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  1. The Rutgers Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Foodservice Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Representatives of school foodservice programs, the food industry, and the USDA met to hear the final report of a study made to examine the effectiveness of school lunch programs in New Jersey. (Author)

  2. Rutger's CAM2000 chip architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donald E.; Hall, J. Storrs; Miyake, Keith

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the architecture and instruction set of the Rutgers CAM2000 memory chip. The CAM2000 combines features of Associative Processing (AP), Content Addressable Memory (CAM), and Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) in a single chip package that is not only DRAM compatible but capable of applying simple massively parallel operations to memory. This document reflects the current status of the CAM2000 architecture and is continually updated to reflect the current state of the architecture and instruction set.

  3. [Proposed Agreement--1972-1975--Rutgers Faculty and University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1973

    This document presents the proposed agreement between the Rutgers faculty and Rutgers University for the period 1972 - 1975. Articles of the agreement cover purpose, academic freedom, recognition, scope of bargaining, deduction of professional dues, designation of AAUP representatives and their privileges, salary provisions, faculty grievance…

  4. The Rutgers University College of Pharmacy: A Centennial History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Roy A.; Cowen, David L.

    This book presents and analyzes the history of the Rutgers College of Pharmacy (from 1892 to the present) and relates the Rutgers' experience, not only to national developments in education, but also to developments in the pharmaceutical sciences and to the changing pharmaceutical practices in the nation and in the State of New Jersey. A brief

  5. RUTGERS STRATEGY FOR COMPOSTING: PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A strategy for sludge composting was developed to counter the tendency of other composting systems to operate at high temperatures that inhibit and slow decomposition. This method, known as the Rutgers strategy, can be implemented in a static pile configuration to retain structur...

  6. Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, Evelyn H.; Cook-Chennault, Kimberly; Hirsch, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    In addressing the nation's need for a more technologically-literate society, the Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering (RU RET-E) is designed to: (1) engage middle and high school math and science teachers in innovative "green" engineering research during the summer, and (2) support teachers in integrating…

  7. Undergraduate Education with the Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeth, Timothy W.

    The Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron is a research grade accelerator dedicated to undergraduate education. From its inception, it has been intended for instruction and has been designed to demonstrate classic beam physics phenomena and provides students hands on experience with accelerator technology. The cyclotron is easily reconfigured, allowing experiments to be designed and performed within one academic semester. Our cyclotron offers students the opportunity to operate an accelerator and directly observe many fundamental beam physics concepts, including axial and radial betatron motion, destructive resonances, weak and azimuthally varying field (AVF) focusing schemes, RF and DEE voltage effects, diagnostic techniques, and perform low energy nuclear reactions. This paper emphasizes the unique beam physics measurements and beam manipulations capable at the Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron.

  8. Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (CPES) -- Rutgers University Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, Manish

    2014-03-06

    The CPES scientific simulations run at scale on leadership class machines, collaborate at runtime and produce and exchange large data sizes, which present multiple I/O and data management challenges. During the CPES project, the Rutgers team worked with the rest of the CPES team to address these challenges at different levels, and specifically (1) at the data transport and communication level through the DART (Decoupled and Asynchronous Remote Data Transfers) framework, and (2) at the data management and services level through the DataSpaces and ActiveSpaces frameworks. These frameworks and their impact are briefly described.

  9. The Cold War within American Higher Education: Rutgers University as a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Thomas F.

    This book examines the impact of anticommunism on American campuses, using Rutgers University (New Jersey) from 1950 through 1965 as a case example. Following an introductory chapter which provides background information, chapter 2 discusses the period January 1950 to August 1952, when Cold War politics intensified at Rutgers University and the…

  10. Mentoring Graduate Students in Physics and Astronomy at Rutgers University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizewski, Jolie A.

    2002-04-01

    The Graduate Program in Physics and Astronomy at Rutgers University involves about 100 graduate students and over 70 faculty members. Research opportunities include experimental and theoretical activities in astronomy, condensed matter, high-energy, and nuclear physics, as well as new initiatives in biological and nano physics and physics education research. Faculty and peer mentors, as well as an academic advisor, are identified for each graduate student upon arrival at Rutgers. All first-year graduate students, without regard to background, are required to participate in the Seminar in Physics, which introduces the graduate students to the breadth of research opportunities, as well as advising students about the academic requirements and preparing for the broad spectrum of future career opportunities. Annual activities in this seminar include sessions at which recent graduates of the program discuss their careers outside of academia or basic research. The course requirements for the Ph.D. in Physics include 2 courses outside of the area of research, one of which can be a course outside of the departmental offerings. Since most students have the option to register for many courses after completing the formal requirements, most students take courses in computer science, engineering, or finance as part of their education. Within one year of advancement to Ph.D. candidacy, students are expected to have the first meeting with their research committee, at which the results of a trial project are presented both orally and in a short written report, and which also serves as a test of the student's aptitude for study in the chosen area and with the chosen advisor. Subsequently, every student is required to meet at least annually with this committee. As a result of these mentoring activities, the time to Ph.D. is now less than 6 years on average. Although about 1/2 of the students assume post-doctoral positions upon completion of the Ph.D., our alumni obtain careers in a broad range of fields, including finance and management consulting.

  11. The Rutgers Arm II rehabilitation system--a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Burdea, Grigore C; Cioi, Daniel; Martin, Joseph; Fensterheim, Devin; Holenski, Maeve

    2010-10-01

    The Rutgers Arm II (RA II) is a new system that trains the shoulder/arm motor control, strengthening, arm speed of motion, endurance, and grasp strength in a single rehabilitation session. The system components are a tilted low-friction table, a forearm support with markers and wireless transmitter, a shoulder appendage to detect compensatory leaning, infrared vision tracking, a large display and a PC running custom virtual reality games. Three participants in the chronic stage post-stroke were trained on the RAII for four weeks (12 sessions) and had a follow-up evaluation after three months. The results of this study indicate that the participants were able to use the technology, and preliminary results are encouraging. One participant showed improvement in all timed Jebsen-Taylor test tasks, all participants had a larger shoulder range-of-motion and pinch strength of the affected hand post-training. Computerized measure of supported arm reach area increased in two participants post-training and in all participants at follow-up. Participants reported an improved ability to perform activities of daily living with the affected arm. There was good compliance by the participants, each of whom attended all sessions. The participants accepted the training length, even with some sessions lasting 1 h (excluding rest periods). The participants' subjective evaluation rated the system an average 3.7 out of 5 (see also the accompanying taped video interview of one of the participants). PMID:20529757

  12. The Ocean Sciences RIOS REU Site at Rutgers University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassle, J. P.; Ammerman, J. W.; Quinlan, J. A.; Deluca, M. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences (IMCS) at Rutgers University recently completed the first year of its new NSF Ocean Sciences-supported REU site. This program is called RIOS, for Research Internships in Ocean Sciences. The program enrolled 15 students for a 10-week program, 11 located on the New Brunswick campus, and 4 at the Tuckerton field station. NSF funds supported ten of these students and funds from several other sources supported the other five students. All students participated in the group activities during the first and last weeks and periodically throughout the summer. One day of the first week was devoted to a Hudson River plume cruise, which introduced the students to river plume systems and provided data for a group project. Students pursued a variety of individual research projects with faculty mentors, explored the use of MATLAB for data analysis, and collaborated in the analysis of the Hudson plume data. The program culminated in a poster session with presentations of all the individual projects. This presentation will present highlights of the RIOS program, discuss its successes and areas for improvement, and outline plans for next summer.

  13. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: undergraduate student outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L

    2012-12-01

    Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students. PMID:22767090

  14. The Impact of Triple Room Assignment on Students at Rutgers and Douglass Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaj, Leahcim

    The effects of overassignment (three students living in a room usually assigned to two) on students at Rutgers and Douglass Colleges are examined in a study of differences between students housed in two- and three-person rooms for the semester. The dependent measures were perception of the university environment, academic performance, physical…

  15. A History of the Extension Division, Rutgers-The State University 1891-1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Frank Paul

    Rutgers College began offering extension work in 1891 in agriculture, history, the arts, and scientific subjects. The Industrial Extension Division, established in 1925 and renamed the University Extension Division in 1927, was conducting college credit courses within a year of its founding; and, in 1934, University College was established as a…

  16. Keeping Current. The Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries--CISSL at Rutgers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a research center established by Professors Carol Kuhlthau and Ross Todd of Rutgers University in New Brunswick to promote the study of the impact of school library media centers on student learning and the dynamics of effective school library programs. The Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries (CISSL) is…

  17. The Reconstruction of an American College, Some Proposals for Rutgers College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susman, Warren I.

    An intensive study of Rutgers College was made during the spring semester of the 1967-1968 school year for the purpose of evaluating the College's instructional program. The report examines many institutional functions within the context of current higher education concerns and their particular relationship to the perceived role of Rutgers…

  18. The Confrontation with Nazism at Rutgers: Academic Bureaucracy and Moral Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Michael; Zenchelsky, Seymour

    1990-01-01

    Argues that Rutgers University administrators participated in obfuscating the political nature of the 1935 dismissal of Lienhard Bergel, a German-born professor, whose anti-Nazi views alienated him from Friedrich Hauptmann, department head, also German-born, and avowedly pro-Nazi. Analyzes Hauptmann's central role and hearings testimony. Charges…

  19. Appellate Court Upholds Legality of Fees Paid by Non-Union Members at Rutgers U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Scott

    1986-01-01

    A U.S. Court of Appeals has upheld significant portions of an arrangement allowing Rutgers University faculty to pay agency fees in lieu of union dues and still be covered by a collective bargaining contract, despite contention that aspects of the agreement violated their constitutional rights to free speech. (MSE)

  20. Pushing to the Edge: Rutgers Astrophysics Institute Motivates Talented High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etkina, Eugenia; Matilsky, Terry; Lawrence, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The Rutgers Astrophysics Institute is a program in which gifted high school students learn about contemporary science and its methods, and conduct independent authentic research using real-time data. The students use the processes of science to acquire knowledge, and serve as cognitive apprentices to an expert astrophysicist. A variety of…

  1. Where Does the Money Go? Rutgers University Library Tracks Reserve Collection Purchases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David

    2005-01-01

    Rutgers University Libraries are using a Microsoft Access database to track the purchase of books requested by teaching faculty for use in the Reserve Collection. Reports are generated which show what is purchased, how money was spent. Combined with circulation figures and LC Subject areas, the database provides documentation of library support of…

  2. Personal Trainer: Vibiana Bowman--Paul Robeson Library, Rutgers University-Camden, NJ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Vibiana Bowman enjoys spending time with young adults--which is just as well since she has a few of her own, has done her time as scout leader, and now teaches proper research methods to students at Rutgers University--Camden. She first discovered how much this instruction was needed when she noticed her own kids cutting and pasting copy from the…

  3. Through the Eyes of a Student: Rutgers Physics Teacher Preparation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Jonathan; D'Amato, Chris

    2010-03-01

    This talk will describe the course work and the teaching experiences in the Rutgers Physics Teacher Preparation Program that future physics teachers have before they enter the profession. The program is hosted in the Rutgers Graduate School of Education but works in close cooperation with the physics department. In addition to 5 courses in which we learn how to teach physics, we work as instructors in reformed introductory physics courses and then do student teaching in the schools where former graduates of the program teach. During the student teaching we have multiple opportunities to apply all of the ``theory'' in a real classroom and work in collaboration with those who share our views of how students learn. Jonathan is a student in the program and Chris is his cooperating teacher.

  4. Polygalacturonase Gene Expression in Rutgers, rin, nor, and Nr Tomato Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    DellaPenna, Dean; Kates, David S.; Bennett, Alan B.

    1987-01-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG) gene expression was studied in normally ripening tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cv Rutgers) and in three ripening-impaired mutants, rin, nor, and Nr. Normal and mutant fruit of identical chronological age were analyzed at 41, 49, and 62 days after pollination. These stages corresponded to mature-green, ripe, and overripe, respectively, for Rutgers. The amount of PG mRNA in Rutgers was highest at 49 days and accounted for 2.3% of the total mRNA mass but at 62 days had decreased to 0.004% of the total mRNA mass. In Nr, the amount of PG mRNA steadily increased between 41 and 62 days after pollination, reaching a maximum level of 0.5% of the total mRNA mass. The mutant nor exhibited barely detectable levels of PG mRNA at all stages tested. Surprisingly, PG mRNA, comprising approximately 0.06% of the mRNA mass, was detected in 49 day rin fruit. This mRNA accumulation occurred in the absence of elevated ethylene production by the fruit and resulted in the synthesis of enzymically active PG I. The different patterns of PG mRNA accumulation in the three mutants suggests that distinct molecular mechanisms contribute to reduced PG expression in each ripening-impaired mutant. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:16665727

  5. On the Extended Rutgers-Delaware Rule for MR Suspensions Under Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. B.; Chen, G.; Li, L.; Li, W. H.

    The interrelation between apparent viscosity in steady shear flow and complex viscosity in oscillatory shear flow for magnetorheological (MR) suspensions is investigated. Series of experiments have been conducted using a MR rheometer. An extended Rutgers-Delaware rule is proposed, in which an effective shear rate for oscillatory shear flow is defined as ωΔh. Here ωΔh is the shift factor dependent on strain amplitude (γ0), which was found to be similar for different MR suspensions under different magnetic fields. At high strain amplitudes (γ0≥100%), Δh≈γ0, the Rutgers-Delaware rule is approximately obeyed. At low strain amplitudes (γ0<100%), the curves of Δh fall between the line of the Cox-Merz rule and that of the Rutgers-Delaware rule. The curve of Δh at low strain amplitudes depends on the ingredients of the MR suspension. For samples with the same ingredients, a unified curve of Δh can be identified in a range of magnetic fields and/or for a range of volume fraction of magnetic particles.

  6. New Partnerships for New Jersey: A Financial Strategy for Academic Distinction. Report of the Committee on Future Financing of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ.

    A financial plan to help Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey achieve national stature is considered. Fundamental principles of the financial strategy include: as New Jersey's only comprehensive public research university, Rutgers is in a position to advance the development of New Jersey; the state should provide the university with the…

  7. A Model for Improving the Retention and Academic Achievement of Non-Traditional Students at Livingston College/Rutgers University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Judith S.

    A program for nontraditional students is described that was implemented at Livingston College/Rutgers University during the fall 1980 semester. The Freshman Studies Program (FSP) had two purposes: (1) to provide a more supportive structure and environment for developmental studies students and (2) to facilitate efforts to both deliver services and

  8. Rutgers-Somerset Counseling Program: Preventing Violence and Decreasing Risky Behaviors among Adolescent Girls--A Training Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Melissa Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The violence prevention group component of the Rutgers-Somerset Counseling Program, a prevention program for multi-problem youth based in a local junior high school, was established in response to appeals made by school staff for help addressing surges in school and community violence and the rising incidence of aggression among female students.…

  9. Rutgers-Somerset Counseling Program: Preventing Violence and Decreasing Risky Behaviors among Adolescent Girls--A Training Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Melissa Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The violence prevention group component of the Rutgers-Somerset Counseling Program, a prevention program for multi-problem youth based in a local junior high school, was established in response to appeals made by school staff for help addressing surges in school and community violence and the rising incidence of aggression among female students.

  10. The Professions and Ethics: Views and Realities in New Jersey. Professions Forum Proceedings (Rutgers, New Jersey, November 17, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orzack, Louis H., Ed.; Simcoe, Annell L., Ed.

    Papers and summaries from Rutgers University's 1981 Professions Forum, "The Professions and Ethics: Views and Realities in New Jersey," are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: an introduction (Louis H. Orzack and Annell L. Simcoe); "Do Special Ethical Norms Apply to Professions?" (Daniel Callahan); "Ethical Issues in the Work of…

  11. Advancing HIV Nursing Practice: The Doctor of Nursing Practice HIV Specialty at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Willard, Suzanne; Nelson, John; Reyes, Darcel; Linn, Annē

    2016-01-01

    The move to integrate HIV treatment and care into primary care is a major obstacle for the current U.S. health care workforce. Many HIV specialty providers will soon retire, while few primary care clinicians have been adequately trained in the diagnosis, care, and treatment of people living with HIV. The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) has supported the development of a Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) program with an HIV specialty at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, to assure successful transition to an HIV primary care workforce. The Rutgers School of Nursing has been at the forefront of the DNP education movement and is among the first to develop an HIV-focused DNP program. Thirty-seven students have enrolled in the 3-year program, and two have graduated from the first cohort. Here we discuss the planning, implementation, successes, and recommendations of the new program. PMID:27086187

  12. An Opening Chapter of the First Generation of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: The First Rutgers AIM Workshop, June 1975.

    PubMed

    Kulikowski, C A

    2015-08-13

    The first generation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Medicine methods were developed in the early 1970's drawing on insights about problem solving in AI. They developed new ways of representing structured expert knowledge about clinical and biomedical problems using causal, taxonomic, associational, rule, and frame-based models. By 1975, several prototype systems had been developed and clinically tested, and the Rutgers Research Resource on Computers in Biomedicine hosted the first in a series of workshops on AI in Medicine that helped researchers and clinicians share their ideas, demonstrate their models, and comment on the prospects for the field. These developments and the workshops themselves benefited considerably from Stanford's SUMEX-AIM pioneering experiment in biomedical computer networking. This paper focuses on discussions about issues at the intersection of medicine and artificial intelligence that took place during the presentations and panels at the First Rutgers AIM Workshop in New Brunswick, New Jersey from June 14 to 17, 1975. PMID:26123911

  13. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all. PMID:22767092

  14. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict intention to comply with a food recall message.

    PubMed

    Freberg, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has provided considerable insight into the public's intention to comply with many different health-related messages, but has not been applied previously to intention to comply with food safety recommendations and recalls ( Hallman & Cuite, 2010 ). Because food recalls can differ from other health messages in their urgency, timing, and cessation, the applicability of the TPB in this domain is unknown. The research reported here attempted to address this gap using a nationally representative consumer panel. Results showed that, consistent with the theory's predictions, attitudes and subjective norms were predictive of the intention to comply with a food recall message, with attitudes having a much greater impact on intent to comply than subjective norms. Perceived behavioral control failed to predict intention to comply. Implications of these results for health public relations and crisis communications and recommendations for future research were discussed. PMID:22746283

  15. Phases of QCD: Summary of the Rutgers Long Range Plan Town Meeting, January 12-14, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Peter; Kharzeev, Dmitri; Muller, Berndt; Nagle, Jamie; Rajagopal, Krishna; Vigdor, Steve

    2007-05-14

    This White Paper summarizes the outcome of the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD that took place January 12-14, 2007 at Rutgers University, as part of the NSAC 2007 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Town Meeting on Hadron Structure, including a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. Appendix A.1 contains the meeting agenda. This Executive Summary presents the prioritized recommendations that were determined at the meeting. Subsequent chapters present the essential background to the recommendations. While this White Paper is not a scholarly article and contains few references, it is intended to provide the non-expert reader

  16. An Opening Chapter of the First Generation of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: The First Rutgers AIM Workshop, June 1975

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first generation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Medicine methods were developed in the early 1970’s drawing on insights about problem solving in AI. They developed new ways of representing structured expert knowledge about clinical and biomedical problems using causal, taxonomic, associational, rule, and frame-based models. By 1975, several prototype systems had been developed and clinically tested, and the Rutgers Research Resource on Computers in Biomedicine hosted the first in a series of workshops on AI in Medicine that helped researchers and clinicians share their ideas, demonstrate their models, and comment on the prospects for the field. These developments and the workshops themselves benefited considerably from Stanford’s SUMEX-AIM pioneering experiment in biomedical computer networking. This paper focuses on discussions about issues at the intersection of medicine and artificial intelligence that took place during the presentations and panels at the First Rutgers AIM Workshop in New Brunswick, New Jersey from June 14 to 17, 1975. PMID:26123911

  17. The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI): A Comparison of Cut-Points in First Nations Mi'kmaq and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents in Rural Nova Scotia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Melanie; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Boudreau, Brock; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Stevens, Doreen; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    Important to the assessment of adolescent alcohol misuse is examination of alcohol-related problems. However, most measurement tools have only been validated among Euro-American cultures. The present study assessed the ability of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) to identify problem drinkers among groups of First Nations Mi'kmaq and…

  18. Learning from Disaster: The Learning Environment of the 2006 Rutgers University Hurricane Katrina Relief Project and How Service Learning Generates Transformative Learning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Donald C.

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The study primarily focused on how a Service Learning project resulted in a Transformative Learning experience. The sample was drawn from 82 participants from Rutgers University who took part in a week-long alternative Spring Break community service project in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina in 2006. Interviews were conducted…

  19. Reconnaissance of volatile organic compounds in the subsurface at Rutgers University, Busch Campus, Piscataway Township, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, V.T.

    1996-01-01

    During 1991-92, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrogeologic reconnaissance at a site near the Rutgers University, Busch Campus, Chemical Engineering building, C-Wing. Results of analyses of the soil-gas samples, which were collected at 43 locations, indicated the presence of volatile organic compounds, primarily carbon tetrachloride, near the C-Wing building and about 550 feet downgradient from and southwest of the C-Wing building. Concentrations of the compound in soil-gas samples were highest (2.1 ug/L (micrograms per liter)) along the southwestern wall of the C-Wing building. Ground-water samples were collected at depths as great as 55 feet from five wells and piezometers near the C-Wing building. Samples collected along the southwestern wall of the building also contained the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in the ground-water samples ranged from < 0.35 ug/L to 3,400 ug/L, and concentrations of tetrachloro- ethylene ranged from < 0.28 ug/L to 85 ug/L. Ground-water samples collected at depths of 55 feet or more from two wells located on the Rutgers University Golf Course about 2,400 feet down- gradient from the C-Wing building contained concentrations of tetrachloroethylene as great as 17.7 ug/L. Water levels measured in six wells and six piezometers indicated that the general flow direction in the shallow part of the aquifer is to the southwest of the C-Wing building. An electrical-resistivity survey was conducted by azimuthal resistivity techniques. The results of the survey were consistent with field measurements, and the dominant vertical fractures near the Busch Campus trend northeast. An electromagnetic survey was ineffective as a result of cultural interferences and could not be used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics of the site.

  20. Notes on the conversion of LogLisp from Rutgers/UCI-Lisp to InterLisp

    SciTech Connect

    Schrag, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Conversion of the LogLisp(Logic programming in Lisp) Artificial Intelligence programming environment from its original Rutgers/UCI-Lisp (RUCI-Lisp) implementation to an InterLisp implementation is described. This report may be useful to researchers wishing to convert LogLisp to yet another Lisp dialect, or to those wishing to convert other RUCI-Lisp programs into InterLisp. It is also intended to help users of the InterLisp version of LogLisp to understand the implementation. The conversion process is described at a level aimed toward potential translators who might benefit from approaches taken and lessons learned. General issues of conversion of Lisp software between dialects are discussed, use of InterLisp's dialect translation package is described, and specific issues of non-mechanizable conversion are addressed. The latter include dialect differences in function definitions, arrays, integer arithmetic, i/o, interrupts, and macros. Subsequent validation, compilation, and efficiency enhancement of the InterLisp version are then described. A brief user's guide to the InterLisp version and points of contact for information on LogLisp software distribution are also provided.

  1. The Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs and the Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies: a history of the evolution of alcohol research.

    PubMed

    Candon, Paul M; Ward, Judit H; Pandina, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the history of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs as well as the Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies. Each has its roots in the Yale Laboratory of Applied Physiology and the era shortly after the repeal of National Prohibition in the United States. The journal was founded as the Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol in 1940 by Howard W. Haggard, M.D., director of the Yale Laboratory of Physiology. Alcohol, although not originally the sole focus of the laboratory, eventually became the main and then only focus. A Section of Alcohol Studies and later Center of Alcohol Studies formally became components of the laboratory. The faculty grew to include notable figures such as Elvin Morton Jellinek and Mark Keller, among other influential people who helped establish a modern, multidisciplinary, scientific approach to alcohol problems in the United States. The first alcohol education program, originally called the Summer Session of the School of Alcohol Studies, was also founded there in 1943. The center later moved to Rutgers University in New Jersey, becoming the Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies in 1962. With it came the summer school and the Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, which in 1975 became the Journal of Studies on Alcohol. The journal again changed names in 2007, becoming the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, reflecting an increasing focus among substance use researchers on drugs other than alcohol. This article discusses the influence of the journal and the center in the larger historical context of alcohol studies throughout the 20th century to the modern day. PMID:24565307

  2. The Economics of Information in the 1990s. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium of the Graduate Alumni and Faculty of the Rutgers School of Communication, Information and Library Studies (31st, New Brunswick, New Jersey, April 15, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlejs, Jana, Ed.

    While the rapid evolution of electronic technology has made possible stunning advances in access to information, the price of adopting new systems and formats has forced major changes in how libraries allocate their resources. The 31st symposium of the graduate alumni and faculty of Rutgers School of Communication, Information and Library Studies…

  3. Polyphenol-Rich Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce Improves Glucose Metabolism and Liver Lipid Accumulation in Diet Induced Obese C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Diana M.; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Waterman, Carrie; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Johnson, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of the following experiments were to characterize anti-diabetic in vitro and in vivo activity of the polyphenol-rich aqueous extract of Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce. Materials / Methods Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL) extract (RSLE) and isolated compounds were evaluated for inhibitory effects on glucose production as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-dependent inhibition of insulin activity in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Additionally, high fat diet-induced obese mice were treated with RSLE (100 or 300 mg/kg), Metformin (250 mg/kg) or vehicle (water) for 28 days by oral administration and insulin and oral glucose tolerance tests were conducted. Tissues were harvested at the end of the study and evaluated for biochemical and physiological improvements in metabolic syndrome conditions. Results A polyphenol-rich RSLE, containing chlorogenic acid, cyanidin malonyl-glucoside and quercetin malonyl-glucoside, was produced by simple boiling water extraction at pH 2. In vitro, RSLE and chlorogenic acid demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of glucose production. In vivo, RSLE treatment improved glucose metabolism measured by oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin tolerance tests. RSLE treated groups had a lower ratio of liver weight to body weight as well as decreased total liver lipids compared to control group after 28 days of treatment. No significant differences in plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides were observed with RSLE treated groups compared to vehicle control. Conclusion RSLE demonstrated anti-diabetic effects in vitro and in vivo and may improve metabolic syndrome conditions of fatty liver and glucose metabolism. PMID:24985107

  4. Lessons learned: A case study of an integrated way of teaching introductory physics to at-risk students at Rutgers University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etkina, E.; Gibbons, K.; Holton, B. L.; Horton, G. K.

    1999-09-01

    In order to provide a physics instructional environment in which at-risk students (particularly women and minorities) can successfully learn and enjoy introductory physics, we have introduced Extended General Physics as an option for science, science teaching, and pre-health professions majors at Rutgers University. We have taught the course for the last five years. In this new course, we have used many elements that have been proven to be successful in physics instruction. We have added a new component, the minilab, stressing qualitative experiments performed by the students. By integrating all the elements, and structuring the time the students invest in the course, we have created a successful program for students-at-risk, indeed for all students. Our aim was not only to foster successful mastery of the traditional physics syllabus by the students, but to create a sense of community through the cooperation of students with each other and their instructors. We present a template for implementation of our program elsewhere.

  5. Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater and sediments and mineralogy of sediments and grain coatings underlying the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Fishman, Neil S.; Battaglin, William A.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected from June through October 2007 from seven plots at the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, and analyzed for a suite of pesticides (including fungicides) and other physical and chemical parameters (including sediment mineralogy) by the U.S. Geological Survey. Plots were selected for inclusion in this study on the basis of the crops grown and the pesticides used. Forty-one pesticides were detected in 14 water samples; these include 5 fungicides, 13 herbicides, 1 insecticide, and 22 pesticide degradates. The following pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in 50 percent or more of the groundwater samples: 1-amide-4-hydroxy-chorothalonil, alachlor sulfonic acid, metolachlor oxanilic acid, metolachlor sulfonic acid, metalaxyl, and simazine. Dissolved-pesticide concentrations ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 36 micrograms per liter (for metolachlor sulfonic acid, a degradate of the herbicide metolachlor). The total number of pesticides found in groundwater samples ranged from 0 to 29. Fourteen pesticides were detected in sediment samples from continuous cores collected within each of the seven sampled plots; these include 4 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 7 pesticide degradates. Pesticide concentrations in sediment samples ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 34.2 nanograms per gram (for azoxystrobin). The total number of pesticides found in sediment samples ranged from 0 to 8. Quantitative whole-rock and grain-coating mineralogy of sediment samples were determined by x-ray diffraction. Whole-rock analysis indicated that sediments were predominantly composed of quartz. The materials coating the quartz grains were removed to allow quantification of the trace mineral phases present.

  6. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Food Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Safety Print A A ... food safely to prevent foodborne illnesses. Why Food Safety Matters Food that hasn't been prepared safely ...

  7. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  8. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  9. Food safety

    MedlinePlus

    Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that preserve the quality of food to prevent contamination and ... Poor food safety practices can cause infection from a foodborne illness. Symptoms of foodborne illnesses vary, but they usually include ...

  10. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Allergies Print A A ... the reaction is serious. Medications for Treating Food Allergies Antihistamines can treat isolated symptoms such as hives, ...

  11. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Adults Milk Allergy in Infants and Children Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Introducing Solid Foods to Your Baby Food ... and Adults Milk Allergy in Infants and Children Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Introducing Solid Foods to Your Baby Is ...

  12. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage can prevent foodborne illness. There are four basic steps to food safety at home: Clean - always wash your fruits and vegetables, hands, counters, and cooking utensils. Separate - keep raw foods to ...

  13. [Food intolerance].

    PubMed

    Zugasti Murillo, Ana

    2009-05-01

    Adverse food reactions are common in the general population. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the structure of food allergens and of the mechanisms involved is poor. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology suggested a classification based on the causative pathogenic mechanism. According to this classification, non-toxic reactions can be divided into food allergies when they recognize immunological mechanisms and food intolerance when there are no immunological implications. The treatment of food intolerance is avoidance of the particular food. There are specific treatments for some food intolerance (beta-galactosidases for the management of lactose intolerance). PMID:19627745

  14. Food allergy and food intolerance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J A

    1985-01-01

    Adverse reactions to foods and food additives include those that involve an immune mechanism of reaction (food allergies) and those that are non-immunological in nature (food intolerance). The signs and symptoms of food allergy usually involve the skin and gastrointestinal tract and are "classic" allergic symptoms. Food intolerance occurs more frequently at all ages. A number of food additives have been implicated in food intolerance, as none involve an immune mechanism of reaction. The role of food additives in food intolerance is not well established in many cases, has been discounted in others and continues to be the subject of current research. Although the history of events concerning an adverse reaction is important and gives clues to the specific type of problem (food allergy versus food intolerance), confirmation of the reaction is sometimes desirable. This can be done either by use of a standard elimination diet of non-allergic foods, followed by open challenge or by DBFC for more difficult situations. Food allergy skin testing and other in vitro immunologic tests may be helpful as supplemental information in those cases where food allergy is suspected. The best treatment for an adverse reaction to food is avoidance. Unproven and unapproved diagnostic (e.g., leukocytotoxic test) and therapeutic techniques (e.g., sublinqual neutralization) are not recommended in food allergy management. PMID:3857245

  15. Food insecurity and food deserts.

    PubMed

    Camp, Nadine L

    2015-08-15

    Food insecurity has been steadily increasing in the United States with prevalence at nearly 15% of all households. Nurse practitioners can assess for food insecurity and provide local resources for families living in neighborhoods without easy access to healthy foods, otherwise known as food deserts. PMID:26180911

  16. Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the development of several novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies is underway and showing promise. PMID:21364287

  17. Food labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods that claim to be nondairy (such as coffee whiteners) FDA-approved color additives Sources of protein ... contain no significant amounts of any nutrients Plain coffee and tea Ready-to-eat food prepared mostly ...

  18. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... food allergies can cause a severe reaction called anaphylaxis . Signs of this reaction include: • Hoarseness, throat tightness ... allergies to food, be sure to complete an Anaphylaxis Action Plan and carry your autoinjectable epinephrine with ...

  19. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... enabling JavaScript. Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Food Allergy NIAID ... and to clinical trials that are testing new strategies to prevent and treat food allergy. Read on ...

  20. Food jags

    MedlinePlus

    ... or caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... a good example by eating a variety of healthy foods. Prepare meals with different colors and textures that ...

  1. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  2. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2

  3. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  4. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  5. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  6. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  7. Protein Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... seafood Chicken and other poultry Cheese and eggs Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods provide quality protein, healthy fats, ... has about 2-5 ounces of meat. Most plant-based protein foods, like beans and soy products, ...

  8. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... delicious dessert, but then you see the crushed peanuts on top. Darn! You're allergic to peanuts. Maybe just one little bite? Nope. If you ... alone. These foods cause the most food allergies: peanuts and other nuts seafood, such as shrimp milk, ...

  9. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... precautions should be taken at every stage a food takes — from preparation to cooking to storing leftovers. A lot of this responsibility falls on grown-ups, but kids can help fight germs, too. One ... to prepare foods. When should you wash? Before you start helping — ...

  10. Food porn.

    PubMed

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  11. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  12. Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy. PMID:22166142

  13. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  14. "Convenience Food."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Colette

    1980-01-01

    Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

  15. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... most often trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. The allergic reaction ...

  16. Food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... growing or shipping can contain animal or human waste. Food may be handled in an unsafe way ... eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2013:chap 94.

  17. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sicherer SH, Lack G, Jones SM. Food allergy management. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. In: Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  18. Food extrusion.

    PubMed

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility. PMID:378548

  19. Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornmann, Priscilla G.

    1973-01-01

    Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

  20. Rutgers University Subcontract B611610 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Soundarajan, Sucheta; Eliassi-Rad, Tina; Gallagher, Brian; Pinar, Ali

    2015-09-30

    Given an incomplete (i.e., partially-observed) network, which nodes should we actively probe in order to achieve the highest accuracy for a given network feature? For example, consider a cyber-network administrator who observes only a portion of the network at time t and wants to accurately identify the most important (e.g., highest PageRank) nodes in the complete network. She has a limited budget for probing the network. Of all the nodes she has observed, which should she probe in order to most accurately identify the important nodes? We propose a novel and scalable algorithm, MaxOutProbe, and evaluate it w.r.t. four network features (largest connected component, PageRank, core-periphery, and community detection), five network sampling strategies, and seven network datasets from different domains. Across a range of conditions, MaxOutProbe demonstrates consistently high performance relative to several baseline strategies

  1. Rutgers zodiacal light experiment on OSO-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, B.

    1975-01-01

    A detector was placed in a slowly spinning wheel on OSO-6 whose axis was perpendicular to the line drawn to the sun, to measure the surface brightness and polarization at all elongations from the immediate neighborhood of the sun to the anti-solar point. Different wavelength settings and polarizations were calculated from the known order of magnitude brightness of the zodiacal light. The measuring sequence was arranged to give longer integration times for the regions of lower surface brightness. Three types of analysis to which the data on OSO-6 were subjected are outlined; (1) photometry, (2) colorimetry and (3) polarimetry.

  2. Protein Data Bank Project at Rutgers University

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Helen

    2002-07-18

    The central activities of the Protein Data Base continue to be the collection, archiving and distribution of high quality structural data to the scientific community on a timely basis. The systems that have been developed for doing this has become increasingly reliable and stable. We have completed the inventory of magnetic and paper media that was received from Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  3. PIXE at rutgers university: Biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G. S.; Roach, N.; Naumann, M.; Simmons, U.; Cong, H.

    1984-04-01

    We have constructed an external beam PIXE system for trace element analysis of biological and environmental samples. Analytical procedures that include sample preparation and PIXE setup are described for analysis of maternal scalp hair, amniotic fluid, human placenta, and colostrum samples. The study was conducted to obtain trace element data on important biological tissues for incorporation into a large data base that will be used to assess fetal and infant well-being. A 3.5 MeV external proton beam was used to produce X rays in the samples after they were low-temperature ashed. Detection limits for essential and toxic elements are less than 0.4 μg/g for a 6 min irradiation time.

  4. Finger Foods for Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Finger Foods for Babies KidsHealth > For Parents > Finger Foods for ... will accept a new food. previous continue Finger Foods to Avoid Finger feeding is fun and rewarding ...

  5. Understanding Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  6. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  7. Food Labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information on the amount of dietary fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, carbohydrates, dietary proteins, vitamins, and minerals in each serving Definitions for terms such as low-fat and high-fiber Information to help you see how a food ...

  8. Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furneisen, Barbara K.

    Written to teach deaf students skills in food services, this guide and the two related documents (see note) present practical skills needed to work in a school dining room setting serving approximately two hundred students and faculty. Eleven units are included, with each unit containing from three to eleven lessons. Each lesson includes an…

  9. Weaning Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…

  10. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  11. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  12. Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance? Food allergy is ... down the sugar, bacteria in the gut break it down, which forms gas, which in turn causes ...

  13. [Food toxicology].

    PubMed

    Würzner, H P

    1984-02-01

    The complex problems of food toxicology and especially of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis require continuing efforts for a better understanding of the mechanisms, risk evaluation and prevention. Essential progress was the recognition of mutation. In vitro tests now provide reproducible results within a short time. Risk evaluation remains a difficult problem, since is has not been possible yet to establish thresholds values for genotoxic substances. However, threshold levels for carcinogen promoters gain increasing importance as demonstrated for 3 representative classes of substances: mycotoxines , nitrosamines and pesticides. PMID:6727884

  14. Food Allergy Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Food Allergy Diagnosis © iStockphoto On this page Detailed History ... diagnosis of food allergy. back to top Oral food challenge Caution Because oral food challenges can cause ...

  15. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  16. Food allergy and food intolerance in childhood.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P B

    1999-01-01

    Food intolerance is a reproducible adverse reaction to a specific food ingredient that is not psychologically based. Food allergy is a form of food intolerance in which there is evidence that the response is caused by an immunological reaction to food. Other mechanisms of food intolerance include enzyme defects (e.g. lactase deficiency), pharmacological effects (e.g. histamine), toxic properties (e.g. haemagglutinating lectins) and irritants (e.g. spices). Food allergy in children is a highly contentious subject and there is often a striking lack of published evidence from which to base clinical decisions. The true prevalence of food allergy in children is unknown, although there is evidence of an increasing incidence of allergic reactions to some foods, especially peanuts. Our understanding of why some children are unable to tolerate certain foods (e.g. cow's milk, egg), or how they grow out of this intolerance, is very poor. Symptoms of food allergy in children are diverse and include vomiting, poor weight gain, abdominal pain, malabsorption, cough, wheeze, rhinitis, atopic eczema, urticaria and angioedema. Despite the lack of objective data to support the notion that food intolerance contributes to behaviour in children, this is a belief firmly held by many parents and some professionals. The gold standard for diagnosing food intolerance is the double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). There is often a poor correlation between the results of food provocation tests and those of skin prick tests of radioallergosorbent tests for specific food antibodies. For proven food allergy, elimination diets are the mainstay of management. In children these must be closely supervised to avoid nutritional deficiency and compromise of growth. Some children who have had severe (anaphylactic) reactions after food need to have a supply of self-injectable adrenaline made available to their parents and teachers and must also practice strict avoidance of the offending food. PMID:11132467

  17. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  18. FUNCTIONAL FOODS: AN OVERVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional Foods: Any food, modified food or food ingredient that provides structural, functional or health benefits, thus promoting optimal health, longevity and quality of life, "Food products that provide specific health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients they contain". It is expected th...

  19. Food insecurity, neighborhood food access, and food assistance in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Victoria L; Hillier, Amy; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Long, Judith A

    2014-12-01

    An estimated 17.6 million American households were food insecure in 2012, meaning they were unable to obtain enough food for an active and healthy life. Programs to augment local access to healthy foods are increasingly widespread, with unclear effects on food security. At the same time, the US government has recently enacted major cuts to federal food assistance programs. In this study, we examined the association between food insecurity (skipping or reducing meal size because of budget), neighborhood food access (self-reported access to fruits and vegetables and quality of grocery stores), and receipt of food assistance using the 2008, 2010, and 2012 waves of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. Of 11,599 respondents, 16.7% reported food insecurity; 79.4% of the food insecure found it easy or very easy to find fruits and vegetables, and 60.6% reported excellent or good quality neighborhood grocery stores. In our regression models adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates, compared to those who reported very difficult access to fruits and vegetables, those who reported difficult, easy or very easy access were less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.62: 95% CI 0.43-0.90, 0.33: 95% CI 0.23-0.47, and 0.28: 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Compared to those who reported poor stores, those who reported fair, good, and excellent quality stores were also less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.81: 95% CI 0.60-1.08, 0.58: 95% CI 0.43-0.78, and 0.43: 95% CI 0.31-0.59). Compared to individuals not receiving food assistance, those receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits were significantly more likely to be food insecure (OR 1.36: 95% CI 1.11-1.67), while those receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) (OR 1.17: 95% CI 0.77-1.78) and those receiving both SNAP and WIC (OR 0.84: 95% CI 0.61-1.17) did not have significantly different odds of food insecurity. In conclusion, better neighborhood food access is associated with lower risk of food insecurity. However, most food insecure individuals reported good access. Improving diet in communities with high rates of food insecurity likely requires not only improved access but also greater affordability. PMID:25047157

  20. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  1. Genetically engineered foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... nutritious food Tastier food Disease- and drought-resistant plants that require fewer environmental resources (such as water and fertilizer) Decreased use of pesticides Increased supply of food with reduced ...

  2. Vegan Food Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... derived foods or animal byproducts, and eats only plant-based foods. Besides not eating meat, poultry, seafood, ... D is not found in most commonly eaten plant foods; the best dietary sources are fortified dairy ...

  3. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find A Report SNAP WIC Food Distribution Programs Food Security Nutrition Education Program Integrity Child Nutrition Programs Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative ...

  4. Calorie count - Fast food

    MedlinePlus

    ... FOOD ITEM SERVING SIZE CALORIES Breakfast Foods Dunkin Donuts Egg White Flatbreads 1 sandwich 280 Bacon, Egg ... 7, 2011. Vikraman S, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Caloric intake from fast food among children and adolescents in ...

  5. The World Food Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1975-01-01

    Cites evidence to support the theory that the world food shortage will become a chronic condition. Describes the depletion of surplus food supplies and the increasing dependence on North America for food supplies. (MLH)

  6. Food Safety for Seniors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk of Foodborne Illness To Your Health! Food Safety for Seniors Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... prevent foodborne illness for yourself and others. Food Safety at Home Check your steps for food safety ...

  7. Freezing and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Freezing and Food Safety What Can You Freeze? Is Frozen Food Safe? ...

  8. Food Safety When Cooking

    MedlinePlus

    ... www. nia. nih. gov/ Go4Life Food Safety When Cooking Food-related illness can be serious, especially for ... how your food is prepared and stored. When cooking, follow 4 basic steps: clean, separate, cook, and ...

  9. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  10. Phytosanitary Heat Treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter by Neil Heather and Guy Hallman, in “Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers,” CABI Press, deals with disinfestations of food commodities. Disinfestation of food commodities with heat to satisfy phytosanitary requirements has the advantage of freedom from chemical residue...

  11. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  12. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  13. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  14. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for

  15. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of

  16. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  17. Personal Food System Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food

  18. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  19. Apollo 14 food system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1971-01-01

    The program for improving foods for use during space flights consists of introducing new foods and food-handling techniques on each successive manned space flight. Because of this continuing improvement program, the Apollo 14 food system was the most advanced and sophisticated food system to be used in the U.S. space program. The food system used during the Apollo 14 mission and recent space-food-system advances are described and discussed in regard to their usefulness for future manned space flights.

  20. Slow food, fast food and the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Cees; Kok, Frans J

    2010-05-01

    This Perspective focuses on two elements of our food supply and eating environment that facilitate high energy intake: a high eating rate and distraction of attention from eating. These two elements are believed to undermine our body's capacity to regulate its energy intake at healthy levels because they impair the congruent association between sensory signals and metabolic consequences. The findings of a number of studies show that foods that can be eaten quickly lead to high food intake and low satiating effects-the reason being that these foods only provide brief periods of sensory exposure, which give the human body insufficient cues for satiation. Future research should focus on the underlying physiological, neurological and molecular mechanisms through which our current eating environment affects our control of food intake. PMID:20351697

  1. [Radioactivity and food].

    PubMed

    Olszyna-Marzys, A E

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food. PMID:2143071

  2. Attributing Illness to Food

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Michael P.; Morris, J. Glenn; Painter, John; Singh, Ruby; Tauxe, Robert V.; Taylor, Michael R.; Wong, Danilo M.A. Lo Fo

    2005-01-01

    Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world, including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component of a risk-based approach to improving food safety. PMID:16022770

  3. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

  4. Food Antimicrobials Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Padilla, Adriana; Soto, Karen M.; Hernández Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Natural food antimicrobials are bioactive compounds that inhibit the growth of microorganisms involved in food spoilage or food-borne illness. However, stability issues result in degradation and loss of antimicrobial activity. Nanoencapsulation allows protection of antimicrobial food agents from unfavorable environmental conditions and incompatibilities. Encapsulation of food antimicrobials control delivery increasing the concentration of the antimicrobials in specific areas and the improvement of passive cellular absorption mechanisms resulted in higher antimicrobial activity. This paper reviews the present state of the art of the nanostructures used as food antimicrobial carriers including nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, nanoparticles, and nanofibers. PMID:24995363

  5. Food Service System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The 3M Food Service System 2 employs a "cook/chill" concept for serving food in hospitals. The system allows staff to prepare food well in advance, maintain heat, visual appeal and nutritional value as well as reducing operating costs. The integral heating method, which keeps hot foods hot and cold foods cold, was developed by 3M for the Apollo Program. In the 1970s, the company commercialized the original system and in 1991, introduced Food Service System 2. Dishes are designed to resemble those used at home, and patient satisfaction has been high.

  6. Food and feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality. PMID:23873095

  7. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  8. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of...

  9. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives in standardized foods. (a) The... inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity, the provisions of the...

  10. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  11. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate

  12. Making Smart Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free Stuff Be a Partner Making Smart Food Choices Regular physical activity and a healthy diet go ... in hand. Go4Life points you to wise food choices important for good health: eat a variety of ...

  13. Food poisoning prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... eating. MORE TIPS FOR PREVENTING FOOD POISONING: All milk, yogurt, cheese and other dairy products should have the word "Pasteurized" on the container. DO NOT eat foods that may contain raw eggs (such as Caesar salad dressing, raw cookie ...

  14. New foods for thought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent findings show that genetic material in plant foods may survive digestion, circulate through our bodies, and modulate our gene expression. These findings could alter our understanding of nutrition and genetic regulation, and open up new vistas for engineering foods....

  15. Vegan Food Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... use animal products or byproducts, and eats only plant-based foods. In addition to not eating meat, ... D is not found in most commonly eaten plant foods; the best dietary sources are fortified dairy ...

  16. Food allergies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  17. Asthma and Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma and Food Allergies Page Content Article Body A family history of ... child may develop asthma . Children with asthma and food allergies are at increased risk for anaphylaxis, a severe ...

  18. Figuring Out Food Labels

    MedlinePlus

    ... in fat and calories. Use your food label smarts to create a healthy, well-balanced diet. It ... Plate Figuring Out Food Labels Learning About Calories Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories MyPlate ...

  19. Arsenic in Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is found in water, air, food, and soil in organic and inorganic forms. The FDA has ... of arsenic compounds in water, food, air, and soil: organic and inorganic (these together are referred to ...

  20. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  1. Fast food tips (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  2. 9. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-02-01

    Food allergies affect as many as 6% of young children, most of whom "outgrow" the sensitivity, and about 2% of the general population. Although any food may provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of food allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Many of these food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of many responses and may soon lead to novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Food allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and may be due to IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. A systematic approach including history, laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges will lead to the correct diagnosis. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion. PMID:12592300

  3. Fun With Food Webs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl D.

    1977-01-01

    Explains an upper elementary game of tag that illustrates energy flow in food webs using candy bars as food sources. A follow-up field trip to a river and five language arts projects are also suggested. (CS)

  4. Adverse reactions to food.

    PubMed

    A significant number of people believe that they are 'allergic' to certain foods. Here, in an edited account of a recent report from the National Dairy Council (1998), the causes and management of food intolerance are discussed. PMID:9732630

  5. Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)

  6. Kids with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosed Real Families Faces of Food Allergies Rising Stars Gracie's Silver Linings Daniel's Confidence Ciara Builds a ... all recall alerts See all recent news Rising Stars Life As a Tween with Food Allergies MEET ...

  7. Food Applications and Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  8. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Refrigeration and Food Safety History of Refrigeration Importance of Refrigeration Types of ...

  9. Apollo food technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rambaut, P. C.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.; Huber, C. S.; Bourland, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Large improvements and advances in space food systems achieved during the Apollo food program are discussed. Modifications of the Apollo food system were directed primarily toward improving delivery of adequate nutrition to the astronaut. Individual food items and flight menus were modified as nutritional countermeasures to the effects of weightlessness. Unique food items were developed, including some that provided nutritional completeness, high acceptability, and ready-to-eat, shelf-stable convenience. Specialized food packages were also developed. The Apollo program experience clearly showed that future space food systems will require well-directed efforts to achieve the optimum potential of food systems in support of the physiological and psychological well-being of astronauts and crews.

  10. Food and Drug Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to Z ... Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 ...

  11. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  12. Food and Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvey, Lindsay

    1997-01-01

    Argues that intensive agriculture restricted to suitable lands will be required in the future due to global population growth, declining food prices, and extreme poverty. Discusses the challenge of balancing environmental care with food production. (DDR)

  13. Energy in food processing

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on energy conservation is food processing plants. Topics considered include methods of energy accounting, regression analysis, exergy analysis, the selection of electric motors, the measurement of steam flow, energy consumption in food processing systems, energy management, energy requirements in food irradiation, energy conversion methods, heat recovery, waste heat utilization, cogeneration, energy losses, and the economics of energy use in food processing.

  14. Spectroscopic study of food and food toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gavin; Walsh, James E.; Martin, Suzanne

    2003-03-01

    Fungal infection of food causes billions of dollars of lost revenue per annum as well as health problems, to animals and humans, if consumed in sufficient quantities. Modern food sorting techniques rely on colour or other physical characteristics to filter diseased or otherwise unsuitable foodstuffs from healthy foodstuffs. Their speeds are such that up to 40,000 objects per second can be moved at 4 metres per second, through 1 m wide chutes that offer a wide view for colour and shape sorting. Grain type foods such as coffee or peanuts are often vulnerable to toxic infection from invading fungi. If this happens, then their texture, taste and colour can change. Up to now, only visible wavelengths and colour identification have been used to bulk-sort food, but there has been little research in the ultra violet regions of the spectrum to help identify fungus or toxin infection. This research specifically concentrated on the ultra violet (UV) spectral characteristics of food in an attempt to identify possible spectral changes that occur when healthy food items like peanuts become infected with toxin-producing fungi. Ultimately, the goal is to design, build and construct an optical detection system that can use these 'spectral fingerprints' to more quickly and efficiently detect toxically infected food items.

  15. FOOD SAFETY AND BIOTERRORISM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the scope of the bioterrorist threat to the United States food supply in terms of food service establishments. Descriptions include the organisms and other agents that may be disseminated by food ingestion and the challenges in differentiation of intentional and unintenti...

  16. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods, especially liquid foods, conduct electricity. Unlike in metals, the charge carriers in foods are ions, instead of electrons. Under normal applications, ions carry the charges as the mass of ions moves along the electrical field. The concentration and mobility of ions determine the electrical ...

  17. The Biology of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, J. Jose

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "The Biology of Food" course. This course--a large lecture course with no laboratory section--is a mixture of kitchen chemistry, post-eating food metabolism, origins of different foods (from crop breeding to evolution), and ecological and environmental impacts of farming and harvesting practices. Nearly every…

  18. The Biology of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, J. Jose

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "The Biology of Food" course. This course--a large lecture course with no laboratory section--is a mixture of kitchen chemistry, post-eating food metabolism, origins of different foods (from crop breeding to evolution), and ecological and environmental impacts of farming and harvesting practices. Nearly every

  19. Allergenicity of processed food.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...

  20. FOOD RISK ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food risk analysis is a holistic approach to food safety because it considers all aspects of the problem. Risk assessment modeling is the foundation of food risk analysis. Proper design and simulation of the risk assessment model is important to properly predict and control risk. Because of knowl...

  1. Growing Youth Food Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wynne; Nault, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    How can youth be educated and empowered to become responsible food citizens? Evidence from a university-community partnership with youth in Michigan is presented to illuminate participatory approaches to youth engagement in food systems. We found that youth have valuable knowledge to enhance our understanding of food environments. At the same

  2. Food Stamps and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Kenneth W.

    The economics of food stamps - the America's major food assistance program is investigated in order to answer the following questions: (1) whether malnutrition be solved by food supplements or cash allowances; (2) what the benefits to recipients are; (3) whether eligibility requirements permit participation by the needy and exclude higher income…

  3. Language in Food Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plata, Maximino

    1992-01-01

    Analyses 476 food advertisements in newspapers from 3 different sized cities. Finds that brand names, food names, and descriptive vocabulary comprise the majority of language in food ads across newspaper groups. Offers suggestions for using newspaper ads in the classroom. (RS)

  4. Personal Food System Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  5. Growing Youth Food Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wynne; Nault, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    How can youth be educated and empowered to become responsible food citizens? Evidence from a university-community partnership with youth in Michigan is presented to illuminate participatory approaches to youth engagement in food systems. We found that youth have valuable knowledge to enhance our understanding of food environments. At the same…

  6. Food Rights Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which describes federal food assistance programs, is designed to help large families, families on small budgets, and elderly people on fixed incomes get more food for less money. The book is divided into four chapters: Kids, Women and Children, Families, and Senior Citizens. Each chapter describes in detail the food assistance…

  7. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  8. SAFE HANDLING OF FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial food-borne illnesses pose a significant health problem in Japan. In 1996 the world's largest outbreak of Escherichia coli food illness occurred in Japan. Since then, new regulatory measures were established, including strict hygiene practices in meat and food processi...

  9. Diagnosis of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Chinthrajah, Rebecca Sharon; Tupa, Dana; Prince, Benjamin T; Block, Whitney Morgan; Rosa, Jaime Sou; Singh, Anne Marie; Nadeau, Kari

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergies has been on the increase over the last 2 decades. Diagnosing food allergies can be complicated, as there are multiple types that have distinct clinical and immunologic features. Food allergies are broadly classified into immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated, non-IgE-mediated, or mixed food allergic reactions. This review focuses on the clinical manifestations of the different categories of food allergies and the different tests available to guide the clinician toward an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26456439

  10. 9. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Sampson, Hugh A

    2006-02-01

    Food allergy, defined as an adverse immune response to food proteins, affects as many as 6% of young children and 3% to 4% of adults. Food-induced allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and might be caused by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated (cellular) mechanisms. Our understanding of how food allergy represents an abrogation of normal oral tolerance is evolving. Although any food can provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of significant food-induced allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. A systematic approach to diagnosis includes a careful history, followed by laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges to confirm a diagnosis. Many food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of food allergy and might soon lead to novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion. PMID:16455349

  11. Reframing convenience food.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Peter; Viehoff, Valerie

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides a critical review of recent research on the consumption of 'convenience' food, highlighting the contested nature of the term and exploring its implications for public health and environmental sustainability. It distinguishes between convenience food in general and particular types of convenience food, such as ready-meals, tracing the structure and growth of the market for such foods with a particular emphasis on the UK which currently has the highest rate of ready-meal consumption in Europe. Having established the definitional complexities of the term, the paper presents the evidence from a systematic review of the literature, highlighting the significance of convenience food in time-saving and time-shifting, the importance of recent changes in domestic labour and family life, and the way the consumption of convenience food is frequently moralized. The paper shows how current debates about convenience food are part of a longer discursive history about food, health and nutrition. It discusses current levels of public understanding about the links between convenience food, environmental sustainability and food waste. The paper concludes by making a case for understanding the consumption of convenience food in terms of everyday social practices, emphasising its habitual and routine character. PMID:26678163

  12. Physiological responses of food neophobics and food neophilics to food and non-food stimuli.

    PubMed

    Raudenbush, Bryan; Capiola, August

    2012-06-01

    Individual differences in human food neophobia (the reluctance to try novel foods) and food neophilia (the overt willingness to try novel foods) influence the evaluation of tastes and odors, as well as the sampling of such stimuli. Past research also notes an association of food neophobia to PTC sensitivity, body weight, and cephalic phase salivary response. The present study assessed physiological reactions of food neophobics and neophilics to pictures of food and non-food stimuli. Stimuli pictures were presented in random order on a computer screen for a period of 5 min. No significant differences were found between the groups in relation to non-food stimuli. However, pulse, GSR, and respirations were significantly increased in food neophobics when presented pictures of food stimuli. Thus, further evidence is provided to support a physiological component at least partially responsible for differences noted between neophobics and neophilics in sensitivity, psychophysical ratings, and "willingness to try" personality. Such a component may also lead to differences in weight, nutrition, and overall health. PMID:22369957

  13. Safe food manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A; Mercier, C

    1994-03-31

    Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to food handling or consumption in domestic or common eating places, as well as protect, as much as possible, our environment. Thus, the food manufacturer has to examine step-by-step the security of the agro-cultures, their composition, but also the possible residues of pollutants and contaminants, or chemicals used to protect them against various pests and determine the possible loss or retention of these substances during technological processes. Animal raw materials should not contain veterinary drug residues or an abnormal amount of some components that result from inadequate feeding. Care should be taken to ensure the security of foods manufactured by biotechnology processes. The organisms and the whole processes used in food biotechnologies should eliminate any impurities. Any minor food ingredients, such as food additives, are under a permanent revision from the point of view of their safety. The industry reacts immediately if any justification requires that a particular food additive should not be used. In other words all the raw materials must conform to their specifications. Technological processes must create a food with an adequate microbiological quality, e.g. free of pathogens and their toxic metabolites. Any danger of microbiological contamination or accidental pollution, such as mechanical particles, chemical substances, etc. should be eliminated. The particular role of food packaging is crucial, since this is a barrier to protect the food against further parasites or microbial contamination and preserve the food from alterations due to enzymatic reactions that require particular oxygen and water activity conditions. The packaging should also protect against possible criminal damage. In addition, the material of packaging should not allow micro-migration to the food. It should be inert against its food content. Another aspect of food packaging that has to be taken into account is its recovery and recyclability. Finally, the food manufacturer has to ensure that the nutritional value of the product does not diminish through its shelf-life. The consumer should be advised about the effects of culinary practices since some of them, such as deep frying or grilling under certain circumstances, may create undesirable substances potentially harmful to human health. The food manufacturing in the context of the environment protection requires a separate issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8202696

  14. Food Protection Has Many Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Developments in food protection are described for microbiological contaminants, delicatessen foods, seafoods, mycotoxins, food additives, and regulatory surveillance. Proposed and advocated is a cooperative, basic data, monitoring program focusing on microbiological, chemical, nutritional, toxicological, and related food quality indices. (BL)

  15. Preventing and Treating Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area Preventing and Treating Food Allergy There is currently no cure for food ... of a food-induced allergic reaction. Preventing a Food Allergy Reaction You can only prevent the symptoms ...

  16. Go, Slow, and Whoa Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... quick tips for seasonal health, safety and fun Go, Slow, and Whoa Foods Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... of California and Flaghouse, Inc. 2002 Food Group GO Almost anytime foods SLOW Sometimes foods WHOA Once ...

  17. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  18. Mood, food, and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  19. [New food allergies].

    PubMed

    Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

    1999-09-25

    RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml). PMID:10526567

  20. FoodQuest for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Linda C.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the WebQuest framework developed to help students investigate the topic of nutrition. Highlights include food labels; the Food Guide Pyramid; three levels of inquiry related to nutrition and ingredients in foods; how food choices affect health; historical background of food and food companies; and online grocery shopping. (LRW)

  1. Food Safety for Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Food Safety for Your Family KidsHealth > For Parents > Food Safety for Your Family Print A A A Text ... cross your mind as you cook is food safety. Why is food safety so important? Proper food ...

  2. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  3. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics.

    PubMed

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain. PMID:24797131

  4. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics

    PubMed Central

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain. PMID:24797131

  5. Ultrasonics of food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povey, Malcolm J. W.

    1998-06-01

    Ultrasound is well suited to the study of food materials because of the possibility of noninvasive and safe implementation which is ideal for hygienic application. New advances in the understanding of the interaction between the soft solids which comprise many foods and ultrasound mean that new data and new insights into foods have been gained using ultrasound measurement techniques. Studies of complex food materials have challenged theories of ultrasound propagation, resulting in significant theoretical developments of general importance. This review covers the use of low power ultrasound to study food materials. Both pulse echo and continuous wave interferometry are covered and the theory of ultrasound scattering in soft heterogeneous media discussed. Foods to which the ultrasound technique has been applied range from eggs through margarine to chocolate.

  6. Biophysics of food perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, Adam S.; Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present food perception across a range of time and length scales as well as across the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology. We achieve the objective of the article by presenting food from a material science angle as well as presenting the physiology of food perception that enables humans to probe materials in terms of aroma, taste and texture. We highlight that by using simple physical concepts, one can also decipher the mechanisms of transport that link food structure with perception physiology and define the regime in which physiology operates. Most importantly, we emphasise the notion that food/consumer interaction operates across the biological fluid interface grouped under the terminology of mucus, acting as a transfer fluid for taste, aroma and pressure between food and dedicated receptors.

  7. Lipid oxidation on foods.

    PubMed

    St Angelo, A J

    1996-02-01

    This review discusses the basic chemical reactions that affect food flavor quality. Although there are many reactions that can lead to the deterioration of quality in foods, this review focuses on lipid oxidation and how it adversely affects flavor principals. It also presents technological advances for studying the basic mechanism of lipid oxidation, for measuring its intensity, and for retaining food quality. The food commodities that provide the subject matter for this review include vegetable oils, legumes, cereal grains, eggs, beef, lamb, poultry, seafoods, and catfish. The methodologies for assessing food quality form a multidisciplinary approach that includes primarily instrumental analysis by direct gas chromatography, chemical analysis by the TBA test, and sensory analysis by quantitative descriptive determinations. The author hopes that the information presented in this review is applicable to food commodities not discussed. PMID:8744604

  8. Novel natural food antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Dwivedi, Hari P; Yan, Xianghe

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. These compounds are naturally produced and isolated from various sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, in which they constitute part of host defense systems. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as nisin, plant essential oils, and natamycin, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective in their potential role as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Although some of these natural antimicrobials are commercially available and applied in food processing, their efficacy, consumer acceptance and regulation are not well defined. This manuscript reviews natural antimicrobial compounds with reference to their applications in food when applied individually or in combination with other hurdles. It also reviews the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobials, factors affecting their antimicrobial activities, and future prospects for use of natural antimicrobials in the food industry. PMID:22385168

  9. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  10. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. PMID:26022877

  11. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  12. International food patterns for space food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Selina; Cox, Amanda; Cornish, Pauline V.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to obtain basic data on ethnic foods by studying dietary patterns and multicultural foods, and to determine nutritional status of multicultural space explorers by evaluating dietary, clinical, biochemical, and socioeconomic factors. The study will plan a significant role in providing nutritional research for space explorers of different ethnic backgrounds. It will provide scientific background information by bringing together cross cultural dietary and nutritional from different ethnic groups. Results will also help the health care personnel including physicians, dietitians, and nutritionists to better understand and assist patients from other cultures illness. Also, the results will provide data which will help in the development of future food plans for long duration flights involving manned exploration to Mars and lunar base colonies.

  13. Urban Food Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Buluswar, Shashi

    2015-05-06

    Shashi Buluswar, Berkeley Lab's Executive Director of the Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies (LIGTT) discusses the issue of urban food deserts and malnutrition in American inner cities.

  14. Bacterial challenges in food

    PubMed Central

    Collee, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative aspects of bacterial challenges that might be encountered in food are discussed with reference to recognized and relatively unrecognized hazards. Mechanisms of pathogenicity are reviewed and the populations at risk are noted. The bacterial content of food as it is served at table merits more study. The challenge of prevention by education is discussed. Indirect bacterial challenges in our food are considered. The real challenge of diagnosis depends upon an awareness of a complex range of conditions; the importance of effective communication with efficient laboratory and epidemiological services is stressed. There is an increasing need for care in the preparation and distribution of food. PMID:4467860

  15. Transforming Food Systems through Food Sovereignty: An Australian Urban Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Federico; Dyball, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on La Via Campesina's definition of food sovereignty and its potential for reconceptualising food as a basic human right within the dominant Australian food discourse. We argue that the educative value that emerges from urban food production in Australia stems from the action of growing food and its capacity to transform…

  16. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  17. [Chemical food contaminants].

    PubMed

    Schrenk, D

    2004-09-01

    Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology. PMID:15378171

  18. Food Service Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on food service fundamentals is designed to provide a general background in the basic aspects of the food service program in the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI…

  19. Food Crystalization and Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Crystalization and Eggs Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. USDA Agricultural Research Service Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit Athens, Georgia, USA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a foo...

  20. Food for Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Cliff; And Others

    This document describes "Food for Thought," a multidisciplinary project for grades 5 through 8, using nutrition as a focal point. The program focuses on the popular topic of food to make the study of different cultures and historic periods more relevant. In the program students research the diets and prepare the meals of cultures they are…

  1. Functional foods innovations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ERRC, ARS, USDA, is to improve human health and well being by developing functional food and consumer products that utilize milk and fruit and vegetable processing residues of specialty crops. Major research approaches involve: biotec...

  2. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  3. Food Service Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the food service employee is one of a series available for use by teacher- coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with food service personnel, it was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested, and revised

  4. Niigugim Qalgadangis (Atkan Food).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Moses; Dirks, Lydia

    A history of food gathering and food preparation techniques of Alaska natives on Atka Island in the Aleutians are presented in Western Aleut and English with illustrations by J. Leslie Boffa and Mike Dirks. Directions are given for preparing: various plants, including wild rice; salted, dried, or smoked fish; baked flour; fried dough; boiled…

  5. Food-borne Zoonoses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, t...

  6. Make Better Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... helps you choose the types and amounts of food and beverages you need. And, make time to be physically ... high-fiber SuperTracker provides your calorie level, shows foods and content can help give you a feeling of beverages you need, and tracks progress toward your goals. ...

  7. Niigugim Qalgadangis (Atkan Food).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Moses; Dirks, Lydia

    A history of food gathering and food preparation techniques of Alaska natives on Atka Island in the Aleutians are presented in Western Aleut and English with illustrations by J. Leslie Boffa and Mike Dirks. Directions are given for preparing: various plants, including wild rice; salted, dried, or smoked fish; baked flour; fried dough; boiled

  8. Food Stamps: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Colin; And Others

    A voluminous body of literature exists on the topic of food stamps including the administration of the federal and state programs and the question of abuses and fraud. This bibliography describes a portion of that material in print. An introduction provides general information and a chronology of the food stamp program and comments on the place of…

  9. Food Service Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This handbook presents a competency-based curriculum that provides information to teachers and administrators planning a secondary food service program in Alaska. The organization of the handbook is similar to the work stations commonly found in food service operations, although some competency areas, such as sanitation and safety and the care and…

  10. Yersiniosis and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue of journal of food pathogens was designed to share some of the interested scientific studies published on yersiniosis, a foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of food contaminated with Yersinia. In this issue, the focus was on yersiniosis related foodborne illnesses, beh...

  11. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  12. Cafeteria Food. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Currently, high school students account for 60% of food sold in cafeterias. School lunches should provide 33% of the students' energy intake, however, according to some research, it was found that it tends to only provide 19% because of the sale of "competitive" foods. Research by the U.S. Department of Agriculture found that girls ages 14-18 eat…

  13. Rebuilding the Food Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willet, Walter C.; Stampfer, Meir J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the old food guide pyramid released in 1992 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Contradicts the message that fat is bad, which was presented to the public by nutritionists, and the effects of plant oils on cholesterol. Introduces a new food pyramid. (YDS)

  14. Food Service Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappole, C. L.; Louvier, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    A study to design a food service system using current technology to serve a small scale Space Station was conducted. The psychological, sociological and nutritional factors affecting feeding in microgravity conditions was investigated. The logistics of the food service system was defined.

  15. Processing of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy. PMID:19878858

  16. Rethinking brain food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are the functional food du jour, then that "jour" must first have been the 5th day of creation (according to Genesis 1:21), when the marine fish were created and exhorted to be fruitful and multiply. The exact time when these marine species became "brain food" for peopl...

  17. Acrylamide in snack foods.

    PubMed

    Das, Amit Baran; Srivastav, Prem Prakas

    2012-04-01

    Research on acrylamide has been going on for the last four decades. However, its presence in carbohydrate-rich and high temperature processed foods was confirmed in 2002, after which a significant progress in this field has been made. A number of studies were conducted to explore the mechanism of its formation in carbohydrate-rich foods. Carbohydrate, protein, and fat are the main constituents of food, which are mainly responsible for the formation of acrylamide, and thus, a number of investigations were carried out to reduce its quantity in food. Moreover, various studies regarding carcinogenic and neurotoxic effects of acrylamide on animal models suggested that acrylamide can produce tumor in the thyroid gland, testes, mammary gland, lungs, clitoral gland, brain, and also enhance mutation, a step to cancer. Therefore, this review addresses the studies conducted since recently on the toxicological effects, formation mechanism and reduction of the formation of acrylamide in snack foods. PMID:22023505

  18. Natural toxicants in foods.

    PubMed

    Coon, J M

    1975-09-01

    Food constitutes the most complex part of our chemical environment. Naturally occurring substances in food, such as goitrogens and estrogens, are toxicants. However, there is a difference of degree between toxicity and hazard, and the hazard to man in normal good health from naturally occurring toxicants in food is usually slight, because of (a) the small concentrations and (b) antagonistic interactions between toxicants which provide "safety in numbers." Hazard from foods may indeed exist under some circumstances, such as the presence of abnormal contaminants, ingestion of abnormal amounts, or abnormal susceptibility existing in some disease states. However, the major hazards of the dinner table can ordinarily be ascribed to careless food handling, unbalanced or fad diets, or overeating. PMID:1151026

  19. Enterococci from foods.

    PubMed

    Giraffa, Giorgio

    2002-06-01

    Enterococci have recently emerged as nosocomial pathogens. Their ubiquitous nature determines their frequent finding in foods as contaminants. In addition, the notable resistance of enterococci to adverse environmental conditions explains their ability to colonise different ecological niches and their spreading within the food chain through contaminated animals and foods. Enterococci can also contaminate finished products, such as fermented foods and, for this reason, their presence in many foods (such as cheeses and fermented sausages) can only be limited but not completely eliminated using traditional processing technologies. Enterococci are low grade pathogens but their intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics and their acquisition of resistance to the few antibiotics available for treatment in clinical therapy, such as the glycopeptides, have led to difficulties and a search for new drugs and therapeutic options. Enterococci can cause food intoxication through production of biogenic amines and can be a reservoir for worrisome opportunistic infections and for virulence traits. Clearly, there is no consensus on the acceptance of their presence in foodstuffs and their role as primary pathogens is still a question mark. In this review, the following topics will be covered: (i) emergence of the enterococci as human pathogens due to the presence of virulence factors such as the production of adhesins and aggregation substances, or the production of biogenic amines in fermented foods; (ii) their presence in foods; (iii) their involvement in food-borne illnesses; (iv) the presence, selection and spreading of antibiotic-resistant enterococci as opportunistic pathogens in foods, with particular emphasis on vancomycin-resistant enterococci. PMID:12069881

  20. Food Safety, Farm to Fork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    In response to growing threat of food-borne illness, the federal government launched the Food Safety Initiative. A key element is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system (HACCP), designed to make everyone in the food-delivery chain responsible for ensuring a safe food supply. The Food and Drug Administration also announced a beef

  1. Food Safety, Farm to Fork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    In response to growing threat of food-borne illness, the federal government launched the Food Safety Initiative. A key element is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system (HACCP), designed to make everyone in the food-delivery chain responsible for ensuring a safe food supply. The Food and Drug Administration also announced a beef…

  2. Introduction to Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Investigations in food science and technology, whether by the food industry, governmental agencies, or universities, often require determination of food composition and characteristics. Trends and demands of consumers, the food industry, and national and international regulations challenge food scientists as they work to monitor food composition and to ensure the quality and safety of the food supply. All food products require analysis as part of a quality management program throughout the development process (including raw ingredients), through production, and after a product is in the market. In addition, analysis is done of problem samples and competitor products. The characteristics of foods (i.e., chemical composition, physical properties, sensory properties) are used to answer specific questions for regulatory purposes and typical quality control. The nature of the sample and the specific reason for the analysis commonly dictate the choice of analytical methods. Speed, precision, accuracy, and ruggedness often are key factors in this choice. Validation of the method for the specific food matrix being analyzed is necessary to ensure usefulness of the method. Making an appropriate choice of the analytical technique for a specific application requires a good knowledge of the various techniques (Fig. 1.1). For example, your choice of method to determine the salt content of potato chips would be different if it is for nutrition labeling than for quality control. The success of any analytical method relies on the proper selection and preparation of the food sample, carefully performing the analysis, and doing the appropriate calculations and interpretation of the data. Methods of analysis developed and endorsed by several nonprofit scientific organizations allow for standardized comparisons of results between different laboratories and for evaluation of less standard procedures. Such official methods are critical in the analysis of foods, to ensure that they meet the legal requirements established by governmental agencies. Government regulations and international standards most relevant to the analysis of foods are mentioned here but covered in more detail in Chap. 2, and nutrition labeling regulations in the USA are covered in Chap. 3. Internet addresses for many of the organizations and government agencies discussed are given at the end of this chapter.

  3. Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, but most people don't think about food safety until they or someone they know gets sick ... show where the host, Maria, unintentionally makes common food safety mistakes when preparing her dishes. The Food Safe ...

  4. Community food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Community food webs describe the feeding relationships, or trophic interactions, between the species of an ecological community. Both the structure and dynamics of such webs are the focus of food web research. The topological structures of empirical food webs from many ecosystems have been published on the basis of field studies and they form the foundation for theory concerning the mean number of trophic levels, the mean number of trophic connections versus number of species, and other food web measures, which show consistency across different ecosystems. The dynamics of food webs are influenced by indirect interactions, in which changes in the level of a population in one part of the food web may have indirect effects throughout the web. The mechanisms of these interactions are typically studied microcosm experiments, or sometimes in-field experiments. The use of mathematical models is also a major approach to understanding the effects of indirect interactions. Both empirical and mathematical studies have revealed important properties of food webs, such as keystone predators and trophic cascades.

  5. Modeling Sustainable Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The processes underlying environmental, economic, and social unsustainability derive in part from the food system. Building sustainable food systems has become a predominating endeavor aiming to redirect our food systems and policies towards better-adjusted goals and improved societal welfare. Food systems are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Policy needs to encourage public perception of humanity and nature as interdependent and interacting. The systemic nature of these interdependencies and interactions calls for systems approaches and integrated assessment tools. Identifying and modeling the intrinsic properties of the food system that will ensure its essential outcomes are maintained or enhanced over time and across generations, will help organizations and governmental institutions to track progress towards sustainability, and set policies that encourage positive transformations. This paper proposes a conceptual model that articulates crucial vulnerability and resilience factors to global environmental and socio-economic changes, postulating specific food and nutrition security issues as priority outcomes of food systems. By acknowledging the systemic nature of sustainability, this approach allows consideration of causal factor dynamics. In a stepwise approach, a logical application is schematized for three Mediterranean countries, namely Spain, France, and Italy. PMID:26932834

  6. Food Processing Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    When NASA started plarning for manned space travel in 1959, the myriad challenges of sustaining life in space included a seemingly mundane but vitally important problem: How and what do you feed an astronaut? There were two main concerns: preventing food crumbs from contaminating the spacecraft's atmosphere or floating into sensitive instruments, and ensuring complete freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria, viruses, and toxins. To solve these concerns, NASA enlisted the help of the Pillsbury Company. Pillsbury quickly solved the first problem by coating bite-size foods to prevent crumbling. They developed the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concept to ensure against bacterial contamination. Hazard analysis is a systematic study of product, its ingredients, processing conditions, handling, storage, packing, distribution, and directions for consumer use to identify sensitive areas that might prove hazardous. Hazard analysis provides a basis for blueprinting the Critical Control Points (CCPs) to be monitored. CCPs are points in the chain from raw materials to the finished product where loss of control could result in unacceptable food safety risks. In early 1970, Pillsbury plants were following HACCP in production of food for Earthbound consumers. Pillsbury's subsequent training courses for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) personnel led to the incorporation of HACCP in the FDA's Low Acid Canned Foods Regulations, set down in the mid-1970s to ensure the safety of all canned food products in the U.S.

  7. Modeling Sustainable Food Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    The processes underlying environmental, economic, and social unsustainability derive in part from the food system. Building sustainable food systems has become a predominating endeavor aiming to redirect our food systems and policies towards better-adjusted goals and improved societal welfare. Food systems are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Policy needs to encourage public perception of humanity and nature as interdependent and interacting. The systemic nature of these interdependencies and interactions calls for systems approaches and integrated assessment tools. Identifying and modeling the intrinsic properties of the food system that will ensure its essential outcomes are maintained or enhanced over time and across generations, will help organizations and governmental institutions to track progress towards sustainability, and set policies that encourage positive transformations. This paper proposes a conceptual model that articulates crucial vulnerability and resilience factors to global environmental and socio-economic changes, postulating specific food and nutrition security issues as priority outcomes of food systems. By acknowledging the systemic nature of sustainability, this approach allows consideration of causal factor dynamics. In a stepwise approach, a logical application is schematized for three Mediterranean countries, namely Spain, France, and Italy.

  8. Food-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Bushra, Rabia; Aslam, Nousheen; Khan, Arshad Yar

    2011-03-01

    The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction), food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction) or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction). A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least food-drug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient. PMID:22043389

  9. Food-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bushra, Rabia; Aslam, Nousheen; Khan, Arshad Yar

    2011-01-01

    The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction), food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction) or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction). A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least food-drug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient. PMID:22043389

  10. Food packing optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a universal closure lid for the space shuttle food package is reported. The revised lid needs a folded configuration which, when unfolded, fully conforms to the interior surfaces of the food cup. Experimental thermoform molds were fabricated and test lids formed. The lid material not in contact with the food conformed to the cup interior without wrinkles, permitting full nesting of the cups. The final lid design was established and thermoform tooling designed and fabricated. Lids formed on these molds were tested for strength. The heating elements were replaced and repositioned to eliminate any hot spots which may cause warpage.

  11. [Food-cobalamin syndrome].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Serraj K; Vogel T; Federici L; Ciobanu E; Mecili M; Kaltenbach G; Andrès E

    2009-01-01

    Food-cobalamin malabsorption is a new well-characterized syndrome. In association with pernicious anemia, it is the leading etiology of cobalamin deficiency in adult, especially in elderly patient. Currently, it is an exclusion diagnosis that requires a well-codified clinical strategy for diagnosis. There are several causes of food-cobalamin malabsorption, mainly gastric disorders and drugs (metformin and anti-acid drugs). Current treatment modality includes oral cobalamin administration with lower doses than in pernicious anemia. Studies are in the way to better characterize the food-cobalamin malabsorption in a clinical practice perspective and to validate the usefulness of oral cobalamin therapy.

  12. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  13. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program

  14. Increasing variety of foods consumed by blending nonpreferred foods into preferred foods.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Michael M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Patel, Meeta R; Kelley, Michael E; Pruett, Angela

    2004-01-01

    A treatment with differential or noncontingent reinforcement and nonremoval of the spoon increased the acceptance of one or two of 16 foods for 2 participants with severe food refusal. These differential levels of acceptance were demonstrated empirically in an ABAB design in which A was the presentation of the accepted (preferred) foods and B was the presentation of foods the participants refused (nonpreferred foods). Subsequently, we implemented a blending treatment that consisted of mixing (blending) nonpreferred foods into preferred foods in various ratios (e.g., 10% nonpreferred/90% preferred, 20% nonpreferred/80% preferred). We then presented nonpreferred foods that had been exposed to blending to determine if consumption of nonpreferred foods would increase following the blending treatment. We also conducted periodic reversals in which we presented nonpreferred foods that had not been exposed to the blending treatment. Following initial implementation of the blending treatment, consumption was high for nonpreferred foods that had been blended and low for nonpreferred foods that had not been blended. Consumption increased for all foods (i.e., foods that had been exposed to blending and foods that had not been exposed to blending) after seven or eight foods had been exposed to the blending treatment. Thus, the variety of foods consumed by the participants increased from one or two to 16. These results are discussed in terms of stimulus fading, conditioned food preferences, and escape extinction. DESCRIPTORS: conditioned food preferences, food refusal, negative reinforcement, stimulus fading PMID:15293635

  15. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  16. Food Safety for Warmer Weather

    MedlinePlus

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather In warm-weather months, who ... they produce,” says Dr. Alison O’Brien, a food safety expert at the Uniformed Services University of the ...

  17. Food and Nutrition Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Tips Browse By Subject Dietary Guidance Lifecycle Nutrition Diet and Disease Food Composition Food Safety Weight and Obesity Food Labeling Dietary Supplements Nutrition Assistance Programs Surveys, Reports and Research Professional and ...

  18. Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

  19. Shall We License Food Handlers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ben Meyr, Berl

    1973-01-01

    This article, reprinted from "The Sanitarian" of May/June 1946, supports a resolution passed by the National Association of Sanitarians advocating the examination of food handlers and operators of food establishments on basic knowledge relating to food sanitation. (JR)

  20. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  1. Vitamin food fortification today

    PubMed Central

    de Lourdes Samaniego-Vaesken, Maria; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2012-01-01

    Historically, food fortification has served as a tool to address population-wide nutrient deficiencies such as rickets by vitamin D fortified milk. This article discusses the different policy strategies to be used today. Mandatory or voluntary fortification and fortified foods, which the consumer needs, also have to comply with nutritional, regulatory, food safety and technical issues. The ‘worldwide map of vitamin fortification’ is analysed, including differences between develop and developing countries. The vitamins, folate and vitamin D, are taken as practical examples in the review of the beneficial effect of different strategies on public health. The importance of the risk–benefit aspect, as well as how to identify the risk groups, and the food vehicles for fortification is discussed. PMID:22481896

  2. Starchy foods (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugary foods, such as bread, rice, pasta, cereal, potatoes, peas, corn, fruit, fruit juice, milk, yogurt, cookies, candy, soda, and other sweets. Other possible sources include peas, milk, and yogurt.

  3. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines three renovated college facilities that offer student-friendly dining space. Renovation problems in the areas of food and entertainment, service and choice, and image versus architectural history preservation are addressed. (GR)

  4. Preventing food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... proper canning techniques to prevent botulism. DO NOT feed honey to children under 1 year of age. DO NOT eat wild mushrooms. When traveling where contamination is more likely, eat only hot, freshly cooked food. Drink water only if ...

  5. Best Food Choices

    MedlinePlus

    ... to unsweetened whole grain cereal or oatmeal. Choose lean protein foods . Try to include fish twice per ... Remove the skin from chicken and turkey. Choose lean cuts of beef and pork, such as those ...

  6. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides four examples of how colleges have incorporated the marketplace into their food service operations as one way of attracting new students. Dining room design features discussed include furniture selection and servery and serving-platform design. (GR)

  7. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  8. Fast food tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... high in calories, fat, sugar, and salt. Some restaurants still use hydrogenated vegetable oils for frying. These ... ban the use of these fats. Now, many restaurants are preparing foods using other types of fat. ...

  9. Upgrading Food Service Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Murphy Elementary School District in Phoenix, Arizona has cut food service costs and improved community relations by cooking and baking from "scratch" and utilizing the staff's ethnic cooking skills. (MLF)

  10. Choosing Nutrient Dense Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... their requirements for things like protein, vitamins, and minerals are unchanged, so that means that calorie for ... Narrator: This means eating foods that contain vitamins, minerals, complex carbohydrates, lean protein, low-fat milk products, ...

  11. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  12. Antioxidant content of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-based foods, especially fruits, vegetables, and nuts, contain bioactive components which have various biological functions, including free radical scavenging and metal chelating (antioxidant), inhibition of lipid peroxidation, anti-inflammatory properties, etc. Oxidative stress may contribute...

  13. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  14. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is another word for "calories." Your ... adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages. Energy Balance in Real Life Think of it as ...

  15. Soy Foods and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... vegetarian products such as soy burgers and soy hot dogs. Whole soy beans (edamame) and foods that ...

  16. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    MedlinePlus

    ... whole seeds, which can pass through undigested. Flaxseed oil comes from pressed flax seeds. ... get them from foods like seafood and flaxseeds. Oils, such as canola and soybean oil, contain the ...

  17. MyFoodAdvisor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I eat this? . . . Meal Planning and Tips Managing diabetes is a challenge that requires finding the right ... medicine, if needed. Healthful food is key to managing diabetes. Only you can decide what to eat and ...

  18. Update on food allergy.

    PubMed

    Carrard, A; Rizzuti, D; Sokollik, C

    2015-12-01

    Food allergies are a global health issue with increasing prevalence. Allergic reactions can range from mild local symptoms to severe anaphylactic reactions. Significant progress has been made in diagnostic tools such as component-resolved diagnostics and its impact on risk stratification as well as in therapeutic approaches including biologicals. However, a cure for food allergy has not yet been achieved and patients and their families are forced to alter eating habits and social engagements, impacting their quality of life. New technologies and improved in vitro and in vivo models will advance our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergies and multicenter-multinational cohort studies will elucidate interactions between genetic background, lifestyle, and environmental factors. This review focuses on new insights and developments in the field of food allergy and summarizes recently published articles. PMID:26443043

  19. Skylab food system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab food program was a major effort involving a complex spectrum of activities necessary for the preparation of a crew feeding system. Approximately 17,000 individual food packages and support items, weighing more than 1225 kg, were launched into space as a single unit on board the orbital workshop. This unit provided the three (three-man) Skylab crews with nourishing foods and beverages for a total of 156 days, as well as with eating utensils and accessory items. Additionally, provisions for 5 days (15 man-days) were provided in each of the three command and service modules in a manner similar to that of the Apollo flights. The Skylab food system not only provided the crew with a palatable balanced diet in a familiar and acceptable manner but also supported the formidable mineral balance medical experiment series (M070).

  20. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  1. History of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Brunello

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we will first consider whether there is real evidence on the basis of literature for early descriptions in antiquity of pathogenic reactions after food intake that could be comparable to allergy, for instance in the scriptures of Hippocrates or Lucretius. On this topic we are skeptical, which is in agreement with the medical historian Hans Schadewaldt. We also assert that it is unlikely that King Richard III was the first food-allergic individual in medical literature. Most probably it was not a well-planned poisoning ('allergy') with strawberries, but rather a birth defect ('… his harm was ever such since his birth') that allowed the Lord Protector to bring Mylord of Ely to the scaffold in the Tower, as we can read in The History of King Richard III by Thomas More (1478-1535; published by his son-in-law, Rastell, in 1557). In 1912, the American pediatrician Oscar Menderson Schloss (1882-1952) was probably the first to describe scratch tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. Milestones in the practical diagnosis of food allergy are further discussed, including scratch tests, intradermal tests, modified prick tests and prick-to-prick tests. False-negative results can be attributed to the phenomenon of a 'catamnestic reaction' according to Max Werner (1911-1987), or to the fermentative degradation of food products. Prior to the discovery of immunoglobulin E, which marked a turning point in allergy diagnosis, and the introduction of the radioallergosorbent test in 1967, several more or less reliable techniques were used in the diagnosis of food allergy, such as pulse rate increase after food intake according to Coca, the leukopenic index, drop in basophils or drastic platelet decrease. The 'leukocytotoxic test' (Bryan's test), today called the 'ALCAT' test, shows no scientific evidence. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. For the future, component-resolved diagnostics with the use of recombinant molecular allergens or chip arrays, such as the ISAC technique, hold a lot of promise. With regard to the clinical situation, a subjective selection is given, touching on the pollen-associated food allergies ('birch-mugwort-celery-spice syndrome'), as well as the new phenomenon of lethal food allergies that have appeared since the 1980s. Finally, rare ways of elicitation of a 'derivative allergy', first described by Erich Fuchs (1921-2008), for example by kissing, as well as 'oral allergy syndrome' and oral hyposensitization are considered. PMID:24925391

  2. Children's food preferences: effects of weight status, food type, branding and television food advertisements (commercials).

    PubMed

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts. PMID:17963122

  3. Food price volatility

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C. L.; Morgan, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    The high food prices experienced over recent years have led to the widespread view that food price volatility has increased. However, volatility has generally been lower over the two most recent decades than previously. Variability over the most recent period has been high but, with the important exception of rice, not out of line with historical experience. There is weak evidence that grains price volatility more generally may be increasing but it is too early to say. PMID:20713400

  4. Aerospace Food Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Maureen A.; Fohey, Michael F.

    1990-01-01

    Lightweight tray designed for use in microgravity. Provides restraint and thermal insulation for modular packages of food. Magnetic utensils restrained by attraction to ferrous plate mounted underneath. Restraints for pouch and spring clips also provided. Surfaces made smooth to facilitate cleaning, and number of cracks, crevices, and pits where food residues collect kept to minimum. Useful for serving meals in airplanes, boats, hospitals, and facilities that care for children.

  5. Developing new food products.

    PubMed

    Salmon, J

    1979-12-01

    Stages of developing a new food product - market research, product development, adaptation to factory production, test marketing, national marketing, and advertising--are described. It is shown that no product is successful if not liked by potential purchasers. If the dietitian wishes to market nutrition education successfully this must be done by taking food habits into consideration, influencing them perhaps, but not attempting to reverse trends. PMID:521628

  6. Traditional Indonesian dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Surono, Ingrid S

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago blessed with one of the richest mega-biodiversities and also home to one of the most diverse cuisines and traditional fermented foods. There are 3 types of traditional dairy foods, namely the butter-like product minyak samin; yogurt-like product dadih; and cheese-like products dali or bagot in horbo, dangke, litsusu, and cologanti, which reflect the culture of dairy product consumption in Indonesia. PMID:26715081

  7. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirmons, T. A.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the stability of vitamin content, sensory acceptability and color variation in fortified spaceflight foods over a period of 2 years. Findings will identify optimal formulation, processing, and storage conditions to maintain stability and acceptability of commercially available fortification nutrients. Changes in food quality are being monitored to indicate whether fortification affects quality over time (compared to the unfortified control), thus indicating their potential for use on long-duration missions.

  8. Psychobiology and Food Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Psychobiology is a scientific discipline which encompasses the phenomena known to be important as regards nutrition and food consumption in space. Specifically, it includes those areas of biology which are clearly related to behavior, human subjective experience and problems of coping and adapting to stress. Taste and odor perception; perception (knowledge gaps); perception (needs); food preference and menu selection; and choosing of acceptable diets are discussed.

  9. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life. PMID:27207694

  10. Zapping the food supply

    SciTech Connect

    Louria, D.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The idea of exposing food to gamma radiation is over 30 years old, and in 1963 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began to permit the irradiation of wheat. Over the years, a few more foodstuffs such as spices and tea were added, but in 1984 the FDA started to approve irradiation of a much broader list of products which now includes meat, poultry, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Simultaneously the FDA has increased the levels of radiation that may be used. The FDA's recent willingness to allow most of the food supply to be irradiated - and at high doses - has triggered an acrimonious debate. The amount of radiation involved is substantial, with intensities millions of times greater than that of an ordinary chest X-ray. The announced goal of promoters of food irradiation is to obtain general approval for the use of up to one million rad. Irradiation does not make food radioactive, nor has alleged radioactivity been at issue in the debate. But there is concern that foods processed by irradiation may contain radiolytic products that could have toxic effects. 12 refs.

  11. Food-Borne Trematodiases

    PubMed Central

    Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-01-01

    Summary: An estimated 750 million people are at risk of infections with food-borne trematodes, which comprise liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola gigantica, Fasciola hepatica, Opisthorchis felineus, and Opisthorchis viverrini), lung flukes (Paragonimus spp.), and intestinal flukes (e.g., Echinostoma spp., Fasciolopsis buski, and the heterophyids). Food-borne trematodiases pose a significant public health and economic problem, yet these diseases are often neglected. In this review, we summarize the taxonomy, morphology, and life cycle of food-borne trematodes. Estimates of the at-risk population and number of infections, geographic distribution, history, and ecological features of the major food-borne trematodes are reviewed. We summarize clinical manifestations, patterns of infection, and current means of diagnosis, treatment, and other control options. The changing epidemiological pattern and the rapid growth of aquaculture and food distribution networks are highlighted, as these developments might be associated with an elevated risk of transmission of food-borne trematodiases. Current research needs are emphasized. PMID:19597009

  12. Food Allergies: The Basics

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. PMID:25680669

  13. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role. PMID:26627090

  14. Food for Education Indicator Guide. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Gilles; Del Rosso, Joy Miller

    As defined by the U.S. Agency for International Development, food security is attained "when all people at all times have both physical and economic access to sufficient food to meet their dietary needs for a productive and healthy life." In this guide, Food for Education (FFE) is defined as a program using food as a resource to improve…

  15. Beyond Food Security to Realizing Food Rights in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Molly D.

    2013-01-01

    The right to food is widely accepted by nations, with the notable exception of the United States (US) and four other countries. The US government deals with domestic food insecurity through an array of needs-based food assistance programs instead of rights-based approaches; and administration officials have resisted the right to food for several

  16. Organic Food and the Plural Moralities of Food Provisioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Anne Holst

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic food may, or may

  17. Beyond Food Security to Realizing Food Rights in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Molly D.

    2013-01-01

    The right to food is widely accepted by nations, with the notable exception of the United States (US) and four other countries. The US government deals with domestic food insecurity through an array of needs-based food assistance programs instead of rights-based approaches; and administration officials have resisted the right to food for several…

  18. Reducing food allergy: is there promise for food applications?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy has been increasing in recent years. Food allergy can be deadly, and strict avoidance of foods containing allergenic proteins is the only effective way to prevent food-induced allergic reaction. This approach poses challenges, because allergens are not always accurately...

  19. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  20. Organic Food and the Plural Moralities of Food Provisioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Anne Holst

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic food may, or may…

  1. Food Mapping: A Psychogeographical Method for Raising Food Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, R. Alan; Killham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Food mapping is a new, participatory, interdisciplinary pedagogical approach to learning about our modern food systems. This method is inspired by the Situationist International's practice of the "dérive" and draws from the discourses of critical geography, the food movement's research on food deserts, and participatory action…

  2. Food Mapping: A Psychogeographical Method for Raising Food Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, R. Alan; Killham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Food mapping is a new, participatory, interdisciplinary pedagogical approach to learning about our modern food systems. This method is inspired by the Situationist International's practice of the "drive" and draws from the discourses of critical geography, the food movement's research on food deserts, and participatory action

  3. Crediting Foods in the Child Care Food Program. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Robbinsville, NJ. Mid-Atlantic Regional Office.

    This modified version of a previously published title provides additional information on foods for which reimbursement may be obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) by child care centers and family day care homes participating in the Child Care Food Program. Such foods, called creditable foods, are those that may be…

  4. Do television food advertisements portray advertised foods in a 'healthy' food context?

    PubMed

    Adams, Jean; Tyrrell, Rachel; White, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to food promotion influences food preferences and diet. As food advertisements tend to promote 'less healthy' products, food advertising probably plays some role in the 'obesity epidemic'. Amid calls for increased regulation, food manufacturers are beginning to engage in a variety of health-promoting marketing initiatives. Positioning products in the context of a 'healthy', balanced diet in television advertisements is one such initiative. We explored whether the wider food context in which foods are advertised on television are 'healthier' than the advertised foods themselves. All foods shown in food advertisements broadcast during 1 week on one commercial UK channel were identified and classified as 'primary' (i.e. the focus of advertisements) or 'incidental'. The nutritional content of all foods was determined and that of primary and incidental foods were compared. Almost two-thirds of food advertisements did not include any incidental foods. When a wider food context was present, this tended to be 'healthier' than the primary foods that were the focus of food advertisements - particularly in terms of the food groups represented. It is not yet clear what effect this may have on consumers' perceptions and behaviour, and whether or not this practice should be encouraged or discouraged from a public health perspective. PMID:21078214

  5. Cognitive Perspectives on Peer Learning. Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Angela M., Ed.; King, Alison, Ed.

    Considerable attention has been given recently to how children educate each other and how to maximize the cognitive benefits of peer learning. Based on papers presented at a 1996 symposium on Cognitive Skills and Learning with Peers, this book focuses on peer learning. Part 1 presents implications of Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories. Part 2…

  6. Cognitive Perspectives on Peer Learning. Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Angela M., Ed.; King, Alison, Ed.

    Considerable attention has been given recently to how children educate each other and how to maximize the cognitive benefits of peer learning. Based on papers presented at a 1996 symposium on Cognitive Skills and Learning with Peers, this book focuses on peer learning. Part 1 presents implications of Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories. Part 2

  7. Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  8. [Food allergy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693

  9. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective. PMID:26025087

  10. HYPOALLERGENIC FOODS - SOYBEANS AND PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have been recognized as a growing problem. Although food allergies are routinely managed by avoidance, understanding how food allergies are induced presents the prospect for moderating adverse and possibly life-threatening immune reactions. Among the possible means to manage food alle...

  11. Microencapsulation and functional bioactive foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food, the essential unit of human nutrition has been both wholesome and safe through human history ensuring the continuity of the human race. Functionalized foods are the rediscovery of the need to provide all nutrients through foods without adulteration. The functional components of foods include...

  12. Chilled storage of foods - principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilled storage is the most common method for preserving perishable foods. The consumers’ increasing demand for convenient, minimally processed foods has caused food manufacturers to increase production of refrigerated foods worldwide. This book chapter reviews the development of using low tempera...

  13. Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition are viewed as a continuum, with food insecurity resulting in hunger and ultimately, if sufficiently severe and/or of sufficient duration, in undernutrition. Food insecurity indicates inadequate access to food for whatever reason, hunger is the immediate ph...

  14. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…

  15. Food Buying Guide and Recipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Development Services Bureau (DHEW/OCD), Washington, DC. Project Head Start.

    This booklet, designed to assist Project Head State personnel responsible for food programs, presents an extensive food buying guide and more than 40 recipes suitable for a Head Start feeding program. The food buying guide list buying information for food to be used by Project Head Start Centers serving breakfasts, lunches, and/or snacks. For each…

  16. Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition are often viewed as a continuum, with food insecurity resulting in hunger and, ultimately, if sufficiently severe and/or of sufficient duration, in undernutrition. According to this view, food insecurity indicates inadequate access to food for whatever rea...

  17. Food processing and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. PMID:25778347

  18. [Milk and food security].

    PubMed

    Díaz Yubero, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    In the history of food security in the EU there is a before and after the White Paper published in January 2000; since then we are witnessing radical new approaches in the Commission strategy to ensure the highest standards of food safety for EU citizens, based on a more coordinated and integrated organization. The basic principle was to extend the application of control measures at all stages of the production chain, which was summarized in the slogan which has since been repeated regularly: 'From Farm to Consumer'. The new guidelines for action were the answer to a series of food crises (dioxin, hormones, BSE...) that called into question the European agri-food system and, what was even more severe, produced a deep distrust of consumers by health risks attached to feeding. Beef and cow's milk, two basic components of the European diet, were the products most affected by the aforementioned crisis, which showed that in those years very few companies paid attention to the quality from the source. In this paper a review of the issues presented at the time, the measures implemented by the White Paper and the path travelled is done, while it raised the need to use safe and quality raw materials, so that consumers have absolute confidence in their food. PMID:25862327

  19. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. PMID:24497160

  20. Exercise and functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise. PMID:16749944

  1. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  2. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  3. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  4. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  5. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  6. Food addiction and neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). PMID:21492080

  7. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

  8. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

  9. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms- ... raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the food ...

  10. Skylab food system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. R.; Sanford, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the Skylab food system requirements, package designs, and launch configurations was presented. In-flight anomalies were discussed, and between-mission changes in design were described. A discussion of support for Skylab 3 and Skylab 4 mission extensions and of new items launched on these missions is included.

  11. Food Allergy: An Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... evidence to tell pregnant women, nursing mothers, and mothers of infants how to prevent food allergy from developing in their children. Be sure to talk with your healthcare professional before changing your diet or your baby’s diet. Here is what healthcare ...

  12. Metrics for Food Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of food services students, this instructional package is one of three for the hospitality and recreation occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…

  13. Food-System Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rop, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    This set of inquiry lessons is adaptable for middle school through high school life science or biology classrooms and will help meet the NSTA scientific inquiry position statement (2004) and the AAAS benchmarks (1993) and NRC standards (1996; 2000) related to health and food literacy. The standards require adolescents to examine their own diet and…

  14. Food-System Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rop, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    This set of inquiry lessons is adaptable for middle school through high school life science or biology classrooms and will help meet the NSTA scientific inquiry position statement (2004) and the AAAS benchmarks (1993) and NRC standards (1996; 2000) related to health and food literacy. The standards require adolescents to examine their own diet and

  15. Food for Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Given, Barbara K.

    1998-01-01

    What and how students eat can profoundly affect their ability to learn. Children require a high-protein breakfast for alertness, and a balanced diet, including complex carbohydrates throughout the day. Chronic stress causes the brain and body to deplete available nutrients. Nutrition is an important issue; better school food equals better school

  16. Safer and healthier foods.

    PubMed

    1999-10-15

    During the early 20th century, contaminated food, milk, and water caused many foodborne infections, including typhoid fever, tuberculosis, botulism, and scarlet fever. In 1906, Upton Sinclair described in his novel The Jungle the unwholesome working environment in the Chicago meat-packing industry and the unsanitary conditions under which food was produced. Public awareness dramatically increased and led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act. Once the sources and characteristics of foodborne diseases were identified--long before vaccines or antibiotics--they could be controlled by handwashing, sanitation, refrigeration, pasteurization, and pesticide application. Healthier animal care, feeding, and processing also improved food supply safety. In 1900, the incidence of typhoid fever was approximately 100 per 100,000 population; by 1920, it had decreased to 33.8, and by 1950, to 1.7 (Figure 1). During the 1940s, studies of autopsied muscle samples showed that 16% of persons in the United States had trichinellosis; 300-400 cases were diagnosed every year, and 10-20 deaths occurred. Since then, the rate of infection has declined markedly; from 1991 through 1996, three deaths and an average of 38 cases per year were reported. PMID:12432905

  17. [Food allergy diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    2002-09-01

    The diagnosis of food allergies (FA) relies upon the sequential use of different means and tools, according to a decision tree. Ten clinical characteristics point to a potential FA. A diary for food consumption during a week surveys all labellings, in order to detect masked food allergens. The second step is based on skin prick tests to natural foods, and epicutaneous tests to a few proteins (casein, gluten...). Biological tests using multi detection tests of specific IgEs to numerous allergens are not advised owing to the frequency of clinically not relevant in vitro cross-reactivity. Single determination of specific IgEs, have a 95% predictive positive value of high levels in cases of allergy to milk, egg, fish and peanut, and can spare oral challenges. The primary use of biological tests is not currently advised but may be of interest in litigious cases. Standardized oral challenges are the golden standard. Eviction regimens are an alternative used for cow's milk allergy in infancy, or for suspected digestive allergies in adults. PMID:12389446

  18. Food: Facts and Fancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallinisch, Martha

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary. SUBJECT MATTER: One of a series on consumer education. This particular guide concerns food--specifically, nutrition, labeling, prices, and money management. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 sections, each containing a major knowledge objective and various minor ones. Each section also…

  19. Food-Borne Noroviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses have emerged as the number one cause of food-borne illness in the United States. In this book chapter, the current molecular classification criteria are described as well as the current information regarding the molecular biology of the virus and its putative gene functions. Identifica...

  20. Food Service Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of

  1. Elemental Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  2. Properties of food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Pimm, S.L.

    1980-04-01

    On the assumption that systems of interacting species, when perturbed from equilibrium, should return to equilibrium quickly, one can predict four properties of food webs: (1) food chains should be short, (2) species feeding on more than one trophic level (omnivores) should be rare, (3) those species that do feed on more than one trophic level should do so by feeding on species in adjacent trophic levels, and (4) host-parasitoid systems are likely to be exceptions to (1)-(3) when interaction coefficients permit greater trophic complexity. By generating random, model food webs (with many features identical to webs described from a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems), it is possible to generate expected values for the number of trophic levels and the degree of omnivory within webs. When compared with these random webs, real world webs are shown to have fewer trophic levels, less omnivory, and very few omnivores feeding on nonadjacent trophic levels. Insect webs are shown to have a greater degree of omnivory than other webs. The confirmation of all these predictions from stability analyses suggests that system stability places necessary, though not sufficient, limitations on the possible shapes of food webs.

  3. Food of Consuming Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina. Education and Communications Branch.

    This guide is intended for use in a consumer education course designed to teach consumers to get the most out of their dollar when shopping for and preparing food. The kit is divided into a series of sections containing activities and fact sheets that are designed to guide the consumer through a successful shopping trip. The following topics are

  4. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  5. Hypolipidaemic foods in China.

    PubMed

    Gu, J

    1996-12-01

    With the changes in dietary pattern in China, in recent years, hyperlipidaemia has become an important problem in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases, especially the cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases. From studies on laboratory animals and people with hyperlipidaemia, a number of hypolipidaemic foods and beverages have been identified, of relevance to traditional Chinese food culture. Their absence from the diet may, in part account for the increasing prevalence of hyperlipidaemia in China. The several groups of foods used in China with hypolipidaemic effects include: •Cereals: oats, naked oats (Avena stiva L. var. nuda Mordv.), millet, buckwheat, wheat germ, maize germ. •Beans: soybean, kidney bean, hyacinth bean, red bean, mung bean, broad bean, pea, Phaseolus L., soy dregs. •Aquatic: prawn, Greater croaker, Crucian carp, squid, mussel, scallop, Silvery pomfret. •Fungi and algae: mushroom, algin, kelp, laver (Porphyra yezoensis Veda), (Enteromorpha prolifera), (Auricularia polytricha). •Vegetables: garlic, celery, onion, spring onion, chives, pepper. •Nuts and fruits: peanut seed, walnut seed. Splinar pear (Rosa voxburghi Tratt), kiwifruit (Achinida chinensis planch). •Oil: soybean oil, rice bran oil, tea seed oil, rubber seed oil, grape seed oil. fish oil, soybean phospholipid. •Others: tea, brown sugar, Cr-enriched yeast, iodine-enriched eggs. The present enquiry into a range of factors in food which may influence lipoprotein metabolism encouraging new ways of thinking about the pathogenesis, prevention and management of lipid disorders and their sequelae. PMID:24394619

  6. Food Service Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of…

  7. Food Concerns. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…

  8. Food of Consuming Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina. Education and Communications Branch.

    This guide is intended for use in a consumer education course designed to teach consumers to get the most out of their dollar when shopping for and preparing food. The kit is divided into a series of sections containing activities and fact sheets that are designed to guide the consumer through a successful shopping trip. The following topics are…

  9. Mathematics for Commercial Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wersan, Norman

    A review of basic mathematics operations is presented with problems and examples applied to activities in the food service industry. The text is divided into eight units: measurement, fractions, arithmetic operations, money and decimals, percentage, ratio and proportion, wages and taxes, and business records. Each unit contains a series of lessons

  10. Food Detectives: Fight Bac

    MedlinePlus

    Kids, We need your help to fight an enemy... Bacteria lives on the food you eat if it isn't cooked and handled properly. It also lives on dirty ... us, and we'll show you how to fight this disgusting enemy. Please take a moment to ...

  11. Elemental Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that

  12. Food for Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Given, Barbara K.

    1998-01-01

    What and how students eat can profoundly affect their ability to learn. Children require a high-protein breakfast for alertness, and a balanced diet, including complex carbohydrates throughout the day. Chronic stress causes the brain and body to deplete available nutrients. Nutrition is an important issue; better school food equals better school…

  13. NUTRITIOUS SUBSISTENCE FOOD SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major subsistence food systems of the world that feed resource-poor populations are identified and their capacity to supply essential nutrients in reasonable balance to the people dependent on them has been considered for some of these with a view to overcoming their nutrient limitations in soun...

  14. Metrics for Food Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in food distribution, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  15. Development of Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085

  16. Food-furanocoumarin binding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapefruit juice (GFJ) interferes with the cytochrome P450 3A4 activity responsible for metabolizing certain medications, and it is the furanocoumarins (FCs) in GFJ that have been shown to be the main compounds which cause these interactions. We previously found that a number of foods sequester FCs ...

  17. Polysaccharides and food processing.

    PubMed

    Pilnik, W; Rombouts, F M

    1985-10-01

    The rôle of polysaccharides during processing and for the quality of foods is discussed. Starch is the most important energy source for man. Most other polysaccharides are not metabolized for energy, but play an important rôle as dietary fibres. Pectins, alginates, carrageenans, and galactomannans are discussed as functional food additives in relation to their structure and their rheological behaviour, stability and interactions. Endogenous polysaccharides of fruits and vegetables and in products derived from them are responsible for such phenomena as texture (changes), press yields, ease of filtration and clarification, cloud stability, and mouth feel. To achieve desirable properties, the action of endogenous enzymes on polysaccharides must be inactivated and/or exogenous enzymes added as processing aids. This is also true for overcoming haze phenomena in clear juices or to break down undesirable microbial polysaccharides. Dough properties for bread baking can be improved by enzymic breakdown of a restrictive pentoglycan network. Network formation may come about by oxidative coupling of phenol rings of ferulic acid bound to hemicelluloses by ester links. Gels may be made by inducing oxidative coupling in natural or synthetic systems. Stagnation in development of new polysaccharide food additives is ascribed to difficulties in obtaining government approval for food use. PMID:3000594

  18. Dietary management of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Alessandro; Martelli, Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Food allergy is a modifiable disease, and at present its only form of management is dietary elimination of the offending food or foods. Success depends on the modification of four sources of food-related risk: underestimation of the food allergy problem; ignorance of cross-reacting allergens in other foods; unsupportive or uninformed measures from the family or school environments; and inadequate social recognition that food allergy is a growing public health problem. Ultimately, the empowerment of children with allergies through education, allergist and dietician guidance, and patient association feedback can minimize the morbidity of food allergy and enhance the quality of life of both the child and the family. From a research perspective, studies on the longterm efficacy of the dietary exclusion of specific food allergens are needed. The role of the pediatrician is central in this regard and would be complemented by advice from a nutritionist. PMID:17048718

  19. Microbiological Testing of Skylab Foods

    PubMed Central

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers, E. M.; Bourland, C. T.; McQueen, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab manned space flight program presented unique food microbiology problems. This challenge was successfully met by careful evaluation of the total Skylab food system by considering the nature of Skylab foods, their processing and handling, and Skylab food safety requirements. Some of the unique problems encountered with the Skylab foods involved: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or charge foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of the food as an accurately controlled segment of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations generated the need for definitive microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described in this paper along with the rationale for their selection. Test results are reported which show successful compliance with the test limits. Images PMID:4346978

  20. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdulmalik, T. O.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The extended length of a Mars mission, along with the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortificants will remain stable through long-duration missions if proper formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are all achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX); premixes were formulated to be compatible with current processing techniques (retort or freeze-dried), varied water activities (high or low), and packaging material. The overall goal of this process is to provide 25% of the recommended daily intake of each vitamin (per serving), following processing and two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced (with and without the vitamin premix), to assess the impact of the added fortificant on color and taste, and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The use of fortification in spaceflight foods appears to be a plausible mitigation step to inadequate nutrition. This is due to the ease of vitamin addition as well as the sustainability of the premixes through initial processing steps. Postprocessing analysis indicated that vitamin fortification with this premix did not immediately impact organoleptic properties of the food. At this stage, the largest hurdle to fortification is the preciseness to which vitamins can be added; the total amount of vitamins required for production is 10 - 20 grams, a minor percentage of the formulation. As demonstrated by the over-fortification measured in Italian Vegetables and Grilled Pork Chop, homogeneity may be difficult to achieve with such small amounts. Thus, pouch-to-pouch variability, over-fortification, and underfortification may ensue if a method for precise addition is not identified. Stability will continue to be evaluated over two years of storage at three temperatures, and future analysis should reveal the extent to which this issue should be a concern

  1. Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Burton, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%-78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%-69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta = 0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (-0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing. PMID:25841645

  2. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

  3. Nanotechnology and Food Contact Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaspyrides, Constantine (Costas) D.

    2010-06-01

    The use of nanotechnology in food contact materials is highlighted in relation to novel applications and potential implications for consumer safety and regulatory controls. Nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector, including improved packaging, antimicrobial properties, traceability and security of food products. The toxicological nature of hazard, likelihood of exposure and risk to consumers from nanotechnology-derived food/food packaging are largely unknown and this work highlights the benefits of nanotechnology in food contact materials but also the gaps in knowledge regarding consumers safety that require further research.

  4. Functional foods and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hasler, C M; Kundrat, S; Wool, D

    2000-11-01

    Functional foods are foods that, by virtue of physiologically active food components, provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Many functional foods have been found to be potentially beneficial in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in the United States. These foods include soybeans, oats, psyllium, flaxseed, garlic, tea, fish, grapes, nuts, and stanol- and sterol ester enhanced margarine. When eaten in adequate amounts on a consistent basis, these foods may aid in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease by several potential mechanisms: lowering blood lipid levels, improving arterial compliance, reducing low-density lipoprotein oxidation, decreasing plaque formation, scavenging free radicals, and inhibiting platelet aggregation. PMID:11122780

  5. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    PubMed

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods. PMID:26686975

  6. Food Acquisition: Food Ingredients, Raw Materials and Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheat, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The kind of food supply system that will serve the space station in coming years is considered. The direction and rate of evolution of space food service systems is also considered and what is needed to supply appropriate food to space station crews. Innovations in food sourcing, recipe development, pre-preparation, packaging, preservation, presentation, consumption and waste disposal are discussed. The development and validation of preparation systems and ingredients which minimize demands on crew time and provide maximum eating enjoyment is outlined.

  7. Food crises, food regimes and food movements: rumblings of reform or tides of transformation?

    PubMed

    Holt Giménez, Eric; Shattuck, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the potential for food movements to bring about substantive changes to the current global food system. After describing the current corporate food regime, we apply Karl Polanyi's 'double-movement' thesis on capitalism to explain the regime's trends of neoliberalism and reform. Using the global food crisis as a point of departure, we introduce a comparative analytical framework for different political and social trends within the corporate food regime and global food movements, characterizing them as 'Neoliberal', 'Reformist', 'Progressive', and 'Radical', respectively, and describe each trend based on its discourse, model, and key actors, approach to the food crisis, and key documents. After a discussion of class, political permeability, and tensions within the food movements, we suggest that the current food crisis offers opportunities for strategic alliances between Progressive and Radical trends within the food movement. We conclude that while the food crisis has brought a retrenchment of neoliberalization and weak calls for reform, the worldwide growth of food movements directly and indirectly challenge the legitimacy and hegemony of the corporate food regime. Regime change will require sustained pressure from a strong global food movement, built on durable alliances between Progressive and Radical trends. PMID:21284237

  8. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S

    2010-01-01

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity. PMID:24198465

  9. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The length of proposed Mars missions and the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system, which will need a five year shelf life. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortification nutrients will remain stable through a long duration exploration mission at sufficient levels if compatible formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX) such that the vitamin concentration per serving equaled 25% of the recommended daily intake after two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced, with and without the vitamin premix, to assess the impact of the added fortification on color and taste and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The addition of fortification to spaceflight foods did not greatly alter the organoleptic properties of most products. In most cases, overall acceptability scores remained above 6.0 (minimum acceptable score) following six months and one year of low-temperature storage. Likewise, the color of fortified products appears to be preserved over one year of storage. The only exception was Grilled pork Chop and Chicken Noodle Soup whose individual components appear to degrade rapidly over one year of storage. Finally, most vitamins appear to be stable during long-term storage. The only exception was thiamin, which degraded rapidly during the first year of storage at 35°C. It was previously believed that the imprecise method of fortification would prove problematic for nutrient quantification; however this was only an issue in stored samples of Grilled Pork Chop, Italian Vegetables and Curry Sauce with Vegetables. Year two data may further reveal the extent to which this is a problem, as well as identify overall quality changes over time.

  10. Regional food culture and development.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2007-01-01

    Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on earth). On the other hand, regional food culture can confer considerable advantage for health and economic development, but does not necessarily do so. The challenge is to respect and retain traditional food knowledge and sustainable food systems, with good governance for food security. There has been a recent awakening of interest and concern about the lack of documentation of traditional and indigenous food cultures which are important not only for their own sake, but for the legacy of food knowledge which they can confer on future generations, provided they are not lost. Hence, the value of a special focus on African food cultures (www.healthyeatingclub.org/Africa), including Rift and Nile Valleys and North West African foods, which are the cradles of human food systems and habits. This is the case too with indigenous foods and food cultures (whether hunter-gatherer or subsistence agriculture); with relatively long-living food cultures in North East Asia, with food cultural distinction and fusion (FHILL and SENECA studies) and with migratory Food Habits. By and large, there is a remarkable resilience and ingenuity of people and their food systems, but monoculture and lack of diversity encourage food system failure. PMID:17392068

  11. Children's Categorization of Foods: Clusters for Food Search Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify categories of similar foods that are meaningful to children to facilitate their food search in a computer-administered self-completed 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr). One hundred forty-eight 8- to 13-year0old children sorted 62 cards with food pictures, from ...

  12. Preparing Food for Preschoolers: A Guide for Food Service Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Janet, Ed.; O'Malley, Edward T., Ed.

    Guidelines and suggestions to help food service workers in children's day care centers plan, prepare, and serve a variety of nutritious, tasty, and attractive meals and snacks are presented. The following topics are included (subtopics are listed in parentheses): (1) preparation of food (seasoning foods; preparing meat, fish, vegetables, and…

  13. Food Preparation. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This training manual on food preparation consists of 23 detailed lessons, ranging from an orientation to quality food production and the use and advantages of standardized recipes for bakery ingredients to the making of various desserts. Detailed definitions of words related to food preparation and innumerable handouts with titles like…

  14. Novel food processing innovations to improve food safety and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative food processing can be used to improve safety of specialty crops and their co-products, while improving sustainability of agricultural and food processing operations and enhancing overall nutritional quality of foods for both domestic and international consumers. The potential of various...

  15. Preventing food crises using a food policy approach.

    PubMed

    Timmer, C Peter

    2010-01-01

    A food crisis occurs when rates of hunger and malnutrition rise sharply at local, national, or global levels. This definition distinguishes a food crisis from chronic hunger, although food crises are far more likely among populations already suffering from prolonged hunger and malnutrition. A food crisis is usually set off by a shock to either supply or demand for food and often involves a sudden spike in food prices. It is important to remember that in a market economy, food prices measure the scarcity of food, not its value in any nutritional sense. Except in rare circumstances, the straightforward way to prevent a food crisis is to have rapidly rising labor productivity through economic growth and keep food prices stable while maintaining access by the poor. The formula is easier to state than to implement, especially on a global scale, but it is good to have both the objective, reducing short-run spikes in hunger, and the deep mechanisms, pro-poor economic growth and stable food prices, clearly in mind. A coherent food policy seeks to use these mechanisms, and others, to achieve a sustained reduction in chronic hunger over the long run while preventing spikes in hunger in the short run. PMID:19923388

  16. The Food Friends: Encouraging Preschoolers to Try New Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellows, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    In response to concerns about children's eating behaviors, the Colorado Nutrition Network developed and tested Food Friends--Making New Foods Fun for Kids. The program was designed as a 12-week social marketing campaign aimed at encouraging preschool-age children to try new foods, such as Ugli Fruit, couscous, and daikon radish. Tasting novel…

  17. Agrofuels, Food Sovereignty, and the Contemporary Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosset, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, agrofuels are examined in the context of the world food price crisis and the "food sovereignty" proposal for addressing the crisis. Both short- and long-term causes of the crisis are examined, and while agrofuels are presently not a prime causal factor they are clearly contraindicated by the crisis. Food sovereignty, including a…

  18. Reinforcement: Food Signals the Time and Location of Future Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Sarah; Davison, Michael; Elliffe, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    It has long been understood that food deliveries may act as signals of future food location, and not only as strengtheners of prefood responding as the law of effect suggests. Recent research has taken this idea further--the main effect of food deliveries, or other "reinforcers", may be signaling rather than strengthening. The present experiment…

  19. 21 CFR 105.62 - Hypoallergenic foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hypoallergenic foods. 105.62 Section 105.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.62 Hypoallergenic foods. If...

  20. 21 CFR 105.62 - Hypoallergenic foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hypoallergenic foods. 105.62 Section 105.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.62 Hypoallergenic foods. If...

  1. 21 CFR 105.62 - Hypoallergenic foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hypoallergenic foods. 105.62 Section 105.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.62 Hypoallergenic foods. If...

  2. 21 CFR 105.62 - Hypoallergenic foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hypoallergenic foods. 105.62 Section 105.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.62 Hypoallergenic foods. If...

  3. 21 CFR 105.62 - Hypoallergenic foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hypoallergenic foods. 105.62 Section 105.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.62 Hypoallergenic foods. If...

  4. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  5. Food security under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Using food prices to assess climate change impacts on food security is misleading. Differential impacts on income require a broader measure of household well-being, such as changes in absolute poverty.

  6. Rising Food Prices: Who's Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1973-01-01

    Rise in food prices can be partially attributed to the high food consumption level throughout Europe and North America, coupled with failure to evolve systems for more production of cattle, soybeans, and fisheries at lower cost. (PS)

  7. Food Allergy: Tips to Remember

    MedlinePlus

    ... can help you learn when you or your child’s food allergies are resolving with time. Healthy Tips • Always ask about ingredients when eating at restaurants or when you are eating foods prepared by ...

  8. Super Kitchen Centralizes Food Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1975

    1975-01-01

    To centralize food service within the entire Pittsburgh school district, a 90,000-square-foot food service preparation building contains cranes and monorails to move 500-pound capacity vats throughout the kitchen. (Author/MLF)

  9. Food related, exercise induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Caffarelli, C; Terzi, V; Perrone, F; Cavagni, G

    1996-01-01

    Four children under 12 years of age with food dependent, exercise induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) were investigated. These children and five controls performed exercise challenges when fasting and one hour after a meal without food suspected to predispose to the reaction. Patients then performed exercise tests after intake of each suspected food. Three out of 15 food-exercise combination challenges were positive, but no reactions were provoked after exercise without prior intake of suspected foods. Patients underwent skin prick tests to foods and serum total and specific IgE antibodies were measured. Skin prick test results were positive and RAST results were positive in two of three instances. In case 3, food-exercise combination challenges did not provoke any clinical reaction. The diagnosis of food dependent EIAn should be considered in young children with EIAn of unknown origin. PMID:8869196

  10. Food Safety After a Tsunami

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tsunamis Health Effects Food & Water Safety Food Safety Water Quality Sanitation & Hygiene Diseases & Health Concerns Information for Clinicians Response & ... Hazards Preventing Violence Pressure Washer Safety High-Pressure Water ... Care Wound Management for Healthcare Pros Power Outages When the Power ...

  11. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Shelf-Stable Food Safety Ever since man was a hunter-gatherer, he ...

  12. Older Adults and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Older Adults and Food Safety An adage states, "With age, comes wisdom." Hopefully ...

  13. Chemically regenerated foods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapira, J.

    1971-01-01

    The raw materials for the synthesis of food for the crew of a spacecraft would be the major metabolic products carbon dioxide and water. Synthetic processes could develop carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. The one potential method of sugar synthesis which has received most attention makes use of the formose reaction. Various aspects of this method are discussed, giving attention also to the nutritional qualities of formose sugars. Questions regarding the utilization of glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethanol as dietary components are also examined. The possibility is considered to use the triglyceride triacetin as food. The use of free amino acids does not appear promising. Methods are described for the synthesis of formaldehyde from carbon dioxide and the synthesis of glycerol from formaldehyde.

  14. Texture of Frozen Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, Kohmei

    Quantitative determination of textural quality of frozen food due to freezing and storage conditions is complicated,since the texture is consisted of multi-dimensiona1 factors. The author reviewed the importance of texture in food quality and the factors which is proposed by a priori estimation. New classification of expression words of textural properties by subjective evaluation and an application of four elements mechanical model for analysis of physical characteristics was studied on frozen meat patties. Combination of freezing-thawing condition on the subjective properties and physiochemical characteristics of beef lean meat and hamachi fish (Yellow-tail) meat was studied. Change of the plasticity and the deformability of these samples differed by freezing-thawing rate and cooking procedure. Also optimum freezing-thawing condition was differed from specimens.

  15. Spices as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Viuda-Martos, M; Ruiz-Navajas, Y; Fernández-López, J; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

    2011-01-01

    Spices and aromatic herbs have been used since antiquity as preservatives, colorants, and flavor enhancers. Spices, which have long been the basis of traditional medicine in many countries, have also been the subject of study, particularly by the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries, because of their potential use for improving health. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated how these substances act as antioxidants, digestive stimulants, and hypolipidemics and show antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancerigenic activities. These beneficial physiological effects may also have possible preventative applications in a variety of pathologies. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the potential of spices and aromatic herbs as functional foods. PMID:21229415

  16. Lessons about food anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Medveczky, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) and its subtype food-dependent (FD)-EIA are uncommon and easily missed forms of physical allergy. The latter is triggered by exercise following the ingestion of specific food products. Treatment is identical to that for IgE-mediated allergic reactions. The disease is potentially fatal. In this case, 30-year-old woman was seen in the allergy clinic at the request of her general practitioner. She reported an episode when she had gone to a local park to exercise after dinner. Shortly thereafter, she collapsed with rash, lip swelling, and breathing difficulties. Upon admission to hospital, she was found to be hypotensive and required fluid resuscitation, systemic corticosteroids and adrenaline. She made a full and uneventful recovery. On the basis of the clinical story and specific allergy markers, her presentation was attributed to FD-EIA. PMID:25468843

  17. Climate change and food security

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, P.J; Ingram, J.S.I; Brklacich, M

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

  18. Climate change and food security.

    PubMed

    Gregory, P J; Ingram, J S I; Brklacich, M

    2005-11-29

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

  19. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. PMID:26446198

  20. Cactus: a medicinal food.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Anoop A; Rana, M K; Preetham, S P

    2012-10-01

    With excellent quality and flavour of fresh fruits, young leaves of cactus serve as nutritious vegetable and salad dish and the immature fruits for making mock-gherkins. Cactus, with high water use efficiency produce forage for animals, vegetables, and fruits with 14% glucose. Traditionally cactus used as a valuable health supporting nutrient and it also has applications in pharmaceutical industries. Cactus with number of uses has immense potential to be the food of future. PMID:24082263

  1. Food for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.

    1982-05-01

    Cassava, sugar cane, grain crops, molasses - all are potential feedstocks for ethanol production. Brazil has taken a clear lead in converting food crops into ethanol fuels for the automobile, but other countries may follow and the economic consequences could be considerable. This article looks at the various options. The total activity involved in fuel ethanol production and usage is considered as comprising three related components: feedstock production, ethanol production and application of the ethanol as a transport fuel.

  2. Breastfeeding and food security.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Food security is especially important for mothers with infants and young children. Poor mothers or mothers living in harsh conditions (refugee camp, war zone, economic embargo, or natural disaster) who were not encouraged to breast feed face each day the need to respond to their hungry children. Protection of optimal breast feeding practices is a top priority. There are about 50 million refugees and internally displaced people in the world. This number increases by 12% annually. Around 2 million of these people are new mothers. Urban centers in both the developed and developing countries have increasing populations of unemployed and working poor. These people cannot afford breast milk substitutes. North American food banks cannot respond to the many requests for infant formula. Lack of potable water and a dependency on unavailable infant formula and supplies partially contributed to the increase in infant mortality rates in the war zones of Iraq and Bosnia. The increased dependency of sourcing clean water, an inexpensive and inferior breast milk substitute, and fuel for preparation must not exacerbate the burden of food insecurity for new mothers. Lactating mothers need nutritional and social support so they can meet their own needs and those of their children. UN agencies, governments, and infant feeding organizations have developed guidelines to support breast feeding in emergency and relief conditions and to make sure that infant formula manufacturers do not target families in emergencies. The solution to food insecurity is to feed the mother so she can feed her child. Successful breast feeding helps the mother's self-esteem and confidence, which in turn helps her care for herself and her family. Challenges in infant feeding policies include effecting effective promotion, protection, and support of breast feeding in emergencies; reducing unnecessary risks to mothers and infants when there is a limited need for breast milk substitutes; and countering the apparent philanthropic act of breast milk substitute distribution of the infant feeding industry during emergencies. PMID:12320463

  3. Probiotics and food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the “hygiene hypothesis” low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions. Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells. Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders. PMID:23895430

  4. Food Service and Nutritional Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, J.

    1985-01-01

    The difficulty is that as we go into the Space Station world, the cost, effort, hardware, food trash, and food waste that the food service system will generate (which is quite tolerable on a 7 day mission), probably will be intolerable on a 90 day Space Station mission. The challenge in the food service supply is not so much packaging but systems engineering. The big constraints are in the supply pipeline. Those constraints and the possible tradeoffs are discussed.

  5. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d’Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008–2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  6. Estuarine Food for Thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M�ller-Solger, A. B.; M�ller-Navarra, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    Recent research in animal and human nutrition has shown the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as the n-3 LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These LC-PUFA are needed for healthy development and functioning of the nervous and vascular systems. De novo synthesis or elongation to LC-PUFA in animals is inefficient at best; thus sufficient amounts of these PUFA must be supplied by food sources. Algae, especially diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes, are the quantitatively most important producers of EPA and DHA. These types of algae often dominate estuarine producer communities. The upper San Francisco Estuary is no exception, and we found its LC-PUFA-rich phytoplankton biomass, but not the quantitatively prevalent terrestrial plant detritus, to be highly predictive of zooplankton (Daphnia) growth. In contrast, in freshwater lakes dominated by relatively LC-PUFA-poor phytoplankton, EPA, not total phytoplankton biomass, best predicted Daphnia growth. The commonly high abundance of LC-PUFA-rich algae in estuaries may help explain the high trophic efficiencies in these systems and resulting high consumer production. Moreover, LC-PUFA-rich estuarine food resources may also provide essential nutrition and associated health and evolutionary benefits to land-dwelling consumers of such foods, including humans. Ensuring LC-PUFA-rich, uncontaminated estuarine production is thus an important goal for estuarine restoration and a convincing argument for estuarine conservation.

  7. Prevention of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Tsakok, Teresa; Du Toit, George; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Despite a trend towards delayed weaning, food allergies (FAs) have increased in the past few decades and are now considered a public health concern, resulting in significant morbidity as well as occasional mortality. Whilst genetic factors are clearly important in the development of FA, a rise in FAs has occurred over a short period of time and is therefore unlikely to be due to germ-line genetic changes alone. Thus, it seems plausible that one or more environmental exposures may, via epigenetic changes, result in the interruption of the 'default immunologic state' of tolerance to foods. Strategies are therefore required for the prevention of FA: primary prevention seeks to prevent the onset of IgE-sensitisation; secondary prevention seeks to interrupt the development of FA in IgE-sensitised children; and tertiary prevention seeks to reduce the expression of 'end-organ' allergic disease in children with established FA. This chapter will outline the major findings in this field, with the aim of equipping the clinician with an evidence-based approach to a burgeoning yet poorly understood clinical problem. We also highlight the methodological challenges hindering the interpretation of existing FA studies. Fortunately, there are now robust studies underway, the results of which are expected to guide public health recommendations with respect to how and when to introduce major allergenic foods to children, regardless of allergic risk. PMID:26022885

  8. Inclusion of Fermented Foods in Food Guides around the World

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Stephanie N.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Fermented foods have been a well-established part of the human diet for thousands of years, without much of an appreciation for, or an understanding of, their underlying microbial functionality, until recently. The use of many organisms derived from these foods, and their applications in probiotics, have further illustrated their impact on gastrointestinal wellbeing and diseases affecting other sites in the body. However, despite the many benefits of fermented foods, their recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in food guides. Here, we present the case for such inclusion, and challenge health authorities around the world to consider advocating for the many benefits of these foods. PMID:25580813

  9. Food Marketing in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Colette; Clerkin, Pauline; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Mulvihill, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Schools are thought to represent a growing marketing opportunity for food advertisers in many countries. Marketing of unhealthy food to children is linked to the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. This paper aims to explore ways in which schools respond to commercial activity around food marketing. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  10. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  11. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    MedlinePlus

    USDA Photo United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service F F o o o o d d S S af a e f t e y t I y nf F ... warming trays. Keep food cold by nesting The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is the public health ...

  12. Food that Fools the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serre, Camille M.

    2009-01-01

    Toilet-paper food sculpture is an integral part of the art curriculum at Silver Creek Middle School in Sellersburg, Indiana. The author describes techniques on how to create realistic food sculptures using toilet paper, water, and tempera paint. Students of all ages and skill levels enjoy this project because everyone relates to food and a sense…

  13. Food Marketing in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Colette; Clerkin, Pauline; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Mulvihill, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Schools are thought to represent a growing marketing opportunity for food advertisers in many countries. Marketing of unhealthy food to children is linked to the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. This paper aims to explore ways in which schools respond to commercial activity around food marketing. Design/methodology/approach: A

  14. Food & Environment. Teaching Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Through articles and activities designed for the senior secondary level, students examine the food production system in British Columbia and the world and explore creative, sustainable alternatives for food production. A description of raising food in the first world with the critical issues of energy use and environmental degradation precedes a…

  15. The production of safe foods

    PubMed Central

    Baird-Parker, A. C.

    1974-01-01

    This article summarizes the steps that a food producer takes to ensure that bacterial food poisoning risks are minimized. These include microbiological control of raw materials, processes and the final products. The importance of good process control as the best means of reducing the food poisoning risks is emphasized. PMID:4467861

  16. When Food Is a Foe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Patricia L.

    1998-01-01

    Although only 5% of the population has severe food allergies, school business officials must be prepared for the worst-case scenario. Banning foods and segregating allergic children are harmful practices. Education and sensible behavior are the best medicine when food allergies and intolerances are involved. Resources are listed. (MLH)

  17. Food Crystallization and Egg Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a food product can be either beneficial or detrimental and is of particular importance in candy and frozen desserts. The most common crystal in foods is sugar which affects th...

  18. Local Effects of Delayed Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food-rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout)…

  19. Food products for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, P. S.; Larson, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Specially-prepared foodstuffs supply an astronaut with a diet containing his basic nutritional requirements in a form that is useful in his enironment. Several edible coatings preserve foods and give loose foods form and firmness. These coatings aid in packaging and give the food slip for easy removal from the package.

  20. Hendrix College Local Food Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    By purchasing locally grown foods, Hendrix College (Arkansas) has found it can offer better nutrition, cut environmental damage, and spur economic development. The Local Food Project has reduced the amount of food purchased out of state from 90-70 percent, and is aiming for 50 percent in three years. Student participation is integral. (Author/MSE)

  1. Phytoalexin-Enriched Functional Foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional foods have been a developing area of food science research for the last decade. Many foods are derived from plants that naturally contain compounds beneficial to human health and can often prevent certain diseases. Plant containing phytochemicals with potent anticancer and antioxidant a...

  2. Food Services 103, 203, 303.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide provides 15 blocks/credits of instruction for a food services program. The program for grades 10-12 is designed to provide students with the foundation for a successful and safety-conscious career in the field of food services. Each of the three courses--Food Services 103, 203, and 303--consists of four blocks of one credit…

  3. Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be…

  4. Food Services 103, 203, 303.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide provides 15 blocks/credits of instruction for a food services program. The program for grades 10-12 is designed to provide students with the foundation for a successful and safety-conscious career in the field of food services. Each of the three courses--Food Services 103, 203, and 303--consists of four blocks of one credit

  5. Food Insecurity And Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Craig; Ziliak, James P

    2015-11-01

    Almost fifty million people are food insecure in the United States, which makes food insecurity one of the nation's leading health and nutrition issues. We examine recent research evidence of the health consequences of food insecurity for children, nonsenior adults, and seniors in the United States. For context, we first provide an overview of how food insecurity is measured in the country, followed by a presentation of recent trends in the prevalence of food insecurity. Then we present a survey of selected recent research that examined the association between food insecurity and health outcomes. We show that the literature has consistently found food insecurity to be negatively associated with health. For example, after confounding risk factors were controlled for, studies found that food-insecure children are at least twice as likely to report being in fair or poor health and at least 1.4 times more likely to have asthma, compared to food-secure children; and food-insecure seniors have limitations in activities of daily living comparable to those of food-secure seniors fourteen years older. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) substantially reduces the prevalence of food insecurity and thus is critical to reducing negative health outcomes. PMID:26526240

  6. Seeing Children's Pleasure with Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…

  7. Food with a Foreign Flavor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Gail

    The main goals of this course are to have the student illustrate the relationship between food and the cultural, religious, and economic structure of various countries of the world; demonstrate how food habits of various peoples are influenced by locale, income, supplies, and seasons; and demonstrate skill in preparation of foods typical of…

  8. Food that Fools the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serre, Camille M.

    2009-01-01

    Toilet-paper food sculpture is an integral part of the art curriculum at Silver Creek Middle School in Sellersburg, Indiana. The author describes techniques on how to create realistic food sculptures using toilet paper, water, and tempera paint. Students of all ages and skill levels enjoy this project because everyone relates to food and a sense

  9. INFOODS guidelines for food matching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is necessary to match food consumption data with food composition data in order to calculate estimates of nutrient intakes and dietary exposure. This can be done manually or through an automated system. As food matching procedures are key to obtaining high quality estimations of nutrient intake...

  10. Food Safety Assessment and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Gary D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A 1990 Wisconsin extension survey (n=1,549) was followed up in 1993 (n=1,135). In 1993, the top three concerns about food safety were food-borne illnesses, government role, and pesticides/chemicals; in 1990, they were pesticides, drugs in food, and manufacturing standards. In both surveys, preferred information sources were radio, television, and…

  11. Food Supply and Food Safety Issues in China

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China’s connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  12. Food supply and food safety issues in China.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China's connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  13. Keeping consumers safe: food providers' perspectives on pureed food.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Twelve focus groups were conducted in five sites with 80 allied health providers to identify their perspectives on providing pureed food to consumers. Thematic care analysis was completed to summarize and interpret these data. Providers' greatest concern was keeping consumers safe, and the right texture was prioritized over sensory appeal and acceptance. Providers recognized that these foods impacted the quality of life of consumers and worked to rationalize these diets with residents/patients and their families. In addition, offering foods they knew to be poorly accepted affected their self-concept as providers. As a result of these challenges, they did whatever they could in the kitchen and tableside to promote intake of pureed foods. Those in the "food chain" of pureed food provision suggested several ways to further improve these products. Greater communication between those who assist consumers with eating and those who produce the pureed food they consume is needed to promote acceptable pureed products. PMID:25105713

  14. Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

  15. [Review of food policy approaches: from food security to food sovereignty (2000-2013)].

    PubMed

    López-Giraldo, Luis Alirio; Franco-Giraldo, Álvaro

    2015-07-01

    Food policies have attracted special interest due to the global food crisis in 2008 and promotion of the Millennium Development Goals, leading to approaches by different fields. This thematic review aims to describe the main theoretical and methodological approaches to food security and food sovereignty policies. A search was performed in databases of scientific journals from 2000 to 2013. 320 complete articles were selected from a total of 2,699. After reading the articles to apply the inclusion criteria, 55 items were maintained for analysis. In conclusion, with the predominance of food security as a guiding policy, food sovereignty has emerged as a critical response to be included in designing and researching food policies. Food policies are essential for achieving public health goals. Public health should thus take a leading role in linking and orienting such policies. PMID:26248092

  16. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Allison J; Sood, Puja; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved therapies, apart from avoidance and injectable epinephrine for acute allergic reactions. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental treatment in which food-allergic patients consume gradually increasing quantities of the food to increase their threshold for allergic reaction. This therapy carries significant risk of allergic reactions. The ability of OIT to desensitize patients to particular foods is well-documented, although the ability to induce tolerance has not been established. This review focuses on recent studies for the treatment of food allergies such as cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut. PMID:26617227

  17. European perspectives of food safety.

    PubMed

    Bánáti, Diána

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU. PMID:24515443

  18. Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center: Creative Ideas for Promoting Food Safety and Food Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukel, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a significant impact on public health and consumer confidence in the U.S. The Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center was established to provide educational programs, trainings, and workshops to address the health and well-being of consumers as it relates to food safety and food protection. A partnership between New

  19. From Food to Fuel: Perceptions of Exercise and Food in a Community of Food Bloggers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An investigation of the discussion surrounding the relationship between food and exercise in one community of photography-based food blogs that past research has identified as exhibiting characteristics of dietary restraint. Design: Forty-five blogs written by young adult women belonging to a food-blogging community were selected for

  20. From Food to Fuel: Perceptions of Exercise and Food in a Community of Food Bloggers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An investigation of the discussion surrounding the relationship between food and exercise in one community of photography-based food blogs that past research has identified as exhibiting characteristics of dietary restraint. Design: Forty-five blogs written by young adult women belonging to a food-blogging community were selected for…

  1. Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center: Creative Ideas for Promoting Food Safety and Food Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukel, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a significant impact on public health and consumer confidence in the U.S. The Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center was established to provide educational programs, trainings, and workshops to address the health and well-being of consumers as it relates to food safety and food protection. A partnership between New…

  2. Increasing Variety of Foods Consumed by Blending Nonpreferred Foods into Preferred Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Kelley, Michael E.; Pruett, Angela

    2004-01-01

    A treatment with differential or noncontingent reinforcement and nonremoval of the spoon increased the acceptance of one or two of 16 foods for 2 participants with severe food refusal. These differential levels of acceptance were demonstrated empirically in an ABAB design in which A was the presentation of the accepted (preferred) foods and B was…

  3. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  4. Overview of food allergy diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    MANEA, IRENA; AILENEI, ELENA; DELEANU, DIANA

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a condition with significant social and economic impact and a topic of intense concern for scientists and clinicians alike. Worldwide, over 220 million people suffer from some form of food allergy, but the number reported is just the tip of the iceberg. Recent years have brought new perspectives in diagnosing food allergy. Elucidating incriminated immunological mechanisms, along with drawing the clinical phenotype of food hypersensitivity reactions ensures an accurate diagnosis of food allergy. Moreover, molecular based allergy diagnosis, which is increasingly used in routine care, is a stepping-stone to improved management of food allergy patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the topic of IgE-mediated food allergy from the perspective of current diagnostic methods. PMID:27004019

  5. Overview of food allergy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Manea, Irena; Ailenei, Elena; Deleanu, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a condition with significant social and economic impact and a topic of intense concern for scientists and clinicians alike. Worldwide, over 220 million people suffer from some form of food allergy, but the number reported is just the tip of the iceberg. Recent years have brought new perspectives in diagnosing food allergy. Elucidating incriminated immunological mechanisms, along with drawing the clinical phenotype of food hypersensitivity reactions ensures an accurate diagnosis of food allergy. Moreover, molecular based allergy diagnosis, which is increasingly used in routine care, is a stepping-stone to improved management of food allergy patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the topic of IgE-mediated food allergy from the perspective of current diagnostic methods. PMID:27004019

  6. Skylab food system laboratory support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanford, D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of support activities performed to ensure the quality and reliability of the Skylab food system design is reported. The qualification test program was conducted to verify crew compartment compatibility, and to certify compliance of the food system with nutrition, preparation, and container requirements. Preflight storage requirements and handling procedures were also determined. Information on Skylab food items was compiled including matters pertaining to serving size, preparation information, and mineral, calorie, and protein content. Accessory hardware and the engraving of food utensils were also considered, and a stowage and orientation list was constructed which takes into account menu use sequences, menu items, and hardware stowage restrictions. A food inventory system was established and food thermal storage tests were conducted. Problems and comments pertaining to specific food items carried onboard the Skylab Workshop were compiled.

  7. Neural correlates of the food/non-food visual distinction.

    PubMed

    Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Shariat, Shahriar; Nejati, Hossein; Gandhi, Tapan K; Cardinaux, Annie; Simons, Christopher T; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Sinha, Pawan

    2016-03-01

    An evolutionarily ancient skill we possess is the ability to distinguish between food and non-food. Our goal here is to identify the neural correlates of visually driven 'edible-inedible' perceptual distinction. We also investigate correlates of the finer-grained likability assessment. Our stimuli depicted food or non-food items with sub-classes of appealing or unappealing exemplars. Using data-classification techniques drawn from machine-learning, as well as evoked-response analyses, we sought to determine whether these four classes of stimuli could be distinguished based on the patterns of brain activity they elicited. Subjects viewed 200 images while in a MEG scanner. Our analyses yielded two successes and a surprising failure. The food/non-food distinction had a robust neural counterpart and emerged as early as 85ms post-stimulus onset. The likable/non-likable distinction too was evident in the neural signals when food and non-food stimuli were grouped together, or when only the non-food stimuli were included in the analyses. However, we were unable to identify any neural correlates of this distinction when limiting the analyses only to food stimuli. Taken together, these positive and negative results further our understanding of the substrates of a set of ecologically important judgments and have clinical implications for conditions like eating-disorders and anhedonia. PMID:26777128

  8. Clinical manifestations of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tamara T; Pesek, Robbie D

    2013-06-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are a diverse group of clinical syndromes resulting from immunologic and non-immunologic responses to food ingestion. Symptoms can range from mild, self-limiting reactions to severe, life-threatening reactions depending on the mechanism. This review primarily focuses on the clinical manifestations of immunologically derived adverse food reactions or food allergies.The true prevalence of food allergy is unknown. Up to 25% of the general population believes that they may be allergic to some food; however, the actual prevalence of food allergy diagnosed by a provider appears to be 1.5% to 2% of the adult population and approximately 6% to 8% of children. This discrepancy makes it imperative that clinicians are aware of the different food allergy syndromes. With a clear understanding of the clinical manifestations of food allergies, an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan can be formulated. Failing to do so may result in unnecessary dietary restrictions that may adversely affect nutritional status, growth, and quality of life.Most food allergic reactions are secondary to a limited number of foods, and the most common foods causing allergic reactions in children include milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, and fish. In adolescents and adults, allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish are most prevalent. Food allergies can result from immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated, non-IGE-mediated, or mixed IgE/non-IgE mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical manifestations of each of these types of food allergy. PMID:23718237

  9. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  10. 78 FR 49990 - Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is announcing that we have filed a...

  11. [Food safety of GMOs].

    PubMed

    Joudrier, P

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we review the complexity of the different biological events which occur during life cell cycles. Indeed transgenesis is not an unknown event for cells. In the second part of this article, the complex and complete evaluation process destined to assure the food safety of GMOs, before they are released on the market, is describd. Some ansers to questions frequently asked about the GMOs are given. It is concludedthat GMOs are probably more safe than their conventional non-GM counterpart. PMID:20122394

  12. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  13. All About the Protein Foods Group

    MedlinePlus

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide All about the Protein Foods Group You are here Home / MyPlate / Protein Foods All about the Protein Foods Group Print Share What ...

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Recipe for Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... RSS Error processing SSI file Recipe for Food Safety Protecting people from deadly Listeria food poisoning Recommend ... environmental investigations, to make food safer. Applying new safety measures for food production, like those included in ...

  15. Early exposure to food and food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Chin, Benetta; Chan, Edmond S; Goldman, Ran D

    2014-04-01

    Question I have been under the impression that infants should avoid potential allergenic foods such as nuts, cow's milk, and eggs in order to avoid developing allergic reactions. What advice should I give parents regarding the introduction of food in infancy and the development of food allergy? Answer There is no evidence that delaying the introduction of any specific food beyond 6 months of age helps to prevent allergy. A recent Canadian Paediatric Society statement recommends no delay in the introduction of food in infancy. Recent research also appears to suggest that early introduction of potentially allergenic foods (at 4 to 6 months of age) might actually provide a form of protection and help prevent allergy, but more research is needed. PMID:24733323

  16. Risk Perception of Food Safety by School Food-handlers

    PubMed Central

    Monego, Estelamaris Tronco; Campos, Maria Raquel Hidalgo

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory descriptive study was conducted with a qualitative approach that used focus groups. The objective of this study was to identify the risk perception of food safety by school food-handlers. The results indicated that the food production process has certain inadequacies, including the weak risk perception by the food-handlers regarding the student's health. The students, the pedagogical team, and the principal contribute to this behaviour, which can affect the quality of the final product—the served meal. The social devaluation of the food-handlers is also discussed. It is necessary to improve the food-handlers’ training sessions, with the purpose of modifying risk perception and to allow the school community to be involved in healthy and safe feeding practices. PMID:24847589

  17. Chimpanzees help conspecifics obtain food and non-food items

    PubMed Central

    Melis, Alicia P.; Warneken, Felix; Jensen, Keith; Schneider, Anna-Claire; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sometimes help both humans and conspecifics in experimental situations in which immediate selfish benefits can be ruled out. However, in several experiments, chimpanzees have not provided food to a conspecific even when it would cost them nothing, leading to the hypothesis that prosociality in the food-provisioning context is a derived trait in humans. Here, we show that chimpanzees help conspecifics obtain both food and non-food items—given that the donor cannot get the food herself. Furthermore, we show that the key factor eliciting chimpanzees' targeted helping is the recipients' attempts to either get the food or get the attention of the potential donor. The current findings add to the accumulating body of evidence that humans and chimpanzees share the motivation and skills necessary to help others in situations in which they cannot selfishly benefit. Humans, however, show prosocial motives more readily and in a wider range of contexts. PMID:20980301

  18. Relationship between food habituation and reinforcing efficacy of food

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Katelyn A.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcing value and habituation are two processes that have been used to study eating behaviors, but no research has examined their relationship, how they relate to energy intake, and whether they respond in a similar manner to food deprivation. Twenty-two female subjects were randomized to food deprived or non-deprived conditions, and assessed for food reinforcement, habituation to food and ad libitum eating. Results showed food reinforcement and habituation are correlated (r = 0.62, p = 0.002) and both independently predict energy intake. Hierarchical regression showed that the rate of habituation accounted for 30 percent of the variance in eating (p = 0.008), and adding food reinforcement increased the amount of variance accounted for up to 57.5 percent (p < 0.05). This suggests that both processes may influence energy intake in a meal. PMID:21423567

  19. Defining food risks and food anxieties throughout history.

    PubMed

    Scholliers, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, safe food is at the centre of concern of governments, scientists and the public. This essay surveys the social implications of this concern, and particularly addresses the question how historical wisdom may contribute to present-day understanding of food scares. After reminding briefly of social implications of today's food fears, it presents three scholarly approaches to food crises and anxieties in the past (labelled "teleological" and "contextual", with a division of the latter into "limited" and "broad"), and provides one example of a complex relationship between food and health in the past. The essay concludes that it is not only indispensable to conduct historical research to situate present-day developments with regard to legislation or consumers' reactions, but that it is also needed to acquire a sense of relativism with regard to present-day food safety, quality and scares. PMID:18355942

  20. Early exposure to food and food allergy in children

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Benetta; Chan, Edmond S.; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question I have been under the impression that infants should avoid potential allergenic foods such as nuts, cow’s milk, and eggs in order to avoid developing allergic reactions. What advice should I give parents regarding the introduction of food in infancy and the development of food allergy? Answer There is no evidence that delaying the introduction of any specific food beyond 6 months of age helps to prevent allergy. A recent Canadian Paediatric Society statement recommends no delay in the introduction of food in infancy. Recent research also appears to suggest that early introduction of potentially allergenic foods (at 4 to 6 months of age) might actually provide a form of protection and help prevent allergy, but more research is needed. PMID:24733323

  1. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  2. [Biotechnology and food products].

    PubMed

    Rogov, I A; Zharinov, A I

    1995-01-01

    Biotechnology is a prominent example of the interdisciplinary field of science based on the biology, biochemistry, microbiology, gene engineering, colloid chemistry and the totality of other sciences. The biotechnology includes a biotechnique which allow realisation of the resolutions of the engineering issues in the specific fields of science such as gene engineering, enzyme, cell, immune and microbiology technique. The biotechnological concepts are used to best advantage in the agriculture for the design and development of embryonic and gene-cell methods of animals. The biotechnology is also widely in chemical, pharmaceutical, food, oil-refinery and gas industries for the biotechnological conversion of the matter. It is applied in a power industry during the production of the bioenergy by photosynthesis, in the ecology for the microbiological destruction of water, treatment of sewage and in medicine for the production of antibiotics, hormones, amino acids ets. The biotechnology occupies the distinctive place in the food productions, in this context the analysis of the trends of its perspective development is reviewed. PMID:7667964

  3. Carbohydrates as food allergens

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Jian Yi; Huang, Chiung Hui

    2015-01-01

    The literature supports the notion that carbohydrate epitopes, on their own, do not contribute significantly to the induction of allergic reactions. They bind weakly to IgE antibodies and have been termed as cross reactive carbohydrate determinants. These epitopes cause confusion in in vitro IgE testing through nonspecific cross-reactivity. Coincident with the rising trends in food allergy prevalence, there has recently been reports of anaphylaxis induced by carbohydrate epitopes. There are two distinct groups, each with unique characteristics and geographical distribution. Anaphylaxis and acute allergic reactions related to the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) epitope that are present in the monoclonal antibody, cetuximab and red meat have been described in the United States and Europe populations where tick bites have been found to be the primary sensitizer. Another carbohydrate inducing anaphylaxis is galacto-oligosaccharides in commercial milk formula which has been described in the several Asian populations including Singapore. The latter is unique in that the allergen is a pure carbohydrate. We summarize the current literature on carbohydrate-induced food allergy, and evaluate the two new groups of carbohydrate allergy that have defied previous findings on carbohydrates and their role. PMID:25653916

  4. Psychological burden of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Rapps, Nora; Hausteiner, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions. In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food. PMID:17659692

  5. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age…

  6. Effect of leaflets vs. food samples on food purchasing.

    PubMed

    Fox, H M; Shields, C

    1980-12-01

    Attempts to influence purchases of oranges and whole wheat bread indicated that both leaflets describing the merits of the food and samples provided for testing had some degree of success in stimulating sales. The attempts were more successful for whole wheat bread than for oranges. The sustained effect of the promotions was not measured. Directing attention to specific foods may be an effective method of introducing nutritionally desirable foods into the diet and thus constitute an effective method of nutrition education. PMID:7440865

  7. 21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acidified foods. 108.25 Section 108.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... With an Emergency Permit § 108.25 Acidified foods. (a) Inadequate or improper manufacture,...

  8. 21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acidified foods. 108.25 Section 108.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... With an Emergency Permit § 108.25 Acidified foods. (a) Inadequate or improper manufacture,...

  9. 21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Coordinator (HFS-618), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint... completed form shall be submitted to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-565), Food and... LACF Registration Coordinator (HFS-618), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and...

  10. 21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Coordinator (HFS-618), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint... completed form shall be submitted to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-565), Food and... LACF Registration Coordinator (HFS-618), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and...

  11. Food Costs...From Farm to Retail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Denis

    This report focuses on food costs for 1985. Some of the information included in the report includes an analysis of food cost trends, percentages of the food dollar that goes to the farmer, and how much of the food dollar goes to food processors and marketers. Some of the highlights of the study are the following: (1) food prices rose slowly in…

  12. Unconventional food regeneration in space - Opportunities for microbial food production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Gene R.; Schubert, Wayne W.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1987-01-01

    The possible role of microbial species in regenerating food is considered, and three areas where microbial systems can be used in controlled ecological life support systems are discussed. Microbial species can serve as the biological portion of hybrid chemical/biological schemes for primary food products, as a means more fully to utilize waste materials from agronomical food production, and as a source of nutritional supplements to conventional plant foods. Work accomplished in each of these areas is described. The role of microgravity fermenters in this technology is addressed.

  13. EEG, ERPs and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L D; Polich, J

    1998-06-01

    Baseline electroencephalographic (EEG) and auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were assessed in subjects before and after consuming food and under eyes open and closed recording conditions in an attempt to replicate and extend previous food--ERP effects. Subjects were assessed the morning after fasting from the previous night, before and after eating a standard lunch. Delta- band EEG spectral power decreased and theta- and early alpha-band frequency increased after food consumption. However, in contrast to previous reports, P300 amplitude was unaffected by food consumption and peak latency increased. The strength of the correlational association between background EEG activity and P300 measures decreased for the delta- and theta- bands, but increased for the early and late alpha- bands. The findings suggest that food consumption affects general arousal, rather than specific cognitive EEG or ERP factors and are discussed with respect to previous EEG-ERP findings on food intake. PMID:9700015

  14. Current understanding of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Burks, Wesley

    2002-05-01

    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions account for the majority of well-documented food allergy reactions, but non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms do cause some hypersensitivity disorders. A variety of gastrointestinal, cutaneous, respiratory, and generalized symptoms and syndromes have been associated with IgE-mediated food allergy. The diagnostic approach to adverse food reactions begins with a careful medical history and physical examination. Laboratory studies may then be used appropriately in the evaluation. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is established, the only proven therapy is the strict elimination of the food from the patient's diet. Studies in both children and adults indicate that symptomatic reactivity to food allergens is often lost over time, except possibly reactions to peanuts, tree nuts, and seafood. PMID:12023192

  15. Functional foods: planning and development.

    PubMed

    Fogliano, Vincenzo; Vitaglione, Paola

    2005-03-01

    The discussion on functional foods among scientific communities and EC commissions is mainly focused on definitions and on legislative issues related to the presence on the market of this kind of products. Although many new products continuously appear, the functional food market is characterized by a high rate of failure. To realize a successful functional food, experts having different background should work together following a detailed workplan. In this paper, the problems related to planning and development of functional foods are considered using a step-by-step approach. The strategies for invention and development, formulation and validation of nutritional claims are regarded also illustrating practical examples of functional food development. The concept of food for special medical purposes, intended for individuals who are being treated under medical supervision, is also introduced. PMID:15744710

  16. Inhibition of food intake.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, Flood, and Edwards (Edwards and Morley, 1992; Flood and Morley, 1992; Macintosh et al., 2000; Morley and Flood, 1991, 1994; Morley et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997). Lutz, Geary, and others (Barth et al., 2003; Del Prete et al., 2002; Lutz et al., 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998a,b,c, 2000a,b, 2001a,b,c, 2003; Mollet et al., 2001, 2003a,b, 2004; Riediger et al., 2002, 2004; Rushing et al., 2000a,b, 2001, 2002). Workers at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or their collaborators (Bhavsar et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1998; Birkemo et al., 1995; Chapman et al., 2004a,b; Edwards et al., 1998; Feinle et al., 2002; Mack et al., 2003; Riediger et al., 1999; Roth et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 1996; Weyer et al., 2004; Young, 1997; Young and Bhavsar, 1996). Arnelo, Reidelberger, and others (Arnelo et al., 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998, 2000; Fruin et al., 1997; Granqvist et al., 1997; Reidelberger et al., 2001, 2002, 2004). The magnitude of amylin inhibition of food intake, and its potency for this effect when delivered peripherally, suggests a physiological role in satiogenesis. Increases in food intake following disruption of amylin signal-signaling (e.g., with amylin receptor blockade, or with amylin gene knock-out mice) further support a role of endogenous amylin to tonically restrict nutrient intake. In addition, synergies with other endogenous satiety agents may be present, and convey greater physiological importance than is conveyed by single signals. The anorectic effect of amylin is consistent with a classic amylin pharmacology. The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the area postrema/nucleus tractus solitarius, and is not merely a consequence of gastric fullness, for example. Circulating amylin appears to physiologically inhibit secretion of ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide from the stomach. In contrast to the actions of many other anorexigens, amylin appears to stimulate drinking. This disposgenic effect is likely mediated via amylin-sensitive neurones in the subfornical organ, a circumventricular structure, that like the area postrema does not present a blood-brain barrier. Amylin's dipsogenic effect may explain prandial drinking, which has heretofore been regarded as a learned behavior. PMID:16492542

  17. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    PubMed Central

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  18. Mobile Food Vending and the After-School Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tester, June M.; Yen, Irene H.; Laraia, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Low-income and minority children have higher rates of obesity and overweight. Greater understanding of their food access is important. Because of higher rates of walking to school in these populations, these children likely have greater exposure to the food environment immediately around their schools. Mobile food vendors are an understudied aspect of the food environment in U.S. urban areas. Purpose This study aims to observe the after-school food environment in an urban area where mobile vending is known to occur in order to study the range of vendors encountered near schools and the items sold in the after-school period. Methods In the spring of 2008, the presence of mobile food vendors after school within ¼ mile of nine public schools was assessed in a predominantly Latino district of Oakland CA. At six schools with regular presence of vendors, observations were made at mobile vendors documenting characteristics of transactions, consumers, and items. Results During 37 observation-hours across 23 days, there were 1355 items sold to 1195 individuals. Fifty-six percent of the transactions involved children with no adults present. There was a wide range in foods sold, and although there were vendors selling low-nutrient, energy-dense foods, there were also vendors selling whole and processed (precut and bagged) fresh fruits and vegetables. Roughly 40% of these whole fruits and processed fruits and vegetables were consumed by children. On average, children each consumed $1.54 of foods per transaction. Conclusions Mobile food vendors in urban areas contribute to after-school snacking among children, and should be considered as a component of the school food environment. PMID:20117559

  19. Economics of food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deitch, J.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food irradiation process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, irradiation source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present irradiation costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the irradiation costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed.

  20. Toxigenic Fungi in Food

    PubMed Central

    Davis, N. D.; Wagener, R. E.; Dalby, D. K.; Morgan-Jones, G.; Diener, U. L.

    1975-01-01

    Forty-five fungal isolates from moldy supermarket foods were tested for toxicity to brine shrimp, and twenty-two of these isolates were subsequently tested for toxicity to chicken embryos. Highly toxigenic fungi were Cladosporium sphaerospermum from a bakery product, Fusarium oxysporum from carrots, F. solani from cabbage, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum from bread, P. cyclopium and P. herquei from corn meal, P. lanosum from onions, P. steckii from chocolate syrup, Penicillium sp. from jelly, and Rhizopus nigricans isolates from sweet potato, applesauce, and strawberries. Approximately one-third of the fungal cultures were moderately to highly toxigenic to brine shrimp and chicken embryos, while several additional cultures were slightly toxigenic. PMID:1147614

  1. Toxigenic fungi in food.

    PubMed

    Davis, N D; Wagener, E; Dalby, D K; Morgan-Jones, G; Diener, U L

    1975-07-01

    Forty-five fungal isolates from moldy supermarket foods were tested for toxicity to brine shrimp, and twenty-two of these isolates were subsequently tested for toxicity to chicken embryos. Highly toxigenic fungi were Cladosporium sphaerospermum from a bakery product, Fusarium oxysporum from carrots, F. solani from cabbage, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum from bread, P. cyclopium and P. herguei from corn meal, P. lanosum from onions,P. steckii from chocolate syrup, Penicillium sp. from jelly, and Rhizopus nigricans isolates from sweet potato, applesauce, and strawberries. Approximately one-third of the fungal cultures were moderately to highly toxigenic to brine shrimp and chicken embryos, while several additional cultures were slightly toxigenic. PMID:1147614

  2. Food colorants: anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Francis, F J

    1989-01-01

    Interest in food colorants as shown by the number of patents has doubled in recent years with natural pigments outnumbering synthetics by five to one. The natural colorant area can be subdivided into anthocyanins, betalains, chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, Monascus, hemes, quinones, biliproteins, safflower, turmeric, and miscellaneous. All involve different groups of chemical compounds which may be used directly as colorants, or may be chemically modified to produce different hues or increased stability. All usually involve a method of collection, extraction, purification, possibly stabilization, and formulation. A variety of hues can be obtained ranging from green through yellow, orange, red, blue, and violet, depending on the source of colorant. Similarly, water or oil-soluble formulations can be prepared depending on the type of colorant. PMID:2690857

  3. Integrated wetlands for food production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ray Zhuangrui; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2016-07-01

    The widespread use of compound pelleted feeds and chemical fertilizers in modern food production contribute to a vast amount of residual nutrients into the production system and adjacent ecosystem are major factors causing eutrophication. Furthermore, the extensive development and application of chemical compounds (such as chemical pesticides, disinfectants and hormones used in enhancing productivity) in food production process are hazardous to the ecosystems, as well as human health. These unsustainable food production patterns cannot sustain human living in the long run. Wetlands are perceived as self-decontamination ecosystems with high productivities. This review gives an overview about wetlands which are being integrated with food production processes, focusing on aquaculture. PMID:27131797

  4. MRI of plants and foods.

    PubMed

    Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

    2013-04-01

    The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory. PMID:23369439

  5. MRI of plants and foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

    2013-04-01

    The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory.

  6. Impressions of functional food consumers.

    PubMed

    Saher, Marieke; Arvola, Anne; Lindeman, Marjaana; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2004-02-01

    Functional foods provide a new way of expressing healthiness in food choices. The objective of this study was to apply an indirect measure to explore what kind of impressions people form of users of functional foods. Respondents (n=350) received one of eight versions of a shopping list and rated the buyer of the foods on 66 bipolar attributes on 7-point scales. The shopping lists had either healthy or neutral background items, conventional or functional target items and the buyer was described either as a 40-year-old woman or man. The attribute ratings revealed three factors: disciplined, innovative and gentle. Buyers with healthy background items were perceived as more disciplined than those having neutral items on the list, users of functional foods were rated as more disciplined than users of conventional target items only when the background list consisted of neutral items. Buyers of functional foods were regarded as more innovative and less gentle, but gender affected the ratings on gentle dimension. The impressions of functional food users clearly differ from those formed of users of conventional foods with a healthy image. The shopping list method performed well as an indirect method, but further studies are required to test its feasibility in measuring other food-related impressions. PMID:15036786

  7. The "trophic" value of foods.

    PubMed

    Williams, R J; Heffley, J D; Yew, M L; Bode, C W

    1973-03-01

    Foods must furnish (i) calories, which can readily be measured, and (ii) raw materials necessary for the building and maintenance of metabolic machinery which makes possible fuel utilization. We have called this "beyond-calorie" quality of food its "trophic" value. This concept has more unity than appears on the surface, and is capable of approximate measurement by biological testing as our experiments show. The trophic value of a food cannot be ascertained from food composition tables because only a smattering of the necessary information is commonly furnished. A food cannot support life if it is missing, or deficient with respect to, any one of the necessary nutrients. A tabulation which includes only a few nutrients-e.g., calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, phosphorus, and iron-can be woefully misleading, especially if these individual nutrients have been added by way of fortification. THE MEASUREMENT WE HAVE APPLIED TO A NUMBER OF FOODS IS POTENTIALLY VALUABLE FOR COMPARING SIMILAR FOOD PRODUCTS: two grains, two breads, two milk products, or for comparison of the same food grown, processed, or preserved in different ways. By using essentially this method we have found that barnyard eggs are somewhat superior to battery eggs, but that whether they are fertile or infertile makes no difference. We are of the opinion that extensive biological testing of many commercial food products is highly desirable to help promote human health and better internal environments for our cells and tissues. PMID:4514984

  8. Physiology of food spoilage organisms.

    PubMed

    Roller, S

    1999-09-15

    A thorough understanding of the physiological responses of microorganisms to stresses imposed during food preservation is essential if novel combination systems based on mild food processing procedures are to be developed effectively. The influences of intrinsic characteristics as well as external factors such as water activity, temperature, preservatives, composition of the gaseous atmosphere, etc. on the stress response of microorganisms are discussed. The interaction of spoilage organisms with each other as well as with food pathogens and the ultimate consequences for food safety and quality are also explored in this review. PMID:10488850

  9. Food Chain Security and Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Sbastien; Delvenne, Pierre; Claisse, Frdric

    In our contemporary societies, the food chain could be defined as a macro-technical system, which depends on a wide variety of actors and risks analysis methods. In this contribution, risks related to the food chain are defined in terms of "modern risks" (Beck 1992). The whole national economic sector of food production/distribution is vulnerable to a local accident, which can affect the functioning of food chain, the export programs and even the political system. Such a complex socio-technical environment is undoubtedly vulnerable to intentional act such as terrorism.

  10. NASA/Mir Food Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, Charles T.; Kloeris, Vickie L.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA/Mir food system was based on a plan that included 50% U.S. food and 50% Russian food. Using inputs from crew evaluations, nutritional requirements, and analytical data, menus for each Long Duration Mission (LDM) were developed by the U.S. and Russian food specialists. The cosmonaut's planned menus were identical while the astronaut's menu differed slightly, based on personal preferences. Bonus food containers of astronaut's favorite foods were provided to increase variety. Six out of 7 astronauts reported that the menu plan was seldom, if ever, followed. Five out of 7 astronauts ate most of their meals with the other crew members. In most cases, the bonus food containers were not opened until near the end of the mission. All crew members emphasized that variety was critical and that the use of Mir and Shuttle food together added a unique variety to the food system. Three of the 7 Mir astronauts lost significant weight during their stay on Mir. The length of stay varied from 116 to 188 days.

  11. Food irradiation: Key research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Morehouse, K.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of foods with ionizing radiation reduces microbial infection and insect infestations, inhibits sprouting, and delays maturation, thereby extending the shelf life of foods. The treatment of different types of foods with ionizing radiation for specific purposes is accepted in several countries, although it is prohibited in others. The US Food and Drug Administration has established regulations to allow the treatment of several different foods with ionizing radiation and has received petitions for the approval of radiation treatment of additional foods. When carried out according to established good manufacturing practices, food irradiation yields safe, wholesome foods. The irradiated product may be often chemically or microbiologically [open quotes]safer[close quotes] than the nonirradiated product. This paper presents several areas of scientific research in which more information would facilitate the expansion of this technology and points out major areas of concern. The question of the public acceptance of foods that have been treated with ionizing radiation is discussed only briefly in order to make the presentation complete.

  12. Extrusion of food proteins.

    PubMed

    Arêas, J A

    1992-01-01

    Protein extrusion has frustrated earlier predictions regarding its impact in the development of food products. The main reason for this disappointing performance has been its failure to yield fabricated food products with textural quality close enough to that of natural products at competitive prices. Texturized soya protein by extrusion is presently the only commercial success in this area, being incorporated into several convenience products, increasing their protein content and quality and conferring them some desirable sensory properties. Technological and scientific gaps in the extrusion texturization are still to be bridged if this technique is to be applied for upgrading unconventional protein. The precise mechanisms responsible for protein texturization through extrusion are still unclear. Proteins show a very wide range of extrusion behavior that is probably related to large differences in their association properties. New peptide bonds, formed by free amino and carboxylic groups of the protein, were postulated as being responsible for the cross-linking that takes place in protein extrusion. However, disulfide bonds and electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions are regarded presently as the texturization mechanism in this process. The recently suggested suspension (or filled "melt") model for biopolymer extrusion offered a new framework for testing extrusion of novel proteins. According to this view, the large differences between the association properties of proteins produce different types of aggregates. Some of them can be insoluble under extrusion conditions and act as a dispersed phase within the melt phase. The extrusion performance of a protein will thus depend on the amount of insoluble aggregate produced inside the extruder and on protein-protein interactions that occur after the superheated molten mass leaves it. PMID:1297326

  13. Food metabolomics: from farm to human.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics, one of the latest components in the suite of systems biology, has been used to understand the metabolism and physiology of living systems, including microorganisms, plants, animals and humans. Food metabolomics can be defined as the application of metabolomics in food systems, including food resources, food processing and diet for humans. The study of food metabolomics has increased gradually in the recent years, because food systems are directly related to nutrition and human health. This review describes the recent trends and applications of metabolomics to food systems, from farm to human, including food resource production, industrial food processing and food intake by humans. PMID:26426959

  14. Relationship between Food Habituation and Reinforcing Efficacy of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Katelyn A.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcing value and habituation are two processes that have been used to study eating behaviors, but no research has examined their relationship, how they relate to energy intake, and whether they respond in a similar manner to food deprivation. Twenty-two female subjects were randomized to food deprived or non-deprived conditions, and assessed

  15. Reestablishing healthy food retail: changing the landscape of food deserts.

    PubMed

    Karpyn, Allison; Young, Candace; Weiss, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    The term "food desert" was formally introduced into the lexicon in 1995 and has come to describe areas with limited access to affordable nutritious foods, particularly areas in lower-income neighborhoods. The definition has led to the development of national and regional maps that focus efforts on equity in food access. Recognition of food deserts also marks a strategic change in public health's approach to obesity prevention. Today's emphasis on prevention has shifted away from individual responsibility to the role of the environment in health promotion. A number of solutions are underway to address food deserts, including public–private financing programs, industry commitments, as well as local and regional efforts to put healthy food within reach. The promise of financing programs to facilitate development of healthy food markets in underserved communities is rooted in their potential to alleviate the grocery gap and address underlying environmental contributors to obesity and diet-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. As food desert mapping and related interventions expand, there remains a need for ongoing investigation of impacts and the mechanisms by which impacts are achieved. PMID:22799475

  16. Food Fight: The Battle over Redefining Competitive Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Background: Environmental and policy influences are potentially the most powerful and yet the least understood strategies for reversing the current childhood obesity epidemic. Methods: This essay focuses on the school lunch environment and examines the key legal and policy factors that affect competitive foods or foods of minimal nutritional value…

  17. Food prices, access to food outlets and child weight.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Bao, Yanjun

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the importance of food prices and restaurant and food store outlet availability for child body mass index (BMI). We use the 1998, 2000 and 2002 waves of the child-mother merged files from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth combined with fruit and vegetable and fast food price data obtained from the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association and outlet density data on fast food and full-service restaurants and supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores obtained from Dun & Bradstreet. Using a random effects estimation model, we found that a 10% increase in the price of fruits and vegetables was associated with a 0.7% increase in child BMI. Fast food prices were not found to be statistically significant in the full sample but were weakly negatively associated with BMI among adolescents with an estimated price elasticity of -0.12. The price estimates were robust to whether we controlled for outlet availability based on a per capita or per land area basis; however, the association between food outlets and child BMI differed depending on the definition. The associations of fruit and vegetable and fast food prices with BMI were significantly stronger both economically and statistically among low- versus high-socioeconomic status children. The estimated fruit and vegetable and fast food price elasticities were 0.14 and -0.26, respectively, among low-income children and 0.09 and -0.13, respectively, among children with less educated mothers. PMID:19231301

  18. Relationship between Food Habituation and Reinforcing Efficacy of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Katelyn A.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcing value and habituation are two processes that have been used to study eating behaviors, but no research has examined their relationship, how they relate to energy intake, and whether they respond in a similar manner to food deprivation. Twenty-two female subjects were randomized to food deprived or non-deprived conditions, and assessed…

  19. World Foods. Good Food, Gift of German Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Betty F.; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of Germany and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of German geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies German food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  20. New Food Product Development Assistance for Rural Food Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, William F.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes examples of new food product development activities engaged in at the University of Minnesota Technical College with local industry, showing how they have been used as teaching models in the classroom. These activities have led to a program of New Product Development Assistance for small food companies in southeastern…

  1. Food Fight: The Battle over Redefining Competitive Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Background: Environmental and policy influences are potentially the most powerful and yet the least understood strategies for reversing the current childhood obesity epidemic. Methods: This essay focuses on the school lunch environment and examines the key legal and policy factors that affect competitive foods or foods of minimal nutritional value

  2. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food...

  3. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food...

  4. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color additives.... (b) Action on a request for exemption for investigational use of a food additive if the food...

  5. 7 CFR 278.1 - Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns. 278.1 Section 278.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD...

  6. 7 CFR 278.1 - Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns. 278.1 Section 278.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD...

  7. 7 CFR 278.1 - Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval of retail food stores and wholesale food concerns. 278.1 Section 278.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM PARTICIPATION OF RETAIL FOOD STORES, WHOLESALE FOOD...

  8. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32 Section 25.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color...

  9. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32 Section 25.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color...

  10. Food Safety, Food Fraud, and Food Defense: A Fast Evolving Literature.

    PubMed

    Manning, Louise; Soon, Jan Mei

    2016-04-01

    Intentional food crime is plural in nature in terms of the types of crime and the differing levels of financial gain. Successful models of food crime are dependent on how well the crime has been executed and at what point, or even if, detection actually occurs. The aim of this paper is to undertake a literature review and critique the often contradictory definitions that can be found in the literature in order to compare and contrast existing food crime risk assessment tools and their application. Food safety, food defense, and food fraud risk assessments consider different criteria in order to determine the degree of situational risk for each criteria and the measures that need to be implemented to mitigate that risk. Further research is required to support the development of global countermeasures, that are of value in reducing overall risk even when the potential hazards may be largely unknown, and specific countermeasures that can act against unique risks. PMID:26934423

  11. Food security in complex emergencies: enhancing food system resilience.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Prabhu; Alinovi, Luca; Sutton, Jacky

    2005-06-01

    This paper explores linkages between food security and crisis in different contexts, outlining the policy and institutional conditions needed to manage food security during a crisis and to rebuild the resilience of food systems in periods of relative peace. The paper reviews experiences over the past decade of countries in protracted crisis and draws lessons for national and international policy. It assesses the different alternatives on offer in fragile countries to address, for example, the disruption of institutional mechanisms and the decreasing level of support offered by international donors with respect to longer-term expectations. It proposes a Twin Track Approach to enhance food security resilience through specific policies for protracted crises that link immediate hunger relief interventions with a long-term strategy for sustainable growth. Finally, the article analyses policy options and the implications for both short- and longer-term responses vis-a-vis the three dimensions of food security: availability; access; and stability. PMID:15910676

  12. Food choice and food consumption frequency for Uruguayan consumers.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2008-05-01

    The aims of the present work were to study motives underlying Uruguayan consumers' food choice behaviour and to study the consumption frequency of some selected food items. A modification of the Food Choice Questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire was administered to a group of 200 Uruguayan consumers. Feeling good and safety, sensory appeal and health and nutrient content were rated as the most important factors, while familiarity was rated as the least important. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, three clusters with different choice patterns were identified. Frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, and whole cereals, increased as the importance attributed to health and nutrition increased; consumption of fatty foods decreased. PMID:17852481

  13. Immune reactivity to food coloring.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Artificial food dyes are made from petroleum and have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the enhancement of the color of processed foods. They are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries to increase the appeal and acceptability of their products. Synthetic food colorants can achieve hues not possible for natural colorants and are cheaper, more easily available, and last longer. However, since the use of artificial food coloring has become widespread, many allergic and other immune reactive disorders have increasingly been reported. During the past 50 y, the amount of synthetic dye used in foods has increased by 500%. Simultaneously, an alarming rise has occurred in behavioral problems in children, such as aggression, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ingestion of food delivers the greatest foreign antigenic load that challenges the immune system. Artificial colors can also be absorbed via the skin through cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The molecules of synthetic colorants are small, and the immune system finds it difficult to defend the body against them. They can also bond to food or body proteins and, thus, are able to act in stealth mode to circumvent and disrupt the immune system. The consumption of synthetic food colors, and their ability to bind with body proteins, can have significant immunological consequences. This consumption can activate the inflammatory cascade, can result in the induction of intestinal permeability to large antigenic molecules, and could lead to cross-reactivities, autoimmunities, and even neurobehavioral disorders. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently found a 41% increase in diagnoses of ADHD in boys of high-school age during the past decade. More shocking is the legal amount of artificial colorants allowed by the FDA in the foods, drugs, and cosmetics that we consume and use every day. The consuming public is largely unaware of the perilous truth behind the deceptive allure of artificial color. PMID:25599186

  14. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  15. Household income differences in food sources and food items purchased

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study examined income-related household food purchases among a sample of 90 households from the community. Methods Annotated food purchase receipts were collected for a four-week period by the primary household shopper. Receipt food source and foods items were classified into specific categories, and food quantities in ounces were recorded by research staff. For home sources, a limited number of food/beverage categories were recorded. For eating out sources, all food/beverage items were recorded. Median monthly per person dollars spent and per person ounces purchased were computed. Food sources and food categories were examined by household income tertile. Subjects and Setting A community-based sample of 90 households. Results Higher income households spent significantly more dollars per person per month from both home and eating out sources compared with lower income households ($163 versus $100, p < .001). Compared with lower income households, higher income households spent significantly more home source dollars on both fruits/vegetables (21.5 versus 10.2, p < .001) and sweets/snacks (17.3 versus 8.3, p < .001), but did not differ on home dollars spent on sugar sweetened beverages (2.0 versus 1.7, p < .46). The proportion of home beverages that were sugar sweetened beverages was significantly higher among lower income households (45% versus 26%, p < .01). Within eating out sources, lower income households spent a significantly greater percent of dollars per person at carry out places (54% versus 37%, p < .01). No income differences were observed for dollars spent at discount grocery stores, small grocery stores or convenience stores. Conclusions Higher income households spent more money on both healthy and less healthy foods from a wide range of sources. Lower income households spent a larger proportion of their eating out dollars at carry out places, and a larger proportion of their home beverage purchases were sugar sweetened beverages. PMID:20977738

  16. Security of the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Setola, Roberto; De Maggio, Maria Carla

    2009-01-01

    The food supply chain could became a dangerous weapon in the hands of enemies, for this reason the strategies developed to fight food adulteration (food safety) should be complemented with specific actions devoted to improve food "security" in the sense of food defence. This paper illustrate the methodological approach used in the EU project SecuFood to analyze threats, vulnerabilities and countermeasures existing in major European countries about what concerns deliberate attacks and manipulations of food. PMID:19964201

  17. An urban food store intervention positively affects food-related psychosocial variables and food behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level. PMID:19887625

  18. Food irradiation research and technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Irradiation is a safe and effective U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved process that can be used to disinfest or delay the maturation of fruits and vegetables, improve the microbiological safety of shellfish, eggs, raw meat and poultry, spices, and seeds used for sprouting. FDA ap...

  19. Food Behavior of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzler, Ann A.; Frary, Robert B.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed undergraduate college students (N=212) near completion of an introductory nutrition course to identify their patterns of food usage, changes in food habits, and previous nutrition background. Found one-half increased use of milk/milk products and one-half decreased fat and sugar. Cluster analysis indicated students could not be…

  20. Food Irradiation Research and Technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Irradiation is a safe and effective U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved process that can be used to disinfest or delay the maturation of fruits and vegetables, improve the microbiological safety of shellfish, eggs, raw meat and poultry, spices, and seeds used for sprouting. FDA ap...