanisation, technical change and the industrialisation of the food system transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed in developing countries. This overview presents an evaluation framework and explores new policy options. Some issues feature more prominently in richer, more urbanised, more industrialised

Simon Maxwell; Rachel Slater

2003-01-01

332

Climate change and food security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food security in the twenty-first century has three major components: the availabil- ity of food on the market; adequate purchasing power to acquire food; and human ability to digest and absorb nutrients.As we enter the new millennium, the global population continues to grow and apprehensions arise about a potential imbalance between human numbers and food needs - especially in largely

P. J. Gregory; J. S. I. Ingram; M. Brklacich

2005-01-01

333

Food irradiation: Key research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of foods with ionizing radiation reduces microbial infection and insect infestations, inhibits sprouting, and delays maturation, thereby extending the shelf life of foods. The treatment of different types of foods with ionizing radiation for specific purposes is accepted in several countries, although it is prohibited in others. The US Food and Drug Administration has established regulations to allow the

Morehouse

1993-01-01

334

Advances in dehydration of foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food dehydration is still one of the most relevant and challenging unit operations in food processing, although the art of food preservation through the partial removal of water content dates back several centuries. This article provides essential information on the fundamental, including psychrometry, and applied engineering aspects of food dehydration with up-to-date available commercial applications. The evolution of drying technology,

Humberto Vega-Mercado; M. Marcela Góngora-Nieto; Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas

2001-01-01

335

Evaluation of Food Hygiene Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Education of food industry personnel in hygiene matters has been recommended as a means of improving food handling practices and thus the safety of food. Provision has been made within the Food Safety Act 1990 for the making of regulations to specify the nature and extent of such training. There is, however, a lack of documentary evidence of improvements in

Denise M. Rennie

1994-01-01

336

Consumers' Views on Local Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This focus-group study investigated shoppers'� beliefs and behaviors regarding local foods. Two of the four focus groups consisted of organic food shoppers. They were more committed to purchasing local foods and identified a much wider array of such foods than did the conventional shoppers. One group of conventional shoppers consisted of African-Americans, who tended to define �\\

Lydia Zepeda; Catherine Leviten-Reid

2004-01-01

337

Combination processes in food irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irradiation is emerging as a potential method of food preservation. It is being used to extend the shelf life of raw and processed foods in many countries worldwide. Like all other methods of food preservation, irradiation has a number of limitations. Irradiation, when used alone, can cause the development of undesirable sensory and chemical changes in some foods, depending on

B. R. Thakur; R. K. Singh

1995-01-01

338

Managing Food Allergies at Home  

MedlinePLUS

... your home. Living around problem foods can help children and individuals with food allergies cope as they grow and begin to ... offending foods. How old is your child with food allergies? Age and maturity level can play a role in children's readiness to take on additional responsibilities to help ...

339

Food-Related Energy Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantities of energy required to grow, process, transport, wholesale, retail, refrigerate, and cook food in the United States for the year 1963 are discussed, and data available for that year are used to estimate the annual energy consumption for food during the period 1960 to 1970. Energy requirements per unit of food energy and of food protein are computed

Eric Hirst

1974-01-01

340

Organic food consumer in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food consumption patterns are rapidly changing nowadays as a result of environmental issues, concern about the nutritional value of food and health issues. Issues such as quality and safety in food attract consumer interest in organic food that is free from pesticides and chemical residues (Childs and Polyzees, 1997; Zotos et al., 1999; Baltas, 2001; Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002). This

Andrei-Cosmin Dumea; Andreia Gabriela Andrei

2012-01-01

341

Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition are often viewed as a continuum, with food insecurity resulting in hunger and, ultimately, if sufficiently severe and/or of sufficient duration, in undernutrition. According to this view, food insecurity indicates inadequate access to food for whatever rea...

342

Promotion and Fast Food Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food

Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

2009-01-01

343

Food Classification using Color Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color based food classification is widely used in food industry. In this paper we first propose an efficient and inexpensive technique of color image segmentation and then propose an efficient analysis system for food samples. The proposed method uses a modified watershed segmentation algorithm to breakdown color images of food samples into groups of similar color characteristics. Prior to the

Liyanage C De Silva; Anton Pereira; Amal Punchihewa

344

Initiatives in responsible food advertising  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduces the Food Advertising Unit (FAU), a coalition of multinational food companies, advertising agencies and the broadcast media which operates under the auspices of the Advertising Association as a centre for information and research on advertising for children; and the Food and Drink Federation (FDF) which represents the UK food and soft drinks industry. Reports research on the effect of

Jeremy Preston; Martin Paterson

2005-01-01

345

Food Buying Guide and Recipes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, designed to assist Project Head State personnel responsible for food programs, presents an extensive food buying guide and more than 40 recipes suitable for a Head Start feeding program. The food buying guide list buying information for food to be used by Project Head Start Centers serving breakfasts, lunches, and/or snacks. For each…

Child Development Services Bureau (DHEW/OCD), Washington, DC. Project Head Start.

346

21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration...Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration...shall promptly report to the Food and Drug...

2009-04-01

347

21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration...Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration...shall promptly report to the Food and Drug...

2010-04-01

348

21 CFR 105.62 - Hypoallergenic foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hypoallergenic foods. 105.62 Section 105.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

2013-04-01

349

21 CFR 105.62 - Hypoallergenic foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.62 Hypoallergenic foods. If a food purports...as a substitute for another food having an allergenic property, the label shall bear: (a)...

2010-04-01

350

21 CFR 105.62 - Hypoallergenic foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.62 Hypoallergenic foods. If a food purports...as a substitute for another food having an allergenic property, the label shall bear: (a)...

2009-04-01

351

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other...special dietary use for infants, the label shall bear, if such food is fabricated from two or...

2010-04-01

352

21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other...special dietary use for infants, the label shall bear, if such food is fabricated from two or...

2009-04-01

353

Aluminium content of some foods and food products in the USA, with aluminium food additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective was to determine the aluminium (Al) content of selected foods and food products in the USA which contain Al as an approved food additive. Intake of Al from the labeled serving size of each food product was calculated. The samples were acid or base digested and analysed for Al using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Quality control (QC)

Salim M. Saiyed; Robert A. Yokel

2005-01-01

354

Exercise and food factors.  

PubMed

Habitual exercise is beneficial to health as it improves metabolism, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, and maintains the immune system. Appropriate nutrition contributes to acceleration of health promotion due to exercise. Recommended daily allowance is elevated by physical activity and intake of various food factors such carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and other phytochemicals is required to avoid their shortage. Additional dietary food factors are effective not only in supplementation to satisfy the allowance but also in further acceleration of the benefits of fitness. Dietary nutrition is also important to maintain active function in the elderly by preventing aging-induced muscle atrophy and avoiding intense exercise-induced disorders. Recently, several food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting or alternating the beneficial effects of exercise, maintaining homeostasis, and preventing muscle aging. However, some of these food factors should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence. Also, it is important to understand the physiological changes caused by exercise to use them correctly. This article describes various food factors that have been reported to be effective for improving health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise. PMID:19367119

Aoi, Wataru

2009-04-07

355

Salicylates in foods.  

PubMed

To determine salicylate content, 333 food items were analyzed. Foods were homogenized with 25% sodium hydroxide, allowed to stand overnight, acidified with concentrated hydrochloric acid, and then extracted with warm diethylether over 5 hours. The extract was dried and taken up in dilute sodium bicarbonate solution for analysis. Salicylic acid was separated by high performance liquid chromatography and quantified by reading at 235 nm. Salicylic acid standards were used throughout to standardize extractions and analyses. This is the most comprehensive set of data on food salicylates yet published; extraction appears to have been more complete for some foods, giving higher values than those previously published. Most fruits, especially berry fruits and dried fruits, contain salicylate. Vegetables show a wide range from 0 to 6 mg salicylate per 100 gm food (for gherkins). Some herbs and spices were found to contain very high amounts per 100 gm, e.g., curry powder, paprika, thyme, garam masala, and rosemary. Among beverages, tea provides substantial amounts of salicylate. Licorice and peppermint candies and some honeys contain salicylates. Cereals, meat, fish, and dairy products contain none or negligible amounts. PMID:4019987

Swain, A R; Dutton, S P; Truswell, A S

1985-08-01

356

The Food Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website for the Food Museum Online is loaded with exhibits, and it merits several visits. Lively historic and contemporary drawings, photos, and videos populate the lengthy homepage of this New Mexico-based site about the origins of foods, food issues, food advertising, and foods in other countries. Visitors can find the newest exhibit at the top of the homepage, which is called "Feast or Famine", and addresses the paradox of the one billion people whom are malnourished in the world, and the one billion that are overnourished or obese. Visitors can find related exhibits, "Eating Disorders" and "School Lunch Reform", as links at the end of the Feast or Famine exhibit. The "Watermelon" exhibit, about halfway down the homepage, includes the history of watermelons, comparisons against other types of melons, botanical drawings, watermelon-themed toys, a postcard, a Japanese woodcut, and a link to guidance in choosing a ripe watermelon. Visitors shouldn't miss the multimedia exhibit, "Making Crepes: Then & Now", which includes a 30-second video of a cook using a French Crepmatic, which produces a square (rather than round) crepe.

357

Use of Food Pantries is Associated with Household Food Insecurity in Ohio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Households receiving food from emergency food providers, including food pantries, soup kitchens, and shelters, are vulnerable to food insecurity and hunger. The objective of this study was to (1) examine the household food security status of Ohio food pantry users; and (2) compare the household food security status between food pantry users\\/food pantry using-households for a variety of characteristics, including

Kelly E. OConnell; David H. Holben; John P. Holcomb

2008-01-01

358

Comparison of national food supply, household food availability and individual food consumption data in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to compare Portuguese food and nutrient data retrieved from three distinct sources of dietary data:\\u000a national food supply, household food availability and individual food consumption. In particular it was intended to validate\\u000a the use of the dietary data derived from the Portuguese household budget surveys (HBS). The data sources used were food balance\\u000a sheets (FBS) (1990,

S. S. P. Rodrigues; C. Lopes; A. Naska; A. Trichopoulou; M. D. V. de Almeida

2007-01-01

359

Quantification of food intake using food image analysis.  

PubMed

Measuring free-living peoples' food intake represents methodological and technical challenges. The Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) involves participants capturing pictures of their food selection and plate waste and sending these pictures to the research center via a wireless network, where they are analyzed by Registered Dietitians to estimate food intake. Initial tests indicate that the RFPM is reliable and valid, though the efficiency of the method is limited due to the reliance on human raters to estimate food intake. Herein, we describe the development of a semi-automated computer imaging application to estimate food intake based on pictures captured by participants. PMID:19964186

Martin, Corby K; Kaya, Sertan; Gunturk, Bahadir K

2009-01-01

360

Food Chains and Food Webs - Balance within Natural Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, supported by the provided power point lecture (LESSON 1 and 2 Ecology Lecture Supplement ), introduces students to the concepts of food chains and food webs. Through its use, students learn the difference between producers and consumers and study how these organisms function within their communities to interact in various food chains. Multiple food chains link together to form intricate and balanced food webs. Focus continues to rest on the Sonoran Desert. At the conclusion of this lesson, students are asked to construct a food web using endemic desert species.

Vu Bioengineering Ret Program

361

Forest Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the seasonal changes that affect life in a temperate forest ecosystem and how organisms in a temperate forest are dependent on one another for proper nutrition. Students describe the three major types of organisms that live in an ecosystem, three types of consumers, food webs, and food chains. They then create a food web diagram for display in their classrooms. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

2007-03-12

362

Exercise and functional foods  

PubMed Central

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise.

Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

2006-01-01

363

Forest Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the seasonal changes that affect life in a temperate forest ecosystem and how organisms in a temperate forest are dependent on one another for proper nutrition. Students describe the three major types of organisms that live in an ecosystem, three types of consumers, food webs, and food chains. They then create a food web diagram for display in their classrooms. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

364

The Biology of Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Biology of Food course--a large lecture course with no laboratory section--is a mixture of kitchen chemistry, post-eating food metabolism, origins of different foods (from crop breeding to evolution), and ecological and environmental impacts of farming and harvesting practices. It was initially designed to help non-science majors grasp complex scientific issues using familiar contexts at the college level. However, the approach is also directly transferable for use in high school biology courses. Nearly every topic begins with the introduction of one or more recipes, followed by student investigation of the related cooking methods and ingredients. The inquiry-based methods used in the course are described in this article.

Bonner, J. J.

2004-10-01

365

Forest Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the seasonal changes that affect life in a temperate forest ecosystem and how organisms in a temperate forest are dependent on one another for proper nutrition. Students describe the three major types of organisms that live in an ecosystem, three types of consumers, food webs, and food chains. They then create a food web diagram for display in their classrooms. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

Cahill, Mary

2007-12-12

366

Exercise and functional foods.  

PubMed

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise. PMID:16749944

Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

2006-06-05

367

Food Deserts' and 'Food Swamps' in Hillsborough County, Florida: Unequal Access to Supermarkets and Fast-Food Restaurants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that the suburbanization of supermarkets has created `food deserts', defined as areas where socially disadvantaged individuals lack access to nutritious food outlets. Additionally, the growing presence of fast-food restaurants has created `food swamps', or areas where socially disadvantaged individuals encounter an overabundance of unhealthy food outlets. While previous studies have analyzed either `food deserts' or `food swamps'

Dana Beth Stein

2011-01-01

368

Food addiction and neuroimaging.  

PubMed

Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). PMID:21492080

Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

2011-01-01

369

Microbiological Testing of Skylab Foods  

PubMed Central

The Skylab manned space flight program presented unique food microbiology problems. This challenge was successfully met by careful evaluation of the total Skylab food system by considering the nature of Skylab foods, their processing and handling, and Skylab food safety requirements. Some of the unique problems encountered with the Skylab foods involved: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or charge foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of the food as an accurately controlled segment of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations generated the need for definitive microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described in this paper along with the rationale for their selection. Test results are reported which show successful compliance with the test limits. Images

Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers, E. M.; Bourland, C. T.; McQueen, J. L.

1973-01-01

370

Flocking for Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor beach activity, learners use a variety of "beaks" (such as trowels, spoons or sticks) to hunt for organisms that shore birds might eat. Each learner receives a âbeakâ and a âstomach.â After searching for food, the âbirdsâ gather to examine the contents of their stomachs. The activity closes with the learners trying to discover how real shorebirds find their food. This activity not only gets learners thinking about adaptations for survival but provides a chance to observe bird behavior.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

371

Nutritional quality of emergency foods.  

PubMed

Food insecurity is associated with increased risk of diet-related disease. A key initiative of the Oregon Food Bank is to improve nutritional quality of emergency foods. The purpose of this study was to categorize products distributed by the Oregon Food Bank into food groups by pounds (as-purchased) and MyPyramid units (edible portion). Using a "MyPyramid Day" to describe the number of units required daily from each food group for a 2,000-kcal/day reference diet, we calculated the number of MyPyramid Days distributed in 1 year (2004-2005) by the Oregon Food Bank. Of the 36.4 million pounds of food analyzed, 24.2 million (66%) fell into MyPyramid (grains, fruit, vegetables, meat/beans, and milk), with the remaining categorized as condiments/baking supplies (2.48 M, 7%), discretionary calories (2.91 M, 8%), combination foods (2.87 M, 8%), and variety/unknown (3.96 M, 11%). Fewer MyPyramid Days were distributed (in millions of MyPyramid Days) from the fruit (5.85 M) and milk (5.95 M) groups than were foods from the grains (10.02 M), meat/beans (9.99 M), and vegetables (10.25 M) groups. A MyPyramid Day is useful for measuring distribution of foods from MyPyramid food groups. However, the utility of these results depends on whether a food assistance network has the capacity to improve quality through increased distribution of foods (either from donations or purchases) from specific food groups. Results can be used to identify foods to target for increase in food resource development efforts to improve the overall nutritional quality of foods provided to recipients. PMID:21443991

Hoisington, Anne; Manore, Melinda M; Raab, Carolyn

2011-04-01

372

JOINT INTRODUCTION to the 2005 FOOD CODE The Food ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... For others, especially pre-school age children ... upon sound science and address food security. ... service, retail stores, institutions, schools, and other ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

373

Food Facility Registration Requirements under the FDA Food ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The Food Safety Modernization Act improves the registration process by ensuring, among other things, that the FDA has accurate contact ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/newsevents/constituentupdates

374

FDA 2001 Food Code - Annex 6 Food Processing  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... foods in consumer-sized portions, using commercially available equipment for cutting, grinding, slicing, cooking, and refrigeration, and applying ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

375

Supplement to the 2005 Food Code Updates Food Safety ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... that had permitted the cold holding of potentially hazardous foods at temperatures up to 7°C (45°F) in existing refrigeration equipment under certain ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/newsevents/constituentupdates

376

1 FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION 1 OFFICE OF FOODS ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... 16 children with food allergies, nurses, doctors, and other 17 ... 8 are in place, which ensure their safety. They must also 9 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

377

Acrylamide: Information on Diet, Food Storage, and Food ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Picture A. French Fries. Golden Yellow, Brown. Picture B. Toast. Light Brown, Dark Brown. Food storage and preparation methods. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/chemicalcontaminants

378

VII C. Safety of Foods and Food Additives Developed by ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Science 256:1747-1749 (&1832). 2. Anonymous (1992) Statement of Policy: Foods derived from new plant varieties. Fed. Reg. 57:22984. Page 2. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

379

Food Safety Collaboration in a Global Food System  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... It is in the spirit of collaboration that we at FDA have invested much time and energy over the last year in outreach to the food industry and other ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/fsma

380

Bioengineering in food technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioengineering with respect to food technology Involves unit operations such as up? and downstream units, bioreactors, the modeling of reaction kinetics, heat and mass transport, energy and mass balance, and diverse material data. Process design, plant layout, and criteria for scale?up, optimization, and control strategies are derived based upon these unit operations. For some typical processes, i. e. the isomerization

W. Bauer; E. Durbeck

1990-01-01

381

Food Additive Status List  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 2-lactylate - MISC, REG/FS, <0.5 part/100 parts flour - Part 136, Bakery Pdts - 172.844; MISC, REG, <0.05% - As a whipping agent in liquid & frozen ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

382

Food-Borne Noroviruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Noroviruses have emerged as the number one cause of food-borne illness in the United States. In this book chapter, the current molecular classification criteria are described as well as the current information regarding the molecular biology of the virus and its putative gene functions. Identifica...

383

Food for Thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this column, John E. Dvorak provides insight into some of the best industrial hemp websites on the Internet. Areas covered in detail include news portals, hemp associations, new products and research sites. Reviews relating to specific topics such as hemp food, textiles, paper and other industrial uses will also be periodically touched upon. The ever-changing nature of the world

John E. Dvorak

2003-01-01

384

Forest food web Illustration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lowest level of a food web includes producers, which are plants that make their own energy from the sun. Animals that eat these producers are called primary consumers, and consumers that eat other consumers are called secondary consumers. Decomposers break down dead plants and animals to release nutrients into the soil.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-07-14

385

Food for Thought.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What and how students eat can profoundly affect their ability to learn. Children require a high-protein breakfast for alertness, and a balanced diet, including complex carbohydrates throughout the day. Chronic stress causes the brain and body to deplete available nutrients. Nutrition is an important issue; better school food equals better school…

Given, Barbara K.

1998-01-01

386

Microbial modeling in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictive food microbiology is a field of study that combines elements of microbiology, mathematics, and statistics to develop models that describe and predict the growth or decline of microbes under specified environmental conditions. Models can be thought of as having three levels: primary level models describe changes in microbial numbers with time, secondary level models show how the parameters of

Richard C. Whiting

1995-01-01

387

Exercise and functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects,

Wataru Aoi; Yuji Naito; Toshikazu Yoshikawa

2006-01-01

388

Food-furanocoumarin binding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grapefruit juice (GFJ) interferes with the cytochrome P450 3A4 activity responsible for metabolizing certain medications, and it is the furanocoumarins (FCs) in GFJ that have been shown to be the main compounds which cause these interactions. We previously found that a number of foods sequester FCs ...

389

Elemental Food for Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

Cady, Susan

2005-01-01

390

Food for Thought  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Food for Thought is a spatial graphing activity that uses the participants as part of the graph. The activity helps students develop a feeling for the similarities and differences between populations. Many measures are used for comparison including population, population density, population growth rates, energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and more.

Dahlin, Marge; Murphy, Elaine; Crews, Kimberly; Teisch, Jessica; Longmire, Joan; Stauffer, Cheryl L.

2006-01-01

391

Refrigerated Food Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food companies and analysts often need transportation rate data to explore market oppor- tunities. In some cases, it may not be practical or necessary to obtain actual rates for all routes under consideration. This study provides analysis of truck rate patterns and alternative rate- estimating equations. The original objective was to provide shipping cost estimates for a national beef-marketing model

J. B. Ward; D. E. Farris

392

Food for fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cassava, sugar cane, grain crops, molasses - all are potential feedstocks for ethanol production. Brazil has taken a clear lead in converting food crops into ethanol fuels for the automobile, but other countries may follow and the economic consequences could be considerable. This article looks at the various options. The total activity involved in fuel ethanol production and usage is

Bell

1982-01-01

393

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 CENTER FOR ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

394

Carotenoids as food colorants.  

PubMed

The carotenoids are a chemically related group of pigments which occur widely and abundantly in nature. Fruits, vegetables and vegetable oils, dairy products, leaves, shrimp, lobster, the plumage of exotic birds, all contain carotenoids. Chemically, the carotenoids may be divided into carotenes, made up of carbon and hydrogen only, and oxycarotenoids containing oxygen in addition to carbon and hydrogen. The use of carotenoid-containing plant extracts for coloring foods has been practiced for centuries and continues today. Advances in chemical synthesis resulted in the complete laboratory synthesis of beta carotene in 1950. Since then the commercial synthesis of several carotenoids has been accomplished. In the U.S. three of these commercially synthesized carotenoids, beta-carotene, beta-apo-8'-carotenal, and canthaxanthin, are accepted color additives for use in foods and are exempt from certification. These three carotenoids are also widely accepted for food use in other countries. This paper deals with the chemistry and synthesis of these three carotenoids, with special emphasis on their numerous commercially available market forms and their characteristics, and on the application of these carotenoids in the coloring of food products. PMID:6817968

Gordon, H T; Bauernfeind, J C

1982-01-01

395

Minimal Processing of Foods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the newest forms of food preservation is minimal processing, including such procedures as, sous-vide cooking and high-pressure technology, the aim of which is to produce products with the attributes of convenience and fresh-like quality. Modern dis...

R. Ahvenainen T. Mattila-Sandholm T. Ohlsson

1994-01-01

396

HOSPITAL FOOD NEEDS  

PubMed Central

There are eight classes of men in the military hospital including attendants, and for each class there should be a different dietary. Major Hoskins explains this, tells clearly the common sources of waste of food, notes the amount, and suggests lines of conservation. Imagesp435-a

Hoskins, R. G.

1919-01-01

397

Classroom Activity: Food Webs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is designed to help students understand the interrelatedness of food webs and to see how populations of organisms affect each other. Students assume the roles of the various organisms in the ecosystem; the ones that are dependent upon each other are symbolically connected by lengths of yarn. A materials list, instructions, assessment ideas, and educational standards are provided.

398

Detect Genetically Modified Food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union. For convenience, the resource is divided into five sections, all PDF files, including background, wet lab, paper lab, assessment and further reading.

Brandner, Diana

2012-12-04

399

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION CENTER FOR ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

400

Food for Thought.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What and how students eat can profoundly affect their ability to learn. Children require a high-protein breakfast for alertness, and a balanced diet, including complex carbohydrates throughout the day. Chronic stress causes the brain and body to deplete available nutrients. Nutrition is an important issue; better school food equals better school…

Given, Barbara K.

1998-01-01

401

Food Sales Prediction: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sales prediction is an important problem for different companies involved in manufacturing, logistics, marketing, wholesaling and retailing. Food companies are more concerned with sales prediction of products having a short shelf-life and seasonal changes in demand. The demand may depend on many hidden contexts, not given explicitly in the form of predictive features. Even if some changes are known to

Patrick Meulstee; Mykola Pechenizkiy

2008-01-01

402

Food: Facts and Fancies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|GRADES OR AGES: Secondary. SUBJECT MATTER: One of a series on consumer education. This particular guide concerns food--specifically, nutrition, labeling, prices, and money management. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 sections, each containing a major knowledge objective and various minor ones. Each section also…

Kallinisch, Martha

403

Food Security Assessment, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Just over 900 million people in the 70 low-income countries studied in this report are estimated to have consumed less than the recommended nutritional requirements in 2003. This marks a decline from more than 1 billion in 2002. Although food security is ...

S. Rosen S. Shapouri

2004-01-01

404

Food of Consuming Interest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is intended for use in a consumer education course designed to teach consumers to get the most out of their dollar when shopping for and preparing food. The kit is divided into a series of sections containing activities and fact sheets that are designed to guide the consumer through a successful shopping trip. The following topics are…

Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina. Education and Communications Branch.

405

Deciphering Food Labels  

MedlinePLUS

... liter) of milk. It's easy to see why most teens in the United States don't get enough calcium every day, but calcium can ... which may be high in fat and calories. Use your food label smarts to create a healthy, ... September 2011 Back

406

Genetically modified food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified foods are a controversial subject in today's society. They benefit the human race in many ways but they also pose many risks to the health of humans and the good of the environment. It is crucial that we study the effects of transgenic crops on people and their surroundings before is it continued to be integrated into the

Anthony Trewavas; Sugeily Fernandez; Lisa Gabriel

2000-01-01

407

Mathematics for Commercial Foods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of basic mathematics operations is presented with problems and examples applied to activities in the food service industry. The text is divided into eight units: measurement, fractions, arithmetic operations, money and decimals, percentage, ratio and proportion, wages and taxes, and business records. Each unit contains a series of lessons…

Wersan, Norman

408

Food aid and food markets: lessons from Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consensus has emerged on food aid policy, acknowledging the importance of short-run relief considerations, while emphasizing that such policy must be driven by a long-run, developmental perspective. This requires explicit attention to the effects of food aid on food markets. Yet it has long been clear that short- and long-run objectives of food aid may conflict. This tension stands

David Tschirley; Cynthia Donovan; Michael T. Weber

1996-01-01

409

The Food Composition Database for an Italian Food Frequency Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

To interpret food consumption data from large epidemiological studies, extended, up-to-date, and country-specific food composition tables are needed. A food composition database was created for the analysis of dietary intake information from a large case-control study starting from a large, unpublished database developed by the National Nutrition Institute of Rome, Italy. The composition of 252 food items in terms of

Simonetta Salvini; Patrizia Gnagnarella; Maria Teresa Parpinel; Peter Boyle; Adriano Decarli; Monica Ferraroni; Attilio Giacosa; Carlo La Vecchia; Eva Negri; Silvia Franceschi

1996-01-01

410

A food regime analysis of the ‘world food crisis’  

Microsoft Academic Search

The food regime concept is a key to unlock not only structured moments and transitions in the history of capitalist food relations,\\u000a but also the history of capitalism itself. It is not about food per se, but about the relations within which food is produced,\\u000a and through which capitalism is produced and reproduced. It provides, then, a fruitful perspective on

Philip McMichael

2009-01-01

411

Public perception of food allergy.  

PubMed

Although studies that use the double-blind placebo-controled food challenge (DBPCFC) suggest that the prevalence of food allergy is about 2%, public belief in food allergy appears to be considerably higher. The study was undertaken to determine the magnitude and features of the American public's belief in food allergy by surveying a large, demographically balanced population. A simple question about food allergy was incorporated into a broad, self-reported, mailed consumer questionnaire. Demographically representative American households (5000) were surveyed by means of quota sample in 1989, 1992, and 1993. The response rate was 79, 75, and 74%, respectively. Of responding households, 16.2, 16.6, and 13.9%, respectively, of responding households reported an average of 1.17 household members with food allergy. Individuals reported to be allergic to foods were more likely to be female, particularly adult women. Male individuals with reported food allergy tended to be young, whereas no such skew was noted among female subjects. Geographic differences were observed in reported food allergy, with the highest rate in the Pacific region. Milk and chocolate were the individual foods most frequently implicated in food allergy. Trends were consistent over the time period studied. Perceived food allergy is widespread and persistent. The characteristics and demographic patterns of this belief are not reflective of known food allergy epidemiology derived from studies in which the DBPCFC is used. PMID:21781806

Altman, D R; Chiaramonte, L T

1997-11-01

412

Regional food culture and development.  

PubMed

Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on earth). On the other hand, regional food culture can confer considerable advantage for health and economic development, but does not necessarily do so. The challenge is to respect and retain traditional food knowledge and sustainable food systems, with good governance for food security. There has been a recent awakening of interest and concern about the lack of documentation of traditional and indigenous food cultures which are important not only for their own sake, but for the legacy of food knowledge which they can confer on future generations, provided they are not lost. Hence, the value of a special focus on African food cultures (www.healthyeatingclub.org/Africa), including Rift and Nile Valleys and North West African foods, which are the cradles of human food systems and habits. This is the case too with indigenous foods and food cultures (whether hunter-gatherer or subsistence agriculture); with relatively long-living food cultures in North East Asia, with food cultural distinction and fusion (FHILL and SENECA studies) and with migratory Food Habits. By and large, there is a remarkable resilience and ingenuity of people and their food systems, but monoculture and lack of diversity encourage food system failure. PMID:17392068

Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

2007-01-01

413

Food Health Policies and Ethics: Lay Perspectives on Functional Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional foods are a challenge tofood health policies, since they questioncentral ideas in the way that food healthpolicies have been developed over the lastdecades. Driven by market actors instead ofpublic authorities and focusing on the role ofsingle foods and single constituents in foodsfor health, they contrast traditional wisdombehind nutrition policies that emphasize therole of the diet as a whole for

Lotte Holm

2003-01-01

414

Food prices, access to food outlets and child weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI). We use the 1998, 2000 and 2002 waves of the child–mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fruit and vegetable and fast food price data obtained from the American Chamber

Lisa M. Powell; Yanjun Bao

2009-01-01

415

The Food Friends: Encouraging Preschoolers to Try New Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In response to concerns about children's eating behaviors, the Colorado Nutrition Network developed and tested Food Friends--Making New Foods Fun for Kids. The program was designed as a 12-week social marketing campaign aimed at encouraging preschool-age children to try new foods, such as Ugli Fruit, couscous, and daikon radish. Tasting novel…

Bellows, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer

2006-01-01

416

Traditional foods: challenges facing the European food industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brief analysis about the meaning of traditional food products and the delicate situation of this kind of product in a global market, where consumers are requiring a great amount of nutritional and cheap foods, is presented. These demands have contributed to the production and distribution of food stuffs by big industrial and commercial corporations that are looking for consumer satisfaction,

Jorge Jordana

2000-01-01

417

Are organic food consumers opposed to GM food consumers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper aims at investigating whether or not organic food consumers are automatically opposed to genetically modified (GM) food. Results from quantitative market research indicate that this is not the case. Based on attitude towards GM food, three consumer segments are identified: the opponents; the proponents; and the neutrals. Only about 40 per cent of the organic consumers, namely the

Annelies Verdurme; Xavier Gellynck; Jacques Viaene

2002-01-01

418

Reinforcement: Food Signals the Time and Location of Future Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It has long been understood that food deliveries may act as signals of future food location, and not only as strengtheners of prefood responding as the law of effect suggests. Recent research has taken this idea further--the main effect of food deliveries, or other "reinforcers", may be signaling rather than strengthening. The present experiment…

Cowie, Sarah; Davison, Michael; Elliffe, Douglas

2011-01-01

419

Preschool Children's Perceptions of Food and Their Food Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDevelopmental theory suggests that children learn from their experiences. However, little is known about preschool children's interpretation of their daily food experiences. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to describe the criteria preschool children use to classify foods and their interpretation of their daily food experiences.

Donna Matheson; Kristina Spranger; Amy Saxe

2002-01-01

420

Preparing Food for Preschoolers: A Guide for Food Service Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines and suggestions to help food service workers in children's day care centers plan, prepare, and serve a variety of nutritious, tasty, and attractive meals and snacks are presented. The following topics are included (subtopics are listed in parentheses): (1) preparation of food (seasoning foods; preparing meat, fish, vegetables, and…

Lundin, Janet, Ed.; O'Malley, Edward T., Ed.

421

Food fermentations: role of microorganisms in food production and preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservation of foods by fermentation is a widely practiced and ancient technology. Fermentation ensures not only increased shelf life and microbiological safety of a food but also may also make some foods more digestible and in the case of cassava fermentation reduces toxicity of the substrate. Lactic acid bacteria because of their unique metabolic characteristics are involved in many fermentation

Elizabeth Caplice; Gerald F Fitzgerald

1999-01-01

422

Preparing Food for Preschoolers: A Guide for Food Service Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Guidelines and suggestions to help food service workers in children's day care centers plan, prepare, and serve a variety of nutritious, tasty, and attractive meals and snacks are presented. The following topics are included (subtopics are listed in parentheses): (1) preparation of food (seasoning foods; preparing meat, fish, vegetables, and…

Lundin, Janet, Ed.; O'Malley, Edward T., Ed.

423

Novel food processing innovations to improve food safety and health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Innovative food processing can be used to improve safety of specialty crops and their co-products, while improving sustainability of agricultural and food processing operations and enhancing overall nutritional quality of foods for both domestic and international consumers. The potential of various...

424

Agrofuels, Food Sovereignty, and the Contemporary Food Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, agrofuels are examined in the context of the world food price crisis and the "food sovereignty" proposal for addressing the crisis. Both short- and long-term causes of the crisis are examined, and while agrofuels are presently not a prime causal factor they are clearly contraindicated by the crisis. Food sovereignty, including a…

Rosset, Peter

2009-01-01

425

Food Sovereignty: Power, Gender, and the Right to Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an article that forms part of the PLoS Medicine series on Big Food, Raj Patel examines the concept of food sovereignty, which aims to address inequalities in power that characterize the global food system and fuel hunger and malnutrition.

Rajeev C. Patel

2012-01-01

426

Regulatory Submissions - Part V: Food Contact Substance ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Regulatory Submissions - Part V: Food Contact Substance Submissions. ... A. General Information about Food Contact Notification Submissions. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

427

Regulatory Report: FDA's Food Contact Substance ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Regulatory Report: FDA's Food Contact Substance Notification Program. Authors. ... Food Contact Substance Formulations. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

428

Standardization of Retail Food Safety Inspection Personnel ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Retail Food Protection. Inspections & Quality Assurance. -. Standardization of Retail Food Safety Inspection Personnel 2009 Errata Sheets. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

429

Environmental Decision Memo for Food Contact Notification ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... polylactide polymers in contact with food. Notifier: Johnson Polymer LLC and Nature Works. To: Division of Food Contact ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/environmentaldecisions

430

Guidance for Industry: Food Producers, Processors, and ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... "Guidance for Food Producers, Processors, and Transporters: Food security preventive measures guidance" ?????????????????: ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

431

Guidance for Industry: Food Producers, Processors, and ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... ????????????????????????????????????????? (Food Industry Information and Analysis Center ???? Food Industry ISAC) NIPC ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

432

Retail Food Protection: Employee Health and Personal ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Retail Food Protection: Employee Health and Personal Hygiene Handbook. ... back to top. Employee Health and the Food Establishment. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

433

Irradiation of Prepackaged Food: 2004  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... concentrations in polymers irradiated in contact with food simulants are likely due to the direct contact of the polymer with liquids comprised of ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/irradiatedfoodpackaging

434

Food Safety and Raw Milk  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Food Safety and Raw Milk. November 1, 2011. Pasteurization of milk was adopted decades ago as a basic public health ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood

435

Food Protection Plan of 2007  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 11/19/2007 FDA Awards Grants to Further Food Safety [ARCHIVED]. -. -. -. -. Page Last Updated: 03/15/2013 Note: If you need ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/foodprotectionplan2007

436

Super Kitchen Centralizes Food Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To centralize food service within the entire Pittsburgh school district, a 90,000-square-foot food service preparation building contains cranes and monorails to move 500-pound capacity vats throughout the kitchen. (Author/MLF)

Modern Schools, 1975

1975-01-01

437

Food Assistance Landscape, March 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Economic Research Service (ERS) is responsible for conducting studies and evaluations of USDA's food assistance programs, focusing on the benefits of improved diets and food choices, factors that influence diet and nutrition, and program outcomes. Thi...

2004-01-01

438

School Food Programs (New York).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The audit was conducted to: (1) determine whether nutritious meals are being served in the school food programs; (2) examine the role of nutrition education in promoting the consumption of nutritious school meals; (3) determine whether the school food pro...

1978-01-01

439

Eating Outdoors, Handling Food Safely  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The key is to never let your picnic food remain in the "Danger Zone" - between 40° F and 140° F - for more than 2 hours, or 1 hour if outdoor ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood

440

Toxic Elements in Foods & Foodware  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... practices (eg, use of pesticides containing heavy metals), industrial waste ... food use such as glazed ceramicware and silver-plated hollowware) that ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/chemicalcontaminants

441

Food related, exercise induced anaphylaxis.  

PubMed Central

Four children under 12 years of age with food dependent, exercise induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) were investigated. These children and five controls performed exercise challenges when fasting and one hour after a meal without food suspected to predispose to the reaction. Patients then performed exercise tests after intake of each suspected food. Three out of 15 food-exercise combination challenges were positive, but no reactions were provoked after exercise without prior intake of suspected foods. Patients underwent skin prick tests to foods and serum total and specific IgE antibodies were measured. Skin prick test results were positive and RAST results were positive in two of three instances. In case 3, food-exercise combination challenges did not provoke any clinical reaction. The diagnosis of food dependent EIAn should be considered in young children with EIAn of unknown origin.

Caffarelli, C; Terzi, V; Perrone, F; Cavagni, G

1996-01-01

442

FDA 1999 Food Code - Preface  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... there are differences between the two models in the ... be helpful to the user such as model forms that ... for certain food processes for use in evaluating ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

443

Suzanne's Natural Foods Warning Letter  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... November 9, 2005 Suzanne Charron Suzanne's Natural Foods 3106 S. Connecticut Ave. ... Page 2 – Suzanne's Natural Foods Warning Letter ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

444

Medical Foods Guidance Documents & Regulatory ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... term medical food, as defined in section 5(b) of the Orphan Drug Act ... which is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease or condition ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

445

Food Ingredient and Packaging Inventories  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Follow FDA; FDA Voice Blog. Enter Search terms Search. Search the FDA Archive. Home; Food; Drugs; Medical Devices; Radiation-Emitting Products ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

446

Skylab Food System Laboratory Support.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of support activities performed to ensure the quality and reliability of the Skylab food system design is reported. The qualification test program was conducted to verify crew compartment compatibility, and to certify compliance of the food syst...

D. Sanford

1974-01-01

447

Food Safety Preventive Controls Alliance  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... assess knowledge gaps and research needs for ... food safety alliance is modeled on previous ... industry trade and scientific associations representing ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/fsma

448

Food Allergens Guidance Documents & Regulatory ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Section 403(w) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ... Advisory Labeling: Its Use, Effectiveness, and Consumer Perception; Public Hearing ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

449

Uniform Food Service Management System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study report contains an analysis of the management of food service within the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the military departments. Procedures and organizations which inhibit an optimum food service management system are discussed. Recomme...

J. G. Holland R. M. Berkeley

1974-01-01

450

Americans and Food (on Diskette).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This computer quiz contains 51 questions and answers on food-related topics ranging from fish consumption to fast food. The easy-to-understand questions and answers make the quiz an excellent teaching tool and presentation aid.

1996-01-01

451

How to read food labels  

MedlinePLUS

... or larger portions. This number helps determine how foods affect your weight. Check the total fat in 1 serving. Pay special attention to the amount of saturated fat in 1 ... Choose foods that are low in saturated fat. For example, ...

452

Rising Food Prices: Who's Responsible?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rise in food prices can be partially attributed to the high food consumption level throughout Europe and North America, coupled with failure to evolve systems for more production of cattle, soybeans, and fisheries at lower cost. (PS)|

Brown, Lester R.

1973-01-01

453

FOOD ADVISORY COMMITTEE Meeting: Acrylamide ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... we had an issue of Science devoted to obesity and I ... levels in the food supply and on human health. ... That is one of the hazards of cutting and pasting ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/chemicalcontaminants

454

Prior Notice of Imported Foods  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Along with other provisions, the Act requires that FDA receive prior notification of food, including animal feed that is imported or offered for import ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/importsexports

455

Recycled Plastics in Food Packaging  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The results of any tests performed to show that the recycling process ... than food or to demonstrate, through surrogate contaminant testing and, if ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/packagingfcs

456

Climate change and food security.  

PubMed

Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

Gregory, P J; Ingram, J S I; Brklacich, M

2005-11-29

457

Risk factors for food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food allergy is a common problem that often affects young children. Numerous factors affect the development of food allergy\\u000a both prenatally and postnatally. These factors are genetic and environmental. Although little can be done post-conception\\u000a to alter a child’s genetic risk for developing food allergy, early identification may permit alterations of the environment\\u000a in which food allergy develops. Environmental factors

Diane E. Schuller

2004-01-01

458

Emerging food-borne parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic food-borne diseases are generally underrecognised, however they are becoming more common. Globalization of the food supply, increased international travel, increase of the population of highly susceptible persons, change in culinary habits, but also improved diagnostic tools and communication are some factors associated with the increased diagnosis of food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. This paper reviews the most important emerging food-borne

P. Dorny; N. Praet; N. Deckers; S. Gabriel

2009-01-01

459

Public perception of food allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although studies that use the double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge suggest that the prevalence of food allergy is about 2%, public belief in food allergy appears to be considerably higher. OBJECTIVE: The study was undertaken to determine the magnitude and features of the American public’s belief in food allergy by surveying a large, demographically balanced population. METHODS: A simple question

Daryl R. Altman; Lawrence T. Chiaramonte

1996-01-01

460

Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

This Web site provides a compilation of articles that include community-level measures of the food environment, as well as some of the instruments themselves. Here, we define the food environment to include food stores, restaurants, schools, and worksites. Measurement of the food environment and its effects on dietary behavior is a relatively new, but growing, field of inquiry. This Web site will be updated on a weekly basis.

461

Discovering The Food Pyramid 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project will teach students the basic food groups by linking them to the My Food Pyramid Website. Materials Needed: Print out the following sheet to fill out while completing this lesson. My Pyramid Worksheet Lesson Your body needs 'Fuel' to survive. By eating a healthy balanced diet you can have a healthy body. To stay healthy you need to eat foods out of each of the five major food ...

Carlee

2010-03-29

462

Leptin inhibits food-deprivation-induced increases in food intake and food hoarding.  

PubMed

Food deprivation stimulates foraging and hoarding and to a much lesser extent, food intake in Siberian hamsters. Leptin, the anorexigenic hormone secreted primarily from adipocytes, may act in the periphery, the brain, or both to inhibit these ingestive behaviors. Therefore, we tested whether leptin given either intracerebroventricularly or intraperitoneally, would block food deprivation-induced increases in food hoarding, foraging, and intake in animals with differing foraging requirements. Hamsters were trained in a running wheel-based food delivery foraging system coupled with simulated burrow housing. We determined the effects of food deprivation and several peripheral doses of leptin on plasma leptin concentrations. Hamsters were then food deprived for 48 h and given leptin (0, 10, 40, or 80 microg ip), and additional hamsters were food deprived for 48 h and given leptin (0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 microg icv). Foraging, food intake, and hoarding were measured postinjection. Food deprivation stimulated food hoarding to a greater degree and duration than food intake. In animals with a foraging requirement, intracerebroventricular leptin almost completely blocked food deprivation-induced increased food hoarding and intake, but increased foraging. Peripheral leptin treatment was most effective in a sedentary control group, completely inhibiting food deprivation-induced increased food hoarding and intake at the two highest doses, and did not affect foraging at any dose. Thus, the ability of leptin to inhibit food deprivation-induced increases in ingestive behaviors differs based on foraging effort (energy expenditure) and the route of administration of leptin administration. PMID:18832088

Keen-Rhinehart, Erin; Bartness, Timothy J

2008-10-01

463

Toddlers' food preferences. The impact of novel food exposure, maternal preferences and food neophobia.  

PubMed

Food preferences have been identified as a key determinant of children's food acceptance and consumption. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence children's liking for fruits, vegetables and non-core foods. Participants were Australian mothers (median age at delivery=31years, 18-46years) and their two-year-old children (M=24months, SD=1month; 52% female) allocated to the control group (N=245) of the NOURISH RCT. The effects of repeated exposure to new foods, maternal food preferences and child food neophobia on toddlers' liking of vegetables, fruits and non-core foods and the proportion never tried were examined via hierarchical regression models; adjusting for key maternal (age, BMI, education) and child covariates (birth weight Z-score, gender), duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction to solids. Maternal preferences corresponded with child preferences. Food neophobia among toddlers was associated with liking fewer vegetables and fruits, and trying fewer vegetables. Number of repeated exposures to new food was not significantly associated with food liking at this age. Results highlight the need to: (i) encourage parents to offer a wide range of foods, regardless of their own food preferences, and (ii) provide parents with guidance on managing food neophobia. PMID:22940687

Howard, Anika J; Mallan, Kimberley M; Byrne, Rebecca; Magarey, Anthea; Daniels, Lynne A

2012-08-29

464

Food terrorism and food defense on the Web.  

PubMed

Global food supplies are at risk of both accidental and deliberate contamination. As past incidents have demonstrated, food terrorism may cause social, economic, and political disruption. The United States increased its efforts to protect its food after 9/11 by broadening the roles of existing agencies, including the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration, and by making coordination of food defense the responsibility of the Department of Homeland Security. However, weaknesses in the system remain. This article presents background information and Web sites useful for consumers, industry representatives, students, researchers, policy makers, and the librarians that serve them. PMID:18689205

Taylor, Mary Kay

2008-01-01

465

Attachment B - Food Preparation at the Licensed Permanent ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 2000. Attachment B - Food Prep. ... Attachment B - Food Preparation at the Licensed Permanent Food Establishment. Food ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

466

Do food stamps cause obesity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I use changes in immigrant eligibility for food stamps under the 1996 federal law and heterogeneous state responses to set up a natural experiment research design to study the effect of food stamps on Body Mass Index (BMI) of adults in immigrant families. I find that in the post-1996 period food stamps use by foreign-born unmarried mothers with a high

Neeraj Kaushal

2007-01-01

467

Thermophilic composting of food waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory reactor was designed to study the effects of operating parameters (air suction rate, seeding and agitation) on the composting process of a synthetic food waste made of dog food. Experimental results showed that the synthetic food waste could be composted within 4days and the final compost passed the maturity tests. In most cases except those with 32% of

James I. Chang; J. J. Tsai; K. H. Wu

2006-01-01

468

THE CHANGING POLISH FOOD CONSUMER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of major demographic and food trends in Poland and the rapid changes in Polish food retailing. The demographic changes include the size of the population; birth, death, marriage and divorce rates; the age distribution, education and household types. Two important demographic factors that will affect food consumption are the aging population and the major gap

Michal Sznajder; Benjamin Senauer

1998-01-01

469

Parasites associated with exotic food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short description of parasites associated with “exotic food” is by no means inclusive. Many others, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Spirometa spp. (sparganosis), Taenia saginata (cysticercosis), and Echinostoma malayanum, are transmitted via food. Raw sheep liver “sowda” is commonly consumed in Lebanon. Many people developed human toxocariasis after eating this dish (19). The economic loss associated with food-borne parasitic zoonoses

Susan M. Novak

1996-01-01

470

Diabetes and diet: food choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients, food choice motives were investigated. It is concluded that despite thebarriers diabetic patients experience with their

A. C. Niewind

1989-01-01

471

Detection of Genetically Modified Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, Genetically Modified (GM) foods have become increasingly common on our supermarket shelves. Consumer concerns regarding their safety have prompted codes of practice and legislation requiring labelling of all GM-food-containing products. Labelling requires some means of verification. There is no simple means of detecting GM food and until recently, there were no tests available. The object of this

Olivia Boyce

1999-01-01

472

Hendrix College Local Food Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By purchasing locally grown foods, Hendrix College (Arkansas) has found it can offer better nutrition, cut environmental damage, and spur economic development. The Local Food Project has reduced the amount of food purchased out of state from 90-70 percent, and is aiming for 50 percent in three years. Student participation is integral.…

Valen, Gary L.

1992-01-01

473

Variability of Minerals in Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary guidance to the public stresses foods or food groups as specific sources of minerals such as calcium in dairy products, iron in meats and legumes, and potassium in oranges and bananas. Dietary guidance also identifies foods that are low in some minerals (such as sodium, potassium, calcium, cooper, and iron) for patients with specific disease conditions. However, the levels

Jean A. T. Pennington

474

Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

475

When Food Is a Foe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although only 5% of the population has severe food allergies, school business officials must be prepared for the worst-case scenario. Banning foods and segregating allergic children are harmful practices. Education and sensible behavior are the best medicine when food allergies and intolerances are involved. Resources are listed. (MLH)|

Fitzgerald, Patricia L.

1998-01-01

476

The Food Web Matching Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct a food web of Antarctic organisms. Working from a trophic table that provides information about each organisms's role in the food web, they will attempt to place them in their correct positions on a blank food web chart. Links to a glossary are embedded in the text.

477

Local Effects of Delayed Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food-rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout)…

Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.

2007-01-01

478

Agricultural-Food Policy Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication reviews the development of the Nation's food and agricultural policy as embodied in the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977. Organized as a source book, it provides a background to understanding the food and agricultural policy process and t...

1980-01-01

479

Food ingestion and circadian rhythmicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding is organised within the 24-h of the light – dark (LD) cycle. Food is ingested in a circadian manner in nature and in laboratory animals kept under constant conditions. The circadian rhythmicity in food ingestion is driven by a biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The circadian organisation of food ingestion not only allows animals to

Brahim Selmaoui; Louise Thibault

2006-01-01

480

Phytoalexin-enriched functional foods.  

PubMed

Functional foods have been a developing area of food science research for the past decade. Many foods are derived from plants that naturally contain compounds beneficial to human health and can often prevent certain diseases. Plants containing phytochemicals with potent anticancer and antioxidant activities have spurred development of many new functional foods. This has led to the creation of functional foods to target health problems such as obesity and inflammation. More recent research into the use of plant phytoalexins as nutritional components has opened up a new area of food science. Phytoalexins are produced by plants in response to stress, fungal attack, or elicitor treatment and are often antifungal or antibacterial compounds. Although phytoalexins have been investigated for their possible role in plant defense, until recently they have gone unexplored as nutritional components in human foods. These underutilized plant compounds may possess key beneficial properties including antioxidant activity, anti-inflammation activity, cholesterol-lowering ability, and even anticancer activity. For these reasons, phytoalexin-enriched foods would be classified as functional foods. These phytoalexin-enriched functional foods would benefit the consumer by providing "health-enhanced" food choices and would also benefit many underutilized crops that may produce phytoalexins that may not have been considered to be beneficial health-promoting foods. PMID:19334749

Boue, Stephen M; Cleveland, Thomas E; Carter-Wientjes, Carol; Shih, Betty Y; Bhatnagar, Deepak; McLachlan, John M; Burow, Matthew E

2009-04-01

481

Food Science and Technology Abstracts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

1979-01-01

482

Seeing Children's Pleasure with Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…

Curtis, Deb

2010-01-01

483

When Food Is a Foe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although only 5% of the population has severe food allergies, school business officials must be prepared for the worst-case scenario. Banning foods and segregating allergic children are harmful practices. Education and sensible behavior are the best medicine when food allergies and intolerances are involved. Resources are listed. (MLH)

Fitzgerald, Patricia L.

1998-01-01

484

Food Technology and the Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early food laws were developed mainly to protect the customer against short weight and fraud; present-day food laws are designed to ensure (a) that the customer is not misled; (b) that food is safe to eat; and (c) to provide nutritional standards for some basic foodstuffs. The principles of protecting the consumer against deception are fairly straightforward, even if the

G. A. H. Elton

1975-01-01

485

Food Science and Technology Abstracts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)|

Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

1979-01-01

486

Towards a transformative food politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative food initiatives (AFIs) aim to challenge the corporate-led, industrial food system by attempting to develop viable localised solutions. However, critics have highlighted the way unreflexive and uncritical actions by AFIs have resulted in their cooptation and the reproduction of economic exploitation and political oppression. In this paper, I argue that changing the current food system demands a transformative orientation,

Charles Zalman Levkoe

2011-01-01

487

Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

488

Functional Food Marketing in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health consciousness and prevention are now in the limelight of the media in Hungary. More and more consumers recognized the importance of healthy eating habits in prevention. In this paper we defined health- marketing and functional food then took a closer look at the functional food market, consumption of functional foods, product trends and the main marketing approaches. This paper

Istvan Piskoti; Nagy Szabolcs

2010-01-01

489

Food Marketing in Irish Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: Schools are thought to represent a growing marketing opportunity for food advertisers in many countries. Marketing of unhealthy food to children is linked to the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. This paper aims to explore ways in which schools respond to commercial activity around food marketing. Design/methodology/approach: A…

Kelly, Colette; Clerkin, Pauline; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Mulvihill, Maureen

2010-01-01

490

Food marketing in Irish schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Schools are thought to represent a growing marketing opportunity for food advertisers in many countries. Marketing of unhealthy food to children is linked to the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. This paper aims to explore ways in which schools respond to commercial activity around food marketing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A census survey in the Republic of Ireland was employed

Colette Kelly; Pauline Clerkin; Saoirse Nic Gabhainn; Maureen Mulvihill

2010-01-01

491

Teaching about Religion with Food  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a particular teaching strategy that involves using food playfully in the classroom in order to change the mood, generate different forms of learning, and prod students to connect food and religion. I offer a rationale for teaching with food, then provide an application from a university course on Gnosticism. My goal is to…

Desjardins, Michel

2004-01-01

492

Food Deprivation Sensitizes Pain Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

While food deprivation has known effects on sympathovagal balance, little is known about hunger’s influence on the perception of pain. Since autonomic activities influence many cognitive and emotional processes, this suggests that food deprivation should interact with the perception of pain. This study analyzed the possible effects of short-term food deprivation on pain sensitivity in healthy female participants. This study

Olga Pollatos; Beate M. Herbert; Jürgen Füstös; Katja Weimer; Paul Enck; Stephan Zipfel

2012-01-01

493

Great apes prefer cooked food  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked

Victoria Wobber; Brian Hare; Richard Wrangham

2008-01-01

494

Food and the Body Politic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Americans are in the midst of a food-consciousness revival: on television, in the mouth of the First Lady, in endless articles celebrating urban agriculture can be found a sudden enthusiasm for the politically and, perhaps, spiritually curated dinner table. In this special section, writers explore the perilous state of food and food politics in America and a wide range of

Sarah Leonard

2012-01-01

495

Food & Environment. Teaching Global Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through articles and activities designed for the senior secondary level, students examine the food production system in British Columbia and the world and explore creative, sustainable alternatives for food production. A description of raising food in the first world with the critical issues of energy use and environmental degradation precedes a…

Gage, Susan

1989-01-01

496

7 CFR 250.60 - Use of donated foods in the school food service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of donated foods in the school food service. 250.60 Section...60 Use of donated foods in the school food service. (a) Use of donated...other meals or activities. The school food authority should use...

2010-01-01

497

7 CFR 250.60 - Use of donated foods in the school food service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Use of donated foods in the school food service. 250.60 Section...60 Use of donated foods in the school food service. (a) Use of donated...other meals or activities. The school food authority should use...

2009-01-01

498

7 CFR 250.58 - Ordering donated foods and their provision to school food authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...donated foods and their provision to school food authorities. 250.58 Section...donated foods and their provision to school food authorities. (a) Ordering...distributing agency must ensure that all school food authorities are aware of the...

2010-01-01

499

7 CFR 250.58 - Ordering donated foods and their provision to school food authorities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...donated foods and their provision to school food authorities. 250.58 Section...donated foods and their provision to school food authorities. (a) Ordering...distributing agency must ensure that all school food authorities are aware of the...

2009-01-01

500

Sesame seed food allergy.  

PubMed

The number of reports regarding sesame seed food allergy (SFA) has increased significantly worldwide over the past two decades, either due to a genuine increase in SFA or merely an increase in its awareness. Its prevalence is difficult to estimate due to the lack of well designed prospective population-based studies. Based on the available data, we estimate that SFA affects 0.1-0.2 % of the population, in areas where the food is available. Albeit this prevalence appears to be relatively low, it is approximately one-half of that of persistent cow's milk allergy. While only one fatality has been reported, the significant number of SFA patients presenting as anaphylaxis indicates the potential risk. Many reports based the diagnosis of SFA on sensitization criteria alone, particularly amongst atopic dermatitis patients. Elimination of sesame from the diet of these children utilizing such criteria is not justified, and may even increase the risk for developing SFA. PMID:22610362

Dalal, Ilan; Goldberg, Michael; Katz, Yitzhak

2012-08-01