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"Astrophysics research at Rutgers ranges from late stages of stellar evolution to the early universe, and includes both observational studies at many wavelengths and theoretical work." After listing the 15 astrophysics research interests, this website summarizes the university's projects and instrumentation. Some of the summaries contain links to more in-depth information about the specific investigation. Visitors can learn about gravitational lensing; the Ultraviolet Detector Lab, which develops and tests space image sensors; and much more.
In this talk I will describe my experiences in the Rutgers Physics Teacher Preparation program as a future physics teacher and share how these experiences shaped my career as a physics teacher. The uniqueness of the Rutgers Program is that it prepares physics teachers separately from other science teachers, thus providing them with a firm foundation of how to engage
This report describes the architecture and instruction set of the Rutgers CAM2000 memory chip. The CAM2000 combines features of Associative Processing (AP), Content Addressable Memory (CAM), and Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) in a single chip package that is not only DRAM compatible but capable of applying simple massively parallel operations to memory. This document reflects the current status of the CAM2000 architecture and is continually updated to reflect the current state of the architecture and instruction set.
Law schools are known for their efforts to create online law journals, and the Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion was the Ã¢ÂÂfirst online legal journal dedicated to the study of the dynamic interaction between law and religion.Ã¢ÂÂ Started in 1999, the journal has published dozens of articles written by law students at Rutgers, and they have covered subjects such as the role of faith-based institutions in community development and the status of female refugees. Visitors can browse through their online archives to read these articles, and they may also wish look over their Ã¢ÂÂNew DevelopmentsÃ¢ÂÂ section. Here they will find brief summaries of current issues in law and religion. With its broad scope, this online journal will be of interest to those in the legal field, or those who might be looking for inspiration to start their own journal in this area.
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has provided considerable insight into the public's intention to comply with many different health-related messages, but has not been applied previously to intention to comply with food safety recommendations and recalls (Hallman & Cuite, 2010). Because food recalls can differ from other health messages in their urgency, timing, and cessation, the applicability of the
This book presents and analyzes the history of the Rutgers College of Pharmacy (from 1892 to the present) and relates the Rutgers' experience, not only to national developments in education, but also to developments in the pharmaceutical sciences and to the changing pharmaceutical practices in the nation and in the State of New Jersey. A brief…
Provided by the History Department at Rutgers University, this site hosts a collection of in-depth interviews of individuals who lived through the Second World War, beginning with an initial target group of Rutgers College alumni and Douglass College alumnae (formerly, New Jersey College for Women). The site currently contains transcripts of 44 interviews conducted between 1994 and 1996.
A novel ankle rehabilitation device is being developed for home use, allowing remote monitoring by therapists. The system will allow patients to perform a variety of exercises while interacting with a virtual environment (VE). These game-like VEs created with WorldToolKit run on a host PC that controls the movement and output forces of the device via an RS232 connection. Patients will develop strength, flexibility, coordination, and balance as they interact with the VEs. The device will also perform diagnostic functions, measuring the ankle's range of motion, force exertion capabilities and coordination. The host PC transparently records patient progress for remote evaluation by therapists via our existing telerehabilitation system. The "Rutgers Ankle" Orthopedic Rehabilitation Interface uses double-acting pneumatic cylinders, linear potentiometers, and a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) force sensor. The controller contains a Pentium single-board computer and pneumatic control valves. Based on the Stewart platform, the device can move and supply forces and torques in 6 DOFs. A proof-of-concept trial conducted at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) provided therapist and patient feedback. The system measured the range of motion and maximum force output of a group of four patients (male and female). Future medical trials are required to establish clinical efficacy in rehabilitation. PMID:10977590
Girone, M; Burdea, G; Bouzit, M; Popescu, V; Deutsch, J E
Begun in 1994 by the history department of Rutgers University, the Oral History Archive of World War II site (last mentioned in the April 7, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences) features transcriptions of interviews with 238 veterans (both men and women) of the war. While the project began with members of the Rutgers class of 1942, it was later expanded to involve many more alumni. The interviews are listed in alphabetical order on the site and feature the personal and intimate recollections of a diverse set of veterans on a variety of topics. There is also a small picture gallery and a complete listing of the military units in which each interviewee served. Finally, there is a listing of related links and a section featuring the most recent interviews that have been conducted.
This report by the president of Rutgers University (New Jersey) reviews past progress of New Jersey's commitment to economic and social progress through collaborative efforts with its State University, examines the impact of past and proposed budget reductions for fiscal year 1992, and discusses Rutgers' and New Jersey's future prospects into the…
As the weather warms and the pre-summer rains fall, the familiar buzz of the mosquito can be heard in our ears. This website from entomologists at Rutgers University provides a nice overview of Mosquito Biology including sections on Life Cycle, Anatomy, Habitats, and Behavior. The site also includes some New Jersey-specific sections such as A Classification System for the Life Cycles of Mosquitoes in New Jersey, a fact sheet about the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey, a Morphological Comparison of Ochlerotatus Species in New Jersey, and a New Jersey Species List. The Species List contains profiles for 63 species of mosquitoes found in New Jersey, and provides information about their geographic distribution, larval habitat, larval identification, anatomical features, and more.
... email@example.com $30M NSF Grants Establish New Centers For Learning and Teaching at Missouri, Rutgers ... of New York, the University of Pennsylvania, and other New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey public ...
The Rutgers Astrophysics Institute is a program in which gifted high school students learn about contemporary science and its methods, and conduct independent authentic research using real-time data. The students use the processes of science to acquire knowledge, and serve as cognitive apprentices to an expert astrophysicist. A variety of naturalistic and statistical methods were employed to gather data concerning
This report provides Rutgers University's policy regarding its commitment to research and graduate education. Briefly examined are some external developments requiring imaginative and aggressive responses on the part of the university so that the school can maintain its position among the top echelon of research universities in the United States.…
The Rutgers Astrophysics Institute is a program in which gifted high school students learn about contemporary science and its methods, and conduct independent authentic research using real-time data. The students use the processes of science to acquire knowledge, and serve as cognitive apprentices to an expert astrophysicist. A variety of…
Etkina, Eugenia; Matilsky, Terry; Lawrence, Michael
Argues that Rutgers University administrators participated in obfuscating the political nature of the 1935 dismissal of Lienhard Bergel, a German-born professor, whose anti-Nazi views alienated him from Friedrich Hauptmann, department head, also German-born, and avowedly pro-Nazi. Analyzes Hauptmann's central role and hearings testimony. Charges…
This volume contains 12 papers originally presented at the 14th Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education in 1999. The symposium explored contemporary issues of ethnic, cultural, and national identities and their influence on the social construction of identity. Papers include: (1) "Reconceptualizing Ethnicity and Educational Achievement"…
Shimahara, N. Ken, Ed.; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra, Ed.
The Rutgers University Library's Annex, a compact library storage facility opened in 1982, is designed to house approximately one-half million volumes of varying sizes, including monographs, serials, and containerized items in permanent storage boxes. By using the high density, economical storage at the annex for little-used library materials,…
The Rutgers Master II-ND glove is a haptic interface designed for dextrous interactions with virtual environments. The glove provides force feedback up to 16 N each to the thumb, index, middle, and ring fingertips. It uses custom pneumatic actuators arranged in a direct-drive configuration in the palm. Unlike commercial haptic gloves, the direct-drive actuators make unnecessary cables and pulleys, resulting
Mourad Bouzit; Grigore Burdea; George Popescu; Rares Boian
The Task Force on Numeric Data in Machine-Readable Form at Rutgers University Libraries was formed in February 1991. The group was made up of librarians representing all of the Rutgers campuses and areas of library services such as public services, collection development, and technical services. The charge to the task force was to: (1) recommend…
The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has provided considerable insight into the public's intention to comply with many different health-related messages, but has not been applied previously to intention to comply with food safety recommendations and recalls ( Hallman & Cuite, 2010 ). Because food recalls can differ from other health messages in their urgency, timing, and cessation, the applicability of the TPB in this domain is unknown. The research reported here attempted to address this gap using a nationally representative consumer panel. Results showed that, consistent with the theory's predictions, attitudes and subjective norms were predictive of the intention to comply with a food recall message, with attitudes having a much greater impact on intent to comply than subjective norms. Perceived behavioral control failed to predict intention to comply. Implications of these results for health public relations and crisis communications and recommendations for future research were discussed. PMID:22746283
Describes the development of a course at Rutgers University that resulted from collaboration between the history department and the library in which academic instruction, a new digital library resource called Early English Books Online, and Web technology were brought together to provide a new learning experience for undergraduates. (Author/LRW)
Papers and summaries from Rutgers University's 1981 Professions Forum, "The Professions and Ethics: Views and Realities in New Jersey," are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: an introduction (Louis H. Orzack and Annell L. Simcoe); "Do Special Ethical Norms Apply to Professions?" (Daniel Callahan); "Ethical Issues in the Work of…
The violence prevention group component of the Rutgers-Somerset Counseling Program, a prevention program for multi-problem youth based in a local junior high school, was established in response to appeals made by school staff for help addressing surges in school and community violence and the rising incidence of aggression among female students.…
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Its prevalence calls for innovative rehabilitation methods. The Rutgers Arm is a novel upper extremity rehabilitation system consisting of a low-friction table, three-dimensional (3D) tracker, custom forearm support, PC workstation, library of Java 3D virtual reality (VR) exercises, clinical database module, and a tele-rehabilitation extension. The system was tested on a chronic stroke subject, under local and tele-rehabilitation conditions, over 5 weeks of training. Results show improvements in arm motor control and shoulder range of motion, corresponding to improved Fugl-Meyer test scores. Exercise duration, level of difficulty, and patient motivation were maintained under tele-rehabilitaion. A 1-week retention trial showed that gains were maintained. PMID:16640468
Referee: Paul La Chance, Dept. of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ Supported in part by an educational grant from California Dried Plum Board. Prunes are dried plums, fruits of Prunus domestica L., cultivated and propagated since ancient times. Most dried prunes are produced from cultivar d'Agen, especially in California and France, where the cultivar originated. After harvest, prune-making
Maria Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis; Phyllis E. Bowen; Erum A. Hussain; Bernadette I. Damayanti-Wood; Norman R. Farnsworth
This White Paper summarizes the outcome of the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD that took place January 12-14, 2007 at Rutgers University, as part of the NSAC 2007 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Town Meeting on Hadron Structure, including a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. Appendix A.1 contains the meeting agenda. This Executive Summary presents the prioritized recommendations that were determined at the meeting. Subsequent chapters present the essential background to the recommendations. While this White Paper is not a scholarly article and contains few references, it is intended to provide the non-expert reader
We have purified pectin methylesterase (PME; EC 3.1.11) from mature green (MG) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers) pericarp to an apparent homogeneity, raised antibodies to the purified protein, and isolated a PME cDNA clone from a lambdagtll expression library constructed from MG pericarp poly(A)(+) RNA. Based on DNA sequencing, the PME cDNA clone isolated in the present study is different from that cloned earlier from cv Ailsa Craig (J Ray et al.  Eur J Biochem 174:119-124). PME antibodies and the cDNA clone are used to determine changes in PME gene expression in developing fruits from normally ripening cv Rutgers and ripening-impaired mutants ripening inhibitor (rin), nonripening (nor), and never ripe (Nr). In Rutgers, PME mRNA is first detected in 15-day-old fruit, reaches a steady-state maximum between 30-day-old fruit and MG stage, and declines thereafter. PME activity is first detectable at day 10 and gradually increases until the turning stage. The increase in PME activity parallels an increase in PME protein; however, the levels of PME protein continue to increase beyond the turning stage while PME activity begins to decline. Patterns of PME gene expression in nor and Nr fruits are similar to the normally ripening cv Rutgers. However, the rin mutation has a considerable effect on PME gene expression in tomato fruits. PME RNA is not detectable in rin fruits older than 45 days and PME activity and protein begin showing a decline at the same time. Even though PME activity levels comparable to 25-day-old fruit were found in root tissue of normal plants, PME protein and mRNA are not detected in vegetative tissues using PME antibodies and cDNA as probes. Our data suggest that PME expression in tomato pericarp is highly regulated during fruit development and that mRNA synthesis and stability, protein stability, and delayed protein synthesis influence the level of PME activity in developing fruits. PMID:16668419
In order to provide a physics instructional environment in which at-risk students (particularly women and minorities) can successfully learn and enjoy introductory physics, we have introduced Extended General Physics as an option for science, science teaching, and pre-health professions majors at Rutgers University. We have taught the course for the last five years. In this new course, we have used
Describes the essential features and results of an Extended General Physics course offered as an alternative to the general physics sequence at Rutgers University. Finds that by integrating many proven-successful instructional techniques and structuring the time that students spend in the course, the program has fostered the success of at-risk as…
Etkina, E.; Gibbons, K.; Holton, B. L.; Horton, G. K.
Important to the assessment of adolescent alcohol misuse is examination of alcohol-related problems. However, most measurement tools have only been validated among Euro-American cultures. The present study assessed the ability of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) to identify problem drinkers among groups of First Nations Mi'kmaq and…
Noel, Melanie; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Boudreau, Brock; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Stevens, Doreen; Stewart, Sherry H.
During 1991-92, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrogeologic reconnaissance at a site near the Rutgers University, Busch Campus, Chemical Engineering building, C-Wing. Results of analyses of the soil-gas samples, which were collected at 43 locations, indicated the presence of volatile organic compounds, primarily carbon tetrachloride, near the C-Wing building and about 550 feet downgradient from and southwest of the C-Wing building. Concentrations of the compound in soil-gas samples were highest (2.1 ug/L (micrograms per liter)) along the southwestern wall of the C-Wing building. Ground-water samples were collected at depths as great as 55 feet from five wells and piezometers near the C-Wing building. Samples collected along the southwestern wall of the building also contained the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in the ground-water samples ranged from < 0.35 ug/L to 3,400 ug/L, and concentrations of tetrachloro- ethylene ranged from < 0.28 ug/L to 85 ug/L. Ground-water samples collected at depths of 55 feet or more from two wells located on the Rutgers University Golf Course about 2,400 feet down- gradient from the C-Wing building contained concentrations of tetrachloroethylene as great as 17.7 ug/L. Water levels measured in six wells and six piezometers indicated that the general flow direction in the shallow part of the aquifer is to the southwest of the C-Wing building. An electrical-resistivity survey was conducted by azimuthal resistivity techniques. The results of the survey were consistent with field measurements, and the dominant vertical fractures near the Busch Campus trend northeast. An electromagnetic survey was ineffective as a result of cultural interferences and could not be used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics of the site.
Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, your immune system ... Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Food Allergy Symptoms & Diagnosis Symptoms Allergic reactions to food normally ...
... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies occur when your immune system makes ... a serious reaction. Back Continue How Are Food Allergies Treated? There is no special medicine for food ...
Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... tree nuts, soy, and wheat. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...
Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)
In order to provide a physics instructional environment in which at-risk students (particularly women and minorities) can successfully learn and enjoy introductory physics, we have introduced Extended General Physics as an option for science, science teaching, and pre-health professions majors at Rutgers University. We have taught the course for the last five years. In this new course, we have used many elements that have been proven to be successful in physics instruction. We have added a new component, the minilab, stressing qualitative experiments performed by the students. By integrating all the elements, and structuring the time the students invest in the course, we have created a successful program for students-at-risk, indeed for all students. Our aim was not only to foster successful mastery of the traditional physics syllabus by the students, but to create a sense of community through the cooperation of students with each other and their instructors. We present a template for implementation of our program elsewhere.
Etkina, E.; Gibbons, K.; Holton, B. L.; Horton, G. K.
In order to provide a physics instructional environment in which at-risk students (particularly women and minorities) can successfully learn and enjoy introductory physics, we have introduced Extended General Physics as an option for science, science teaching, and pre-health professions majors at Rutgers University. We have taught the course for the last five years. In this new course, we have used many elements that have been proven to be successful in physics instruction. We have added a new component, the minilab, stressing qualitative experiments performed by the students. By integrating all the elements, and structuring the time the students invest in the course, we have created a successful program for students-at-risk, indeed for all students. Our aim was not only to foster successful mastery of the traditional physics syllabus by the students, but to create a sense of community through the cooperation of students with each other and their instructors. We present a template for implementation of our program elsewhere.
Etkina, Eugenia; Gibbons, K.; Holton, B. L.; Horton, George K.
Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy) or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy). Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.
Water and sediment samples were collected from June through October 2007 from seven plots at the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, and analyzed for a suite of pesticides (including fungicides) and other physical and chemical parameters (including sediment mineralogy) by the U.S. Geological Survey. Plots were selected for inclusion in this study on the basis of the crops grown and the pesticides used. Forty-one pesticides were detected in 14 water samples; these include 5 fungicides, 13 herbicides, 1 insecticide, and 22 pesticide degradates. The following pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in 50 percent or more of the groundwater samples: 1-amide-4-hydroxy-chorothalonil, alachlor sulfonic acid, metolachlor oxanilic acid, metolachlor sulfonic acid, metalaxyl, and simazine. Dissolved-pesticide concentrations ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 36 micrograms per liter (for metolachlor sulfonic acid, a degradate of the herbicide metolachlor). The total number of pesticides found in groundwater samples ranged from 0 to 29. Fourteen pesticides were detected in sediment samples from continuous cores collected within each of the seven sampled plots; these include 4 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 7 pesticide degradates. Pesticide concentrations in sediment samples ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 34.2 nanograms per gram (for azoxystrobin). The total number of pesticides found in sediment samples ranged from 0 to 8. Quantitative whole-rock and grain-coating mineralogy of sediment samples were determined by x-ray diffraction. Whole-rock analysis indicated that sediments were predominantly composed of quartz. The materials coating the quartz grains were removed to allow quantification of the trace mineral phases present.
Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Fishman, Neil S.; Battaglin, William A.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.
In today's food system, farm workers face difficult and hazardous conditions, low-income neighborhoods lack supermarkets but abound in fast-food restaurants and liquor stores, food products emphasize convenience rather than wholesomeness, and the international reach of American fast-food franchises has been a major contributor to an epidemic of \\
Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food\\u000a proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies,\\u000a implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young\\u000a children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in
\\u000a IgE-mediated food allergies are part of a spectrum of adverse reactions to foods including immune and nonimmune mechanisms.\\u000a Anaphylaxis is the most serious and life-threatening manifestation of food allergy. Asthma, rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and\\u000a urticaria\\/angioedema also result from IgE-mediated reactions to foods. Not only ingestion of an allergenic food, but inhalation\\u000a of food allergens may cause reactions. There are many
Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the development of several novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies is underway and showing promise.
This website contains more than 200 videotaped experiments to be used in labs, homeworks, class discussions and assessment. Topics covered include kinematics, mechanics, states of matter, electricity and magnetism, and optics. Each video includes a learning goal, a list of prior knowledge needed to understand the material, a description, and questions for learners. The videos are connected in sequences that can form a learning cycle to build student understanding.
... appealing Direct additives may be man-made or natural. Natural additives include: Adding herbs or spices to foods ... appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, bring out the taste ...
In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-...
Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management. PMID:24834642
Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C
The representation depicts 4 different food webs: Antarctica, the African Grasslands, the Australia Grasslands and a Marine environment. A separate food web for scavengers and decomposers is present in the African Grasslands section. Viewers must first build the web by moving boxes with the organism's picture and name to the appropriate spot on a grid. Clues describing food requirements are given as the boxes are moved. When the boxes are correctly placed a complete food web (with arrows) is displayed.
In this project, you will discover the way food chains function by viewing four different types of food chains and designing your favorite one. How is the flow of energy traced through a food chain? Use your cluster organizer to record information for four different food chains and what the consumers, 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers are and what they eat. Begin by viewing ecosystems: Introduction to Ecosystems Now that you know what an ...
Fried foods may taste good, but they can have terrible effects on your body if you eat too many of them. Someone who has bulimia would be likely to binge eat these fried foods. Bulimia is an eating disorder in which the person afflicted binge eats and then purges, or gets rid of, all of the food they just ate.
Understanding what foods contribute to energy, nutrient, and food group intake enhances our ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and gives context for dietary guidance. Examining the top sources of dietary constituents that should be reduced is especially helpful for identifying targets for changes in the marketplace and food environment.
The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…
The ultimate aim of activities and interventions aimed at guaranteeing food security is to arrive at a healthy and well-nourished\\u000a population that can take on, to the maximum of its capacities, the development of its own community, area or country. In these\\u000a efforts, agriculture, in its role as food producer, plays a crucial role. (Sufficient quality) food should be available
... by common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or E. coli. ... cause food poisoning, including: Campylobacter enteritis Cholera E. coli enteritis Fish poisoning Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella Shigella Infants ...
An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)
... and reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes and for the control of insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.
Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.
With the increasing use of a large variety of chemicals, opportunities for contamination of food are becoming greater. Food may be involved following some accidental occurrence or from more general environmental contamination. Three examples are given: an outbreak of paralysis in Morocco involved 10,000 people who had ingested food adulterated with triorthocresyl phosphate; an epidemic of jaundice in London followed the contamination of flour with an epoxy resin hardener; organic mercury poisoning in an Arab country involved more than 6000 people who had eaten bread made from grain treated with a methyl mercury fungicide. The hazard which may arise from heavy metal accumulation in the body is discussed.
In this outdoor activity, learners design devices that will catch prey or gather plants. After testing their devices, learners investigate the food-gathering adaptations of animals in their activity site. Activity background information gives multiple examples of real animals and their food-grabbing mechanisms including shark jaws, rodent teeth, hawk talons, etc. Learners consider the concept of food-gathering adaptations of animals and compare them with human methods. An extension of this activity is observing various animals around the neighborhood as they capture prey and eat plants.
In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.
In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students' attention is drawn to the issue of food spoilage and the different methods that are traditionally used to prolong the freshness of food. Using a number of online resources, they learn about how Chilean fruit and lettuce for salad are carefully harvested, treated, packaged, and transported in refrigerated vessels to maintain their freshness. Students are then introduced to the canning, drying, freezing, and vacuum-sealing processes that are commonly used by food producers and in the home.
Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)
... defiant, you may just start an unnecessary war. Children mimic adult behavior, and if another family member will not eat new foods, you cannot expect your child to experiment. Try not to label your child's eating habits. ...
... dog food, or box of dog treats or snacks in your pantry. The FDA’s regulation of pet ... Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top
In this adaptation of a video that high school students created in collaboration with the Environmental Justice League of Rhode Island, learn what's whack about our current food systems and the many actions individuals can take to address these issues.
Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)
... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Food Allergies in Schools Food allergies are a growing food ... Guidelines FAQs [PDF - 163KB] What is a Food Allergy? A food allergy occurs when the body has ...
People have become obsessed with the harmful effects of eating (Rozin, 1999) and are experiencing ‘food anxiety’, a by-product of modern food. The aim of this research was to explore the nature of food anxiety in Ireland and the potential implications for the food sector. The research objectives were to determine the range of issues causing food anxiety in Irish
Students determine the relative amounts of oils in food. They then apply their understanding to an additional situation. The task assesses students' abilities to make simple observations, make generalized inferences from their observations, and apply their understanding to an additional situation.
Food production in a future automated society is going to be done in factories, not on farms as we do now. There is no reason why plants or animals have to be exposed to climate changes, to pollution, to predators or to disease. The problems we have now i...
Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…
Food deserts and accessibility represent a new frontier in the assault of life-threatening, dietrelated diseases, including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Scholars represent the research literature from diverse disciplines, such as anthropology, agriculture, sociology, economics, marketing, public policy, sociology, and social epidemiology. Applied sociology has not contributed to this important conversation. Applied sociology's integration and use of theory, methods, and
Anthony Troy Adams; Monika J. Ulrich; Amanda Coleman
... of food allergy. back to top Oral food challenge Caution Because oral food challenges can cause a severe allergic reaction, they should ... who has experience performing them. An oral food challenge is the final method healthcare professionals use to ...
Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of international trade and global food governance. Distance in time and space between food producers and consumers is increasing and new concerns are arising. These
By a new definition proposed here, food safety is not just about safe food but the safe consumption of food. This draws attention to the issue of overeating as well as undernourishment. With the transition of diets and a rapid rise in obesity, worldwide, chronic illnesses join acute illness (from microbiological contamination) as health issues related to food consumption. The
The Food Guide Pyramid Automated Analysis System (FGPAAS) would classify foods under the appropriate categories of the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP). Further, it would provide an estimation of the serving size(s) of the food group(s) for the food being analyzed, per the FGP guidelines provided by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). In the development of this automated analysis
The purpose of this research was to obtain basic data on ethnic foods by studying dietary patterns and multicultural foods, and to determine nutritional status of multicultural space explorers by evaluating dietary, clinical, biochemical, and socioeconomi...
... intolerance. On this page: Lactose intolerance Food additives Gluten intolerance Food poisoning Histamine toxicity Other conditions Lactose ... are listed on ingredient labels. back to top Gluten intolerance Gluten is a part of wheat, barley, ...
Given that health department inspections of fast-food restaurants may not be sufficient to ensure compliance with food safety regulations, managers must be vigilant in ensuring conformity with practices that safeguard public health. This case study of one fast-food employee's experience at three different fast-food restaurants suggests that employees' training and supervision require more attention to safety procedures. Greater manager accountability
21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...
The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…
Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.
The program for improving foods for use during space flights consists of introducing new foods and food-handling techniques on each successive manned space flight. Because of this continuing improvement program, the Apollo 14 food system was the most advanced and sophisticated food system to be used in the U.S. space program. The food system used during the Apollo 14 mission and recent space-food-system advances are described and discussed in regard to their usefulness for future manned space flights.
Smith, M. C., Jr.; Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.
We have constructed an external beam PIXE system for trace element analysis of biological and environmental samples. Analytical procedures that include sample preparation and PIXE setup are described for analysis of maternal scalp hair, amniotic fluid, human placenta, and colostrum samples. The study was conducted to obtain trace element data on important biological tissues for incorporation into a large data base that will be used to assess fetal and infant well-being. A 3.5 MeV external proton beam was used to produce X rays in the samples after they were low-temperature ashed. Detection limits for essential and toxic elements are less than 0.4 ?g/g for a 6 min irradiation time.
Hall, G. S.; Roach, N.; Naumann, M.; Simmons, U.; Cong, H.
The daily food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.
Students will find daily food recommendations based upon their age, weight, height, and activity level. Standard 2 Objective1: a,b,c It is helpful to have a guide that can give us directions on the type and quantity of foods we should eat daily. Lets first view the basics of our food groups. Click the Food Group Basics link below and see if you can answer the questions provided. Food Group Basics What is the ...
This review summarizes recent research and development of nanosensors applied to the food safety. Since the food safety is directly related to the people's health and life, the food detection has received considerable attentions. However, this food security has emerged in China as a severe problem in recent years. Food safety problems frequently compromised due to formaldehyde, poison vegetables, excessive pesticide residues, etc. These kinds of food contaminations could not be detected efficiently by traditional methods. Applying nanotechnology and nanominerals, various food contaminations can be identified accurately. Therefore nanosensors have been widely used in the food detection. We introduce current research on nanosensors followed by the industrial application of nanosensors. Finally, the challenges for the future food safety using nanosensors are discussed. PMID:24730307
Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689
Natural food antimicrobials are bioactive compounds that inhibit the growth of microorganisms involved in food spoilage or food-borne illness. However, stability issues result in degradation and loss of antimicrobial activity. Nanoencapsulation allows protection of antimicrobial food agents from unfavorable environmental conditions and incompatibilities. Encapsulation of food antimicrobials control delivery increasing the concentration of the antimicrobials in specific areas and the improvement of passive cellular absorption mechanisms resulted in higher antimicrobial activity. This paper reviews the present state of the art of the nanostructures used as food antimicrobial carriers including nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, nanoparticles, and nanofibers.
Blanco-Padilla, Adriana; Soto, Karen M.; Hernandez Iturriaga, Montserrat
This fact sheet gives the cost of a typical food irradiation facility (US $1 million to US $3 million) and of the food irradiation process (US $10-15 per tonne for low-dose applications; US $100-250 per tonne for high-dose applications). These treatments ...
Argues that intensive agriculture restricted to suitable lands will be required in the future due to global population growth, declining food prices, and extreme poverty. Discusses the challenge of balancing environmental care with food production. (DDR)
... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...
Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...
This set of online activities consists of matching games about meadow, arctic and pond food webs. Intended for younger students, each game involves placing images of various plants and animals into their proper places in the food webs.
This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.
In this activity about food safety and nutrition, learners investigate safe food preparation by making fruit ice cream. This lesson guide includes background information, variations and bilingual (English/Spanish) recipe cards.
... gives you information about which nutrients (say: nu -tree-ents) are in the food. Your body needs the right combination of nutrients, such as vitamins , to work properly and grow. The Nutrition Facts food label ...
Large improvements and advances in space food systems achieved during the Apollo food program are discussed. Modifications of the Apollo food system were directed primarily toward improving delivery of adequate nutrition to the astronaut. Individual food items and flight menus were modified as nutritional countermeasures to the effects of weightlessness. Unique food items were developed, including some that provided nutritional completeness, high acceptability, and ready-to-eat, shelf-stable convenience. Specialized food packages were also developed. The Apollo program experience clearly showed that future space food systems will require well-directed efforts to achieve the optimum potential of food systems in support of the physiological and psychological well-being of astronauts and crews.
Smith, M. C., Jr.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rambaut, P. C.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.; Huber, C. S.; Bourland, C. T.
... use animal products or byproducts, and eats only plant-based foods. In addition to not eating meat, ... D is not found in most commonly eaten plant foods; the best dietary sources are fortified dairy ...
... use animal products or byproducts, and eats only plant-based foods. In addition to not eating meat, ... D is not found in most commonly eaten plant foods; best dietary sources are fortified dairy products. ...
In this activity, learners investigate feeding relationships. Learners complete a food web and then make a mobile to represent a food chain. Use this activity to talk about predator/prey relationships and ecosystems.
... Password? Login Cancel Can I eat this? . . . Meal Planning and Tips Managing diabetes is a challenge that ... can make it easier. Discover more about meal planning options and how MyFoodAdvisor can help. Explore Foods ...
... consumers. What are typical food risks that FDA alerts the public to? Typical significant food risks include ... More Information Archive for Recalls, Market Withdrawals & Safety Alerts - Page Last Updated: 12/08/2013 Note: If ...
How much food is being consumed around the world right now? It's a vast question that can be answered by the World Food Clock. This interesting website draws on information provided by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and presents a streaming set of data on global food consumption, global food waste, and other informative topics. It's visually arresting and users can scroll down to look through different "clocks" that track statistics such as the land used to grow wasted food and the stages of food waste, which include production, processing, and consumption. This is a wonderful tool for folks with an interest in food security, environmental studies, public health, and international relations. It could also be used in any number of design courses to illustrate a range of techniques and visualization strategies.
In these life science activities, students will participate in field observations of living things & do research of animals they observe to create a food chain & present it to the class. Students will participate in a food web simulation game.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which is responsible for assuring that foods sold in the United States are safe, wholesome and properly labeled, receives many questions from manufacturers, distributors, and importers about the proper labeling of th...
How can you tell if harmful bacteria are in your food or water that might make you sick? What you eat or drink can be contaminated with bacteria, viruses, parasites and toxinsâpathogens that can be harmful or even fatal. Students learn which contaminants have the greatest health risks and how they enter the food supply. While food supply contaminants can be identified from cultures grown in labs, bioengineers are creating technologies to make the detection of contaminated food quicker, easier and more effective.
In this nutrition activity, learners explore food labels and consider the nutritional value of foods. Learners also explore units of measurement commonly used on food labels. Learners will be surprised to find out how much sugar soft drinks contain. This lesson guide includes background information and bilingual (English/Spanish) handouts.
... offered all the food she wants to eat. Calorie Statement Pet foods can vary greatly in calorie content, even among foods of the same type ( ... amount of fat, although varying levels of non-calorie-containing components, such as water and fiber, can ...
This booklet, which describes federal food assistance programs, is designed to help large families, families on small budgets, and elderly people on fixed incomes get more food for less money. The book is divided into four chapters: Kids, Women and Children, Families, and Senior Citizens. Each chapter describes in detail the food assistance…
Discusses what food allergy and food intolerances are, possible allergic reactions, most common foods to which people are allergic, who is most susceptible, how it is diagnosed, and how it is treated. Includes graphic illustrations and b-roll. Based on me...
This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.
Metabolomics, the newest member of the omics techniques, has become an important tool in agriculture, pharmacy, and environmental sciences. Advances in compound extraction, separation, detection, identification, and data analysis have allowed metabolomics applications in food sciences including food processing, quality, and safety. This chapter discusses recent advances and applications of metabolomics in food science. PMID:23034113
Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan Manuel; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José Ignacio
Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…
Conclusion The future certainly holds promise for the treatment of food allergies. Generally, future treatments can be divided into immunological\\u000a manipulation of the food-allergic subject (mucosal vaccines, new immunotherapies, cytokine level alterations) or manipulation\\u000a of the food through genetic engineering to diminish or abolish its allergenic activity.
Samuel B. Lehrer; Laurianne G. Wild; Kenneth L. Bost; Ricardo U. Sorensen
Food regime analysis emerged to explain the strategic role of agriculture and food in the construction of the world capitalist economy. It identifies stable periods of capital accumulation associated with particular configurations of geopolitical power, conditioned by forms of agricultural production and consumption relations within and across national spaces. Contradictory relations within food regimes produce crisis, transformation, and transition to
Food policy will be of paramount concern to economic development efforts for at least the next two decades. Governments are trying to confront their food problems, and they need good analysis and good analysts to do so. The book attempts to show that food...
Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food
Food and foods packaging is changing. This issue of the National Food Review focuses on two new technologies for packaging some familiar foods and one innovative, although plain, packaging method that saves consumers money. After 20 years on the European ...
Developments in food protection are described for microbiological contaminants, delicatessen foods, seafoods, mycotoxins, food additives, and regulatory surveillance. Proposed and advocated is a cooperative, basic data, monitoring program focusing on microbiological, chemical, nutritional, toxicological, and related food quality indices. (BL)
... quick tips for seasonal health, safety and fun Go, Slow, and Whoa Foods Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... of California and Flaghouse, Inc. 2002 Food Group GO Almost anytime foods SLOW Sometimes foods WHOA Once ...
... Fleischer Food Allergy: Diagnosis Reasons to Do Food Challenges Food challenges are performed to answer a variety ... reactions, is reinforced. More Reasons to Do Food Challenges Information Back to Diagnosis Print Page Email Page ...
Individual differences in human food neophobia (the reluctance to try novel foods) and food neophilia (the overt willingness to try novel foods) influence the evaluation of tastes and odors, as well as the sampling of such stimuli. Past research also notes an association of food neophobia to PTC sensitivity, body weight, and cephalic phase salivary response. The present study assessed physiological reactions of food neophobics and neophilics to pictures of food and non-food stimuli. Stimuli pictures were presented in random order on a computer screen for a period of 5 min. No significant differences were found between the groups in relation to non-food stimuli. However, pulse, GSR, and respirations were significantly increased in food neophobics when presented pictures of food stimuli. Thus, further evidence is provided to support a physiological component at least partially responsible for differences noted between neophobics and neophilics in sensitivity, psychophysical ratings, and "willingness to try" personality. Such a component may also lead to differences in weight, nutrition, and overall health. PMID:22369957
Multiple food allergy is an adverse immune response to more than one food. When a child is allergic to a great number of foods, the clinical picture can be serious and the eviction of the implied allergens leads to important dietary restrictions. We describe the case of a 4-year-old child with serious atopic eczema and multiple food allergy. At 8 months she presented positive specific Imunoglobulin (Ig)E for milk, wheat, rye, barley, gluten, soy, egg (yolk and white) and initiated eviction of these foods. At 20 months she tried to introduce wheat but suspended after aggravation of atopic eczema. At 3 years old, she had anaphylaxis after contact with cheese. At 4 years old she keeps eviction of milk, egg, wheat, gluten, barley and rye. Food restrictions in these patients are high, demanding a rigorous control of foods ingested to prevent both adverse reactions and nutricional deficits. Multidisciplinary approach is important. PMID:22015034
Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to food handling or consumption in domestic or common eating places, as well as protect, as much as possible, our environment. Thus, the food manufacturer has to examine step-by-step the security of the agro-cultures, their composition, but also the possible residues of pollutants and contaminants, or chemicals used to protect them against various pests and determine the possible loss or retention of these substances during technological processes. Animal raw materials should not contain veterinary drug residues or an abnormal amount of some components that result from inadequate feeding. Care should be taken to ensure the security of foods manufactured by biotechnology processes. The organisms and the whole processes used in food biotechnologies should eliminate any impurities. Any minor food ingredients, such as food additives, are under a permanent revision from the point of view of their safety. The industry reacts immediately if any justification requires that a particular food additive should not be used. In other words all the raw materials must conform to their specifications. Technological processes must create a food with an adequate microbiological quality, e.g. free of pathogens and their toxic metabolites. Any danger of microbiological contamination or accidental pollution, such as mechanical particles, chemical substances, etc. should be eliminated. The particular role of food packaging is crucial, since this is a barrier to protect the food against further parasites or microbial contamination and preserve the food from alterations due to enzymatic reactions that require particular oxygen and water activity conditions. The packaging should also protect against possible criminal damage. In addition, the material of packaging should not allow micro-migration to the food. It should be inert against its food content. Another aspect of food packaging that has to be taken into account is its recovery and recyclability. Finally, the food manufacturer has to ensure that the nutritional value of the product does not diminish through its shelf-life. The consumer should be advised about the effects of culinary practices since some of them, such as deep frying or grilling under certain circumstances, may create undesirable substances potentially harmful to human health. The food manufacturing in the context of the environment protection requires a separate issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8202696
Nutrition labels have raised awareness of the energetic value of foods, and represent for many a pivotal guideline to regulate food intake. However, recent data have created doubts on label accuracy. Therefore we tested label accuracy for energy and macronutrient content of prepackaged energy-dense snack food products. We measured “true” caloric content of 24 popular snack food products in the U.S. and determined macronutrient content in 10 selected items. Bomb calorimetry and food factors were used to estimate energy content. Macronutrient content was determined according to Official Methods of Analysis. Calorimetric measurements were performed in our metabolic laboratory between April 20th and May 18th and macronutrient content was measured between September 28th and October 7th of 2010. Serving size, by weight, exceeded label statements by 1.2% [median] (25th percentile ?1.4, 75th percentile 4.3, p=0.10). When differences in serving size were accounted for, metabolizable calories were 6.8 kcal (0.5, 23.5, p=0.0003) or 4.3% (0.2, 13.7, p=0.001) higher than the label statement. In a small convenience sample of the tested snack foods, carbohydrate content exceeded label statements by 7.7% (0.8, 16.7, p=0.01); however fat and protein content were not significantly different from label statements (?12.8% [?38.6, 9.6], p=0.23; 6.1% [?6.1, 17.5], p=0.32). Carbohydrate content explained 40% and serving size an additional 55% of the excess calories. Among a convenience sample of energy-dense snack foods, caloric content is higher than stated on the nutrition labels, but overall well within FDA limits. This discrepancy may be explained by inaccurate carbohydrate content and serving size.
Naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. These compounds are naturally produced and isolated from various sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, in which they constitute part of host defense systems. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as nisin, plant essential oils, and natamycin, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective in their potential role as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Although some of these natural antimicrobials are commercially available and applied in food processing, their efficacy, consumer acceptance and regulation are not well defined. This manuscript reviews natural antimicrobial compounds with reference to their applications in food when applied individually or in combination with other hurdles. It also reviews the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobials, factors affecting their antimicrobial activities, and future prospects for use of natural antimicrobials in the food industry. PMID:22385168
Ultrasound is well suited to the study of food materials because of the possibility of noninvasive and safe implementation which is ideal for hygienic application. New advances in the understanding of the interaction between the soft solids which comprise many foods and ultrasound mean that new data and new insights into foods have been gained using ultrasound measurement techniques. Studies of complex food materials have challenged theories of ultrasound propagation, resulting in significant theoretical developments of general importance. This review covers the use of low power ultrasound to study food materials. Both pulse echo and continuous wave interferometry are covered and the theory of ultrasound scattering in soft heterogeneous media discussed. Foods to which the ultrasound technique has been applied range from eggs through margarine to chocolate.
During the past few decades, there has been an increased concern over food safety and quality and human nutrition across the globe. A number of large international organizations have begun to bring their expertise and knowledge to the Web, and this site, developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is a good resource of information on these (and other) topics. The site includes a section on human nutrition, where visitors can view detailed country-level nutrition reports and national reports and strategies to combat the ever-growing problem of nutritional deficiencies. The food safety-and-quality area contains information about the capacity-building of food control systems and programs at the national and local level, along with scientific assessments of food safety. The site also contains a link to a very helpful portal that deals with international issues surrounding food safety, animal and plant health.
Carl Winter, a golden-throated Extension Food Toxicologist at the University of California, Davis, has written and recorded two albums of parodies of popular songs "with a food safety/ science twist." Lucky for us, Winter has made a number of these tunes and their lyrics available at this site. The songs are organized by food science topic (Food Safety, Pesticides, Biotech, Toxicology, etc.), and listed with file size, the song that inspired it, and a link to the lyrics. Highlights include "I Sprayed It on the Grapevine," "We are the Microbes/ They Might Kill You," "Food Busters," and "Food Irradiation." Graduate students especially will enjoy Winter's take on academic life and the advisor-student relationship: "Money for Nothing."
A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.
Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.
This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings
\\u000a The interest of the food industry in natural colorants replacing synthetic dyes has increased significantly over the last\\u000a years, mainly due to safety issues. This chapter deals with the interest of using natural anthocyanins and their derivatives\\u000a as food colorants. The importance of color for the acceptability of food products and the need for satisfying and attracting\\u000a more consumers to
Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014
Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N
The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain. PMID:24797131
Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter
The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain.
Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter
The relationship between a food’s structure and its properties\\/functionalities is of fundamental interest in food materials\\u000a science. The great expectation is to relate the functionality of a food material to the physico-chemical characteristics of\\u000a its ingredients and their geometric arrangement (i.e., structure formation). Functionalities of interest are either of chemical\\u000a (e.g., flavor release from a given matrix), physical\\/ mechanical (e.g.,
Legislation passed during this year's legislative session will help the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) identify the source of food-borne illness outbreaks. Senate Bill 81 increases the number of food wholesalers and warehouse operators that must obtain licenses from DSHS. DSHS enforcement activities include follow-up inspections at establishments that have problems, sending warning letters, holding management meetings with the firms, and providing technical assistance. When a food-borne illness outbreak involves a Texas manufacturer, wholesaler, or warehouse, DSHS can recall contaminated products, close establishments temporarily until they can ensure their food is safe or close them permanently, and levy fines. PMID:22714694
Purpose of review To consider the possible links between food allergy and asthma. Recent findings Food allergy and asthma coexist in many children, and recent studies demonstrate that having these co-morbid conditions increases the risk for morbidity. Children with food allergies and asthma are more likely to have near-fatal or fatal allergic reactions to food and more likely to have severe asthma. Summary Although a causal link has not been determined, increased awareness of the heightened risks of having both of these common childhood conditions, and good patient/parent education and management of both conditions, can lead to improved outcomes..
This study examines the role that food consumer cooperatives play in the local food networks. Data are collected from three case studies with leading food cooperatives and a national survey of the general managers of food cooperatives. We identify the emerging business practices in local sourcing as a differentiation and member recruitment strategy for food cooperatives. Our analysis identifies several
Federal and state governments operate inspection systems to help assure consumers of the wholesomeness and cleanliness of food products. Each major outbreak of human illness attributed to foodborne pathogens or to cancer-causing residues in foods raises questions as to the effectiveness of this food inspection. How do food store managers and consumers differ in their perceptions of needed food inspection?
Harold Potakey; Alvin R. Schupp; Donna E. Montgomery
The purpose of this research was to obtain basic data on ethnic foods by studying dietary patterns and multicultural foods, and to determine nutritional status of multicultural space explorers by evaluating dietary, clinical, biochemical, and socioeconomic factors. The study will plan a significant role in providing nutritional research for space explorers of different ethnic backgrounds. It will provide scientific background information by bringing together cross cultural dietary and nutritional from different ethnic groups. Results will also help the health care personnel including physicians, dietitians, and nutritionists to better understand and assist patients from other cultures illness. Also, the results will provide data which will help in the development of future food plans for long duration flights involving manned exploration to Mars and lunar base colonies.
Aspects of food safety and quality control are described, with a focus on consumer protection. On the assumption that there can be no ‘zero-risk’, not only in life generally but even in food, appropriate food control is required in order to assess compliance with labelling (e.g. in the case of functional food) and to ensure the safety of food. People
... Code for food establishments to follow,” says Kevin Smith, director of FDA’s Retail Food and Cooperative Programs ... in foods and cause foodborne illness,” says FDA’s Smith. National Special Security Events FDA is called upon ...
This fact sheet briefly considers the nutritional value of irradiated foods. Micronutrients, especially vitamins, are sensitive to any food processing method, but irradiation does not cause any special nutritional problems in food. 4 refs. (Atomindex cita...
This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…
Food deserts refer to a lack of easy access to nutritious food. They exist all over America as an outcome of poverty. This video from Penn State Public Broadcasting’s Geospatial Revolution shows how geospatial technology can help change this reality.
Currently, high school students account for 60% of food sold in cafeterias. School lunches should provide 33% of the students' energy intake, however, according to some research, it was found that it tends to only provide 19% because of the sale of "competitive" foods. Research by the U.S. Department of Agriculture found that girls ages 14-18 eat…
In this outdoor game, learners role play populations linked in a food chain. The resource suggests a chain with plant, grasshopper, frog, and hawk, but other food chains can be role-played, for example plankton, anchovy, salmon, sea lion. The more "animals" (learners!) the merrier for this active game.
Numerous assistance programs are designed to alleviate homelessness and food insecurity in the US, two of the more severe possible consequences of poverty. While we expect families with a higher probability of homelessness to also be at higher risk of food insecurity, after controlling for observed factors the relationship is not immediately apparent. To analyze this relationship, we use a
Craig Gundersen; Linda Weinreb; Cheryl Wehler; David Hosmer
The basic food staple of Thailand is rice. This is produced in quantities large enough for domestic and export as well. Many other marketable foods are locally produced in home industries, in local canneries, or in smallscale factories. Some items are imp...
The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article shows how genebanks are like an insurance policy for the future of agriculture, for they: conserve the diversity of plant species, offer resources for breeding of hardier crop varieties, provide food solutions in times of disaster, and safeguard food supplies for future generations.
Geoffrey C. Hawtin and Jeremy Cherfas (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute;)
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the contribution of food to tourism with particular reference to the importance of food tourism and the factors which are critical to its success, highlighting topics for future research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Findings are based on analysis of academic and practitioner materials in the public domain collected from a range of
Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food.
This paper shows that significant energy savings can be obtained by use of irradiation preservation. The energy used in food systems in the US amounts to about 16.5% of the total energy. An analysis of the energy used in the many steps of the food irradia...
A study to design a food service system using current technology to serve a small scale Space Station was conducted. The psychological, sociological and nutritional factors affecting feeding in microgravity conditions was investigated. The logistics of the food service system was defined.
This paper discusses the unique role of ethnic foods in value-added food product marketing. In particular, the case of Korean kimchi is used to provide several examples of concepts introduced within the paper. When Korean kimchi export markets were disaggregated into groups of “culturally similar” and “culturally distant” markets, striking differences in the pattern of trade flows were observed. Exports
Discusses the old food guide pyramid released in 1992 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Contradicts the message that fat is bad, which was presented to the public by nutritionists, and the effects of plant oils on cholesterol. Introduces a new food pyramid. (YDS)
Tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of food-based allergic disorders over the past 5 years. Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that nearly 4% of Americans are afflicted with food allergies, a prevalence much higher than appreciated in the past. In addition, the prevalence of peanut allergy was found to have doubled in American children less than 5 years of
This booklet was created to help students present their 4-H projects in the foods area. The guide contains information on making presentations, including the following: types of presentations, how to find and develop an idea, using visual aids, planning the work area for food demonstrations, equipment needed, preparing to give the demonstration,…
Next to bacteria microbial hazards in food comprise mycotoxin-producing moulds, protozoae, viruses and prions. Epidemiological aspects are mentioned which are essential for the pathogenesis of foodborne diseases caused by these agents. Compared with chemical and physical hazards the occurrence or emergence of microbiological hazards depends on a variety of factors and influences during food production and processing that well structured
A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)
This paper aims to identify the future trends in the agro-food sector over the next two decades. Ten national technology foresight studies have been reviewed with the purpose of (i) envisaging the future socio-economic and technology framework of the sector and (ii) highlighting major agro-food technology clusters and their future application.
Discusses a study undertaken by the Nottingham University Consumer Study Group to determine market operation for popular convenience foods in England. Information is presented on distribution of purchases, brand loyalties of respondents to a questionnaire regarding convenience foods, and market fluctuation due to inflation. (Author/DB)
Food drying and dewatering raises a growing interest because of increasing requirements in quality, specially in the production of ingredients and additives for food formulation. Heat and mass transfers, as well as mechanical phenomena and reactions kinetics induced by these transfers must be more and more carefully controlled during drying and storage.This chapter relates recent advances in- drying of solids-
Catherine Bonaui; Elisabeth Dumoulin; Anne-Lucie Raoult-Wack; Z. Berk; J. J. Bimbenet; F. Courtois; G. Trystram; J. Vasseur
Sustainable development requires a deliberate choice in the direction of societal transition, but the options are narrowed down by the obligation to feed a growing world population. At present sufficient food is produced, but large differences exist in per capita supply. Poverty prevents many people from attaining a sufficient diet, while growing economic welfare pushes meat consumption conversely. To meet
A treatment with differential or noncontingent reinforcement and nonremoval of the spoon increased the acceptance of one or two of 16 foods for 2 participants with severe food refusal. These differential levels of acceptance were demonstrated empirically in an ABAB design in which A was the presentation of the accepted (preferred) foods and B was the presentation of foods the participants refused (nonpreferred foods). Subsequently, we implemented a blending treatment that consisted of mixing (blending) nonpreferred foods into preferred foods in various ratios (e.g., 10% nonpreferred/90% preferred, 20% nonpreferred/80% preferred). We then presented nonpreferred foods that had been exposed to blending to determine if consumption of nonpreferred foods would increase following the blending treatment. We also conducted periodic reversals in which we presented nonpreferred foods that had not been exposed to the blending treatment. Following initial implementation of the blending treatment, consumption was high for nonpreferred foods that had been blended and low for nonpreferred foods that had not been blended. Consumption increased for all foods (i.e., foods that had been exposed to blending and foods that had not been exposed to blending) after seven or eight foods had been exposed to the blending treatment. Thus, the variety of foods consumed by the participants increased from one or two to 16. These results are discussed in terms of stimulus fading, conditioned food preferences, and escape extinction. DESCRIPTORS: conditioned food preferences, food refusal, negative reinforcement, stimulus fading
Mueller, Michael M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Kelley, Michael E; Pruett, Angela
There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses. Validation was conducted on the basis of an extensive microbiological assessment scheme (MAS). The assumption behind the food
L. Jacxsens; M. Uyttendaele; F. Devlieghere; J. Rovira; S. Oses Gomez; P. A. Luning
Rates of food insecurity are high among medically underserved patients. We analyzed food pantry responsiveness to the needs of medically ill cancer patients in New York City with the intent ofidentifying barriers to available food resources. Our data, collected from 60 pantries, suggest that the emergency food system is currently unable to accommodate patient needs. Accessibility issues include restricted service hours and documentation requirements. Food services were limited in quantity of food provided and the number of nutritious, palatable options. Additional emergency food resources and long-term approaches that provide ongoing food support to patients throughout their treatment period are needed. PMID:22829107
... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Food Safety After a Tsunami Language: English Español (Spanish) Share ... and any food that has an unusual odor, color, or texture. A food thermometer can be used ...
... advises. “And if a child seems to have food poisoning, you should have the child seen by a doctor.” search Features Sun and Skin Fight Off Food Poisoning Wise Choices Links Prevent Food Poisoning Wash your ...
... you enjoy fresh produce. Check it out ! Consumer Food Safety Education Conference 2014 Mark your calendar - the Consumer ... Brochure View all Downloads What's New Partnership for Food Safety Education Food Safe Families Action Pledge The Partnership ...
The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about food and plants. The probe is designed to reveal whether students use a biological concept of food to identify what plants use for food.
This lesson examines potential benefits and risks of genetically modified foods. Students can interview a biotech company, design enhanced GM food products or packaging labels, form a GM food lobby group and more!
Ronald Brian Watts (CEGEP De La Gaspesie et Des Iles;)
Investigations in food science and technology, whether by the food industry, governmental agencies, or universities, often require determination of food composition and characteristics. Trends and demands of consumers, the food industry, and national and international regulations challenge food scientists as they work to monitor food composition and to ensure the quality and safety of the food supply. All food products require analysis as part of a quality management program throughout the development process (including raw ingredients), through production, and after a product is in the market. In addition, analysis is done of problem samples and competitor products. The characteristics of foods (i.e., chemical composition, physical properties, sensory properties) are used to answer specific questions for regulatory purposes and typical quality control. The nature of the sample and the specific reason for the analysis commonly dictate the choice of analytical methods. Speed, precision, accuracy, and ruggedness often are key factors in this choice. Validation of the method for the specific food matrix being analyzed is necessary to ensure usefulness of the method. Making an appropriate choice of the analytical technique for a specific application requires a good knowledge of the various techniques (Fig. 1.1). For example, your choice of method to determine the salt content of potato chips would be different if it is for nutrition labeling than for quality control. The success of any analytical method relies on the proper selection and preparation of the food sample, carefully performing the analysis, and doing the appropriate calculations and interpretation of the data. Methods of analysis developed and endorsed by several nonprofit scientific organizations allow for standardized comparisons of results between different laboratories and for evaluation of less standard procedures. Such official methods are critical in the analysis of foods, to ensure that they meet the legal requirements established by governmental agencies. Government regulations and international standards most relevant to the analysis of foods are mentioned here but covered in more detail in Chap. 2, and nutrition labeling regulations in the USA are covered in Chap. 3. Internet addresses for many of the organizations and government agencies discussed are given at the end of this chapter.
The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.
Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.
The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction), food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction) or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction). A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least food-drug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient.
Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784
The development of a universal closure lid for the space shuttle food package is reported. The revised lid needs a folded configuration which, when unfolded, fully conforms to the interior surfaces of the food cup. Experimental thermoform molds were fabricated and test lids formed. The lid material not in contact with the food conformed to the cup interior without wrinkles, permitting full nesting of the cups. The final lid design was established and thermoform tooling designed and fabricated. Lids formed on these molds were tested for strength. The heating elements were replaced and repositioned to eliminate any hot spots which may cause warpage.
Did you know that September is Food Safety Month? To find out more about it, visit this Website from the US Food and Drug Administration, where you can take the 'Fridge Quiz, learn about the "thaw law" and download the cold storage chart (.pdf). Although the site is intended primarily for food science educators, it contains factsheets, games and activities that might be of interest to general audiences. For instance, did you know that non-dairy whipped topping is safe in the refrigerator for 3 months?! Heaps of graphics and brochures for educators can be downloaded from .pdf files.
Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Bees are known to communicate the distance from the hive to a new source of food through the waggle dance (if the food source is far away) or the round dance (if the food source is nearby). But how do bees measure the distance in the first place? Collett explains in a Perspective that recent findings (Srinivasan et al.) demonstrate decisively that bees measure distance visually, integrating over time the optic flow of images that cross the retina as they fly through a landscape.
Thomas Collett (Sussex Centre for Neuroscience;School of Biological Sciences)
The frequency of migraine has been studied in adult patients with suspected adverse reaction to foods. Migraine was present in 41 out of 300 patients (13.6%). 38 of these 41 subjects have been treated with elimination diet; 25 (65.7%) obtained a significant improvement of migraine and subsequently, performed challenge test. 24 patients were affected by food intolerance and only one by food allergy. The remaining 13 non-responder subjects suffering from migraine have been subsequently submitted to pharmacological treatment. PMID:2711014
Pacor, M L; Nicolis, F; Cortina, P; Peroli, P; Venturini, G; Andri, L; Corrocher, R; Lunardi, C
Background Food choice decisions are frequent, multifaceted, situational, dynamic, and complex and lead to food behaviors where people\\u000a acquire, prepare, serve, give away, store, eat, and clean up. Many disciplines and fields examine decision making.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose Several classes of theories are applicable to food decision making, including social behavior, social facts, and social definition\\u000a perspectives. Each offers some insights but also makes
Bacteriocins are bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides with narrow or broad host ranges. Many bacteriocins are produced by food-grade lactic acid bacteria, a phenomenon which offers food scientists the possibility of directing or preventing the development of specific bacterial species in food. This can be particularly useful in preservation or food safety applications, but also has implications for the development of
The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic food may, or may…
Fresh food products have a high income elasticity of demand and few traditional trade barriers in high income markets. As such, they represent an important opportunity for less developed country (LDC) exporters. Fresh food product exports account for half of all food and agricultural exports from LDCs to high income countries. But these products may be subject to greater food
BACKGROUND: Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. METHODS: Prior to eating
Food spoilage is a complex process and excessive amounts of foods are lost due to microbial spoilage even with modern day preservation techniques. Despite the heterogeneity in raw materials and processing conditions, the microflora that develops during storage and in spoiling foods can be predicted based on knowledge of the origin of the food, the substrate base and a few
Lone Gram; Lars Ravn; Maria Rasch; Jesper Bartholin Bruhn; Allan B Christensen; Michael Givskov
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine consumers' motives for food choice and to reveal beliefs about organic food. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on results of a survey conducted on a sample of 1,010 Polish consumers. The questionnaire included items to identify food choice motives, attributes of organic food and barriers to buy organic products.
Cuba's National Food Program aims to assure its population a minimum degree of food security during the current period of transition from dependency upon the ex-Socialist trading bloc. A number of important elements of the Food Program, however, were conceived before the demise of COMECON in an effort to deepen food import substitution. This paper reviews the degree of Cuba's
Food mapping is a new, participatory, interdisciplinary pedagogical approach to learning about our modern food systems. This method is inspired by the Situationist International's practice of the "dérive" and draws from the discourses of critical geography, the food movement's research on food deserts, and participatory action…
Hypercholesterolemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated coronary and cerebrovascular diseases. Control of cholesterol levels through therapeutic drugs, notably statins, have significantly reduced the risk for developing atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases. However, adverse effects associated with therapeutic drugs warrant to find other alternative approaches for managing hypercholesterolemia, especially for those with borderline cholesterol levels. Food supplements have increasingly become attractive alternatives to prevent or treat hypercholesterolemia and reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases. This review summarized current patents on food supplements with claims of hypocholesterolemic effects. They can be mainly divided into four categories based on the active ingredients in the supplements: 1) plant sterols or stanols; 2) fiber or polysaccharides; 3) microorganism-derived; and 4) soy protein and phytoestrogens. The efficacy, mechanisms of action and potential side effects are reviewed for each of the four categories. The hypocholesterolemic effects of plant sterols, fiber, Monascus products and soy protein preparations have been consistently demonstrated in clinical trails whereas the efficacy of some probiotic bacteria and phytoestrogens-containing supplements remains to be established. Accumulative clinical data show that plant sterols, fiber, soy protein and phytoestrogen are generally considered safe and cause no obvious side effects. However, additional clinical studies are required to establish the safety profiles of certain probiotic bacteria as food supplements. PMID:20653522
The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)
... can. Then put food into the refrigerator or freezer right away. Eggs always go in the refrigerator, ... grow. So, put leftovers in the refrigerator or freezer as soon as you finish eating. Put them ...
Of the world's current population of 6.8 billion, 5 billion are living at levels of poverty that deprive them of their basic needs, and more than 1 billion are going hungry. In a world where Ã¢ÂÂsecurityÃ¢ÂÂ has lately taken on great significance, it should come as no surprise that Ã¢ÂÂfood securityÃ¢ÂÂ is firmly established in the vocabulary of policy and science. The expression has been defined and used for years, perhaps most succinctly by the United Nations' (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): Ã¢ÂÂFood security means access by all people at all times to the food needed for a healthy life." The term is also defined by its opposite, food insecurity, in which some or all of food security's Ã¢ÂÂfour pillars,Ã¢ÂÂ as described by the FAO, are missing: availability, access, utilization, and stability.
... Health, National Research Council. Safety of genetically engineered foods: Approaches to assessing unintended health effects. National Academies Press. 2004. Key S, Ma JK, Drake PM. Genetically modified plants and human health. J R Soc Med. ...
... eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is another word for "calories." Your ... adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages. Energy Balance in Real Life Think of it as ...
... food or pollen, to which it has become sensitive. This overreaction can cause symptoms from the mild (hives) to the severe (anaphylactic shock) upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual ...
Objective: Students will see that food advertisements may not be the best information to use when deciding what to eat. They will investigate several resources for good information about foods and nutrition. Allow several weeks to complete this unit. UEN Core CurriculumStandard 1 Students will develop a sense of self. Objective 1 Describe and practice responsible behaviors for health and safety. a. Practice appropriate personal hygiene (e.g., bathe, wash hands, clean clothes). b. Describe the benefits of eating a variety of nutritious foods. c. Describe the benefits of physical activity. d. Describe substances that are helpful and harmful to the body. e. Practice basic safety and identify hazards. Making Healthy Food Choices #1 Task Definition - ...
... that you touch with bare hands. People who consume the food or drinks can get norovirus and become sick. ... Overview Symptoms Transmission Treatment Preventing Norovirus ... and Outbreaks Trends and Outbreaks Figures Reporting & Surveillance ...
... to unsweetened whole grain cereal or oatmeal. Choose lean protein foods . Try to include fish twice per ... Remove the skin from chicken and turkey. Choose lean cuts of beef and pork, such as those ...
... be aware of. Bringing In: Complete Meals to Go and Home Delivered Meals When you want to ... turn? Many convenience foods, including complete meals to go, are increasingly popular. Purchased from grocery stores, deli ...
... to mention put her in some serious (and vacation-wrecking) danger. Yes, people with life-threatening food ... weekend road trips, spend a summer abroad, or vacation in the wilderness. It just takes confidence and ...
... sell or share your name. Food, Eating and Alzheimer's Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Regular, nutritious ... Encourage independence Map out a plan to approach Alzheimer's There are many questions you'll need to ...
The potential of cellulose as a source of energy and food is reviewed with consideration of raw material sources, processing methods, and economics. A tentative scheme for production of Torula yeast and ethanol from sugars produced by enzymatic hydrolysis...
Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this.
In this activity, learners dissect a piece of pizza to learn about nutrients important for health. This activity emphasizes the nutrients that the brain and nervous system need from food as well as the importance of eating breakfast and appropriate serving sizes. This activity also includes an optional demonstration related to serving sizes and the Food Pyramid. This lesson guide includes background information, extensions, and handouts.
How has biotechnology been used to improve the quality of food available today? Students are placed in groups of 2 to create an advertisement for a genetically engineered food and are then asked to present their ad. The ads are created with small poster board or paper, markers, and construction paper. Students also use the computer for lettering and clip art. If enough computers and suitable software was available, the ads could be completely done on the computer.
In this review, we examine the critical periods of immune development and how these might be modified to prevent food allergy. The relevant dietary intervention studies, roles of microorganisms and their products, and other strategies are critically analyzed. Additionally, we highlight the potential importance of different routes of allergic sensitization and the role of oral tolerance induction in the pathogenesis and prevention of food allergy. PMID:14680620
This is a list of websites for our third grade class to use in order to safely search the web and learn about the food pyramid! This website is designed so that you can search the web and research your different food group for your presentation next week. Have fun and remember to take notes so that you can remember the different facts that you learn about. This website is from the United States Department of ...
This C and E News cover story from July 2005 introduces readers to the concept of quality control in food analysis for food safety with an emphasis on the application of near-infrared (NIR) and encoded photometric infrared (EP-IR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR MS), and microchip analysis. This article would be of potential use to faculty teaching any of these topics in their classroom.
Psychobiology is a scientific discipline which encompasses the phenomena known to be important as regards nutrition and food consumption in space. Specifically, it includes those areas of biology which are clearly related to behavior, human subjective experience and problems of coping and adapting to stress. Taste and odor perception; perception (knowledge gaps); perception (needs); food preference and menu selection; and choosing of acceptable diets are discussed.
Food allergy is an important cause of life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions. Avoidance of allergenic foods is the only\\u000a method of prevention that currently is available for sensitized patients. This method of prevention is difficult and often\\u000a impossible. With better characterization of allergens and better understanding of the immunologic mechanism, investigators\\u000a have developed several therapeutic modalities that potentially are applicable to the
The purpose of this review is to establish a rational approach to the assessment of children with food allergy related to an immunologic state in which alteration of response to antigenic material has developed after repeated exposure. The author offers a practical approach to the problem of food allergy in children, dispels some of the myths surrounding the disorder, and discusses some of the popular but unproven and controversial practices relating to its management.
This project will teach students the basic food groups by linking them to the My Food Pyramid Website. Note: This lesson plan can be used in a variety of different settings. I created this lesson plan to be accessible for students with severe disabilities to complete with help from a peer tutor. Materials Needed: Print out the following sheet for students to complete while completing this lesson. My Pyramid Worksheet Also, ...
Although experimental studies have reported a wide array of other-regarding behavior, the pervasiveness of such behavior in the field is an open question. Using a stated-preference experiment, we first estimate people’s preferences, when purchasing food products, for the distribution of benefits accruing to participants in the food supply chain. Although none of the existing fairness models exhibit much predictive power,
Biogenic amines, e.g. histamine, occur in many different foods. At high concentrations, they are risk factors for food intoxication, whereas moderate levels may lead to food intolerance. Sensitive persons, with insufficient diamine oxidase activity, suffer from numerous undesirable reactions after intake of histamine containing foods. Besides spoiled foodstuffs, especially fermented foods tend to contain elevated levels of biogenic amines, although their concentrations vary extensively not only between different food varieties but also within the varieties themselves. High histamine content in foods and beverages result from microbial contamination. The evidence of enteral histaminosis represents a challenge for the food industry to produce foods with histamine levels as low as possible. We therefore investigated critical steps for histamine formation during food production processes, and established production methods that include low-histamine technology. PMID:10442480
Lack of food is rarely the reason people go hungry1. Even now, there is enough food in the world, with a bumper harvest this year, but more people cannot afford to buy the food they need. Even before the recent food price spikes, an estimated billion people were suffering from chronic hunger, while another two billion were experiencing malnutrition, bringing
Irradiation is emerging as a potential method of food preservation. It is being used to extend the shelf life of raw and processed foods in many countries worldwide. Like all other methods of food preservation, irradiation has a number of limitations. Irradiation, when used alone, can cause the development of undesirable sensory and chemical changes in some foods, depending on
There is increasing recognition that federal food safety laws and policies need to be revised. Congressional debate on proposed amendments to the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act has generated several different perspectives on how the food safety laws should be changed. Before a consensus can be reached, scientists, regulators, the food industry, and consumers will have to review such complex
In addition to the food chain clusters described by Heffernan and the transnational 'gene giants' noted by RAFI, mass-production food processors and distributors, along with mass market retailers, have also become dominant fixtures in the American food economy today. As genetic engineering and related technologies become more widely used in the produc- tion and processing of agricultural and food products,
A food revolution is emerging in America out of growing concerns about obesity and other diet-related health problems. The revolution is most visible today in the local food movement, which is a continuation of the organic food movement, which in turn has its roots in the natural food movement of the 1960s. The revolution is spreading through and beyond mainstream
The character of the food system and the nature of food policy are both changing, as urbanisation, technical change and the industrialisation of the food system transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed in developing countries. This overview presents an evaluation framework and explores new policy options. Some issues feature more prominently in richer, more urbanised, more industrialised
Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food
21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hypoallergenic foods. 105.62 Section 105.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...
... and Nutrition Information for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Food safety is ... careful about food safety while you are pregnant. Food safety advice for everyone Keep food safe to eat ...
... Food Handling / High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety / High Altitude Cooking and Food Safety ... Topics Careers Fact Sheets Food Safety Education Data Collection and Reports Food Defense and Emergency Response ...
Adverse reactions to food may be toxic or non toxic, depending on the susceptibility to a certain food; non toxic reactions that involve immune mechanisms are termed allergy if they are IgE-mediated. If no immunological mechanism is responsible, it is termed intolerance. The following disorders are considered a consequence of food allergy: gastrointestinal reactions (oral allergy syndrome, vomiting, diarrhea, protein-induced enterocolitic syndrome, eosinophilic gastroenteritis); respiratory reactions (rhinitis, asthma, laryngeal edema); cutaneous reactions (urticaria-angioedema, atopic dermatitis); anaphylaxis. There is much recent evidence to consider celiac disease an immunological disorder. Food allergy diagnosis is based on history, SPT, specific IgE, food challenges. DBPCFC is fundamental for diagnosing true food allergy; patients who have had anaphylaxis to food must not undergo DBPCFC. Rapidly progressive respiratory reactions and anaphylactic shock are life-threatening reactions that can be caused by food allergy. The doses of food inducing anaphylaxis can be very low, therefore commercial cross-contamination with an unsuspected food during food processing can be risky for the food allergic patient. The prevention of severe anaphylactic food reactions may lie in interdisciplinary collaboration among allergologists, chemists, food technologists, and experts in food industry research. PMID:11297997
Ortolani, C; Ispano, M; Scibilia, J; Pastorello, E A
Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer. PMID:16483706
...WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Foods Company proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for...supplements in food. DATES: The food additive petition was filed on June 27,...
Research has shown that the suburbanization of supermarkets has created `food deserts', defined as areas where socially disadvantaged individuals lack access to nutritious food outlets. Additionally, the growing presence of fast-food restaurants has created `food swamps', or areas where socially disadvantaged individuals encounter an overabundance of unhealthy food outlets. While previous studies have analyzed either `food deserts' or `food swamps'
This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the seasonal changes that affect life in a temperate forest ecosystem and how organisms in a temperate forest are dependent on one another for proper nutrition. Students describe the three major types of organisms that live in an ecosystem, three types of consumers, food webs, and food chains. They then create a food web diagram for display in their classrooms. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.
This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the seasonal changes that affect life in a temperate forest ecosystem and how organisms in a temperate forest are dependent on one another for proper nutrition. Students describe the three major types of organisms that live in an ecosystem, three types of consumers, food webs, and food chains. They then create a food web diagram for display in their classrooms. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.
Despite the abundance of foodstuffs in the United States, many individuals and families go hungry on a regular basis. There are a number of public and private organizations working to address this problem, and the USDA's Food & Nutrition Service is just such an organization. Their website allows persons working in this area to learn about their various nutrition assistance programs through their online newsroom, their specific program areas, and their "Spotlights" features. For a brief introduction to their current initiatives and work, interested parties should browse on over to the newsroom, where they can learn about recent grant awards, state food stamp participation rates, and disaster assistance. After that, visitors may wish to look at the multimedia materials within the "Eat Smart. Play Hard" feature designed for young people. Here they can learn about the food pyramid and how to eat balanced meals everyday.
Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise.
The proteome is the totality of proteins present in a biological sample. In contrast to the static genome, the proteome is highly dynamic, influenced by the genome and many external factors, such as the state of development, tissue type, metabolic state, and various interactions. Thus, the proteome reflects very closely the biological (and chemical) processes occurring in a system. For proteome analysis, gel based and shotgun methods are most widely applied. Because of the potential to generate a systematic view of protein composition and biological as well as chemical interactions, the application of proteome analysis in food science is steadily growing. This tutorial review introduces several fields in food science, where proteomics has been successfully applied: analysis of food composition, safety assessment of genetically modified food, the search for marker proteins for food authentication, identification of food allergens, systematic analysis of the physiological activity of food, analysis of the effects of processing on food proteins and the improvement of food quality. PMID:19690740
The Skylab manned space flight program presented unique food microbiology problems. This challenge was successfully met by careful evaluation of the total Skylab food system by considering the nature of Skylab foods, their processing and handling, and Skylab food safety requirements. Some of the unique problems encountered with the Skylab foods involved: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or charge foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of the food as an accurately controlled segment of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations generated the need for definitive microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described in this paper along with the rationale for their selection. Test results are reported which show successful compliance with the test limits. Images
Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers, E. M.; Bourland, C. T.; McQueen, J. L.
In a multi-week experiment, student teams gather biogas data from the mini-anaerobic digesters that they build to break down different types of food waste with microbes. Using plastic soda bottles for the mini-anaerobic digesters and gas measurement devices, they compare methane gas production from decomposing hot dogs, diced vs. whole. They monitor and measure the gas production, then graph and analyze the collected data. Students learn how anaerobic digestion can be used to biorecycle waste (food, poop or yard waste) into valuable resources (nutrients, biogas, energy).
In this outdoor beach activity, learners use a variety of "beaks" (such as trowels, spoons or sticks) to hunt for organisms that shore birds might eat. Each learner receives a âbeakâ and a âstomach.â After searching for food, the âbirdsâ gather to examine the contents of their stomachs. The activity closes with the learners trying to discover how real shorebirds find their food. This activity not only gets learners thinking about adaptations for survival but provides a chance to observe bird behavior.
The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698
Cancer cells are produced by the accumulation of genetic alterations in somatic cells. Those genetic alterations are produced by xenobiotics, which enter the human body from the environment, and by autobiotics, which are produced in the human body. Food contains many different types of xenobiotic mutagens/carcinogens and tumor promoters. Food can influence the formation of autobiotic mutagens/carcinogens and give rise to tumor-promoting conditions. In spite of this, it can also contain many antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and antitumor-promoting substances. Carcinogenic risk and anticarcinogenic efficacy are hard to express quantitatively; however, holistic approaches that are designed to improve lifestyle are realistic for cancer prevention.
The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei.
This fact sheet discusses market testing of irradiate food, consumer response to irradiated products has always been positive, and in some countries commercial quantities of some irradiated food items have been sold on a regular basis. Consumers have show...
The kind of food supply system that will serve the space station in coming years is considered. The direction and rate of evolution of space food service systems is also considered and what is needed to supply appropriate food to space station crews. Innovations in food sourcing, recipe development, pre-preparation, packaging, preservation, presentation, consumption and waste disposal are discussed. The development and validation of preparation systems and ingredients which minimize demands on crew time and provide maximum eating enjoyment is outlined.
A consensus has emerged on food aid policy, acknowledging the importance of short-run relief considerations, while emphasizing that such policy must be driven by a long-run, developmental perspective. This requires explicit attention to the effects of food aid on food markets. Yet it has long been clear that short- and long-run objectives of food aid may conflict. This tension stands
David Tschirley; Cynthia Donovan; Michael T. Weber
Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects,
This guide is intended for use in a consumer education course designed to teach consumers to get the most out of their dollar when shopping for and preparing food. The kit is divided into a series of sections containing activities and fact sheets that are designed to guide the consumer through a successful shopping trip. The following topics are…
Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina. Education and Communications Branch.
The lowest level of a food web includes producers, which are plants that make their own energy from the sun. Animals that eat these producers are called primary consumers, and consumers that eat other consumers are called secondary consumers. Decomposers break down dead plants and animals to release nutrients into the soil.
Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in food distribution, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…
Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of food services students, this instructional package is one of three for the hospitality and recreation occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…
For many decades, sugars have been the dietary constituents receiving the most attention in relation to their effects on dental caries. Frequently, however, there is little relationship between the amount of sugar in a food and its ability to induce caries. Therefore, it is clear that constituents in the diet can influence the ability of plaque to lower the pH
... ESOPHAGITIS Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a newly recognized chronic disease that can be associated with food allergies. It is increasingly being diagnosed in children and adults. Symptoms of EoE include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain after eating. A person may also have symptoms ...
Genetically modified foods are often in the news and widely grown in the United States. Three US government agencies (USDA, FDA, and EPA) work to regulate the introduction and production of genetically modified foods. These crops can provide agricultural, ecological and nutritional benefits, but there are also potential risks to the environment and consumers. As consumers and public interest groups around the world have become aware of these risks, there has been a call for more explicit product labeling and reliable methods for the detection of genetic modification in the foods we eat. This lab activity explores these issues by taking students through a three-part process to detect the presence of genetic modification in corn (maize) or soy food products. This lab uses PCR analysis, one of the two methods for detection of genetic modification currently approved by the European Union. For convenience, the resource is divided into five sections, all PDF files, including background, wet lab, paper lab, assessment and further reading.
Food for Thought is a spatial graphing activity that uses the participants as part of the graph. The activity helps students develop a feeling for the similarities and differences between populations. Many measures are used for comparison including population, population density, population growth rates, energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and more.
A snack food is prepared from dehulled whole corn kernels by subjecting them to an alcohol treatment prior to deep frying. The alcohol softens the kernels thereby imparting a texture thereto which is more readily acceptable than that of parched corn.
Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…
The European Union, now of 27 member states, varies widely within its boundaries. Still, there are common policies for agriculture, food and rural areas, although with many differences in relation to specific conditions in member states. Starting with the Mac Sharry reform in 1992, the EU is on a long-term path to freer and more open markets, with increased attention
A. J. Oskam; G. B. C. Backus; J. Kinsey; L. J. Frewer
The European Union, now of 27 member states, varies widely within its boundaries. Still, there are common policies for agriculture, food and rural areas, although with many differences in relation to specific conditions in member states. Starting with the Mac Sharry reform in 1992, the EU is on a long-term path to freer and more open markets, with increased attention
A. J. Oskam; J. Kinsey; L. J. Frewer; G. B. C. Backus
Novel biosensor systems were constructed for food industry. In order to determine fish freshness, a multifunctional enzyme sensor system was developed by combining a double membrane consisting of a 5'?nucleotidase membrane and a nucleoside phosphorylase?xanthine oxidase membrane with an oxygen electrode. Each nucleotide concentration was determined as the current decreased. One assay was completed within 20 min. Good comparative results
Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia.
The poor health of Scots is sometimes linked to poor diet, especially a lack of fresh fruit and vegetables. However, this lack may itself be linked to accessibility issues. In recent years, shops selling ‘healthy’ food, such as large superstores, have tended to relocate to edge-of-town locations, which are very accessible to car users but difficult for others. The term
Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085
Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.
Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.
What and how students eat can profoundly affect their ability to learn. Children require a high-protein breakfast for alertness, and a balanced diet, including complex carbohydrates throughout the day. Chronic stress causes the brain and body to deplete available nutrients. Nutrition is an important issue; better school food equals better school…
This lesson plan is designed to help students understand the interrelatedness of food webs and to see how populations of organisms affect each other. Students assume the roles of the various organisms in the ecosystem; the ones that are dependent upon each other are symbolically connected by lengths of yarn. A materials list, instructions, assessment ideas, and educational standards are provided.
Bioengineering with respect to food technology Involves unit operations such as up? and downstream units, bioreactors, the modeling of reaction kinetics, heat and mass transport, energy and mass balance, and diverse material data. Process design, plant layout, and criteria for scale?up, optimization, and control strategies are derived based upon these unit operations. For some typical processes, i. e. the isomerization
As a result of increased subsidies and an amendment to raise family income eligibility, the number of children receiving free and reduced-price meals has increased. However, over 500,000 paying students--the financial backbone of the food programs--still are not taking advantage of the National School Lunch Program in participating schools. The…
This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of…
This set of inquiry lessons is adaptable for middle school through high school life science or biology classrooms and will help meet the NSTA scientific inquiry position statement (2004) and the AAAS benchmarks (1993) and NRC standards (1996; 2000) related to health and food literacy. The standards require adolescents to examine their own diet and…
Carroll County, Maryland, has shaped a strategy to improve school nutrition by weakening or eliminating, where possible, junk food competition, making lunches more nourishing and appealing, and working nutrition instruction into other subject areas. Steps taken to accomplish these changes are described. (MF)
This study was undertaken to understand food insecurity from the perspective of households who experienced it. The results of group interviews and personal interviews with 98 low-income households from urban and rural areas in and around Québec City, Canada, elicited the meaning of “enough food” for the households and the range of manifestations of food insecurity. Two classes of manifestations
During the latter half o f t he twentieth c entury, the A merican food system wa s tr ansformed by a technological revolution in American agriculture. While these changes provided benefits such as lower-cost food, it also generated concerns that the unconditional embrace of technology would harm rural communities and the environment. Additional concerns were raised about food quality
HEATHER MCILVAINE-NEWSAD; WES TER N I L L I NOI S UNI; V ER S I TY; CHRISTOPHER D. MERRETT; WILLIAM MAAKESTAD; PATRICK MCLAUGHLIN
Preservation of foods by fermentation is a widely practiced and ancient technology. Fermentation ensures not only increased shelf life and microbiological safety of a food but also may also make some foods more digestible and in the case of cassava fermentation reduces toxicity of the substrate. Lactic acid bacteria because of their unique metabolic characteristics are involved in many fermentation
A food crisis occurs when rates of hunger and malnutrition rise sharply at local, national, or global levels. This definition distinguishes a food crisis from chronic hunger, although food crises are far more likely among populations already suffering from prolonged hunger and malnutrition. A food crisis is usually set off by a shock to either supply or demand for food and often involves a sudden spike in food prices. It is important to remember that in a market economy, food prices measure the scarcity of food, not its value in any nutritional sense. Except in rare circumstances, the straightforward way to prevent a food crisis is to have rapidly rising labor productivity through economic growth and keep food prices stable while maintaining access by the poor. The formula is easier to state than to implement, especially on a global scale, but it is good to have both the objective, reducing short-run spikes in hunger, and the deep mechanisms, pro-poor economic growth and stable food prices, clearly in mind. A coherent food policy seeks to use these mechanisms, and others, to achieve a sustained reduction in chronic hunger over the long run while preventing spikes in hunger in the short run. PMID:19923388
In response to concerns about children's eating behaviors, the Colorado Nutrition Network developed and tested Food Friends--Making New Foods Fun for Kids. The program was designed as a 12-week social marketing campaign aimed at encouraging preschool-age children to try new foods, such as Ugli Fruit, couscous, and daikon radish. Tasting novel…
Background In 2001, the British Nutrition Foundation (BNF) was contracted to evaluate projects from the Antioxidants in Food research programme, now funded by the Food Standards Agency and previously the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. The programme aimed at testing the 'antioxidant hypothesis'. Methods The evaluation was conducted with support and guidance from a Steering Group of experts. The
B. McKevith; C. Kelly; S. Stanner; J. Hughes; J. Buttriss
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a survey tool for consumer segmentation with respect to their food consumption style and to identify interesting consumer clusters for innovative food products development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data for this research were collected in a non-stratified oral survey amongst 327 customers of food retail shops in southern Germany. Findings –
Computers have transformed the design of everything from cars to coffee cups. Now the food industry faces the same revolution, with intelligent computer models being used in the design, production and marketing of food products. The combined market capitalisation of the world’s biggest food, cosmetics, tobacco, clothing and consumer electronics companies is $2 trillion, forming the world’s 500 richest companies.
To centralize food service within the entire Pittsburgh school district, a 90,000-square-foot food service preparation building contains cranes and monorails to move 500-pound capacity vats throughout the kitchen. (Author/MLF)
Rise in food prices can be partially attributed to the high food consumption level throughout Europe and North America, coupled with failure to evolve systems for more production of cattle, soybeans, and fisheries at lower cost. (PS)
The purpose of this study is to provide the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) with descriptive information about how States have elected to provide nutrition education and information to food stamp recipients and eligibles. The specific objectives of the s...
J. Anliker L. Bell C. Miller M. Harkins V. Gabor L. Bartlett
... lower right-hand corner of the player. Fast Food and Childhood Obesity HealthDay January 24, 2014 Related ... Nutrition Obesity in Children Weight Control Transcript Fast food is to blame for rising rates of childhood ...
While thousands of zooplankton species could potentially serve as food for larval stages of cultured fish and crustaceans, the aquaculturists practical choice of a reproducible live food ratio is quite limited. In practice, rotifers and brine shrimp are t...
Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change.
This Web site provides a compilation of articles that include community-level measures of the food environment, as well as some of the instruments themselves. Here, we define the food environment to include food stores, restaurants, schools, and worksites. Measurement of the food environment and its effects on dietary behavior is a relatively new, but growing, field of inquiry. This Web site will be updated on a weekly basis.
The difficulty is that as we go into the Space Station world, the cost, effort, hardware, food trash, and food waste that the food service system will generate (which is quite tolerable on a 7 day mission), probably will be intolerable on a 90 day Space Station mission. The challenge in the food service supply is not so much packaging but systems engineering. The big constraints are in the supply pipeline. Those constraints and the possible tradeoffs are discussed.
The iodine content of several kinds of foods representing different product groups available on the Swiss market was analyzed by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using the enriched long-lived nuclide 129I. Considerable variations in levels of iodine between single foodstuffs within food groups were found, which also applied for levels in different food groups. The contribution of the
Specially-prepared foodstuffs supply an astronaut with a diet containing his basic nutritional requirements in a form that is useful in his enironment. Several edible coatings preserve foods and give loose foods form and firmness. These coatings aid in packaging and give the food slip for easy removal from the package.
Research conducted so far on the process of food frying has been primarily concerned with the physical and chemical changes occurring in fats under the influence of high temperature and prolonged heating. Physicochemical changes occurring in food due to the effect of heating were also measured. From the consumer point of view nutritive, taste and aesthetic values of food are
Although only 5% of the population has severe food allergies, school business officials must be prepared for the worst-case scenario. Banning foods and segregating allergic children are harmful practices. Education and sensible behavior are the best medicine when food allergies and intolerances are involved. Resources are listed. (MLH)
Purpose: Schools are thought to represent a growing marketing opportunity for food advertisers in many countries. Marketing of unhealthy food to children is linked to the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. This paper aims to explore ways in which schools respond to commercial activity around food marketing. Design/methodology/approach: A…
Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…
Discusses problems of general interest in developmental psychology that can be successfully studied in the domain of food; these include (1) development of food likes and dislikes; (2) establishment of the edible/inedible distinction; (3) disgust and contagion; (4) transgenerational communication of preferences; and (5) transition to food…
This publication reviews the development of the Nation's food and agricultural policy as embodied in the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977. Organized as a source book, it provides a background to understanding the food and agricultural policy process and t...
This paper provides an overview of major demographic and food trends in Poland and the rapid changes in Polish food retailing. The demographic changes include the size of the population; birth, death, marriage and divorce rates; the age distribution, education and household types. Two important demographic factors that will affect food consumption are the aging population and the major gap
Health consciousness and prevention are now in the limelight of the media in Hungary. More and more consumers recognized the importance of healthy eating habits in prevention. In this paper we defined health- marketing and functional food then took a closer look at the functional food market, consumption of functional foods, product trends and the main marketing approaches. This paper
... or juice or eat foods that contain unpasteurized milk. • DON’T eat unwashed fruits and vegetables. • DON’T eat raw sprouts of any kind (including alfalfa, clover, radish, and mung bean) . Source: U.S. Food and Drug Administration; Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Content last updated March 5, ...
The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked
A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…
Toilet-paper food sculpture is an integral part of the art curriculum at Silver Creek Middle School in Sellersburg, Indiana. The author describes techniques on how to create realistic food sculptures using toilet paper, water, and tempera paint. Students of all ages and skill levels enjoy this project because everyone relates to food and a sense…
Information on selenium content of foods in different countries, particularly among Asian countries, including Thailand, is limited. In this study, the fluorometric method for selenium determination was tested for accuracy and reliability prior to applying for analysis of selenium in various Thai foods. Common food commodities, i.e., cereals, meat, poultry, seafood, fish, milk, eggs, fruits and vegetables were purchased from
Prapaisri P. Sirichakwal; Prapasri Puwastien; Jarupun Polngam; Ratchanee Kongkachuichai
A comprehensive food safety strategy involves establishing risk management goals, food safety objectives and, for production systems, performance objectives and performance criteria. The working instructions for each step of the process should be validated for their effect before integration within a specific HACCP plan. The importance of realistic inactivation models to predict the hygienic equivalence of food processing operations is
Research and development of antimicrobial materials for food applications such as packaging and other food contact surfaces is expected to grow in the next decade with the advent of new polymer materials and antimicrobials. This article reviews the different types of antimicrobial polymers developed for food contact, commercial applications, testing methods, regulations and future trends. Special emphasis will be on
This curriculum guide provides 15 blocks/credits of instruction for a food services program. The program for grades 10-12 is designed to provide students with the foundation for a successful and safety-conscious career in the field of food services. Each of the three courses--Food Services 103, 203, and 303--consists of four blocks of one credit…
Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Div. of Vocational Education.
ObjectiveTo investigate how low-income rural residents living in food deserts access the normal food system and food safety net services within their communities, and explore how social, personal, and environment drives food access and food choice.
Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China’s connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain.
The objective of this research is to assess the validity of a modified US Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) through its correlation with food supply and demographic factors, and its fitness using Rasch model analysis in rural Ecuador. This study examines the relationship between household food insecurity and household food supplies in 52 Ecuadorian households. The sample was drawn from four rural communities participating in the project PLAN in Cantón Quijos.
Chronic liver damage is a worldwide common pathology, characterised by an inflammatory and fibrotic process that leads to a progressive evolution from chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A major role for fats and oxidative stress has been recently demonstrated in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. In the clinical practice, dietary recommendations in the management of chronic diseases often rely on denying patients certain foods, which results in a severe reduction of quality of life. In this paper a new perspective based on the development of Food intended for Specific Medical Purposes (FSMP) containing highly bioavailable antioxidant compounds or polyunsaturated-fatty acids, has been highlighted as a tool for preventive and curative medicine, to be associated to pharmacological treatments. PMID:18061253
The iodine content of Finnish foods was analysed and the average daily intake of iodine estimated according to national food consumption statistics. The average calculated intake was 340 micrograms/d/person, although an extensive seasonal variation was found in the estimate for the summer season (280 micrograms) and for the winter season (400 micrograms). The intake is from 4 to 5 times greater now than it was in the mid 1950's, when endemic goitre was common in Finland. The most significant sources of iodine in the average Finnish diet are dairy products, which also cause the seasonal variation in intake. Iodized table salt and eggs are other important sources. The present level of intake can be considered adequate and the further intensification of prohylactic practices with iodine unnecessary. PMID:7085204
Quantitative determination of textural quality of frozen food due to freezing and storage conditions is complicated,since the texture is consisted of multi-dimensiona1 factors. The author reviewed the importance of texture in food quality and the factors which is proposed by a priori estimation. New classification of expression words of textural properties by subjective evaluation and an application of four elements mechanical model for analysis of physical characteristics was studied on frozen meat patties. Combination of freezing-thawing condition on the subjective properties and physiochemical characteristics of beef lean meat and hamachi fish (Yellow-tail) meat was studied. Change of the plasticity and the deformability of these samples differed by freezing-thawing rate and cooking procedure. Also optimum freezing-thawing condition was differed from specimens.
The raw materials for the synthesis of food for the crew of a spacecraft would be the major metabolic products carbon dioxide and water. Synthetic processes could develop carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. The one potential method of sugar synthesis which has received most attention makes use of the formose reaction. Various aspects of this method are discussed, giving attention also to the nutritional qualities of formose sugars. Questions regarding the utilization of glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethanol as dietary components are also examined. The possibility is considered to use the triglyceride triacetin as food. The use of free amino acids does not appear promising. Methods are described for the synthesis of formaldehyde from carbon dioxide and the synthesis of glycerol from formaldehyde.
Spices and aromatic herbs have been used since antiquity as preservatives, colorants, and flavor enhancers. Spices, which have long been the basis of traditional medicine in many countries, have also been the subject of study, particularly by the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries, because of their potential use for improving health. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated how these substances act as antioxidants, digestive stimulants, and hypolipidemics and show antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancerigenic activities. These beneficial physiological effects may also have possible preventative applications in a variety of pathologies. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the potential of spices and aromatic herbs as functional foods. PMID:21229415
Viuda-Martos, M; Ruiz-Navajas, Y; Fernández-López, J; Pérez-Alvarez, J A
The IFIC Foundation is the educational arm of the International Food Information Council (IFIC). Their mission is to communicate science-based information on food safety and nutrition to health and nutrition professionals, educators, journalists, government officials and others who will then provide this information to consumers. IFIC is supported primarily by the broad-based food, beverage and agricultural industries. The website contains resources such as fact sheets, FAQs, and more in depth resources for educators and students. Furthermore, the site contains a glossary to help everyday users figure out food-related terms as well as a newsletter to keep those in the food-related industry informed.
Food allergy affects 3.9% of US children and is increasing in prevalence. The current standard of care involves avoidance of the triggering food and treatment for accidental ingestions. While there is no current curative treatment, there are a number of therapeutic strategies under investigation. Allergen specific therapies include oral and sublingual immunotherapy with native food protein as well as recombinant food proteins. Allergen non-specific therapies include a Chinese herbal formula (FAHF-2) and the use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody therapy. Although none of these treatments are ready for clinical use, these therapeutic strategies present promising options for the future of food allergy.
McWilliams, Laurie M.; Mousallem, Talal; Burks, A. Wesley
Availability and price of healthy foods in food stores has the potential to influence purchasing patterns, dietary intake, and weight status of individuals. This study examined whether demographic factors of the store neighborhood or store size have an impact on the availability and price of healthy foods in sample of grocery stores and supermarkets.
Objective: An investigation of the discussion surrounding the relationship between food and exercise in one community of photography-based food blogs that past research has identified as exhibiting characteristics of dietary restraint. Design: Forty-five blogs written by young adult women belonging to a food-blogging community were selected for…
This study explored how factors that influence food buying practices make it harder for food secure and food insecure households to eat healthy. Twenty-five men and women participated in the concept mapping process, a mixed methods approach that allows participants to identify, sort, and rate ideas according to their perceptions. Participants identified 121 unique statements and sorted them into 12
Renee E. Walker; James Butler; Andrea Kriska; Christopher Keane; Craig S. Fryer; Jessica G. Burke
Food security is especially important for mothers with infants and young children. Poor mothers or mothers living in harsh conditions (refugee camp, war zone, economic embargo, or natural disaster) who were not encouraged to breast feed face each day the need to respond to their hungry children. Protection of optimal breast feeding practices is a top priority. There are about 50 million refugees and internally displaced people in the world. This number increases by 12% annually. Around 2 million of these people are new mothers. Urban centers in both the developed and developing countries have increasing populations of unemployed and working poor. These people cannot afford breast milk substitutes. North American food banks cannot respond to the many requests for infant formula. Lack of potable water and a dependency on unavailable infant formula and supplies partially contributed to the increase in infant mortality rates in the war zones of Iraq and Bosnia. The increased dependency of sourcing clean water, an inexpensive and inferior breast milk substitute, and fuel for preparation must not exacerbate the burden of food insecurity for new mothers. Lactating mothers need nutritional and social support so they can meet their own needs and those of their children. UN agencies, governments, and infant feeding organizations have developed guidelines to support breast feeding in emergency and relief conditions and to make sure that infant formula manufacturers do not target families in emergencies. The solution to food insecurity is to feed the mother so she can feed her child. Successful breast feeding helps the mother's self-esteem and confidence, which in turn helps her care for herself and her family. Challenges in infant feeding policies include effecting effective promotion, protection, and support of breast feeding in emergencies; reducing unnecessary risks to mothers and infants when there is a limited need for breast milk substitutes; and countering the apparent philanthropic act of breast milk substitute distribution of the infant feeding industry during emergencies. PMID:12320463
In this high school activity from the Cornell Institute for Biology Teachers (CIBT), students investigate the food preferences of garden slugs using simple equipment including margarine tubs, graph paper, scissors, and common plants, both wild and cultivated. In carrying out the complete set of experimentsÃ¢ÂÂwhich can also be adapted to grades 4Ã¢ÂÂ9Ã¢ÂÂstudents learn that one way to achieve precision and accuracy is to design experiments with many replicates.
Diane Emord (Henninger High School;); Lindsay Goodloe (Cornell University;Learning Skills Center); Mary Colvard (Cobleskill-Richmondville High School;); Dan Flerlage (Alternative Community School;); Jeff J. Doyle (Cornell University;)
The presence of a kinship link between nuclear families is the strongest predictor of interhousehold sharing in an indigenous,\\u000a predominantly Dolgan food-sharing network in northern Russia. Attributes such as the summed number of hunters in paired households\\u000a also account for much of the variation in sharing between nuclear families. Differences in the number of hunters in partner\\u000a households, as well
Food hypersensitivity (FHS) has attracted much awareness over the last three decades and the general public perceives FHS\\u000a as a major health problem. A revised nomenclature for allergy has recently been published as a position paper by the European\\u000a Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) . Generally, hypersensitivity causes objectively reproducible symptoms\\u000a or signs, initiated by exposure to a
Jellyfish have been exploited commercially by Chinese as an important food for more than a thousand years. Semi-dried jellyfish represent a multi-million dollar seafood business in Asia. Traditional processing methods involve a multi-phase processing procedure using a mixture of salt (NaCl) and alum (AlK[SO4]2c12 H2O) to reduce the water content, decrease the pH, and firm the texture. Processed jellyfish have
The University of Wisconsin Biotechnology Center provides this website to help teachers introduce their students to the principles of biotechnology. Many of the activities use food as the experimental medium, and are easy to carry out either in the classroom or at home. By choosing the Every Demo an Experiment link, a number of other applicable biotechnology outreach materials can be found, including additional resources for teachers.
Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530
Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R
A summary of support activities performed to ensure the quality and reliability of the Skylab food system design is reported. The qualification test program was conducted to verify crew compartment compatibility, and to certify compliance of the food system with nutrition, preparation, and container requirements. Preflight storage requirements and handling procedures were also determined. Information on Skylab food items was compiled including matters pertaining to serving size, preparation information, and mineral, calorie, and protein content. Accessory hardware and the engraving of food utensils were also considered, and a stowage and orientation list was constructed which takes into account menu use sequences, menu items, and hardware stowage restrictions. A food inventory system was established and food thermal storage tests were conducted. Problems and comments pertaining to specific food items carried onboard the Skylab Workshop were compiled.
The author explores consumer fast food preferences in Saudi Arabia, a developing country where U.S. fast food companies have been mushrooming since the early ?90s. Utilizing a sample of 250 fast food restaurant patrons, the study examines the attributes of fast food restaurants that are important to consumers, the pattern of fast food purchases, and the variations in fast food
Foods and beverages, which are beneficial to health, are referred to as functional foods. In Malaysia, the definition of functional food is still inconclusive. However, direct selling outlets throughout the nation is flooded with these food items since they are distributed under the food supplement category and not covered by the Food and Drug Act 1983. In trying to control
Adverse reactions to foods are a diverse group of clinical syndromes resulting from immunologic and non-immunologic responses to food ingestion. Symptoms can range from mild, self-limiting reactions to severe, life-threatening reactions depending on the mechanism. This review primarily focuses on the clinical manifestations of immunologically derived adverse food reactions or food allergies.The true prevalence of food allergy is unknown. Up to 25% of the general population believes that they may be allergic to some food; however, the actual prevalence of food allergy diagnosed by a provider appears to be 1.5% to 2% of the adult population and approximately 6% to 8% of children. This discrepancy makes it imperative that clinicians are aware of the different food allergy syndromes. With a clear understanding of the clinical manifestations of food allergies, an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan can be formulated. Failing to do so may result in unnecessary dietary restrictions that may adversely affect nutritional status, growth, and quality of life.Most food allergic reactions are secondary to a limited number of foods, and the most common foods causing allergic reactions in children include milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, and fish. In adolescents and adults, allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish are most prevalent. Food allergies can result from immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated, non-IGE-mediated, or mixed IgE/non-IgE mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical manifestations of each of these types of food allergy. PMID:23718237
Street vendors in the city of Bloemfontein were investigated in order to assess the microbiological quality of the food being sold as well as the level of hygiene conditions under which these food stalls operate. The food samples which were collected included beef, chicken and gravy, while surface samples were taken from the food preparation tables and the hands of the vendors. A structured questionnaire and checklist were used in interviews to determine the status of the vending sites and associated food handling practices. The overall microbiological quality of the foods served by the street vendors was found to be within acceptable safety limits, although the presence of specific microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and yeasts is indicative of a degree of ignorance on the part of the food handlers towards proper hygienic practices. PMID:16990173
Lues, Jan F R; Rasephei, Mpeli R; Venter, Pierre; Theron, Maria M
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sometimes help both humans and conspecifics in experimental situations in which immediate selfish benefits can be ruled out. However, in several experiments, chimpanzees have not provided food to a conspecific even when it would cost them nothing, leading to the hypothesis that prosociality in the food-provisioning context is a derived trait in humans. Here, we show that chimpanzees help conspecifics obtain both food and non-food items--given that the donor cannot get the food herself. Furthermore, we show that the key factor eliciting chimpanzees' targeted helping is the recipients' attempts to either get the food or get the attention of the potential donor. The current findings add to the accumulating body of evidence that humans and chimpanzees share the motivation and skills necessary to help others in situations in which they cannot selfishly benefit. Humans, however, show prosocial motives more readily and in a wider range of contexts. PMID:20980301
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sometimes help both humans and conspecifics in experimental situations in which immediate selfish benefits can be ruled out. However, in several experiments, chimpanzees have not provided food to a conspecific even when it would cost them nothing, leading to the hypothesis that prosociality in the food-provisioning context is a derived trait in humans. Here, we show that chimpanzees help conspecifics obtain both food and non-food items—given that the donor cannot get the food herself. Furthermore, we show that the key factor eliciting chimpanzees' targeted helping is the recipients' attempts to either get the food or get the attention of the potential donor. The current findings add to the accumulating body of evidence that humans and chimpanzees share the motivation and skills necessary to help others in situations in which they cannot selfishly benefit. Humans, however, show prosocial motives more readily and in a wider range of contexts.
An exploratory descriptive study was conducted with a qualitative approach that used focus groups. The objective of this study was to identify the risk perception of food safety by school food-handlers. The results indicated that the food production process has certain inadequacies, including the weak risk perception by the food-handlers regarding the student's health. The students, the pedagogical team, and the principal contribute to this behaviour, which can affect the quality of the final product--the served meal. The social devaluation of the food-handlers is also discussed. It is necessary to improve the food-handlers' training sessions, with the purpose of modifying risk perception and to allow the school community to be involved in healthy and safe feeding practices. PMID:24847589
Machado, Maria Grossi; Monego, Estelamaris Tronco; Campos, Maria Raquel Hidalgo
Abstract Question I have been under the impression that infants should avoid potential allergenic foods such as nuts, cow’s milk, and eggs in order to avoid developing allergic reactions. What advice should I give parents regarding the introduction of food in infancy and the development of food allergy? Answer There is no evidence that delaying the introduction of any specific food beyond 6 months of age helps to prevent allergy. A recent Canadian Paediatric Society statement recommends no delay in the introduction of food in infancy. Recent research also appears to suggest that early introduction of potentially allergenic foods (at 4 to 6 months of age) might actually provide a form of protection and help prevent allergy, but more research is needed.
Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy . A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow’s milk and hen’s egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen-specific and non-specific. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy (desensitization) with native food allergens, and mutated recombinant proteins, which have decreased IgE-binding activity, co-administered within heat-killed E.coli to generate maximum immune response. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg represent an alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for food-allergic patients. Non-specific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, which may increase the threshold dose for food allergen in food-allergic patients, and a Chinese herbal formulation, which prevented peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a mouse model, and is currently being investigated in clinical trials. The variety of strategies for treating food allergy increases the likelihood of success and gives hope that accomplishing an effective therapy for food allergy is within reach.
The harvest season is upon us, and home canning fever has begun. The following websites share resources and wisdom regarding home canning, food preservation, and accompanying safety measures. From Clemson University, the first site (1) is a Food Safety and Preservation section housed in the university's online Home and Garden Information Center. This site is stocked full of online and downloadable information sheets regarding canning, freezing, drying, pickling, food borne illnesses, and much more. The site even contains documents addressing food safety after hurricanes, tornados, fires, and power outages. The second website (2), from the University of Georgia, links to numerous food preservation publications like Canning Pumpkin Butter and Mashed or Pureed Squashes; Making Apple Cider; Preserving Food: Using Boiling Water Canners; and Preserving Food: Freezing Animal Products-just to name a few. Hosted by Michigan State University-Extension, the third site (3) contains a comprehensive, alphabetized database on freezing, canning, and drying food (that was based on the USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning). The fourth (4) site-hosted by the National Center for Home Food Preservation-contains the aforementioned USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning in downloadable units. From Penn State University, the fifth (5) site features a food preservation database, which connects site visitors to numerous links regarding safe home processing methods. The sixth site (6-) site contains a publication about home canning of fruit and fruit products. Notably, the publication provides processing times for different contents, amounts, and altitudes.
The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked food, the more easily cooking should have been adopted following the control of fire. Here we use great apes to model food preferences by Paleolithic hominids. We conducted preference tests with various plant and animal foods to determine whether great apes prefer food items raw or cooked. We found that several populations of captive apes tended to prefer their food cooked, though with important exceptions. These results suggest that Paleolithic hominids would likewise have spontaneously preferred cooked food to raw, exapting a pre-existing preference for high-quality, easily chewed foods onto these cooked items. The results, therefore, challenge the hypothesis that the control of fire preceded cooking by a significant period. PMID:18486186
\\u000a Dietary fiber has been a focus of food industry research for some time now, owing to its importance in diet and the serious\\u000a lack of fiber in commonly consumed foods. While the fortification of foods with fiber is, in theory, a simple way of increasing\\u000a fiber consumption in the population, it is complicated by major engineering challenges. The incorporation of
Madhuvanti Kale; Dhananjay Pai; Bruce Hamaker; Osvaldo Campanella
A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…
Some total diet studies are based on the selection and analysis of core foods in a national or regional food supply. One way to select core foods is by computerized evaluation of the daily food intakes reported by subjects participating in national food consumption surveys. The foods consumed by the population groups of concern may be aggregated into core food
The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.
Low inhibitory control has been associated with overeating and addictive behaviors. Inhibitory control can modulate cue-elicited craving in social or alcohol-dependent drinkers, and trait impulsivity may also play a role in food-cue reactivity. The current study investigated food-cue affected response inhibition and its relationship to food craving using a stop-signal task with pictures of food and neutral stimuli. Participants responded slower to food pictures as compared to neutral pictures. Reaction times in response to food pictures positively predicted scores on the Food Cravings Questionnaire - State (FCQ-S) after the task and particularly scores on its hunger subscale. Lower inhibitory performance in response to food pictures predicted higher FCQ-S scores and particularly those related to a desire for food and lack of control over consumption. Task performance was unrelated to current dieting or other measures of habitual eating behaviors. Results support models on interactive effects of top-down inhibitory control processes and bottom-up hedonic signals in the self-regulation of eating behavior, such that low inhibitory control specifically in response to appetitive stimuli is associated with increased craving, which may ultimately result in overeating. PMID:24411760
Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika P C; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea
The possible role of microbial species in regenerating food is considered, and three areas where microbial systems can be used in controlled ecological life support systems are discussed. Microbial species can serve as the biological portion of hybrid chemical/biological schemes for primary food products, as a means more fully to utilize waste materials from agronomical food production, and as a source of nutritional supplements to conventional plant foods. Work accomplished in each of these areas is described. The role of microgravity fermenters in this technology is addressed.
Petersen, Gene R.; Schubert, Wayne W.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.
In this presentation, we review the complexity of the different biological events which occur during life cell cycles. Indeed transgenesis is not an unknown event for cells. In the second part of this article, the complex and complete evaluation process destined to assure the food safety of GMOs, before they are released on the market, is describd. Some ansers to questions frequently asked about the GMOs are given. It is concludedthat GMOs are probably more safe than their conventional non-GM counterpart. PMID:20122394
This is a lesson where learners explore the breakdown of food into chemical components used for various purposes in the body. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson two in the Astro-Venture Biology Training Unit that was developed to increase students' awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.
Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.
Governments throughout the world are intensifying their efforts to improve food safety. These efforts come as a response to an increasing number of food-safety problems and increasing consumer concerns. In addition, the variety of toxic residues in food is continuously increasing as a consequence of industrial development, new agricultural practices, environmental pollution, and climate change. This paper reviews a selection of emerging contaminants in food, including the industrial organic pollutants perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and nanomaterials; the pharmaceutical residues antibiotics and coccidiostats; and emerging groups of marine biotoxins. The main analytical approaches for their detection and quantification in food will be presented and discussed with special emphasis on biological techniques, when these are feasible. In the last section, a summary of recent publications reporting the concentrations of these compounds in food will be presented and discussed. PMID:20680618
Potential markets for non-food crops are both large and diverse, ranging from biofuels to performance chemicals and pharmaceuticals.\\u000a If current consumer demand, high oil prices, and political support are maintained, we can expect to see significant increase\\u000a in their cultivation. There are hundreds of crops in use or under development for non-food applications around the world.\\u000a Speciality non-food crops are
Schools are commonly seen as a site of intervention to improve children's nutrition, and prevent excess weight gain. Schools may have limited influence over children's diets; however, with home and community environments also exerting an influence within schools. This study considered the environment of food outlets and outdoor food advertisements surrounding four case study primary schools in New Zealand, and the impact of that external environment on within-school food environments.
Food allergies have increased significantly in the past decade. An accurate history is crucial in approaching the management.\\u000a At the outset, food intolerance must be distinguished from food allergies and, furthermore, these allergies should be classified\\u000a into either an IgE, Non-IgE, or a mixed response. The clinical features vary from life-threatening anaphylaxis to milder IgE-mediated\\u000a responses, atopic dermatitis, and gastrointestinal
The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory.
The NASA/Mir food system was based on a plan that included 50% U.S. food and 50% Russian food. Using inputs from crew evaluations, nutritional requirements, and analytical data, menus for each Long Duration Mission (LDM) were developed by the U.S. and Russian food specialists. The cosmonaut's planned menus were identical while the astronaut's menu differed slightly, based on personal preferences. Bonus food containers of astronaut's favorite foods were provided to increase variety. Six out of 7 astronauts reported that the menu plan was seldom, if ever, followed. Five out of 7 astronauts ate most of their meals with the other crew members. In most cases, the bonus food containers were not opened until near the end of the mission. All crew members emphasized that variety was critical and that the use of Mir and Shuttle food together added a unique variety to the food system. Three of the 7 Mir astronauts lost significant weight during their stay on Mir. The length of stay varied from 116 to 188 days.
Bourland, Charles T.; Kloeris, Vickie L.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)
In light of claims that many low-income urban neighborhoods are "food deserts," this article reports on pilot research to assess whether and how small, full-service food retailers contribute to urban food security. It demonstrates that such stores meet many of the criteria for community food security by providing a wide variety of relatively low-cost foods.
The term "food desert" was formally introduced into the lexicon in 1995 and has come to describe areas with limited access to affordable nutritious foods, particularly areas in lower-income neighborhoods. The definition has led to the development of national and regional maps that focus efforts on equity in food access. Recognition of food deserts also marks a strategic change in public health's approach to obesity prevention. Today's emphasis on prevention has shifted away from individual responsibility to the role of the environment in health promotion. A number of solutions are underway to address food deserts, including public–private financing programs, industry commitments, as well as local and regional efforts to put healthy food within reach. The promise of financing programs to facilitate development of healthy food markets in underserved communities is rooted in their potential to alleviate the grocery gap and address underlying environmental contributors to obesity and diet-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. As food desert mapping and related interventions expand, there remains a need for ongoing investigation of impacts and the mechanisms by which impacts are achieved. PMID:22799475
Background: Environmental and policy influences are potentially the most powerful and yet the least understood strategies for reversing the current childhood obesity epidemic. Methods: This essay focuses on the school lunch environment and examines the key legal and policy factors that affect competitive foods or foods of minimal nutritional value…
Reinforcing value and habituation are two processes that have been used to study eating behaviors, but no research has examined their relationship, how they relate to energy intake, and whether they respond in a similar manner to food deprivation. Twenty-two female subjects were randomized to food deprived or non-deprived conditions, and assessed…
OBJECTIVES: A medical food is formulated to be consumed or administered enterally under the supervision of a physician, and is intended for the specific dietary management of a disease or condition for which distinctive nutritional requirements are established by medical evaluation. In the US, medical foods are a special product category regulated by the FDA. In Europe, a similar category
This review identifies and explores the current issues around different types of novel foods and allergy concerns. An important issue relates to the observation that risk estimates associated with novel foods may differ depending on whether more emphasis is placed by the individual on the results of technical risk assessment or on an individual's perceptions of risk associated with different
Margreet C. van Putten; Lynn J. Frewer; Luud J. W. J Gilissen; Bart Gremmen; Ad A. C. M. Peijnenburg; Harry J. Wichers
The expansion of thinking from treating disease to increased concern with disease prevention and health maintenance is reflected in the growing market for natural foods and dietary supplements. These new products make the already complex task of food shopping even more confusing. Inexperienced consumers will require help to evaluate these new choices, creating challenges for health care providers and the
The startle response has been shown to be useful in studying reactivity to food cues. Following 6h of food deprivation and exposure to neutral and food cues, we examined the role of state craving combined with both a short and long delay of consumption on affect and startle reflex. Participants completed the PANAS, consumed a controlled early morning meal, and experienced 6h of food deprivation. They then reported back to the laboratory, completed a second baseline PANAS, and had their baseline eyeblink EMG startle responses to 100 dB(A) startle probe assessed. Prior to and following the presentation of cues, startle probes were presented and responses were recorded. The PANAS and state craving were also assessed after each cue. Food cues provoked higher levels of state craving than neutral cues and startle responses failed to habituate as quickly to food cues as they did to neutral cues. In addition, cue exposure created the highest NA among high state cravers in the long delay of consumption group. Startle responses differed from NA in that with long delay startle was high irrespective of state craving scores; in the short delay of consumption condition, startle increased linearly with state craving. These results illustrate that state craving and expectations of food availability are important variables in understanding food-related cue reactivity.
Rejeski, W. Jack; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Miller, Gary D.; Lobe, Morgan; Davis, Caroline; Brown, Lauren
The seminar deals with the general food additives used in our foods today. Their toxicological review is also discussed. Visuals are a part of the lecture and can be duplicated as necessary. The packet contains written texts of lectures, lesson plans, wor...
A broad range of fluorochemicals is used to impart oil and water barrier properties to paper and paperboard food packaging. Many of the fluorochemicals are applied to paper and paperboard as complex mixtures containing reaction products and by-products and unreacted starting materials. This work primarily focussed on the determination of seven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in two commercially available food contact papers: a di-perfluoro-alkyloxy-amino-acid and a perfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactant. In addition, the migration of the PFCAs into five food simulants from two commercial packages was evaluated. All seven PFCAs were detected in the range of 700-2220 µg kg?¹ of paper, while three perfluoroalkyl sulphonates were under the LOD. Results from migration tests showed that migration depends on paper characteristics, time and food simulant. The percentage of migration after 10 days at 40°C ranged from 4.8% to 100% for the two papers and different food simulants. PMID:23701306
Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA) Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets). The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%). Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets) followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets). Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets), salads (n- = 50 outlets), fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets), seafood (n = 27 outlets), meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets). The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28%) offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77%) as were carbonated drinks (n = 88%) and flavoured milks (n = 46%). Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of access to quality, healthy foods at reasonable cost (food security) on public health, particularly in lower socio-economic areas.
Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies.
Background The present study examined income-related household food purchases among a sample of 90 households from the community. Methods Annotated food purchase receipts were collected for a four-week period by the primary household shopper. Receipt food source and foods items were classified into specific categories, and food quantities in ounces were recorded by research staff. For home sources, a limited number of food/beverage categories were recorded. For eating out sources, all food/beverage items were recorded. Median monthly per person dollars spent and per person ounces purchased were computed. Food sources and food categories were examined by household income tertile. Subjects and Setting A community-based sample of 90 households. Results Higher income households spent significantly more dollars per person per month from both home and eating out sources compared with lower income households ($163 versus $100, p < .001). Compared with lower income households, higher income households spent significantly more home source dollars on both fruits/vegetables (21.5 versus 10.2, p < .001) and sweets/snacks (17.3 versus 8.3, p < .001), but did not differ on home dollars spent on sugar sweetened beverages (2.0 versus 1.7, p < .46). The proportion of home beverages that were sugar sweetened beverages was significantly higher among lower income households (45% versus 26%, p < .01). Within eating out sources, lower income households spent a significantly greater percent of dollars per person at carry out places (54% versus 37%, p < .01). No income differences were observed for dollars spent at discount grocery stores, small grocery stores or convenience stores. Conclusions Higher income households spent more money on both healthy and less healthy foods from a wide range of sources. Lower income households spent a larger proportion of their eating out dollars at carry out places, and a larger proportion of their home beverage purchases were sugar sweetened beverages.
Going to School With Food Allergies KidsHealth > Parents > Food Allergies > Living With Food Allergies > Going to School With Food Allergies Print ... class pets and their food. Continue Back-to-School Time Along with the pencils and backpacks, you' ...
Infant foods have a special place among food products mainly because of nutritional aspects and preparations methods. A great increase of baby foods incomes is predicted in near future. Formulation, handling, and storage of baby foods are important to keep nutritional quality and physicochemical properties of these foods. During storage some reactions and interactions occur which change physicochemical and nutritional
LEARNING OUTCOME: To examine nutrient composition of a random sample of emergency food bagsContinued expansion of private food assistance has sensitized dietitians to the need to understand what foods and nutrients are being offered. Fifty-seven food assistance sites with provision of emergency food as a primary objective were sorted into strata using the number of clients served as the indicator
This two-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for apprentice food service specialists. Covered in the first volume are fundamentals of food preparation and service (careers in food service, food service sanitation, principles of food preparation and service, and baking…
Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.
This guide is intended as a resource document for the beginner in food services and food purchasing. The publication is divided topically by (1) purchasing procedures, (2) specifications and evaluation, (3) sources for purchasing food products, (4) storage of food products and inventory procedures, (5) type of food service management, and (6)…
Kansas Association of School Business Officials, Haysville.
China has realized food security at the national level, but there are still some areas and populations vulnerable to food insecurity due to disparities between urban and rural areas, and among regions. The concept of food security in this paper covers grains, and also foods rarely covered in a general research on food security in China. It reviews and evaluates
Really good food can be served in any school, and this step-by-step guide contains the basics of understanding and reforming food service: detailed explanations of how food services are run; guidelines for rating the food service; the wholesome, good-tasting foods students really like to eat yet are affordable and manageable. Included are plans…
Food events, such as food festivals, agricultural shows and village fetes take place throughout the UK, usually in outdoor locations. Consumers’ overall satisfaction with the food purchased at such events is high and they have few or no concerns about the food safety on sale. A wide variety of foods, including some high-risk products are offered for sale to the
The array of ethical issues facing the food industry is extensive. It includes fair and just treatment to food industry employees, especially as disproportionate numbers of minorities take jobs in food processing and food service. Issues of food distribution and hunger continue to be important. In the calendar year 1992, however, these issues pale in comparison to those raised by
...Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Focus on Inspections...public meeting entitled ``FDA Food Safety Modernization Act: Focus on Inspections...under the recently enacted FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA)....
...FDA-2011-N-0146] Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign...implementing the modern, prevention- oriented food safety practices called for by the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) and achieving...
...FDA-2011-N-0146] Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act: Proposed Rules on Foreign...implementing the modern, prevention- oriented food safety practices called for by the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) and achieving...
\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Describe the factors involved in oral drug absorption and the influences of meal-related variables on those factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discuss the role that the BCS or BDDCS may play in allowing prediction of meal effects on oral drug bioavailability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Describe practical issues in determining the influence of food on oral drug bioavailability within the current regulatory\\u000a framework.
David Fleisher; Burgunda V. Sweet; Ameeta Parekh; Joseph I. Boullata
...2013-01-01 false Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns...DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD CONCERNS...INSTITUTIONS Â§ 278.6 Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food...
...2014-01-01 false Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns...DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD CONCERNS...INSTITUTIONS Â§ 278.6 Disqualification of retail food stores and wholesale food...
This booklet on food buying power, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook offers information on developing a shopping list, deciding where to shop, selecting the best buys, and reading food labels. Section 1 on…
This paper details the reform of food hygiene legislation in Australia as an example of how Australian governments redefined their roles and responsibilities in assessing Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) like systems. The paper describes the process of reform, the current hygiene legislation and the cultural change that the reforms promoted. The shift from inspection of food business
Foods make up some of the most complex examples of soft condensed matter (SCM) with which we interact daily. Their complexity arises from several factors: the intricacy of components, the different aggregation states in which foods are encountered, and the multitude of relevant characteristic time and length scales. Because foodstuffs are governed by the rules of SCM physics but with
Raffaele Mezzenga; Peter Schurtenberger; Adam Burbidge; Martin Michel
Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)
Four units are included in this curriculum guide for a semester elective credit course in gourmet foods for high school juniors and seniors: (1) Introudction to the Course, and the Development of "A Gourmet," intended to facilitate defining and participating in planning the course program and goals, (2) "Basic Food Preparation for Gourmets,"…
The highest rates of obesity in the United States occur among population groups with the highest poverty rates and the least education. The impact of socioeconomic variables on obesity may be mediated, in part, by the low cost of energy-dense foods. The observed inverse relationship between energy density of foods, defined as available energy per unit weight (kilocalories per gram
This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…
Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,…
Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person.
This paper focuses on the U.S. product liability system for food poisoning cases and makes six key points. First, current legal incentives to produce safer food are weak, though slightly stronger in outbreak situations and in markets where foodborne illness can be more easily traced to individual firms. Far less than 0.01% of cases are litigated and even fewer are
Unlike other chromatographic methods such as gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography which were routinely used in almost all food labs, capillary electrophoresis is relatively a novice in food science, the detection limits and low process sample volume is the Achilles’ heel of this technique. Nevertheless, with ease of its high resolving power, rapid method development, easy sample preparation
Staphylococcal food poisoning and botulism are caused by the ingestion of food containing exotoxins. Outbreaks of both are still a problem in many countries. This paper attempts to summarize information relating to these illnesses, together with advice on how their incidence may be reduced, or better still prevented.
Although nutrition experts might be able to navigate the menus of fast-food restaurant chains, and based on the nutritional information, compose apparently 'healthy' meals, there are still many reasons why frequent fast-food consumption at most chains is unhealthy and contributes to weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Fast food generally has a high-energy density, which, together with large portion sizes, induces over consumption of calories. In addition, we have found it to be a myth that the typical fast-food meal is the same worldwide. Chemical analyses of 74 samples of fast-food menus consisting of French fries and fried chicken (nuggets/hot wings) bought in McDonalds and KFC outlets in 35 countries in 2005-2006 showed that the total fat content of the same menu varies from 41 to 65 g at McDonalds and from 42 to 74 g at KFC. In addition, fast food from major chains in most countries still contains unacceptably high levels of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). IP-TFA have powerful biological effects and may contribute to increased weight gain, abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. The food quality and portion size need to be improved before it is safe to eat frequently at most fast-food chains. PMID:17452996
Destruction and pollution of soil and ground water resources is probably the most important ecological problem facing the next generation. Checkable standards which certify healthy food products are required by the regulation on organic farming of the EU and should also be applied for conventional food production. Ecological food contains at least 95% of ingredients from an organic farming environment, without interference from pesticides, herbicides, fungicides or other chemicals and it is totally different from dietary, functional, enriched, fortified, probiotic food. Ecological food is tastier and contains more essential amino-acids, vitamin C, and micro-nutriments than usual food. Two major effects generated by choosing ecological food are the environmental protection and human' health improvement. Buying an ecological product represents the effect of a certain attitude. Children's nutrition starts with the most genuine ecological product: breast milk. Every parent should give to his child healthy and tasty food, for proper development. Decreasing artificial chemicals in the diet and the environment represents the first step to a healthier life. PMID:16610189
Lipid oxidation is a major cause of quality deterioration in food emulsions. The design of foods with improved quality depends on a better understanding of the physicochemical mechanisms of lipid oxidation in these systems. The oxidation of emulsified lipids differs from that of bulk lipids, because of the presence of the droplet membrane, the interactions between the ingredients, and the
An 800-mile canoe trip down a Canadian river provided the testing ground for the tenets of this trail food book. On the seven week expedition two pounds of food per person per day at a daily cost of $1.70 were carried. The only perishables were cheese, margarine, and onions. Recipes and menu ideas from that expedition are provided along with…
Background: Valid and reliable measures are required to assess any effect of the food environment on individual dietary behavior, and form the foundation of research that may inform obesity-related policy. Although many methods of measuring the food environment exist, this area of research is still relatively new and there has been no systematic attempt to gather these measures, to compare
Robin A. McKinnon; Jill Reedy; Meredith A. Morrissette; Leslie A. Lytle; Amy L. Yaroch
Surveyed undergraduate college students (N=212) near completion of an introductory nutrition course to identify their patterns of food usage, changes in food habits, and previous nutrition background. Found one-half increased use of milk/milk products and one-half decreased fat and sugar. Cluster analysis indicated students could not be…
Factors affecting the membrane filtration of food suspensions were studied for 58 foods and 13 membrane filters. Lot number within a brand, pore size (0.45 or 0.8 micrometer), and time elapsed before filtration had little effect on filterability. Brand of membrane filter, flow direction, pressure differential, age (microbiological quality) of the food, duration of the blending process, temperature, and concentration of food in the suspension had significant and often predictable effects. Preparation of suspensions by Stomacher (relative to rotary blender) addition of surfactant (particularly at elevated temperature) and prior incubation with proteases sometimes had dramatic effects of filterability. In contrast to popular opinion, foods can be membrane filtered in quantities pertinent to the maximums used in conventional plating procedures. Removal of growth inhibitors and food debris is possible by using membrane filters. Lowering of the limits of detection of microorganisms by concentration on membrane filters can be considered feasible for many foods. The data are particularly relevant to the use of hydrophobic grid-membrane filters (which are capable of enumerating up to 9 X 10(4) organisms per filter) in instrumented methods of food microbiological analysis. Images
The ideal school cafeteria includes a salad bar and serving tables with healthy food items. Certain cafeteria pitfalls, such as a noisy or stuffy atmosphere, can be avoided by good administration. Specific guidelines on campaigning for better school food consist of building a community coalition that holds public meetings, learning about the…
Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, DC.
While thousands of zooplankton species could potentially serve as food for larval stages of cultured fish and crustaceans, the aquaculturists practical choice of a reproducible live food ratio is quite limited. In practice, rotifers and brine shrimp are the most commonly used zoo...
Trihalomethanes (THMs, namely, CHCl(3), CHCl(2)Br, CHClBr(2) and CHBr(3)) are disinfection by-products that are present in drinking water. These toxic chemicals are also present in meat, dairy products, vegetables, baked goods, beverages and other foods, although information regarding their concentrations and origin is very limited. This study investigates sorption of THMs occurring during rinsing and cooking of foods and the significance of food as an exposure source. Initial estimates of THM uptake were measured in experiments representing rinsing with tap water at 25 C using nine types of food, and for cooking in tap water at 90 C for fourteen other foods. A subset of foods was then selected for further study over a range of THM concentrations (23.7-118.7 microg/l), temperatures (25 C and 90 C), food concentrations (0.2-1.4, food weight: water weight), and contact times (5-240 min). Data were analyzed using regression and exponential models, and diffusion models were used to help explain the trends of THM uptake. Among vegetables, sorbed THM concentrations at 25 C were 213 to 774 ng/g for CHCl(3), 53 to 609 ng/g for CHCl(2)Br, and 150-845 ng/g for CHClBr(2). Meats at 90 C tended to have higher concentrations, e.g., 870-2634 ng/g for CHCl(3). Sorbed concentrations increased with contact time and THM concentration, and decreased with food concentration in rinsing tests (using spinach, iceberg-head lettuce and cauliflower) and cooking tests (using tomato, potato, beef and miso-tofu soup). For most foods, THM uptake was diffusion limited and several hours were needed to approach steady-state levels. Swelling, hydrolysis and other physical and chemical changes in the food can significantly affect sorption. Screening level estimates for CHCl(3) exposures, based on experimental results and typical food consumption patterns, show that uptake via foods can dominate that due to direct tap water consumption, suggesting the importance of sorption and the need for further evaluation of THM intake due to foods. PMID:20598747
1. The total food and drink available for human consumption in the United Kingdom would provide approximately 13 MJ (3100 kcal)/person per d, while the energy intake recommended for the population is approximately 9.6 MJ (2300 kcal)/person per d. A proportion of this substantial difference must be due to wastage in the home as well as in catering establishments and during the storage, distribution and processing of food. 2. As part of a general investigation of this problem, a representative sample of 100 British households was asked to collect all the potentially-edible food wasted in their homes during 1 week, and to keep a record of the food, other than commercial pet food, which they gave to pets and wild birds. A total of 672 households co-operated fully, 338 in summer and 334 in winter. Each food sample received was weighed, and its energy content was determined calorimetrically. 3. Significantly more waste food was collected in summer than in winter, equivalent to 9.3 MJ (2220 kcal)/household per week and 7.1 MJ (1700 kcal)/household per week respectively. In terms of energy, cereals, fat and meat wastage predominated, while in terms of weight, milk was more important and fat less so. 4. Considerable quantities of otherwise edible food were also given to pets and birds, accounting on average for a further 2.4 MJ (570 kcal) and 3.0 MJ (710 kcal)/household per week in summer and winter respectively. The energy content of all food wasted in the home therefore averaged 11.7 MJ (2790 kcal)/household per week in summer and 10.1 MJ (2410 kcal)/households per week in winter, equivalent to 0.6 MJ (150 kcal) and 0.5 MJ (130 kcal)/person per d respectively. This is less than one-quarter of the gap between food supplies and the amount of food thought to be eaten in the UK. 5. Food wastage was significantly influenced by the composition of the family, with adults wasting more in absolute terms than children, and larger households wasting less per person than smaller households. However, with few exceptions, neither income nor geographical region significantly affected the total amount of food wasted in the home. 6. When assessed against the expected usage of food in the home, wastage accounted on average for 6.5% of the energy intake in summer and 5.4% in winter. PMID:7370218
Review of some of the unique food microbiology problems and problem-generating circumstances the Skylab manned space flight program involves. The situations these problems arise from include: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or change foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of food as an accurately controlled part in a set of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations produced the need for definite microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described along with the rationale for their selection. Reported test results show good compliance with the test limits.
Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Mcqueen, J. L.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers , E. M.; Bourland, C. T.
Food issues often appear in the news and other media. For example, the media regularly address food safety concerns--from Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) or "Mad Cow Disease" to Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli) outbreaks. Obesity is another major concern in the United States, and childhood obesity is a growing concern. Eating disorders are prevalent among teenagers, and healthy dietary habits seem ever more difficult in this age of fast-food restaurants and take-out. It is not surprising that teachers have found the science of food to be a rich and interesting topic. In this month's column, the field editor discusses these relevant issues and shares a favorite food-related activity.
A problem that is often overlooked or simply not given enough attention: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results), whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient’s room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection. In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards: Maintenance of the cold-hot chain Not only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitors Cleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktops Cleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food distribution for ward kitchens too.
Food allergies are classified into three types, "IgE-mediated," "combined IgE- and cell-mediated" and "cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated," depending on the involvement of IgE in their pathogenesis. Patients who develop predominantly cutaneous and/or respiratory symptoms belong to the IgE-mediated food allergy type. On the other hand, patients with gastrointestinal food allergy (GI allergy) usually develop gastrointestinal symptoms several hours after ingestion of offending foods; they belong to the cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated or combined IgE- and cell-mediated food allergy types. GI allergies are also classified into a number of different clinical entities: food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP), food protein-induced enteropathy (Enteropathy) and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID). In the case of IgE-mediated food allergy, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms are well characterized. In contrast, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy remain mostly unclear. In this review, we summarized each type of GI allergy in regard to its historical background and updated clinical features, offending foods, etiology, diagnosis, examinations, treatment and pathogenesis. There are still many problems, especially in regard to the diagnostic approaches for GI allergy, that are closely associated with the definition of each disease. In addition, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy that need further study and elucidation. Therefore, we discussed some of the diagnostic and research issues for GI allergy that need further investigation. PMID:23974876
"The purpose of the Institute for Food and Development Policy - Food First - is to eliminate the injustices that cause hunger." This is the Food First's mission statement, and to find out exactly what Food First is doing to surmount the problem of hunger, visitors should take a look at "Programs" found on the menu on the left side of the page. They have a three-pronged approach composed of the following programs: "Building Local Agri-Foods Systems", "Democratizing Developments: Land, Resources and Markets", and "Forging Food Sovereignty with Farmers". The issues that Food First is tackling with their three-pronged approach are also on the left side of the page under the heading "Issues", and include "Challenging Industrial Agriculture and the Green Revolution", "Globalization, Trade and International Financial Institutions", and "Social Movements". Each of the issues is explained by articles from various sources, as well as reports, documentaries, and radio interviews. Visitors shouldn't miss checking out the "Publications" section, a link to which can be found at the top of the page. "Books", "Development Reports", "Fact Sheets", and "Policy Briefs" are just some of the types of publications that can be perused.
Background Past research has shown that promotional messages such as food advertising influence food consumption. However, what has gone largely unexplored is the effect of exercise advertising on food intake. This study experimentally tested the effects of exposure to exercise commercials on food intake at a lunch meal as compared to the effects of control commercials. Methods Prior to eating lunch, 125 participants (71 women, 54 men) watched 8 commercials, either all related to exercise or fitness (n = 67) or neutral products (i.e. car insurance) (n = 58). The meal consisted of a pasta dish with tomato sauce, salad and chocolate pudding. The post-lunch questionnaire included questions about body mass index, exercise habits, motivation and dietary restraint. Results Participants exposed to exercise commercials reduced their caloric intake by 21.7% relative to the control condition. Additionally, watching exercise messages increased the perceived healthiness and liking of the meal. Although exercise habits and intentions did not moderate the effect of commercial condition on food intake, we also found that this intake reduction was driven by participants with higher body mass index levels. Conclusions These results imply that exercise messages may serve as a reminder of the link between food and physical activity and affect food consumption. It also highlights the need for increased awareness that these messages have powerful influences not only on exercise behavior, but also on closely related behaviors such as eating.
Food preferences are influenced by a number of factors such as personal experiences, cultural adaptations and perceived health benefits. Taste, however, is the most important determinant of how much a food is liked or disliked. Based on the response to bitter-tasting compounds such as phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) or 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), individuals can be classified as supertasters, tasters or nontasters. Sensitivity to bitter-tasting compounds is a genetic trait that has been recognized for more than 70 years. Genetic differences in bitter taste perception may account for individual differences in food preferences. Other factors such as age, sex and ethnicity may also modify the response to bitter-tasting compounds. There are several members of the TAS2R receptor gene family that encode taste receptors on the tongue, and genetic polymorphisms of TAS2R38 have been associated with marked differences in the perception of PTC and PROP. However, the association between TAS2R38 genotypes and aversion to bitter-tasting foods is not clear. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in other taste receptor genes have recently been identified, but their role in bitter taste perception is not known. Establishing a genetic basis for food likes/dislikes may explain, in part, some of the inconsistencies among epidemiologic studies relating diet to risk of chronic diseases. Identifying populations with preferences for particular flavors or foods may lead to the development of novel food products targeted to specific genotypes or ethnic populations. PMID:17684414
El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Stewart, Lindsay; Khataan, Nora; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; Kwong, Pauline; Ozsungur, Stephen; Cornelis, Marilyn C
The preservation of foods by treatment with ionizing radiation can significantly increase the world's food resources by reducing spoilage and waste. However, irradiation can bring about chemical transformations in food and food components resulting in the formation of potential mutagens, particularly hydrogen peroxide and various organic peroxides. In order to evaluate the safety of irradiated foods for general consumption by the public, and, indeed, the safety of all foods subjected to environmental factors such as food additives, pesticides, drugs, air and water pollutants, etc., it is necessary to supplement the usual feeding tests with procedures designed to detect all classes of genetic damage. This article includes a comprehensive critical review of (1) the experimental evidence relating to the presence of mutagenic and cytotoxic agents in irradiated media, as detected by their effects on mammalian and non-mammalian cells; (2) the chemical changes produced in irradiated media, especially those which produce known mutagenic substances; and (3) new and convenient in vivo methods for the detection and evaluation of genetic damage in mammals.
The New Jersey Medical School-University Hospital Cancer Center Clinical Research Program is one of 16 NCI-designated Minority Community Clinical Oncology Programs (MB-CCOP) in the United States and its territories. Our center was awarded this status in 2009 to recognize our efforts to enroll our patients onto NCI-approved Cooperative Group trials and to encourage and support our effort to make available these trials to our patients.
Considerable attention has been given recently to how children educate each other and how to maximize the cognitive benefits of peer learning. Based on papers presented at a 1996 symposium on Cognitive Skills and Learning with Peers, this book focuses on peer learning. Part 1 presents implications of Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories. Part 2…
This article describes a ratio of recommended to restricted food components (RRR) designed to provide consumers with a summary of food label information to guide healthful, single-item food selections. As a ratio, RRR is interpreted such that better foods score over 1.0. The potential usefulness of the ratio is illustrated comparing foods within categories of the Food Guide Pyramid (eg,
Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…
Increasingly, studies are focusing on the role the local food environment plays in residents’ ability to purchase affordable, healthy and nutritious foods. In a food desert, an area devoid of a supermarket, access to healthy food is limited. We conducted a systematic review of studies that focused on food access and food desert research in the United States. The 31
Renee E. Walker; Christopher R. Keane; Jessica G. Burke
The current increase in the prevalence of food allergies appears to have several causes including better screening, improved diagnosis and changes in both the techniques used by food manufacturers and eating habits. Labial food challenge (LFC)is simple, rapid to perform and is associated with only low risks of systemic reaction. It is thus an appealing alternative to the oral food challenge (OFC) for pediatric use. We report a series of 202 LFC performed over two years in 142 children with food allergy suspected from the case history, positive skin prick tests and specific serum IgE assays: 156 LFC were positive; and 46 negative, followed by positive single-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (SBPCFC). The foods provoking reactions were egg white (75 cases), peanut (60 cases), mustard (23 cases), cow's milk (13 cases), cod (8 cases), kiwi fruit, shrimp (4 cases each), chicken, peanut oil (3 cases each), hazel nuts (2 cases), and snails, apple, fennel, garlic, chilli peppers, pepper, and duck (1 case each). LFC positivity was mostly (89.7% of cases) manifested as a labial edema with contiguous urticaria. There were systemic reactions in 4.5% of cases: generalized urticaria, hoarseness and rapid-onset and generalized eczema. The 46 infants with negative LFC results had positive SBPCFC. The reactions were in 34 cases generalized urticaria, 10 cases asthma attacks, 2 cases early and generalized eczema, and in one case general anaphylactic shock. The sensitivity of the LFC was 77%. The LFC was easy to perform with children. Positive results indicate the presence of food allergy, but negative results require further investigations preferably double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). PMID:9260218
Changes in food marketing have been pervasive since World War II. The makeup of the population, lifestyles, incomes, and attitudes on food safety, health, and convenience have drastically changed. These changes mean that farmers and marketers of food prod...
... and other foods. Sulfites also develop naturally in wine during fermentation. Reactions to specific foods — Many people ... and diarrhea after eating mushrooms or drinking certain wines. These foods contain sulfites, which may be the ...
For the exact understanding on food irradiation in Japan, it is important to provide information of food irradiation to consumers, industries and government offices. However, many of information on food irradiation are only restricted in a few experts or ...
Considers ways to include schools' food service departments in technology planning. Discusses school food service software applications, considerations and challenges of automating food service operations, and business-to-business Internet solutions. (EV)
Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)
Title : Waste Food Storage at Fortress Rocks Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : December ... waste food generated at McMurdo Station. Some of the difficulties of disposing of waste food through ...
Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.
The guide, developed by FEA and food industry representatives, offers energy-saving suggestions for all types of food service operations: schools and hospitals, fast food operators, coffee shops, restaurants, cafeterias, hotels, and motels. Energy conserv...
Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a…
Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B.; Henry, Elizabeth G.; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A.
The growth of China's middle class is driving an expansion of interest in ‘green’ and sustainable food, food that is perceived to be healthy, safe and environmentally friendly. Self-consciously ‘sustainable’ agriculture is a new phenomenon in China, but it has emerged from, and builds upon, an agrarian history that is markedly different from that of the West. In this paper,
Yan Shi; Cunwang Cheng; Peng Lei; Tiejun Wen; Caroline Merrifield
Growing concern about food safety has spurred a number of international organizations to action, and the World Health Organization (WHO) is one group that has been concerned with this issue for the past few years. The WHO has worked closely with a number of like-minded organizations (such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) to address food safety issues Ã¢ÂÂalong the entire food production chain-from production to consumptionÃ¢ÂÂ. To help disseminate some of their findings, they have created this site that provides information on microbiological risks, food borne diseases, and consumer education. The homepage provides access to a number of recent publications and presentations, along with information about upcoming meetings and research studies. Those working in the fields of public health and food safety education will definitely want to take a look at their fact sheets, which include the publication Ã¢ÂÂFive keys to safer foodÃ¢ÂÂ, which is available in a number of different languages.
Development, delivery, and use of food systems in support of the Apollo 7 to 14 missions are discussed. Changes in design criteria for this unique program as mission requirements varied are traced from the baseline system that was established before the completion of the Gemini Program. Problems and progress in subsystem management, material selection, food packaging, development of new food items, menu design, and food-consumption methods under zero-gravity conditions are described. The effectiveness of various approaches in meeting food system objectives of providing flight crews with safe, nutritious, easy to prepare, and highly acceptable foods is considered. Nutritional quality and adequacy in maintaining crew health are discussed in relation to the establishment of nutritional criteria for future missions. Technological advances that have resulted from the design of separate food systems for the command module, the lunar module, The Mobile Quarantine Facility, and the Lunar Receiving Laboratory are presented for application to future manned spacecraft and to unique populations in earthbound situations.
Smith, M. C., Jr.; Rapp, R. M.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.
The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations website provides the data, research, publications, and projects that they have compiled, undertaken, published, and funded with the aims of making food production safer for consumers, workers, and the community. The website can be viewed in English, Spanish, and French, and the "Publications" can also be viewed in those three languages. The multitude of papers, books, documents, studies, etc. available from the Food Quality and Standards Services (AGNS) can be accessed using the "Publications" tab near the top of the page. Visitors can browse the 220 documents by title, date, or series number, or they can do a specific search by clicking on "New Search", on the right side of the page. A specific search can be done by country, language, year, title, or author. The "Biotechnology (GM food)" section on the left hand of the homepage will be of particular interest to those visitors concerned about the "Detection of GM food", "Safety Assessment of GM food", and the "Labelling of GM food".
Food discard patterns and reasons were determined for a sample of 243 households in Oregon. Personal interviews were conducted, and 7-day records of discards were collected. Discards over a 3-day period also were collected from a subsample of 50. The householder's estimate of amount, converted from measures to grams using food composition tables, was found to be 97% of the actual grams of food, as weighed in the laboratory. Households discarded an average of 1,587 gm ($2.88) food in a 7-day period on the basis of the 79% completed usable records. Major reasons were poor quality for fruits and vegetables; storage time for meat, fish, and poultry; non-use of leftovers for combination dishes; and plate waste for cereals and dairy products. Twenty-nine percent of the discarded food (by cost) was considered to be unsafe to eat by the householder. Aesthetic factors dominated decisions by the 18- to 25-year age group, but experiences related to food storage were the basis for decisions by half of the respondents more than 65 years old. Discards increased with number of members in the household and were influenced by age of children. Household income was not linearly related to amount of discard. As household refrigerator temperatures increased from 1.7 degrees C to 20 degrees C, the amount of discards also increased. Consumers generally lacked criteria for evaluating the safety of foods. PMID:3819252
Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in IgE sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors such as dietary factors and microbiota in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy.
The goal of the Functional Food Science in Europe (FUFOSE) concerted action was to reach consensus on scientific concepts of functional foods in Europe by using the science base that supports evidence that specific nutrients positively affect physiological functions. The outcome proposes "a working definition" of functional foods: foods can be regarded as functional if they can be satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way relevant to an improved state of health and well-being and/or reduction of risk of disease. Functional foods must remain foods and they must achieve their effects in amounts normally consumed in a diet. Evidence from human studies, based on markers relating to biological response or on intermediate endpoint markers of disease, could provide a sound scientific basis for messages and claims about the functional food products. Two types of claims are proposed that relate directly to these two categories of markers: Enhanced function claims (type A) and reduced risk of disease claims (type B). A new EU Concerted Action will start with, and build upon, the principles defined within FUFOSE. This project PASSCLAIM will (i) produce a consensus on principles for the scientific substantiation of health-related claims for food and food components, (ii) select common criteria for how markers should be identified, validated and used in well-designed studies to explore the links between diet and health and (iii) to evaluate critically the existing schemes which assess the scientific substantiation of claims. PMID:11894747
... diseases. With the recent high-profile outbreaks of Salmonella in raw ground tuna and Listeria in cantaloupes , ... Symptoms The most common foodborne illnesses are norovirus , Salmonella , Clostridium perfringens , and Campylobacter . Symptoms of food poisoning ...
The events of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax incidents(1) gave rise to concerns about unconventional terrorist attacks, including the threat of attacks on the U.S. food supply. Those events also heightened international awareness that nati...
This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.
Food Safety: Organisms of Concern is sponsored by the Cooperative Extension Service at North Carolina State University. The site provides links to information on over 15 organisms that can cause foodborne illness. Included are links to facts sheets on bacteria, parasites, viruses and natural toxins. These links, prepared by University Extension staff, describe the characteristics of each organism, where it is found, how it is transmitted, diseases it can cause, symptoms of disease, and advice on how to control the organism to prevent food diseases. There are also links to information provided by the Centers for Disease Control and the Food and Drug Administration.
A recent issue of BioMedNet's Webzine HMS Beagle (reviewed in the February 14, 1997 Scout Report) offers this intriguing introduction to food science. Although the article's tone targets the general public, many hyperlinks to academic resources make it worthwhile for researchers. The site covers the science of taste, texture, nutrition, food allergies, and "functional food," among other topics. Of particular use will be the links at the bottom of the site, which connect to a host of resources throughout academic, governmental, and nongovernmental fields.
Modelling and simulation (M&S) is a critical technology when applied to complex logistics; it is evident that food and especially\\u000a the fresh-food supply chain  represents a very interesting application area, considering all the inter-related constraints\\u000a and variables: time-to-market, traceability, transport\\/storage conditions, handling, production\\/process control, demand variability,\\u000a seasonal behaviours, etc. In fact, food represents a strategic sector; in order to
Background Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in different foods is of interest due to the association of these bioactive nutrients to health and diseases. There is a lack of relevant information on their contents in foods. Objective To develop a food polyamine database from published data by which polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake can be estimated, and to determine the levels of polyamines in Swedish dairy products. Design Extensive literature search and laboratory analysis of selected Swedish dairy products. Polyamine contents in foods were collected using an extensive literature search of databases. Polyamines in different types of Swedish dairy products (milk with different fat percentages, yogurt, cheeses, and sour milk) were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector. Results Fruits and cheese were the highest sources of putrescine, while vegetables and meat products were found to be rich in spermidine and spermine, respectively. The content of polyamines in cheese varied considerably between studies. In analyzed Swedish dairy products, matured cheese had the highest total polyamine contents with values of 52.3, 1.2, and 2.6 mg/kg for putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively. Low fat milk had higher putrescine and spermidine, 1.2 and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively, than the other types of milk. Conclusions The database aids other researchers in their quest for information regarding polyamine intake from foods. Connecting the polyamine contents in food with the Swedish Food Database allows for estimation of polyamine contents per portion.
Identifying food pricing strategies to encourage purchases of lower-calorie food products may be particularly important for black Americans. Black children and adults have higher than average obesity prevalence and disproportionate exposure to food marketing environments in which high calorie foods are readily available and heavily promoted. The main objective of this study was to characterize effects of price on food purchases of black female household shoppers in conjunction with other key decision attributes (calorie content/healthfulness, package size, and convenience). Factorial discrete choice experiments were conducted with 65 low- and middle-/higher-income black women. The within-subject study design assessed responses to hypothetical scenarios for purchasing frozen vegetables, bread, chips, soda, fruit drinks, chicken, and cheese. Linear models were used to estimate the effects of price, calorie level (or healthfulness for bread), package size, and convenience on the propensity to purchase items. Moderating effects of demographic and personal characteristics were assessed. Compared with a price that was 35% lower, the regular price was associated with a lesser propensity to purchase foods in all categories (??=?-0.33 to -0.82 points on a 1 to 5 scale). Other attributes, primarily calorie content/healthfulness, were more influential than price for four of seven foods. The moderating variable most often associated with propensity to pay the regular versus lower price was the reported use of nutrition labels. Price reductions alone may increase purchases of certain lower-calorie or more healthful foods by black female shoppers. In other cases, effects may depend on combining price changes with nutrition education or improvements in other valued attributes. PMID:24583415
The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety issues among food handlers in Turkey, conducting face to face interview and administrating questionnaire. Of the 764 food handlers who responded, 9.6% were involved in touching or distributing unwrapped foods routinely and use protective gloves during their working activity. A majority of participants (47.8%) had
... Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask ... must be federally inspected. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) carries ...
... hours a day. Local Resources: State Department of Agriculture: State or Local Health Department: Other: 18 Additional ... Service www.fsis.usda.gov U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service U.S. Department of ...
... Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask ... plants by inspectors from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service. Products made into ...
Synopsis Over the past 20 years, food allergy has become an increasingly prevalent international health problem primarily in developed countries. An explanation for this increased prevalence is currently under investigation as it is not well understood. Allergic reactions can result in life threatening anaphylaxis over a short period of time, so the current standard of care dictates strict avoidance of suspected trigger foods and accessibility to injectable epinephrine. Intervention at the time of exposure is considered a rescue therapy rather than a disease modifying treatment. In recent years, investigators have been studying allergen immunotherapy as a way to promote induction of oral tolerance. These efforts have shown some promise towards a viable disease modifying therapy for food allergies. This review will examine the mechanisms of oral tolerance and the breakdown that leads to food allergy, as well as the history and current state of oral and sublingual immunotherapy development.
This publication by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is a resource guide on food recovery programs for businesses, community-based profit or nonprofit organizations, private cititzens, and public officials. It describes some of the promi...
International approval of food irradiation is being given for the use of low and medium doses. Uses are being permitted for different categories of foods with maximum levels being set between 1 and 10 kGy. To maximize the effectiveness of these mild irradiation treatments while minimizing any organoleptic quality changes, combination processes of other technologies with irradiation will be useful. Combinations most likely to be exploited in optimal food processing include the use of heat, low temperature, and modified-atmosphere packaging. Because irradiation does not have a residual effect, the food packaging itself becomes an important component of a successful process. These combination processes provide promising alternatives to the use of chemical preservatives or harsher processing techniques.
Endogenous estrogens are thought to have a role in the etiology of breast cancer. Several components of plant foods have estrogenic activity or are metabolized to active compounds by mammalian systems (phytoestrogens). The impact of these constituents on ...
Histamine and tyramine are normal constituents of many foods and have been found in cheese; sauerkraut; wine; fish; and putrid, aged or fermented meats. These low molecular weight organic bases do not represent any hazard to individuals unless large quant...
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) is dedicated to identifying and analyzing "policies for sustainably meeting the food needs of the developing world." IFPRI's research interests include economic growth and the alleviation of poverty in developing countries, improving the well-being of poor people, and management of natural resources instrumental in the support of agriculture. The IFPRI Website is packed with food policy research information, including a collection of African food security data sets (compiled in the 1990s); information on IFPRI research searchable by region or by subject; and IFPRI's many publications which are available in English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese. The site offers a links section, which points users to cooperating organizations in developing countries around the world.
... introduced by way of cross contact during the manufacturing process. Cross contact occurs when a residue or ... Supplements. Cross contact may occur during: • Harvesting • Transportation • Manufacturing • Processing • Storage Many food manufacturers may try to ...
The propensity to select and consume palatable nutrients is strongly influenced by the rewarding effects of food. Neural processes integrating reward, emotional states and decision-making can supersede satiety signals to promote excessive caloric intake and weight gain. While nutritional habits are influenced by reward-based neural mechanisms, nutrition and its impact on energy metabolism, in turn, plays an important role in the control of food reward. Feeding modulates the release of metabolic hormones that have an important influence on central controls of appetite. Nutrients themselves are also an essential source of energy fuel, while serving as key metabolites and acting as signalling molecules in the neural pathways that control feeding and food reward. Along these lines, this review discusses the impact of nutritionally regulated hormones and select macronutrients on the behavioural and neural processes underlying the rewarding effects of food. PMID:24070891
Nowadays nanotechnologies applied to the food packaging sector find always more applications due to a wide range of benefits that they can offer, such as improved barrier properties, improved mechanical performance, antimicrobial properties and so on. Recently many researches are addressed to the set up of new food packaging materials, in which polymer nanocomposites incorporate nanosensors, developing the so-called "smart" packaging. Some examples of nanocomposite sensors specifically realised for the food packaging industry are reported. The second part of this work deals with the preparation and characterisation of two new polymer-based nanocomposite systems that can be used as food packaging materials. Particularly the results concerning the following systems are illustrated: isotactic polypropylene (iPP) filled with CaCO3 nanoparticles and polycaprolactone (PCL) filled with SiO2 nanoparticles.
Avella, Maurizio; Errico, Maria Emanuela; Gentile, Gennaro; Volpe, Maria Grazia
The bibliography lists 213 reports and translations on food preservation (except by irradiation) added to the CFSTI collection from June 1962 through February 1965. It includes research on additives, sterilization, pasteurization, biochemical treatment, s...
The review presents representative data on the nutritional quality of irradiated foods and brings into focus some of the possible problem areas. Radappertization at low temperatures greatly improves the nutritional quality in regard to the micronutrients ...
Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable, and nutritious while efficiently balancing appropriate vehicle resources such as mass, volume, power, water, and crewtime. Often, this presents a challenge since maintaining the quality of the food system can result in a higher mass and volume. The Orion vehicle is significantly smaller than the Shuttle vehicle and the International Space Station and the mass and volume available for food is limited. Therefore, the food team has been challenged to reduce the mass of the packaged food from 1.82 kg per person per day to 1.14 kg per person per day. Past work has concentrated on how to reduce the mass of the packaging which contributes to about 15% of the total mass of the packaged food system. Designers have also focused on integrating and optimizing the Orion galley equipment as a system to reduce mass. To date, there has not been a significant effort to determine how to reduce the food itself. The objective of this project is to determine how the mass and volume of the packaged food can be reduced while maintaining caloric and hydration requirements. The following tasks are the key elements to this project: (1) Conduct further analysis of the ISS Standard Menu to determine moisture, protein, carbohydrate, and fat levels. (2) Conduct trade studies to determine how to bring the mass of the food system down. Trade studies may include removing the water of the total food system and/or increasing the fat content. (3) Determine the preferred method for delivery of the new food (e.g. bars, or beverages) and the degree of replacement. (4) Determine whether there are commercially available products that meet the requirements. By the end of this study, an estimate of the mass and volume savings will be provided to the Constellation Program. In addition, if new technologies need to be developed to achieve the mass savings, the technologies, timeline, and budget will be identified at the end of the project.
Results: Most patients (89%) reported using food labels. While 75% of patients reported at least a high school education and 77% had 9th-grade literacy skills, only 37% had 9th-grade math skills. On average, patients answered 69% (standard deviation, 21%) of the food-label questions correctly. Common reasons for incorrect responses included misapplication of the serving size, confusion due to extraneous material
Russell L. Rothman; Ryan Housam; Hilary Weiss; Dianne Davis; Rebecca Gregory; Tebeb Gebretsadik; Ayumi Shintani; Tom A. Elasy
Objective: To examine the risk of prostate cancer associated with foods and nutrients, including individual fatty acids and carotenoids. Methods: Population-based case–control study of 858 men aged Results: Inverse associations with prostate cancer were observed for (Odds ratio, OR, 95% confidence intervals, 95% CI for tertile III compared with tertile I) allium vegetables 0.7, 0.5–0.9; p trend 0.01, tomato-based foods
Allison M. Hodge; Dallas R. English; Margaret R. E. McCredie; Gianluca Severi; Peter Boyle; John L. Hopper; Graham G. Giles
We see more cases of illness from contaminated food occurring in a number of U.S. states at the same time. Robert Tauxe examines these questions about multistate outbreaks: why are food-borne illnesses on the rise? How do the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) track these pathogens? Why do outbreaks happen across state lines more often? What can we do to curb the development of these diseases?
Summary Diarrhoeal diseases, almost all of which are caused by food-borne or water- borne microbial pathogens, are leading causes of illness and death in less developed countries, killing an estimated 1.9 million people annually at the global level. Even in developed countries, it is estimated that up to one third of the population are affected by microbiological food-borne diseases each
\\u000a Alginates are a group of viscous polysaccharides derived from brown seaweeds and produced as an extracellular matrix by some\\u000a bacterial species. Traditionally, alginates have been used as thickeners, emulsifiers and stabilising agents in a number of\\u000a food applications. A number of new food applications are emerging for alginates, based on their unique biochemical and biophysical\\u000a properties. These applications are discussed
Iain A. Brownlee; Chris J. Seal; Matthew Wilcox; Peter W. Dettmar; Jeff P. Pearson
There are thousands of additives used by the food industry for a variety of purposes in the foods we eat. However, only a\\u000a small number have been implicated in causing adverse reactions in humans. Although there are reported cases of individuals\\u000a who have reactions to single additives, most of the medical literature involves patients with asthma or chronic idiopathic\\u000a urticaria\\/angioedema
Most materials currently used for food packaging are non-degradable, generating environmental problems. Several biopolymers have been exploited to develop materials for eco-friendly food packaging. However, the use of biopolymers has been limited because of their usually poor mechanical and barrier properties, which may be improved by adding reinforcing compounds (fillers), forming composites. Most reinforced materials present poor matrix–filler interactions, which
Immunoblot-coupled proteomics based on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), namely, immunoproteomics, has been used for comprehensive identification of food allergens, because it is a simple and inexpensive tool for rapid identification of several IgE-binding proteins. In this section, we describe our protocols for identification of food allergens using immunoproteomics and discuss a few technical points in detail. PMID:24136559
Open discourse and tolerance between the food industry and public sector is limited. As a result, the public and private sectors are reluctant to collaborate on pressing nutritional issues. Those in the public sector have never heard what they could do to encourage a food company's transition towards healthier foods and beverages, whereas many in the private sector dismissed policies and actions initiated within the public sector. During my career, I have sought to engage the broadest possible stakeholder groups required to develop evidence-based policies and with the aim of improving public health. My recent experience in industry confirmed my view about the need for scientific exchange regardless of the disagreements about policy. Open discourse and partnering is essential if we are to tackle complex food and health issues and improve the global food system. Private-public engagement can provide faster and more sustainable results than government alone without impacting profits. Moreover, a high-quality product in smaller portions will have higher profit margins than a bargain-sized product of lower quality. The food industry and private sector must come together to implement innovative strategies to address urgent nutritional needs. PMID:24180599
For materials and articles intended to come in contact with food - particularly for substances from plastics (e.g., monomers, additives) - there are comprehensive European regulations based on toxicological evaluations. Other food contact materials, e.g., paper and rubber, are covered by resolutions established by the European Council without additional evaluations, while in Germany substances from these materials are toxicologically evaluated by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) and are included in the "BfR recommendations". Some further areas of food contact materials are not regulated by European or by national regulations (e.g., substances from printing inks). Recently, new European regulations for recycled plastics intended for food contact and for active and intelligent materials and articles have been released. Future challenges are the risk assessment of contaminants and reaction products from the production of food contact substances, which may migrate into the food in only tiny amounts, and of complex mixtures of substances, e.g., of hormone-like substances (endocrine disruptors). PMID:20449553
'Organic' is a labelling term that denotes products produced under the authority of the Organic Foods Production Act. Before a product can be labelled 'organic', a government-approved certifier inspects the farm where the food is grown to make sure the farmer is following all the rules necessary to meet the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards. Companies that handle or process organic food before it gets to your local supermarket or restaurant must be certified, too. Along with the national organic standards, the USDA developed strict labelling rules to help consumers know the exact content of the food they buy. It is important to emphasise that the USDA has not made any health claims for organic foods. It is indeed fortunate that the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USDA and the Environmental Protection Agency are now expanding their research to explore the scientific basis for the health benefits of organic foods. PMID:17987274
Edlich, R F; Drake, D B; Rodeheaver, G T; Kelley, A; Greene, J A; Gubler, K D; Long, W B; Britt, L D; Lin, K Y; Tafel, J A
Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition. PMID:23722096
Food allergies have increased in recent decades. However, they cannot be effectively treated by the current management, which is limited to the identification and avoidance of foods that induce allergies and to the use of medicines for symptoms relief. To meet the medical need of prevention and cure of food allergies, several therapeutic strategies are under investigation. Some newly developed biologics such as anti-IgE antibody and anti-interleukin (IL)-5 antibody directed against significant molecules in the allergic process have shown their potential for the treatment of food allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the therapy that induces immune tolerance and may reduce the need for conventional medication, severity of allergic symptoms and eliminate hypersensitivity. In this article, clinical studies of immunotherapy via subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous routes are extensively reviewed for their safety and effectiveness on various food allergies. In addition, to reduce the risk of anaphylaxis and increase toleragenic immunity, many studies are focusing on the modification of traditional allergens used for immunotherapy. Moreover, a Chinese herbal formulation with potential anti-allergic effects is being evaluated for its efficacy in patients with peanut allergy. Although more studies are needed, accumulated data of current studies represent compelling evidence of curative effects of some strategies and give a hope that food allergies are likely to be successfully treated in the future. PMID:23329212
The influence of local food environments on the risk for obesity is important overall, but may be particularly important for food insecure populations in urban settings. Access to healthful foods is most limited among racial and ethnic minorities and low-income populations; these same populations experience the highest rates of obesity and food insecurity. Few valid and reliable measures have been developed to assess the quality of local food environments.
In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments.
Given the emerging focus on improving food environments and food systems through planning, this article investigates racial disparities in neighborhood food environments. An empirical case of Erie County, New York tests the hypothesis that people belonging to different racial groups have access to different neighborhood food destinations. Using multiple methodsGini coefficients, Poisson regression, and Geographic Information Systems analysiswe show that contrary to studies elsewhere in the country there are no food deserts in Erie County.
One of the most persistent and startling news stories of the past year has been the global crisis in the world's food supply. Reduced stockpiles have led to panic buying and hoarding, a sharp rise in prices, food riots, the virtual collapse of portions of the food industry, and dire warnings about food and water shortages. The U.S. Department of
The demand of Russian to green food is great, and Heilongjiang has a production and operating system of green foods which has a great competitiveness at the Russia market where Heilongjiang's green food has a large international-market and a promising future. Heilongjiang's green food towards Russia should take such \\
Nanotechnology has potential of application in food industry and processing as new tools for pathogen detection, disease treatment delivery systems, food packaging, and delivery of bioactive compounds to target sites. Application of nanotechnology in food systems will provide new methods to improve safety and nutritional value of food products. This article will review the current advances of applications of nanotechnology
About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…
This student/teacher resource booklet provides information on conserving food dollars while providing nutritious meals. The guide shows how to set up a food budget and explains how scanning the weekly food ads, planning meals around the specials, and compiling a list accordingly can also help consumers get more for their food dollars. Numerous…
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has launched an online mapping tool that locates food deserts. The Food Desert Locator also provides data on population characteristics where residents have limited access to affordable and nutritious foods, including low-income communities. The tool can be used to help advocates expand the availability of nutritious foods in these areas.
Proper cooling of foods is known to reduce spoilage and help prevent food-borne illnesses. Nonetheless, little is known about consumers' awareness of guidelines regarding appropriate refrigeration of food or their actual refrigeration practices. Focus groups of consumers of common ethnic backgrounds were designed to evaluate food safety knowledge…