Science.gov

Sample records for hallman rutgers food

  1. Rutger's CAM2000 chip architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donald E.; Hall, J. Storrs; Miyake, Keith

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the architecture and instruction set of the Rutgers CAM2000 memory chip. The CAM2000 combines features of Associative Processing (AP), Content Addressable Memory (CAM), and Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) in a single chip package that is not only DRAM compatible but capable of applying simple massively parallel operations to memory. This document reflects the current status of the CAM2000 architecture and is continually updated to reflect the current state of the architecture and instruction set.

  2. The Rutgers University College of Pharmacy: A Centennial History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Roy A.; Cowen, David L.

    This book presents and analyzes the history of the Rutgers College of Pharmacy (from 1892 to the present) and relates the Rutgers' experience, not only to national developments in education, but also to developments in the pharmaceutical sciences and to the changing pharmaceutical practices in the nation and in the State of New Jersey. A brief

  3. Orthopedic rehabilitation using the "Rutgers ankle" interface.

    PubMed

    Girone, M; Burdea, G; Bouzit, M; Popescu, V; Deutsch, J E

    2000-01-01

    A novel ankle rehabilitation device is being developed for home use, allowing remote monitoring by therapists. The system will allow patients to perform a variety of exercises while interacting with a virtual environment (VE). These game-like VEs created with WorldToolKit run on a host PC that controls the movement and output forces of the device via an RS232 connection. Patients will develop strength, flexibility, coordination, and balance as they interact with the VEs. The device will also perform diagnostic functions, measuring the ankle's range of motion, force exertion capabilities and coordination. The host PC transparently records patient progress for remote evaluation by therapists via our existing telerehabilitation system. The "Rutgers Ankle" Orthopedic Rehabilitation Interface uses double-acting pneumatic cylinders, linear potentiometers, and a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) force sensor. The controller contains a Pentium single-board computer and pneumatic control valves. Based on the Stewart platform, the device can move and supply forces and torques in 6 DOFs. A proof-of-concept trial conducted at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) provided therapist and patient feedback. The system measured the range of motion and maximum force output of a group of four patients (male and female). Future medical trials are required to establish clinical efficacy in rehabilitation. PMID:10977590

  4. Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, Evelyn H.; Cook-Chennault, Kimberly; Hirsch, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    In addressing the nation's need for a more technologically-literate society, the Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering (RU RET-E) is designed to: (1) engage middle and high school math and science teachers in innovative "green" engineering research during the summer, and (2) support teachers in integrating…

  5. RUTGERS STRATEGY FOR COMPOSTING: PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A strategy for sludge composting was developed to counter the tendency of other composting systems to operate at high temperatures that inhibit and slow decomposition. This method, known as the Rutgers strategy, can be implemented in a static pile configuration to retain structur...

  6. Undergraduate Education with the Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeth, Timothy W.

    The Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron is a research grade accelerator dedicated to undergraduate education. From its inception, it has been intended for instruction and has been designed to demonstrate classic beam physics phenomena and provides students hands on experience with accelerator technology. The cyclotron is easily reconfigured, allowing experiments to be designed and performed within one academic semester. Our cyclotron offers students the opportunity to operate an accelerator and directly observe many fundamental beam physics concepts, including axial and radial betatron motion, destructive resonances, weak and azimuthally varying field (AVF) focusing schemes, RF and DEE voltage effects, diagnostic techniques, and perform low energy nuclear reactions. This paper emphasizes the unique beam physics measurements and beam manipulations capable at the Rutgers 12-Inch Cyclotron.

  7. Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (CPES) -- Rutgers University Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, Manish

    2014-03-06

    The CPES scientific simulations run at scale on leadership class machines, collaborate at runtime and produce and exchange large data sizes, which present multiple I/O and data management challenges. During the CPES project, the Rutgers team worked with the rest of the CPES team to address these challenges at different levels, and specifically (1) at the data transport and communication level through the DART (Decoupled and Asynchronous Remote Data Transfers) framework, and (2) at the data management and services level through the DataSpaces and ActiveSpaces frameworks. These frameworks and their impact are briefly described.

  8. The Cold War within American Higher Education: Rutgers University as a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Thomas F.

    This book examines the impact of anticommunism on American campuses, using Rutgers University (New Jersey) from 1950 through 1965 as a case example. Following an introductory chapter which provides background information, chapter 2 discusses the period January 1950 to August 1952, when Cold War politics intensified at Rutgers University and the

  9. The Ocean Sciences RIOS REU Site at Rutgers University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassle, J. P.; Ammerman, J. W.; Quinlan, J. A.; Deluca, M. P.

    2004-12-01

    The Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences (IMCS) at Rutgers University recently completed the first year of its new NSF Ocean Sciences-supported REU site. This program is called RIOS, for Research Internships in Ocean Sciences. The program enrolled 15 students for a 10-week program, 11 located on the New Brunswick campus, and 4 at the Tuckerton field station. NSF funds supported ten of these students and funds from several other sources supported the other five students. All students participated in the group activities during the first and last weeks and periodically throughout the summer. One day of the first week was devoted to a Hudson River plume cruise, which introduced the students to river plume systems and provided data for a group project. Students pursued a variety of individual research projects with faculty mentors, explored the use of MATLAB for data analysis, and collaborated in the analysis of the Hudson plume data. The program culminated in a poster session with presentations of all the individual projects. This presentation will present highlights of the RIOS program, discuss its successes and areas for improvement, and outline plans for next summer.

  10. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: undergraduate student outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L

    2012-12-01

    Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students. PMID:22767090

  11. Appellate Court Upholds Legality of Fees Paid by Non-Union Members at Rutgers U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Scott

    1986-01-01

    A U.S. Court of Appeals has upheld significant portions of an arrangement allowing Rutgers University faculty to pay agency fees in lieu of union dues and still be covered by a collective bargaining contract, despite contention that aspects of the agreement violated their constitutional rights to free speech. (MSE)

  12. Pushing to the Edge: Rutgers Astrophysics Institute Motivates Talented High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etkina, Eugenia; Matilsky, Terry; Lawrence, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The Rutgers Astrophysics Institute is a program in which gifted high school students learn about contemporary science and its methods, and conduct independent authentic research using real-time data. The students use the processes of science to acquire knowledge, and serve as cognitive apprentices to an expert astrophysicist. A variety of

  13. The Impact of Triple Room Assignment on Students at Rutgers and Douglass Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaj, Leahcim

    The effects of overassignment (three students living in a room usually assigned to two) on students at Rutgers and Douglass Colleges are examined in a study of differences between students housed in two- and three-person rooms for the semester. The dependent measures were perception of the university environment, academic performance, physical

  14. The Confrontation with Nazism at Rutgers: Academic Bureaucracy and Moral Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Michael; Zenchelsky, Seymour

    1990-01-01

    Argues that Rutgers University administrators participated in obfuscating the political nature of the 1935 dismissal of Lienhard Bergel, a German-born professor, whose anti-Nazi views alienated him from Friedrich Hauptmann, department head, also German-born, and avowedly pro-Nazi. Analyzes Hauptmann's central role and hearings testimony. Charges

  15. Keeping Current. The Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries--CISSL at Rutgers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol C.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a research center established by Professors Carol Kuhlthau and Ross Todd of Rutgers University in New Brunswick to promote the study of the impact of school library media centers on student learning and the dynamics of effective school library programs. The Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries (CISSL) is…

  16. Pushing to the Edge: Rutgers Astrophysics Institute Motivates Talented High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etkina, Eugenia; Matilsky, Terry; Lawrence, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The Rutgers Astrophysics Institute is a program in which gifted high school students learn about contemporary science and its methods, and conduct independent authentic research using real-time data. The students use the processes of science to acquire knowledge, and serve as cognitive apprentices to an expert astrophysicist. A variety of…

  17. Personal Trainer: Vibiana Bowman--Paul Robeson Library, Rutgers University-Camden, NJ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Vibiana Bowman enjoys spending time with young adults--which is just as well since she has a few of her own, has done her time as scout leader, and now teaches proper research methods to students at Rutgers University--Camden. She first discovered how much this instruction was needed when she noticed her own kids cutting and pasting copy from the

  18. Ethnicity, Race, and Nationality in Education: A Global Perspective. The Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimahara, N. Ken, Ed.; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra, Ed.

    This volume contains 12 papers originally presented at the 14th Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education in 1999. The symposium explored contemporary issues of ethnic, cultural, and national identities and their influence on the social construction of identity. Papers include: (1) "Reconceptualizing Ethnicity and Educational Achievement"

  19. Women Accuse Rutgers Political-Science Department of Bias and Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Female faculty members and graduate students at Rutgers University in New Brunswick's political-science department feel unfairly compensated and shut out of leadership positions by their male counterparts, says an internal university report obtained by "The Chronicle." In at least one case, a woman has been afraid to complain about sexual

  20. The Impact of Triple Room Assignment on Students at Rutgers and Douglass Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaj, Leahcim

    The effects of overassignment (three students living in a room usually assigned to two) on students at Rutgers and Douglass Colleges are examined in a study of differences between students housed in two- and three-person rooms for the semester. The dependent measures were perception of the university environment, academic performance, physical…

  1. Through the Eyes of a Student: Rutgers Physics Teacher Preparation Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Jonathan; D'Amato, Chris

    2010-03-01

    This talk will describe the course work and the teaching experiences in the Rutgers Physics Teacher Preparation Program that future physics teachers have before they enter the profession. The program is hosted in the Rutgers Graduate School of Education but works in close cooperation with the physics department. In addition to 5 courses in which we learn how to teach physics, we work as instructors in reformed introductory physics courses and then do student teaching in the schools where former graduates of the program teach. During the student teaching we have multiple opportunities to apply all of the ``theory'' in a real classroom and work in collaboration with those who share our views of how students learn. Jonathan is a student in the program and Chris is his cooperating teacher.

  2. New Partnerships for New Jersey: A Financial Strategy for Academic Distinction. Report of the Committee on Future Financing of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ.

    A financial plan to help Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey achieve national stature is considered. Fundamental principles of the financial strategy include: as New Jersey's only comprehensive public research university, Rutgers is in a position to advance the development of New Jersey; the state should provide the university with the

  3. Rutgers-Somerset Counseling Program: Preventing Violence and Decreasing Risky Behaviors among Adolescent Girls--A Training Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Melissa Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The violence prevention group component of the Rutgers-Somerset Counseling Program, a prevention program for multi-problem youth based in a local junior high school, was established in response to appeals made by school staff for help addressing surges in school and community violence and the rising incidence of aggression among female students.

  4. The Professions and Ethics: Views and Realities in New Jersey. Professions Forum Proceedings (Rutgers, New Jersey, November 17, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orzack, Louis H., Ed.; Simcoe, Annell L., Ed.

    Papers and summaries from Rutgers University's 1981 Professions Forum, "The Professions and Ethics: Views and Realities in New Jersey," are presented. Titles and authors are as follows: an introduction (Louis H. Orzack and Annell L. Simcoe); "Do Special Ethical Norms Apply to Professions?" (Daniel Callahan); "Ethical Issues in the Work of

  5. Rutgers-Somerset Counseling Program: Preventing Violence and Decreasing Risky Behaviors among Adolescent Girls--A Training Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Melissa Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The violence prevention group component of the Rutgers-Somerset Counseling Program, a prevention program for multi-problem youth based in a local junior high school, was established in response to appeals made by school staff for help addressing surges in school and community violence and the rising incidence of aggression among female students.…

  6. A Model for Improving the Retention and Academic Achievement of Non-Traditional Students at Livingston College/Rutgers University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Judith S.

    A program for nontraditional students is described that was implemented at Livingston College/Rutgers University during the fall 1980 semester. The Freshman Studies Program (FSP) had two purposes: (1) to provide a more supportive structure and environment for developmental studies students and (2) to facilitate efforts to both deliver services and

  7. Pushing to the edge: Rutgers astrophysics institute motivates talented high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etkina, Eugenia; Matilsky, Terry; Lawrence, Michael

    2003-12-01

    The Rutgers Astrophysics Institute is a program in which gifted high school students learn about contemporary science and its methods, and conduct independent authentic research using real-time data. The students use the processes of science to acquire knowledge, and serve as cognitive apprentices to an expert astrophysicist. A variety of naturalistic and statistical methods were employed to gather data concerning various changes in the students as a result of their participation in the institute. Specifically, we concluded that students were able to (a) distinguish between observational data and models, devise testing experiments, and reflect on the analysis and the interpretation of X-ray data; (b) achieve results comparable to those of regular Advanced Placement (AP) students on individual AP exam problems (the students had not taken AP Physics), (c) engage in elements of meaningful authentic research, and (d) change their approaches toward learning science.

  8. An Opening Chapter of the First Generation of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: The First Rutgers AIM Workshop, June 1975.

    PubMed

    Kulikowski, C A

    2015-08-13

    The first generation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Medicine methods were developed in the early 1970's drawing on insights about problem solving in AI. They developed new ways of representing structured expert knowledge about clinical and biomedical problems using causal, taxonomic, associational, rule, and frame-based models. By 1975, several prototype systems had been developed and clinically tested, and the Rutgers Research Resource on Computers in Biomedicine hosted the first in a series of workshops on AI in Medicine that helped researchers and clinicians share their ideas, demonstrate their models, and comment on the prospects for the field. These developments and the workshops themselves benefited considerably from Stanford's SUMEX-AIM pioneering experiment in biomedical computer networking. This paper focuses on discussions about issues at the intersection of medicine and artificial intelligence that took place during the presentations and panels at the First Rutgers AIM Workshop in New Brunswick, New Jersey from June 14 to 17, 1975. PMID:26123911

  9. Research on flexible automation and robotics for plant production at Rutgers University.

    PubMed

    Ting, K C; Ling, P P; Giacomelli, G A

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of research activities in the areas of flexible automation and robotics (FAR) within controlled environment plant production systems (CEPPS) in the Department of Bioresource Engineering, Rutgers University. In the past thirty years, our CEPPS research has dealt with the topics including structures and energy, environmental monitoring and control, plant growing systems, operations research and decision support systems, flexible automation and robotics, and impact to natural (i.e. surrounding) environment. Computer and modeling/simulation techniques have been utilized extensively. Mechanized systems have been developed to substitute human's physical labor and maintain uniformity in production. Automation research has been directed towards adding, to the mechanized systems, the capabilities of perception, reasoning, communication, and task planning. Computers, because of their programmability, provide flexibility to automated systems, when incorporated with generic hardware devices. Robots are ideal hardware tools to be employed in flexible automation systems. Some technologies developed in our CEPPS research may be readily adaptable to Closed Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (CBLSS). PMID:11538960

  10. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all. PMID:22767092

  11. Research on flexible automation and robotics for plant production at Rutgers University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, K. C.; Ling, P. P.; Giacomelli, G. A.

    This is an overview of research activities in the areas of flexible automation and robotics (FAR) within controlled environment plant production systems (CEPPS) in the Department of Bioresource Engineering, Rutgers University. In the past thirty years, our CEPPS research has dealt with the topics including structures and energy, environmental monitoring and control, plant growing systems, operations research and decision support systems, flexible automation and robotics, and impact to natural (i.e. surrounding) environment. Computer and modeling/simulation techniques have been utilized extensively. Mechanized systems have been developed to substitute human's physical labor and maintain uniformity in production. Automation research has been directed towards adding, to the mechanized systems, the capabilities of perception, reasoning, communication, and task planning. Computers, because of their programmability, provide flexibility to automated systems, when incorporated with generic hardware devices. Robots are ideal hardware tools to be employed in flexible automation systems. Some technologies developed in our CEPPS research may be readily adaptable to Closed Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (CBLSS).

  12. Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index Scores at Age 18 Predict Alcohol Dependence Diagnoses Seven Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Danielle M.; Aliev, Fazil; Viken, Richard; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) is widely used to assess adolescent drinking-related problems. We asked how well RAPI, administered in late adolescence, predicts alcohol diagnoses at age 25 in a 7-year follow-up. Methods At age 18, a population-based sample of Finnish twins completed RAPI by postal questionnaire; 597 (300 male) twins, from pairs discordant and concordant for age 18 RAPI scores, were interviewed at age 25 with the SSAGA, yielding DSM-IIIR diagnoses. Polychoric correlations between RAPI and alcohol diagnoses and symptoms, the area under the response operator characteristic (ROC) curve, and the odds ratio of outcome diagnosis per unit change in adolescent RAPI were analysed. Twin pairs discordant for both adolescent RAPI and adult diagnoses permitted within-family replications for the full sample and separately by sex. Results Nearly half the interviewed twins met diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependency (46.2%) or abuse (1.5%). Age 18 RAPI scores significantly correlated with diagnoses (0.52) and symptom counts (0.55). ROC analysis found a 74% probability that adolescent RAPI scores will be higher among those with an alcohol diagnosis at age 25 than for those without. The odds ratio of outcome alcohol diagnosis per unit increase in adolescent 18 RAPI exceeded 10.0. Within-family comparisons of 117 twin pairs discordant for both age 18 RAPI and age 25 alcohol diagnoses replicated the between-family associations. In both between-family and within-family analyses, RAPI was more predictive of alcohol diagnoses among females. Conclusions Our results offer evidence, including that from informative comparisons of co-twins discordant for both predictor and outcome, that RAPI scores in late adolescence robustly predict alcohol diagnoses in early adulthood. Accordingly, our results also provide new evidence that one pathway to problem drinking in early adulthood is a direct one from problem drinking in adolescence. PMID:21323682

  13. Phases of QCD: Summary of the Rutgers Long Range Plan Town Meeting, January 12-14, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Peter; Kharzeev, Dmitri; Muller, Berndt; Nagle, Jamie; Rajagopal, Krishna; Vigdor, Steve

    2007-05-14

    This White Paper summarizes the outcome of the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD that took place January 12-14, 2007 at Rutgers University, as part of the NSAC 2007 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Town Meeting on Hadron Structure, including a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. Appendix A.1 contains the meeting agenda. This Executive Summary presents the prioritized recommendations that were determined at the meeting. Subsequent chapters present the essential background to the recommendations. While this White Paper is not a scholarly article and contains few references, it is intended to provide the non-expert reader

  14. School Feeding Conference Calls for Increased School Lunch Delivery, Presents New Foods and Concepts for Child Nutrition Programs, and Challenges Nutrition Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brin, Myron

    1972-01-01

    Report of the National School Feeding Conference co-sponsored by the Food and Nutrition Service of the USDA and the Department of Food Science of Rutgers University, held in New Brunswick, New Jersey, June 27-29, 1972. Alternatives to requirements of the National School Lunch Program; engineered or nutrified foods are discussed. (LK)

  15. An Opening Chapter of the First Generation of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: The First Rutgers AIM Workshop, June 1975

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first generation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Medicine methods were developed in the early 1970’s drawing on insights about problem solving in AI. They developed new ways of representing structured expert knowledge about clinical and biomedical problems using causal, taxonomic, associational, rule, and frame-based models. By 1975, several prototype systems had been developed and clinically tested, and the Rutgers Research Resource on Computers in Biomedicine hosted the first in a series of workshops on AI in Medicine that helped researchers and clinicians share their ideas, demonstrate their models, and comment on the prospects for the field. These developments and the workshops themselves benefited considerably from Stanford’s SUMEX-AIM pioneering experiment in biomedical computer networking. This paper focuses on discussions about issues at the intersection of medicine and artificial intelligence that took place during the presentations and panels at the First Rutgers AIM Workshop in New Brunswick, New Jersey from June 14 to 17, 1975. PMID:26123911

  16. Learning from Disaster: The Learning Environment of the 2006 Rutgers University Hurricane Katrina Relief Project and How Service Learning Generates Transformative Learning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Donald C.

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The study primarily focused on how a Service Learning project resulted in a Transformative Learning experience. The sample was drawn from 82 participants from Rutgers University who took part in a week-long alternative Spring Break community service project in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina in 2006. Interviews were conducted

  17. The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI): A Comparison of Cut-Points in First Nations Mi'kmaq and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents in Rural Nova Scotia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Melanie; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Boudreau, Brock; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Stevens, Doreen; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    Important to the assessment of adolescent alcohol misuse is examination of alcohol-related problems. However, most measurement tools have only been validated among Euro-American cultures. The present study assessed the ability of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) to identify problem drinkers among groups of First Nations Mi'kmaq and…

  18. The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI): A Comparison of Cut-Points in First Nations Mi'kmaq and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents in Rural Nova Scotia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Melanie; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Boudreau, Brock; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Stevens, Doreen; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    Important to the assessment of adolescent alcohol misuse is examination of alcohol-related problems. However, most measurement tools have only been validated among Euro-American cultures. The present study assessed the ability of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) to identify problem drinkers among groups of First Nations Mi'kmaq and

  19. Reconnaissance of volatile organic compounds in the subsurface at Rutgers University, Busch Campus, Piscataway Township, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, V.T.

    1996-01-01

    During 1991-92, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrogeologic reconnaissance at a site near the Rutgers University, Busch Campus, Chemical Engineering building, C-Wing. Results of analyses of the soil-gas samples, which were collected at 43 locations, indicated the presence of volatile organic compounds, primarily carbon tetrachloride, near the C-Wing building and about 550 feet downgradient from and southwest of the C-Wing building. Concentrations of the compound in soil-gas samples were highest (2.1 ug/L (micrograms per liter)) along the southwestern wall of the C-Wing building. Ground-water samples were collected at depths as great as 55 feet from five wells and piezometers near the C-Wing building. Samples collected along the southwestern wall of the building also contained the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in the ground-water samples ranged from < 0.35 ug/L to 3,400 ug/L, and concentrations of tetrachloro- ethylene ranged from < 0.28 ug/L to 85 ug/L. Ground-water samples collected at depths of 55 feet or more from two wells located on the Rutgers University Golf Course about 2,400 feet down- gradient from the C-Wing building contained concentrations of tetrachloroethylene as great as 17.7 ug/L. Water levels measured in six wells and six piezometers indicated that the general flow direction in the shallow part of the aquifer is to the southwest of the C-Wing building. An electrical-resistivity survey was conducted by azimuthal resistivity techniques. The results of the survey were consistent with field measurements, and the dominant vertical fractures near the Busch Campus trend northeast. An electromagnetic survey was ineffective as a result of cultural interferences and could not be used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics of the site.

  20. Notes on the conversion of LogLisp from Rutgers/UCI-Lisp to InterLisp

    SciTech Connect

    Schrag, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Conversion of the LogLisp(Logic programming in Lisp) Artificial Intelligence programming environment from its original Rutgers/UCI-Lisp (RUCI-Lisp) implementation to an InterLisp implementation is described. This report may be useful to researchers wishing to convert LogLisp to yet another Lisp dialect, or to those wishing to convert other RUCI-Lisp programs into InterLisp. It is also intended to help users of the InterLisp version of LogLisp to understand the implementation. The conversion process is described at a level aimed toward potential translators who might benefit from approaches taken and lessons learned. General issues of conversion of Lisp software between dialects are discussed, use of InterLisp's dialect translation package is described, and specific issues of non-mechanizable conversion are addressed. The latter include dialect differences in function definitions, arrays, integer arithmetic, i/o, interrupts, and macros. Subsequent validation, compilation, and efficiency enhancement of the InterLisp version are then described. A brief user's guide to the InterLisp version and points of contact for information on LogLisp software distribution are also provided.

  1. The Economics of Information in the 1990s. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium of the Graduate Alumni and Faculty of the Rutgers School of Communication, Information and Library Studies (31st, New Brunswick, New Jersey, April 15, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varlejs, Jana, Ed.

    While the rapid evolution of electronic technology has made possible stunning advances in access to information, the price of adopting new systems and formats has forced major changes in how libraries allocate their resources. The 31st symposium of the graduate alumni and faculty of Rutgers School of Communication, Information and Library Studies

  2. Polyphenol-Rich Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce Improves Glucose Metabolism and Liver Lipid Accumulation in Diet Induced Obese C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Diana M.; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Waterman, Carrie; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Johnson, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of the following experiments were to characterize anti-diabetic in vitro and in vivo activity of the polyphenol-rich aqueous extract of Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce. Materials / Methods Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL) extract (RSLE) and isolated compounds were evaluated for inhibitory effects on glucose production as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-dependent inhibition of insulin activity in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Additionally, high fat diet-induced obese mice were treated with RSLE (100 or 300 mg/kg), Metformin (250 mg/kg) or vehicle (water) for 28 days by oral administration and insulin and oral glucose tolerance tests were conducted. Tissues were harvested at the end of the study and evaluated for biochemical and physiological improvements in metabolic syndrome conditions. Results A polyphenol-rich RSLE, containing chlorogenic acid, cyanidin malonyl-glucoside and quercetin malonyl-glucoside, was produced by simple boiling water extraction at pH 2. In vitro, RSLE and chlorogenic acid demonstrated dose-dependent inhibition of glucose production. In vivo, RSLE treatment improved glucose metabolism measured by oral glucose tolerance tests, but not insulin tolerance tests. RSLE treated groups had a lower ratio of liver weight to body weight as well as decreased total liver lipids compared to control group after 28 days of treatment. No significant differences in plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglycerides were observed with RSLE treated groups compared to vehicle control. Conclusion RSLE demonstrated anti-diabetic effects in vitro and in vivo and may improve metabolic syndrome conditions of fatty liver and glucose metabolism. PMID:24985107

  3. Lessons learned: A case study of an integrated way of teaching introductory physics to at-risk students at Rutgers University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etkina, E.; Gibbons, K.; Holton, B. L.; Horton, G. K.

    1999-09-01

    In order to provide a physics instructional environment in which at-risk students (particularly women and minorities) can successfully learn and enjoy introductory physics, we have introduced Extended General Physics as an option for science, science teaching, and pre-health professions majors at Rutgers University. We have taught the course for the last five years. In this new course, we have used many elements that have been proven to be successful in physics instruction. We have added a new component, the minilab, stressing qualitative experiments performed by the students. By integrating all the elements, and structuring the time the students invest in the course, we have created a successful program for students-at-risk, indeed for all students. Our aim was not only to foster successful mastery of the traditional physics syllabus by the students, but to create a sense of community through the cooperation of students with each other and their instructors. We present a template for implementation of our program elsewhere.

  4. Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater and sediments and mineralogy of sediments and grain coatings underlying the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Boehlke, Adam R.; Fishman, Neil S.; Battaglin, William A.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected from June through October 2007 from seven plots at the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, and analyzed for a suite of pesticides (including fungicides) and other physical and chemical parameters (including sediment mineralogy) by the U.S. Geological Survey. Plots were selected for inclusion in this study on the basis of the crops grown and the pesticides used. Forty-one pesticides were detected in 14 water samples; these include 5 fungicides, 13 herbicides, 1 insecticide, and 22 pesticide degradates. The following pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in 50 percent or more of the groundwater samples: 1-amide-4-hydroxy-chorothalonil, alachlor sulfonic acid, metolachlor oxanilic acid, metolachlor sulfonic acid, metalaxyl, and simazine. Dissolved-pesticide concentrations ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 36 micrograms per liter (for metolachlor sulfonic acid, a degradate of the herbicide metolachlor). The total number of pesticides found in groundwater samples ranged from 0 to 29. Fourteen pesticides were detected in sediment samples from continuous cores collected within each of the seven sampled plots; these include 4 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 7 pesticide degradates. Pesticide concentrations in sediment samples ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 34.2 nanograms per gram (for azoxystrobin). The total number of pesticides found in sediment samples ranged from 0 to 8. Quantitative whole-rock and grain-coating mineralogy of sediment samples were determined by x-ray diffraction. Whole-rock analysis indicated that sediments were predominantly composed of quartz. The materials coating the quartz grains were removed to allow quantification of the trace mineral phases present.

  5. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that contain ...

  6. Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  7. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A A ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  8. Food Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  9. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  10. Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Children / Preschoolers Food Safety Print Share Preschoolers' immune systems are still developing. ...

  11. Food allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    Allergy to food ... that contain gluten ( celiac disease ) A true food allergy is much less common. The immune system normally ... a problem. In a person with a food allergy, the immune response is oversensitive. When it recognizes ...

  12. Food safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on to the next food item. If your hands have any cuts or sores, wear gloves suitable for handling food or avoid preparing food. Avoid cross-contaminating food items. Separate meat, poultry, and ... your hands, utensils, and cutting board after they come into ...

  13. [Food intolerance].

    PubMed

    Zugasti Murillo, Ana

    2009-05-01

    Adverse food reactions are common in the general population. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the structure of food allergens and of the mechanisms involved is poor. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology suggested a classification based on the causative pathogenic mechanism. According to this classification, non-toxic reactions can be divided into food allergies when they recognize immunological mechanisms and food intolerance when there are no immunological implications. The treatment of food intolerance is avoidance of the particular food. There are specific treatments for some food intolerance (beta-galactosidases for the management of lactose intolerance). PMID:19627745

  14. Food poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David T; Dobmeier, Stephen G; Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2007-05-01

    Food poisoning is encountered throughout the world. Many of the toxins responsible for specific food poisoning syndromes are no longer limited to isolated geographic locations. With increased travel and the ease of transporting food products, it is likely that a patient may present to any emergency department with the clinical effects of food poisoning. Recognizing specific food poisoning syndromes allows emergency health care providers not only to initiate appropriate treatment rapidly but also to notify health departments early and thereby prevent further poisoning cases. This article reviews several potential food-borne poisons and describes each agent's mechanism of toxicity, expected clinical presentation, and currently accepted treatment. PMID:17482025

  15. Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Food allergies affect up to 6% of young children and 3%–4% of adults. They encompass a range of disorders that may be IgE and/or non-IgE mediated, including anaphylaxis, pollen food syndrome, food-protein–induced enterocolitis syndrome, food-induced proctocolitis, eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, and atopic dermatitis. Many complex host factors and properties of foods are involved in the development of food allergy. With recent advances in the understanding of how these factors interact, the development of several novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies is underway and showing promise. PMID:21364287

  16. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... condition that may mimic food allergy symptoms is celiac disease . People with celiac disease are not able to tolerate gluten, a protein ... About Kissing? Egg Allergy Food Allergies and Travel Celiac Disease Serious Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis) Milk Allergy Shellfish Allergy ...

  17. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... allergy by 2 or 3 years of age. Symptoms of milk allergy include hives, vomiting and breathing problems after consuming ... nausea, gas and diarrhea. Symptoms What are the symptoms of food allergy? The most common immediate symptoms of food allergy ...

  18. Food additives

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling foods Salt, to preserve meats "Indirect" ... this list are: guar gum, sugar, salt, and vinegar. The list is reviewed regularly. Some substances that ...

  19. Packaged Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    After studies found that many elderly persons don't eat adequately because they can't afford to, they have limited mobility, or they just don't bother, Innovated Foods, Inc. and JSC developed shelf-stable foods processed and packaged for home preparation with minimum effort. Various food-processing techniques and delivery systems are under study and freeze dried foods originally used for space flight are being marketed. (See 77N76140)

  20. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2

  1. Food Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael; Wilson, Wendy

    The importance of establishing good eating habits in youth as a means for laying the foundation of health in later life is discussed. This booklet contains charts that list nutritional scores for many common foods. These scores are measures of the overall nutritional content and value of the foods. Foods receive points for protein; vitamins A, B-2…

  2. Food allergies and food intolerances.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, Claudio; Pastorello, Elide A

    2006-01-01

    Adverse reactions to foods, aside from those considered toxic, are caused by a particular individual intolerance towards commonly tolerated foods. Intolerance derived from an immunological mechanism is referred to as Food Allergy, the non-immunological form is called Food Intolerance. IgE-mediated food allergy is the most common and dangerous type of adverse food reaction. It is initiated by an impairment of normal Oral Tolerance to food in predisposed individuals (atopic). Food allergy produces respiratory, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms but often generalized, life-threatening symptoms manifest at a rapid rate-anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis is made using medical history and cutaneous and serological tests but to obtain final confirmation a Double Blind Controlled Food Challenge must be performed. Food intolerances are principally caused by enzymatic defects in the digestive system, as is the case with lactose intolerance, but may also result from pharmacological effects of vasoactive amines present in foods (e.g. Histamine). Prevention and treatment are based on the avoidance of the culprit food. PMID:16782524

  3. Organic food.

    PubMed

    Jukes, T H

    1977-01-01

    "Organic" or "organically grown" foods are commonly represented as "food grown without pesticides; grown without artificial fertilizers; grown in soil whose humus content is increased by the additions of organic matter; grown in soil whose mineral content is increased with applications of natural mineral fertilizers; has not been treated with preservatives, hormones, antibiotics etc." The substitution of "organic" for "chemical" fertilizers during the growth of plants produces no change in the nutritional or chemical properties of foods. All foods are made of "chemicals." Traces of pesticides have been reported to be present in about 20 to 30% of both "organic" and conventional foods. These traces are usually within the official tolerance levels. Such levels are set low enough to protect consumers adequately. Indeed, there is no record of a single case of injury to a consumer resulting from the application of pesticides to food crops at permitted levels. PMID:336290

  4. Protein Data Bank Project at Rutgers University

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Helen

    2002-07-18

    The central activities of the Protein Data Base continue to be the collection, archiving and distribution of high quality structural data to the scientific community on a timely basis. The systems that have been developed for doing this has become increasingly reliable and stable. We have completed the inventory of magnetic and paper media that was received from Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  5. Rutgers University Subcontract B611610 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Soundarajan, Sucheta; Eliassi-Rad, Tina; Gallagher, Brian; Pinar, Ali

    2015-09-30

    Given an incomplete (i.e., partially-observed) network, which nodes should we actively probe in order to achieve the highest accuracy for a given network feature? For example, consider a cyber-network administrator who observes only a portion of the network at time t and wants to accurately identify the most important (e.g., highest PageRank) nodes in the complete network. She has a limited budget for probing the network. Of all the nodes she has observed, which should she probe in order to most accurately identify the important nodes? We propose a novel and scalable algorithm, MaxOutProbe, and evaluate it w.r.t. four network features (largest connected component, PageRank, core-periphery, and community detection), five network sampling strategies, and seven network datasets from different domains. Across a range of conditions, MaxOutProbe demonstrates consistently high performance relative to several baseline strategies

  6. PIXE at rutgers university: Biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G. S.; Roach, N.; Naumann, M.; Simmons, U.; Cong, H.

    1984-04-01

    We have constructed an external beam PIXE system for trace element analysis of biological and environmental samples. Analytical procedures that include sample preparation and PIXE setup are described for analysis of maternal scalp hair, amniotic fluid, human placenta, and colostrum samples. The study was conducted to obtain trace element data on important biological tissues for incorporation into a large data base that will be used to assess fetal and infant well-being. A 3.5 MeV external proton beam was used to produce X rays in the samples after they were low-temperature ashed. Detection limits for essential and toxic elements are less than 0.4 ?g/g for a 6 min irradiation time.

  7. Rutgers zodiacal light experiment on OSO-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, B.

    1975-01-01

    A detector was placed in a slowly spinning wheel on OSO-6 whose axis was perpendicular to the line drawn to the sun, to measure the surface brightness and polarization at all elongations from the immediate neighborhood of the sun to the anti-solar point. Different wavelength settings and polarizations were calculated from the known order of magnitude brightness of the zodiacal light. The measuring sequence was arranged to give longer integration times for the regions of lower surface brightness. Three types of analysis to which the data on OSO-6 were subjected are outlined; (1) photometry, (2) colorimetry and (3) polarimetry.

  8. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  9. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  10. Irradiated foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it reduces the risk of food poisoning . Food irradiation is used in many countries. It was first approved in the U.S. to prevent sprouts on white potatoes, and to control insects on wheat and in certain spices and seasonings.

  11. Food Allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...

  12. Food porn.

    PubMed

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on. PMID:21539050

  13. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  14. Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy. PMID:22166142

  15. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI cannot always be ingested as a single dose on an empty stomach with impunity. PMID:277126

  16. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  17. Food Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States » School Tools: Allergy & Asthma Resources for Professionals » Primary Prevention of Allergic Disease Through Nutritional Interventions: Guidelines for Healthcare Professionals » AAAAI support of the EAACI paper on ...

  18. Food Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload ... more information about food allergy Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of ...

  19. Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other nuts seafood, such as shrimp milk, particularly cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food ... belly pain and diarrhea from milk and other dairy products. That doesn't mean they're allergic ...

  20. Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the refrigerator or microwave, never at room temperature. For best results, use a food thermometer when ... cooking when chicken is cooked to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C). So washing doesn' ...

  1. Food safety.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea; Teuber, Suzanne S; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-10-01

    Food can never be entirely safe. Food safety is threatened by numerous pathogens that cause a variety of foodborne diseases, algal toxins that cause mostly acute disease, and fungal toxins that may be acutely toxic but may also have chronic sequelae, such as teratogenic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and estrogenic effects. Perhaps more worrisome, the industrial activities of the last century and more have resulted in massive increases in our exposure to toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and arsenic, which now are present in the entire food chain and exhibit various toxicities. Industrial processes also released chemicals that, although banned a long time ago, persist in the environment and contaminate our food. These include organochlorine compounds, such as 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene) (DDT), other pesticides, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds. DDT and its breakdown product dichlorophenyl dichloroethylene affect the developing male and female reproductive organs. In addition, there is increasing evidence that they exhibit neurodevelopmental toxicities in human infants and children. They share this characteristic with the dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Other food contaminants can arise from the treatment of animals with veterinary drugs or the spraying of food crops, which may leave residues. Among the pesticides applied to food crops, the organophosphates have been the focus of much regulatory attention because there is growing evidence that they, too, affect the developing brain. Numerous chemical contaminants are formed during the processing and cooking of foods. Many of them are known or suspected carcinogens. Other food contaminants leach from the packaging or storage containers. Examples that have garnered increasing attention in recent years are phthalates, which have been shown to induce malformations in the male reproductive system in laboratory animals, and bisphenol A, which negatively affects the development of the central nervous system and the male reproductive organs. Genetically modified foods present new challenges to regulatory agencies around the world because consumer fears that the possible health risks of these foods have not been allayed. An emerging threat to food safety possibly comes from the increasing use of nanomaterials, which are already used in packaging materials, even though their toxicity remains largely unexplored. Numerous scientific groups have underscored the importance of addressing this issue and developing the necessary tools for doing so. Governmental agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and other agencies in the USA and their counterparts in other nations have the increasingly difficult task of monitoring the food supply for these chemicals and determining the human health risks associated with exposure to these substances. The approach taken until recently focused on one chemical at a time and one exposure route (oral, inhalational, dermal) at a time. It is increasingly recognized, however, that many of the numerous chemicals we are exposed to everyday are ubiquitous, resulting in exposure from food, water, air, dust, and soil. In addition, many of these chemicals act on the same target tissue by similar mechanisms. "Mixture toxicology" is a rapidly growing science that addresses the complex interactions between chemicals and investigates the effects of cumulative exposure to such "common mechanism groups" of chemicals. It is to be hoped that this results in a deeper understanding of the risks we face from multiple concurrent exposures and makes our food supply safer. PMID:19911313

  2. Food Labels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... than others. Unsaturated fats , which are found in vegetable oils, nuts, and fish, are often called "good fats." ... these foods too, but they are also in vegetable oils that have been specially treated (hydrogenated) so they ...

  3. Food extrusion.

    PubMed

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility. PMID:378548

  4. Food Retailers Help Teach Food Buying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornmann, Priscilla G.

    1973-01-01

    Kroger Food Stores conducted five training sessions for Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) aides. The series translated basic marketing principles, as they affect food prices, into axioms for thrifty food buying. (BL)

  5. Understanding Food Labels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  6. Food and Your Bones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home » Food and Your Bones Food and Your Bones The food that you eat can affect your ... by taking multivitamins or supplements . Good-for-Your-Bones Foods Food Nutrient Dairy products such as low- ...

  7. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,

  8. Food Allergy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload ... more information about food allergy ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of ...

  9. Weaning Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Described in this issue of "Children in the Tropics" are handicraft, semi-industrial, and industrial projects which produce weaning foods in developing countries. The introductory section briefly discusses the global epidemiology of malnutrition and offers guidelines for combatting malnutrition. Chapter I provides a framework for reflection on the…

  10. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  11. Food Labeling

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information on the amount of dietary fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, carbohydrates, dietary proteins, vitamins, and minerals in each serving Definitions for terms such as low-fat and high-fiber Information to help you see how a food ...

  12. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  13. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  14. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePLUS

    ... School Breakfast Program (SBP) Special Milk Program (SMP) Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program ( ... Benefits Become a SNAP Retailer Community Food Systems Summer Food Service Program Food Safety Child Nutrition Disaster ...

  15. Fast Foods, Organic Foods, Fad Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is no standard definition of fast food. Generally, fast food is eaten without cutlery, and fast-food restaurants have no wait staff. Failure to have a standardized definition makes it difficult to compare studies. Foods available outside the home tend to be high in energy and fat compared w...

  16. Food allergy and food intolerance in childhood.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P B

    1999-01-01

    Food intolerance is a reproducible adverse reaction to a specific food ingredient that is not psychologically based. Food allergy is a form of food intolerance in which there is evidence that the response is caused by an immunological reaction to food. Other mechanisms of food intolerance include enzyme defects (e.g. lactase deficiency), pharmacological effects (e.g. histamine), toxic properties (e.g. haemagglutinating lectins) and irritants (e.g. spices). Food allergy in children is a highly contentious subject and there is often a striking lack of published evidence from which to base clinical decisions. The true prevalence of food allergy in children is unknown, although there is evidence of an increasing incidence of allergic reactions to some foods, especially peanuts. Our understanding of why some children are unable to tolerate certain foods (e.g. cow's milk, egg), or how they grow out of this intolerance, is very poor. Symptoms of food allergy in children are diverse and include vomiting, poor weight gain, abdominal pain, malabsorption, cough, wheeze, rhinitis, atopic eczema, urticaria and angioedema. Despite the lack of objective data to support the notion that food intolerance contributes to behaviour in children, this is a belief firmly held by many parents and some professionals. The gold standard for diagnosing food intolerance is the double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). There is often a poor correlation between the results of food provocation tests and those of skin prick tests of radioallergosorbent tests for specific food antibodies. For proven food allergy, elimination diets are the mainstay of management. In children these must be closely supervised to avoid nutritional deficiency and compromise of growth. Some children who have had severe (anaphylactic) reactions after food need to have a supply of self-injectable adrenaline made available to their parents and teachers and must also practice strict avoidance of the offending food. PMID:11132467

  17. [Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].

    PubMed

    Wthrich, B

    2009-04-01

    The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy. PMID:19340768

  18. Use of Irradiated Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1985-01-01

    The safety of irradiated foods is reviewed. Guidelines and regulations for processing irradiated foods are considered. The radiolytic products formed in food when it is irradiated and its wholesomeness is discussed. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well.

  19. FUNCTIONAL FOODS: AN OVERVIEW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional Foods: Any food, modified food or food ingredient that provides structural, functional or health benefits, thus promoting optimal health, longevity and quality of life, "Food products that provide specific health benefits beyond the traditional nutrients they contain". It is expected th...

  20. Food insecurity, neighborhood food access, and food assistance in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Victoria L; Hillier, Amy; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Long, Judith A

    2014-12-01

    An estimated 17.6 million American households were food insecure in 2012, meaning they were unable to obtain enough food for an active and healthy life. Programs to augment local access to healthy foods are increasingly widespread, with unclear effects on food security. At the same time, the US government has recently enacted major cuts to federal food assistance programs. In this study, we examined the association between food insecurity (skipping or reducing meal size because of budget), neighborhood food access (self-reported access to fruits and vegetables and quality of grocery stores), and receipt of food assistance using the 2008, 2010, and 2012 waves of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey. Of 11,599 respondents, 16.7% reported food insecurity; 79.4% of the food insecure found it easy or very easy to find fruits and vegetables, and 60.6% reported excellent or good quality neighborhood grocery stores. In our regression models adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level covariates, compared to those who reported very difficult access to fruits and vegetables, those who reported difficult, easy or very easy access were less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.62: 95% CI 0.43-0.90, 0.33: 95% CI 0.23-0.47, and 0.28: 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Compared to those who reported poor stores, those who reported fair, good, and excellent quality stores were also less likely to report food insecurity (OR 0.81: 95% CI 0.60-1.08, 0.58: 95% CI 0.43-0.78, and 0.43: 95% CI 0.31-0.59). Compared to individuals not receiving food assistance, those receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits were significantly more likely to be food insecure (OR 1.36: 95% CI 1.11-1.67), while those receiving benefits from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) (OR 1.17: 95% CI 0.77-1.78) and those receiving both SNAP and WIC (OR 0.84: 95% CI 0.61-1.17) did not have significantly different odds of food insecurity. In conclusion, better neighborhood food access is associated with lower risk of food insecurity. However, most food insecure individuals reported good access. Improving diet in communities with high rates of food insecurity likely requires not only improved access but also greater affordability. PMID:25047157

  1. Genetically engineered foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... animals Food with more desirable traits, such as potatoes that absorb less fat when fried Medicinal foods ... Tomatoes, potatoes, squash, corn, and soybeans have been genetically altered through biotechnology. Many more foods contain engineered ingredients and ...

  2. Diabetes food pyramid (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The Diabetes Food Pyramid divides food into six groups, which vary in size to show relative amounts of servings for each group. ... Pyramid released by the USDA. In the Diabetes Food Pyramid, the groups are based on protein content and ...

  3. FoodSafety.gov

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and cook it safely. Recall & Alerts Featured Content Food Safety for the Whole Family Certain groups of people, ... What's Cooking? Safe Minimum Cooking Temperatures Food Poisoning Food Safety News for Educators Report a Problem Contaminated Carbo ...

  4. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Types of Bacteria in Refrigerated Foods Safe Refrigerator Temperature Safe Handling of Foods for Refrigerating Placement of ... or packed in snow. He realized the cold temperatures would keep game for times when food was ...

  5. Food Safety for Seniors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your cooked food. Cook: Cook to the right temperatures Food safety experts agree that foods are safely ... long enough time and at a high enough temperature to kill the harmful bacteria that cause foodborne ...

  6. Calcium-Rich Foods

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 130 Waffle 80 g 47 Meat, fish and eggs Food Serving Size Calcium (mg) Egg 50 g 27 Red meat 120 g 7 ... foods Food Serving Size Calcium (mg) Quiche (cheese, eggs) 200 g 212 Omelette with cheese 120 g ...

  7. The World Food Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1975-01-01

    Cites evidence to support the theory that the world food shortage will become a chronic condition. Describes the depletion of surplus food supplies and the increasing dependence on North America for food supplies. (MLH)

  8. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  9. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  10. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  11. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food...

  12. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions 170.10 Food...

  13. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions 170.10 Food...

  14. 21 CFR 170.10 - Food additives in standardized foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10 Section 170.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions 170.10 Food additives in standardized foods. (a)...

  15. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of

  16. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  17. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  18. Personal Food System Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food

  19. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  20. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for

  1. Furans in foods.

    PubMed

    Maga, J A

    1979-01-01

    Furan represent a class of compounds that have been reported in a wide variety of foods. Normally, they result from thermal decomposition reactions, and, as such, are important in foods. They also possess unique sensory properties and, thus, can significantly contribute to food flavor. This review shall attempt to summarize their food occurrences, organoleptic properties, and formation pathways. PMID:378551

  2. Apollo 14 food system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1971-01-01

    The program for improving foods for use during space flights consists of introducing new foods and food-handling techniques on each successive manned space flight. Because of this continuing improvement program, the Apollo 14 food system was the most advanced and sophisticated food system to be used in the U.S. space program. The food system used during the Apollo 14 mission and recent space-food-system advances are described and discussed in regard to their usefulness for future manned space flights.

  3. Daily Food Checklist

    Cancer.gov

    The daily food checklist method is a form of food record. The tool is comprised of a list of foods; over the course of a day, a respondent makes a check beside a food each time she or he eats it. The checklist shares an advantage of other record methods in that it does not rely on memory. In addition, it avoids some disadvantages of complete quantitative food records in that it has relatively low respondent and investigator burden.

  4. Phytosanitary Heat Treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter by Neil Heather and Guy Hallman, in Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers, CABI Press, deals with disinfestations of food commodities. Disinfestation of food commodities with heat to satisfy phytosanitary requirements has the advantage of freedom from chemical residue...

  5. Attributing Illness to Food

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Michael P.; Morris, J. Glenn; Painter, John; Singh, Ruby; Tauxe, Robert V.; Taylor, Michael R.; Wong, Danilo M.A. Lo Fo

    2005-01-01

    Identification and prioritization of effective food safety interventions require an understanding of the relationship between food and pathogen from farm to consumption. Critical to this cause is food attribution, the capacity to attribute cases of foodborne disease to the food vehicle or other source responsible for illness. A wide variety of food attribution approaches and data are used around the world, including the analysis of outbreak data, case-control studies, microbial subtyping and source tracking methods, and expert judgment, among others. The Food Safety Research Consortium sponsored the Food Attribution Data Workshop in October 2003 to discuss the virtues and limitations of these approaches and to identify future options for collecting food attribution data in the United States. We summarize workshop discussions and identify challenges that affect progress in this critical component of a risk-based approach to improving food safety. PMID:16022770

  6. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  7. [Radioactivity and food].

    PubMed

    Olszyna-Marzys, A E

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food. PMID:2143071

  8. Food Service System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The 3M Food Service System 2 employs a "cook/chill" concept for serving food in hospitals. The system allows staff to prepare food well in advance, maintain heat, visual appeal and nutritional value as well as reducing operating costs. The integral heating method, which keeps hot foods hot and cold foods cold, was developed by 3M for the Apollo Program. In the 1970s, the company commercialized the original system and in 1991, introduced Food Service System 2. Dishes are designed to resemble those used at home, and patient satisfaction has been high.

  9. Food antimicrobials nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Padilla, Adriana; Soto, Karen M; Hernndez Iturriaga, Montserrat; Mendoza, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Natural food antimicrobials are bioactive compounds that inhibit the growth of microorganisms involved in food spoilage or food-borne illness. However, stability issues result in degradation and loss of antimicrobial activity. Nanoencapsulation allows protection of antimicrobial food agents from unfavorable environmental conditions and incompatibilities. Encapsulation of food antimicrobials control delivery increasing the concentration of the antimicrobials in specific areas and the improvement of passive cellular absorption mechanisms resulted in higher antimicrobial activity. This paper reviews the present state of the art of the nanostructures used as food antimicrobial carriers including nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, nanoparticles, and nanofibers. PMID:24995363

  10. Food Antimicrobials Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Padilla, Adriana; Soto, Karen M.; Hernández Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Natural food antimicrobials are bioactive compounds that inhibit the growth of microorganisms involved in food spoilage or food-borne illness. However, stability issues result in degradation and loss of antimicrobial activity. Nanoencapsulation allows protection of antimicrobial food agents from unfavorable environmental conditions and incompatibilities. Encapsulation of food antimicrobials control delivery increasing the concentration of the antimicrobials in specific areas and the improvement of passive cellular absorption mechanisms resulted in higher antimicrobial activity. This paper reviews the present state of the art of the nanostructures used as food antimicrobial carriers including nanoemulsions, nanoliposomes, nanoparticles, and nanofibers. PMID:24995363

  11. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate…

  12. Functional Foods for Women's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindeman, Alice K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes functional foods for women's health (foods or food ingredients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition), explaining that both whole and modified foods can be included as functional foods. The paper discusses the history, regulation, and promotion of functional foods; consumer interest in functional foods; how to incorporate

  13. Food Applications and Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Omar, Nabil Ben; Lucas, Rosario

    This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish. The last section of the chapter deals with applications in foods and beverages derived from plant materials, such as raw vegetable foods, fruits and fruit juices, cooked food products, fermented vegetable foods and ­fermented beverages. Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food-processing technologies, such as irradiation, pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

  14. Fun With Food Webs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl D.

    1977-01-01

    Explains an upper elementary game of tag that illustrates energy flow in food webs using candy bars as food sources. A follow-up field trip to a river and five language arts projects are also suggested. (CS)

  15. Fast food (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Fast foods are quick, reasonably priced, and readily available alternatives to home cooking. While convenient and economical for a busy lifestyle, fast foods are typically high in calories, fat, saturated fat, ...

  16. Fast food tips (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  17. Kids with Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diagnosed Real Families Faces of Food Allergies Rising Stars Gracie's Silver Linings Daniel's Confidence Ciara Builds a ... all recall alerts See all recent news Rising Stars Life As a Tween with Food Allergies MEET ...

  18. CHAPTER 32. CEREAL FOODS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AOAC International is the international professional organization that is largely responsible for the development of analytical chemical methods that apply to food, agriculture, marine organisms, dietary supplements, and food allergens. Methods traditionally arise from the collaborative efforts of ...

  19. New foods for thought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent findings show that genetic material in plant foods may survive digestion, circulate through our bodies, and modulate our gene expression. These findings could alter our understanding of nutrition and genetic regulation, and open up new vistas for engineering foods....

  20. Preventing food poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and foreign travel. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2011:chap ... to food safety at home. US Food and Drug Administration. 2012. Accessed: February 11, 2014. Semrad CE. ...

  1. Food and Environmental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvey, Lindsay

    1997-01-01

    Argues that intensive agriculture restricted to suitable lands will be required in the future due to global population growth, declining food prices, and extreme poverty. Discusses the challenge of balancing environmental care with food production. (DDR)

  2. Pet Food Labels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... They have simple names, such as "Beef for Dogs" or "Tuna Cat Food." In these examples, at ... combination of ingredients, such as "Chicken 'n Liver Dog Food," the two named ingredients together must comprise ...

  3. MyFoodAdvisor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Password? Login Cancel Can I eat this? . . . Meal Planning and Tips Managing diabetes is a challenge that ... can make it easier. Discover more about meal planning options and how MyFoodAdvisor can help. Explore Foods ...

  4. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  5. Arsenic in Food

    MedlinePLUS

    ... It is found in water, air, food, and soil in organic and inorganic forms. The FDA has ... of arsenic compounds in water, food, air, and soil: organic and inorganic (these together are referred to ...

  6. Food guide plate

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to eat more fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy. Using the guide, ... add texture to trail mixes. PROTEIN FOODS: CHOOSE LEAN PROTEINS Protein foods include meat, poultry, seafood, beans ...

  7. Apollo food technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rambaut, P. C.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.; Huber, C. S.; Bourland, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Large improvements and advances in space food systems achieved during the Apollo food program are discussed. Modifications of the Apollo food system were directed primarily toward improving delivery of adequate nutrition to the astronaut. Individual food items and flight menus were modified as nutritional countermeasures to the effects of weightlessness. Unique food items were developed, including some that provided nutritional completeness, high acceptability, and ready-to-eat, shelf-stable convenience. Specialized food packages were also developed. The Apollo program experience clearly showed that future space food systems will require well-directed efforts to achieve the optimum potential of food systems in support of the physiological and psychological well-being of astronauts and crews.

  8. Vegan Food Guide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Vegan Food Guide KidsHealth > For Parents > Vegan Food Guide ... a Vegan Diet Is Vegetarian the Same as Vegan? Lots of people limit their intake of meat ...

  9. Vegan Food Guide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vegan Food Guide KidsHealth > For Teens > Vegan Food Guide ... dye derived from the cochineal insect) continue Why Vegan? Veganism (also known as strict vegetarianism or pure ...

  10. Figuring Out Food Labels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... these foods, too. But they're also in vegetable oils that have been specially treated, or hydrogenated, to ... room temperature. Foods high in unsaturated fat are vegetable oils, nuts, and fish. Unsaturated fats are often called " ...

  11. Thermodynamics and Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, William L.; Reid, David S.

    1993-01-01

    The heat content of a food at a given temperature can be described by the thermodynamic property of enthalpy. Presents a method to construct a simple calorimeter for measuring the enthalpy changes of different foods during freezing. (MDH)

  12. Adverse reactions to food.

    PubMed

    A significant number of people believe that they are 'allergic' to certain foods. Here, in an edited account of a recent report from the National Dairy Council (1998), the causes and management of food intolerance are discussed. PMID:9732630

  13. Spectroscopic study of food and food toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Gavin; Walsh, James E.; Martin, Suzanne

    2003-03-01

    Fungal infection of food causes billions of dollars of lost revenue per annum as well as health problems, to animals and humans, if consumed in sufficient quantities. Modern food sorting techniques rely on colour or other physical characteristics to filter diseased or otherwise unsuitable foodstuffs from healthy foodstuffs. Their speeds are such that up to 40,000 objects per second can be moved at 4 metres per second, through 1 m wide chutes that offer a wide view for colour and shape sorting. Grain type foods such as coffee or peanuts are often vulnerable to toxic infection from invading fungi. If this happens, then their texture, taste and colour can change. Up to now, only visible wavelengths and colour identification have been used to bulk-sort food, but there has been little research in the ultra violet regions of the spectrum to help identify fungus or toxin infection. This research specifically concentrated on the ultra violet (UV) spectral characteristics of food in an attempt to identify possible spectral changes that occur when healthy food items like peanuts become infected with toxin-producing fungi. Ultimately, the goal is to design, build and construct an optical detection system that can use these 'spectral fingerprints' to more quickly and efficiently detect toxically infected food items.

  14. Language in Food Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plata, Maximino

    1992-01-01

    Analyses 476 food advertisements in newspapers from 3 different sized cities. Finds that brand names, food names, and descriptive vocabulary comprise the majority of language in food ads across newspaper groups. Offers suggestions for using newspaper ads in the classroom. (RS)

  15. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  16. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from

  17. Growing Youth Food Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wynne; Nault, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    How can youth be educated and empowered to become responsible food citizens? Evidence from a university-community partnership with youth in Michigan is presented to illuminate participatory approaches to youth engagement in food systems. We found that youth have valuable knowledge to enhance our understanding of food environments. At the same…

  18. Personal Food System Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  19. Food Stamps and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Kenneth W.

    The economics of food stamps - the America's major food assistance program is investigated in order to answer the following questions: (1) whether malnutrition be solved by food supplements or cash allowances; (2) what the benefits to recipients are; (3) whether eligibility requirements permit participation by the needy and exclude higher income

  20. FOOD SAFETY AND BIOTERRORISM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the scope of the bioterrorist threat to the United States food supply in terms of food service establishments. Descriptions include the organisms and other agents that may be disseminated by food ingestion and the challenges in differentiation of intentional and unintenti...

  1. Food Allergy: An Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from developing in their infants. Introducing Solid Foods • Healthcare experts in the United States currently suggest that you do not introduce solid ... Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States: Report of the ... use by healthcare professionals to diagnose and manage patients with food ...

  2. The Biology of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, J. Jose

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "The Biology of Food" course. This course--a large lecture course with no laboratory section--is a mixture of kitchen chemistry, post-eating food metabolism, origins of different foods (from crop breeding to evolution), and ecological and environmental impacts of farming and harvesting practices. Nearly every

  3. Allergenicity of processed food.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have become a major public health issue in many countries. In the U.S. it is estimated that approximately 150 individuals die each year from accidental ingestion of an allergic food. As a result, the federal government recently passed the food allergen labeling law which went into ef...

  4. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  5. The Biology of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, J. Jose

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "The Biology of Food" course. This course--a large lecture course with no laboratory section--is a mixture of kitchen chemistry, post-eating food metabolism, origins of different foods (from crop breeding to evolution), and ecological and environmental impacts of farming and harvesting practices. Nearly every…

  6. Food Rights Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which describes federal food assistance programs, is designed to help large families, families on small budgets, and elderly people on fixed incomes get more food for less money. The book is divided into four chapters: Kids, Women and Children, Families, and Senior Citizens. Each chapter describes in detail the food assistance…

  7. FOOD RISK ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food risk analysis is a holistic approach to food safety because it considers all aspects of the problem. Risk assessment modeling is the foundation of food risk analysis. Proper design and simulation of the risk assessment model is important to properly predict and control risk. Because of knowl...

  8. SAFE HANDLING OF FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial food-borne illnesses pose a significant health problem in Japan. In 1996 the world's largest outbreak of Escherichia coli food illness occurred in Japan. Since then, new regulatory measures were established, including strict hygiene practices in meat and food processi...

  9. ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foods, especially liquid foods, conduct electricity. Unlike in metals, the charge carriers in foods are ions, instead of electrons. Under normal applications, ions carry the charges as the mass of ions moves along the electrical field. The concentration and mobility of ions determine the electrical ...

  10. Growing Youth Food Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Wynne; Nault, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    How can youth be educated and empowered to become responsible food citizens? Evidence from a university-community partnership with youth in Michigan is presented to illuminate participatory approaches to youth engagement in food systems. We found that youth have valuable knowledge to enhance our understanding of food environments. At the same

  11. Diagnosis of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Chinthrajah, Rebecca Sharon; Tupa, Dana; Prince, Benjamin T; Block, Whitney Morgan; Rosa, Jaime Sou; Singh, Anne Marie; Nadeau, Kari

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergies has been on the increase over the last 2 decades. Diagnosing food allergies can be complicated, as there are multiple types that have distinct clinical and immunologic features. Food allergies are broadly classified into immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated, non-IgE-mediated, or mixed food allergic reactions. This review focuses on the clinical manifestations of the different categories of food allergies and the different tests available to guide the clinician toward an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26456439

  12. Food Signs in Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mehboob; Al Damegh, Saleh

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Certain diseases show classic radiological signs that resemble various types of food items like fruits, meat, vegetables, eggs, bakery, grocery and confectionary items. In this article various food signs are discussed and correlated with the various food items in a pictorial way. The objective of this pictorial essay is to provide the information and learn the characteristic radiological signs resembling various food items. These food signs are easy to recognize and allows a confident diagnosis on the basis of imaging findings alone or can narrow down the differential diagnosis. PMID:21475464

  13. Reframing convenience food.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Peter; Viehoff, Valerie

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides a critical review of recent research on the consumption of 'convenience' food, highlighting the contested nature of the term and exploring its implications for public health and environmental sustainability. It distinguishes between convenience food in general and particular types of convenience food, such as ready-meals, tracing the structure and growth of the market for such foods with a particular emphasis on the UK which currently has the highest rate of ready-meal consumption in Europe. Having established the definitional complexities of the term, the paper presents the evidence from a systematic review of the literature, highlighting the significance of convenience food in time-saving and time-shifting, the importance of recent changes in domestic labour and family life, and the way the consumption of convenience food is frequently moralized. The paper shows how current debates about convenience food are part of a longer discursive history about food, health and nutrition. It discusses current levels of public understanding about the links between convenience food, environmental sustainability and food waste. The paper concludes by making a case for understanding the consumption of convenience food in terms of everyday social practices, emphasising its habitual and routine character. PMID:26678163

  14. Safe food manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A; Mercier, C

    1994-03-31

    Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to food handling or consumption in domestic or common eating places, as well as protect, as much as possible, our environment. Thus, the food manufacturer has to examine step-by-step the security of the agro-cultures, their composition, but also the possible residues of pollutants and contaminants, or chemicals used to protect them against various pests and determine the possible loss or retention of these substances during technological processes. Animal raw materials should not contain veterinary drug residues or an abnormal amount of some components that result from inadequate feeding. Care should be taken to ensure the security of foods manufactured by biotechnology processes. The organisms and the whole processes used in food biotechnologies should eliminate any impurities. Any minor food ingredients, such as food additives, are under a permanent revision from the point of view of their safety. The industry reacts immediately if any justification requires that a particular food additive should not be used. In other words all the raw materials must conform to their specifications. Technological processes must create a food with an adequate microbiological quality, e.g. free of pathogens and their toxic metabolites. Any danger of microbiological contamination or accidental pollution, such as mechanical particles, chemical substances, etc. should be eliminated. The particular role of food packaging is crucial, since this is a barrier to protect the food against further parasites or microbial contamination and preserve the food from alterations due to enzymatic reactions that require particular oxygen and water activity conditions. The packaging should also protect against possible criminal damage. In addition, the material of packaging should not allow micro-migration to the food. It should be inert against its food content. Another aspect of food packaging that has to be taken into account is its recovery and recyclability. Finally, the food manufacturer has to ensure that the nutritional value of the product does not diminish through its shelf-life. The consumer should be advised about the effects of culinary practices since some of them, such as deep frying or grilling under certain circumstances, may create undesirable substances potentially harmful to human health. The food manufacturing in the context of the environment protection requires a separate issue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8202696

  15. Food Protection Has Many Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Developments in food protection are described for microbiological contaminants, delicatessen foods, seafoods, mycotoxins, food additives, and regulatory surveillance. Proposed and advocated is a cooperative, basic data, monitoring program focusing on microbiological, chemical, nutritional, toxicological, and related food quality indices. (BL)

  16. Food Safety for Warmer Weather

    MedlinePLUS

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Fight Off Food Poisoning Food Safety for Warmer Weather ... by a doctor.” search Features Sun and Skin Fight Off Food Poisoning Wise Choices Links Prevent Food ...

  17. Food Label Accuracy of Common Snack Foods

    PubMed Central

    Jumpertz, Reiner; Venti, Colleen A; Le, Duc Son; Michaels, Jennifer; Parrington, Shannon; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition labels have raised awareness of the energetic value of foods, and represent for many a pivotal guideline to regulate food intake. However, recent data have created doubts on label accuracy. Therefore we tested label accuracy for energy and macronutrient content of prepackaged energy-dense snack food products. We measured true caloric content of 24 popular snack food products in the U.S. and determined macronutrient content in 10 selected items. Bomb calorimetry and food factors were used to estimate energy content. Macronutrient content was determined according to Official Methods of Analysis. Calorimetric measurements were performed in our metabolic laboratory between April 20th and May 18th and macronutrient content was measured between September 28th and October 7th of 2010. Serving size, by weight, exceeded label statements by 1.2% [median] (25th percentile ?1.4, 75th percentile 4.3, p=0.10). When differences in serving size were accounted for, metabolizable calories were 6.8 kcal (0.5, 23.5, p=0.0003) or 4.3% (0.2, 13.7, p=0.001) higher than the label statement. In a small convenience sample of the tested snack foods, carbohydrate content exceeded label statements by 7.7% (0.8, 16.7, p=0.01); however fat and protein content were not significantly different from label statements (?12.8% [?38.6, 9.6], p=0.23; 6.1% [?6.1, 17.5], p=0.32). Carbohydrate content explained 40% and serving size an additional 55% of the excess calories. Among a convenience sample of energy-dense snack foods, caloric content is higher than stated on the nutrition labels, but overall well within FDA limits. This discrepancy may be explained by inaccurate carbohydrate content and serving size. PMID:23505182

  18. [New food allergies].

    PubMed

    Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

    1999-09-25

    RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml). PMID:10526567

  19. Radioactivity and foods

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food--on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undersirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chenobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods.

  20. Mood, food, and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  1. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80C (bacon to 53C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40C to -20C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  2. FoodQuest for Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Linda C.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the WebQuest framework developed to help students investigate the topic of nutrition. Highlights include food labels; the Food Guide Pyramid; three levels of inquiry related to nutrition and ingredients in foods; how food choices affect health; historical background of food and food companies; and online grocery shopping. (LRW)

  3. Cognitive Perspectives on Peer Learning. Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Angela M., Ed.; King, Alison, Ed.

    Considerable attention has been given recently to how children educate each other and how to maximize the cognitive benefits of peer learning. Based on papers presented at a 1996 symposium on Cognitive Skills and Learning with Peers, this book focuses on peer learning. Part 1 presents implications of Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories. Part 2…

  4. Cognitive Perspectives on Peer Learning. Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Angela M., Ed.; King, Alison, Ed.

    Considerable attention has been given recently to how children educate each other and how to maximize the cognitive benefits of peer learning. Based on papers presented at a 1996 symposium on Cognitive Skills and Learning with Peers, this book focuses on peer learning. Part 1 presents implications of Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories. Part 2

  5. Ensuring Food Security Through Enhancing Microbiological Food Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Yishan; Zheng, Qianwang; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ghate, Vinayak; Yuan, Wenqian; Pang, Xinyi

    2015-10-01

    Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts with a profound impact on the quality of human life. Food security describes the overall availability of food at different levels from global to individual household. While, food safety focuses on handling, preparation and storage of foods in order to prevent foodborne illnesses. This review focuses on innovative thermal and non-thermal technologies in the area of food processing as the means to ensure food security through improving food safety with emphasis on the reduction and control of microbiological risks. The antimicrobial efficiency and mechanism of new technologies to extend the shelf life of food product were also discussed.

  6. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics

    PubMed Central

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain. PMID:24797131

  7. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics.

    PubMed

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain. PMID:24797131

  8. Lipid oxidation on foods.

    PubMed

    St Angelo, A J

    1996-02-01

    This review discusses the basic chemical reactions that affect food flavor quality. Although there are many reactions that can lead to the deterioration of quality in foods, this review focuses on lipid oxidation and how it adversely affects flavor principals. It also presents technological advances for studying the basic mechanism of lipid oxidation, for measuring its intensity, and for retaining food quality. The food commodities that provide the subject matter for this review include vegetable oils, legumes, cereal grains, eggs, beef, lamb, poultry, seafoods, and catfish. The methodologies for assessing food quality form a multidisciplinary approach that includes primarily instrumental analysis by direct gas chromatography, chemical analysis by the TBA test, and sensory analysis by quantitative descriptive determinations. The author hopes that the information presented in this review is applicable to food commodities not discussed. PMID:8744604

  9. Novel natural food antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Dwivedi, Hari P; Yan, Xianghe

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. These compounds are naturally produced and isolated from various sources, including plants, animals and microorganisms, in which they constitute part of host defense systems. Many naturally occurring compounds, such as nisin, plant essential oils, and natamycin, have been widely studied and are reported to be effective in their potential role as antimicrobial agents against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Although some of these natural antimicrobials are commercially available and applied in food processing, their efficacy, consumer acceptance and regulation are not well defined. This manuscript reviews natural antimicrobial compounds with reference to their applications in food when applied individually or in combination with other hurdles. It also reviews the mechanism of action of selected natural antimicrobials, factors affecting their antimicrobial activities, and future prospects for use of natural antimicrobials in the food industry. PMID:22385168

  10. Space Station Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  11. Biophysics of food perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, Adam S.; Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present food perception across a range of time and length scales as well as across the disciplines of physics, chemistry and biology. We achieve the objective of the article by presenting food from a material science angle as well as presenting the physiology of food perception that enables humans to probe materials in terms of aroma, taste and texture. We highlight that by using simple physical concepts, one can also decipher the mechanisms of transport that link food structure with perception physiology and define the regime in which physiology operates. Most importantly, we emphasise the notion that food/consumer interaction operates across the biological fluid interface grouped under the terminology of mucus, acting as a transfer fluid for taste, aroma and pressure between food and dedicated receptors.

  12. Commercial food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Black, E.F.; Libby, L.M.

    1983-06-01

    Food irradiation is discussed. Irradiation exposes food to gamma rays from a cobalt-60 or a cesium-137 source, or to high-energy electrons emitted by an electron accelerator. A major advantage is that food can be packaged either before or after treatment. FDA regulations with regard to irradiation are discussed. Comments on an 'Advance Notice' on irradiation, published by the FDA in 1981 are summarized.

  13. International food patterns for space food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Selina; Cox, Amanda; Cornish, Pauline V.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to obtain basic data on ethnic foods by studying dietary patterns and multicultural foods, and to determine nutritional status of multicultural space explorers by evaluating dietary, clinical, biochemical, and socioeconomic factors. The study will plan a significant role in providing nutritional research for space explorers of different ethnic backgrounds. It will provide scientific background information by bringing together cross cultural dietary and nutritional from different ethnic groups. Results will also help the health care personnel including physicians, dietitians, and nutritionists to better understand and assist patients from other cultures illness. Also, the results will provide data which will help in the development of future food plans for long duration flights involving manned exploration to Mars and lunar base colonies.

  14. Figuring Out Food Labels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... but many processed foods contain greater amounts. Total Carbohydrate This number, listed in grams, combines several types of carbohydrates : dietary fibers, sugars, and other carbohydrates. Carbs are ...

  15. Urban Food Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Buluswar, Shashi

    2015-05-06

    Shashi Buluswar, Berkeley Lab's Executive Director of the Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies (LIGTT) discusses the issue of urban food deserts and malnutrition in American inner cities.

  16. Bacterial challenges in food

    PubMed Central

    Collee, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative aspects of bacterial challenges that might be encountered in food are discussed with reference to recognized and relatively unrecognized hazards. Mechanisms of pathogenicity are reviewed and the populations at risk are noted. The bacterial content of food as it is served at table merits more study. The challenge of prevention by education is discussed. Indirect bacterial challenges in our food are considered. The real challenge of diagnosis depends upon an awareness of a complex range of conditions; the importance of effective communication with efficient laboratory and epidemiological services is stressed. There is an increasing need for care in the preparation and distribution of food. PMID:4467860

  17. Is It Food Allergy or Food Intolerance?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload ... more information about food allergy ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of ...

  18. Cafeteria Food. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Currently, high school students account for 60% of food sold in cafeterias. School lunches should provide 33% of the students' energy intake, however, according to some research, it was found that it tends to only provide 19% because of the sale of "competitive" foods. Research by the U.S. Department of Agriculture found that girls ages 14-18 eat…

  19. Pricing a Convenience Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Andre

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken by the Nottingham University Consumer Study Group to determine market operation for popular convenience foods in England. Information is presented on distribution of purchases, brand loyalties of respondents to a questionnaire regarding convenience foods, and market fluctuation due to inflation. (Author/DB)

  20. Rebuilding the Food Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willet, Walter C.; Stampfer, Meir J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the old food guide pyramid released in 1992 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Contradicts the message that fat is bad, which was presented to the public by nutritionists, and the effects of plant oils on cholesterol. Introduces a new food pyramid. (YDS)

  1. Processing of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Kosseva, Maria R

    2009-01-01

    Every year almost 45 billion kg of fresh vegetables, fruits, milk, and grain products is lost to waste in the United States. According to the EPA, the disposal of this costs approximately $1 billion. In the United Kingdom, 20 million ton of food waste is produced annually. Every tonne of food waste means 4.5 ton of CO(2) emissions. The food wastes are generated largely by the fruit-and-vegetable/olive oil, fermentation, dairy, meat, and seafood industries. The aim of this chapter is to emphasize existing trends in the food waste processing technologies during the last 15 years. The chapter consists of three major parts, which distinguish recovery of added-value products (the upgrading concept), the food waste treatment technologies as well as the food chain management for sustainable food system development. The aim of the final part is to summarize recent research on user-oriented innovation in the food sector, emphasizing on circular structure of a sustainable economy. PMID:19878858

  2. Food Service Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This handbook presents a competency-based curriculum that provides information to teachers and administrators planning a secondary food service program in Alaska. The organization of the handbook is similar to the work stations commonly found in food service operations, although some competency areas, such as sanitation and safety and the care and

  3. Food and mood.

    PubMed

    Ottley, C

    A number of specific nutrients and other active substances in foods are thought to have a direct impact on mood. Carol Ottley explores the evidence linking food with aspects of mood and behaviour. Areas covered include premenstrual syndrome, chocolate craving, mood swings, and how we eat in relation to specific mood states such as fear, happiness and anxiety. PMID:11971416

  4. [Chemical food contaminants].

    PubMed

    Schrenk, D

    2004-09-01

    Chemical food contaminants are substances which are neither present naturally in the usual raw material used for food production nor are added during the regular production process. Examples are environmental pollutants or contaminants derived from agricultural production of crops or livestock or from inadequate manufacturing of the food product itself. More difficult is the classification of those compounds formed during regular manufacturing such as products of thermal processes including flavoring substances. In these cases, it is common practice to call those compounds contaminants which are known for their adverse effects such as acrylamide, whereas constituents which add to the food-specific flavor such as Maillard products formed during roasting, baking etc. are not termed contaminants. From a toxicological viewpoint this distinction is not always clear-cut. Important groups of chemical contaminants are metals such as mercury or lead, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and related pollutants, which are regularly found in certain types of food originating from background levels of these compounds in our environment. Furthermore, natural toxins form microorganisms or plants, and compounds formed during thermal treatment of food are of major interest. In general, a scientific risk assessment has to be carried out for any known contaminant. This comprises an exposure analysis and a toxicological and epidemiological assessment. On these grounds, regulatory and/or technological measures can often improve the situation. Major conditions for a scientific risk assessment and a successful implementation of regulations are highly developed food quality control, food toxicology and nutritional epidemiology. PMID:15378171

  5. Niigugim Qalgadangis (Atkan Food).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Moses; Dirks, Lydia

    A history of food gathering and food preparation techniques of Alaska natives on Atka Island in the Aleutians are presented in Western Aleut and English with illustrations by J. Leslie Boffa and Mike Dirks. Directions are given for preparing: various plants, including wild rice; salted, dried, or smoked fish; baked flour; fried dough; boiled…

  6. Food-borne Zoonoses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, t...

  7. Perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    Recent US Food and Drug Administration approval of irradiation treatment for fruit, vegetables and pork has stimulated considerable discussion in the popular press on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of food. This perspective is designed to summarize the current scientific information available on this issue.

  8. Food Service Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on food service fundamentals is designed to provide a general background in the basic aspects of the food service program in the Marine Corps; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI…

  9. Food for Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Cliff; And Others

    This document describes "Food for Thought," a multidisciplinary project for grades 5 through 8, using nutrition as a focal point. The program focuses on the popular topic of food to make the study of different cultures and historic periods more relevant. In the program students research the diets and prepare the meals of cultures they are…

  10. Food Crystalization and Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Crystalization and Eggs Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. USDA Agricultural Research Service Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit Athens, Georgia, USA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a foo...

  11. Yersiniosis and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue of journal of food pathogens was designed to share some of the interested scientific studies published on yersiniosis, a foodborne outbreak associated with consumption of food contaminated with Yersinia. In this issue, the focus was on yersiniosis related foodborne illnesses, beh...

  12. Functional foods innovations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ERRC, ARS, USDA, is to improve human health and well being by developing functional food and consumer products that utilize milk and fruit and vegetable processing residues of specialty crops. Major research approaches involve: biotec...

  13. Food Service Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the food service employee is one of a series available for use by teacher- coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with food service personnel, it was prepared by teachers and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested, and revised

  14. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  15. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  16. Food Exposures to Lead

    PubMed Central

    Kolbye, Albert C.; Mahaffey, Kathryn R.; Fiorino, John A.; Corneliussen, Paul C.; Jelinek, Charles F.

    1974-01-01

    Exposures to lead have emanated from various sources, including food, throughout human history. Occupational and environmental exposures (especially pica) appear to account for much of the identified human disease, however, food-borne exposures deserve further investigation. Lead residues in food can result from: biological uptake from soils into plants consumed by food animals or man, usage of lead arsenate pesticides, inadvertent addition during food processing, and by leaching them improperly glazed pottery used as food storage or dining utensils. Estimates of total dietary exposure should reflect frequency distribution data on lead levels in specific food commodities in relation to the quantities actually ingested by various sample populations to distinguish degrees of risk associated with particular dietary habits. Earlier estimates of average total dietary intake of lead by adults have been reported to range from above 500 ?g/day downward with more recent estimates suggesting averages of 200 ?g/day or lower. The strengths and weaknesses of these data are discussed along with analytical and sampling considerations. FDA programs related to food surveillance, epidemiology, and toxicological investigation are briefly described. PMID:4406646

  17. Food Service Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappole, C. L.; Louvier, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    A study to design a food service system using current technology to serve a small scale Space Station was conducted. The psychological, sociological and nutritional factors affecting feeding in microgravity conditions was investigated. The logistics of the food service system was defined.

  18. Make Better Food Choices

    MedlinePLUS

    ... helps you choose the types and amounts of food and beverages you need. And, make time to be physically ... high-fiber SuperTracker provides your calorie level, shows foods and content can help give you a feeling of beverages you need, and tracks progress toward your goals. ...

  19. Rethinking brain food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids are the functional food du jour, then that "jour" must first have been the 5th day of creation (according to Genesis 1:21), when the marine fish were created and exhorted to be fruitful and multiply. The exact time when these marine species became "brain food" for peopl...

  20. Niigugim Qalgadangis (Atkan Food).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Moses; Dirks, Lydia

    A history of food gathering and food preparation techniques of Alaska natives on Atka Island in the Aleutians are presented in Western Aleut and English with illustrations by J. Leslie Boffa and Mike Dirks. Directions are given for preparing: various plants, including wild rice; salted, dried, or smoked fish; baked flour; fried dough; boiled

  1. Acrylamide in snack foods.

    PubMed

    Das, Amit Baran; Srivastav, Prem Prakas

    2012-04-01

    Research on acrylamide has been going on for the last four decades. However, its presence in carbohydrate-rich and high temperature processed foods was confirmed in 2002, after which a significant progress in this field has been made. A number of studies were conducted to explore the mechanism of its formation in carbohydrate-rich foods. Carbohydrate, protein, and fat are the main constituents of food, which are mainly responsible for the formation of acrylamide, and thus, a number of investigations were carried out to reduce its quantity in food. Moreover, various studies regarding carcinogenic and neurotoxic effects of acrylamide on animal models suggested that acrylamide can produce tumor in the thyroid gland, testes, mammary gland, lungs, clitoral gland, brain, and also enhance mutation, a step to cancer. Therefore, this review addresses the studies conducted since recently on the toxicological effects, formation mechanism and reduction of the formation of acrylamide in snack foods. PMID:22023505

  2. Food Safety, Farm to Fork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    In response to growing threat of food-borne illness, the federal government launched the Food Safety Initiative. A key element is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system (HACCP), designed to make everyone in the food-delivery chain responsible for ensuring a safe food supply. The Food and Drug Administration also announced a beef

  3. Food Safety, Farm to Fork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    In response to growing threat of food-borne illness, the federal government launched the Food Safety Initiative. A key element is the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points system (HACCP), designed to make everyone in the food-delivery chain responsible for ensuring a safe food supply. The Food and Drug Administration also announced a beef…

  4. Introduction to Food Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Investigations in food science and technology, whether by the food industry, governmental agencies, or universities, often require determination of food composition and characteristics. Trends and demands of consumers, the food industry, and national and international regulations challenge food scientists as they work to monitor food composition and to ensure the quality and safety of the food supply. All food products require analysis as part of a quality management program throughout the development process (including raw ingredients), through production, and after a product is in the market. In addition, analysis is done of problem samples and competitor products. The characteristics of foods (i.e., chemical composition, physical properties, sensory properties) are used to answer specific questions for regulatory purposes and typical quality control. The nature of the sample and the specific reason for the analysis commonly dictate the choice of analytical methods. Speed, precision, accuracy, and ruggedness often are key factors in this choice. Validation of the method for the specific food matrix being analyzed is necessary to ensure usefulness of the method. Making an appropriate choice of the analytical technique for a specific application requires a good knowledge of the various techniques (Fig. 1.1). For example, your choice of method to determine the salt content of potato chips would be different if it is for nutrition labeling than for quality control. The success of any analytical method relies on the proper selection and preparation of the food sample, carefully performing the analysis, and doing the appropriate calculations and interpretation of the data. Methods of analysis developed and endorsed by several nonprofit scientific organizations allow for standardized comparisons of results between different laboratories and for evaluation of less standard procedures. Such official methods are critical in the analysis of foods, to ensure that they meet the legal requirements established by governmental agencies. Government regulations and international standards most relevant to the analysis of foods are mentioned here but covered in more detail in Chap. 2, and nutrition labeling regulations in the USA are covered in Chap. 3. Internet addresses for many of the organizations and government agencies discussed are given at the end of this chapter.

  5. [Chemical contaminants in food].

    PubMed

    Coduro, E

    1986-12-01

    Due to a direct material linking between environment and man via breath, food and potable water, toxic substances have always been in the food of man, only modern analytical methods have made it possible to safely register concentrations in the ppb-range and below. This is why we discover more and more potential hazardous substances in food, becoming conscious of the full extent of contamination more and more. Such concentrations make a toxicological evaluation very difficult, most of all when a long-term effect is concerned. There are different reasons for the occurrence of toxic substances in our food. Substances occurring naturally in food like trypsin inhibitors, solanine and cumarin. Substances that are added to food purposely. To these belong artificial dyes and sweetening agents, sulphur dioxide and pesticides resp. herbicides. Substances that are formed during the production, preparation or storage of food like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, peroxides of unsaturated fatty acids, mycotoxins and nitrosamines. Substances that are taken in due to environmental influences, considering primarily the toxic heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Legislative authorities have taken numerous steps to protect the consumer against food that is detrimental to his health, based mainly on the so-called "principle of prohibition" that stands for the general prohibition of additives as long as they are not formally permitted. The fundamental prohibition of the "Lebensmittel- und Bedarfsgegenstndegesetz" (law for food and requirements) to produce or handle food in such a way that its consumption is qualified to harm the health of the consumer, has an extensive protective effect. This effect is supported by regulation for additives and special directives. An important group of possibly toxic substances in our food are pesticides and their residues. In 1985 1839 pesticides based on 302 active components were officially admitted in the Federal Republic of Germany, 40% of these as herbicides, 23% as insecticides. The investigations of the food control authorities are oriented on the regulation of maximum amounts for pesticides which includes maximum values for about 470 active substances. There is a report on special investigations of the "Landesuntersuchungsamt" (office for the investigation of food and requirements).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3107271

  6. Community food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Community food webs describe the feeding relationships, or trophic interactions, between the species of an ecological community. Both the structure and dynamics of such webs are the focus of food web research. The topological structures of empirical food webs from many ecosystems have been published on the basis of field studies and they form the foundation for theory concerning the mean number of trophic levels, the mean number of trophic connections versus number of species, and other food web measures, which show consistency across different ecosystems. The dynamics of food webs are influenced by indirect interactions, in which changes in the level of a population in one part of the food web may have indirect effects throughout the web. The mechanisms of these interactions are typically studied microcosm experiments, or sometimes in-field experiments. The use of mathematical models is also a major approach to understanding the effects of indirect interactions. Both empirical and mathematical studies have revealed important properties of food webs, such as keystone predators and trophic cascades.

  7. Food Processing Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    When NASA started plarning for manned space travel in 1959, the myriad challenges of sustaining life in space included a seemingly mundane but vitally important problem: How and what do you feed an astronaut? There were two main concerns: preventing food crumbs from contaminating the spacecraft's atmosphere or floating into sensitive instruments, and ensuring complete freedom from potentially catastrophic disease-producing bacteria, viruses, and toxins. To solve these concerns, NASA enlisted the help of the Pillsbury Company. Pillsbury quickly solved the first problem by coating bite-size foods to prevent crumbling. They developed the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) concept to ensure against bacterial contamination. Hazard analysis is a systematic study of product, its ingredients, processing conditions, handling, storage, packing, distribution, and directions for consumer use to identify sensitive areas that might prove hazardous. Hazard analysis provides a basis for blueprinting the Critical Control Points (CCPs) to be monitored. CCPs are points in the chain from raw materials to the finished product where loss of control could result in unacceptable food safety risks. In early 1970, Pillsbury plants were following HACCP in production of food for Earthbound consumers. Pillsbury's subsequent training courses for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) personnel led to the incorporation of HACCP in the FDA's Low Acid Canned Foods Regulations, set down in the mid-1970s to ensure the safety of all canned food products in the U.S.

  8. Food-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Bushra, Rabia; Aslam, Nousheen; Khan, Arshad Yar

    2011-03-01

    The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction), food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction) or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction). A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least food-drug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient. PMID:22043389

  9. Food-Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bushra, Rabia; Aslam, Nousheen; Khan, Arshad Yar

    2011-01-01

    The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction), food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction) or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction). A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least food-drug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient. PMID:22043389

  10. Food insecurity: limitations of emergency food resources for our patients.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca; Bari, Sehrish; Crist, Michael; Moran, Alyssa; Rastogi, Natasha; Leng, Jennifer

    2013-06-01

    Rates of food insecurity are high among medically underserved patients. We analyzed food pantry responsiveness to the needs of medically ill cancer patients in New York City with the intent ofidentifying barriers to available food resources. Our data, collected from 60 pantries, suggest that the emergency food system is currently unable to accommodate patient needs. Accessibility issues include restricted service hours and documentation requirements. Food services were limited in quantity of food provided and the number of nutritious, palatable options. Additional emergency food resources and long-term approaches that provide ongoing food support to patients throughout their treatment period are needed. PMID:22829107

  11. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  12. Food packing optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The development of a universal closure lid for the space shuttle food package is reported. The revised lid needs a folded configuration which, when unfolded, fully conforms to the interior surfaces of the food cup. Experimental thermoform molds were fabricated and test lids formed. The lid material not in contact with the food conformed to the cup interior without wrinkles, permitting full nesting of the cups. The final lid design was established and thermoform tooling designed and fabricated. Lids formed on these molds were tested for strength. The heating elements were replaced and repositioned to eliminate any hot spots which may cause warpage.

  13. Food packing optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The development of a universal closure lid for the space shuttle food package is reported. The revised lid needs a folded configuration which, when unfolded, fully conforms to the interior surfaces of the food cup. Experimental thermoform molds were fabricated and test lids formed. The lid material not in contact with the food conformed to the cup interior without wrinkles, permitting full nesting of the cups. The final lid design was established and thermoform tooling designed and fabricated. Lids formed on these molds were tested for strength. The heating elements were replaced and repositioned to eliminate any hot spots which may cause warpage.

  14. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  15. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program

  16. Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

  17. Food and Nutrition Information Center

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Tips Browse By Subject Dietary Guidance Lifecycle Nutrition Diet and Disease Food Composition Food Safety Weight and Obesity Food Labeling Dietary Supplements Nutrition Assistance Programs Surveys, Reports and Research Professional and ...

  18. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Hawthorn Court Community Center at Iowa State University, Ames, and the HUB-Robeson Center at Pennsylvania State University. Focuses on the food service offered in these new student-life buildings. Includes photographs. (EV)

  19. Staphylococcal Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information | Additional Information Frequently Asked Questions What is Staphylococcus ? What is staphylococcal food poisoning? What are the ... be used in a bioterrorist attack? What is Staphylococcus ? Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterium found on ...

  20. Upgrading Food Service Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The Murphy Elementary School District in Phoenix, Arizona has cut food service costs and improved community relations by cooking and baking from "scratch" and utilizing the staff's ethnic cooking skills. (MLF)

  1. Starchy foods (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sugary foods, such as bread, rice, pasta, cereal, potatoes, peas, corn, fruit, fruit juice, milk, yogurt, cookies, candy, soda, and other sweets. Other possible sources include peas, milk, and yogurt.

  2. Soy Foods and Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... vegetarian products such as soy burgers and soy hot dogs. Whole soy beans (edamame) and foods that ...

  3. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  4. Freezing and Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Frozen Food Safe? Does Freezing Destroy Bacteria & Parasites? Freshness & ... freezer — are they safe? Every year, thousands of callers to the USDA Meat and Poultry Hotline aren't sure about the ...

  5. Vitamin food fortification today

    PubMed Central

    de Lourdes Samaniego-Vaesken, Maria; Alonso-Aperte, Elena; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2012-01-01

    Historically, food fortification has served as a tool to address population-wide nutrient deficiencies such as rickets by vitamin D fortified milk. This article discusses the different policy strategies to be used today. Mandatory or voluntary fortification and fortified foods, which the consumer needs, also have to comply with nutritional, regulatory, food safety and technical issues. The ‘worldwide map of vitamin fortification’ is analysed, including differences between develop and developing countries. The vitamins, folate and vitamin D, are taken as practical examples in the review of the beneficial effect of different strategies on public health. The importance of the risk–benefit aspect, as well as how to identify the risk groups, and the food vehicles for fortification is discussed. PMID:22481896

  6. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  7. Food poisoning (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... entering food that will be eaten. The major source of Escherichia is from the feces of infected animals. It can also be found in untreated water. Cooking at the right temperature is important in ...

  8. Estimation of food consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    The research reported in this document was conducted as a part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate the radiation doses that people could have received from operations at the Hanford Site. Information required to estimate these doses includes estimates of the amounts of potentially contaminated foods that individuals in the region consumed during the study period. In that general framework, the objective of the Food Consumption Task was to develop a capability to provide information about the parameters of the distribution(s) of daily food consumption for representative groups in the population for selected years during the study period. This report describes the methods and data used to estimate food consumption and presents the results developed for Phase I of the HEDR Project.

  9. Antioxidant content of foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-based foods, especially fruits, vegetables, and nuts, contain bioactive components which have various biological functions, including free radical scavenging and metal chelating (antioxidant), inhibition of lipid peroxidation, anti-inflammatory properties, etc. Oxidative stress may contribute...

  10. Food irradiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, W.L.

    1994-12-31

    Measurements of absorbed dose, dose rate, and dose distribution in food products are vital to the success of treatment of food by ionizing radiation (X ray and gamma radiation and electron beams). Dosimetry is used not only for regulatory purposes and quality control but as documentation of research leading to each food treatment process and for setting proper doses and acceptable dose limits. For regulatory purposes as well as for economic viability of food irradiation, such documentation thoroughly depends on dosimetry. It must include process characterization, dosimeter calibration data, dose mapping results, routine dosimetry data and associated process parameters and control for each run, readout equipment maintenance and standard operating procedures, statistical data, product loading and dosimeter locations, dose uniformity, and evaluations of probability that the process specifications have (or have not) been met.

  11. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is another word for "calories." Your ... adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages. Energy Balance in Real Life Think of it as ...

  12. Update on food allergy.

    PubMed

    Carrard, A; Rizzuti, D; Sokollik, C

    2015-12-01

    Food allergies are a global health issue with increasing prevalence. Allergic reactions can range from mild local symptoms to severe anaphylactic reactions. Significant progress has been made in diagnostic tools such as component-resolved diagnostics and its impact on risk stratification as well as in therapeutic approaches including biologicals. However, a cure for food allergy has not yet been achieved and patients and their families are forced to alter eating habits and social engagements, impacting their quality of life. New technologies and improved invitro and invivo models will advance our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergies and multicenter-multinational cohort studies will elucidate interactions between genetic background, lifestyle, and environmental factors. This review focuses on new insights and developments in the field of food allergy and summarizes recently published articles. PMID:26443043

  13. Soy Foods and Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... En Espaol Making a Change Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... vegetarian products such as soy burgers and soy hot dogs. Whole soy beans (edamame) and foods that ...

  14. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines three renovated college facilities that offer student-friendly dining space. Renovation problems in the areas of food and entertainment, service and choice, and image versus architectural history preservation are addressed. (GR)

  15. Skylab food system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab food program was a major effort involving a complex spectrum of activities necessary for the preparation of a crew feeding system. Approximately 17,000 individual food packages and support items, weighing more than 1225 kg, were launched into space as a single unit on board the orbital workshop. This unit provided the three (three-man) Skylab crews with nourishing foods and beverages for a total of 156 days, as well as with eating utensils and accessory items. Additionally, provisions for 5 days (15 man-days) were provided in each of the three command and service modules in a manner similar to that of the Apollo flights. The Skylab food system not only provided the crew with a palatable balanced diet in a familiar and acceptable manner but also supported the formidable mineral balance medical experiment series (M070).

  16. Food allergies (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reacts to the presence of toxins, bacteria or viruses by producing a chemical reaction to fight these invaders. However, sometimes the immune system reacts to ordinarily benign substances such as food or pollen, to which it has become sensitive. ...

  17. Asthma and Food Allergies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and foods, including fruit juices , soft drinks, cider vinegar, potato chips, dried fruits and vegetables, maraschino cherries, ... that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances. Email Print Share Donate Contact Us ...

  18. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  19. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirmons, T. A.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to assess the stability of vitamin content, sensory acceptability and color variation in fortified spaceflight foods over a period of 2 years. Findings will identify optimal formulation, processing, and storage conditions to maintain stability and acceptability of commercially available fortification nutrients. Changes in food quality are being monitored to indicate whether fortification affects quality over time (compared to the unfortified control), thus indicating their potential for use on long-duration missions.

  20. Fires and Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Safety / Fires and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  1. Food Product Dating

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Product Dating / Food Product Dating Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  2. Traditional Indonesian dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Surono, Ingrid S

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago blessed with one of the richest mega-biodiversities and also home to one of the most diverse cuisines and traditional fermented foods. There are 3 types of traditional dairy foods, namely the butter-like product minyak samin; yogurt-like product dadih; and cheese-like products dali or bagot in horbo, dangke, litsusu, and cologanti, which reflect the culture of dairy product consumption in Indonesia. PMID:26715081

  3. Food price volatility

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, C. L.; Morgan, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    The high food prices experienced over recent years have led to the widespread view that food price volatility has increased. However, volatility has generally been lower over the two most recent decades than previously. Variability over the most recent period has been high but, with the important exception of rice, not out of line with historical experience. There is weak evidence that grains price volatility more generally may be increasing but it is too early to say. PMID:20713400

  4. Aerospace Food Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Maureen A.; Fohey, Michael F.

    1990-01-01

    Lightweight tray designed for use in microgravity. Provides restraint and thermal insulation for modular packages of food. Magnetic utensils restrained by attraction to ferrous plate mounted underneath. Restraints for pouch and spring clips also provided. Surfaces made smooth to facilitate cleaning, and number of cracks, crevices, and pits where food residues collect kept to minimum. Useful for serving meals in airplanes, boats, hospitals, and facilities that care for children.

  5. Psychobiology and Food Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, A.

    1985-01-01

    Psychobiology is a scientific discipline which encompasses the phenomena known to be important as regards nutrition and food consumption in space. Specifically, it includes those areas of biology which are clearly related to behavior, human subjective experience and problems of coping and adapting to stress. Taste and odor perception; perception (knowledge gaps); perception (needs); food preference and menu selection; and choosing of acceptable diets are discussed.

  6. Food-Borne Trematodiases

    PubMed Central

    Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-01-01

    Summary: An estimated 750 million people are at risk of infections with food-borne trematodes, which comprise liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola gigantica, Fasciola hepatica, Opisthorchis felineus, and Opisthorchis viverrini), lung flukes (Paragonimus spp.), and intestinal flukes (e.g., Echinostoma spp., Fasciolopsis buski, and the heterophyids). Food-borne trematodiases pose a significant public health and economic problem, yet these diseases are often neglected. In this review, we summarize the taxonomy, morphology, and life cycle of food-borne trematodes. Estimates of the at-risk population and number of infections, geographic distribution, history, and ecological features of the major food-borne trematodes are reviewed. We summarize clinical manifestations, patterns of infection, and current means of diagnosis, treatment, and other control options. The changing epidemiological pattern and the rapid growth of aquaculture and food distribution networks are highlighted, as these developments might be associated with an elevated risk of transmission of food-borne trematodiases. Current research needs are emphasized. PMID:19597009

  7. Zapping the food supply

    SciTech Connect

    Louria, D.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The idea of exposing food to gamma radiation is over 30 years old, and in 1963 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began to permit the irradiation of wheat. Over the years, a few more foodstuffs such as spices and tea were added, but in 1984 the FDA started to approve irradiation of a much broader list of products which now includes meat, poultry, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Simultaneously the FDA has increased the levels of radiation that may be used. The FDA's recent willingness to allow most of the food supply to be irradiated - and at high doses - has triggered an acrimonious debate. The amount of radiation involved is substantial, with intensities millions of times greater than that of an ordinary chest X-ray. The announced goal of promoters of food irradiation is to obtain general approval for the use of up to one million rad. Irradiation does not make food radioactive, nor has alleged radioactivity been at issue in the debate. But there is concern that foods processed by irradiation may contain radiolytic products that could have toxic effects. 12 refs.

  8. Food Allergies: The Basics

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. PMID:25680669

  9. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role. PMID:26627090

  10. Reducing food allergy: is there promise for food applications?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy has been increasing in recent years. Food allergy can be deadly, and strict avoidance of foods containing allergenic proteins is the only effective way to prevent food-induced allergic reaction. This approach poses challenges, because allergens are not always accurately...

  11. Beyond Food Security to Realizing Food Rights in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Molly D.

    2013-01-01

    The right to food is widely accepted by nations, with the notable exception of the United States (US) and four other countries. The US government deals with domestic food insecurity through an array of needs-based food assistance programs instead of rights-based approaches; and administration officials have resisted the right to food for several

  12. Crediting Foods in the Child Care Food Program. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Robbinsville, NJ. Mid-Atlantic Regional Office.

    This modified version of a previously published title provides additional information on foods for which reimbursement may be obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) by child care centers and family day care homes participating in the Child Care Food Program. Such foods, called creditable foods, are those that may be…

  13. Food Mapping: A Psychogeographical Method for Raising Food Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, R. Alan; Killham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Food mapping is a new, participatory, interdisciplinary pedagogical approach to learning about our modern food systems. This method is inspired by the Situationist International's practice of the "dérive" and draws from the discourses of critical geography, the food movement's research on food deserts, and participatory action…

  14. Beyond Food Security to Realizing Food Rights in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Molly D.

    2013-01-01

    The right to food is widely accepted by nations, with the notable exception of the United States (US) and four other countries. The US government deals with domestic food insecurity through an array of needs-based food assistance programs instead of rights-based approaches; and administration officials have resisted the right to food for several…

  15. Organic Food and the Plural Moralities of Food Provisioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Anne Holst

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic food may, or may…

  16. Food for Education Indicator Guide. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Gilles; Del Rosso, Joy Miller

    As defined by the U.S. Agency for International Development, food security is attained "when all people at all times have both physical and economic access to sufficient food to meet their dietary needs for a productive and healthy life." In this guide, Food for Education (FFE) is defined as a program using food as a resource to improve

  17. Organic Food and the Plural Moralities of Food Provisioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Anne Holst

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic food may, or may

  18. Food Mapping: A Psychogeographical Method for Raising Food Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, R. Alan; Killham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Food mapping is a new, participatory, interdisciplinary pedagogical approach to learning about our modern food systems. This method is inspired by the Situationist International's practice of the "drive" and draws from the discourses of critical geography, the food movement's research on food deserts, and participatory action

  19. Food safety regulations in Australia and New Zealand Food Standards.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dilip

    2014-08-01

    Citizens of Australia and New Zealand recognise that food security is a major global issue. Food security also affects Australia and New Zealand's status as premier food exporting nations and the health and wellbeing of the Australasian population. Australia is uniquely positioned to help build a resilient food value chain and support programs aimed at addressing existing and emerging food security challenges. The Australian food governance system is fragmented and less transparent, being largely in the hands of government and semi-governmental regulatory authorities. The high level of consumer trust in Australian food governance suggests that this may be habitual and taken for granted, arising from a lack of negative experiences of food safety. In New Zealand the Ministry of Primary Industries regulates food safety issues. To improve trade and food safety, New Zealand and Australia work together through Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) and other co-operative agreements. Although the potential risks to the food supply are dynamic and constantly changing, the demand, requirement and supply for providing safe food remains firm. The Australasian food industry will need to continually develop its system that supports the food safety program with the help of scientific investigations that underpin the assurance of what is and is not safe. The incorporation of a comprehensive and validated food safety program is one of the total quality management systems that will ensure that all areas of potential problems are being addressed by industry. PMID:24638225

  20. Food production & availability - Essential prerequisites for sustainable food security

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, M.S.; Bhavani, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this. PMID:24135188

  1. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    PubMed

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective. PMID:26025087

  2. Food Buying Guide and Recipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Development Services Bureau (DHEW/OCD), Washington, DC. Project Head Start.

    This booklet, designed to assist Project Head State personnel responsible for food programs, presents an extensive food buying guide and more than 40 recipes suitable for a Head Start feeding program. The food buying guide list buying information for food to be used by Project Head Start Centers serving breakfasts, lunches, and/or snacks. For each

  3. Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition are viewed as a continuum, with food insecurity resulting in hunger and ultimately, if sufficiently severe and/or of sufficient duration, in undernutrition. Food insecurity indicates inadequate access to food for whatever reason, hunger is the immediate ph...

  4. Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition are often viewed as a continuum, with food insecurity resulting in hunger and, ultimately, if sufficiently severe and/or of sufficient duration, in undernutrition. According to this view, food insecurity indicates inadequate access to food for whatever rea...

  5. HYPOALLERGENIC FOODS - SOYBEANS AND PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have been recognized as a growing problem. Although food allergies are routinely managed by avoidance, understanding how food allergies are induced presents the prospect for moderating adverse and possibly life-threatening immune reactions. Among the possible means to manage food alle...

  6. Microencapsulation and functional bioactive foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food, the essential unit of human nutrition has been both wholesome and safe through human history ensuring the continuity of the human race. Functionalized foods are the rediscovery of the need to provide all nutrients through foods without adulteration. The functional components of foods include...

  7. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin

  8. Nutrition: Keeping a Food Diary

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Nutrition: Keeping a Food Diary Nutrition: Keeping a Food Diary Instructions The information you record in your food diary will help you and your family doctor design an eating program just for you. These instructions will help you get the most out of your food diary. ...

  9. Daily Food Plan for Moms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Menus Seasonal Winter Spring Summer Fall Food Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide MyPlate Daily Checklist ... Dietary Supplements Medical Conditions, Allergies, and Food Intolerances Food Safety Older Adults Children Students Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, ...

  10. Chilled storage of foods - principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilled storage is the most common method for preserving perishable foods. The consumers increasing demand for convenient, minimally processed foods has caused food manufacturers to increase production of refrigerated foods worldwide. This book chapter reviews the development of using low tempera...

  11. [Milk and food security].

    PubMed

    Díaz Yubero, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    In the history of food security in the EU there is a before and after the White Paper published in January 2000; since then we are witnessing radical new approaches in the Commission strategy to ensure the highest standards of food safety for EU citizens, based on a more coordinated and integrated organization. The basic principle was to extend the application of control measures at all stages of the production chain, which was summarized in the slogan which has since been repeated regularly: 'From Farm to Consumer'. The new guidelines for action were the answer to a series of food crises (dioxin, hormones, BSE...) that called into question the European agri-food system and, what was even more severe, produced a deep distrust of consumers by health risks attached to feeding. Beef and cow's milk, two basic components of the European diet, were the products most affected by the aforementioned crisis, which showed that in those years very few companies paid attention to the quality from the source. In this paper a review of the issues presented at the time, the measures implemented by the White Paper and the path travelled is done, while it raised the need to use safe and quality raw materials, so that consumers have absolute confidence in their food. PMID:25862327

  12. Excitotoxins in foods.

    PubMed

    Olney, J W

    1994-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed pertaining to excitatory neurotoxins (excitotoxins) encountered in human food supply. The most frequently encountered food excitotoxin is glutamate (Glu) which is commercially added to many foods despite evidence that it can freely penetrate certain brain regions and rapidly destroy neurons by hyperactivating the NMDA subtype of Glu receptor. Hypersensitivity of NMDA receptors during development makes the immature nervous system especially sensitive to Glu excitotoxicity. On the other hand, elderly consumers are particularly sensitive to domoic acid, a powerful excitotoxic Glu analog that activates both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors. A high content of domoic acid in shell fish caused a recent food poisoning incident that killed some elderly victims and caused brain damage and memory impairment in others. Neurolathyrism is a crippling neurodegenerative condition associated with ingestion of a legume that naturally contains BOAA, an excitotoxic Glu analog that hyperactivates non-NMDA receptors. Thus, the human food supply is a source of excitotoxins that can damage the brain by one type of mechanism to which immature consumers are hypervulnerable, or by other mechanisms to which adult and elderly consumers are peculiarly sensitive. PMID:7854587

  13. Food processing and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. PMID:25778347

  14. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. PMID:24497160

  15. Exercise and functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Aoi, Wataru; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise. PMID:16749944

  16. Food systems veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Hurd, H Scott

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of this review are to suggest the use of the systems thinking framework to improve how veterinary medicine is applied to food production. It applies the eight essential skills of systems thinking to a few selected veterinary examples. Two of the skills determine how we approach or define a problem, and are (i) dynamic thinking (taking a longer term perspective) and (ii) the 30,000 foot view (expanding the boundary of analysis beyond the animal, farm, or even country). The other skills are (iii) system-as-cause, (iv) operational thinking, (v) closed-loop (feedback) thinking, (vi) non-linear thinking, (vii) scientific thinking and (viii) generic thinking. The challenge is to adopt and apply this systems framework to veterinary medicine and food production. The result will be a rigorous new approach to solving the complex food and health problems of the 21st century. PMID:22124228

  17. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  18. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  19. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  20. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  1. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  2. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food intake, whereas the other subpopulation coexpresses pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript that inhibits food intake. AgRP antagonizes the effects of the POMC product, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Both populations project to areas important in the regulation of food intake, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, which also receives important inputs from other hypothalamic nuclei. PMID:24795698

  3. The impact of food regulation on the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Aruoma, Okezie I

    2006-04-01

    Food regulation in the main is aimed at protecting the consumer's health, increasing economic viability, harmonizing well-being and engendering fair trade on foods within and between nations. Consumers nowadays are faced with food or food ingredients that may derive from distant countries or continents, and with a less transparent food supply. Safety concerns must cover the range of different food chains relevant to a certain food product or product group, including all relevant producers, manufacturing sites and food service establishments within a country as well as those importing into the country. Hazard analysis at critical control points (HACCP), good manufacturing practice (GMP) and good hygiene practice (GHP) are major components of the safety management systems in the food supply chain. Principally, "a hazard" is a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food that has the potential to cause an adverse health effect. The likelihood of occurrence and severity of the same is important for the assessment of the risk presented by the hazard to the food supply chain. The Government's regulatory mechanisms in accordance with the WTO agreements (HACCPs, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, etc.) oversee the analyses of public health problems and their association to the food supply. Under the WTO SPS Agreements and the codes of practices issued by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, there now exists a benchmark for international harmonization that guarantee the trade of safe food. Inevitably, food safety is still mainly the responsibility of the consumer. PMID:16483706

  4. Food-Borne Noroviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses have emerged as the number one cause of food-borne illness in the United States. In this book chapter, the current molecular classification criteria are described as well as the current information regarding the molecular biology of the virus and its putative gene functions. Identifica...

  5. Food for Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Given, Barbara K.

    1998-01-01

    What and how students eat can profoundly affect their ability to learn. Children require a high-protein breakfast for alertness, and a balanced diet, including complex carbohydrates throughout the day. Chronic stress causes the brain and body to deplete available nutrients. Nutrition is an important issue; better school food equals better school…

  6. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  7. Development of Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in intestinal microbiota research are the background for the appearance of functional foods. Lactic fermentation products are included in the functional foods and classified into 3 groups based on their mechanisms of action: probiotics, prebiotics and biogenics. Probiotics are viable microorganisms, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, that beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal bacterial balance. Prebiotics are nondigestible food ingredients, such as oligosaccharides and dietary fiber, that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activities of beneficial intestinal bacteria in the colon and thus improve the health of the hosts. Biogenics are biologically active peptides, including immunopotentiators (biological response modifier: BRM), plant flavonoids, etc. They act directly or indirectly through modulation of intestinal microbiota on the health of the hosts. Thus, functional foods enhance bioregulation such as stresses, appetite and absorption; biodefence, such as immunity and suppression of allergies; prevent diseases, including diarrhea, constipation, cancer, cholesterolemia and diabetes; and suppress aging through immunostimulation as well as suppression of mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, oxidation processes, intestinal putrefaction, and cholesterolemia. PMID:25032085

  8. Pseudo-food allergy.

    PubMed

    Pearson, D J

    1991-05-01

    This article covers the background and general concepts pertaining to pseudo-allergy, the problems involved in reaching valid diagnoses of food allergy, the basics of the methodology of double-blind oral provocation, and the emotional, psychologic and recent sociologic factors particularly relevant to the inappropriate attribution of symptoms to allergy. PMID:1862243

  9. Finger Foods for Babies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... love the taste of cookies, cake, and other sweets, but do not introduce them now. Your little one needs to eat nutrient-rich foods instead of consuming empty calories found in desserts and high-fat snacks, such as potato chips. It's tempting to want to see the ...

  10. Food-furanocoumarin binding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapefruit juice (GFJ) interferes with the cytochrome P450 3A4 activity responsible for metabolizing certain medications, and it is the furanocoumarins (FCs) in GFJ that have been shown to be the main compounds which cause these interactions. We previously found that a number of foods sequester FCs ...

  11. Skylab food system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, T. R.; Sanford, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the Skylab food system requirements, package designs, and launch configurations was presented. In-flight anomalies were discussed, and between-mission changes in design were described. A discussion of support for Skylab 3 and Skylab 4 mission extensions and of new items launched on these missions is included.

  12. Make Fast Food Friendlier

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Adults Types of Fitness The Price of Inactivity Food as Fuel - Before, During and After Workouts Moderate to Vigorous - ... 9 What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean 10 Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ... This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

  13. Toward Junking Junk Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Phyllis E.

    1978-01-01

    Carroll County, Maryland, has shaped a strategy to improve school nutrition by weakening or eliminating, where possible, junk food competition, making lunches more nourishing and appealing, and working nutrition instruction into other subject areas. Steps taken to accomplish these changes are described. (MF)

  14. Metrics for Food Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students interested in food distribution, this instructional package is one of five for the marketing and distribution cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational…

  15. Properties of food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Pimm, S.L.

    1980-04-01

    On the assumption that systems of interacting species, when perturbed from equilibrium, should return to equilibrium quickly, one can predict four properties of food webs: (1) food chains should be short, (2) species feeding on more than one trophic level (omnivores) should be rare, (3) those species that do feed on more than one trophic level should do so by feeding on species in adjacent trophic levels, and (4) host-parasitoid systems are likely to be exceptions to (1)-(3) when interaction coefficients permit greater trophic complexity. By generating random, model food webs (with many features identical to webs described from a variety of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems), it is possible to generate expected values for the number of trophic levels and the degree of omnivory within webs. When compared with these random webs, real world webs are shown to have fewer trophic levels, less omnivory, and very few omnivores feeding on nonadjacent trophic levels. Insect webs are shown to have a greater degree of omnivory than other webs. The confirmation of all these predictions from stability analyses suggests that system stability places necessary, though not sufficient, limitations on the possible shapes of food webs.

  16. Food: Facts and Fancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallinisch, Martha

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary. SUBJECT MATTER: One of a series on consumer education. This particular guide concerns food--specifically, nutrition, labeling, prices, and money management. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 sections, each containing a major knowledge objective and various minor ones. Each section also

  17. Food Allergy Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload ... more information about food allergy ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of ...

  18. Food Concerns. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in…

  19. Food of Consuming Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina. Education and Communications Branch.

    This guide is intended for use in a consumer education course designed to teach consumers to get the most out of their dollar when shopping for and preparing food. The kit is divided into a series of sections containing activities and fact sheets that are designed to guide the consumer through a successful shopping trip. The following topics are

  20. Mathematics for Commercial Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wersan, Norman

    A review of basic mathematics operations is presented with problems and examples applied to activities in the food service industry. The text is divided into eight units: measurement, fractions, arithmetic operations, money and decimals, percentage, ratio and proportion, wages and taxes, and business records. Each unit contains a series of lessons

  1. Food Service Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ellen; And Others

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs such as dietetic aide or food service worker in a health care facility. It serves as the basic core of the occupationally sequenced Dietetic Support Personnel Training Program. Five sections and 13 instructional units are included. Each unit of

  2. Food-System Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rop, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    This set of inquiry lessons is adaptable for middle school through high school life science or biology classrooms and will help meet the NSTA scientific inquiry position statement (2004) and the AAAS benchmarks (1993) and NRC standards (1996; 2000) related to health and food literacy. The standards require adolescents to examine their own diet and

  3. Food for Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Given, Barbara K.

    1998-01-01

    What and how students eat can profoundly affect their ability to learn. Children require a high-protein breakfast for alertness, and a balanced diet, including complex carbohydrates throughout the day. Chronic stress causes the brain and body to deplete available nutrients. Nutrition is an important issue; better school food equals better school

  4. NUTRITIOUS SUBSISTENCE FOOD SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major subsistence food systems of the world that feed resource-poor populations are identified and their capacity to supply essential nutrients in reasonable balance to the people dependent on them has been considered for some of these with a view to overcoming their nutrient limitations in soun...

  5. Polysaccharides and food processing.

    PubMed

    Pilnik, W; Rombouts, F M

    1985-10-01

    The rle of polysaccharides during processing and for the quality of foods is discussed. Starch is the most important energy source for man. Most other polysaccharides are not metabolized for energy, but play an important rle as dietary fibres. Pectins, alginates, carrageenans, and galactomannans are discussed as functional food additives in relation to their structure and their rheological behaviour, stability and interactions. Endogenous polysaccharides of fruits and vegetables and in products derived from them are responsible for such phenomena as texture (changes), press yields, ease of filtration and clarification, cloud stability, and mouth feel. To achieve desirable properties, the action of endogenous enzymes on polysaccharides must be inactivated and/or exogenous enzymes added as processing aids. This is also true for overcoming haze phenomena in clear juices or to break down undesirable microbial polysaccharides. Dough properties for bread baking can be improved by enzymic breakdown of a restrictive pentoglycan network. Network formation may come about by oxidative coupling of phenol rings of ferulic acid bound to hemicelluloses by ester links. Gels may be made by inducing oxidative coupling in natural or synthetic systems. Stagnation in development of new polysaccharide food additives is ascribed to difficulties in obtaining government approval for food use. PMID:3000594

  6. Elemental Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  7. Facility Focus: Food Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Details the design goals, materials, and finish choices of a 38,400 square-foot dining facility and the delineation and organization of multiple spaces that comprise a 21,000 square-foot food service facility. This later design utilized market studies of student tastes and buying patterns to ensure student satisfaction. Includes seven photographs.

  8. Food-System Botany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rop, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    This set of inquiry lessons is adaptable for middle school through high school life science or biology classrooms and will help meet the NSTA scientific inquiry position statement (2004) and the AAAS benchmarks (1993) and NRC standards (1996; 2000) related to health and food literacy. The standards require adolescents to examine their own diet and…

  9. Food Detectives: Fight Bac

    MedlinePLUS

    Kids, We need your help to fight an enemy... Bacteria lives on the food you eat if it isn't cooked and handled properly. It also lives on dirty ... us, and we'll show you how to fight this disgusting enemy. Please take a moment to ...

  10. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a

  11. FOOD USES OF SORGHUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a drought resistant cereal grain grown primarily in the Central U.S. where it is mainly used as an animal feed. However, in parts of the world such as Africa and India, sorghum has been used for human consumption for thousands of years. A wide range of traditional food products have bee...

  12. Food of Consuming Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina. Education and Communications Branch.

    This guide is intended for use in a consumer education course designed to teach consumers to get the most out of their dollar when shopping for and preparing food. The kit is divided into a series of sections containing activities and fact sheets that are designed to guide the consumer through a successful shopping trip. The following topics are…

  13. Food Concerns. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent vegetarianism is most frequent among females, and involves meat avoidance, concern for the environment and animal welfare, gender equality, weight loss behaviors, and a concern with body appearance. It can be a precursor to eating disorders. Training and ongoing follow-up are necessary to instill proper food handling procedures in

  14. Elemental Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that

  15. Microbiological Testing of Skylab Foods

    PubMed Central

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers, E. M.; Bourland, C. T.; McQueen, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab manned space flight program presented unique food microbiology problems. This challenge was successfully met by careful evaluation of the total Skylab food system by considering the nature of Skylab foods, their processing and handling, and Skylab food safety requirements. Some of the unique problems encountered with the Skylab foods involved: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or charge foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of the food as an accurately controlled segment of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations generated the need for definitive microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described in this paper along with the rationale for their selection. Test results are reported which show successful compliance with the test limits. Images PMID:4346978

  16. Food systems for space travel.

    PubMed

    Bourland, C T

    1999-01-01

    Space food systems have evolved from tubes and cubes to Earth-like food being planned for the International Space Station. The weight, volume, and oxygen-enriched atmosphere constraints of earlier spacecraft severely limited the type of food that could be used. Food systems improved as spacecraft conditions became more habitable. Space food systems have traditionally been based upon the water supply. This presentation summarizes the food development activities from Mercury through Shuttle, Shuttle/Mir, and plans for the International Space Station. Food development lessons learned from the long-duration missions with astronauts on the Mir station are also discussed. Nutritional requirements for long-duration missions in microgravity and problems associated with meeting these requirements for Mir will be elucidated. The psychological importance of food and the implications for food development activities are summarized. PMID:11541546

  17. Masking foods for food challenge: practical aspects of masking foods for a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, G B; Colen, A A; Jansen, J J; Kardinaal, A F; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Martens, B P

    1994-06-01

    In diagnosing a food allergy or food intolerance, a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with the suspected food or food substance is the only method available for objective confirmation of an assumed relationship between a suspected agent and a complaint. When the use of capsules as a vehicle for DBPCFC with the suspected agent is not feasible, recipes have to be developed for masking the suspected food with another food. We describe demands and other aspects of the development of recipes for DBPCFC purposes. The taste, smell, color, and texture of the suspected agent have to be hidden in such a way that the patient cannot tell which of the two foods (the active food or the placebo food) contains the suspected agent. Once developed, the recipes have to be judged carefully to ensure that the foods do not contain ingredients other than the suspected agent that can possibly provoke complaints in the patient. Besides ordinary equipment such as cutlery, glasses, and dishes, the minimal equipment needed for preparing the recipes is an accurate balance. The more laborious a recipe is to make, the more equipment is needed. The development of recipes and the preparation of masked foods are time-consuming, which makes DBPCFC with masked foods difficult to perform in daily clinical practice. Performing a DBPCFC with masked foods in daily clinical practice can be a great challenge to the imagination and creativity of a dietitian. PMID:8195554

  18. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdulmalik, T. O.; Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The extended length of a Mars mission, along with the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortificants will remain stable through long-duration missions if proper formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are all achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX); premixes were formulated to be compatible with current processing techniques (retort or freeze-dried), varied water activities (high or low), and packaging material. The overall goal of this process is to provide 25% of the recommended daily intake of each vitamin (per serving), following processing and two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced (with and without the vitamin premix), to assess the impact of the added fortificant on color and taste, and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The use of fortification in spaceflight foods appears to be a plausible mitigation step to inadequate nutrition. This is due to the ease of vitamin addition as well as the sustainability of the premixes through initial processing steps. Postprocessing analysis indicated that vitamin fortification with this premix did not immediately impact organoleptic properties of the food. At this stage, the largest hurdle to fortification is the preciseness to which vitamins can be added; the total amount of vitamins required for production is 10 - 20 grams, a minor percentage of the formulation. As demonstrated by the over-fortification measured in Italian Vegetables and Grilled Pork Chop, homogeneity may be difficult to achieve with such small amounts. Thus, pouch-to-pouch variability, over-fortification, and underfortification may ensue if a method for precise addition is not identified. Stability will continue to be evaluated over two years of storage at three temperatures, and future analysis should reveal the extent to which this issue should be a concern

  19. Food concerns and support for environmental food policies and purchasing.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei C; Burton, Melissa

    2015-08-01

    Consumer support for pro environmental food policies and food purchasing are important for the adoption of successful environmental policies. This paper examines consumers' views of food policy options as their predisposition to purchase pro environmental foods along with their likely demographic, educational and cognitive antecedents including food and environmental concerns and universalism values (relating to care for others and the environment). An online survey to assess these constructs was conducted among 2204 Australian adults in November 2011. The findings showed strong levels of support for both environmental food policies (50%-78% support) and pro environmental food purchasing (51%-69% intending to purchase pro environmental foods). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling showed that different cognitive mediators exist along pathways between demographics and the two outcome variables. Support for food policy was positively related to food and environment concerns (std. Beta?=?0.25), universalism (0.41), perceived control (0.07), and regulatory issues (0.64 but negatively with food security issues (-0.37). Environment purchasing intentions were positively linked to food and nutrition concerns (0.13), food and environment concerns (0.24), food safety concerns (0.19), food and animal welfare concerns (0.16), universalism (0.25), female gender (0.05), education (0.04), and perceived influence over the food system (0.17). In addition, health study in years 11 and 12 was positively related to the beginning of both of these pathways (0.07 for each). The results are discussed in relation to the opportunities that communications based on the mediating variables offer for the promotion of environmental food policies and purchasing. PMID:25841645

  20. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

  1. Functional foods and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hasler, C M; Kundrat, S; Wool, D

    2000-11-01

    Functional foods are foods that, by virtue of physiologically active food components, provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Many functional foods have been found to be potentially beneficial in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in the United States. These foods include soybeans, oats, psyllium, flaxseed, garlic, tea, fish, grapes, nuts, and stanol- and sterol ester enhanced margarine. When eaten in adequate amounts on a consistent basis, these foods may aid in decreasing the risk of cardiovascular disease by several potential mechanisms: lowering blood lipid levels, improving arterial compliance, reducing low-density lipoprotein oxidation, decreasing plaque formation, scavenging free radicals, and inhibiting platelet aggregation. PMID:11122780

  2. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    PubMed

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods. PMID:26686975

  3. Food Acquisition: Food Ingredients, Raw Materials and Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheat, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The kind of food supply system that will serve the space station in coming years is considered. The direction and rate of evolution of space food service systems is also considered and what is needed to supply appropriate food to space station crews. Innovations in food sourcing, recipe development, pre-preparation, packaging, preservation, presentation, consumption and waste disposal are discussed. The development and validation of preparation systems and ingredients which minimize demands on crew time and provide maximum eating enjoyment is outlined.

  4. Food crises, food regimes and food movements: rumblings of reform or tides of transformation?

    PubMed

    Holt Gimnez, Eric; Shattuck, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the potential for food movements to bring about substantive changes to the current global food system. After describing the current corporate food regime, we apply Karl Polanyi's 'double-movement' thesis on capitalism to explain the regime's trends of neoliberalism and reform. Using the global food crisis as a point of departure, we introduce a comparative analytical framework for different political and social trends within the corporate food regime and global food movements, characterizing them as 'Neoliberal', 'Reformist', 'Progressive', and 'Radical', respectively, and describe each trend based on its discourse, model, and key actors, approach to the food crisis, and key documents. After a discussion of class, political permeability, and tensions within the food movements, we suggest that the current food crisis offers opportunities for strategic alliances between Progressive and Radical trends within the food movement. We conclude that while the food crisis has brought a retrenchment of neoliberalization and weak calls for reform, the worldwide growth of food movements directly and indirectly challenge the legitimacy and hegemony of the corporate food regime. Regime change will require sustained pressure from a strong global food movement, built on durable alliances between Progressive and Radical trends. PMID:21284237

  5. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S

    2010-01-01

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity. PMID:24198465

  6. Regional food culture and development.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2007-01-01

    Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on earth). On the other hand, regional food culture can confer considerable advantage for health and economic development, but does not necessarily do so. The challenge is to respect and retain traditional food knowledge and sustainable food systems, with good governance for food security. There has been a recent awakening of interest and concern about the lack of documentation of traditional and indigenous food cultures which are important not only for their own sake, but for the legacy of food knowledge which they can confer on future generations, provided they are not lost. Hence, the value of a special focus on African food cultures (www.healthyeatingclub.org/Africa), including Rift and Nile Valleys and North West African foods, which are the cradles of human food systems and habits. This is the case too with indigenous foods and food cultures (whether hunter-gatherer or subsistence agriculture); with relatively long-living food cultures in North East Asia, with food cultural distinction and fusion (FHILL and SENECA studies) and with migratory Food Habits. By and large, there is a remarkable resilience and ingenuity of people and their food systems, but monoculture and lack of diversity encourage food system failure. PMID:17392068

  7. Food Fortification Stability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirmons, T.; Cooper, M.; Douglas, G.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has established the goal of traveling beyond low-Earth orbit and extending manned exploration to Mars. The length of proposed Mars missions and the lack of resupply missions increases the importance of nutritional content in the food system, which will need a five year shelf life. The purpose of this research is to assess the stability of vitamin supplementation in traditionally processed spaceflight foods. It is expected that commercially available fortification nutrients will remain stable through a long duration exploration mission at sufficient levels if compatible formulation, processing, and storage temperatures are achieved. Five vitamins (vitamin E, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and thiamin) were blended into a vitamin premix (DSM, Freeport, TX) such that the vitamin concentration per serving equaled 25% of the recommended daily intake after two years of ambient storage. Four freeze-dried foods (Scrambled Eggs, Italian Vegetables, Potatoes Au Gratin, Noodles and Chicken) and four thermostabilized foods (Curry Sauce with Vegetables, Chicken Noodle Soup, Grilled Pork Chop, Rice with Butter) were produced, with and without the vitamin premix, to assess the impact of the added fortification on color and taste and to determine the stability of supplemental vitamins in spaceflight foods. The addition of fortification to spaceflight foods did not greatly alter the organoleptic properties of most products. In most cases, overall acceptability scores remained above 6.0 (minimum acceptable score) following six months and one year of low-temperature storage. Likewise, the color of fortified products appears to be preserved over one year of storage. The only exception was Grilled pork Chop and Chicken Noodle Soup whose individual components appear to degrade rapidly over one year of storage. Finally, most vitamins appear to be stable during long-term storage. The only exception was thiamin, which degraded rapidly during the first year of storage at 35°C. It was previously believed that the imprecise method of fortification would prove problematic for nutrient quantification; however this was only an issue in stored samples of Grilled Pork Chop, Italian Vegetables and Curry Sauce with Vegetables. Year two data may further reveal the extent to which this is a problem, as well as identify overall quality changes over time.

  8. Food Preparation. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This training manual on food preparation consists of 23 detailed lessons, ranging from an orientation to quality food production and the use and advantages of standardized recipes for bakery ingredients to the making of various desserts. Detailed definitions of words related to food preparation and innumerable handouts with titles like…

  9. Preventing food crises using a food policy approach.

    PubMed

    Timmer, C Peter

    2010-01-01

    A food crisis occurs when rates of hunger and malnutrition rise sharply at local, national, or global levels. This definition distinguishes a food crisis from chronic hunger, although food crises are far more likely among populations already suffering from prolonged hunger and malnutrition. A food crisis is usually set off by a shock to either supply or demand for food and often involves a sudden spike in food prices. It is important to remember that in a market economy, food prices measure the scarcity of food, not its value in any nutritional sense. Except in rare circumstances, the straightforward way to prevent a food crisis is to have rapidly rising labor productivity through economic growth and keep food prices stable while maintaining access by the poor. The formula is easier to state than to implement, especially on a global scale, but it is good to have both the objective, reducing short-run spikes in hunger, and the deep mechanisms, pro-poor economic growth and stable food prices, clearly in mind. A coherent food policy seeks to use these mechanisms, and others, to achieve a sustained reduction in chronic hunger over the long run while preventing spikes in hunger in the short run. PMID:19923388

  10. Food Preparation. Michigan School Food Service Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This training manual on food preparation consists of 23 detailed lessons, ranging from an orientation to quality food production and the use and advantages of standardized recipes for bakery ingredients to the making of various desserts. Detailed definitions of words related to food preparation and innumerable handouts with titles like

  11. Reinforcement: Food Signals the Time and Location of Future Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowie, Sarah; Davison, Michael; Elliffe, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    It has long been understood that food deliveries may act as signals of future food location, and not only as strengtheners of prefood responding as the law of effect suggests. Recent research has taken this idea further--the main effect of food deliveries, or other "reinforcers", may be signaling rather than strengthening. The present experiment

  12. The Food Friends: Encouraging Preschoolers to Try New Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellows, Laura; Anderson, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    In response to concerns about children's eating behaviors, the Colorado Nutrition Network developed and tested Food Friends--Making New Foods Fun for Kids. The program was designed as a 12-week social marketing campaign aimed at encouraging preschool-age children to try new foods, such as Ugli Fruit, couscous, and daikon radish. Tasting novel…

  13. Preparing Food for Preschoolers: A Guide for Food Service Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Janet, Ed.; O'Malley, Edward T., Ed.

    Guidelines and suggestions to help food service workers in children's day care centers plan, prepare, and serve a variety of nutritious, tasty, and attractive meals and snacks are presented. The following topics are included (subtopics are listed in parentheses): (1) preparation of food (seasoning foods; preparing meat, fish, vegetables, and…

  14. Agrofuels, Food Sovereignty, and the Contemporary Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosset, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, agrofuels are examined in the context of the world food price crisis and the "food sovereignty" proposal for addressing the crisis. Both short- and long-term causes of the crisis are examined, and while agrofuels are presently not a prime causal factor they are clearly contraindicated by the crisis. Food sovereignty, including a

  15. Novel food processing innovations to improve food safety and health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative food processing can be used to improve safety of specialty crops and their co-products, while improving sustainability of agricultural and food processing operations and enhancing overall nutritional quality of foods for both domestic and international consumers. The potential of various...

  16. Children's Categorization of Foods: Clusters for Food Search Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify categories of similar foods that are meaningful to children to facilitate their food search in a computer-administered self-completed 24-hour dietary recall (24hdr). One hundred forty-eight 8- to 13-year0old children sorted 62 cards with food pictures, from ...

  17. New Dimensions of Food Safety and Food Quality Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolving consumer, regulatory, and market influences have resulted in significant changes in research directions in the broad areas of food safety and quality. In the food safety area, more attention is being placed on microbial food safety, and pathogenic microorganisms in particular. More rapid an...

  18. 21 CFR 105.62 - Hypoallergenic foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hypoallergenic foods. 105.62 Section 105.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.62 Hypoallergenic foods. If...

  19. 21 CFR 105.62 - Hypoallergenic foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hypoallergenic foods. 105.62 Section 105.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.62 Hypoallergenic foods. If...

  20. 21 CFR 105.62 - Hypoallergenic foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hypoallergenic foods. 105.62 Section 105.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements 105.62 Hypoallergenic foods. If...

  1. 21 CFR 105.62 - Hypoallergenic foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hypoallergenic foods. 105.62 Section 105.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements 105.62 Hypoallergenic foods. If...

  2. 21 CFR 105.62 - Hypoallergenic foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hypoallergenic foods. 105.62 Section 105.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements 105.62 Hypoallergenic foods. If...

  3. Food security under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Using food prices to assess climate change impacts on food security is misleading. Differential impacts on income require a broader measure of household well-being, such as changes in absolute poverty.

  4. Food Avoidance Diets for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeffrey F; Hammond, Margaret I; Nedorost, Susan T

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is relatively common in both children and adults, and its prevalence is increasing. Early exposure of food allergens onto skin with an impaired epidermal barrier predisposes to sensitization and prevents the development of oral tolerance. While immediate-type food allergies are well described, less is known about delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. This is due, in part, to limitations with current diagnostic testing for delayed-type food allergy, including atopy patch testing. We conducted a systematic review of food avoidance diets in delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. While beneficial in some clinical circumstances, avoidance diets should be used with caution in infants and children, as growth impairment and developmental delay may result. Ultimately, dermatitis is highly multifactorial and avoidance diets may not improve symptoms of delayed-type food allergy until combined with other targeted therapies, including restoring balance in the skin microbiome and re-establishing proper skin barrier function. PMID:26300528

  5. Super Kitchen Centralizes Food Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1975

    1975-01-01

    To centralize food service within the entire Pittsburgh school district, a 90,000-square-foot food service preparation building contains cranes and monorails to move 500-pound capacity vats throughout the kitchen. (Author/MLF)

  6. Alternative food safety intervention technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative nonthermal and thermal food safety interventions are gaining acceptance by the food processing industry and consumers. These technologies include high pressure processing, ultraviolet and pulsed light, ionizing radiation, pulsed and radiofrequency electric fields, cold atmospheric plasm...

  7. Food Allergy: Tips to Remember

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Food allergy TTR Share | Food Allergy For most people, celebrations are fun events. But ... potential to cause a very serious allergic reaction. Allergies are the result of a reaction that starts ...

  8. Shelf-Stable Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are the types of food drying? Why is temperature important when drying meat and poultry jerky? Why ... first? Is jerky safe when stored at room temperature? How is salt used to make food shelf ...

  9. Rising Food Prices: Who's Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lester R.

    1973-01-01

    Rise in food prices can be partially attributed to the high food consumption level throughout Europe and North America, coupled with failure to evolve systems for more production of cattle, soybeans, and fisheries at lower cost. (PS)

  10. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eat. We are shopping at farmer’s markets, purchasing organic food, participating in food cooperatives (or co-ops), ... is safe as long as it is labeled "organic." This is not true. Only organic milk that ...

  11. Food related, exercise induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Caffarelli, C; Terzi, V; Perrone, F; Cavagni, G

    1996-01-01

    Four children under 12 years of age with food dependent, exercise induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) were investigated. These children and five controls performed exercise challenges when fasting and one hour after a meal without food suspected to predispose to the reaction. Patients then performed exercise tests after intake of each suspected food. Three out of 15 food-exercise combination challenges were positive, but no reactions were provoked after exercise without prior intake of suspected foods. Patients underwent skin prick tests to foods and serum total and specific IgE antibodies were measured. Skin prick test results were positive and RAST results were positive in two of three instances. In case 3, food-exercise combination challenges did not provoke any clinical reaction. The diagnosis of food dependent EIAn should be considered in young children with EIAn of unknown origin. PMID:8869196

  12. Chemically regenerated foods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapira, J.

    1971-01-01

    The raw materials for the synthesis of food for the crew of a spacecraft would be the major metabolic products carbon dioxide and water. Synthetic processes could develop carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. The one potential method of sugar synthesis which has received most attention makes use of the formose reaction. Various aspects of this method are discussed, giving attention also to the nutritional qualities of formose sugars. Questions regarding the utilization of glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethanol as dietary components are also examined. The possibility is considered to use the triglyceride triacetin as food. The use of free amino acids does not appear promising. Methods are described for the synthesis of formaldehyde from carbon dioxide and the synthesis of glycerol from formaldehyde.

  13. Texture of Frozen Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wani, Kohmei

    Quantitative determination of textural quality of frozen food due to freezing and storage conditions is complicated,since the texture is consisted of multi-dimensiona1 factors. The author reviewed the importance of texture in food quality and the factors which is proposed by a priori estimation. New classification of expression words of textural properties by subjective evaluation and an application of four elements mechanical model for analysis of physical characteristics was studied on frozen meat patties. Combination of freezing-thawing condition on the subjective properties and physiochemical characteristics of beef lean meat and hamachi fish (Yellow-tail) meat was studied. Change of the plasticity and the deformability of these samples differed by freezing-thawing rate and cooking procedure. Also optimum freezing-thawing condition was differed from specimens.

  14. Climate change and food security.

    PubMed

    Gregory, P J; Ingram, J S I; Brklacich, M

    2005-11-29

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

  15. Climate change and food security

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, P.J; Ingram, J.S.I; Brklacich, M

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their vulnerability to climate change is not uniform. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access may all contribute to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it will be important to ensure that they contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate further climate change. PMID:16433099

  16. Quantifying food waste in Hawaii's food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Loke, Matthew K; Leung, PingSun

    2015-12-01

    Food waste highlights a considerable loss of resources invested in the food supply chain. While it receives a lot of attention in the global context, the assessment of food waste is deficient at the sub-national level, owing primarily to an absence of quality data. This article serves to explore that gap and aims to quantify the edible weight, economic value, and calorie equivalent of food waste in Hawaii. The estimates are based on available food supply data for Hawaii and the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) loss-adjusted food availability data for defined food groups at three stages of the food supply chain. At its highest aggregated level, we estimate Hawaii's food waste generation at 237,122 t or 26% of available food supply in 2010. This is equivalent to food waste of 161.5 kg per person, per annum. Additionally, this food waste is valued at US$1.025 billion annually or the equivalent of 502.6 billion calories. It is further evident that the occurrence of food waste by all three measures is highest at the consumer stage, followed by the distribution and retail stage, and is lowest at the post-harvest and packing stage. The findings suggest that any meaningful intervention to reduce food waste in Hawaii should target the consumer, and distribution and retail stages of the food supply chain. Interventions at the consumer stage should focus on the two protein groups, as well as fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. PMID:26446198

  17. Commodities into food.

    PubMed

    Edelman, J; Fewell, A

    1985-09-12

    It is not surprising that past predictions of the extent of adoption of new technology by the food and agricultural industries have only been partly realized. This is a result of the difficulty of forecasting the take-up of technology that is capable of being transferred from other industries, for example, process control methods and the advent of new packaging materials. Most technology that is adopted is normally incremental over the existing technology and forecasting of this type is best done by specific experts within the industry. Factors which influence uptake of technology in the food industry include not only the available technology, but also the supply of raw materials, economics and disposable income, food habits, health and nutrition and market requirements. In addition to these there is legislation, which imposes compositional, labelling and trade requirements on grower, processor and retailer. New products and processes are determined by all these factors, the overriding influence being the consumer's requirement for palatable and nutritious foods that provide value for money. In the cereals-processing industry significant developments have taken place in the provision of U.K. wheat varieties for breadmaking. The U.K. is now in the position where the bulk of its breadmaking wheats are homegrown. Further advances can be make by investing in applied research into those characteristics of bread wheats which are determinants of good bread flours, that in turn will help in the provision of suitable bread wheat varieties. A less traditional area is that of flour fractionation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2865759

  18. Breastfeeding and food security.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Food security is especially important for mothers with infants and young children. Poor mothers or mothers living in harsh conditions (refugee camp, war zone, economic embargo, or natural disaster) who were not encouraged to breast feed face each day the need to respond to their hungry children. Protection of optimal breast feeding practices is a top priority. There are about 50 million refugees and internally displaced people in the world. This number increases by 12% annually. Around 2 million of these people are new mothers. Urban centers in both the developed and developing countries have increasing populations of unemployed and working poor. These people cannot afford breast milk substitutes. North American food banks cannot respond to the many requests for infant formula. Lack of potable water and a dependency on unavailable infant formula and supplies partially contributed to the increase in infant mortality rates in the war zones of Iraq and Bosnia. The increased dependency of sourcing clean water, an inexpensive and inferior breast milk substitute, and fuel for preparation must not exacerbate the burden of food insecurity for new mothers. Lactating mothers need nutritional and social support so they can meet their own needs and those of their children. UN agencies, governments, and infant feeding organizations have developed guidelines to support breast feeding in emergency and relief conditions and to make sure that infant formula manufacturers do not target families in emergencies. The solution to food insecurity is to feed the mother so she can feed her child. Successful breast feeding helps the mother's self-esteem and confidence, which in turn helps her care for herself and her family. Challenges in infant feeding policies include effecting effective promotion, protection, and support of breast feeding in emergencies; reducing unnecessary risks to mothers and infants when there is a limited need for breast milk substitutes; and countering the apparent philanthropic act of breast milk substitute distribution of the infant feeding industry during emergencies. PMID:12320463

  19. Cactus: a medicinal food.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Anoop A; Rana, M K; Preetham, S P

    2012-10-01

    With excellent quality and flavour of fresh fruits, young leaves of cactus serve as nutritious vegetable and salad dish and the immature fruits for making mock-gherkins. Cactus, with high water use efficiency produce forage for animals, vegetables, and fruits with 14% glucose. Traditionally cactus used as a valuable health supporting nutrient and it also has applications in pharmaceutical industries. Cactus with number of uses has immense potential to be the food of future. PMID:24082263

  20. Food for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.

    1982-05-01

    Cassava, sugar cane, grain crops, molasses - all are potential feedstocks for ethanol production. Brazil has taken a clear lead in converting food crops into ethanol fuels for the automobile, but other countries may follow and the economic consequences could be considerable. This article looks at the various options. The total activity involved in fuel ethanol production and usage is considered as comprising three related components: feedstock production, ethanol production and application of the ethanol as a transport fuel.

  1. Probiotics and food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the “hygiene hypothesis” low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions. Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells. Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders. PMID:23895430

  2. Food Service and Nutritional Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, J.

    1985-01-01

    The difficulty is that as we go into the Space Station world, the cost, effort, hardware, food trash, and food waste that the food service system will generate (which is quite tolerable on a 7 day mission), probably will be intolerable on a 90 day Space Station mission. The challenge in the food service supply is not so much packaging but systems engineering. The big constraints are in the supply pipeline. Those constraints and the possible tradeoffs are discussed.

  3. Residues in foods. 1989.

    PubMed

    1990-01-01

    A total of 18,798 samples of domestically produced food from all 50 states and Puerto Rico and imported food from 88 countries were analyzed for pesticide residues in 1989. Of these, 18,113 were surveillance samples, which are collected when there is no suspicion of a pesticide problem. No residues were found in 65% of domestic surveillance samples and in 67% of import surveillance samples. Less than 1% of the 18,113 surveillance samples contained residues that exceeded EPA tolerances. Findings in the 685 compliance samples reflect the fact that they are collected and analyzed when a pesticide problem is suspected. The 1989 Total Diet Study findings show that intakes of pesticide residues are generally well below standards set by FAO/WHO as well as by EPA. Results for 1989 are similar to those for 1987 and 1988 and continue to demonstrate that the levels of pesticide residues in the U.S. food supply are low. PMID:2272985

  4. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d’Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008–2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  5. Estuarine Food for Thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M�ller-Solger, A. B.; M�ller-Navarra, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    Recent research in animal and human nutrition has shown the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as the n-3 LC-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These LC-PUFA are needed for healthy development and functioning of the nervous and vascular systems. De novo synthesis or elongation to LC-PUFA in animals is inefficient at best; thus sufficient amounts of these PUFA must be supplied by food sources. Algae, especially diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cryptophytes, are the quantitatively most important producers of EPA and DHA. These types of algae often dominate estuarine producer communities. The upper San Francisco Estuary is no exception, and we found its LC-PUFA-rich phytoplankton biomass, but not the quantitatively prevalent terrestrial plant detritus, to be highly predictive of zooplankton (Daphnia) growth. In contrast, in freshwater lakes dominated by relatively LC-PUFA-poor phytoplankton, EPA, not total phytoplankton biomass, best predicted Daphnia growth. The commonly high abundance of LC-PUFA-rich algae in estuaries may help explain the high trophic efficiencies in these systems and resulting high consumer production. Moreover, LC-PUFA-rich estuarine food resources may also provide essential nutrition and associated health and evolutionary benefits to land-dwelling consumers of such foods, including humans. Ensuring LC-PUFA-rich, uncontaminated estuarine production is thus an important goal for estuarine restoration and a convincing argument for estuarine conservation.

  6. 438?An Investigation of Food Choice Behaviour of Food Allergic and Non-food Allergic Children

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Isolde; Mackenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Taraneh

    2012-01-01

    Background Childrens food choice behaviour is influenced by a number of family and social factors. About 20% to 30% of the population modifies their diet for a suspected adverse reaction to food. Since avoidance is the mainstay of managing food allergy, it can be assumed to significantly affect food choices. It is therefore important to understand if and to what extent food allergy influences the way parents and children make their food choice decisions. Methods The research project has utilised an innovative observational approach in the form of a board game to investigate parental-child communication and food choice behaviour. Parents/guardians and children were given a problem-solving task related to food choice behaviour. Each session lasted up to 15 minutes and was conducted with 5 food allergic and 7 non-allergic children (aged 48 years) and their parents/guardians. The sessions were videotaped and analysed by constructing a 4-category scheme, which classifies parental utterances along 2 dimensions, food choice behavioural control and food choice recognition. Observational categories were compared between the 2 groups. Results Preliminary findings indicate considerable variability in how parents/guardians and children with and without food allergy communicate when making food choice decisions. In general, children with food allergies seem to be more cautious and appear to have less responsibility when choosing their foods than healthy children of the same age. Conclusions Given the preliminary findings, this study will illuminate how food allergy affects the way parents/guardians and children make their food choice decisions.

  7. Inclusion of Fermented Foods in Food Guides around the World

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Stephanie N.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Fermented foods have been a well-established part of the human diet for thousands of years, without much of an appreciation for, or an understanding of, their underlying microbial functionality, until recently. The use of many organisms derived from these foods, and their applications in probiotics, have further illustrated their impact on gastrointestinal wellbeing and diseases affecting other sites in the body. However, despite the many benefits of fermented foods, their recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in food guides. Here, we present the case for such inclusion, and challenge health authorities around the world to consider advocating for the many benefits of these foods. PMID:25580813

  8. Teaching about Religion with Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a particular teaching strategy that involves using food playfully in the classroom in order to change the mood, generate different forms of learning, and prod students to connect food and religion. I offer a rationale for teaching with food, then provide an application from a university course on Gnosticism. My goal is to

  9. Food products for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, P. S.; Larson, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Specially-prepared foodstuffs supply an astronaut with a diet containing his basic nutritional requirements in a form that is useful in his enironment. Several edible coatings preserve foods and give loose foods form and firmness. These coatings aid in packaging and give the food slip for easy removal from the package.

  10. Food Marketing in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Colette; Clerkin, Pauline; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Mulvihill, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Schools are thought to represent a growing marketing opportunity for food advertisers in many countries. Marketing of unhealthy food to children is linked to the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. This paper aims to explore ways in which schools respond to commercial activity around food marketing. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  11. Seeing Children's Pleasure with Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed

  12. Food Services 103, 203, 303.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide provides 15 blocks/credits of instruction for a food services program. The program for grades 10-12 is designed to provide students with the foundation for a successful and safety-conscious career in the field of food services. Each of the three courses--Food Services 103, 203, and 303--consists of four blocks of one credit

  13. Food Insecurity And Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Craig; Ziliak, James P

    2015-11-01

    Almost fifty million people are food insecure in the United States, which makes food insecurity one of the nation's leading health and nutrition issues. We examine recent research evidence of the health consequences of food insecurity for children, nonsenior adults, and seniors in the United States. For context, we first provide an overview of how food insecurity is measured in the country, followed by a presentation of recent trends in the prevalence of food insecurity. Then we present a survey of selected recent research that examined the association between food insecurity and health outcomes. We show that the literature has consistently found food insecurity to be negatively associated with health. For example, after confounding risk factors were controlled for, studies found that food-insecure children are at least twice as likely to report being in fair or poor health and at least 1.4 times more likely to have asthma, compared to food-secure children; and food-insecure seniors have limitations in activities of daily living comparable to those of food-secure seniors fourteen years older. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) substantially reduces the prevalence of food insecurity and thus is critical to reducing negative health outcomes. PMID:26526240

  14. Food that Fools the Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serre, Camille M.

    2009-01-01

    Toilet-paper food sculpture is an integral part of the art curriculum at Silver Creek Middle School in Sellersburg, Indiana. The author describes techniques on how to create realistic food sculptures using toilet paper, water, and tempera paint. Students of all ages and skill levels enjoy this project because everyone relates to food and a sense

  15. Phytoalexin-enriched functional foods.

    PubMed

    Boue, Stephen M; Cleveland, Thomas E; Carter-Wientjes, Carol; Shih, Betty Y; Bhatnagar, Deepak; McLachlan, John M; Burow, Matthew E

    2009-04-01

    Functional foods have been a developing area of food science research for the past decade. Many foods are derived from plants that naturally contain compounds beneficial to human health and can often prevent certain diseases. Plants containing phytochemicals with potent anticancer and antioxidant activities have spurred development of many new functional foods. This has led to the creation of functional foods to target health problems such as obesity and inflammation. More recent research into the use of plant phytoalexins as nutritional components has opened up a new area of food science. Phytoalexins are produced by plants in response to stress, fungal attack, or elicitor treatment and are often antifungal or antibacterial compounds. Although phytoalexins have been investigated for their possible role in plant defense, until recently they have gone unexplored as nutritional components in human foods. These underutilized plant compounds may possess key beneficial properties including antioxidant activity, anti-inflammation activity, cholesterol-lowering ability, and even anticancer activity. For these reasons, phytoalexin-enriched foods would be classified as functional foods. These phytoalexin-enriched functional foods would benefit the consumer by providing "health-enhanced" food choices and would also benefit many underutilized crops that may produce phytoalexins that may not have been considered to be beneficial health-promoting foods. PMID:19334749

  16. Gathering and Preparing Wild Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, A. Dudley; Williams, Robert A.

    1975-01-01

    Discussed are the applications of gathering and preparing wild foods to environmental, survival, career, and community education programs. It recommends wild foods activities be used to stimulate social and historical studies of "return-to-nature" life styles. Wild food study also emphasizes man as part of the environment. (MR)

  17. INFOODS guidelines for food matching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is necessary to match food consumption data with food composition data in order to calculate estimates of nutrient intakes and dietary exposure. This can be done manually or through an automated system. As food matching procedures are key to obtaining high quality estimations of nutrient intake...

  18. Food & Environment. Teaching Global Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Through articles and activities designed for the senior secondary level, students examine the food production system in British Columbia and the world and explore creative, sustainable alternatives for food production. A description of raising food in the first world with the critical issues of energy use and environmental degradation precedes a

  19. When Food Is a Foe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Patricia L.

    1998-01-01

    Although only 5% of the population has severe food allergies, school business officials must be prepared for the worst-case scenario. Banning foods and segregating allergic children are harmful practices. Education and sensible behavior are the best medicine when food allergies and intolerances are involved. Resources are listed. (MLH)

  20. Food Science and Technology Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elinor; Federman, Joan

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the reader to the Food Science and Technology Abstracts, a data file that covers worldwide literature on human food commodities and aspects of food processing. Topics include scope, subject index, thesaurus, searching online, and abstracts; tables provide a comparison of ORBIT and DIALOG versions of the file. (JD)

  1. Food Crystallization and Egg Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a food product can be either beneficial or detrimental and is of particular importance in candy and frozen desserts. The most common crystal in foods is sugar which affects th...

  2. Food Services 103, 203, 303.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide provides 15 blocks/credits of instruction for a food services program. The program for grades 10-12 is designed to provide students with the foundation for a successful and safety-conscious career in the field of food services. Each of the three courses--Food Services 103, 203, and 303--consists of four blocks of one credit…

  3. Hispanics in Fast Food Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined the employment of Hispanics in the fast-food industry. Data were obtained from a national survey of employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies in which 194 (4.2 percent) of the 4,660 respondents reported being Hispanic. Compared with the total sample, Hispanic fast-food employees were slightly less likely to be

  4. Food Safety Assessment and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Gary D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A 1990 Wisconsin extension survey (n=1,549) was followed up in 1993 (n=1,135). In 1993, the top three concerns about food safety were food-borne illnesses, government role, and pesticides/chemicals; in 1990, they were pesticides, drugs in food, and manufacturing standards. In both surveys, preferred information sources were radio, television, and

  5. Food Marketing in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Colette; Clerkin, Pauline; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Mulvihill, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Schools are thought to represent a growing marketing opportunity for food advertisers in many countries. Marketing of unhealthy food to children is linked to the increased prevalence of obesity worldwide. This paper aims to explore ways in which schools respond to commercial activity around food marketing. Design/methodology/approach: A

  6. Seeing Children's Pleasure with Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…

  7. Local Effects of Delayed Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food-rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout)

  8. The production of safe foods

    PubMed Central

    Baird-Parker, A. C.

    1974-01-01

    This article summarizes the steps that a food producer takes to ensure that bacterial food poisoning risks are minimized. These include microbiological control of raw materials, processes and the final products. The importance of good process control as the best means of reducing the food poisoning risks is emphasized. PMID:4467861

  9. Phytoalexin-Enriched Functional Foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Functional foods have been a developing area of food science research for the last decade. Many foods are derived from plants that naturally contain compounds beneficial to human health and can often prevent certain diseases. Plant containing phytochemicals with potent anticancer and antioxidant a...

  10. Food Supply and Food Safety Issues in China

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China’s connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  11. Food supply and food safety issues in China.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China's connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  12. Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

    The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

  13. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Allison J; Sood, Puja; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved therapies, apart from avoidance and injectable epinephrine for acute allergic reactions. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental treatment in which food-allergic patients consume gradually increasing quantities of the food to increase their threshold for allergic reaction. This therapy carries significant risk of allergic reactions. The ability of OIT to desensitize patients to particular foods is well-documented, although the ability to induce tolerance has not been established. This review focuses on recent studies for the treatment of food allergies such as cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut. PMID:26617227

  14. European perspectives of food safety.

    PubMed

    Bnti, Dina

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU. PMID:24515443

  15. From Food to Fuel: Perceptions of Exercise and Food in a Community of Food Bloggers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An investigation of the discussion surrounding the relationship between food and exercise in one community of photography-based food blogs that past research has identified as exhibiting characteristics of dietary restraint. Design: Forty-five blogs written by young adult women belonging to a food-blogging community were selected for…

  16. From Food to Fuel: Perceptions of Exercise and Food in a Community of Food Bloggers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An investigation of the discussion surrounding the relationship between food and exercise in one community of photography-based food blogs that past research has identified as exhibiting characteristics of dietary restraint. Design: Forty-five blogs written by young adult women belonging to a food-blogging community were selected for

  17. Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center: Creative Ideas for Promoting Food Safety and Food Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukel, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a significant impact on public health and consumer confidence in the U.S. The Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center was established to provide educational programs, trainings, and workshops to address the health and well-being of consumers as it relates to food safety and food protection. A partnership between New

  18. Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center: Creative Ideas for Promoting Food Safety and Food Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koukel, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a significant impact on public health and consumer confidence in the U.S. The Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center was established to provide educational programs, trainings, and workshops to address the health and well-being of consumers as it relates to food safety and food protection. A partnership between New…

  19. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  20. FDA perspective on food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pauli, G.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) monitors the safety of food irradiation. A few limited uses are regulated, and occasionally CFSAN receives a petition for a new use. Despite extensive studies (more than 400) showing the safety of food irradiation, a cloud of suspicion continues to hang over this issue in the mind of the public. People perceive food irradiation and direct body irradiation as having similar implications. Food irradiation is banned in two states in the United States. Food is irradiated for the following purposes: delay of ripening, prevention of sprouting, eradication of pests and sterilization, and allowing commodities to be stored unrefrigerated for long periods of time. The dosage depends on the purpose of the irradiation. Radiolytic products are formed during irradiation and during storage afterward. Most of these products are also formed during conventional preservation. In 1980, CFSAN, then the Bureau of Foods, introduced the term unique radiolytic products for compounds not identified in foods after conventional processing. Although the existence of URPs was never proven chemically, the term has caused anxiety. Irradiation of foods in the commercially useful range does not generate radioactivity above natural background. Because radiolytic products formed from beef, chicken, and pork are primarily the same, irradiated foods of similar food groups may be evaluated generically.

  1. Toxicologically relevant phthalates in food.

    PubMed

    Kappenstein, Oliver; Vieth, Brbel; Luch, Andreas; Pfaff, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Various phthalates have been detected in a wide range of food products such as milk, dietary products, fat-enriched food, meat, fish, sea food, beverages, grains, and vegetables as well as in breast milk. Here we present an overview on toxicologically considerable phthalate levels in food reported in the literature. The most common phthalates detected are di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP). Milk analyses demonstrate that background levels in unprocessed milk are usually low. However, during processing the phthalate contents may significantly increase due to migration from plastic materials in contact with food. Among dietary products fat-enriched food such as cheese and cream were identified with highest levels of DEHP. Plasticized PVC from tubes, conveyor belts, or disposable gloves used in food processing is an important source for contamination of food, especially of fatty food. Paper and cardboard packaging made from recycled fibers are another important source of contamination. In addition, gaskets used in metal lids for glass jars have been identified as possible source for the contamination of foodstuffs with phthalates. The highest concentrations of DEHP reported (>900 mg kg(-1)) were detected in food of high fat content stored in such glass jars. Beyond classical food, DEHP and DnBP were identified in human breast milk samples as the main phthalate contaminants. Phthalate monoesters and some oxidative metabolites were also quantified in breast milk. PMID:22945567

  2. Skylab food system laboratory support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanford, D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of support activities performed to ensure the quality and reliability of the Skylab food system design is reported. The qualification test program was conducted to verify crew compartment compatibility, and to certify compliance of the food system with nutrition, preparation, and container requirements. Preflight storage requirements and handling procedures were also determined. Information on Skylab food items was compiled including matters pertaining to serving size, preparation information, and mineral, calorie, and protein content. Accessory hardware and the engraving of food utensils were also considered, and a stowage and orientation list was constructed which takes into account menu use sequences, menu items, and hardware stowage restrictions. A food inventory system was established and food thermal storage tests were conducted. Problems and comments pertaining to specific food items carried onboard the Skylab Workshop were compiled.

  3. Food packaging history and innovations.

    PubMed

    Risch, Sara J

    2009-09-23

    Food packaging has evolved from simply a container to hold food to something today that can play an active role in food quality. Many packages are still simply containers, but they have properties that have been developed to protect the food. These include barriers to oxygen, moisture, and flavors. Active packaging, or that which plays an active role in food quality, includes some microwave packaging as well as packaging that has absorbers built in to remove oxygen from the atmosphere surrounding the product or to provide antimicrobials to the surface of the food. Packaging has allowed access to many foods year-round that otherwise could not be preserved. It is interesting to note that some packages have actually allowed the creation of new categories in the supermarket. Examples include microwave popcorn and fresh-cut produce, which owe their existence to the unique packaging that has been developed. PMID:19719135

  4. Overview of food allergy diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    MANEA, IRENA; AILENEI, ELENA; DELEANU, DIANA

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a condition with significant social and economic impact and a topic of intense concern for scientists and clinicians alike. Worldwide, over 220 million people suffer from some form of food allergy, but the number reported is just the tip of the iceberg. Recent years have brought new perspectives in diagnosing food allergy. Elucidating incriminated immunological mechanisms, along with drawing the clinical phenotype of food hypersensitivity reactions ensures an accurate diagnosis of food allergy. Moreover, molecular based allergy diagnosis, which is increasingly used in routine care, is a stepping-stone to improved management of food allergy patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the topic of IgE-mediated food allergy from the perspective of current diagnostic methods. PMID:27004019

  5. Neural correlates of the food/non-food visual distinction.

    PubMed

    Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Shariat, Shahriar; Nejati, Hossein; Gandhi, Tapan K; Cardinaux, Annie; Simons, Christopher T; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Sinha, Pawan

    2016-03-01

    An evolutionarily ancient skill we possess is the ability to distinguish between food and non-food. Our goal here is to identify the neural correlates of visually driven 'edible-inedible' perceptual distinction. We also investigate correlates of the finer-grained likability assessment. Our stimuli depicted food or non-food items with sub-classes of appealing or unappealing exemplars. Using data-classification techniques drawn from machine-learning, as well as evoked-response analyses, we sought to determine whether these four classes of stimuli could be distinguished based on the patterns of brain activity they elicited. Subjects viewed 200 images while in a MEG scanner. Our analyses yielded two successes and a surprising failure. The food/non-food distinction had a robust neural counterpart and emerged as early as 85ms post-stimulus onset. The likable/non-likable distinction too was evident in the neural signals when food and non-food stimuli were grouped together, or when only the non-food stimuli were included in the analyses. However, we were unable to identify any neural correlates of this distinction when limiting the analyses only to food stimuli. Taken together, these positive and negative results further our understanding of the substrates of a set of ecologically important judgments and have clinical implications for conditions like eating-disorders and anhedonia. PMID:26777128

  6. Food Packaging Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  7. 78 FR 49990 - Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Dean Foods Company and WhiteWave Foods Company; Filing of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is announcing that we have filed a...

  8. Packaging for Food Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  9. Food practices during diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Kaur, P; Singh, G

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to find out the pattern of food and fluid practices during diarrhoea among 2,160 children under five. Mothers were educated to give home made fluids during diarrhoea. Their personal hygiene was studied and a positive correlation between diarrhoea and poor personal hygiene was found. After the health education programme, it was observed that mothers started giving home made fluids to the children during diarrhoea but the amount was not increased. Normal feeding was continued only in 38.2% of the episodes. PMID:7835997

  10. [Food safety of GMOs].

    PubMed

    Joudrier, P

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, we review the complexity of the different biological events which occur during life cell cycles. Indeed transgenesis is not an unknown event for cells. In the second part of this article, the complex and complete evaluation process destined to assure the food safety of GMOs, before they are released on the market, is describd. Some ansers to questions frequently asked about the GMOs are given. It is concludedthat GMOs are probably more safe than their conventional non-GM counterpart. PMID:20122394

  11. Economics of food irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstadt, Peter; Eng, P.; Steeves, Colyn; Beaulieu, Daniel; Eng, P.

    1993-07-01

    The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived.

  12. All About the Protein Foods Group

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide All about the Protein Foods Group You are here Home / MyPlate / Protein Foods All about the Protein Foods Group Print Share What ...

  13. Defining food risks and food anxieties throughout history.

    PubMed

    Scholliers, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, safe food is at the centre of concern of governments, scientists and the public. This essay surveys the social implications of this concern, and particularly addresses the question how historical wisdom may contribute to present-day understanding of food scares. After reminding briefly of social implications of today's food fears, it presents three scholarly approaches to food crises and anxieties in the past (labelled "teleological" and "contextual", with a division of the latter into "limited" and "broad"), and provides one example of a complex relationship between food and health in the past. The essay concludes that it is not only indispensable to conduct historical research to situate present-day developments with regard to legislation or consumers' reactions, but that it is also needed to acquire a sense of relativism with regard to present-day food safety, quality and scares. PMID:18355942

  14. Risk Perception of Food Safety by School Food-handlers

    PubMed Central

    Monego, Estelamaris Tronco; Campos, Maria Raquel Hidalgo

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory descriptive study was conducted with a qualitative approach that used focus groups. The objective of this study was to identify the risk perception of food safety by school food-handlers. The results indicated that the food production process has certain inadequacies, including the weak risk perception by the food-handlers regarding the student's health. The students, the pedagogical team, and the principal contribute to this behaviour, which can affect the quality of the final productthe served meal. The social devaluation of the food-handlers is also discussed. It is necessary to improve the food-handlers training sessions, with the purpose of modifying risk perception and to allow the school community to be involved in healthy and safe feeding practices. PMID:24847589

  15. Early exposure to food and food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Chin, Benetta; Chan, Edmond S; Goldman, Ran D

    2014-04-01

    Question I have been under the impression that infants should avoid potential allergenic foods such as nuts, cow's milk, and eggs in order to avoid developing allergic reactions. What advice should I give parents regarding the introduction of food in infancy and the development of food allergy? Answer There is no evidence that delaying the introduction of any specific food beyond 6 months of age helps to prevent allergy. A recent Canadian Paediatric Society statement recommends no delay in the introduction of food in infancy. Recent research also appears to suggest that early introduction of potentially allergenic foods (at 4 to 6 months of age) might actually provide a form of protection and help prevent allergy, but more research is needed. PMID:24733323

  16. Cassava as a food.

    PubMed

    Okezie, B O; Kosikowski, F V

    1982-01-01

    This review has attempted to examine information pertaining to the role of cassava (Manihot esculenta) as a major food source for a large part of the world population, particularly the countries of South America, Africa, and Asia, where it is primarily a major source of energy for 300 to 500 million people. Its cultivation, usually on small farms with little technology, is estimated to cover on an annual basis about 11 million hectares providing about 105 million tons, more than half of which is consumed by humans. The importance of cassava as an energy source can be seen by its growing demand in the European economic community countries where it forms up to 60% of the balanced diets for swine. Cassava is one of the crops that converts the greatest amount of solar energy into soluble carbohydrates per unit of area, thus 1 kg of moisture-free cassava meal may yield up to about 3750 kcal which would mean that a yearly production of 15 tons of cassava meal per hectare would yield some 56 million kcal. The major limitations of cassava as food appear to be its poor protein content and quality and the rapid post harvest deterioration of its roots which usually prevents their storage in the fresh state for more than a few days. However, in addition to its use for culinary purposes, cassava finds application in industrial products such as an adhesive for laundry purposes, for manufacturing paper, alcohol, butanol, dextrin, adhesive tape, textile sizing, and glue. PMID:6756790

  17. [Population and food scarcity].

    PubMed

    Castro, E S

    1995-07-01

    Rapid population growth and increasing industrialization threaten to exhaust the world's natural resources, while the air, water, and soil are contaminated by wastes. Efforts to modify processes endangering man's survival are merely local palliatives. World population increased by 2 billion in the past 10 years. El Salvador's population is growing at 2% annually and now exceeds 5 million. These facts are well known, but the average person does not feel personally affected by them, trusting in scientific and technological progress to solve problems. The reality is that 2/3 of the world's people are vulnerable to hunger. Technological advances in agriculture have been outpaced by rapid population growth. Droughts and other climatic disturbances lead to hunger, and lost harvests constitute calamities. El Salvador's ecological situation is critical, with widespread degradation of agricultural lands. Thousands of hectares are lost each year. The high cost of basic foods is due to the collapse of agricultural production, itself a result of poor planning. El Salvador has become an importer of many essential foodstuffs. Experts have predicted that rapid population growth will soon mean that the country is no longer able to produce all the food it needs. Campaigns for responsible parenthood are needed to slow population growth. Couples should decide how many children to have based on their ability to support and educate them. The government should adopt a realistic position and encourage responsible parenthood, with free medical advice and family planning services for those desiring to avoid pregnancy. PMID:12179419

  18. Carbohydrates as food allergens

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Jian Yi; Huang, Chiung Hui

    2015-01-01

    The literature supports the notion that carbohydrate epitopes, on their own, do not contribute significantly to the induction of allergic reactions. They bind weakly to IgE antibodies and have been termed as cross reactive carbohydrate determinants. These epitopes cause confusion in in vitro IgE testing through nonspecific cross-reactivity. Coincident with the rising trends in food allergy prevalence, there has recently been reports of anaphylaxis induced by carbohydrate epitopes. There are two distinct groups, each with unique characteristics and geographical distribution. Anaphylaxis and acute allergic reactions related to the carbohydrate galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) epitope that are present in the monoclonal antibody, cetuximab and red meat have been described in the United States and Europe populations where tick bites have been found to be the primary sensitizer. Another carbohydrate inducing anaphylaxis is galacto-oligosaccharides in commercial milk formula which has been described in the several Asian populations including Singapore. The latter is unique in that the allergen is a pure carbohydrate. We summarize the current literature on carbohydrate-induced food allergy, and evaluate the two new groups of carbohydrate allergy that have defied previous findings on carbohydrates and their role. PMID:25653916

  19. Carbohydrates as food allergens.

    PubMed

    Soh, Jian Yi; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2015-01-01

    The literature supports the notion that carbohydrate epitopes, on their own, do not contribute significantly to the induction of allergic reactions. They bind weakly to IgE antibodies and have been termed as cross reactive carbohydrate determinants. These epitopes cause confusion in in vitro IgE testing through nonspecific cross-reactivity. Coincident with the rising trends in food allergy prevalence, there has recently been reports of anaphylaxis induced by carbohydrate epitopes. There are two distinct groups, each with unique characteristics and geographical distribution. Anaphylaxis and acute allergic reactions related to the carbohydrate galactose-?-1,3-galactose (?-Gal) epitope that are present in the monoclonal antibody, cetuximab and red meat have been described in the United States and Europe populations where tick bites have been found to be the primary sensitizer. Another carbohydrate inducing anaphylaxis is galacto-oligosaccharides in commercial milk formula which has been described in the several Asian populations including Singapore. The latter is unique in that the allergen is a pure carbohydrate. We summarize the current literature on carbohydrate-induced food allergy, and evaluate the two new groups of carbohydrate allergy that have defied previous findings on carbohydrates and their role. PMID:25653916

  20. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  1. Psychological burden of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Rapps, Nora; Hausteiner, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions. In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food. PMID:17659692

  2. Effect of leaflets vs. food samples on food purchasing.

    PubMed

    Fox, H M; Shields, C

    1980-12-01

    Attempts to influence purchases of oranges and whole wheat bread indicated that both leaflets describing the merits of the food and samples provided for testing had some degree of success in stimulating sales. The attempts were more successful for whole wheat bread than for oranges. The sustained effect of the promotions was not measured. Directing attention to specific foods may be an effective method of introducing nutritionally desirable foods into the diet and thus constitute an effective method of nutrition education. PMID:7440865

  3. Fast Food Jobs. National Study of Fast Food Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charner, Ivan; Fraser, Bryna Shore

    A study examined employment in the fast-food industry. The national survey collected data from employees at 279 fast-food restaurants from seven companies. Female employees outnumbered males by two to one. The ages of those fast-food employees in the survey sample ranged from 14 to 71, with fully 70 percent being in the 16- to 20-year-old age

  4. 21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acidified foods. 108.25 Section 108.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... With an Emergency Permit § 108.25 Acidified foods. (a) Inadequate or improper manufacture,...

  5. 21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acidified foods. 108.25 Section 108.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... With an Emergency Permit § 108.25 Acidified foods. (a) Inadequate or improper manufacture,...

  6. Food Costs...From Farm to Retail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Denis

    This report focuses on food costs for 1985. Some of the information included in the report includes an analysis of food cost trends, percentages of the food dollar that goes to the farmer, and how much of the food dollar goes to food processors and marketers. Some of the highlights of the study are the following: (1) food prices rose slowly in

  7. 21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Coordinator (HFS-618), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint... completed form shall be submitted to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-565), Food...

  8. 21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Coordinator (HFS-618), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint... completed form shall be submitted to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-565), Food...

  9. 21 CFR 108.25 - Acidified foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Coordinator (HFS-618), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint... completed form shall be submitted to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-565), Food...

  10. Unconventional food regeneration in space - Opportunities for microbial food production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Gene R.; Schubert, Wayne W.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.

    1987-01-01

    The possible role of microbial species in regenerating food is considered, and three areas where microbial systems can be used in controlled ecological life support systems are discussed. Microbial species can serve as the biological portion of hybrid chemical/biological schemes for primary food products, as a means more fully to utilize waste materials from agronomical food production, and as a source of nutritional supplements to conventional plant foods. Work accomplished in each of these areas is described. The role of microgravity fermenters in this technology is addressed.

  11. EEG, ERPs and food consumption.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, L D; Polich, J

    1998-06-01

    Baseline electroencephalographic (EEG) and auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were assessed in subjects before and after consuming food and under eyes open and closed recording conditions in an attempt to replicate and extend previous food--ERP effects. Subjects were assessed the morning after fasting from the previous night, before and after eating a standard lunch. Delta- band EEG spectral power decreased and theta- and early alpha-band frequency increased after food consumption. However, in contrast to previous reports, P300 amplitude was unaffected by food consumption and peak latency increased. The strength of the correlational association between background EEG activity and P300 measures decreased for the delta- and theta- bands, but increased for the early and late alpha- bands. The findings suggest that food consumption affects general arousal, rather than specific cognitive EEG or ERP factors and are discussed with respect to previous EEG-ERP findings on food intake. PMID:9700015

  12. Functional foods: planning and development.

    PubMed

    Fogliano, Vincenzo; Vitaglione, Paola

    2005-03-01

    The discussion on functional foods among scientific communities and EC commissions is mainly focused on definitions and on legislative issues related to the presence on the market of this kind of products. Although many new products continuously appear, the functional food market is characterized by a high rate of failure. To realize a successful functional food, experts having different background should work together following a detailed workplan. In this paper, the problems related to planning and development of functional foods are considered using a step-by-step approach. The strategies for invention and development, formulation and validation of nutritional claims are regarded also illustrating practical examples of functional food development. The concept of food for special medical purposes, intended for individuals who are being treated under medical supervision, is also introduced. PMID:15744710

  13. Inhibition of food intake.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, Flood, and Edwards (Edwards and Morley, 1992; Flood and Morley, 1992; Macintosh et al., 2000; Morley and Flood, 1991, 1994; Morley et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997). Lutz, Geary, and others (Barth et al., 2003; Del Prete et al., 2002; Lutz et al., 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998a,b,c, 2000a,b, 2001a,b,c, 2003; Mollet et al., 2001, 2003a,b, 2004; Riediger et al., 2002, 2004; Rushing et al., 2000a,b, 2001, 2002). Workers at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or their collaborators (Bhavsar et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1998; Birkemo et al., 1995; Chapman et al., 2004a,b; Edwards et al., 1998; Feinle et al., 2002; Mack et al., 2003; Riediger et al., 1999; Roth et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 1996; Weyer et al., 2004; Young, 1997; Young and Bhavsar, 1996). Arnelo, Reidelberger, and others (Arnelo et al., 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998, 2000; Fruin et al., 1997; Granqvist et al., 1997; Reidelberger et al., 2001, 2002, 2004). The magnitude of amylin inhibition of food intake, and its potency for this effect when delivered peripherally, suggests a physiological role in satiogenesis. Increases in food intake following disruption of amylin signal-signaling (e.g., with amylin receptor blockade, or with amylin gene knock-out mice) further support a role of endogenous amylin to tonically restrict nutrient intake. In addition, synergies with other endogenous satiety agents may be present, and convey greater physiological importance than is conveyed by single signals. The anorectic effect of amylin is consistent with a classic amylin pharmacology. The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the area postrema/nucleus tractus solitarius, and is not merely a consequence of gastric fullness, for example. Circulating amylin appears to physiologically inhibit secretion of ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide from the stomach. In contrast to the actions of many other anorexigens, amylin appears to stimulate drinking. This disposgenic effect is likely mediated via amylin-sensitive neurones in the subfornical organ, a circumventricular structure, that like the area postrema does not present a blood-brain barrier. Amylin's dipsogenic effect may explain prandial drinking, which has heretofore been regarded as a learned behavior. PMID:16492542

  14. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    PubMed Central

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  15. Economics of food irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Deitch, J.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines the cost competitiveness of the food irradiation process. An analysis of the principal factors--the product, physical plant, irradiation source, and financing--that impact on cost is made. Equations are developed and used to calculate the size of the source for planned product throughput, efficiency factors, power requirements, and operating costs of sources, radionuclides, and accelerators. Methods of financing and capital investment are discussed. A series of tables show cost breakdowns of sources, buildings, equipment, and essential support facilities for both a cobalt-60 and a 10-MeV electron accelerator facility. Additional tables present irradiation costs as functions of a number of parameters--power input, source size, dose, and hours of annual operation. The use of the numbers in the tables are explained by examples of calculations of the irradiation costs for disinfestation of grains and radicidation of feed.

  16. MRI of plants and foods.

    PubMed

    Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

    2013-04-01

    The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory. PMID:23369439

  17. The psychology of food craving.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew J

    2007-05-01

    Cravings are hedonic responses to food, characterised by their intensity and their specificity. Food cravings are extremely common, reported by the majority of young adults. They are closely associated with liking but not synonymous with increased intake. Structured interviews and prospective incident accounts of food cravings have succeeded in revealing a richness of information about their character, their antecedents and their consequences. In addition, laboratory investigations are adding to what is being learned from field and clinical studies. Taking dieting as an example of an assumed influence on food craving, the outcomes of cross-sectional studies are mixed and unconvincing. Prospective and experimental research shows a clearer relationship. Dieting or restrained eating generally increase the likelihood of food craving while fasting makes craving, like hunger, diminish. Attempted restriction or deprivation of a particular food is associated with an increase in craving for the unavailable food. This relationship suggests a variety of underlying cognitive, conditioning and emotional processes, of which ironic cognitive processes, conditioned cue reactivity and dysphoric mood are prominent. Food cravings may also be self-attributions, accounting for why a highly-palatable but self-restricted food is (over-)consumed. Overall, the popularised account of cravings as elicited by specific nutritional need is having to give way to a more subtle and complex appreciation of human eating behaviour. PMID:17466108

  18. Medical foods for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Raj C

    2011-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition associated with cognitive loss, behavioural changes, functional ability decline and caregiver burden. Given the worldwide public health impact of AD, novel interventions to reduce suffering experienced by AD patients need to be developed. Foods may offer a mechanism for intervention complementary to drugs, devices, biologicals and vaccines. Apart from foods with health claims (including dietary supplements), medical foods are also being explored as an intervention option. The purpose of this article is to describe how medical foods may complement other interventions for AD patients by: (i) defining what a medical food is; (ii) discussing whether AD is a condition amenable to medical food intervention; (iii) reviewing current clinical trial data on medical foods used in participants with AD; and (iv) highlighting steps needed to establish a more comprehensive framework for developing medical foods for AD. While medical foods may be defined differently in other countries, the US Orphan Drug Act of 1998 defined a medical food as a food formulated for enteral intake, taken under physician supervision, and intended to meet the distinctive nutritional requirements identified for a disease or condition. For AD to be amenable to medical food intervention, it must: (i) result in limited or impaired capacity to ingest, digest, absorb or metabolize ordinary foodstuff or certain nutrients; or (ii) have unique, medically determined nutrient requirements; and (iii) require dietary management that cannot be achieved by modification of the normal diet alone. While these criteria are most likely met in advanced AD, identifying unique nutritional requirements in early AD that cannot be met by normal diet modification requires a better understanding of AD pathophysiology. A PubMed search using the terms 'medical food' and 'Alzheimer', limited to clinical trials published in English with human participants with AD aged >65 years and supplemented by other articles known to meet the inclusion criteria, revealed that only two medical foods, AC-1202 and Souvenaid with Fortasyn Connect, have clinical trial results available for discussion. As medical food development for AD is a relatively new endeavour, a window of opportunity exists for all stakeholders to develop a comprehensive framework for assuring that medical food interventions for AD achieve the highest possible scientific and ethical standards to warrant commercialization. PMID:21534638

  19. Food irradiation: Key research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Morehouse, K.M. )

    1993-01-01

    Treatment of foods with ionizing radiation reduces microbial infection and insect infestations, inhibits sprouting, and delays maturation, thereby extending the shelf life of foods. The treatment of different types of foods with ionizing radiation for specific purposes is accepted in several countries, although it is prohibited in others. The US Food and Drug Administration has established regulations to allow the treatment of several different foods with ionizing radiation and has received petitions for the approval of radiation treatment of additional foods. When carried out according to established good manufacturing practices, food irradiation yields safe, wholesome foods. The irradiated product may be often chemically or microbiologically [open quotes]safer[close quotes] than the nonirradiated product. This paper presents several areas of scientific research in which more information would facilitate the expansion of this technology and points out major areas of concern. The question of the public acceptance of foods that have been treated with ionizing radiation is discussed only briefly in order to make the presentation complete.

  20. MRI of plants and foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van As, Henk; van Duynhoven, John

    2013-04-01

    The importance and prospects for MRI as applied to intact plants and to foods are presented in view of one of humanity's most pressing concerns, the sustainable and healthy feeding of a worldwide increasing population. Intact plants and foods have in common that their functionality is determined by complex multiple length scale architectures. Intact plants have an additional level of complexity since they are living systems which critically depend on transport and signalling processes between and within tissues and organs. The combination of recent cutting-edge technical advances and integration of MRI accessible parameters has the perspective to contribute to breakthroughs in understanding complex regulatory plant performance mechanisms. In food science and technology MRI allows for quantitative multi-length scale structural assessment of food systems, non-invasive monitoring of heat and mass transport during shelf-life and processing, and for a unique view on food properties under shear. These MRI applications are powerful enablers of rationally (re)designed food formulations and processes. Limitations and bottlenecks of the present plant and food MRI methods are mainly related to short T2 values and susceptibility artefacts originating from small air spaces in tissues/materials. We envisage cross-fertilisation of solutions to overcome these hurdles in MRI applications in plants and foods. For both application areas we witness a development where MRI is moving from highly specialised equipment to mobile and downscaled versions to be used by a broad user base in the field, greenhouse, food laboratory or factory.

  1. The "trophic" value of foods.

    PubMed

    Williams, R J; Heffley, J D; Yew, M L; Bode, C W

    1973-03-01

    Foods must furnish (i) calories, which can readily be measured, and (ii) raw materials necessary for the building and maintenance of metabolic machinery which makes possible fuel utilization. We have called this "beyond-calorie" quality of food its "trophic" value. This concept has more unity than appears on the surface, and is capable of approximate measurement by biological testing as our experiments show. The trophic value of a food cannot be ascertained from food composition tables because only a smattering of the necessary information is commonly furnished. A food cannot support life if it is missing, or deficient with respect to, any one of the necessary nutrients. A tabulation which includes only a few nutrients-e.g., calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, phosphorus, and iron-can be woefully misleading, especially if these individual nutrients have been added by way of fortification. THE MEASUREMENT WE HAVE APPLIED TO A NUMBER OF FOODS IS POTENTIALLY VALUABLE FOR COMPARING SIMILAR FOOD PRODUCTS: two grains, two breads, two milk products, or for comparison of the same food grown, processed, or preserved in different ways. By using essentially this method we have found that barnyard eggs are somewhat superior to battery eggs, but that whether they are fertile or infertile makes no difference. We are of the opinion that extensive biological testing of many commercial food products is highly desirable to help promote human health and better internal environments for our cells and tissues. PMID:4514984

  2. NASA/Mir Food Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, Charles T.; Kloeris, Vickie L.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA/Mir food system was based on a plan that included 50% U.S. food and 50% Russian food. Using inputs from crew evaluations, nutritional requirements, and analytical data, menus for each Long Duration Mission (LDM) were developed by the U.S. and Russian food specialists. The cosmonaut's planned menus were identical while the astronaut's menu differed slightly, based on personal preferences. Bonus food containers of astronaut's favorite foods were provided to increase variety. Six out of 7 astronauts reported that the menu plan was seldom, if ever, followed. Five out of 7 astronauts ate most of their meals with the other crew members. In most cases, the bonus food containers were not opened until near the end of the mission. All crew members emphasized that variety was critical and that the use of Mir and Shuttle food together added a unique variety to the food system. Three of the 7 Mir astronauts lost significant weight during their stay on Mir. The length of stay varied from 116 to 188 days.

  3. Food Chain Security and Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Sbastien; Delvenne, Pierre; Claisse, Frdric

    In our contemporary societies, the food chain could be defined as a macro-technical system, which depends on a wide variety of actors and risks analysis methods. In this contribution, risks related to the food chain are defined in terms of "modern risks" (Beck 1992). The whole national economic sector of food production/distribution is vulnerable to a local accident, which can affect the functioning of food chain, the export programs and even the political system. Such a complex socio-technical environment is undoubtedly vulnerable to intentional act such as terrorism.

  4. Food metabolomics: from farm to human.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sooah; Kim, Jungyeon; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-02-01

    Metabolomics, one of the latest components in the suite of systems biology, has been used to understand the metabolism and physiology of living systems, including microorganisms, plants, animals and humans. Food metabolomics can be defined as the application of metabolomics in food systems, including food resources, food processing and diet for humans. The study of food metabolomics has increased gradually in the recent years, because food systems are directly related to nutrition and human health. This review describes the recent trends and applications of metabolomics to food systems, from farm to human, including food resource production, industrial food processing and food intake by humans. PMID:26426959

  5. World Foods. Good Food, Gift of German Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Betty F.; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of Germany and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of German geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies German food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of…

  6. World Foods. Good Food, Gift of German Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Betty F.; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains materials to be used in a study of Germany and its cuisine. Unit 1 provides an overview of German geographic, political, economic, social, and cultural characteristics. Unit 2 studies German food habits, nutrition, food preparation, and meal patterns. Each unit contains a list of objectives (e.g., identify the type of

  7. Be Food Safe: Protect Yourself from Food Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in food from making you sick. Rules of Food Safety CLEAN Wash your hands and surfaces often. Germs can survive in many places around your kitchen, including your hands, utensils, and cutting boards. Rinse fresh fruits and vegetables under running water and always follow ...

  8. Relationship between Food Habituation and Reinforcing Efficacy of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Katelyn A.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcing value and habituation are two processes that have been used to study eating behaviors, but no research has examined their relationship, how they relate to energy intake, and whether they respond in a similar manner to food deprivation. Twenty-two female subjects were randomized to food deprived or non-deprived conditions, and assessed…

  9. Relationship between Food Habituation and Reinforcing Efficacy of Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Katelyn A.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcing value and habituation are two processes that have been used to study eating behaviors, but no research has examined their relationship, how they relate to energy intake, and whether they respond in a similar manner to food deprivation. Twenty-two female subjects were randomized to food deprived or non-deprived conditions, and assessed

  10. New Food Product Development Assistance for Rural Food Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, William F.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes examples of new food product development activities engaged in at the University of Minnesota Technical College with local industry, showing how they have been used as teaching models in the classroom. These activities have led to a program of New Product Development Assistance for small food companies in southeastern…

  11. Food Fight: The Battle over Redefining Competitive Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Background: Environmental and policy influences are potentially the most powerful and yet the least understood strategies for reversing the current childhood obesity epidemic. Methods: This essay focuses on the school lunch environment and examines the key legal and policy factors that affect competitive foods or foods of minimal nutritional value…

  12. Food Fight: The Battle over Redefining Competitive Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Background: Environmental and policy influences are potentially the most powerful and yet the least understood strategies for reversing the current childhood obesity epidemic. Methods: This essay focuses on the school lunch environment and examines the key legal and policy factors that affect competitive foods or foods of minimal nutritional value

  13. New Food Product Development Assistance for Rural Food Enterprises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, William F.

    1988-01-01

    This article describes examples of new food product development activities engaged in at the University of Minnesota Technical College with local industry, showing how they have been used as teaching models in the classroom. These activities have led to a program of New Product Development Assistance for small food companies in southeastern

  14. Observing stimulus sources that signal food or no food1

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, H. M.; Boakes, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Pigeons were given a choice between observing a stimulus source that was uncorrelated with food or one that was informative. The informative source was either positive, in which a stimulus change signalled food, or negative, in which change signalled no food. If observing is supported by the reduction of uncertainty, the negative as well as the positive source should be preferred to the uncorrelated source. On the other hand, if observing requires support by conditioned reinforcement, the negative source should not be preferred to the uncorrelated source. Two keys served as stimulus sources in a discrete trial procedure. The keys were lighted together, remained on for a variable length of time, and went off together. A key could change color 1 sec before going off. In the uncorrelated source, the change occurred equally often on trials ending with or without food. In the positive information source, the change occurred only on food trials, whereas in the negative information source, it occurred only on no-food trials. All stimulus changes and food delivery were response independent. As measured by orientation and autoshaped pecking, the positive information source was preferred to the uncorrelated source. However, the uncorrelated source was preferred to the negative information source. The latter result does not support the view that observing behavior is reinforced by the reduction of uncertainty. The positive and negative information sources reduced uncertainty equally but only the positive source provided a signal that could act as a conditioned reinforcer by virtue of its relation to food. PMID:16811699

  15. Reestablishing healthy food retail: changing the landscape of food deserts.

    PubMed

    Karpyn, Allison; Young, Candace; Weiss, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    The term "food desert" was formally introduced into the lexicon in 1995 and has come to describe areas with limited access to affordable nutritious foods, particularly areas in lower-income neighborhoods. The definition has led to the development of national and regional maps that focus efforts on equity in food access. Recognition of food deserts also marks a strategic change in public health's approach to obesity prevention. Today's emphasis on prevention has shifted away from individual responsibility to the role of the environment in health promotion. A number of solutions are underway to address food deserts, including public–private financing programs, industry commitments, as well as local and regional efforts to put healthy food within reach. The promise of financing programs to facilitate development of healthy food markets in underserved communities is rooted in their potential to alleviate the grocery gap and address underlying environmental contributors to obesity and diet-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. As food desert mapping and related interventions expand, there remains a need for ongoing investigation of impacts and the mechanisms by which impacts are achieved. PMID:22799475

  16. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32 Section 25.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color...

  17. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Foods, food additives, and color additives. 25.32 Section 25.32 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Categorical Exclusions § 25.32 Foods, food additives, and color...

  18. Food labeling: gluten-free labeling of foods. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to define the term "gluten-free'' for voluntary use in the labeling of foods. The final rule defines the term "gluten-free'' to mean that the food bearing the claim does not contain an ingredient that is a gluten-containing grain (e.g., spelt wheat); an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has not been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat flour); or an ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has been processed to remove gluten (e.g., wheat starch), if the use of that ingredient results in the presence of 20 parts per million (ppm) or more gluten in the food (i.e., 20 milligrams (mg) or more gluten per kilogram (kg) of food); or inherently does not contain gluten; and that any unavoidable presence of gluten in the food is below 20 ppm gluten (i.e., below 20 mg gluten per kg of food). A food that bears the claim "no gluten,'' "free of gluten,'' or "without gluten'' in its labeling and fails to meet the requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim will be deemed to be misbranded. In addition, a food whose labeling includes the term "wheat'' in the ingredient list or in a separate "Contains wheat'' statement as required by a section of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) and also bears the claim "gluten-free'' will be deemed to be misbranded unless its labeling also bears additional language clarifying that the wheat has been processed to allow the food to meet FDA requirements for a "gluten-free'' claim. Establishing a definition of the term "gluten-free'' and uniform conditions for its use in food labeling will help ensure that individuals with celiac disease are not misled and are provided with truthful and accurate information with respect to foods so labeled. We are issuing the final rule under the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (FALCPA). PMID:23923139

  19. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  20. Immune reactivity to food coloring.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Charlene

    2015-01-01

    Artificial food dyes are made from petroleum and have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the enhancement of the color of processed foods. They are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries to increase the appeal and acceptability of their products. Synthetic food colorants can achieve hues not possible for natural colorants and are cheaper, more easily available, and last longer. However, since the use of artificial food coloring has become widespread, many allergic and other immune reactive disorders have increasingly been reported. During the past 50 y, the amount of synthetic dye used in foods has increased by 500%. Simultaneously, an alarming rise has occurred in behavioral problems in children, such as aggression, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The ingestion of food delivers the greatest foreign antigenic load that challenges the immune system. Artificial colors can also be absorbed via the skin through cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The molecules of synthetic colorants are small, and the immune system finds it difficult to defend the body against them. They can also bond to food or body proteins and, thus, are able to act in stealth mode to circumvent and disrupt the immune system. The consumption of synthetic food colors, and their ability to bind with body proteins, can have significant immunological consequences. This consumption can activate the inflammatory cascade, can result in the induction of intestinal permeability to large antigenic molecules, and could lead to cross-reactivities, autoimmunities, and even neurobehavioral disorders. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently found a 41% increase in diagnoses of ADHD in boys of high-school age during the past decade. More shocking is the legal amount of artificial colorants allowed by the FDA in the foods, drugs, and cosmetics that we consume and use every day. The consuming public is largely unaware of the perilous truth behind the deceptive allure of artificial color. PMID:25599186

  1. Security of the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Setola, Roberto; De Maggio, Maria Carla

    2009-01-01

    The food supply chain could became a dangerous weapon in the hands of enemies, for this reason the strategies developed to fight food adulteration (food safety) should be complemented with specific actions devoted to improve food "security" in the sense of food defence. This paper illustrate the methodological approach used in the EU project SecuFood to analyze threats, vulnerabilities and countermeasures existing in major European countries about what concerns deliberate attacks and manipulations of food. PMID:19964201

  2. An urban food store intervention positively affects food-related psychosocial variables and food behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level. PMID:19887625

  3. Food Deserts, Oases, or Mirages? Small Markets and Community Food Security in the Bay Area Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    In light of claims that many low-income urban neighborhoods are "food deserts," this article reports on pilot research to assess whether and how small, full-service food retailers contribute to urban food security. It demonstrates that such stores meet many of the criteria for community food security by providing a wide variety of relatively low-cost foods.

  4. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  5. Your Food Dollar. Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.

    This booklet on food buying power, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook offers information on developing a shopping list, deciding where to shop, selecting the best buys, and reading food labels. Section 1 on…

  6. Food Behavior of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzler, Ann A.; Frary, Robert B.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed undergraduate college students (N=212) near completion of an introductory nutrition course to identify their patterns of food usage, changes in food habits, and previous nutrition background. Found one-half increased use of milk/milk products and one-half decreased fat and sugar. Cluster analysis indicated students could not be

  7. Measurement of food optical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical properties determine how a biological material or a food product will behave or interact with light. Absorption and scattering coefficients are the two primary optical properties characterizing turbid or diffusive food products. Measurement of the optical properties can provide useful inform...

  8. Food Behavior of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzler, Ann A.; Frary, Robert B.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed undergraduate college students (N=212) near completion of an introductory nutrition course to identify their patterns of food usage, changes in food habits, and previous nutrition background. Found one-half increased use of milk/milk products and one-half decreased fat and sugar. Cluster analysis indicated students could not be…

  9. Organizing for Better School Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, DC.

    The ideal school cafeteria includes a salad bar and serving tables with healthy food items. Certain cafeteria pitfalls, such as a noisy or stuffy atmosphere, can be avoided by good administration. Specific guidelines on campaigning for better school food consist of building a community coalition that holds public meetings, learning about the

  10. Membrane filtration of food suspensions.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, A N; Peterkin, P I; Dudas, I

    1979-01-01

    Factors affecting the membrane filtration of food suspensions were studied for 58 foods and 13 membrane filters. Lot number within a brand, pore size (0.45 or 0.8 micrometer), and time elapsed before filtration had little effect on filterability. Brand of membrane filter, flow direction, pressure differential, age (microbiological quality) of the food, duration of the blending process, temperature, and concentration of food in the suspension had significant and often predictable effects. Preparation of suspensions by Stomacher (relative to rotary blender) addition of surfactant (particularly at elevated temperature) and prior incubation with proteases sometimes had dramatic effects of filterability. In contrast to popular opinion, foods can be membrane filtered in quantities pertinent to the maximums used in conventional plating procedures. Removal of growth inhibitors and food debris is possible by using membrane filters. Lowering of the limits of detection of microorganisms by concentration on membrane filters can be considered feasible for many foods. The data are particularly relevant to the use of hydrophobic grid-membrane filters (which are capable of enumerating up to 9 X 10(4) organisms per filter) in instrumented methods of food microbiological analysis. Images PMID:760637

  11. Prepare Healthy Foods with Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Rike, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Toddlers--from about 16 to 36 months--can learn a variety of skills as they prepare food and follow recipes in developmentally appropriate ways. Early childhood teachers are encouraged to support young children's healthy eating habits by offering simple food preparation experiences. When toddlers--and preschoolers--safely prepare healthy snacks,

  12. The Great Lakes Food Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marjane L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

  13. Reasons to Do Food Challenges

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on history, skin testing, and lab testing results. Contamination of a food by other allergens is one way the history ... sometimes the reaction is caused by a nonfood contaminant such as latex proteins deposited on foods by handlers wearing latex gloves. A reaction to ...

  14. Nonthermal processing technologies for food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Looking forward into the future of food science/technology/engineering, in the emerging area of nonthermal processing of foods, is definitely an adventure. It is open-ended and full of uncertainties. Lessons learned from the past should always serve as a good basis for envisioning the future of this...

  15. Right to Food and Agrofuel

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 54 page FAO study has been released exploring the impact of biofuel production expansion on the availability of adequate food for human nutrition and the underlying human right to food focused on the avoidance of hunger. The report concludes that liquid biofuel production has ...

  16. Food Science and Related Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Food Technologists, Chicago, IL.

    This publication of the Institute of Food Technologists is designed to provide the student with information on (1) colleges and universities in the United States which offer food science and technology curriculums and (2) the various firms, industries, and agencies from which financial grants may be obtained. The scholarship information provided

  17. Food technology in space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.

    1979-01-01

    The research required to develop a system that will provide for acceptable, nutritious, and safe diets for man during extended space missions is discussed. The development of a food technology system for space habitats capable of converting raw materials produced in the space habitats into acceptable food is examined.

  18. The Healthy Trail Food Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Dorcas S.

    An 800-mile canoe trip down a Canadian river provided the testing ground for the tenets of this trail food book. On the seven week expedition two pounds of food per person per day at a daily cost of $1.70 were carried. The only perishables were cheese, margarine, and onions. Recipes and menu ideas from that expedition are provided along with

  19. Starchy foods and glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; Wolever, T M; Jenkins, A L

    1988-02-01

    Different starchy foods produce different glycemic responses when fed individually, and there is some evidence that this also applies in the context of the mixed meal. A major reason appears to relate to the rate at which the foods are digested and the factors influencing this. A similar ranking in terms of glycemic response to specific foods is seen independent of the carbohydrate tolerance status of the groups tested. Potentially clinically useful starchy foods producing relatively flat glycemic responses have been identified. Many of these are considered ethnic or traditional and include legumes; pasta; grains such as barley, parboiled rice, and bulgur (cracked wheat); and whole-grain breads such as pumpernickel. Specific incorporation of these foods into diets has been associated with reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemia and with improved blood glucose control in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. To facilitate identification of such foods, it has been suggested that the glycemic response should be indexed to a standard (e.g., white bread) to allow comparisons to be made between the glycemic index of foods tested in different groups of subjects. The scope of application of this principle is subject to further investigation. It may be used to expand the range of possibly useful starchy foods for trial in the diets of diabetic patients. PMID:3383733

  20. Middle East food safety perspectives.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Atef W; El-Habbab, Mohammad S

    2014-08-01

    Food safety and quality assurance are increasingly a major issue with the globalisation of agricultural trade, on the one hand, and intensification of agriculture, on the other. Consumer protection has become a priority in policy-making amongst the large economies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries following a number of food safety incidents. To enhance food safety, it is necessary to establish markets underpinned by knowledge and resources, including analysis of international rejections of food products from MENA countries, international laboratory accreditation, improved reporting systems and traceability, continued development and validation of analytical methods, and more work on correlating sensory evaluation with analytical results. MENA countries should develop a national strategy for food safety based on a holistic approach that extends from farm-to-fork and involves all the relevant stakeholders. Accordingly, food safety should be a regional programme, raising awareness among policy- and decision-makers of the importance of food safety and quality for consumer protection, food trade and economic development. PMID:24415527